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Sample records for dsd schema language

  1. The DSD Schema Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klarlund, Nils; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2002-01-01

    XML (Extensible Markup Language), a linear syntax for trees, has gathered a remarkable amount of interest in industry. The acceptance of XML opens new venues for the application of formal methods such as specification of abstract syntax tree sets and tree transformations. A user domain may...

  2. Building Schema for English Language Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navarro, Ann M.

    2008-01-01

    Background: Many classrooms today have ESL students who do not speak English and are completely lost. How can teachers help these students comprehend what they are learning in English? Purpose: The purpose of this research is to identify effective reading strategies to build schema for English language learners (ELLs) to help them comprehend.…

  3. A Conceptual Schema Language for the Management of Multiple Representations of Geographic Entities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Friis-Christensen, A.; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard; Nytun, J.P.;

    2005-01-01

    federated databases. We present a graphical and a lexical binding to the schema language. The graphical binding is built on an extension to the Unified Modeling Language and the Object Constraint Language. We demonstrate that it is possible to implement the constructs of the schema language in the object...... entity. In this paper, we propose an approach to the modeling of multiply represented entities, which is based on the relationships among the entities and their representations. Central to our approach is the Multiple Representation Schema Language that, by intuitive and declarative means, is used...

  4. Living with intersex / DSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Leven met intersekse/DSD (published June 18, 2014) One of the first questions asked when a baby is born is whether it is a boy or a girl. The answer to this question is almost always clear and unambiguous, but not always. Intersex/DSD is an umbrella term used to describe various con

  5. Normalized Relational Storage for Extensible Markup Language (XML Schema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamsuriah Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: The use of XML as the common formats for representing, exchanging, storing, integrating and accessing data posses many new challenges to database systems. Most of application data are stored in relational databases due to its popularity and rich development experiences over it. Therefore, how to provide a proper mapping approach from XML model to relational model become the major research problems. Current techniques for managing XML in relational technology consider only the structure of an XML document and ignore its semantics as expressed by keys and functional dependencies. Approach: In this study we present an algorithm for generating an optimal design for XML in relational setting. The algorithm is based on computing a set of minimum covers for all functional dependencies on a universal relation when given XML Functional Dependencies (XFDs and the schema information. However we need to deal with the hierarchical nature of XML and to define XFDs in this structure. Results: We show that our algorithm is efficient in terms of reducing data redundancy and preserving semantic expression. Conclusion/Recommendations: Being able to infer XML functional dependencies constraints to relational views of XML data is a first step towards establishing a connection between XML and its relational representation at the semantic level.

  6. Living with intersex/DSD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jantine van Lisdonk

    2014-01-01

    Original title: Leven met intersekse/DSD One of the first questions asked when a baby is born is whether it is a boy or a girl. The answer to this question is almost always clear and unambiguous, but not always. Intersex/dsd is an umbrella term used to describe various congenital conditions in whic

  7. The XSD-Builder Specification Language—Toward a Semantic View of XML Schema Definition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fong, Joseph; Cheung, San Kuen

    In the present database market, XML database model is a main structure for the forthcoming database system in the Internet environment. As a conceptual schema of XML database, XML Model has its limitation on presenting its data semantics. System analyst has no toolset for modeling and analyzing XML system. We apply XML Tree Model (shown in Figure 2) as a conceptual schema of XML database to model and analyze the structure of an XML database. It is important not only for visualizing, specifying, and documenting structural models, but also for constructing executable systems. The tree model represents inter-relationship among elements inside different logical schema such as XML Schema Definition (XSD), DTD, Schematron, XDR, SOX, and DSD (shown in Figure 1, an explanation of the terms in the figure are shown in Table 1). The XSD-Builder consists of XML Tree Model, source language, translator, and XSD. The source language is called XSD-Source which is mainly for providing an environment with concept of user friendliness while writing an XSD. The source language will consequently be translated by XSD-Translator. Output of XSD-Translator is an XSD which is our target and is called as an object language.

  8. TMATS/ IHAL/ DDML Schema Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-02-01

    task was to create a method for performing IRIG eXtensible Markup Language (XML) schema validation. As opposed to XML instance document validation...TMATS / IHAL / DDML Schema Validation, RCC 126-17, February 2017 vii Acronyms DDML Data Display Markup Language HUD heads-up display iNET...system XML eXtensible Markup Language TMATS / IHAL / DDML Schema Validation, RCC 126-17, February 2017 viii This page intentionally left blank

  9. A standard MIGS/MIMS compliant XML Schema: toward the development of the Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottmann, Renzo; Gray, Tanya; Murphy, Sean; Kagan, Leonid; Kravitz, Saul; Lombardot, Thierry; Field, Dawn; Glöckner, Frank Oliver

    2008-06-01

    The Genomic Contextual Data Markup Language (GCDML) is a core project of the Genomic Standards Consortium (GSC) that implements the "Minimum Information about a Genome Sequence" (MIGS) specification and its extension, the "Minimum Information about a Metagenome Sequence" (MIMS). GCDML is an XML Schema for generating MIGS/MIMS compliant reports for data entry, exchange, and storage. When mature, this sample-centric, strongly-typed schema will provide a diverse set of descriptors for describing the exact origin and processing of a biological sample, from sampling to sequencing, and subsequent analysis. Here we describe the need for such a project, outline design principles required to support the project, and make an open call for participation in defining the future content of GCDML. GCDML is freely available, and can be downloaded, along with documentation, from the GSC Web site (http://gensc.org).

  10. Modeling business objects with XML schema

    CERN Document Server

    Daum, Berthold

    2003-01-01

    XML Schema is the new language standard from the W3C and the new foundation for defining data in Web-based systems. There is a wealth of information available about Schemas but very little understanding of how to use this highly formal specification for creating documents. Grasping the power of Schemas means going back to the basics of documents themselves, and the semantic rules, or grammars, that define them. Written for schema designers, system architects, programmers, and document authors, Modeling Business Objects with XML Schema guides you through understanding Schemas from the basic concepts, type systems, type derivation, inheritance, namespace handling, through advanced concepts in schema design.*Reviews basic XML syntax and the Schema recommendation in detail.*Builds a knowledge base model step by step (about jazz music) that is used throughout the book.*Discusses Schema design in large environments, best practice design patterns, and Schema''s relation to object-oriented concepts.

  11. SchemaOnRead Manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-30

    SchemaOnRead provides tools for implementing schema-on-read including a single function call (e.g., schemaOnRead("filename")) that reads text (TXT), comma separated value (CSV), raster image (BMP, PNG, GIF, TIFF, and JPG), R data (RDS), HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet (XLS, XLSX, ODS, and DIF), Weka Attribute-Relation File Format (ARFF), Epi Info (REC), Pajek network (PAJ), R network (NET), Hypertext Markup Language (HTML), SPSS (SAV), Systat (SYS), and Stata (DTA) files. It also recursively reads folders (e.g., schemaOnRead("folder")), returning a nested list of the contained elements.

  12. On Schema theory and Uygur Language based Teaching%浅谈图式理论与基础维语教学

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张砾

    2013-01-01

      Based Uighur language is a compulsory course for majoring in Uygur language, plays a fundamental role in the process of Uyghur language acquisition. Application of schema theory to the analysis of students' difficulty in Uygur language learning, and puts forward the teachers to improve teaching effectiveness of the Uighur based strategy guided by the schema theory, schema knowledge effectively to help students, enhance the ability to learn language.%  基础维语是维吾尔语专业的必修课程,在维吾尔语习得过程中起着基础性的作用。运用图式理论去分析学生维吾尔语学习的难点,并提出教师在图式理论指导下提高基础维语教学实效性的策略,帮助学生有效利用图示知识,增强语言学习能力。

  13. The Structure of Schema Theory Applied to the Modern Language%现代语言应用对图式理论的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白世梅

    2014-01-01

    图式理论的实质是指读者所拥有的背景知识和文本信息发生互动的过程。具体在英语教学过程中需要教师充分考虑文本和学生所拥有的背景知识两个因素,以激活学生大脑中的图式,提高其理解所学内容的能力。何为语言图式与文化图式,如何激活与构建图式、分析在英语教学中如何运用图式理论。%The essence of the schema theory refers to the process of interacting between the background knowledge and the text information possessed by the readers. Specifically,while teaching English,the teacher needs to take into full consideration the two factors of the text and the background mastered by the students in order to activate their schemata in the brains and improve their abilities to comprehend what they have learned. This paper aims to introduce what language schema and cultural schema are;how the students’brains are activated and schemata are structured. On this basis,we analyze how to apply schema theory in English teaching.

  14. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  15. Lossless Conditional Schema Evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2003-01-01

    The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples and the reco......The paper considers conditional schema evolution, where schema changes change the schema of the tuples that satisfy the change condition. When the schema of a relation change some tuples may no longer fit the current schema. Handling the mismatch between the intended schema of tuples...... and the recorded schema of tuples is at the core of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that conditionally evolving schemas, in contrast to current commercial database systems, are lossless when the schema evolves...

  16. The CMDI MI Search Engine: Access to Language Resources and Tools Using Heterogeneous Metadata Schemas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Kemps-Snijders, M.; Bennis, H.J.; Zaphiris, P; Buchanan, G; Rasmussen, E; Loizides, F

    2012-01-01

    The CLARIN Metadata Infrastructure (CMDI) provides a solution for access to different types of language resources and tools across Europe. Researchers have different research data and tools, which are large-scale and described differently with domain-specific metadata. In the context of the Search &

  17. The CMDI MI Search Engine: Access to Language Resources and Tools Using Heterogeneous Metadata Schemas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, J.; Kemps-Snijders, M.; Bennis, H.J.; Zaphiris, P; Buchanan, G; Rasmussen, E; Loizides, F

    2012-01-01

    The CLARIN Metadata Infrastructure (CMDI) provides a solution for access to different types of language resources and tools across Europe. Researchers have different research data and tools, which are large-scale and described differently with domain-specific metadata. In the context of the Search &

  18. Multitemporal conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Bøhlen, Michael Hanspeter

    2004-01-01

    Schema evolution is the ability of the database to respond to changes in the real world by allowing the schema to evolve.  The multidimensional conditionally evolving schema (MD-CES) is a conceptual model for conditional schema changes, which modify the schema of those tuples that satisfy...... the change condition.  The MD-CES is lossless and preserves schemas, but has an exponential space complexity.  In this paper we restrict conditional schema changes to timestamp attributes.  Specifically, we develop 1D-CES for schema versioning over one time dimension, and 2D-CES for schema versioning over...

  19. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  20. Lossless conditional schema evolution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Guttorm; Böhlen, Michael

    2004-01-01

    of a DBMS that supports schema evolution. We propose to keep track of schema mismatches at the level of individual tuples, and prove that evolving schemas with conditional schema changes, in contrast to database systems relying on data migration, are lossless when the schema evolves. The lossless property...

  1. Color suppressed contributions to the decay modes B_{d,s} -> D_{s,d} D_{s,d}, B_{d,s} -> D_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}, and B_{d,s} -> D^*_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}

    OpenAIRE

    Eeg, Jan O.; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Prapotnik, Anita

    2005-01-01

    The amplitudes for decays of the type $B_{d,s} \\to D_{s,d} D_{s,d}$, have no factorizable contributions, while $B_{d,s} \\to D_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}$, and $B_{d,s} \\to D^*_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}$ have relatively small factorizable contributions through the annihilation mechanism. The dominant contributions to the decay amplitudes arise from chiral loop contributions and tree level amplitudes which can be obtained in terms of soft gluon emissions forming a gluon condensate. We predict that the branching rat...

  2. Color suppressed contributions to the decay modes B_{d,s} -> D_{s,d} D_{s,d}, B_{d,s} -> D_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}, and B_{d,s} -> D^*_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}

    OpenAIRE

    Eeg, Jan O.; Fajfer, Svjetlana; Prapotnik, Anita

    2005-01-01

    The amplitudes for decays of the type $B_{d,s} \\to D_{s,d} D_{s,d}$, have no factorizable contributions, while $B_{d,s} \\to D_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}$, and $B_{d,s} \\to D^*_{s,d} D^*_{s,d}$ have relatively small factorizable contributions through the annihilation mechanism. The dominant contributions to the decay amplitudes arise from chiral loop contributions and tree level amplitudes which can be obtained in terms of soft gluon emissions forming a gluon condensate. We predict that the branching rat...

  3. An Image Schema Language

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-01-01

    in terms of image-schematic rep- resentations (e.g., Lakoff 1987, Gibbs & Colston 1995, Talmy 2003). Some words have unadulterated physical meanings...Press. Lakoff , G. (1987). Women, fire and dangerous things. University of Chicago Press. Mandler, J. (1992). How to build a baby: ii. Conceptual

  4. Effects of structural changes in the dsdA-dsdC intergenic region on D-serine deaminase synthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, E; Nikam, S S; Palchaudhuri, S

    1991-02-01

    Single-base-pair changes well upstream of its transcription initiation site resulted in partially to fully constitutive expression of the D-serine deaminase structural gene, dsdA, independently of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP-binding protein complex and of the specific D-serine deaminase activator protein. These promoter mutations appear to define a consensus sequence that is repeated several times. Basal expression of dsdA+ was also strongly enhanced by subcloning on multicopy plasmids, by the DNA gyrase inhibitor novobiocin, and in dsdC(Con) mutants by increasing growth temperature. These results suggest that activation of dsdA+ expression by the dsdC-encoded protein involves distortion of promoter DNA. A dsdA translation start at bp -731 was verified by subcloning of dsdC+. Plasmid-specified activator at a high concentration interfered with chromosomal dsdC(Con) expression, and the interference was enhanced by deletion of most of the intergenic region from the plasmid. Even at a high concentration, however, plasmid-specified activator did not activate expression of chromosomal dsdA+, and in one case it was actually repressive. These results confirm the strong cis tropism of plasmid-specified dsdC-encoded protein and suggest that it is mediated by multiple sites in the dsdA-dsdC intergenic region.

  5. Schema Theory and English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Ming

    2015-01-01

    The development of reading ability has always been one of the primary objectives in English language teaching ,so the schema theory in English reading teaching has been drawn an increasingly attention.

  6. Uncertain Schema Matching

    CERN Document Server

    Gal, Avigdor

    2011-01-01

    Schema matching is the task of providing correspondences between concepts describing the meaning of data in various heterogeneous, distributed data sources. Schema matching is one of the basic operations required by the process of data and schema integration, and thus has a great effect on its outcomes, whether these involve targeted content delivery, view integration, database integration, query rewriting over heterogeneous sources, duplicate data elimination, or automatic streamlining of workflow activities that involve heterogeneous data sources. Although schema matching research has been o

  7. Schema for Spacecraft-Command Dictionary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laubach, Sharon; Garcia, Celina; Maxwell, Scott; Wright, Jesse

    2008-01-01

    An Extensible Markup Language (XML) schema was developed as a means of defining and describing a structure for capturing spacecraft command- definition and tracking information in a single location in a form readable by both engineers and software used to generate software for flight and ground systems. A structure defined within this schema is then used as the basis for creating an XML file that contains command definitions.

  8. Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Networking and Standardization Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandberg, D E; Callens, N; Wisniewski, A B

    2015-05-01

    Syndromes resulting in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD) are individually rare. Historically, this fact has hindered both clinical research and the delivery of evidence-based care. Recognizing the need for advancement, members of European and North American medical societies produced policy statements, notably the Consensus Statement on Management of Intersex Disorders, which recognize that optimal healthcare in DSD requires multidisciplinary teams in conjunction with networking of treatment centers and continued development of patient registries. This paper summarizes efforts in Europe and the U.S. toward creating networks focused on expanding discovery and improving healthcare and quality of life outcomes in DSD. The objectives and function of registry-based networks (EuroDSD/I-DSD), learning collaboratives (DSD-net), clinical outcomes research (DSD-Life), and networking hybrids (DSD-TRN) are reviewed. Opportunities for, and barriers to standardization in research and care are highlighted in light of practical considerations, for example, limitations in reliably classifying anatomic phenotypes and gaps in behavioral health staffing resources. The role of patient-reported outcomes is considered, with emphasis on integrating patient perspectives, given findings of limited agreement in outcome ratings by healthcare providers and patients. Finally, the characteristics of clinical centers likely to deliver the highest quality outcomes are discussed.

  9. Identification and control of synthesis of the dsdC activator protein.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McFall, E; Heincz, M C

    1983-02-01

    Operon fusions between the D-serine deaminase regulatory and structural genes and lacZ were constructed and used to examine the control of expression of the positive regulatory gene, dsdC. Merodiploid strains containing both dsdCp::Mu d (lac Apr) and dsdC+A+ produced only one-fourth as much beta-galactosidase as did the haploid dsdCp::Mu d (lac Apr) strains, indicating that the dsdC+ product repressed its own synthesis. The repression was reversed by D-serine. dsdC expression was not depressed in a cya background. The basal level of D-serine deaminase was the same in wild-type and dsdCp fusion strains. The dsdC gene product was identified in maxicell strains harboring dsd plasmids as a 34,000-dalton protein. dsdC gene transcription proceeded clockwise; thus, its promoter is adjacent to that of dsdA.

  10. Culturally and Linguistically Responsive Schema Intervention: Improving Word Problem Solving for English Language Learners with Mathematics Difficulty

    Science.gov (United States)

    Driver, Melissa K.; Powell, Sarah R.

    2017-01-01

    Word problems are prevalent on high-stakes assessments, and success on word problems has implications for grade promotion and graduation. Unfortunately, English Language Learners (ELLs) continue to perform significantly below their native English-speaking peers on mathematics assessments featuring word problems. Little is known about the…

  11. Should CAH in females be classified as DSD?

    OpenAIRE

    Ricardo eGonzález; Barbara Magda Ludwikowski

    2016-01-01

    Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development or DSD. In this article we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardle...

  12. Should CAH in Females Be Classified as DSD?

    OpenAIRE

    González, Ricardo; Ludwikowski, Barbara M.

    2016-01-01

    Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development (DSD). In this article, we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardle...

  13. Database Application Schema Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Quintus Beyers

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The application schema layer of a Database Management System (DBMS can be modified to deliver results that may warrant a forensic investigation. Table structures can be corrupted by changing the metadata of a database or operators of the database can be altered to deliver incorrect results when used in queries. This paper will discuss categories of possibilities that exist to alter the application schema with some practical examples. Two forensic environments are introduced where a forensic investigation can take place in. Arguments are provided why these environments are important. Methods are presented how these environments can be achieved for the application schema layer of a DBMS. A process is proposed on how forensic evidence should be extracted from the application schema layer of a DBMS. The application schema forensic evidence identification process can be applied to a wide range of forensic settings.

  14. Effects of structural changes in the dsdA-dsdC intergenic region on D-serine deaminase synthesis.

    OpenAIRE

    McFall, E; Nikam, S S; Palchaudhuri, S

    1991-01-01

    Single-base-pair changes well upstream of its transcription initiation site resulted in partially to fully constitutive expression of the D-serine deaminase structural gene, dsdA, independently of the cyclic AMP-cyclic AMP-binding protein complex and of the specific D-serine deaminase activator protein. These promoter mutations appear to define a consensus sequence that is repeated several times. Basal expression of dsdA+ was also strongly enhanced by subcloning on multicopy plasmids, by the ...

  15. Schema Theory and College English Reading Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xiaoguang; Zhu, Lei

    2012-01-01

    Reading plays a dominant role among the four skills in foreign language acquisition for college students. Unfortunately, over the past few decades, English teaching practice shows that Chinese students are vulnerable in it. Both their reading speed and their reading skills are far from being satisfactory. Schema theory presents a very efficient…

  16. The Schema Features and Aesthetic Functions of the Foreign Language Teaching with Electric Audio-visual Aids%外语电化教学的图式特征与美育功能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    齐欣

    2015-01-01

    外语电化教学对传统外语教学模式提出挑战的同时,其自身也面临着诸多的挑战,需要更多的理论支撑和功能研究。基于图式理论和美育教育,对外语电化教学图式特征及其隐性、感性、个性三种美育功能的创新审视,进一步丰富了外语电化教学的理论基础,并强调了其美育功能实现的必要性。%While the foreign language teaching with electric audio-visual aids brings about challenges to the traditional language teaching,it is also faced with many challenges,and more studies on its theoretical basis and functions are encouraged. On the basis of Schema Theory and aesthetic education,this paper makes an innovative examination of the schema features of foreign language teaching with electric audio-visual aids and its implicit,emotional,and personalized aesthetic functions,further enriches its theoretical basis and emphasizes the necessity of achieving its aesthetic functions.

  17. Schemas and memory consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tse, Dorothy; Langston, Rosamund F; Kakeyama, Masaki; Bethus, Ingrid; Spooner, Patrick A; Wood, Emma R; Witter, Menno P; Morris, Richard G M

    2007-04-01

    Memory encoding occurs rapidly, but the consolidation of memory in the neocortex has long been held to be a more gradual process. We now report, however, that systems consolidation can occur extremely quickly if an associative "schema" into which new information is incorporated has previously been created. In experiments using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task for rats, the memory of flavor-place associations became persistent over time as a putative neocortical schema gradually developed. New traces, trained for only one trial, then became assimilated and rapidly hippocampal-independent. Schemas also played a causal role in the creation of lasting associative memory representations during one-trial learning. The concept of neocortical schemas may unite psychological accounts of knowledge structures with neurobiological theories of systems memory consolidation.

  18. Querying Schemas With Access Restrictions

    CERN Document Server

    Benedikt, Michael; Ley, Clemens

    2012-01-01

    We study verification of systems whose transitions consist of accesses to a Web-based data-source. An access is a lookup on a relation within a relational database, fixing values for a set of positions in the relation. For example, a transition can represent access to a Web form, where the user is restricted to filling in values for a particular set of fields. We look at verifying properties of a schema describing the possible accesses of such a system. We present a language where one can describe the properties of an access path, and also specify additional restrictions on accesses that are enforced by the schema. Our main property language, AccLTL, is based on a first-order extension of linear-time temporal logic, interpreting access paths as sequences of relational structures. We also present a lower-level automaton model, Aautomata, which AccLTL specifications can compile into. We show that AccLTL and A-automata can express static analysis problems related to "querying with limited access patterns" that h...

  19. Position effect on expression of dsd genes cloned onto multicopy plasmids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, A M; Heincz, M C; McFall, E

    1980-04-01

    In the D-serine deaminase system of Escherichia coli, which is regulated by positive control, we have fouand a complete lack of trans activation in vivo with multicopy dsd hybrid plasmids. A PLASmid carrying the regulatory gene, dsdC+, did not promote expression of chromosomal dsdCO+A+ loci, nor did a chromosomal dsdC+ gene promote expression of plasmid-borne dsdC delta O+A+ (dsd regulatory gene negative) restriction fragments. However, hybrid plasmids that comprise the entire dsd system (dsdC+O+A+) are highly inducible for the enzyme. These dsd hybrid plasmid deoxyribonucleic acids functioned well as templates in the in vitro coupled transcription-translation system. In vitro-synthesized dsdC+ protein promoted expression of the dsdA+ operation efficiently. Exogenously purified dsdC+ protein also activated expression of several dsdC delta O+A+ plasmid deoxyribonucleic acid templates in vitro. An explanation that reconciles these results with previous dominance studies is presented.

  20. [Disorders of body schema].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuruya, Natsuko; Kobayakawa, Mutsutaka

    2014-04-01

    A variety of disorders have been associated with the concept of body schema. However, this concept has been interpreted in many ways, and there is no consensus on the nature and cognitive mechanisms of body schema. Historically, two major issues have been discussed. One was the body-specificity of the body schema, and the other was the relationship between input and output modality. Autotopagnosia, an inability to localize and orient different parts of the body, has been a focus of attention because it is thought to provide insight into the function of body schema. Although there have not been many cases of pure autotopagnosia, a double dissociation indicating the independence of body-specific system. There are a few working hypotheses for cognitive models of body schema, which can explain the different types of autotopagnosia. One model includes multiple representation subsystems for body processing, while another assumes the use of intrinsic and extrinsic egocentric coordinates to maintain on-line processing for body state. The consistency of these accounts should be examined in light of extensive neuroimaging and psychological data, to construct a plausible model for body schema.

  1. Physical mapping of the Escherichia coli D-serine deaminase region: contiguity of the dsd structural and regulatory genes.

    OpenAIRE

    Carothers, A M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1980-01-01

    The genes dsdA, dsdO, and dsdC have been located on a 3.0-kilobase pair (kb) fragment of the Escherichia coli chromosome by a combination of techniques. The loci were first cloned onto lambda and various plasmid vectors. dsd hybrid plasmids were then digested with restriction enzymes, and the fragments were recloned to test for the presence of dsdC or dsdA. In one case, a 4.2-kb restriction fragment containing the dsdA operon was used to form a heteroduplex with a well-defined lambda dsd deox...

  2. Measurements of DSD Second Moment Based on Laser Extinction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lane, John E.; Jones, Linwood; Kasparis, Takis C.; Metzger, Philip

    2013-01-01

    Using a technique recently developed for estimating the density of surface dust dispersed during a rocket landing, measuring the extinction of a laser passing through rain (or dust in the rocket case) yields an estimate of the 2nd moment of the particle cloud, and rainfall drop size distribution (DSD) in the terrestrial meteorological case. With the exception of disdrometers, instruments that measure rainfall make in direct measurements of the DSD. Most common of these instruments are the rainfall rate gauge measuring the 1 1/3 th moment, (when using a D(exp 2/3) dependency on terminal velocity). Instruments that scatter microwaves off of hydrometeors, such as the WSR-880, vertical wind profilers, and microwave disdrometers, measure the 6th moment of the DSD. By projecting a laser onto a target, changes in brightness of the laser spot against the target background during rain, yield a measurement of the DSD 2nd moment, using the Beer-Lambert law. In order to detect the laser attenuation within the 8-bit resolution of most camera image arrays, a minimum path length is required, depending on the intensity of the rainfall rate. For moderate to heavy rainfall, a laser path length of 100 m is sufficient to measure variations in optical extinction using a digital camera. A photo-detector could replace the camera, for automated installations. In order to spatially correlate the 2nd moment measurements to a collocated disdrometer or tipping bucket, the laser's beam path can be reflected multiple times using mirrors to restrict the spatial extent of the measurement. In cases where a disdrometer is not available, complete DSD estimates can be produced by parametric fitting of DSD model to the 2nd moment data in conjunction with tipping bucket data. In cases where a disdrometer is collocated, the laser extinction technique may yield a significant improvement to insitu disdrometer validation and calibration strategies

  3. Should CAH in females be classified as DSD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo eGonzález

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development or DSD. In this article we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardless of the Prader grade. Females with CAH and low Prader grades have the potential for a normal sexual and reproductive life. Those with greater degrees of prenatal androgen exposure (Prader grades IV and V raised as females also identify themselves as females but experience more male like behavior in childhood, have a greater rate of homosexuality and have greater difficulty with vaginal penetration and maintaining pregnancies. Improvement in surgical techniques, better endocrinological, psychological and surgical follow up may lessen these problems in the future. Given the fact that the term DSD includes many conditions with problematic gender identity and conflicts with the gender assigned at birth, it may be appropriate exclude females with CAH from the DSD classification.

  4. Should CAH in Females Be Classified as DSD?

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, Ricardo; Ludwikowski, Barbara M

    2016-01-01

    Great controversies and misunderstandings have developed around the relatively recently coined term disorders of sex development (DSD). In this article, we question the wisdom of including XX individuals with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) in the DSD category and develop arguments against it based on the published literature on the subject. It is clear that females with CAH assigned the female gender before 24 months of age and properly managed retain the female gender identity regardless of the Prader grade. Females with CAH and low Prader grades have the potential for a normal sexual and reproductive life. Those with greater degrees of prenatal androgen exposure (Prader grades IV and V) raised as females also identify themselves as females but experience more male-like behavior in childhood, have a greater rate of homosexuality, and have greater difficulty with vaginal penetration and maintaining pregnancies. Improvement in surgical techniques, better endocrinological, psychological, and surgical follow-up may lessen these problems in the future. Given the fact that the term DSD includes many conditions with problematic gender identity and conflicts with the gender assigned at birth, it may be appropriate to exclude females with CAH from the DSD classification.

  5. Rainfall droplet size distributions (DSD) parameterization: physics and sensibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cecchini, M. A.; Machado, L.

    2014-12-01

    The CHUVA project (Cloud processes of tHe main precipitation systems in Brazil: A contribUtion to cloud resolVing modeling and to the GPM (GlobAl Precipitation Measurement)) is a Brazillian experiment that aims to understand the several cloud processes that occur in different precipitating regimes. At present, the CHUVA project has conducted 6 field campaigns, the last one being in Manaus jointly with GoAmazon, IARA and ACRIDICON. The main focus of the present study is to bring into perspective the different characteristics of precipitation that reaches the surface in Brazil over several locations. To do so, disdrometer data is analyzed in detail, employing a Gamma fit for each DSD measurement which provides the respective parameters to be studied. Those are disposed in a 3D space, each axis corresponding to one parameter, and the patterns are analyzed. A correlation between the Gamma parameters is defined as a parametric surface that fits the observations with errors smaller than 10% and R2 greater than 0.95. In this way, one parameter can be estimated with respect to the other two, reducing the degrees of freedom of the problem from 3 to 2. As the 3 parameters are defined over this surface, it's possible to obtain a surface representing integral DSD properties such as rainfall intensity (RI). Sensibilities tests are conducted on this estimation and also on other DSD characteristics such as total droplet concentrations and mean mass-weighted diameter. It's shown that the DSD integral properties are generally very sensitive to the Gamma parameters. Nonetheless, the sensibility varies over the surface, being higher in a region where the parameters are not balanced (i.e. a relatively high value in one parameter and low values on the other two). It's suggested that any study proposing parameterization/estimation of DSD properties should be aware of this region of high sensitivity. To further the collaboration with GoAmazon and ACRIDICON, the disdrometer results

  6. Physical mapping of the Escherichia coli D-serine deaminase region: contiguity of the dsd structural and regulatory genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carothers, A M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1980-04-01

    The genes dsdA, dsdO, and dsdC have been located on a 3.0-kilobase pair (kb) fragment of the Escherichia coli chromosome by a combination of techniques. The loci were first cloned onto lambda and various plasmid vectors. dsd hybrid plasmids were then digested with restriction enzymes, and the fragments were recloned to test for the presence of dsdC or dsdA. In one case, a 4.2-kb restriction fragment containing the dsdA operon was used to form a heteroduplex with a well-defined lambda dsd deoxyribonucleic acid. The results show that dsdA, dsdO, and at least 0.6 kb of dsdC are present on this piece of deoxyribonucleic acid. On the basis of the mapping analysis and the molecular weight of D-serine deaminase, 1.9 kb of the 4.2-kb fragment is accounted for by the three dsd loci. We conclude that dsdO and dsdC are contiguous. A detailed dsd restriction map is presented.

  7. [Hermaphroditos in Greek mythology--DSD in moderne medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestmann, A; Mullis, P E; Stanga, Z

    2009-01-07

    We report a case of 34 year old woman how has been hospitalized at the age of 6 month with persistent vomitus. The vomitus was found to be caused by adrenal insufficiency with lack of all hormones of steroidobiosynthesis. The phenotypical femal child was diagnosed to have congenital lipoid adrenal hyperplasia with 46,XY DSD. 24 years later a homozygote mutation in the StAR-gene (L260P), which was first described in Switzerland, has been identified.

  8. Specialized transduction of D-serine deaminase genes: formation of lysogens that yield high lambda-d dsd/lambda ratios and formation of a dimeric lambda-d dsd.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palchaudhuri, S; McFall, E; Carothers, A M

    1976-08-01

    We have obtained two classes of double lysogens that on induction yield higher titers of lambda-d dsd transducing phage than of helper phage. One class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM6116 (dsddelta attlambdadelta HfrC) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdC+ dsdO+ dsdA+, head-tail substitution). In the absence of either a normal attlambda or the homology of a chromosomal dsd region, the transducing phage integrated at other sites, at least one of which, in strain EM6177, is near the origin of HfrC. On induction, strain EM6177 yields a phage burst of 20 to 50 with a lambdadsd:lambda ratio of 10(4):1. The asnychronously high yield of lambda dsd is attributed to an efficiency of excision greater than that of lambda. The other class was obtained by lysogenization of strain EM1407 (dsdA attlambda+) with lambda-dsd type 2 (dsdO6 dsdA, partial deletion of dsdC). The DNA of mature lambda-dsd type 2 is a complete dimer. It lacks nearly all the phage late genes and b2 and carries about five bacterial genes. It could not be packaged as a monomer but is just within the packaging size limit as a dimer. Models for the derivation of these lambda dsd phages and the high-yielding lysogens are presented.

  9. Schema matching and mapping

    CERN Document Server

    Bellahsene, Zohra; Rahm, Erhard

    2011-01-01

    Requiring heterogeneous information systems to cooperate and communicate has now become crucial, especially in application areas like e-business, Web-based mash-ups and the life sciences. Such cooperating systems have to automatically and efficiently match, exchange, transform and integrate large data sets from different sources and of different structure in order to enable seamless data exchange and transformation. The book edited by Bellahsene, Bonifati and Rahm provides an overview of the ways in which the schema and ontology matching and mapping tools have addressed the above requirements

  10. The Escherichia coli argW-dsdCXA genetic island is highly variable, and E. coli K1 strains commonly possess two copies of dsdCXA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moritz, Rebecca L; Welch, Rodney A

    2006-11-01

    The genome sequences of Escherichia coli pathotypes reveal extensive genetic variability in the argW-dsdCXA island. Interestingly, the archetype E. coli K1 neonatal meningitis strain, strain RS218, has two copies of the dsdCXA genes for d-serine utilization at the argW and leuX islands. Because the human brain contains d-serine, an epidemiological study emphasizing K1 isolates surveyed the dsdCXA copy number and function. Forty of 41 (97.5%) independent E. coli K1 isolates could utilize d-serine. Southern blot hybridization revealed physical variability within the argW-dsdC region, even among 22 E. coli O18:K1:H7 isolates. In addition, 30 of 41 K1 strains, including 21 of 22 O18:K1:H7 isolates, had two dsdCXA loci. Mutational analysis indicated that each of the dsdA genes is functional in a rifampin-resistant mutant of RS218, mutant E44. The high percentage of K1 strains that can use d-serine is in striking contrast to our previous observation that only 4 of 74 (5%) isolates in the diarrheagenic E. coli (DEC) collection have this activity. The genome sequence of diarrheagenic E. coli isolates indicates that the csrRAKB genes for sucrose utilization are often substituted for dsdC and a portion of dsdX present at the argW-dsdCXA island of extraintestinal isolates. Among DEC isolates there is a reciprocal pattern of sucrose fermentation versus d-serine utilization. The ability to use d-serine is a trait strongly selected for among E. coli K1 strains, which have the ability to infect a wide range of extraintestinal sites. Conversely, diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes appear to have substituted sucrose for d-serine as a potential nutrient.

  11. Hybrid Schema Matching for Deep Web

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Kerui; Zuo, Wanli; He, Fengling; Chen, Yongheng

    Schema matching is the process of identifying semantic mappings, or correspondences, between two or more schemas. Schema matching is a first step and critical part of data integration. For schema matching of deep web, most researches only interested in query interface, while rarely pay attention to abundant schema information contained in query result pages. This paper proposed a mixed schema matching technique, which combines attributes that appeared in query structures and query results of different data sources, and mines the matched schemas inside. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of this method for improving the accuracy of schema matching.

  12. Schema Training in Analogical Reasoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robins, Shani; Mayer, Richard E.

    1993-01-01

    In 3 experiments, 93, 97, and 86 college students, respectively, learned how to solve 20 verbal analogy problems and took transfer and memory tests. Results are inconsistent with active responding theory and further indicate that schema induction is maximized when the schemas are made salient and the cognitive system is not overloaded. (SLD)

  13. The Role of Ontologies in Schema-based Program Synthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bures, Tomas; Denney, Ewen; Fischer, Bernd; Nistor, Eugen C.

    2004-01-01

    Program synthesis is the process of automatically deriving executable code from (non-executable) high-level specifications. It is more flexible and powerful than conventional code generation techniques that simply translate algorithmic specifications into lower-level code or only create code skeletons from structural specifications (such as UML class diagrams). Key to building a successful synthesis system is specializing to an appropriate application domain. The AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER systems, under development at NASA Ames, operate in the two domains of data analysis and state estimation, respectively. The central concept of both systems is the schema, a representation of reusable computational knowledge. This can take various forms, including high-level algorithm templates, code optimizations, datatype refinements, or architectural information. A schema also contains applicability conditions that are used to determine when it can be applied safely. These conditions can refer to the initial specification, to intermediate results, or to elements of the partially-instantiated code. Schema-based synthesis uses AI technology to recursively apply schemas to gradually refine a specification into executable code. This process proceeds in two main phases. A front-end gradually transforms the problem specification into a program represented in an abstract intermediate code. A backend then compiles this further down into a concrete target programming language of choice. A core engine applies schemas on the initial problem specification, then uses the output of those schemas as the input for other schemas, until the full implementation is generated. Since there might be different schemas that implement different solutions to the same problem this process can generate an entire solution tree. AUTOBAYES and AUTOFILTER have reached the level of maturity where they enable users to solve interesting application problems, e.g., the analysis of Hubble Space Telescope images

  14. GENDER IDENTITY AND GENDER ROLE IN DSD PATIENTS RAISED AS FEMALES:A PRELIMINARY OUTCOME STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oya eErcan

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients.After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD,11 patients 46XY DSD answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI questionnaire including 60- item Masculinity-Femininity (MF subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n:50 were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist(D.I. on MMPI .For statistical purposes, 7 findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these 7 findings (S1-S7, two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4 and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S3 and S4 respectively. In controls, the percentages of femininity findings were significantly higher when compared to DSD females (p< 0.001 and p< 0.001 for S5 and S6 respectively.There was no significant difference between 46XX DSD patients and 46XY DSD patients with respect to the percentage of any of the 7 findings. Two patients requested gender change to male;only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions(S7.In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients

  15. Content Schema and English Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明珠

    2013-01-01

    Schema is usually the general knowledge structure in mind, and there are different kinds of schema in reader ’s mind. Content schema refers to the background knowledge about the content area of a text. And the reader ’s content schema in mind has greater effects on English comprehension.

  16. The Effectiveness of schema therapy in reduction of Early maladaptive schemas on PTSD Veterans Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SA Moosaviassl

    2014-04-01

    Results: The findings showed that the Schema therapy reduced the severity of maladaptive schemas in patients with post-traumatic stress disorder and follow-up period of treatment indicates the consistency of treatment. Discussion: Schema therapy targeting the root growth impairment and restructuring of maladaptive schemas able to treat persistent symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder and decreased their incompatible schemas activity.

  17. Cultural Schema and Reading Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TanFuhong

    2004-01-01

    This paper is mainly focused on the examination of the role of cultural schema in readinghow the cultural schemacomprehension, in particular,helps or impedes reading comprehension; most important of all, the implications for teaching reading in China.

  18. SCHEMA THEORY IN READING CLASS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fahriany Fahriany

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Comprehension is making a sense out of text. It is a process of using reader’s existing knowledge (schemata to interpret texts in order to construct meaning. Many reading experts agree that the schema theory is one of the reasonable theories of human information processing. Schemata, the plural of schema, are believed to be the building blocks of cognition. This paper discusses the role of readers’ preexisting knowledge on linguistics code as well as readers’ knowledge of the world (schema, which for the case of reading has similar importance of the printed words in the text. It is argued that the more non visual information the reader posses, the less visual information is needed. For teaching and learning, teachers are expected to use different strategies in order to deal with different students’ preexisting knowledge and schema to maximize students’ learning.

  19. THE DESIGN OF INSTALLATION AGRICULTURE TECHNOLOGY MARKUP LANGUAGE AND SCHEMA%设施农业技术标记语言及其Schema的设计

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桦; 杨悦欣; 孙波

    2005-01-01

    详细讨论了如何基于XML来定义一套用于描述设施农业技术的特定领域的标记语言--IATML(Installation Agriculture Technology Markup Language),在元语言XML的基础上对设施农业技术的基本构成元素进行了分析、定义,建立了IATMLSchema,规范了设施农业技术的描述.

  20. Gender Identity and Gender Role in DSD Patients Raised as Females: A Preliminary Outcome Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ercan, Oya; Kutlug, Seyhan; Uysal, Omer; Alikasifoglu, Mujgan; Inceoglu, Derya

    2013-01-01

    Gender identity and gender role are expected to be consistent with gender assignment for optimal DSD management outcome. To our knowledge, our study is the first to attempt evaluation of gender related outcomes in Turkish DSD patients. After receiving institutional ethical board approval and subject (or parent) informed consent, subjects with DSD raised as girls (22 patients 46 XX DSD, 11 patients 46 XY DSD) answered 566 questions of the Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) questionnaire including 60-item Masculinity-Femininity (MF) subscale which was the focus in this study. Controls (n: 50) were females similar to the probands in age, level of education, relationship status, and having a job or not also answered all questions. The answers were evaluated by a trained psychologist (Derya Inceoglu) on MMPI. For statistical purposes, seven findings were obtained from the data related to the MF subscale from the patients and controls. Of these seven findings (S1-S7), two were associated with masculinity (S3-S4) and another two were associated with femininity (S5-S6). In DSD patients, the percentages of masculinity findings were significantly higher when compared to controls (p gender change to male; only these two patients had the finding stating that sexual impulses could come to existence as actions (S7). In conclusion efforts to identify modifiable factors with negative impact and thus modifying them, and professional guidance may be important in minimizing the encountered gender related problems in DSD patients.

  1. Creativity: an organizational schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caselli, Richard J

    2009-09-01

    To describe an organizational schema of human creativity. Previous research has concluded that creativity involves something novel and useful, but whether creativity is common or rare, domain-specific or domain-general, quantitative or qualitative, or personal or social remains unresolved. Extant research from neurobiology, psychology, cognitive science, and neuroeconomics was used to generate a novel synthesis that explains human creative behavior. Creativity is the attempt to bridge the gap between what is and what should be. It emerges from the interplay of 5 commonly shared factors: motivation, perception, action, temperament, and social interaction. The reward value of what exists compared with an imagined possibility generates the motivational voltage that drives the creative effort. Action to attain the goal requires a dexterously executed plan, and dexterity levels are influenced by both practice effects and biologic biases. Temperament sustains the creative effort during periods of nonreward in anticipation of goal completion. Societal esthetics measure the success of creative efforts. Personal skill sets derived from nature and nurture vary between individuals and determine one's own creative phenotype. Despite great qualitative and quantitative differences between individuals, the neurobiologic principles of creative behavior are the same from the least to the most creative among us.

  2. In vivo D-serine deaminase transcription start sites in wild-type Escherichia coli and in dsdA promoter mutants.

    OpenAIRE

    Bornstein-Forst, S M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1987-01-01

    The D-serine deaminase structural (dsdA) and regulatory (dsdC) genes are transcribed with opposite polarity from an intergenic region comprising more than 600 base pairs. The order of genes in the dsd region is supN-dsdA-dsdC-aroC---his. The DNA sequence of the intergenic region has been slightly revised from a previously published version (E. McFall and L. Runkel, J. Bacteriol. 154:1508-1512, 1983). The dsdA gene is preceded by a long open reading frame. The dsdA in vivo transcription start ...

  3. Form invariance of schema and exact schema theorem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨海军; 李敏强

    2003-01-01

    One of the most important research questions in GAs is the explanation of the evolutionary process of GAs as a mathematical object. In this paper, we use matrix linear transformations to do it, first. This new method makes the study on mechanism of GAs simpler. We obtain the conditions under which the operators of crossover and mutation are commutative operators of GAs. We also give an exact schema equation on the basis of the concept of schema space. The result is similar to Stephens and Waelbroeck's work, but they have novel meanings and a larger degree of coarse graining.

  4. The Cryptic dsdA Gene Encodes a Functional D-Serine Dehydratase in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guoqing; Lu, Chung-Dar

    2016-06-01

    D-Serine, an important neurotransmitter, also contributes to bacterial adaptation and virulence in humans. It was reported that Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 can grow on D-serine as the sole nitrogen source, and growth was severely reduced in the dadA mutant devoid of the D-alanine dehydrogenase with broad substrate specificity. In this study, the dsdA gene (PA3357) encoding a putative D-serine dehydratase was subjected to further characterization. Growth on D-serine as the sole source of nitrogen was retained in the ∆dsdA mutant and was abolished completely in the ∆dadA and ∆dadA-∆dsdA mutants. However, when complemented by dsdA on a plasmid, the double mutant was able to grow on D-serine as the sole source of carbon and nitrogen, supporting the proposed biochemical function of DsdA in the conversion of D-serine into pyruvate and ammonia. Among D- and L-amino acids tested, only D-serine and D-threonine could serve as the substrates of DsdA, and the Km of DsdA with D-serine was calculated to be 330 μM. Comparative genomics revealed that this cryptic dsdA gene was highly conserved in strains of P. aeruginosa, and that most strains of Pseudomonas putida possess putative dsdCAX genes encoding a transcriptional regulator DsdC and a D-serine transporter DsdX as in enteric bacteria. In conclusion, this study supports the presence of a cryptic dsdA gene encoding a functional D-serine dehydratase in P. aeruginosa, and the absence of dsdA expression in response to exogenous D-serine might be due to the loss of regulatory elements for gene activation during evolution.

  5. Schema Evolution for Stars and Snowflakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kaas, Christian; Pedersen, Torben Bach; Rasmussen, Bjørn

    2004-01-01

    The most common implementation platform for multidimensional data warehouses is RDBMSs storing data in relational star and snowflake schemas. DW schemas evolve over time, which may invalidate existing analysis queries used for reporting purposes. However, the evolution properties of star...

  6. Normalization mapping from redundant XML schema to relational schema%冗余XML模式到关系模式的规范化映射

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪欣; 陈苗; 蹇崇军

    2011-01-01

    从XML(extensible markup language)模式的语法分析冗余元素产生的原因,通过属性冗余的规范化规则消除属性冗余,元素冗余规范化算法消除元素冗余,嵌套冗余规范化算法消除嵌套冗余,从而实现XML模式到关系模式的关系映射.该算法不仅实现了一般关系的映射,而且实现了冗余XML模式到关系模式的规范化映射,具有不可逆性.%This article analyzes the XML (extensible markup language) schema grammar to find the root cause of the redundancy, eliminates the attribute redundancy, element redundancy and nesting redundancy by the attribute redundancy elimination rule, the element redundancy elimination rule and the nesting redundancy elimination rule respectively, realizes the relation mapping from XML schema to relational schema by the relation mapping rule. The algorithm not only realizes the normal mapping from XML schema to relational schema, but also realizes the mapping from the redundant XML to the relational schema. The mapping is non-reversible.

  7. EGSO in need for a global schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Frank; Csillaghy, Andre; Bentley, Robert D.; Aboudarham, Jean; Antonucci, Ester; Finkelstein, Anthony; Ciminiera, Luigi; Gurman, Joseph B.; Scholl, Isabelle; Pike, Dave; Zharkova, Valentin

    2002-12-01

    The European Grid of Solar Observations (EGSO) is a project to develop a virtual observatory for the solar physics community. Like in all such projects, a vital component is a schema that adequately describes the data in the distributed data sets. Here, we discuss the schema in general terms, and present a draft example of a portion of a possible XML schema.

  8. The cognitive import of the narrative schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, Peer

    2007-01-01

    This paper aims at establishing the origin of the narrative schema in the perception of intentional movements. The distinction between mechanical and intentional movements is vital for human beings, and the narrative schema, which is underpinned by this distinction, is therefore a basic cognitive...... schema within continental semiotics, and through an interpretation of Heider & Simmel’s study on apparent behavior it establishes the cognitive import of the narrative schema and its origin in visual perception; finally it gives examples of the meaning organizing import of the narrative schema....

  9. A Novel Verification Approach of Workflow Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guangqi; WANG Juying; WANG Yan; SONG Baoyan; YU Ge

    2006-01-01

    A workflow schema is an abstract description of the business processed by workflow model, and plays a critical role in analyzing, executing and reorganizing business processes. The verification issue on the correctness of complicated workflow schemas is difficult in the field of workflow. We make an intensive study of it in this paper. We present here local errors and schema logic errors (global errors) in workflow schemas in detail, and offer some constraint rules trying to avoid schema errors during modeling. In addition, we propose a verification approach based on graph reduction and graph spread, and give the algorithm. The algorithm is implemented in a workflow prototype system e-ScopeWork.

  10. Measurement of B0->Ds(*)+D*- branching fractions and polarization in the decay B0->Ds*+D*- with a partial reconstruction technique

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Gaillard, Jean-Marc; Hicheur, A; Karyotakis, Yu; Lees, J P; Robbe, P; Tisserand, V; Zghiche, A; Palano, A; Pompili, A; Chen, J C; Qi, N D; Rong, G; Wang, P; Zhu, Y S; Eigen, G; Ofte, I; Stugu, B; Abrams, G S; Borgland, A W; Breon, A B; Brown, D N; Button-Shafer, J; Cahn, R N; Charles, E; Gill, M S; Gritsan, A V; Groysman, Y; Jacobsen, R G; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kerth, L T; Kolomensky, Yu G; Kral, J F; Le Clerc, C; Levi, M E; Lynch, G; Mir, L M; Oddone, P J; Orimoto, T J; Pripstein, M; Roe, N A; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Shelkov, V G; Telnov, A V; Wenzel, W A; Harrison, T J; Hawkes, C M; Knowles, D J; O'Neale, S W; Penny, R C; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Deppermann, T; Goetzen, K; Koch, H; Lewandowski, B; Peters, K; Schmücker, H; Steinke, M; Barlow, N R; Bhimji, W; Boyd, J T; Chevalier, N; Clark, P J; Cottingham, W N; MacKay, C; Wilson, F F; Abe, K; Hearty, C; Mattison, T S; McKenna, J A; Thiessen, D; Jolly, S; McKemey, A K; Blinov, V E; Bukin, A D; Buzykaev, A R; Golubev, V B; Ivanchenko, V N; Korol, A A; Kravchenko, E A; Onuchin, A P; Serednyakov, S I; Skovpen, Yu I; Yushkov, A N; Best, D; Chao, M; Kirkby, D; Lankford, A J; Mandelkern, M A; McMahon, S; Stoker, D P; Buchanan, C; Chun, S; Hadavand, H K; Hill, E J; MacFarlane, D B; Paar, H P; Prell, S; Rahatlou, S; Raven, G; Schwanke, U; Sharma, V; Berryhill, J W; Campagnari, C; Dahmes, B; Hart, P A; Kuznetsova, N P; Levy, S L; Long, O; Lu, A; Mazur, M A; Richman, J D; Verkerke, W; Beringer, J; Eisner, A M; Grothe, M; Heusch, C A; Lockman, W S; Pulliam, T; Schalk, T L; Schmitz, R E; Schumm, B A; Seiden, A; Turri, M; Walkowiak, W; Williams, D C; Wilson, M G; Chen, E; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dvoretskii, A; Hitlin, D G; Porter, F C; Ryd, A; Samuel, A; Yang, S; Jayatilleke, S M; Mancinelli, G; Meadows, B T; Sokoloff, M D; Barillari, T; Bloom, P; Ford, W T; Nauenberg, U; Olivas, A; Rankin, P; Roy, J; Smith, J G; Van Hoek, W C; Zhang, L; Harton, J L; Hu, T; Krishnamurthy, M; Soffer, A; Toki, W H; Wilson, R J; Zhang, J; Altenburg, D; Brandt, T; Brose, J; Colberg, T; Dickopp, M; Dubitzky, R S; Hauke, A; Maly, E; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Otto, S; Schubert, Klaus R; Schwierz, R; Spaan, B; Wilden, L; Bernard, D; Bonneaud, G R; Brochard, F; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Ferrag, S; T'Jampens, S; Thiebaux, C; Vasileiadis, G; Verderi, M; Anjomshoaa, A; Bernet, R; Khan, A; Lavin, D; Muheim, F; Playfer, S; Swain, J E; Tinslay, J; Falbo, M; Borean, C; Bozzi, C; Piemontese, L; Sarti, A; Treadwell, E; Anulli, F; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Calcaterra, A; De Sangro, R; Falciai, D; Finocchiaro, G; Patteri, P; Peruzzi, I M; Piccolo, M; Zallo, A; Bagnasco, S; Buzzo, A; Contri, R; Crosetti, G; Lo Vetere, M; Macri, M; Monge, M R; Passaggio, S; Pastore, F C; Patrignani, C; Robutti, E; Santroni, A; Tosi, S

    2002-01-01

    We present measurements of the decays B0->Ds(*)+D*-, using data recorded by the BABAR detector in 1999 and 2000, consisting of 20.8 fb^-1. The analysis is conducted with a partial reconstruction technique, in which only the Ds(*)+ and the soft pion from the D*- decay are reconstructed. From the observed rates, we measure the branching fractions BR(B0->Ds+D*-) = (1.03 +- 0.14 +- 0.13 +- 0.26)% and BR(B0->Ds*+D*-) = (1.97 +- 0.15 +- 0.30 +- 0.49)%, where the first error is statistical, the second is systematic, and the third is the error due to the Ds+->phi pi+ branching fraction uncertainty. From the B0->Ds*+D*- angular distributions, we measure the fraction of longitudinal polarization Gamma_L/Gamma = (51.9 +- 5.0 +- 2.8)%, which is consistent with the theoretical prediction, based on factorization. These results are preliminary.

  11. Novel Associations in Disorders of Sex Development: Findings From the I-DSD Registry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cox, Kathryn; Bryce, Jillian; Jiang, Jipu; Rodie, Martina; Sinnott, Richard; Alkhawari, Mona; Arlt, Wiebke; Audi, Laura; Balsamo, Antonio; Bertelloni, Silvano; Cools, Martine; Darendeliler, Feyza; Drop, Stenvert; Ellaithi, Mona; Guran, Tulay; Hiort, Olaf; Holterhus, Paul-Martin; Hughes, Ieuan; Krone, Nils; Lisa, Lidka; Morel, Yves; Soder, Olle; Wieacker, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Context: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the international DSD (I-DSD) Registry. Design, Setting, and Patients: Anonymized data were extracted from the I-DSD Registry for diagnosis, karyotype, sex of rearing, genetic investigations, and associated anomalies. If necessary, clarification was sought from the reporting clinician. Results: Of 649 accessible cases, associated conditions occurred in 168 (26%); 103 (61%) cases had one condition, 31 (18%) had two conditions, 20 (12%) had three conditions, and 14 (8%) had four or more conditions. Karyotypes with most frequently reported associations included 45,X with 6 of 8 affected cases (75%), 45,X/46,XY with 19 of 42 cases (45%), 46,XY with 112 of 460 cases (24%), and 46,XX with 27 of 121 cases (22%). In the 112 cases of 46,XY DSD, the commonest conditions included small for gestational age in 26 (23%), cardiac anomalies in 22 (20%), and central nervous system disorders in 22 (20%), whereas in the 27 cases of 46,XX DSD, skeletal and renal anomalies were commonest at 12 (44%) and 8 (30%), respectively. Of 170 cases of suspected androgen insensitivity syndrome, 19 (11%) had reported anomalies and 9 of these had confirmed androgen receptor mutations. Conclusions: Over a quarter of the cases in the I-DSD Registry have an additional condition. These associations can direct investigators toward novel genetic etiology and also highlight the need for more holistic care of the affected person. PMID:24302751

  12. Long-term management of patients with disorders of sex development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiort, Olaf

    2014-05-01

    Differences or disorders of sex development (DSD) describe a biological discrepancy between chromosomal, gonadal, and phenotypical sex, often affecting the morphology of the genito-reproductive organs. DSD is most often due to genetic abnormalities affecting chromosomal composition or single genes. Most children with 46,XX karyotype and DSD have congenital adrenal hyperplasia due to 21-hydroxylase deficiency and should be regarded as unchallenged females. For children with 46,XY DSD, the situation is even much more complicated since indeed an exact genetic diagnosis is still missing. Depending on the phenotype, this may be true for more than 80% of children with severe hypospadias, in contrast in post-pubertal patients with clinical evidence of complete androgen insensitivity, whom 95% show an underlying mutation within the androgen receptor gene. DSD and numerical aberrations of sex chromosomes, especially 45,X/46,XY mosaicism depends essentially on the assessment of the exact clinical morphology with a focus of the external and internal genital structures and of the endocrine and reproductive function of the gonads with the aim for a best prognosis of the child. This assessment should be done in a center of expertise.

  13. Automatic Schema Evolution in Root

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ReneBrun; FonsRademakers

    2001-01-01

    ROOT version 3(spring 2001) supports automatic class schema evolution.In addition this version also produces files that are self-describing.This is achieved by storing in each file a record with the description of all the persistent classes in the file.Being self-describing guarantees that a file can always be read later,its structure browsed and objects inspected.also when the library with the compiled code of these classes is missing The schema evolution mechanism supports the frequent case when multiple data sets generated with many different class versions must be analyzed in the same session.ROOT supports the automatic generation of C++ code describing the data objects in a file.

  14. Duplicate-based Schema Matching

    OpenAIRE

    Bilke, Alexander

    2007-01-01

    Die Integration unabhängig voneinander entwickelter Datenquellen stellt uns vor viele Probleme, die das Ergebnis verschiedener Arten von Heterogenität sind. Eine der größten Herausforderungen ist Schema Matching: der halb-automatische Prozess, in dem semantische Beziehungen zwischen Attributen in heterogenen Schemata erkannt werden. Verschiedene Lösungen, die Schemainformationen ausnutzen oder spezifische Eigenschaften aus Attributwerten extrahieren, wurden in der Literatur beschrieben. In di...

  15. In vivo D-serine deaminase transcription start sites in wild-type Escherichia coli and in dsdA promoter mutants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornstein-Forst, S M; McFall, E; Palchaudhuri, S

    1987-03-01

    The D-serine deaminase structural (dsdA) and regulatory (dsdC) genes are transcribed with opposite polarity from an intergenic region comprising more than 600 base pairs. The order of genes in the dsd region is supN-dsdA-dsdC-aroC---his. The DNA sequence of the intergenic region has been slightly revised from a previously published version (E. McFall and L. Runkel, J. Bacteriol. 154:1508-1512, 1983). The dsdA gene is preceded by a long open reading frame. The dsdA in vivo transcription start sites for the wild type (base pair +1) and for three phenotypically distinct promoter constitutive mutants were determined by the S1 nuclease method. They are identical and are located about 81 base pairs upstream of the translation start site. D-Serine deaminase regulation is normal in rho mutants. Possible mechanisms for dsdA activation are discussed.

  16. [Influence between early maladaptive schemas and depression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cormier, A; Jourda, B; Laros, C; Walburg, V; Callahan, S

    2011-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas developed during childhood are relatively stable. Once activated, these early maladaptive schemas could influence reality perceptions and create cognitive distortions. Previous studies showed that early maladaptive schemas are linked to depression: early maladaptive schemas could be a risk factor for depression (Young, 2001) and a vulnerability marker for depression (Dozoïs, 2007). The main objective of the present study was to explore the influence of early maladaptive schemas on depression severity among a French adult population. One hundred and sixty-two participants (mean age 29 years; SD=13.86) were enrolled, 66 men (mean age 29 years; SD=13.65) and 106 women (mean age 30; SD=14.07). Participants were invited to complete the Young Schema Questionnaire, short version (YSQ-S1-Young 1994) and the Beck depression Inventory, 2nd version (BDI-II-Beck 1994). Fifty-six participants were randomly selected to complete a paper version of the scales, and 95 participants completed an online electronic version. Fifty-two percent of the participants were not depressed, 15% slightly depressed, 17% moderately depressed and 16% met criteria of severe depression. All 15 schemas scores were positively correlated to depression scores. Comparing schema scores and depression severity it can be noted that for severely depressed participants all schema scores were significantly higher, and six of 15 schemas were significantly higher in the case of moderate depression. In addition, three schemas (imperfection, vulnerability, fusional relation) are significantly and positively linked to depression scores, whereas one schema (everything is owed to me) appears to be a significantly negative predictor of associated depression. This study confirms results of previous research concerning the link between early maladaptive schemas and depression. What is more, the results show that the importance of these schemas increases with depression severity. The most

  17. DSD2D-FLS 2010: Bdzil's 2010 DSD Code Base; Computing tb and Dn with Edits to Reduce the Noise in the Dn Field Near HE Boundaries

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bdzil, John Bohdan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-21

    The full level-set function code, DSD3D, is fully described in LA-14336 (2007) [1]. This ASCI-supported, DSD code project was the last such LANL DSD code project that I was involved with before my retirement in 2007. My part in the project was to design and build the core DSD3D solver, which was to include a robust DSD boundary condition treatment. A robust boundary condition treatment was required, since for an important local “customer,” the only description of the explosives’ boundary was through volume fraction data. Given this requirement, the accuracy issues I had encountered with our “fast-tube,” narrowband, DSD2D solver, and the difficulty we had building an efficient MPI-parallel version of the narrowband DSD2D, I decided DSD3D should be built as a full level-set function code, using a totally local DSD boundary condition algorithm for the level-­set function, phi, which did not rely on the gradient of the level-­set function being one, |grad(phi)| = 1. The narrowband DSD2D solver was built on the assumption that |grad(phi)| could be driven to one, and near the boundaries of the explosive this condition was not being satisfied. Since the narrowband is typically no more than10*dx wide, narrowband methods are discrete methods with a fixed, non-­resolvable error, where the error is related to the thickness of the band: the narrower the band the larger the errors. Such a solution represents a discrete approximation to the true solution and does not limit to the solution of the underlying PDEs under grid resolution.The full level-­set function code, DSD3D, is fully described in LA-14336 (2007) [1]. This ASCI-­supported, DSD code project was the last such LANL DSD code project that I was involved with before my retirement in 2007. My part in the project was to design and build the core DSD3D solver, which was to include a robust DSD boundary condition treatment. A robust boundary condition treatment was required, since for an important local

  18. Ensuring Query Compatibility with Evolving XML Schemas

    CERN Document Server

    Genevès, Pierre; Quint, Vincent

    2008-01-01

    During the life cycle of an XML application, both schemas and queries may change from one version to another. Schema evolutions may affect query results and potentially the validity of produced data. Nowadays, a challenge is to assess and accommodate the impact of theses changes in rapidly evolving XML applications. This article proposes a logical framework and tool for verifying forward/backward compatibility issues involving schemas and queries. First, it allows analyzing relations between schemas. Second, it allows XML designers to identify queries that must be reformulated in order to produce the expected results across successive schema versions. Third, it allows examining more precisely the impact of schema changes over queries, therefore facilitating their reformulation.

  19. A narrative review of schemas and schema therapy outcomes in the eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pugh, Matthew

    2015-07-01

    Whilst cognitive-behavioural therapy has demonstrated efficacy in the treatment of eating disorders, therapy outcomes and current conceptualizations still remain inadequate. In light of these shortcomings there has been growing interest in the utility of schema therapy applied to eating pathology. The present article first provides a narrative review of empirical literature exploring schemas and schema processes in eating disorders. Secondly, it critically evaluates outcome studies assessing schema therapy applied to eating disorders. Current evidence lends support to schema-focused conceptualizations of eating pathology and confirms that eating disorders are characterised by pronounced maladaptive schemas. Treatment outcomes also indicate that schema therapy, the schema-mode approach, and associated techniques are promising interventions for complex eating disorders. Implications for clinical practice and future directions for research are discussed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. DsdX is the second D-serine transporter in uropathogenic Escherichia coli clinical isolate CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anfora, Andrew T; Welch, Rodney A

    2006-09-01

    d-Serine is an amino acid present in mammalian urine that is inhibitory to Escherichia coli strains lacking a functional dsdA gene. Counterintuitively, a dsdA strain of E. coli clinical isolate CFT073 hypercolonizes the bladder and kidneys of mice relative to wild type during a coinfection in the murine model of urinary tract infection. We are interested in the mechanisms for uptake of d-serine in CFT073. d-Serine enters E. coli K-12 via CycA, the d-alanine transporter and d-cycloserine sensitivity locus. CFT073 cycA can grow on minimal medium with d-serine as a sole carbon source. The dsdX gene of the dsdCXA locus is a likely candidate for an additional d-serine transporter based on its predicted amino acid sequence similarity to gluconate transporters. In minimal medium, CFT073 dsdX can grow on d-serine as a sole carbon source; however, CFT073 dsdX cycA cannot. Additionally, CFT073 dsdXA cycA is not sensitive to inhibitory concentrations of d-serine during growth on glycerol and d-serine minimal medium. d-[(14)C]serine uptake experiments with CFT073 dsdX cycA harboring dsdX or cycA recombinant plasmids confirm that d-serine is able to enter E. coli cells via CycA or DsdX. In whole-cell d-[(14)C]serine uptake experiments, DsdX has an apparent K(m) of 58.75 microM and a V(max) of 75.96 nmol/min/mg, and CycA has an apparent K(m) of 82.40 microM and a V(max) of 58.90 nmol/min/mg. Only d-threonine marginally inhibits DsdX-mediated d-serine transport, whereas d-alanine, glycine, and d-cycloserine inhibit CycA-mediated d-serine transport. DsdX or CycA is sufficient to transport physiological quantities of d-serine, but DsdX is a d-serine-specific permease.

  1. Bridging Ground Validation and Algorithms: Using Scattering and Integral Tables to Incorporate Observed DSD Correlations into Satellite Algorithms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, C. R.

    2012-12-01

    The NASA Global Precipitation Mission (GPM) raindrop size distribution (DSD) Working Group is composed of NASA PMM Science Team Members and is charged to "investigate the correlations between DSD parameters using Ground Validation (GV) data sets that support, or guide, the assumptions used in satellite retrieval algorithms." Correlations between DSD parameters can be used to constrain the unknowns and reduce the degrees-of-freedom in under-constrained satellite algorithms. Over the past two years, the GPM DSD Working Group has analyzed GV data and has found correlations between the mass-weighted mean raindrop diameter (Dm) and the mass distribution standard deviation (Sm) that follows a power-law relationship. This Dm-Sm power-law relationship appears to be robust and has been observed in surface disdrometer and vertically pointing radar observations. One benefit of a Dm-Sm power-law relationship is that a three parameter DSD can be modeled with just two parameters: Dm and Nw that determines the DSD amplitude. In order to incorporate observed DSD correlations into satellite algorithms, the GPM DSD Working Group is developing scattering and integral tables that can be used by satellite algorithms. Scattering tables describe the interaction of electromagnetic waves on individual particles to generate cross sections of backscattering, extinction, and scattering. Scattering tables are independent of the distribution of particles. Integral tables combine scattering table outputs with DSD parameters and DSD correlations to generate integrated normalized reflectivity, attenuation, scattering, emission, and asymmetry coefficients. Integral tables contain both frequency dependent scattering properties and cloud microphysics. The GPM DSD Working Group has developed scattering tables for raindrops at both Dual Precipitation Radar (DPR) frequencies and at all GMI radiometer frequencies less than 100 GHz. Scattering tables include Mie and T-matrix scattering with H- and V

  2. The Strengths and Problems of Schema Approach to Reading and ESL Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀清

    2015-01-01

    The introduction and development of schema models plays a significant role in second language reading.It has a profound impact on the field.Of course,schema approach has its own aspects that it is good at dealing with. These aspects may have a number of advantages both for students and teachers such as raising awareness of the importance of cultural differences,background knowledge,giving guidelines to students’ learning and teachers’ teaching of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge.By considering the limitations of their application to TESOL,and by evaluating the good points,some directions about second language teaching will be suggested.

  3. The Strengths and Problems of Schema Approach to Reading and ESL Learning and Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾秀清

    2015-01-01

    The introduction and development of schema models plays a significant role in second language reading.It has a profound impact on the field.Of course,schema approach has its own aspects that it is good at dealing with.These aspects may have a number of advantages both for students and teachers such as raising awareness of the importance of cultural differences,background knowledge,giving guidelines to students’ learning and teachers’ teaching of vocabulary and grammatical knowledge.By considering the limitations of their application to TESOL,and by evaluating the good points,some directions about second language teaching will be suggested.

  4. A Summary of Schema Theory Application in Reading——Readers analysis and schema activation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王琰

    2006-01-01

    This paper attempts to discuss some issues in the application of schema theory in reading instruction.It focuses on consideration of the difference of readers,knowledge preparation in the using schema theory in reading instruction and provides some examples of activating readers’schema.

  5. The Applications of Content Schema in English Reading Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黎明珠

    2014-01-01

    Content schema plays significant role in English reading comprehension.This essay aims to expatiate on some classroom activities to provide students with ways to activate their prior content schema and construct their new content schema to facilitate reading comprehension.

  6. How To Check PML/PaGE-OM Schema [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ur XML schema validation, please use standard XML editor commonly used in. How to validate XML schema file P...lease prepare the following software/file. XML Datafile. XML Schema file. standard XML editor. ex. XMLEditor

  7. Long-term survival with diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD): survival to 5 years and further phenotypic characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scottoline, Brian; Rosenthal, Scott; Keisari, Rami; Kirpekar, Rashmi; Angell, Cathy; Wallerstein, Robert

    2012-06-01

    We report on the natural history of diaphanospondylodysostosis (DSD) in the longest known survivor. DSD is a rare form of autosomal recessive vertebral dysotosis recently identified to be caused by a mutation in the BMPER gene. This condition is characterized by absent or severely delayed ossification of vertebral bodies, short broad thorax, short neck, protuberant abdomen, marked respiratory insufficiency, and normal appendicular skeleton. It is one of a number of spinal dysostoses, which are a heterogeneous group of axial skeletal malformations occurring during blastogenesis with continued evolution after birth. Significant medical intervention and at-home support contributed to the long-term survival of our patient. The patient had tracheomalacia, which resulted in respiratory insufficiency with thoracic insufficiency syndrome (TIS). Tracheostomy and vertical expandable prosthetic titanium rib (VEPTR) insertion operations ameliorated his symptoms. In addition, comprehensive physical and occupational therapy was performed due to chronic hypotonia. A consistent feature of all described DSD cases thus far are renal findings of dysplasia, nephrogenic rests or nephroblastomatosis, and/or cysts. The patient's renal cysts were monitored with serial ultrasounds at approximately 6-month intervals. The patient was diagnosed with bilateral renal cysts by ultrasound as a neonate, with eventual diagnosis at approximately 20 months of age with nephroblastoma suggesting this maybe an intrinsic part of DSD. The lack of other cases with nephroblastoma is likely related to the previously reported short period of survival. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  8. Novel associations in disorders of sex development: Findings from the I-DSD registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Cox (Kathryn); J. Bryce (Jillian); J. Jiang (John); M. Rodie (Martina); R. Sinnott (Richard); M. Alkhawari (Mona); W. Arlt (Wiebke); S. Audi (Salma); A. Balsamo (Antonio); S. Bertelloni (Silvano); M.L. Cools (Martine); F. Darendeliler (Feyza); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); M. Ellaithi (Mona); T. Guran (Tulay); O. Hior (Olaf); P-M. Holterhus (Paul-Martin); I. Hughes (Ieuan); B. Krone; E. de Lisa (Elena); Y. Morel (Yves); O. Soder (Olle); P. Wieacker (Peter); S.F. Ahmed (S. Faisal)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the

  9. The dsdA gene from Escherichia coli provides a novel selectable marker for plant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erikson, Oskar; Hertzberg, Magnus; Näsholm, Torgny

    2005-02-01

    Plants are sensitive to D-serine, but functional expression of the dsdA gene, encoding D-serine ammonia lyase, from Escherichia coli can alleviate this toxicity. Plants, in contrast to many other organisms, lack the common pathway for oxidative deamination of D-amino acids. This difference in metabolism has major consequences for plant responses to D-amino acids, since several D-amino acids are toxic to plants even at relatively low concentrations. Therefore, introducing an enzyme specific for a phytotoxic D-amino acid should generate a selectable characteristic that can be screened. Here we present the use of the dsdA gene as a selectable marker for transformation of Arabidopsis. D-serine ammonia lyase catalyses the deamination of D-serine into pyruvate, water and ammonium. dsdA transgenic seedlings can be clearly distinguished from wild type, having an unambiguous phenotype immediately following germination when selected on D-serine containing medium. The dsdA marker allows flexibility in application of the selective agent: it can be applied in sterile plates, in foliar sprays or in liquid culture. Selection with D-serine resistance was compared with selection based on kanamycin resistance, and was found to generate similar transformation frequencies but also to be more unambiguous, more rapid and more versatile with respect to the way the selective agent can be supplied.

  10. Novel associations in disorders of sex development: Findings from the I-DSD registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Cox (Kathryn); J. Bryce (Jillian); J. Jiang (John); M. Rodie (Martina); R. Sinnott (Richard); M. Alkhawari (Mona); W. Arlt (Wiebke); S. Audi (Salma); A. Balsamo (Antonio); S. Bertelloni (Silvano); M.L. Cools (Martine); F. Darendeliler (Feyza); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); M. Ellaithi (Mona); T. Guran (Tulay); O. Hior (Olaf); P-M. Holterhus (Paul-Martin); I. Hughes (Ieuan); B. Krone; E. de Lisa (Elena); Y. Morel (Yves); O. Soder (Olle); P. Wieacker (Peter); S.F. Ahmed (S. Faisal)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the inte

  11. Novel associations in disorders of sex development: Findings from the I-DSD registry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K. Cox (Kathryn); J. Bryce (Jillian); J. Jiang (John); M. Rodie (Martina); R. Sinnott (Richard); M. Alkhawari (Mona); W. Arlt (Wiebke); S. Audi (Salma); A. Balsamo (Antonio); S. Bertelloni (Silvano); M.L. Cools (Martine); F. Darendeliler (Feyza); S.L.S. Drop (Stenvert); M. Ellaithi (Mona); T. Guran (Tulay); O. Hior (Olaf); P-M. Holterhus (Paul-Martin); I. Hughes (Ieuan); B. Krone; E. de Lisa (Elena); Y. Morel (Yves); O. Soder (Olle); P. Wieacker (Peter); S.F. Ahmed (S. Faisal)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractContext: The focus of care in disorders of sex development (DSD) is often directed to issues related to sex and gender development. In addition, the molecular etiology remains unclear in the majority of cases. Objective: To report the range of associated conditions identified in the inte

  12. Promoting Shared Decision Making in Disorders of Sex Development (DSD): Decision Aids and Support Tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siminoff, L A; Sandberg, D E

    2015-05-01

    Specific complaints and grievances from adult patients with disorders of sex development (DSD), and their advocates center around the lack of information or misinformation they were given about their condition and feeling stigmatized and shamed by the secrecy surrounding their condition and its management. Many also attribute poor sexual function to damaging genital surgery and/or repeated, insensitive genital examinations. These reports suggest the need to reconsider the decision-making process for the treatment of children born with DSD. This paper proposes that shared decision making, an important concept in adult health care, be operationalized for the major decisions commonly encountered in DSD care and facilitated through the utilization of decision aids and support tools. This approach may help patients and their families make informed decisions that are better aligned with their personal values and goals. It may also lead to greater confidence in decision making with greater satisfaction and less regret. A brief review of the past and current approach to DSD decision making is provided, along with a review of shared decision making and decision aids and support tools. A case study explores the need and potential utility of this suggested new approach. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. ACTIVATION OF A CRYPTIC D-SERINE DEAMINASE (DSD) GENE FROM PSEUDOMONAS CEPACIA 17616

    Science.gov (United States)

    D-serine inhibits growth of P. cepacia 17616; however, resistant mutants able to express an ordinarily cryptic D-serine deaminase (dsd) gene were isolated readily. The resistant strains formed high levels of a D-serine deaminase active on D-threonine as well as D-serine. IS eleme...

  14. SCHeMA web-based observation data information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novellino, Antonio; Benedetti, Giacomo; D'Angelo, Paolo; Confalonieri, Fabio; Massa, Francesco; Povero, Paolo; Tercier-Waeber, Marie-Louise

    2016-04-01

    It is well recognized that the need of sharing ocean data among non-specialized users is constantly increasing. Initiatives that are built upon international standards will contribute to simplify data processing and dissemination, improve user-accessibility also through web browsers, facilitate the sharing of information across the integrated network of ocean observing systems; and ultimately provide a better understanding of the ocean functioning. The SCHeMA (Integrated in Situ Chemical MApping probe) Project is developing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a wide range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds coupled to master bio-physicochemical parameters (www.schema-ocean.eu). The SCHeMA web system is designed to ensure user-friendly data discovery, access and download as well as interoperability with other projects through a dedicated interface that implements the Global Earth Observation System of Systems - Common Infrastructure (GCI) recommendations and the international Open Geospatial Consortium - Sensor Web Enablement (OGC-SWE) standards. This approach will insure data accessibility in compliance with major European Directives and recommendations. Being modular, the system allows the plug-and-play of commercially available probes as well as new sensor probess under development within the project. The access to the network of monitoring probes is provided via a web-based system interface that, being implemented as a SOS (Sensor Observation Service), is providing standard interoperability and access tosensor observations systems through O&M standard - as well as sensor descriptions - encoded in Sensor Model Language (SensorML). The use of common vocabularies in all metadatabases and data formats, to describe data in an already harmonized and common standard is a prerequisite towards consistency and interoperability. Therefore, the SCHeMA SOS has adopted the SeaVox common vocabularies populated by

  15. Schema Versioning for Multitemporal Relational Databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Castro, Cristina; Grandi, Fabio; Scalas, Maria Rita

    1997-01-01

    Investigates new design options for extended schema versioning support for multitemporal relational databases. Discusses the improved functionalities they may provide. Outlines options and basic motivations for the new design solutions, as well as techniques for the management of proposed schema versioning solutions, includes algorithms and…

  16. Parenting Schemas and the Process of Change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azar, Sandra T.; Nix, Robert L.; Makin-Byrd, Kerry N.

    2005-01-01

    Parents' childrearing behaviors are guided by schemas of the caregiving role, their functioning in that role, what children need in general, and what their own children are like in particular. Sometimes, however, parenting schemas can be maladaptive because they are too rigid or simple, involve inappropriate content, or are dominated by negative…

  17. Implementing XML Schema Naming and Design Rules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lubell, Joshua [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Kulvatunyou, Boonserm [ORNL; Morris, Katherine [National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST); Harvey, Betty [Electronic Commerce Connection, Inc.

    2006-08-01

    We are building a methodology and tool kit for encoding XML schema Naming and Design Rules (NDRs) in a computer-interpretable fashion, enabling automated rule enforcement and improving schema quality. Through our experience implementing rules from various NDR specifications, we discuss some issues and offer practical guidance to organizations grappling with NDR development.

  18. Evidence for a disturbance of the body schema in neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coslett, H B

    1998-08-01

    Subjects with left neglect often fail to use and, in some instances, recognize the left side of the body. We performed a series of investigations to determine if this deficit is, at least in part, attributable to an impairment in the "body schema," an internal three-dimensional, dynamic representation of the spatial and biomechanical properties of one's body. First, subjects were shown a series of pictures of a single hand and asked to determine if the stimulus was a right or left hand. Subjects with neglect but not other subjects with brain lesions identified pictures of left (contra-lesional) hands significantly less reliably than pictures of right hands. On the basis of evidence demonstrating that the identification of pictured hands involves the matching of the stimuli to an on-line mental representation of one's body, these data suggest that neglect may be associated with a disruption of, or failure to attend to, the body schema. Data from subsequent investigations contrasting patients with left neglect and Gerstmann's syndrome argue for a distinction between a body schema and a "body image," or conceptual representation of the body which articulates with language.

  19. Early maladaptive schemas of personality disorder subtypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrocelli, J V; Glaser, B A; Calhoun, G B; Campbell, L F

    2001-12-01

    This investigation attempted to examine the cognitive schemas of five distinct clusters that emerged from a cluster analysis of the personality disorder scales of the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-II (Millon, 1987). Specifically, the degree to which early maladaptive schemas, as measured by the Cognitive Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1994), could correctly identify empirically derived patterns of personality disorders was examined. Between-cluster differences centered on five personality components and five schemas. Discriminant analyses revealed two significant functions composed of cognitive schemas, which correctly identified 61.2% of the entire sample in terms of cluster group membership. The total proportion of variance in the two significant functions associated with cluster group differences was 76.8%. Findings are discussed in relation to the domain theory of personality disorders posited by Millon and Davis (1996).

  20. Otoacoustic emissions, auditory evoked potentials and self-reported gender in people affected by disorders of sex development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Aston, Christopher E; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A; Pasanen, Edward G; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-08-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) - (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46,XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender despite initial rearing as females (men with DSD). Gender identity (GI) and role (GR) were measured both retrospectively and at the time of study participation, using standardized questionnaires. The main objective of this study was to determine if patterns of OAEs and AEPs correlate with gender in people affected by DSD and in controls. A second objective was to assess if OAE and AEP patterns differed according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure across groups. Control males, men with DSD, and women with CAH produced fewer spontaneous OAEs (SOAEs) - the male-typical pattern - than control females and women with CAIS. Additionally, the number of SOAEs produced correlated with gender development across all groups tested. Although some sex differences in AEPs were observed between control males and females, AEP measures did not correlate with gender development, nor did they vary according to degrees of prenatal androgen exposure, among people with DSD. Thus, OAEs, but not AEPs, may prove useful as bioassays for assessing early brain exposure to androgens and predicting gender development in people with DSD.

  1. Metagenome resource for D-serine utilization in a DsdA-disrupted Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Mi Young; Lee, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Pil

    2011-04-01

    To find alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase (E.C. 4.3.1.18, dsdA) mediating the deamination of D-serine into pyruvate, metagenomic libraries were screened. The chromosomal dsdA gene of a wild-type Escherichia coli W3110 strain was disrupted by inserting the tetracycline resistance gene (tet), using double-crossover, for use as a screening host. The W3110 dsdA::tet strain was not able to grow in a medium containing D-serine as a sole carbon source, whereas wild-type W3110 and the complement W3110 dsdA::tet strain containing a dsdA-expression plasmid were able to grow. After introducing metagenome libraries into the screening host, a strain containing a 40-kb DNA fragment obtained from the metagenomic souce derived from a compost was selected based on its capability to grow on the agar plate containing D-serine as a sole carbon source. For identification of the genetic resource responsible for the D-serine degrading capability, transposon- micron was randomly inserted into the 40-kb metagenome. Two strains that had lost their D-serine degrading ability were negatively selected, and the two 6-kb contigs responsible for the D-serine degrading capability were sequenced and deposited (GenBank code: HQ829474.1 and HQ829475.1). Therefore, new alternative genetic resources for D-serine dehydratase was found from the metagenomic resource, and the corresponding ORFs are discussed.

  2. A method for publishing relational schema into DTD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiangZuopeng; WangXiaoling; XuLizhen; DongYisheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper focuses on exporting relational data into extensible markup language (XML). Fixst,the characteristics of both relational schemas represented by E-R diagrams and XML document type definitions (DTDs) are analyzed. Secondly, the corresponding mapping rules are proposed. At last an algorithm based on edge tables is presented.There are two key points in the algorithm. One is that the edge table is used to store the information of the relational dictionary, and this brings about the efficiency of the algorithm. The other is that structural information can be obtained from the resulting DTDs and other applications can optimize their query processes using the structural information.

  3. Perceived Parental Bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Outcome in Schema Therapy of Cluster C Personality Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart Lunding, Synve; Hoffart, Asle

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper was to examine the relationships between perceived parental bonding, Early Maladaptive Schemas (Young et al., 2003), and outcome of schema therapy of Cluster C personality problems and whether the perceptions of parental bonding could be influenced by schema therapy. The sample consisted of 45 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition, Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week inpatient programme consisting of two phases; the first was a 5-week panic/agoraphobia-focused cognitive therapy, whereas the second phase was a personality-focused schema therapy. The patients were assessed at pre-treatment, mid-treatment and post-treatment and at 1-year follow-up. Opposite to our hypothesis, lower paternal care at pre-treatment was related to more reduction in Cluster C personality traits from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up. Maternal protection was related to the schema domains of impaired autonomy and exaggerated standards. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition at pre-treatment were associated with less change in Cluster C traits. Perceived maternal care was reduced from pre-treatment to 1-year follow-up, and more reduction in maternal care was related to less reduction in Cluster C traits. Parental bonding failed to predict treatment outcome in the expected direction, but maternal protection was related to two of the schema domains. Overall schema severity and the particular schema emotional inhibition predicted outcome. Furthermore, perceived maternal care was reduced from before to after treatment. Future studies should examine these questions in larger samples of Cluster C patients receiving schema therapy of a longer duration. Most schemas within the impaired autonomy domain and the schema self-sacrifice seem to be related to low perceived maternal protection. Overall schema severity and the schema emotional inhibition

  4. Discrete mathematics, formal methods, the Z schema and the software life cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bown, Rodney L.

    1991-01-01

    The proper role and scope for the use of discrete mathematics and formal methods in support of engineering the security and integrity of components within deployed computer systems are discussed. It is proposed that the Z schema can be used as the specification language to capture the precise definition of system and component interfaces. This can be accomplished with an object oriented development paradigm.

  5. Characterizing Thematized Derivative Schema by the Underlying Emergent Structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia, Mercedes; Llinares, Salvador; Sanchez-Matamoros, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports on different underlying structures of the derivative schema of three undergraduate students that were considered to be at the trans level of development of the derivative schema (action-process-object-schema). The derivative schema is characterized in terms of the students' ability to explicitly transfer the relationship between…

  6. DsdA (D-serine deaminase): a new heterologous MX cassette for gene disruption and selection in Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vorachek-Warren, Mara K; McCusker, John H

    2004-01-30

    Dominant drug resistance markers offer experimental flexibility in the study of Saccharomyces cerevisiae by eliminating the dependence on auxotrophic mutations and, because they are phenotypically neutral, avoid the deleterious effects of auxotrophic mutations. We have developed a new dominant resistance marker, dsdAMX4, for use in the genetic manipulation of S. cerevisiae. The dsdA gene, which is derived from Escherichia coli and encodes a D-serine deaminase, confers to S. cerevisiae resistance to D-serine and the ability to use D-serine as a nitrogen source. Here we describe the construction of a dsdAMX4 cassette, capable of expression in S. cerevisiae, and the characterization of this new marker for use in chromosomal gene disruption. The unique selection properties of the dsdAMX4 cassette make it an important addition to the existing array of S. cerevisiae genetic tools. Copyright 2004 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  7. Chemical markup, XML, and the World Wide Web. 4. CML schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray-Rust, Peter; Rzepa, Henry S

    2003-01-01

    A revision to Chemical Markup Language (CML) is presented as a XML Schema compliant form, modularized into nonchemical and chemical components. STMML contains generic concepts for numeric data and scientific units, while CMLCore retains most of the chemical functionality of the original CML 1.0 and extends it by adding handlers for chemical substances, extended bonding models and names. We propose extension via new namespaced components for chemical queries, reactions, spectra, and computational chemistry. The conformance with XML schemas allows much greater control over datatyping, document validation, and structure.

  8. Otoacoustic Emissions, Auditory Evoked Potentials and Self-Reported Gender in People Affected by Disorders of Sex Development (DSD)

    OpenAIRE

    Wisniewski, Amy B.; Espinoza-Varas, Blas; Christopher E Aston; Edmundson, Shelagh; Champlin, Craig A.; Pasanen, Edward G.; McFadden, Dennis

    2014-01-01

    Both otoacoustic emissions (OAEs) and auditory evoked potentials (AEPs) are sexually dimorphic, and both are believed to be influenced by prenatal androgen exposure. OAEs and AEPs were collected from people affected by 1 of 3 categories of disorders of sex development (DSD) – (1) women with complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS); (2) women with congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH); and (3) individuals with 46, XY DSD including prenatal androgen exposure who developed a male gender de...

  9. Metadata Schema Used in OCLC Sampled Web Pages

    OpenAIRE

    Fei Yu

    2005-01-01

    The tremendous growth of Web resources has made information organization and retrieval more and more difficult. As one approach to this problem, metadata schemas have been developed to characterize Web resources. However, many questions have been raised about the use of metadata schemas such as which metadata schemas have been used on the Web? How did they describe Web accessible information? What is the distribution of these metadata schemas among Web pages? Do certain schemas dominate the o...

  10. HTML5 Microdata and Schema.org

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Ronallo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available On June 2, 2011, Bing, Google, and Yahoo! announced the joint effort Schema.org. When the big search engines talk, Web site authors listen. This article is an introduction to Microdata and Schema.org. The first section describes what HTML5, Microdata and Schema.org are, and the problems they have been designed to solve. With this foundation in place section 2 provides a practical tutorial of how to use Microdata and Schema.org using a real life example from the cultural heritage sector. Along the way some tools for implementers will also be introduced. Issues with applying these technologies to cultural heritage materials will crop up along with opportunities to improve the situation.

  11. Gender Development in 46,XY DSD: Influences of Chromosomes, Hormones, and Interactions with Parents and Healthcare Professionals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wisniewski, Amy B

    2012-01-01

    Variables that impact gender development in humans are difficult to evaluate. This difficulty exists because it is not usually possible to tease apart biological influences on gender from social variables. People with disorders of sex development, or DSD, provide important opportunities to study gender within individuals for whom biologic components of sex can be discordant with social components of gender. While most studies of gender development in people with 46,XY DSD have historically emphasized the importance of genes and hormones on gender identity and gender role, more recent evidence for a significant role for socialization exists and is considered here. For example, the influence of parents' perceptions of, and reactions to, DSD are considered. Additionally, the impact of treatments for DSD such as receiving gonadal surgeries or genitoplasty to reduce genital ambiguity on the psychological development of people with 46,XY DSD is presented. Finally, the role of multi-disciplinary care including access to peer support for advancing medical, surgical and psychosexual outcomes of children and adults with 46,XY DSD, regardless of sex of rearing, is discussed.

  12. Gender Development in 46,XY DSD: Influences of Chromosomes, Hormones, and Interactions with Parents and Healthcare Professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amy B. Wisniewski

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Variables that impact gender development in humans are difficult to evaluate. This difficulty exists because it is not usually possible to tease apart biological influences on gender from social variables. People with disorders of sex development, or DSD, provide important opportunities to study gender within individuals for whom biologic components of sex can be discordant with social components of gender. While most studies of gender development in people with 46,XY DSD have historically emphasized the importance of genes and hormones on gender identity and gender role, more recent evidence for a significant role for socialization exists and is considered here. For example, the influence of parents’ perceptions of, and reactions to, DSD are considered. Additionally, the impact of treatments for DSD such as receiving gonadal surgeries or genitoplasty to reduce genital ambiguity on the psychological development of people with 46,XY DSD is presented. Finally, the role of multi-disciplinary care including access to peer support for advancing medical, surgical and psychosexual outcomes of children and adults with 46,XY DSD, regardless of sex of rearing, is discussed.

  13. Can the external masculinization score predict the success of genetic testing in 46,XY DSD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruthie Su

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Genetic testing is judiciously applied to individuals with Disorders of Sex Development (DSD and so it is necessary to identify those most likely to benefit from such testing. We hypothesized that the external masculinization score (EMS is inversely associated with the likelihood of finding a pathogenic genetic variant. Patients with 46,XY DSD from a single institution evaluated from 1994-2014 were included. Results of advanced cytogenetic and gene sequencing tests were recorded. An EMS score (range 0-12 was assigned to each patient according to the team's initial external genitalia physical examination. During 1994-2011, 44 (40% patients with 46,XY DSD were evaluated and underwent genetic testing beyond initial karyotype; 23% (10/44 had a genetic diagnosis made by gene sequencing or array. The median EMS score of those with an identified pathogenic variant was significantly different from those in whom no confirmed genetic cause was identified [median 3 (95% CI, 2-6 versus 6 (95% CI, 5-7, respectively (p = 0.02], but limited to diagnoses of complete or partial androgen insensitivity (8/10 or 5-reductase deficiency (2/10. In the modern cohort (2012-2014, the difference in median EMS in whom a genetic cause was or was not identified approached significance (p = 0.05, median 3 (95% CI, 0-7 versus 7 (95% CI, 6-9, respectively. When all patients from 1994-2014 are pooled, the EMS is significantly different amongst those with compared to those without a genetic cause (median EMS 3 vs. 6, p < 0.02. We conclude that an EMS of 3 or less may indicate a higher likelihood of identifying a genetic cause of 46,XY DSD and justify genetic screening, especially when androgen insensitivity is suspected.

  14. Schema Evolution for Persistent Object-Oriented Software: Model, Empirical Study, and Automated Support

    CERN Document Server

    Piccioni, Marco; Meyer, Bertrand

    2011-01-01

    With the wide support for object serialization in object-oriented programming languages, persistent objects have become common place and most large object-oriented software systems rely on extensive amounts of persistent data. Such systems also evolve over time. Retrieving previously persisted objects from classes whose schema has changed is however difficult, and may lead to invalidating the consistency of the application. The ESCHER framework addresses this issues through an IDE-integrated approach that handles schema evolution by managing versions of the code and generating transformation functions automatically. The infrastructure also enforces class invariants to prevent the introduction of any corrupt objects. This article describes the principles behind invariant-safe schema evolution, and the design and implementation of the ESCHER system.

  15. Determining Women’s Sexual Self-Schemas Through Advanced Computerized Text Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanton, Amelia M.; Boyd, Ryan L.; Pulverman, Carey S.; Meston, Cindy M.

    2015-01-01

    The meaning extraction method (MEM), an advanced computerized text analysis technique, was used to analyze women’s sexual self-schemas. Participants (n = 239) completed open-ended essays about their personal feelings associated with sex and sexuality. These essays were analyzed using the MEM, a procedure designed to extract common themes from natural language. Using the MEM procedure, we extracted seven unique themes germane to sexual self-schemas: family and development, virginity, abuse, relationship, sexual activity, attraction, and existentialism. Each of these themes is comprised of frequently used words across the participants’ descriptions of their sexual selves. Significant differences in sexual self-schemas were observed to covary with age, relationship status, and sexual abuse history. PMID:26146161

  16. A rare case report on ovotesticular disorders of sex development (DSD 46XY variant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sujata Swain

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ovotestis refers to the histology of a gonad that contains both ovarian follicles and testicular tubular elements. Ovotesticular DSD is a rare condition characterized by mixed ovarian and testicular tissue. Majority have a 46,XX karyotype, 7% have 46,XY karyotype and 10-40% exhibit chromosomal mosaicism. Here, we report the case of a boy with a 46,XY karyotype diagnosed as ovotesticular DSD by gonadal biopsy. A 14 year-old reared as boy presented with came with ambiguous genitalia with no palpable gonads since birth and developed progressive virilization and gynaecomastia at puberty having curved phallus with glans, redundant prepucial skin, labia majora and hypoplastic labia minora, rudimentary vagina with small introitus was present. External urethral meatus present lower down the vestibular area above the introitus. Testicles not felt. USG - revealed definite uterus behind Urinary bladder with small intraabdominal testes. Karyotyping - 46XY Barr body present. Diagnostic laparoscopy showed Uterus with bilateral fallopian tubes. Bilateral gonadectomy done. Histopathologic examination report revealed bilateral gonadoblastoma in testis and ovotestis. Patient underwent transperitoneal excision of Mullerian remnants. Patient was discharged with an advice of cap testosterone undecanoate and regular follow up. We highlight the importance of histological and cytogenetic investigation in DSD. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(4.000: 1163-1166

  17. Sex Chromosome Mosaicism in the Gonads of DSD Patients: A Karyotype/Phenotype Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamel, Alaa K; Abd El-Ghany, Hoda M; Mekkawy, Mona K; Makhlouf, Manal M; Mazen, Inas M; El Dessouky, Nabil; Mahmoud, Wael; Abd El Kader, Shereen A

    2015-01-01

    Sex chromosome mosaicism results in a large clinical spectrum of disorders of sexual development (DSD). The percentage of 45,X cells in the developing gonad plays a major role in sex determination. However, few reports on the gonadal mosaic status have been published, and the phenotype is usually correlated with peripheral lymphocyte karyotypes, which makes the phenotype prediction imprecise. This study was conducted on 7 Egyptian DSD patients to demonstrate the effect of sex chromosome constitution of both blood lymphocytes and gonadal tissues on the phenotypic manifestations. Conventional cytogenetic and FISH analyses of blood lymphocytes were conducted, and laparoscopy with gonadal biopsy was performed for histopathologic examination and FISH analysis. Gonosomal mosaicism was detected in 3 patients who had a non-mosaic chromosome pattern in blood lymphocytes. Two patients showed the same type of sex chromosome mosaicism in both the blood and gonadal tissues but with different distributions. Two other patients revealed a non-mosaic pattern in both tissues. The present study elucidates the importance of examining sex chromosome mosaicism in gonadal tissues of DSD patients and highlights the critical role of 45,X mosaicism which can lead to serious effects during early gonadal organogenesis.

  18. Surgical options in disorders of sex development (dsd) with ambiguous genitalia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidal, Isabelle; Gorduza, Daniela Brindusa; Haraux, Elodie; Gay, Claire-Lise; Chatelain, Pierre; Nicolino, Marc; Mure, Pierre-Yves; Mouriquand, Pierre

    2010-04-01

    Disorders of sexual development (DSD) include three main groups of patients: (1) The virilised 46,XX DSD essentially represented by congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) ; (2) The undervirilised 46,XY DSD essentially represented by hypospadias; and (3) the chromosomic jigsaws essentially represented by mixed gonadal dysgenesis. It is in this last group that gender assignment remains a difficult decision involving various indicators, which can be split into four categories: (1) the inside sex (i.e., genes, hormones and target tissues); (2) the outside sex (i.e., anatomy of genitalia including size of the genital tubercle, mullerian cavity and potential adult height of the patient); (3) the functional sex (i.e., potential sexuality and fertility); and (4) and the social sex (i.e., the cultural medium in which the child is brought up). The challenge is to outline the future individual identity of the child in the postnatal period using these indicators. Current evolutions of surgical techniques of 'feminisation' and 'masculinisation' are described as well as their outcomes.

  19. Extracting Schema from an OEM Database

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沈一栋

    1998-01-01

    While the schema-less feature of the OEM(Object Exchange Modl)gives flexibility in representing semi-structured data,it brings difficulty in formulating database queries. Extracting schema from an OEM database then becomes an important research topic.This paper presents a new approach to this topic with th following reatures.(1)In addition to representing th nested label structure of an OEM database,the proposed OEM schema keeps up-tp-date information about instance objects of the database,The object-level information is useful in speeding up query evaluation.(2)The OEM schema is explicitly represented as a label-set,which is easy to construct and update.(3)The OEM schema of a database is statically built and dynamically updated.The time complexity of building the OEM schems is linear in the size of the OEM database.(4)The approach is applicable to a wide range of areas where the underlying schema is much smaller than the database itself(e.g.data warehouses that are made from a set of heterogeneous databases).

  20. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (I

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this essay we aim to investigate knowledge as approach of describing possible worlds through classification schema, taxonomies, ontologies and semantic web. We focus on the historical background and the methods of culture and civilization representation. In this regard, we studied the ancient concern to classify knowledge, from the biblical period when the Tree Metaphor concentrated the essence of knowledge, to the Francis Bacon classification and then Paul Otlet and we analysed the languages used in the scientific fields and then in the information science filed, emphasizing on the improvements of the ICT: hypertext and semantic web. We paid a special attention to the knowledge construction through math language and exchange standards. The reason of the approach comes from the logic and philosophic base of the knowledge representation that underline the idea that only properly structured scientific domains ensure the progress of the society.

  1. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. Materials and Methods: This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = 8). Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients’ maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. Results: There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. Conclusions: This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms. PMID:28217649

  2. Effects of the Schema Therapy and Mindfulness on the Maladaptive Schemas Hold by the Psoriasis Patients with the Psychopathology Symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gojani, Parvin Jamali; Masjedi, Mohsen; Khaleghipour, Shahnaz; Behzadi, Ehsan

    2017-01-01

    This study aimed to compare the effects of the schema along with mindfulness-based therapies in the psoriasis patients. This semi-experimental study with post- and pre-tests was conducted on the psoriasis patients in the Dermatology Clinic of the Isfahan Alzahra Hospital, Iran using the convenience sampling in 2014. The patients had a low general health score. The experimental groups included two treatment groups of schema-based (n = 8) and mindfulness (n = 8). Both groups received eight 90-min sessions therapy once a week; they were compared with 8 patients in the control group. To evaluate the psoriasis patients' maladaptive schema, Young schema questionnaire was used. Data were analyzed through the covariance analysis test. There was a significant difference between the schema-based therapy and mindfulness groups with the control group. There was also a significant difference between the schema-based therapy groups consisting of the defeated schema, dependence/incompetence schema, devotion schema, stubbornly criteria schema, merit schema, restraint/inadequate self-discipline schema, and the control group. Moreover, a significant difference existed between the maladaptive schema of mindfulness therapy group and the controls. There was a significant difference concerning the improvement of the psychopathologic symptoms between the mindfulness therapy group and the control group. This study showed similar effects of both the schema and mindfulness-based therapies on the maladaptive schemas in improving the psoriasis patients with the psychopathologic symptoms.

  3. ["Defeated by Life" - Validation of a German Version of the Defeat Scale (DS-d)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forkmann, Thomas; Stenzel, Jana-Sophie; Rath, Dajana; Glaesmer, Heide; Teismann, Tobias

    2017-06-29

    Introduction Defeat and entrapment are transdiagnostic constructs that play an important role in the development of depression, anxiety, suicidality and trauma-associated mental disorders. The present study aimed at presenting and validating a first German version of the Defeat-Scale (DS-d). Material and methods Through a web-based survey, N=480 participants were recruited (74% female; MAge=28.5, SDAge=11.1, Range: 18-80 years); 14.2% reported to currently suffer from a mental disorder, 8.5% reported at least one lifetime suicide attempt. All participants filled in the DS-d, the Entrapment Scale, the Rasch-based Depression Screening, the Depressive Symptoms Inventory - Suicidality Subscale, the Suicidal Behavior Questionnaire-Revised, the Childhood Trauma Screener, and the questionnaire Generalized Anxiety Disorders 2. Factorial validity was investigated through a unidimensional confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). Moreover, internal consistency, convergent validity (correlations with the other measured constructs) and criterion validity (suicidality) were examined. Results One residual correlation between 2 items that are inversely coded had to be allowed to reach a satisfying fit to the unidimensional model (RMSEA=0.077, TLI=0.94, NFI=0.93, CFI=0.95; item loadings>0.56). The DS-d-sumscore correlated highly with depression (r=0.87), Entrapment (r=0.83) and suicidality (r=0.70), and moderately with the other constructs. Participants with suicidal thoughts or behavior in the past showed higher DS-d-scores than participants without suicidality. Discussion The unidimensional structure of the English version could be confirmed in the DS-d - after allowing for a residual correlation between two inversely coded items. Correlations with the other measured constructs give support for the validity of the DS-d. Criterion validity of the instrument is supported by its relations to suicidality. It remains open whether defeat and entrapment are 2 distinct constructs. In the

  4. Cognitive schemas among mental health professionals: Adaptive or maladaptive?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo Saddichha

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Maladaptive cognitive schemas can lead to biases during clinical assessment or psychotherapeutic interventions. This study aimed to explore the cognitive schemas among mental health professionals. Materials and Methods: 100 mental health professionals, of both genders, equally divided between psychiatrists, psychologists, social workers, and psychiatric nurses, were approached and administered the Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form after written informed consent. Results: Males had higher maladaptive schemas than female respondents across all schema domains, viz., disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy, impaired limits, other-directedness, and overvigilance (P ≤ 0.05. Psychiatrists had higher maladaptive schemas than psychologists (P ≤ 0.05. Age was weakly but positively corelated with the schemas of self-sacrifice (P = 0.038 and unrelenting standards (P = 0.002 . Conclusions: Mental health professionals also may have maladaptive schemas, which needs to be addressed through schema therapy.

  5. Early maladaptive schemas in children: development and validation of the schema inventory for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Rijkeboer; G.M. de Boo

    2010-01-01

    A Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) was developed, based on Young’s schema model. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a non-clinical multi-ethnic sample of children, aged 8-13 years. The latent structure of the SIC was explored using a cross-validation design. Confirmatory factor anal

  6. Defining the XML schema matching problem for a personal schema based query answering system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smiljanic, Marko; Keulen, van Maurice; Jonker, Willem

    2004-01-01

    In this report, we analyze the problem of personal schema matching. We define the ingredients of the XML schema matching problem using constraint logic programming. This allows us to thourougly investigate specific matching problems. We do not have the ambition to provide for a formalism that covers

  7. SchemaOnRead: A Package for Schema-on-Read in R

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    North, Michael J.

    2016-08-01

    Schema-on-read is an agile approach to data storage and retrieval that defers investments in data organization until production queries need to be run by working with data directly in native form. Schema-on-read functions have been implemented in a wide range of analytical systems, most notably Hadoop. SchemaOnRead is a CRAN package that uses R’s flexible data representations to provide transparent and convenient support for the schema-on-read paradigm in R. The schema-on- read tools within the package include a single function call that recursively reads folders with text, comma separated value, raster image, R data, HDF5, NetCDF, spreadsheet, Weka, Epi Info, Pajek network, R network, HTML, SPSS, Systat, and Stata files. The provided tools can be used as-is or easily adapted to implement customized schema-on-read tool chains in R. This paper’s contribution is that it introduces and describes SchemaOnRead, the first R package specifically focused on providing explicit schema-on-read support in R.

  8. Early maladaptive schemas in children: development and validation of the schema inventory for children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rijkeboer, M.; de Boo, G.M.

    2010-01-01

    A Schema Inventory for Children (SIC) was developed, based on Young’s schema model. Its psychometric properties were investigated in a non-clinical multi-ethnic sample of children, aged 8-13 years. The latent structure of the SIC was explored using a cross-validation design. Confirmatory factor

  9. Gender identity shows a high correlation with Prader score in patients with disorders of sex development (DSD) presenting in mid childhood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Tanvir K; Chowdhury, Md Zonaid; Mili, Fahmida; Hutson, John M; Banu, Tahmina

    2014-05-01

    In developing countries like Bangladesh, delayed presentation for disorders of sex development (DSD) is common, and provides some special problems for management. There remains significant controversy about appropriate sex assignment in this group. We aimed, therefore, to assess gender identity (GI) in 50 consecutive patients with DSD presenting to a referral centre in Chittagong, Bangladesh, and correlate it with Prader score, to see if the latter could be used to predict GI. A cross-sectional, case-control study of 50 consecutive children with DSD and 50 children with vascular anomalies was conducted in the Pediatric Surgical Clinic, Chittagong Medical College and Hospital. After informed consent, patients and controls provided oral answers to a GI questionnaire and had a detailed history and physical examination. Sex-typed activities were assessed by observations of a structured toy play and the child's selection of a toy to keep. Both patients and parents then completed the Child Game Participation Questionnaire. There were no differences in age (2-16 years, mean 8.74) between controls and DSD patients (11 46, XX DSD, 32 46, XY DSD, 4 MGD, 3 ovo-testicular DSD). Fifteen of the DSD patients (30 %) came from consanguineous marriages and only 2 of the control patients had consanguinity of their parents. For the 13-question GI interview, there was no overall difference between DSD cases and controls. For the 46, XX DSD subgroup, there was a significantly higher score (11.1 ± 7.1) compared with control girls (4.5 ± 4.7) (p gender-related behaviour correlated with Prader score for DSD patients (r = 0.61) (p gender-role behaviour should be assessed routinely in DSD patients presenting after the neonatal period, so that sex assignment is in accordance with behaviour. Prader scores showed a good correlation with GI and gender role behaviour.

  10. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance

    OpenAIRE

    Yanmei eLi; Rui eWang; Zongliang eHu; Hongcai eLi; Shizhan eLu; Juanjuan eZhang; Yongjun eLin; Fei eZhou

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherite...

  11. Early maladaptive schemas in personality disordered individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jovev, Martina; Jackson, Henry J

    2004-10-01

    The present study aimed to examine the specificity of schema domains in three personality disorder (PD) groups, namely borderline (BPD), obsessive-compulsive (OCPD), and avoidant PD (AvPD), and to correctly identify the three PD groups on the basis of these schemas. The sample consisted of 48 clinical participants diagnosed with PDs and assigned to 1 of 3 groups on the basis of their Axis II diagnoses (BPD: n = 13; OCPD: n = 13; AvPD: n = 22). High scores on Dependence/Incompetence, Defectiveness/ Shame and Abandonment were found for the BPD group. Such pattern appears to be most consistent with Young's theory of BPD. Consistent with the theory and empirical findings of Beck et al. (1990, 2001), OCPD was associated with elevations on the Unrelenting Standards schema domain, but not on Emotional Inhibition, which was found to be elevated for AvPD. In conclusion, the present study suggests that there are different patterns of schema domains across different PDs and that the Schema Questionnaire (SQ) is potentially useful in differentiating between these PDs.

  12. [Effect of schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety and maladaptive cognitive schemas in the elderly].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kindynis, S; Burlacu, S; Louville, P; Limosin, F

    2013-12-01

    Depression is one of the most frequent mental disorders in older people, known to increase rates of disability and mortality. Depression in late life, commonly accompanied by multiple medical illnesses, reduces quality of life and is a strong risk factor for suicide. Despite its clinical significance, depression remains underdiagnosed and inadequately treated in older patients. Cognitive-behavioural psychotherapies have the most empirical support in treating late-life depression, and are recommended by numerous guidelines in this indication. Group interventions are also recommended for older adults because they offer peer support, mitigate social isolation, encourage shared empathy and provide a context for peer feedback help from the group. Previous studies have shown that maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of depression and anxiety in older people, either as risk factors or as vulnerability markers, but there are no studies that have examined the effectiveness of schema-focused therapy to improve depression in late life. The main goals of the present study were to explore the relationship of maladaptive schemas with depression and anxiety severity in aged inpatients, and to evaluate the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioural individual and group treatment program that includes schema-focused therapy on depression, anxiety, and cognitive schemas activation. The sample consisted of aged depressed inpatients (n=51) treated in a psychiatric unit. Participants completed measures of depression (Geriatric Depression Scale [GDS]) and anxiety (State-Trait Anxiety Inventory [STAI]) severity and maladaptive schemas (Cognitive Inventory of Subjective Distress [CISD]) at pre- and post-intervention (mean hospital stay: 4weeks). The maladaptive schemas Loss of Individuality, Refusal of Assistance and Vulnerability are more activated in our sample of depressed subjects with regard to the reference population. Most of specific maladaptive

  13. The Use of Various Schemas to Assist Science Teaching and Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodwin, Alan; Orlik, Yuri

    2000-01-01

    Reports the use of different types of schemes to teach and learn science subjects. Identifies three different schemas: (1) curricula schemas; (2) schemas of educational content; and (3) algorithmic schemas. (Author/CCM)

  14. Schema therapy for borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellogg, Scott H; Young, Jeffrey E

    2006-04-01

    This article presents the Schema Therapy (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003) approach to the treatment of borderline personality disorder. Schema therapy draws on the cognitive-behavioral, attachment, psychodynamic, and emotion-focused traditions and conceptualizes patients who have borderline personality disorder as being under the sway of five modes or aspects of the self. The goal of the therapy is to reorganize this inner structure. To this end, there are four core mechanisms of change that are used in this therapy: (1) limited reparenting, (2) experiential imagery and dialogue work, (3) cognitive restructuring and education, and (4) behavioral pattern breaking. These interventions are used during the three phases of treatment: (1) bonding and emotional regulation, (2) schema mode change, and (3) development of autonomy.

  15. The Role of Schema Matching in Large Enterprises

    CERN Document Server

    Smith, Ken; Mork, Peter; Li, Maya; Rosenthal, Arnon; Allen, David; Seligman, Len; Wolf, Chris

    2009-01-01

    To date, the principal use case for schema matching research has been as a precursor for code generation, i.e., constructing mappings between schema elements with the end goal of data transfer. In this paper, we argue that schema matching plays valuable roles independent of mapping construction, especially as schemata grow to industrial scales. Specifically, in large enterprises human decision makers and planners are often the immediate consumer of information derived from schema matchers, instead of schema mapping tools. We list a set of real application areas illustrating this role for schema matching, and then present our experiences tackling a customer problem in one of these areas. We describe the matcher used, where the tool was effective, where it fell short, and our lessons learned about how well current schema matching technology is suited for use in large enterprises. Finally, we suggest a new agenda for schema matching research based on these experiences.

  16. Bartlett's concept of schema in reconstruction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wagoner, Brady

    2013-01-01

    an activity of “turning around upon schemata,” humans can create ruptures in their seamless flow of activity in an environment and take active control over mind and behavior. This paper contextualizes Bartlett’s concept of schema within broader theoretical developments of his time, examines its temporal......The concept of schema was advanced by Frederic Bartlett to provide the basis for a radical temporal alternative to traditional spatial storage theories of memory. Bartlett took remembering out of the head and situated it at the enfolding relation between organism and environment. Through......, dynamic, temporal, holistic, and social concept....

  17. Extensions to DSD theory: Analysis of PBX 9502 rate stick data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aslam, T.D.; Bdzil, J.B.; Hill, L.G.

    1998-12-31

    Recent extensions to DSD theory and modeling argue that the intrinsic front propagation law can depend on variables in addition to the total shock-front curvature. Here the authors outline this work and present results of high-resolution numerical simulations of 2D detonation that verify the theory on some points, but disagree with it on others. Chief among these is the verification of the extended propagation laws and the observation that the curvature is infinite at the HE boundary. The authors discuss how these results impact the analysis of PBX 9502.

  18. Notes on the ExactPack Implementation of the DSD Explosive Arc Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Doebling, Scott William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-12

    It has been shown above that the discretization scheme implemented in the ExactPack solver for the DSD Explosive Arc equation is consistent with the Explosive Arc PDE. In addition, a stability analysis has provided a CFL condition for a stable time step. Together, consistency and stability imply convergence of the scheme, which is expected to be close to first-order in time and second-order in space. It is understood that the nonlinearity of the underlying PDE will affect this rate somewhat.

  19. The Effectiveness of Emotional Schema Therapy on Emotional Schemas of Female Victims of Child Abuse and Neglect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Daneshmandi

    2014-12-01

    Conclusion: The study findings proposed that Emotional Schema Therapy can be regarded as an effective intervention in order to modify some dimensions of emotional schemas in women with child abuse and neglect history.

  20. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Keulen-de Vos; D.P. Bernstein; A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  1. The Restructuring of Family Schemas: A Cognitive-Behavior Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dattilio, Frank M.

    2005-01-01

    Cognitive-behavior therapists define schemas as cognitive structures that organize thought and perception. Schemas are also viewed as having an integral influence on emotion and behavior. In this article, I examine the role of schema in family conflict and the specific interventions used in restructuring them during the course of family therapy.…

  2. Mental schemas hamper memory storage of goal-irrelevant information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sweegers, C.C.G.; Coleman, G.A.; van Poppel, E.A.M.; Cox, R.; Talamini, L.M.

    2015-01-01

    Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing, for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low momen

  3. Schema therapy for aggressive offenders with personality disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keulen-de Vos, M.; Bernstein, D.P.; Arntz, A.; Tafrate, R.C.; Mitchell, D.

    2014-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) is increasingly used in personality-disordered (PD) patients. ST is an integrative psychotherapy that blends elements of cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic and experiential approaches. The key concepts in ST are early maladaptive schemas, (dysfunctional) coping styles and schema

  4. dsdA Does Not Affect Colonization of the Murine Urinary Tract by Escherichia coli CFT073.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hryckowian, Andrew J; Baisa, Gary A; Schwartz, Kevin J; Welch, Rodney A

    2015-01-01

    The urinary tract environment provides many conditions that deter colonization by microorganisms. D-serine is thought to be one of these stressors and is present at high concentrations in urine. D-serine interferes with L-serine and pantothenate metabolism and is bacteriostatic to many species. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli commonly possess the dsdCXA genetic locus, which allows them to use D-serine as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. It was previously reported that in the model UPEC strain CFT073, a dsdA mutant outcompetes wild type in the murine model of urinary tract infection. This "hypercolonization" was used to propose a model whereby UPEC strains sense D-serine in the urinary tract and subsequently up-regulate genes necessary for pathogenesis. Here, we show that inactivation of dsdA does not lead to hypercolonization. We suggest that this previously observed effect is due to an unrecognized secondary mutation in rpoS and that some D-serine specific effects described in other studies may be affected by the rpoS status of the strains used. Inactivation of dsdA in the original clinical isolate of CFT073 gives CFT073 ΔdsdA a growth defect in human urine and renders it unable to grow on minimal medium containing D-serine as the sole carbon source. However, CFT073 ΔdsdA is able to colonize the urinary tracts of CBA/J mice indistinguishably from wild type. These findings indicate that D-serine catabolism, though it may play role(s) during urinary tract infection, does not affect the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to colonize the murine urinary tract.

  5. dsdA Does Not Affect Colonization of the Murine Urinary Tract by Escherichia coli CFT073.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew J Hryckowian

    Full Text Available The urinary tract environment provides many conditions that deter colonization by microorganisms. D-serine is thought to be one of these stressors and is present at high concentrations in urine. D-serine interferes with L-serine and pantothenate metabolism and is bacteriostatic to many species. Uropathogenic Escherichia coli commonly possess the dsdCXA genetic locus, which allows them to use D-serine as a sole carbon, nitrogen, and energy source. It was previously reported that in the model UPEC strain CFT073, a dsdA mutant outcompetes wild type in the murine model of urinary tract infection. This "hypercolonization" was used to propose a model whereby UPEC strains sense D-serine in the urinary tract and subsequently up-regulate genes necessary for pathogenesis. Here, we show that inactivation of dsdA does not lead to hypercolonization. We suggest that this previously observed effect is due to an unrecognized secondary mutation in rpoS and that some D-serine specific effects described in other studies may be affected by the rpoS status of the strains used. Inactivation of dsdA in the original clinical isolate of CFT073 gives CFT073 ΔdsdA a growth defect in human urine and renders it unable to grow on minimal medium containing D-serine as the sole carbon source. However, CFT073 ΔdsdA is able to colonize the urinary tracts of CBA/J mice indistinguishably from wild type. These findings indicate that D-serine catabolism, though it may play role(s during urinary tract infection, does not affect the ability of uropathogenic E. coli to colonize the murine urinary tract.

  6. Subjective need for psychological support (PsySupp) in parents of children and adolescents with disorders of sex development (dsd).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennecke, Elena; Werner-Rosen, Knut; Thyen, Ute; Kleinemeier, Eva; Lux, Anke; Jürgensen, Martina; Grüters, Annette; Köhler, Birgit

    2015-10-01

    Disorders/diversity of sex development (dsd) is an umbrella term for congenital conditions often diagnosed within childhood. As most parents are unprepared for this situation, psychological support (PsySupp) is recommended. The aim of this study was to analyse the extent to which parents express a need for PsySupp. Three hundred twenty-nine parents of children with dsd were included; 40.4 % of the parents indicated to have a need for PsySupp, only 50 % of this group received it adequately. The diagnoses partial gonadal dysgenesis, partial androgen insensitivity syndrome (pAIS) and disorders of androgen synthesis are associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents (54, 65, and 50 %). Sex assignment surgery neither reduced nor increased the need for PsySupp. Taking a picture, radiography, laparoscopy, gonadal biopsy, gonadectomy and hormonal puberty induction are associated with a high need for PsySupp. There was no association between the need for PsySupp and the parents' perception of the appearance of the genitalia. Having a child with dsd is associated with a high need for PsySupp in parents. In particular, parents of children with XY-dsd with androgen effects other than hypospadias expressed a high need of PsySupp. PsySupp for parents should be an obligatory part of interdisciplinary care to reduce fears and concerns. What is known • In parents, having a child with dsd provokes insecurities and fears. Hence, psychological support is recommended as part of the interdisciplinary care. What is new • This is the first study investigating the subjective need for psychological support in a large sample of parents of children with dsd in Germany. We present data on the subjective need for psychological support of the parents, related diagnoses and factors, which should be considered in psychological counselling.

  7. Affect, Behavioural Schemas and the Proving Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Selden, Annie; McKee, Kerry; Selden, John

    2010-01-01

    In this largely theoretical article, we discuss the relation between a kind of affect, behavioural schemas and aspects of the proving process. We begin with affect as described in the mathematics education literature, but soon narrow our focus to a particular kind of affect--nonemotional cognitive feelings. We then mention the position of feelings…

  8. MODS: The Metadata Object Description Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guenther, Rebecca S.

    2003-01-01

    Focuses on the Metadata Object Description Schema (MODS) developed by the Library of Congress' Network Development and MARC Standards Office. Discuses reasons for MODS development; advantages of MODS; features of MODS; prospective uses for MODS; relationship with MARC and MARCXML; comparison with Dublin Core element set; and experimentation with…

  9. PML Schema Samples: JSNP.xml [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available noNamespaceSchemaLocation=pml.xsd > id=3 lsid=urn:lsid:ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:JSNP:IMS-JST size=48 count_u...ACC TTGTCTCTCC AGTGCAGATC id=101 lsid=urn:lsid:ims.u-tokyo.ac.jp:JSNP:JBIC ethnicity=Japanese count_u...nit=chromosome size=1504> > id=101>

  10. A Schema-Based Reading Test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewin, Beverly A.

    Schemata based notions need not replace, but should be reflected in, product-centered reading tests. The contributions of schema theory to the psycholinguistic model of reading has been thoroughly reviewed. Schemata-based reading tests provide several advantages: (1) they engage the appropriate conceptual processes for the student which frees the…

  11. Application of Schema Theory in Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晴

    2014-01-01

    Listening comprehension is an active process,in which what the listener wants to get is an adequate understanding of what the speaker said and what the speaker meant. To attain this purpose,listeners should utilize schema theory and some listening activities will be used.

  12. The Application of Schema Theory in English Textbook Compiling Guided by National English Curriculum in Compulsory Education

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童佳节

    2012-01-01

      National English Curriculum in compulsory education (2011 Ed.) adjusts in each aspect in foreign language teaching and some new principles in textbook compiling. This present dissertation aims to improve the theoretical bases in middle school English course book from the methods of the schema in psycholinguistics and the analysis of the senior high school English course book.

  13. Notes on the ExactPack Implementation of the DSD Rate Stick Solver

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaul, Ann [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-08-01

    It has been shown above that the discretization scheme implemented in the ExactPack solver for the DSD Rate Stick equation is consistent with the Rate Stick PDE. In addition, a stability analysis has provided a CFL condition for a stable time step. Together, consistency and stability imply convergence of the scheme, which is expected to be close to first-order in time and second-order in space. It is understood that the nonlinearity of the underlying PDE will affect this rate somewhat. In the solver I implemented in ExactPack, I used the one-sided boundary condition described above at the outer boundary. In addition, I used 80% of the time step calculated in the stability analysis above. By making these two changes, I was able to implement a solver that calculates the solution without any arbitrary limits placed on the values of the curvature at the boundary. Thus, the calculation is driven directly by the conditions at the boundary as formulated in the DSD theory. The chosen scheme is completely coherent and defensible from a mathematical standpoint.

  14. The tissue microarray OWL schema: An open-source tool for sharing tissue microarray data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyunseok P Kang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tissue microarrays (TMAs are enormously useful tools for translational research, but incompatibilities in database systems between various researchers and institutions prevent the efficient sharing of data that could help realize their full potential. Resource Description Framework (RDF provides a flexible method to represent knowledge in triples, which take the form Subject- Predicate-Object. All data resources are described using Uniform Resource Identifiers (URIs, which are global in scope. We present an OWL (Web Ontology Language schema that expands upon the TMA data exchange specification to address this issue and assist in data sharing and integration. Methods: A minimal OWL schema was designed containing only concepts specific to TMA experiments. More general data elements were incorporated from predefined ontologies such as the NCI thesaurus. URIs were assigned using the Linked Data format. Results: We present examples of files utilizing the schema and conversion of XML data (similar to the TMA DES to OWL. Conclusion: By utilizing predefined ontologies and global unique identifiers, this OWL schema provides a solution to the limitations of XML, which represents concepts defined in a localized setting. This will help increase the utilization of tissue resources, facilitating collaborative translational research efforts.

  15. An Interpersonal Investigation of Sexual Self-Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Kyle; Rehman, Uzma S; Fallis, Erin E; Goodnight, Jackson A

    2016-02-01

    A sexual self-schema is a cognitive generalization about sexual aspects of the self. In the current study, we examined how an individual's sexual self-schema influenced the processing of self and partner related sexual information. Specifically, we investigated how sexual self-schemas related to own and partner sexual satisfaction and how they influenced perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Participants were 117 heterosexual couples in committed, long-term relationships. Both partners completed measures assessing their sexual self-schemas, their own sexual satisfaction, and perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction. Consistent with our predictions, own sexual schema was associated with own sexual satisfaction. For men, more positive sexual self-schemas were associated with greater sexual satisfaction, and for women, more negative sexual self-schemas were associated with lower sexual satisfaction. For both men and women, there was no significant association between own sexual self-schema and partner sexual satisfaction. Sexual self-schemas directly and indirectly influenced an individual's perception of the partner's sexual satisfaction, such that men and women with more positive sexual self-schemas rated their partners as more sexually satisfied, after controlling for the partner's self-reported level of sexual satisfaction. Our findings demonstrated that sexual self-schemas are relevant to own sexual satisfaction as well as the processing of interpersonally relevant sexual information, specifically one's perceptions of partner sexual satisfaction.

  16. Review of recent outcome data of disorders of sex development (DSD) : Emphasis on surgical and sexual outcomes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, Peter; Schober, Justine; Nordenstrom, Anna; Hoebeke, Piet; Houk, Christopher; Looijenga, Leendert; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Reiner, William; Woodhouse, Christopher

    2012-01-01

    This paper is a review of some of the recent publications regarding outcome of DSD patients, with an emphasis upon surgical and sexual outcomes. Currently available outcome studies of patients with DSDs have limitations because of multiple factors, including lack of representative patient sampling,

  17. Language

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sanden, Guro Refsum

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: – The purpose of this paper is to analyse the consequences of globalisation in the area of corporate communication, and investigate how language may be managed as a strategic resource. Design/methodology/approach: – A review of previous studies on the effects of globalisation on corporate...... communication and the implications of language management initiatives in international business. Findings: – Efficient language management can turn language into a strategic resource. Language needs analyses, i.e. linguistic auditing/language check-ups, can be used to determine the language situation...... of a company. Language policies and/or strategies can be used to regulate a company’s internal modes of communication. Language management tools can be deployed to address existing and expected language needs. Continuous feedback from the front line ensures strategic learning and reduces the risk of suboptimal...

  18. Schema Theory and the Teaching of Reading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王顺亮

    2009-01-01

    Schema theory indicates that prior knowledge forms a schema in the mind and this will inevitably influence reading comprehension.Therefore,in the teaching of reading,teachers should find ways to activate the schemata in the mind of the students.Tides,headlines and pictures in atext may serve the function.All texts are related to culture to some degree.especiallyinthe case of texts introducing foreign cultures.Therefore.it is also important to integrate cultural factors in tegchillg,which will form new schematain the mind of the students.Besides that,teaching materials should be chosen in accordance widl the students'level of knowledge.New knowledge should be kept in an appropriate proportion to the old knowledge.Onty in this way can the schemata stored in the mind of the students be activated easily,and new knowledge will also be acquired atthe sametime.

  19. Schema representation in patients with ventromedial PFC lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Vanessa E; Moscovitch, Morris; Melo Colella, Brenda; Gilboa, Asaf

    2014-09-01

    Human neuroimaging and animal studies have recently implicated the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC) in memory schema, particularly in facilitating new encoding by existing schemas. In humans, the most conspicuous memory disorder following vmPFC damage is confabulation; strategic retrieval models suggest that aberrant schema activation or reinstatement plays a role in confabulation. This raises the possibility that beyond its role in schema-supported memory encoding, the vmPFC is also implicated in schema reinstatement itself. If that is the case, vmPFC lesions should lead to impaired schema-based operations, even on tasks that do not involve memory acquisition. To test this prediction, ten patients with vmPFC damage, four with present or prior confabulation, and a group of twelve matched healthy controls made speeded yes/no decisions as to whether words were closely related to a schema (a visit to the doctor). Ten minutes later, they repeated the task for a new schema (going to bed) with some words related to the first schema included as lures. Last, they rated the degree to which stimuli were related to the second schema. All four vmPFC patients with present or prior confabulation were impaired in rejecting lures and in classifying stimulus belongingness to the schema, even when they were not lures. Nonconfabulating patients performed comparably to healthy adults with high accuracy, comparable reaction times, and similar ratings. These results show for the first time that damage to the human vmPFC, when associated with confabulation, leads to deficient schema reinstatement, which is likely a prerequisite for schema-mediated memory integration.

  20. Utilizing RELAX NG Schemas in XML Editors

    OpenAIRE

    Schmied, Martin

    2008-01-01

    This thesis explores the possibilities of utilizing RELAX NG schemata in the process of editing XML documents. The ultimate goal of this thesis is to prototype a system supporting user while editing XML document with bound RELAX NG schema inside the Eclipse IDE. Such a system comprises two major components -- an integration of RELAX NG validator and an autocompletion engine. Design of the autocompletion engine represents the main contribution of this thesis, because similar systems are almost...

  1. LGIST: Learning Generalized Image Schemas for Transfer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-02-01

    methods we designed for image schemas and gists are plausible learning methods for infants. Our learning agent, called Jean in honor of Jean Piaget and...Sensori-motor Activity First. The most important concept in the architecture of the infant mind goes by several names: Piaget and many others (including...small set of policies may quickly accommodate (as Piaget called it) or transfer to new tasks and environments. Our approach to this problem is to

  2. Clinical evaluation study of the German network of disorders of sex development (DSD/intersexuality: study design, description of the study population, and data quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürgensen Martina

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The German Network of Disorders of Sex Development (DSD/Intersexuality carried out a large scale clinical evaluation study on quality of life, gender identity, treatment satisfaction, coping, and problems associated with diagnoses and therapies in individuals with disorders of sex development (DSD. DSD are a heterogeneous group of various genetic disorders of sex determination or sex differentiation, all of which are rare conditions. In about half of all cases the molecular genetic diagnosis is unknown and diagnosis rests on clinical features. Methods and design The multi-centre clinical evaluation study includes short-term follow-up in some and cross-sectional assessments in all age and diagnostic groups fitting the criteria of DSD. Recruitment was from January 2005 until December 2007 in whole Germany and, additionally, in 2007 in Austria and German-speaking Switzerland. The study consists of a psychosocial inquiry for children, adolescents and their parents, and adults with standardized instruments and the collection of DSD-specific medical data by the attending physician. The main goal was the description of clinical outcomes and the health-care situation of individuals with DSD using a broad generic definition of DSD including all conditions with a mismatch of chromosomal, gonadal and phenotypical sex. 439 children and adolescents, their parents and adults with DSD participated. Discussion The clinical evaluation study represents the most comprehensive study in this clinical field. The paper discusses the study protocol, the data management and data quality as well as the classification used, and it describes the study population. Given the lack of large datasets in rare conditions such as DSD and often biased results from small scale clinical case series, the study aims to generate concrete hypotheses for evidence-based guidelines, which should be tested in further studies.

  3. In vivo gene expression analysis identifies genes required for enhanced colonization of the mouse urinary tract by uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 dsdA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Brian J; Pellett, Shahaireen; Redford, Peter; Hamilton, Holly L; Roesch, Paula L; Welch, Rodney A

    2007-01-01

    Deletional inactivation of the gene encoding d-serine deaminase, dsdA, in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 results in a hypermotile strain with a hypercolonization phenotype in the bladder and kidneys of mice in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). The in vivo gene expression profiles of CFT073 and CFT073 dsdA were compared by isolating RNA directly from the urine of mice challenged with each strain individually. Hybridization of cDNAs derived from these samples to CFT073-specific microarrays allowed identification of genes that were up- or down-regulated in the dsdA deletion strain during UTI. Up-regulated genes included the known d-serine-responsive gene dsdX, suggesting in vivo intracellular accumulation of d-serine by CFT073 dsdA. Genes encoding F1C fimbriae, both copies of P fimbriae, hemolysin, OmpF, a dipeptide transporter DppA, a heat shock chaperone IbpB, and clusters of open reading frames with unknown functions were also up-regulated. To determine the role of these genes as well as motility in the hypercolonization phenotype, mutants were constructed in the CFT073 dsdA background and tested in competition against the wild type in the murine model of UTI. Strains with deletions of one or both of the two P fimbrial operons, hlyA, fliC, ibpB, c0468, locus c3566 to c3568, or c2485 to c2490 colonized mouse bladders and kidneys at levels indistinguishable from wild type. CFT073 dsdA c2398 and CFT073 dsdA focA maintained a hypercolonization phenotype. A CFT073 dsdA dppA mutant was attenuated 10- to 50-fold in its colonization ability compared to CFT073. Our results support a role for d-serine catabolism and signaling in global virulence gene regulation of uropathogenic E. coli.

  4. ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF DSD ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER ON MACROPOROUS RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONGChao; ZHANGQuanxing; 等

    2001-01-01

    4,4'-diaminostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid (DSD acid) manufacturing wastewater was treated by a macroporous resin in a fixed-bed column.The results showed that this method was suitable for removal of chemical oxygen demands(COD) and color,About 91% COD and 99.5% color removal were obtained under the optimum adsorption conditions.i.e.temperature 20℃,flow rate lbed volume/hour(BV/hr)and pH1-2.The resin was efficiently regenerated with aqueous sodium hydroxide and water.Furthermore,65.5% of 4,4'-dinitrostilbene-2,2'-disulfonic acid(DNS) could be recovered from wastewater for possible recycling to the manufactureing process.The adsorption capacity of resin remained constant during the repetition process of adsorption and desorption.

  5. Human sex-determination and disorders of sex-development (DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bashamboo, Anu; McElreavey, Ken

    2015-09-01

    Several new genes and pathways have been identified in recent years associated with human errors of sex-determination or DSD. SOX family gene mutations, as well as mutations involving GATA4, FOG2 and genes involved in MAP kinase signaling have been associated with virilization in 46,XX individuals or with 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis. Furthermore, mutations involving another key gene in sex-determination, NR5A1, are now known to be an important cause spermatogenic failure in the male and ovarian insufficiency in the female. These new findings offer insights into human sex-determination and highlight important differences between the human and mouse model. This review will critically examine the evidence linking gene mutations, especially MAP3K1, to non-syndromic forms of human 46,XY gonadal dysgenesis or XX testicular/ovotesticular.

  6. ADSORPTION AND DESORPTION OF DSD ACID MANUFACTURING WASTEWATER ON MACROPOROUS RESIN

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LONG Chao; ZHANG Quanxing; XU Zhaoyi; CHEN Jinlong; LI Aimin; CHENG Zhiqiang

    2001-01-01

    4,4'-diaminostilbene-2, 2'-disulfonic acid (DSD acid) manufacturing wastewater was treated by a macroporous resin in a fixed-bed column. The results showed that this method was suitable for removal of chemical oxygen demands (COD) and color About 91% COD and 99.5% color removal were obtained under the optimum adsorption conditions, i.e. temperature 20 ℃, flow rate 1 bed volume/hour (BV/hr) and pH1-2. The resin was efficiently regenerated with aqueous sodium hydroxide and water. Furthermore, 65.5% of 4, 4 '-dinitrostilbene-2, 2 '-disulfonic acid (DNS) could be recovered from wastewater for possible recycling to the manufacturing process. The adsorption capacity of resin remained constant during the repetition process of adsorption and desorption.

  7. Association of parasuicidal behaviour to early maladaptive schemas and schema modes in patients with BPD: The Oulu BPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Vuorenmaa, Elina; Lindeman, Sari; Tuulari, Jyrki; Hakko, Helinä

    2016-02-01

    The present study aimed to examine which early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and schema modes emerged in parasuicidal and non-parasuicidal patients with BPD participating in the Oulu BPD study. The patients' EMSs were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire, and schema modes using the Young Atkinson Mode Inventory. Sixty patients with BPD responded to both the schema and schema mode questionnaires; of these, 46 (76.7%) fulfilled the criteria for parasuicidality. In BPD patients with parasuicidality, the EMSs of emotional deprivation, abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse and social isolation were the most prevalent, and the schema modes of vulnerable child, angry child, detached protector and compliant surrender were prominent. In patients without parasuicidality, the schema modes of healthy adult and happy child were the most prevalent. Significant correlations were observed between the schema modes of detached protector, vulnerable child, punitive parent and angry child and almost every EMS in BPD patients with parasuicidality. Our preliminary findings suggest that associations between certain EMSs and schema modes to parasuicidality in BPD patients may provide valuable information when planning and implementing their treatment.

  8. Spiritual self-schema therapy, drug abuse, and HIV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcotte, David; Avants, S Kelly; Margolin, Arthur

    2003-01-01

    This case report describes the use of Spiritual Self-Schema (3-S) therapy in the treatment of an HIV-positive inner-city drug user maintained on methadone and referred for additional treatment due to unremitting cocaine use. 3-S therapy is a manual-guided intervention based on cognitive self-schema theory. Its goal is to help the patient create, elaborate, and make accessible a cognitive schema--the "spiritual" self-schema-that is incompatible with drug use and other HIV risk behaviors. 3-S therapy facilitates a cognitive shift from the habitual activation of the "addict" self-schema, with its drug-related cognitions, scripts and action plans, to the "spiritual" self-schema, with its associated repertoire of harm reduction beliefs and behaviors.

  9. Alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in chronic pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saariaho, Anita S; Saariaho, Tom H; Mattila, Aino K; Karukivi, Max; Joukamaa, Matti I

    2015-08-01

    Psychological factors have an impact on subjective pain experience. The aim of this study was to explore the occurrence of alexithymia and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a sample of 271 first visit chronic pain patients of six pain clinics. The patients completed the study questionnaire consisting of the Toronto Alexithymia Scale-20, the Finnish version of the Young Schema Questionnaire short form-extended, the Beck Depression Inventory-II, and pain variables. Alexithymic patients scored higher on Early Maladaptive Schemas and had more pain intensity, pain disability and depression than nonalexithymic patients. Both alexithymia and depression correlated significantly with most Early Maladaptive Schemas. The co-occurrence of alexithymia, Early Maladaptive Schemas and depression seems to worsen the pain experience. Screening of alexithymia, depression and Early Maladaptive Schemas may help to plan psychological treatment interventions for chronic pain patients. © 2015 Scandinavian Psychological Associations and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Application of Schema Theory to English Listening Teaching in Middle School

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张秀萍; 刘婧; 王宁

    2014-01-01

    This paper from the point of view of cognitive psychology, which is based on the background of the Chinese middle school students’generally low ability of English listening, it explores the listening course of English language teaching which guided by Schema theory and summarizes the connotation of this theory then discusses the role of it to listening comprehension and the practical value of combining listening teaching with it. The paper also puts forward the strategy of implementation of the theory. This article aims to make students to realize the importance of background knowledge to help them to understand the lis⁃tening materials and to guide the students using different strategies of Schema theory to improve their listening comprehension ability.

  11. Impact of Stress and Glucocorticoids on Schema-Based Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kluen, Lisa Marieke; Nixon, Patricia; Agorastos, Agorastos; Wiedemann, Klaus; Schwabe, Lars

    2016-12-14

    Pre-existing knowledge, a 'schema', facilitates the encoding, consolidation, and retrieval of schema-relevant information. Such schema-based memory is key to every form of education and provides intriguing insights into the integration of new information and prior knowledge. Stress is known to have a critical impact on memory processes, mainly through the action of glucocorticoids and catecholamines. However, whether stress and these major stress mediators affect schema-based learning is completely unknown. To address this question, we performed two experiments, in which participants acquired a schema on day 1 and learned schema-related as well as schema-unrelated information on day 2. In the first experiment, participants underwent a stress or control manipulation either immediately or about 25 min before schema-based memory testing. The second experiment tested whether glucocorticoid and/or noradrenergic activation is sufficient to modulate schema-based memory. To this end, participants received orally a placebo, hydrocortisone, the α2-adrenoceptor-antagonist yohimbine, leading to increased noradrenergic stimulation, or both drugs, before completing the schema-based memory test. Our data indicate that stress, irrespective of the exact timing of the stress exposure, impaired schema-based learning, while leaving learning of schema-unrelated information intact. A very similar effect was obtained after hydrocortisone, but not yohimbine, administration. These data show that stress disrupts participants' ability to benefit from prior knowledge during learning and that glucocorticoid activation is sufficient to produce this effect. Our findings provide novel insights into the impact of stress and stress hormones on the dynamics of human memory and have important practical implications, specifically for educational contexts.Neuropsychopharmacology advance online publication, 14 December 2016; doi:10.1038/npp.2016.256.

  12. An Analysis of Business English Translation Based on Schema Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏兴宜

    2014-01-01

    Business English translation is a cognitive process. schema theory has seldom been applied to business English. This pa-per is written on the basis of the features of business English and schema theory; it studies the process in which schemata are formed in the brain and the application of four major schemata to business English translation. Through introducing theories and illustrating many examples, the thesis shows the importance of the application of the schema theory to business English translation.

  13. Early maladaptive schemas in convicted sexual offenders: preliminary findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carvalho, Joana; Nobre, Pedro J

    2014-01-01

    Core cognitive schemas may play a role in the vulnerability for sexual offending. Identifying these schemas could help to conceptualize sexual crimes and rehabilitate convicted sexual offenders. The aim of this preliminary study was to explore the relationship between early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) and sexual offending, as well as how rapists and child sex molesters differ in terms of these schemas. Thirty-two men convicted for rape, 33 convicted for child sexual abuse, and 30 non-offenders were evaluated using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S3) and the Brief Symptom Inventory (BSI). Results showed that participants convicted for child sexual abuse presented significantly more schemas from the disconnection/rejection, impaired autonomy/performance, other directness, and over vigilance/inhibition domains than non-offenders, whereas rapists presented more schemas from the impaired autonomy/performance domain than non-offenders. Differences between sex offenders showed that child molesters presented more schemas of pessimism than rapists. Preliminary findings suggested that EMSs may impact sex offender's perceptions about themselves and about the world. Schema-focused therapy (Young, 1990, 1999) may thus be an acceptable approach to sex offender's psychological assessment and intervention.

  14. Mental schemas hamper memory storage of goal-irrelevant information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carly C Sweegers

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Mental schemas exert top-down control on information processing; for instance by facilitating the storage of schema-related information. However, given capacity-limits and competition in neural network processing, schemas may additionally exert their effects by suppressing information with low momentary relevance. In particular, when existing schemas suffice to guide goal-directed behavior, this may actually reduce encoding of the redundant sensory input, in favor of gaining efficiency in task performance. The present experiment set out to test this schema-induced shallow encoding hypothesis. Our approach involved a memory task in which faces had to be coupled to homes. For half of the faces the responses could be guided by a pre-learned schema, for the other half of the faces such a schema was not available. Memory storage was compared between schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items. To characterize putative schema effects, memory was assessed both with regard to visual details and contextual aspects of each item. The depth of encoding was also assessed through an objective neural measure: the parietal old/new ERP effect. This ERP effect, observed between 500-800 ms post stimulus onset, is thought to reflect the extent of recollection: the retrieval of a vivid memory, including various contextual details from the learning episode. We found that schema-congruency induced substantial impairments in item memory and even larger ones in context memory. Furthermore, the parietal old/new ERP effect indicated higher recollection for the schema-incongruent than the schema-congruent memories. The combined findings indicate that, when goals can be achieved using existing schemas, this can hinder the in-depth processing of novel input, impairing the formation of perceptually detailed and contextually rich memory traces. Taking into account both current and previous findings, we suggest that schemas can both positively and negatively bias the

  15. Game Play Schemas: From Player Analysis to Adaptive Game Mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Craig A. Lindley

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Schema theory provides a foundation for the analysis of game play patterns created by players during their interaction with a game. Schema models derived from the analysis of play provide a rich explanatory framework for the cognitive processes underlying game play, as well as detailed hypotheses for the hierarchical structure of pleasures and rewards motivating players. Game engagement is accounted for as a process of schema selection or development, while immersion is explained in terms of levels of attentional demand in schema execution. However, schemas may not only be used to describe play, but might be used actively as cognitive models within a game engine. Predesigned schema models are knowledge representations constituting anticipated or desired learned cognitive outcomes of play. Automated analysis of player schemas and comparison with predesigned target schemas can provide a foundation for a game engine adapting or tuning game mechanics to achieve specific effects of engagement, immersion, and cognitive skill acquisition by players. Hence, schema models may enhance the play experience as well as provide a foundation for achieving explicitly represented pedagogical or therapeutic functions of games.

  16. Reaction behaviour of DSD waste plastics in hydrogenating liquefaction with varied times of residue and reaction temperatures; Das Reaktionsverhalten von DSD-Kunststoffabfaellen in der hydrierenden Verfluessigung bei Variation von Verweilzeit und Reaktionstemperatur

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgtorf, J.; Meier zu Koecker, H. [Technische Univ. Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Energietechnik

    1996-12-31

    Hydrogenation is an established process of waste plastics recycling. At the 1st DGMK Technical Meeting at Velen, the Energy Engineering Institute of Berlin Technical University presented studies on the reaction behaviour of waste plastics collected by the DSD (Duales System Deutschland) during hydrogenating liquefaction. The studies have been finished by now, and some results are presented, with particular regard to times of residue and reaction temperaperatures. (orig) [Deutsch] Die Hydrierung ist ein etabliertes Verfahren der rohstofflichen Verwertung von Kunststoffabfaellen. Die auf der 1. DGMK-Fachtagung in Velen vorgestellten Arbeiten des Instituts fuer Energietechnik der Technischen Universitaet Berlin zum Reaktionsverhalten von Kuststoffabfaellen aus der Sammlung des Dualen Systems Deutschland (DSD) in der hydrierenden Verfluessigung sind inzwischen abgeschlossen. Einige Ergebnisse werden hier unter besonderer Beruecksichtigung der Parameter Verweilzeit und Reaktionstemperatur dargestellt. (orig)

  17. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, T. van; Wensing, M.J.P.; Dyck, R. van

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders. It

  18. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nadort, M.; Arntz, A.; Smit, J.H.; Giesen-Bloo, J.; Eikelenboom, M.J.; Spinhoven, P.; Asselt, van T.; Wensing, M.; Dyck, van R.

    2009-01-01

    ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality dis

  19. Study protocol for the recreational stimulation for elders as a vehicle to resolve delirium superimposed on dementia (Reserve For DSD trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leslie Doug

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Delirium is a state of confusion characterized by an acute and fluctuating decline in cognitive functioning. Delirium is common and deadly in older adults with dementia, and is often referred to as delirium superimposed on dementia, or DSD. Interventions that treat DSD are not well-developed because the mechanisms involved in its etiology are not completely understood. We have developed a theory-based intervention for DSD that is derived from the literature on cognitive reserve and based on our prior interdisciplinary work on delirium, recreational activities, and cognitive stimulation in people with dementia. Our preliminary work indicate that use of simple, cognitively stimulating activities may help resolve delirium by helping to focus inattention, the primary neuropsychological deficit in delirium. Our primary aim in this trial is to test the efficacy of Recreational Stimulation for Elders as a Vehicle to resolve DSD (RESERVE- DSD. Methods/Design This randomized repeated measures clinical trial will involve participants being recruited and enrolled at the time of admission to post acute care. We will randomize 256 subjects to intervention (RESERVE-DSD or control (usual care. Intervention subjects will receive 30-minute sessions of tailored cognitively stimulating recreational activities for up to 30 days. We hypothesize that subjects who receive RESERVE-DSD will have: decreased severity and duration of delirium; greater gains in attention, orientation, memory, abstract thinking, and executive functioning; and greater gains in physical function compared to subjects with DSD who receive usual care. We will also evaluate potential moderators of intervention efficacy (lifetime of complex mental activities and APOE status. Our secondary aim is to describe the costs associated with RESERVE-DSD. Discussion Our theory-based intervention, which uses simple, inexpensive recreational activities for delivering cognitive stimulation

  20. Symbols and schemas in emotional eating

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grunert, Suzanne C.

    1995-01-01

    the psycho-mental homeostasis. To explain this phenomenon it is first shown which symbolic meanings are associated with eating and foods. The numerous connotations can be grouped into four basic dimensions: Security and pleasure as self-oriented, and status and prestige as socially oriented emotional symbols....... Particularly the aspects of security and pleasure are suggested to be important motivators for emotional eating. How these symbolic meanings relate to eating as a regulatory device for emotions is explained by a schema- theoretical approach distinguishing between automatic adaptation mechanisms and strategic...

  1. Closed Loop Analysis Meta-Language Program (CLAMP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Intentional Domain Workbench ( IDW ), we researched and developed an AVM Workbench that supports iFAB Technical Area 3 objectives. We collaborated with other...MLibrary case, the imported schema is described in the IDW Schema language, and this guides the import of a raw JSON dump from the database instance

  2. Psychosexual development in children with disorder of sex development (DSD)--results from the German Clinical Evaluation Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jürgensen, M; Kleinemeier, E; Lux, A; Steensma, T D; Cohen-Kettenis, P T; Hiort, O; Thyen, U

    2010-06-01

    Psychosexual development is influenced by biological and psychosocial factors. Human beings show a great variability in psychosexual development both between and within gender-groups. However, there are relatively stable gender-related behaviors and self-perceptions, in which males and females differ distinctly. There is strong evidence that high concentrations of androgens lead to more male-typical behavior and that this also influences gender identity. Disorders of sex development (DSD) provide the opportunity to analyze the role of different factors on psychosexual development. We examined 166 children age 4 to 12 with DSD using instruments concerning gender role behavior, gender identity, and friendship. Results underline the hypothesis, that androgens play a decisive role in the masculinization of gender role behavior in children. There are also some relations between the experience of gender change and psychosexual outcomes which have to be discussed. Nevertheless, results indicated a high congruence between the children's gender identity and gender of rearing.

  3. Review of recent outcome data of disorders of sex development (DSD): emphasis on surgical and sexual outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Peter; Schober, Justine; Nordenström, Anna; Hoebeke, Piet; Houk, Christopher; Looijenga, Leendert; Manzoni, Gianantonio; Reiner, William; Woodhouse, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    This paper is a review of some of the recent publications regarding outcome of DSD patients, with an emphasis upon surgical and sexual outcomes. Currently available outcome studies of patients with DSDs have limitations because of multiple factors, including lack of representative patient sampling, and lack of adequate information concerning both medical and surgical care, and psychological, social and family support. The most frequent reports involve females with 21-α-hydroxylase deficiency congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH). This most common form of DSD, if one excludes hypospadias and cryptorchidism, is an excellent example of a form of DSD in which all aspects of outcome, regarding surgery, sexual functionality and sensitivity, psychological input and endocrine hormonal therapy, carry a major role. The goals of therapy include a surgical outcome with a good cosmetic appearance and functionality with potential for sexual intercourse with sufficient sensitivity for satisfactory responsiveness. Endocrine replacement therapy should provide a normal adrenal hormonal milieu, while sex steroid therapy may be indicated. Psychological care should be provided from birth with gradual transition primarily to the patient, including basic counseling with full disclosure, although adjustment depends upon the patient's personality and parents' abilities and acceptance. Among forms of DSD involving gonadal insufficiency, hormonal replacement therapy should provide physiologic levels. Among females, estrogen therapy enhances healing after feminizing surgery and is required from puberty throughout adult life to maintain femininity, sexual organs and bone health, and enhance gender and sexuality. Among males, appropriate testosterone therapy maintains stamina, muscle tone, bone health, libido, sexual potency and general well-being, while benefit for healing after genital surgery is unclear. Further, outcome is clearly related to predominant cultural factors. Outcome studies

  4. LANGUAGE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱妤

    2009-01-01

    @@ The word"language"comes from the Latin(拉丁语)word"lingua",which means"tongue".The tongue is used in more sound combinations(结合)than any other organ(器官)of speech.A broader(概括性的)interpretation(解释)of"language"is that it is any form of expression.This includes(包括)writing,sign(手势)language,dance,music,painting,and mathematics.But the basic(基本的)form of language is speech.

  5. INTEGRATING XML DATA INTO MULTIPLE ROLAP DATA WAREHOUSE SCHEMAS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumya Sen

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Data Warehouse is one of the most common ways for analyzing large data for decision based system. Thesedata are often sourced from online transactional system. The transactional data are represented indifferent formats. XML is one of the worldwide standards to represent data in web based system. Numbersof organizations use XML for e-commerce and internet based applications. Integration of XML and datawarehouse for the innovation of business logic and to enhance decision making has therefore emerged as ademanding area of research interest. This paper focuses on integrating XML data based on multiple relatedXML schemas, to an equivalent data warehouse schemas based on relational online analytical processing(ROLAP. This work bears a high relevance towards standardizing of the ETL phase (Extraction,Transformation, and Loading of the OLAP projects. The novelty of the work is that more than one datawarehouse schemas could be identified from a single related XML schema and each of them could becategorized as star schema or snowflake schema. Moreover if the individual schemas are found to berelated according to the analysis, fact constellation could be identified. A new data structure, SchemaGraph has been proposed in the process.

  6. Schema Design Alternatives for Multi-Granular Data Warehousing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Pedersen, Torben Bach

    2010-01-01

    that the schema designs are intended to simply store data at the same single level of granularity. This paper on the other hand, presents several extended dimensional data warehousing schema design alternatives to store both detail and aggregated data at different levels of granularity. The paper presents three...

  7. Family Functioning and Maladaptive Schemas: The Moderating Effects of Optimism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buri, John R.; Gunty, Amy L.

    2008-01-01

    Authoritarian parenting is often shown to be associated with negative outcomes for children, including the development of maladaptive schemas. However, this is not the case for all children who experience Authoritarian parenting. Optimism is examined as a moderator in the relationship between Authoritarian parenting and maladaptive schemas that…

  8. Anterior Cingulate Cortex in Schema Assimilation and Expression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Szu-Han; Tse, Dorothy; Morris, Richard G. M.

    2012-01-01

    In humans and in animals, mental schemas can store information within an associative framework that enables rapid and efficient assimilation of new information. Using a hippocampal-dependent paired-associate task, we now report that the anterior cingulate cortex is part of a neocortical network of schema storage with NMDA receptor-mediated…

  9. Summarizing Large-Scale Database Schema Using Community Detection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xue Wang; Xuan Zhou; Shan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Schema summarization on large-scale databases is a challenge.In a typical large database schema,a great proportion of the tables are closely connected through a few high degree tables.It is thus difficult to separate these tables into clusters that represent different topics.Moreover,as a schema can be very big,the schema summary needs to be structured into multiple levels,to further improve the usability.In this paper,we introduce a new schema summarization approach utilizing the techniques of community detection in social networks.Our approach contains three steps.First,we use a community detection algorithm to divide a database schema into subject groups,each representing a specific subject.Second,we cluster the subject groups into abstract domains to form a multi-level navigation structure.Third,we discover representative tables in each cluster to label the schema summary.We evaluate our approach on Freebase,a real world large-scale database.The results show that our approach can identify subject groups precisely.The generated abstract schema layers are very helpful for users to explore database.

  10. Unexpected ethical dilemmas in sex assignment in 46,XY DSD due to 5-alpha reductase type 2 deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byers, Heather M; Mohnach, Lauren H; Fechner, Patricia Y; Chen, Ming; Thomas, Inas H; Ramsdell, Linda A; Shnorhavorian, Margarett; McCauley, Elizabeth A; Amies Oelschlager, Anne-Marie E; Park, John M; Sandberg, David E; Adam, Margaret P; Keegan, Catherine E

    2017-06-01

    Sex assignment at birth remains one of the most clinically challenging and controversial topics in 46,XY disorders of sexual development (DSD). This is particularly challenging in deficiency of 5-alpha reductase type 2 given that external genitalia are typically undervirilized at birth but typically virilize at puberty to a variable degree. Historically, most individuals with 5-alpha reductase deficiency were raised females. However, reports that over half of patients who underwent a virilizing puberty adopted an adult male gender identity have challenged this practice. Consensus guidelines on assignment of sex of rearing at birth are equivocal or favor male assignment in the most virilized cases. While a male sex of rearing assignment may avoid lifelong hormonal therapy and/or allow the potential for fertility, female sex assignment may be more consistent with external anatomy in the most severely undervirilized cases. Herein, we describe five patients with 46,XY DSD due 5-alpha-reductase type 2 deficiency, all with a severe phenotype. An inter-disciplinary DSD medical team at one of two academic centers evaluated each patient. This case series illustrates the complicated decision-making process of assignment of sex of rearing at birth in 5-alpha reductase type 2 deficiency and the challenges that arise when the interests of the child, parental wishes, recommendations of the medical team, and state law collide. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. A flow integrated DSD hydrodynamics strategy for computing the motion of detonation of insensitive high explosives on an Eulerian grid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Short, Mark [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Aslam, Tariq D [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-01-01

    The detonation structure in many insensitive high explosives consists of two temporally disparate zones of heat release. In PBX 9502, there is a fast reaction zone ({approx} 25 ns) during which reactants are converted to gaseous products and small carbon clusters, followed by a slower regime ({approx} 250 ns) of carbon coagulation. A hybrid approach for determining the propagation of two-stage heat release detonations has been developed that utilizes a detonation shock dynamics (DSD) based strategy for the fast reaction zone with a direct hydrodynamic simulation of the flow in the slow zone. Unlike a standard DSD/programmed bum formulation, the evolution of the fast zone DSD-like surface is coupled to the flow in the slow reaction zone. We have termed this formulation flow integrated detonation shock dynamics (FIDSD). The purpose of the present paper is to show how the FIDSD formulation can be applied to detonation propagation on an Eulerian grid using an algorithm based on level set interface tracking and a ghost fluid approach.

  12. Androgen insensitivity syndrome in a cohort of Sri Lankan children with 46, XY disorders of sex development (46, XY DSD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Silva, K S H; Sirisena, N D; Wijenayaka, H K; Cooray, J G; Jayasekara, R W; Dissanayake, V H W

    2015-12-01

    There are several conditions giving rise to 46, XY disorders of sex development (DSD) with different modes of inheritance. Therefore definitive diagnosis based on molecular genetic confirmation would be the ideal to counsel parents regarding the future implications of the condition affecting their baby. This is the first report from Sri Lanka documenting the presence of mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene in a cohort of children with 46, XY DSD. To describe the socio-demographic and clinical features and document the presence of mutations in the androgen receptor (AR) gene in a cohort of children with 46, XY DSD. 46, XY patients with ambiguous genitalia followed up in the University Unit at the Lady Ridgeway Hospital, Colombo, and clinically identified as having androgen insensitivity syndrome (AIS) or a testosterone biosynthetic defect were recruited for the study. Their socio-demographic details and clinical features were documented. Exons 1 to 8 of the AR gene were screened for mutations by DNA sequencing on a venous blood sample. SRY gene mutations were also assayed. Thirty-four patients were studied, 3 of whom were clinically diagnosed as having complete androgen insensitivity syndrome (CAIS). Sex of rearing was female and male in 4 and 30 respectively. AR gene mutations were detected in 6 patients (17.6%). None of the patients had SRY gene mutations. Majority (88%) of the patients were raised as males. Six patients (17.6%) including the 3 with CAIS, had genetically confirmed AIS with the detection of AR gene mutations.

  13. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Font, Victor; Garrigues, Carles; Rifà-Pous, Helena

    2017-04-05

    Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs) in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  14. Attack Classification Schema for Smart City WSNs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Garcia-Font

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Urban areas around the world are populating their streets with wireless sensor networks (WSNs in order to feed incipient smart city IT systems with metropolitan data. In the future smart cities, WSN technology will have a massive presence in the streets, and the operation of municipal services will be based to a great extent on data gathered with this technology. However, from an information security point of view, WSNs can have failures and can be the target of many different types of attacks. Therefore, this raises concerns about the reliability of this technology in a smart city context. Traditionally, security measures in WSNs have been proposed to protect specific protocols in an environment with total control of a single network. This approach is not valid for smart cities, as multiple external providers deploy a plethora of WSNs with different security requirements. Hence, a new security perspective needs to be adopted to protect WSNs in smart cities. Considering security issues related to the deployment of WSNs as a main data source in smart cities, in this article, we propose an intrusion detection framework and an attack classification schema to assist smart city administrators to delimit the most plausible attacks and to point out the components and providers affected by incidents. We demonstrate the use of the classification schema providing a proof of concept based on a simulated selective forwarding attack affecting a parking and a sound WSN.

  15. Extending Conceptual Schemas with Business Process Information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Brambilla

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The specification of business processes is becoming a more and more critical aspect for organizations. Such processes are specified as workflow models expressing the logical precedence among the different business activities (i.e., the units of work. Typically, workflow models are managed through specific subsystems, called workflow management systems, to ensure a consistent behavior of the applications with respect to the organization business process. However, for small organizations and/or simple business processes, the complexity and capabilities of these dedicated workflow engines may be overwhelming. In this paper, we therefore, advocate for a different and lightweight approach, consisting in the integration of the business process specification within the system conceptual schema. We show how a workflow-extended conceptual schema can be automatically obtained, which serves both to enforce the organization business process and to manage all its relevant domain data in a unified way. This extended model can be directly processed with current CASE tools, for instance, to generate an implementation of the system (including its business process in any technological platform.

  16. Exploring the cognitive schemas as individual or group structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arzenšek

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes some features of the theory of cognitive schemas. The discussion focuses on the issue of appropriate level to explore the cognitive schemas: the individual-, above individual- or the level of larger social systems, depending on the characteristics of social cognition and the nature of cognitive schemas. Currently researchers of cognitive schemas focus on the interaction between motivational, cognitive and other personal and situational variables and on their influence on behavior. Cognitive schemas are seen as the result of mutual interplay between personal, environmental and situational variables. The answer to the appropriate level of exploration question is found to depend on the paradigm within which the individual researchers work and also on the nature of the research problem.

  17. Schema Therapy in Sex Therapy: A Theoretical Conceptualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derby, Danny S; Peleg-Sagy, Tal; Doron, Guy

    2016-10-01

    Schema therapy is an integrative approach of psychotherapy developed by Jeffrey E. Young. Its aim is to help clients explore and understand their deep emotional needs and meet them in a healthy manner. It is suitable for complex pathologies, such as comorbidities and personality disorders. In sex therapy, schema therapy can serve as a method for a deep, evidence-based, integrative conceptualization of a client's difficulties and needs. However, its principles have never been demonstrated in sex therapy. In this paper, we briefly review schema therapy and introduce schema domains. We bring a case study of a couple undergoing sex therapy from the cognitive-behavioral perspective. We then return to the same case study, in order to demonstrate the usefulness of a schema therapy conceptualization.

  18. Maladaptive schemas and psychopathology in adolescence: on the utility of Young’s schema theory in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlierberghe, L.; Braet, C.; Bosmans, G.; Rosseel, Y.; Bogels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present article reports on two studies that investigated the utility of Young’s cognitive theory Young et al. (Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide, Guilford Publications, New York, 2003) in adolescents. Study 1 focused on the factorial validity of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in youth

  19. How the Media Effects Schema and the Persuasion Ethics Schema Affect Audience Responses to Antismoking Campaign Messages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paek, Hye-Jin; Hove, Thomas

    2017-02-03

    This study examines the roles that the media effects and persuasion ethics schemas play in people's responses to an antismoking ad in South Korea. An online experiment was conducted with 347 adults. The media effects schema was manipulated with news stories on an antismoking campaign's effectiveness, while the persuasion ethics schema was measured and median-split. Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) tests were performed for issue attitudes (Iatt), attitude toward the ad (Aad), and behavioral intention (BI). Results show significant main effects of the media effects schema on the three dependent variables. People in the weak media effects condition had significantly lower Iatt, Aad, and BI than those in either the strong media effects condition or the control condition. This pattern was more pronounced among smokers. While there was no significant main effect of the persuasion ethics schema on any of the dependent variables, a significant interaction effect for persuasion ethics schema and smoking status was found on behavioral intention (BI). Nonsmokers' BI was significantly higher than smokers' in the low-persuasion ethics schema condition, but it was not significant in the high-persuasion ethics schema condition.

  20. [The mediating role of the interpersonal schemas between parenting styles and psychological symptoms: a schema focused view].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soygüt, Gonca; Cakir, Zehra

    2009-01-01

    The first aim of this study was to examine the relationships between perceived parenting styles and interpersonal schemas. The second purpose was to investigate the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms. University students (N=94), ages ranging between 17-26, attending to different faculty and classes, have completed Interpersonal Schema Questionnaire, Young Parenting Inventory and Symptom Check List-90. A series of regression analyses revealed that perceived parenting styles have predictive power on a number of interpersonal schemas. Further analyses pointed out that the mediator role of Hostility situation of interpersonal schemas between psychological symptoms and normative, belittling/criticizing, pessimistic/worried parenting styles on the mother forms (Sobel z= 1.94-2.08, p parenting styles (Sobel z= 2.20-2.86, p parenting styles on interpersonal schemas. Moreover, the mediator role of interpersonal schemas between perceived parenting styles and psychological symptoms was also observed. Excluding pessimistic/anxious parenting styles, perceived parenting styles of mothers and fathers differed in their relation to psychological symptoms. In overall evaluation, we believe that, although schemas and parental styles have some universalities in relation to their impacts on psychological health, further research is necessary to address their implications and possible paternal differences in our collectivistic cultural context.

  1. Maladaptive schemas and psychopathology in adolescence: on the utility of Young’s schema theory in youth

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vlierberghe, L.; Braet, C.; Bosmans, G.; Rosseel, Y.; Bogels, S.M.

    2010-01-01

    The present article reports on two studies that investigated the utility of Young’s cognitive theory Young et al. (Schema therapy: A practitioner’s guide, Guilford Publications, New York, 2003) in adolescents. Study 1 focused on the factorial validity of the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in

  2. Onomatopoeias: a new perspective around space, image schemas and phoneme clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catricalà, Maria; Guidi, Annarita

    2015-09-01

    Onomatopoeias (Diccionario de onomatopeyas del comic. Cattedra, Madrid, 2008:1.000 lemmas; corpora: Zlatev in Sound symbolism and cross-modal iconicity in language, Università Roma Tre, Rome, 2013; algorithms: Asaga et al. in Onomatopedia, pp 601-612, 2008) has been related to onomatopoeias since Cratilo's analysis of the analogical dimension of verbal language. Nonetheless, it is still difficult to accept a (semantic, functional or grammatical) descriptive and explicative model of onomatopoeia, because the rules that constrain processes of selection and construction remain idiosyncratic and variable (Dogana in Le parole dell'incanto. FrancoAngeli, Milano, 2002; Catricalà 2011). This article proposes a classification model based on spatial cognition criteria. The hypothesis (Catricalà 2011) is that onomatopoeias are related to image schemas (Johnson in The body in the mind. University Press, Chicago, 1987), i.e. to the visual mapping of a movement. We also refer to force dynamic (Talmy in Language typology and lexical description, pp 36-149, 1985; Jackendoff in Semantic structures. MIT Press, Cambridge, 1990) as a basic model of conceptual maps (Langacker in Grammar and conceptualization. Mouton de Gruyter, Berlin, 1999). Categories are related to the presence of specific phonemes and phoneme clusters, while visual patterns correspond to different image schemas. The association between specific categories of pseudo-onomatopoeias and specific spatial/movement patterns is also the object of an experiment focused on onomatopoeia interpretation. Most part of data confirms a correlation between image schemas as CONTAINER/CONTAINMENT (crunch, plop) or SOURCE-PATH-GOAL (tattarrattat 'shots') and an occlusive consonant, while liquid and trill consonants correlate with PATH (vroom).

  3. Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form: Colombian validation [Young Schema Questionnaire – Short Form, Validación en Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Helena Londoño Arredondo

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the factor structure of the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form ([YSQ-SF], Young, 1999 and the gender differences in early maladaptive schemas. The study took place in Colombia, where 1392 university students (541 male y 851 female completed the YSQ-SF. The results confirmed the existence of the original 15 first-order factors, in consistency with the 15 theoretical schemas. However, the results for the second-order structure were less conclusive, as both a three second order factor and a five second order factor structures showed similar fit indices. Alpha coefficients for the schemas rated between 0.74 and 0.89. Men scored higher than women on several schemas.

  4. A General Schema for Constructing One-Point Bases in the Lambda Calculus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a schema for constructing one-point bases for recursively enumerable sets of lambda terms. The novelty of the approach is that we make no assumptions about the terms for which the one-point basis is constructed: They need not be combinators and they may contain constants...... and free variables. The significance of the construction is twofold: In the context of the lambda calculus, it characterises one-point bases as ways of ``packaging'' sets of terms into a single term; And in the context of realistic programming languages, it implies that we can define a single procedure...

  5. Automatic acquisition of sublanguage semantic schema: towards the word sense disambiguation of clinical narratives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Olga; Igo, Sean; Hurdle, John F

    2010-11-13

    Natural language processing of clinical notes is challenging due to a high degree of semantic ambiguity. Previous research has uncovered ways to improve disambiguation accuracy using manually created rules of semantic sentence structure. However, applying a natural language processing system in a new clinical domain using this method is very labor intensive. This paper presents an automatic method of developing such disambiguation rules for a wide range of clinical domains. Our rules are based on the co-occurrence patterns of semantic types of terms unambiguously mapped to UMLS concepts by MetaMap. These patterns are combined into a sublanguage semantic schema that can be used by an existing natural language processing system such as MetaMap. The differences of co-occurrence patterns across clinical notes of different domains are presented here as evidence of clinical sublanguages.

  6. Implementation of UML Schema to RDBM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagni, M.; Ventouras, S.; Parton, G.

    2012-04-01

    Multiple disciplines - especially those within the earth and physical sciences, and increasingly those within social science and medical fields - require Geographic Information (GI) i.e. information concerning phenomena implicitly or explicitly associated with a location relative to the Earth [1]. Therefore geographic datasets are increasingly being shared, exchanged and frequently used for purposes other than those for which they were originally intended. The ISO Technical Committee 211 (ISO/TC 211) together with Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) provide a series of standards and guidelines for developing application schemas which should: a) capture relevant conceptual aspects of the data involved; and b) be sufficient to satisfy previously defined use-cases of a specific or cross-domain concerns. In addition, the Hollow World technology offers an accessible and industry-standardised methodology for creating and editing Application Schema UML models which conform to international standards for interoperable GI [2]. We present a technology which seamlessly transforms an Application Schema UML model to a relational database model (RDBM). This technology, using the same UML information model, complements the XML transformation of an information model produced by the FullMoon tool [2]. In preparation for the generation of a RDBM the UML model is first mapped to a collection of OO classes and relationships. Any external dependencies that exist are then resolved through the same mechanism. However, a RDBM does not support a hierarchical (relational) data structure - a function that may be required by UML models. Previous approaches have addressed this problem through use of nested sets or an adjacent list to represent such structure. Our unique strategy addresses the hierarchical data structure issue, whether singular or multiple inheritance, by hiding a delegation pattern within an OO class. This permits the object-relational mapping (ORM) software used to generate the

  7. A Comparison of the Effects of Image-Schema-Based Instruction and Translation-Based Instruction on the Acquisition of L2 Polysemous Words

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morimoto, Shun; Loewen, Shawn

    2007-01-01

    This quasi-experimental study investigated the effectiveness of two types of vocabulary instruction--image-schema-based instruction (ISBI) and translation-based instruction (TBI)--on the acquisition of second language (L2) polysemous words. Fifty-eight Japanese high school learners of English were divided into two treatment groups (ISBI and TBI)…

  8. Mirror System Activity for Action and Language Is Embedded in the Integration of Dorsal and Ventral Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal…

  9. Mirror System Activity for Action and Language Is Embedded in the Integration of Dorsal and Ventral Pathways

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbib, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    We develop the view that the involvement of mirror neurons in embodied experience grounds brain structures that underlie language, but that many other brain regions are involved. We stress the cooperation between the dorsal and ventral streams in praxis and language. Both have perceptual and motor schemas but the perceptual schemas in the dorsal…

  10. Equity Theory Ratios as Causal Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexios Arvanitis

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Equity theory approaches justice evaluations based on ratios of exchange inputs to exchange outcomes. Situations are evaluated as just if ratios are equal and unjust if unequal. We suggest that equity ratios serve a more fundamental cognitive function than the evaluation of justice. More particularly, we propose that they serve as causal schemas for exchange outcomes, that is, they assist in determining whether certain outcomes are caused by inputs of other people in the context of an exchange process. Equality or inequality of ratios in this sense points to an exchange process. Indeed, Study 1 shows that different exchange situations, such as disproportional or balanced proportional situations, create perceptions of give-and-take on the basis of equity ratios. Study 2 shows that perceptions of justice are based more on communicatively accepted rules of interaction than equity-based evaluations, thereby offering a distinction between an attribution and an evaluation cognitive process for exchange outcomes.

  11. Improving Schema Matching with Linked Data

    CERN Document Server

    Assaf, Ahmad; Senart, Aline; Follenfant, Corentin; Troncy, Raphaël; Trastour, David

    2012-01-01

    With today's public data sets containing billions of data items, more and more companies are looking to integrate external data with their traditional enterprise data to improve business intelligence analysis. These distributed data sources however exhibit heterogeneous data formats and terminologies and may contain noisy data. In this paper, we present a novel framework that enables business users to semi-automatically perform data integration on potentially noisy tabular data. This framework offers an extension to Google Refine with novel schema matching algorithms leveraging Freebase rich types. First experiments show that using Linked Data to map cell values with instances and column headers with types improves significantly the quality of the matching results and therefore should lead to more informed decisions.

  12. Resources Allocation Schemas for Web Information Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Kang; SHEN Meiming; ZHENG Weimin

    2005-01-01

    The web is an extremely dynamic world where information is updated even every second. A web information monitoring system fetches information from the web continuously and finds changes by comparing two versions of the same page. The updating of a specific web page is modeled as a Poisson process with parameter to indicate the change frequency. As the amount of computing resources is limited, it is necessary to find some policies for reducing the overall change-detection time. Different allocation schemas are evaluated experimentally to find out which one is the most suitable for the web information monitoring problem. The experimental data shows the runtime characteristics of the overall system performance and the relationship to the total amount of resources.

  13. Type Checking with XML Schema in XACT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kirkegaard, Christian; Møller, Anders

    ACT is an extension of Java for making type-safe XML transformations. Unlike other approaches, XACT provides a programming model based on XML templates and XPath together with a type checker based on data-flow analysis. We show how to extend the data-flow analysis technique used in the XACT system...... to support XML Schema as type formalism. The technique is able to model advanced features, such as type derivations and overloaded local element declarations, and also datatypes of attribute values and character data. Moreover, we introduce optional type annotations to improve modularity of the type checking....... The resulting system supports a flexible style of programming XML transformations and provides static guarantees of validity of the generated XML data....

  14. Love Schemas, Preferences in Romantic Partners, and Reactions to Commitment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guy Bachman

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Researchers have proposed that people possess different love schemas and that these schemas may shape romantic preferences and reactions to impending commitments.In Study 1, we tested two hypotheses: Hypothesis 1: Men and women will prefer potential dates who possess an “ideal” love schema (i.e., the secure. Hypothesis 2: If the ideal is unavailable, men and women will prefer potential dates whose love schemas are similar to their own. In order to test these hypotheses, men and women from the University of Hawaii, who varied in love schemas, were asked to indicate their preferences for potential romantic partners who varied in physical attractiveness, body type, and love schemas. It was found that people did indeed prefer the ideal (the secure and (secondarily those who were similar to them in attachment style—be it clingy, skittish, casual, or disinterested.Study 2 was designed to test Hypothesis 3: Participants’ love schemas will shape their cognitions, feelings, and behaviors when they find themselves on the brink of making a serious romantic commitment. In order to test this hypothesis, men and women from the University of Hawaii were surveyed. Again, as predicted, it was found that the more strongly men and women endorsed the secure schema, the more calm and confident (and the less fearful and trapped they felt when confronting pending commitments. The more strongly they endorsed the clingy, skittish, fickle, casual, and uninterested schemas, the less confident and calm and the more fearful and trapped they felt when confronting an impending commitment.

  15. Multilingual Schema Matching for Wikipedia Infoboxes

    CERN Document Server

    Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Huong; Nguyen, Hoa; Freire, Juliana

    2011-01-01

    Recent research has taken advantage of Wikipedia's multilingualism as a resource for cross-language information retrieval and machine translation, as well as proposed techniques for enriching its cross-language structure. The availability of documents in multiple languages also opens up new opportunities for querying structured Wikipedia content, and in particular, to enable answers that straddle different languages. As a step towards supporting such queries, in this paper, we propose a method for identifying mappings between attributes from infoboxes that come from pages in different languages. Our approach finds mappings in a completely automated fashion. Because it does not require training data, it is scalable: not only can it be used to find mappings between many language pairs, but it is also effective for languages that are under-represented and lack sufficient training samples. Another important benefit of our approach is that it does not depend on syntactic similarity between attribute names, and thu...

  16. A Semantic Analysis of XML Schema Matching for B2B Systems Integration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jaewook

    2011-01-01

    One of the most critical steps to integrating heterogeneous e-Business applications using different XML schemas is schema matching, which is known to be costly and error-prone. Many automatic schema matching approaches have been proposed, but the challenge is still daunting because of the complexity of schemas and immaturity of technologies in…

  17. Estimating similarity of XML Schemas using path similarity measure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veena Trivedi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an attempt has been made to develop an algorithm which estimates the similarity for XML Schemas using multiple similarity measures. For performing the task, the XML Schema element information has been represented in the form of string and four different similarity measure approaches have been employed. To further improve the similarity measure, an overall similarity measure has also been calculated. The approach used in this paper is a distinguished one, as it calculates the similarity between two XML schemas using four approaches and gives an integrated values for the similarity measure. Keywords-componen

  18. How we see others: the psychobiology of schemas and transference.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stein, Dan J

    2009-01-01

    Social cognition involves automatic and stimulus-driven processes; these may be important in mediating stereotypes in the community and schemas and transference in the clinic setting. Significant differences in self-related processing and other-related processing may also lead to important biases in our view of the other. The psychobiology of social cognition is gradually being delineated, and may be useful in understanding these phenomena, and in responding appropriately. In the clinic, schemas can be rigorously assessed, and schema-focused psychotherapy may be useful in a number of indications.

  19. In Vivo Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Genes Required for Enhanced Colonization of the Mouse Urinary Tract by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain CFT073 dsdA▿ †

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haugen, Brian J.; Pellett, Shahaireen; Redford, Peter; Hamilton, Holly L.; Roesch, Paula L.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2007-01-01

    Deletional inactivation of the gene encoding d-serine deaminase, dsdA, in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 results in a hypermotile strain with a hypercolonization phenotype in the bladder and kidneys of mice in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). The in vivo gene expression profiles of CFT073 and CFT073 dsdA were compared by isolating RNA directly from the urine of mice challenged with each strain individually. Hybridization of cDNAs derived from these samples to CFT073-specific microarrays allowed identification of genes that were up- or down-regulated in the dsdA deletion strain during UTI. Up-regulated genes included the known d-serine-responsive gene dsdX, suggesting in vivo intracellular accumulation of d-serine by CFT073 dsdA. Genes encoding F1C fimbriae, both copies of P fimbriae, hemolysin, OmpF, a dipeptide transporter DppA, a heat shock chaperone IbpB, and clusters of open reading frames with unknown functions were also up-regulated. To determine the role of these genes as well as motility in the hypercolonization phenotype, mutants were constructed in the CFT073 dsdA background and tested in competition against the wild type in the murine model of UTI. Strains with deletions of one or both of the two P fimbrial operons, hlyA, fliC, ibpB, c0468, locus c3566 to c3568, or c2485 to c2490 colonized mouse bladders and kidneys at levels indistinguishable from wild type. CFT073 dsdA c2398 and CFT073 dsdA focA maintained a hypercolonization phenotype. A CFT073 dsdA dppA mutant was attenuated 10- to 50-fold in its colonization ability compared to CFT073. Our results support a role for d-serine catabolism and signaling in global virulence gene regulation of uropathogenic E. coli. PMID:17074858

  20. XML-based integration data model and schema mapping in multidatabase systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Ruixuan; Lu Zhengding; Xiao Weijun; Wu Wei

    2005-01-01

    Multidatabase systems are designed to achieve schema integration and data interoperation among distributed and heterogeneous database systems. But data model heterogeneity and schema heterogeneity make this a challenging task. A multidatabase common data model is firstly introduced based on XML, named XML-based Integration Data Model (XIDM), which is suitable for integrating different types of schemas. Then an approach of schema mappings based on XIDM in multidatabase systems has been presented. The mappings include global mappings, dealing with horizontal and vertical partitioning between global schemas and export schemas, and local mappings, processing the transformation between export schemas and local schemas. Finally, the illustration and implementation of schema mappings in a multidatabase prototype - Panorama system are also discussed. The implementation results demonstrate that the XIDM is an efficient model for managing multiple heterogeneous data sources and the approaches of schema mapping based on XIDM behave very well when integrating relational, object-oriented database systems and other file systems.

  1. Expression of a codon-optimized dsdA gene in tobacco plastids and rice nuclear confers D-serine tolerance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanmei eLi

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that the dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco chloroplast genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that the dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10 mM, 30 mM and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM. Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both chloroplast and nuclear transformation systems.

  2. Expression of a Codon-Optimized dsdA Gene in Tobacco Plastids and Rice Nucleus Confers D-Serine Tolerance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yanmei; Wang, Rui; Hu, Zongliang; Li, Hongcai; Lu, Shizhan; Zhang, Juanjuan; Lin, Yongjun; Zhou, Fei

    2016-01-01

    D-serine is toxic to plants. D-serine ammonia lyase, which is encoded by the dsdA gene, can attenuate this toxicity with high specificity. In the present study, we explored the function of codon-optimized dsdA with tobacco plastids and rice nuclear transformation system. It was shown that dsdA gene was site-specifically integrated into the tobacco plastid genome and displayed a high level of expression. Genetic analysis of the progenies showed that dsdA gene is maternally inherited and confers sufficient D-serine resistance in tobacco. The effective screening concentrations of D-serine for seed germination, callus regeneration and foliar spray were 10, 30, and 75 mM, respectively. In addition, calluses from homozygous transgenic rice lines also showed significant tolerance to D-serine (up to 75 mM). Our study proves the feasibility of using dsdA gene as a selectable marker in both plastid and nuclear transformation systems.

  3. Inpatient schema therapy for nonresponsive patients with personality pathology: Changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes, coping styles, experienced parenting styles, and mental well-being.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaap, Grietje M; Chakhssi, Farid; Westerhof, Gerben J

    2016-12-01

    This study provides an evaluation of group schema therapy (ST) for inpatient treatment of patients with personality pathology who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Forty-two patients were assessed pre- and posttreatment, and 35 patients were evaluated at follow-up 6 months later. The results showed a dropout rate of 35%. Those who dropped out did not differ from those who completed treatment with regard to demographic and clinical variables; the only exception was that those who dropped out showed a lower prevalence of mood disorders. Furthermore, intention-to-treat analyses showed a significant improvement in maladaptive schemas, schema modes, maladaptive coping styles, mental well-being, and psychological distress after treatment, and these improvements were maintained at follow-up. On the other hand, there was no significant change in experienced parenting style as self-reported by patients. Changes in schemas and schema modes measured from pre- to posttreatment were predictive of general psychological distress at follow-up. Overall, these preliminary findings suggest that positive treatment results can be obtained with group ST-based inpatient treatment for patients who did not respond to previous psychotherapeutic interventions. Moreover, these findings are comparable with treatment results for patients without such a nonresponsive treatment history. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved).

  4. Data Warehouse Schema Evolution and Adaptation Framework Using Ontology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.Thenmozhi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Data Warehouse systems aim at integrating data from multiple heterogeneous, distributed, autonomous data sources. Due to changing business needs the data warehouse systems are never meant to be static. Changes in the data source structure or business requirements would result in the evolution of data warehouse schema structure. When data warehouse schema evolves the dependent modules such as its mappings, queries and views gets affected. The existing works on data warehouse evolution focus only on schema evolution at the physical level. As ontology seems to be a promising solution in data warehouse research, the proposed framework handles data warehouse schema evolution at ontological level. Moreover, it analyses the impact of the dependent modules and proposes methods to automatically adapt to changes.

  5. [Schema therapy for personality disorders. A critical review].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, E; Zarbock, G

    2015-01-01

    In the 10 years since schema therapy was first recognized in Germany it has become widespread among practitioners and has taken a place among the so-called third wave therapies. The overall goal of schema therapy is conceptualizing and treating personality disorders or traits reinforcing axis I disorders. Early maladaptive schemas result from a child's unmet emotional core needs. In a limited reparenting therapy relationship these interpersonal situations are re-experienced and rescripted under the therapist's control. Schema therapy integrates elements of existing models and techniques into a consistent case conceptualization as the bedrock for understanding and changing maladaptive coping behavior. This review article gives a comprehensive overview about the model, the therapy relationship and the application of the experiential techniques in relation to already developed approaches (including the current evidence). The strengths and weaknesses are briefly discussed.

  6. [Schema therapy: an integrative approach for personality disorders].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roediger, Eckhard; Dieckmann, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Schema Therapy (ST) is a comprehensive approach deriving from cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for the treatment of chronic personality problems. ST extends CBT in 3 major issues: 1. The Schema-Mode-Model. 2. The therapeutic relationship. 3. The intensive use of experiential techniques. Schemas are persistent, rigid, and dysfunctional patterns preventing the patient from further personal emotive-interpersonal development. The central focus of the therapeutic process is the relationship between the therapist and the patient. Supported by the therapeutic relationship the patient gets in touch with painful childhood experiences. In ST, the core schemas are identified, put into a biographical context, and weakened by using several specific therapeutic techniques including experiential methods and strategies taken from Gestalt therapy that enrich traditional CBT techniques.

  7. An Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis of Schema Modes in a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A schema therapy approach to eating disorders, the focus of the present papers, ... ST is one of several therapies that focus on the multi- plicity of ...... Outpatient psychotherapy for borderline personality disorder: Randomized controlled trial of.

  8. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    .... The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development...

  9. An Adaptive Approach to Schema Classification for Data Warehouse Modeling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong-Ding Wang; Yun-Hai Tong; Shao-Hua Tan; Shi-Wei Tang; Dong-Qing Yang; Guo-Hui Sun

    2007-01-01

    Data warehouse (DW) modeling is a complicated task, involving both knowledge of business processes and familiarity with operational information systems structure and behavior. Existing DW modeling techniques suffer from the following major drawbacks -data-driven approach requires high levels of expertise and neglects the requirements of end users, while demand-driven approach lacks enterprise-wide vision and is regardless of existing models of underlying operational systems. In order to make up for those shortcomings, a method of classification of schema elements for DW modeling is proposed in this paper. We first put forward the vector space models for subjects and schema elements, then present an adaptive approach with self-tuning theory to construct context vectors of subjects, and finally classify the source schema elements into different subjects of the DW automatically. Benefited from the result of the schema elements classification, designers can model and construct a DW more easily.

  10. A Research of Schema Theory in English Listening Teaching

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霞

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, English listening is playing a more and more important role in English teaching. And the research of listening is becoming the key point. The Schema Theory, based on the cognitive psychology, is becoming a new way in English teaching. It is a reform to the traditional listening teaching, which can give full play to students’ initiative. This paper wil make a study on the Schema Theory used in English Listening Teaching.

  11. Comparing of Early Maladaptive Schemas between Healthy and Addicted Men

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vida Razavi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Early maladaptive schemas are self-defeating emotional and cognitive patterns that develop early in life and repeat during the life cycle. They may cause a lot of psychological disorders including anxiety, depression, and drug abuse. Regarding to the importance of the prevention and treatment of addiction and regarding to obscurity of schemas about addiction, we compared the schemas of addicted and non-addicted men. Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, 205 addicted and non-addicted men were selected in the city of Kerman through cluster sampling. To collect information, a questionnaire with acceptable validity and reliability consisting of demographic information and early maladaptive schemas was used. Data analysis was performed with SPSS-17 software.Results: Totally, 96 addicted and 106 non-addicted men with a mean age of 33.3±9.8 years participated in the study. There were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas in two groups of addicted and non-addicted men (p=0.001. Logistic regression analysis showed that enmeshment, emotional deprivation, and vulnerability to harm or illness maladaptive schemas can predict addiction (p=0.001.Conclusion: According to this study, the most important schemas for addicted men are emotional deprivation, self-sacrifice, emotional inhibition, unrelenting standards, entitlement, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, and disconnection as well as enmeshment, vulnerability to harm or illness, and emotional deprivation predictor schemas that require special notion from related institutions and addiction therapist for addiction rehabilitation and prevention.

  12. Nonparametric Bayesian Modeling for Automated Database Schema Matching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ferragut, Erik M [ORNL; Laska, Jason A [ORNL

    2015-01-01

    The problem of merging databases arises in many government and commercial applications. Schema matching, a common first step, identifies equivalent fields between databases. We introduce a schema matching framework that builds nonparametric Bayesian models for each field and compares them by computing the probability that a single model could have generated both fields. Our experiments show that our method is more accurate and faster than the existing instance-based matching algorithms in part because of the use of nonparametric Bayesian models.

  13. Schema-conformant memories are preferentially consolidated during REM sleep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durrant, Simon J; Cairney, Scott A; McDermott, Cathal; Lewis, Penelope A

    2015-07-01

    Memory consolidation is most commonly described by the standard model, which proposes an initial binding role for the hippocampus which diminishes over time as intracortical connections are strengthened. Recent evidence suggests that slow wave sleep (SWS) plays an essential role in this process. Existing animal and human studies have suggested that memories which fit tightly into an existing knowledge framework or schema might use an alternative consolidation route in which the medial prefrontal cortex takes on the binding role. In this study we sought to investigate the role of sleep in this process using a novel melodic memory task. Participants were asked to remember 32 melodies, half of which conformed to a tonal schema present in all enculturated listeners, and half of which did not fit with this schema. After a 24-h consolidation interval, participants were asked to remember a further 32 melodies, before being given a recognition test in which melodies from both sessions were presented alongside some previously unheard foils. Participants remembered schema-conformant melodies better than non-conformant ones. This was much more strongly the case for consolidated melodies, suggesting that consolidation over a 24-h period preferentially consolidated schema-conformant items. Overnight sleep was monitored between the sessions, and the extent of the consolidation benefit for schema-conformant items was associated with both the amount of REM sleep obtained and EEG theta power in frontal and central regions during REM sleep. Overall our data suggest that REM sleep plays a crucial role in the rapid consolidation of schema-conformant items. This finding is consistent with previous results from animal studies and the SLIMM model of Van Kesteren, Ruiter, Fernández, and Henson (2012), and suggest that REM sleep, rather than SWS, may be involved in an alternative pathway of consolidation for schema-conformant memories.

  14. Group schema therapy for eating disorders: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simpson, Susan G; Morrow, Emma; van Vreeswijk, Michiel; Reid, Caroline

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g) in a case series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential, and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioral change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame, and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post-therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviors, whilst providing a de-stigmatizing and de-shaming therapeutic experience.

  15. Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders: A Pilot Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susan G Simpson

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the use of Group Schema Therapy for Eating Disorders (ST-E-g in a case-series of eight participants with chronic eating disorders and high levels of co-morbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included cognitive, experiential and interpersonal strategies, with an emphasis on behavioural change. Specific schema-based strategies focused on bodily felt-sense and body-image, as well as emotional regulation skills. Six attended until end of treatment, two dropped-out at mid-treatment. Eating disorder severity, global schema severity, shame and anxiety levels were reduced between pre- and post therapy, with a large effect size at follow-up. Clinically significant improvement in eating severity was found in four out of six completers. Group completers showed a mean reduction in schema severity of 43% at post-treatment, and 59% at follow-up. By follow-up, all completers had achieved over 60% improvement in schema severity. Self-report feedback suggests that group factors may catalyze the change process in schema therapy by increasing perceptions of support and encouragement to take risks and try out new behaviours, whilst providing a de-stigmatising and de-shaming therapeutic experience.

  16. Metadata Schema Used in OCLC Sampled Web Pages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yu

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The tremendous growth of Web resources has made information organization and retrieval more and more difficult. As one approach to this problem, metadata schemas have been developed to characterize Web resources. However, many questions have been raised about the use of metadata schemas such as which metadata schemas have been used on the Web? How did they describe Web accessible information? What is the distribution of these metadata schemas among Web pages? Do certain schemas dominate the others? To address these issues, this study analyzed 16,383 Web pages with meta tags extracted from 200,000 OCLC sampled Web pages in 2000. It found that only 8.19% Web pages used meta tags; description tags, keyword tags, and Dublin Core tags were the only three schemas used in the Web pages. This article revealed the use of meta tags in terms of their function distribution, syntax characteristics, granularity of the Web pages, and the length distribution and word number distribution of both description and keywords tags.

  17. Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of Alcohol and Opioid Dependent Women: Do Schemas Vary Across Disorders?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Research suggests that there may be differences between individuals diagnosed with alcohol dependence and individuals diagnosed with opioid dependence on co-morbid mental health problems (e.g., personality disorders, mood disorders, etc.). The current study examined whether there were differences in early maladaptive schemas, which are theorized to underlie mental health problems, among women diagnosed with alcohol dependence or opioid dependence who were seeking treatment for their substance use (N = 420). Results showed that opioid dependent women scored higher on 2 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas, particularly the schemas of dependence and punitiveness. Overall, these findings suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be largely consistent across women diagnosed with alcohol or opioid dependence. Implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed. PMID:23494129

  18. Adult age differences in memory for schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in a real-world setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prull, Matthew W

    2015-01-01

    The present study examined age-related differences in the inconsistency effect, in which memory is enhanced for schema-inconsistent information compared to schema-consistent information. Young and older adults studied schema-consistent and schema-inconsistent objects in an academic office under either intentional or incidental encoding instructions, and were given two recognition tests either immediately or after 48 hr: A yes/no item recognition test that included modified remember/know judgments and a token recognition test that required determining whether an original object was replaced with a different object with the same name. Young and older adults showed equivalent inconsistency effects in both item and token recognition tests, although older adults reported phenomenologically less rich memories of schema-inconsistent objects relative to young adults. These findings run counter to previous reports suggesting that aging is associated with processing declines at encoding that impair memory for details of schema-inconsistent or distinctive events. The results are consistent with a retrieval-based account in which age-related difficulties in retrieving contextual details can be offset by environmental support.

  19. In Vivo Gene Expression Analysis Identifies Genes Required for Enhanced Colonization of the Mouse Urinary Tract by Uropathogenic Escherichia coli Strain CFT073 dsdA▿ †

    OpenAIRE

    Haugen, Brian J.; Pellett, Shahaireen; Redford, Peter; Hamilton, Holly L.; Roesch, Paula L.; Welch, Rodney A.

    2006-01-01

    Deletional inactivation of the gene encoding d-serine deaminase, dsdA, in uropathogenic Escherichia coli strain CFT073 results in a hypermotile strain with a hypercolonization phenotype in the bladder and kidneys of mice in a model of urinary tract infection (UTI). The in vivo gene expression profiles of CFT073 and CFT073 dsdA were compared by isolating RNA directly from the urine of mice challenged with each strain individually. Hybridization of cDNAs derived from these samples to CFT073-spe...

  20. Sources of emotional maltreatment and the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarthy, Molly C; Lumley, Margaret N

    2012-01-01

    Schema theory posits that experiences of maltreatment result in the early development of maladaptive schemas (EMS; Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003, Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide, The Guilford Press: New York, NY). EMS are organized by conditionality; unconditional schemas are theorized to develop early in childhood predominantly in response to experiences of parenting and conditional schemas are theorized to develop later in life in response to other relationships. Despite this distinction, minimal previous research has investigated their differential development. The current study examined the relative contributions of parental and other (peer and intimate partner) emotional maltreatment (EMT) in the differential development of unconditional and conditional schemas. Ninety-seven undergraduate students retrospectively reported their maltreatment experiences using the Lifetime Experiences Questionnaire and completed the Young Schema Questionnaire to measure EMS. Consistent with hypotheses, parental EMT was the strongest predictor of unconditional schemas. Unexpectedly, parental EMT also emerged as the strongest predictor of conditional schemas. Theoretical and clinical implications of these findings are discussed.

  1. DSD and Professionalism from a Multilateral View: Supplementing the Consensus Statement on the Basis of a Qualitative Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jürg C. Streuli

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Treatment and support of a child with DSD calls for experience and expertise in diagnosis, surgical techniques, understanding of psychosocial issues, and recognizing and accepting the significance of individual values of children, families, and support groups. The range of what is considered “appropriate” care and treatment is still very broad and critics point at major gaps between ethical guidelines and current clinical practice. Based on a qualitative study with 27 members of multidisciplinary teams and support groups, we supplement the professional consensus statements and current ethical guidelines with 14 requirements from four different perspectives, to characterize more fully the responsible treatment and support of children and families affected by DSD. Overall, our findings highlight the importance of close collaborations between different experts and a shift from the often simplified dispute about genital surgeries to a more holistic perspective with a long-term management strategy, which should serve as a cornerstone not only for clinical practice but also for future research and evaluation studies.

  2. SCHEMA CONGRUITY – A BASIS FOR EVALUATING AMBIENT ADVERTISING EFFECTIVENESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jurca Maria Alina

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper is to develop a theoretical basis for evaluating ambient advertising in relation to the schema. Ambient advertising, a creative form of out-of-home advertising that conveys direct and contextual messages by using and often altering existing elements of the environment in a way that surprises the target audience, appears to be a solution to the increasing clutter from the media. This study draws on the schema congruity theory to offer a better understanding of how consumers are processing information received from advertisements. Schemas are organized structures of knowledge and expectations that consumers develop in order to categorize the incoming information, and that they access every time they are experiencing a new situation. The schema-based approach is important in understanding consumer behavior because consumers are facing an environment filled with similar brands and products promoted by ads that sound and look alike. According to schema congruity theory information perceived as schema congruent offers a confortable feeling of familiarity and generates limited cognitive processing, whereas schema incongruent information generates surprise and triggers extensive cognitive processing in order to help individual make sense of the unusual situation. Taking into consideration the combination of the different levels of expectancy and relevancy there have been identified three congruency situations: extreme congruity, moderate incongruity and extreme incongruity. Existing research shows that moderate incongruent information offers the best results in recall and recognition and also the highest affect levels compared to extreme congruity and extreme incongruity. Based on evidence from literature this study attempts to position ambient advertising in the moderate incongruity category, thus theoretically proving the assumed effectiveness of this promotional tool. Therefore, this paper is a starting point in bringing the

  3. 图式视角下的高校网页翻译%Colleges and universities' web page translation under the perspective of schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彬彬

    2015-01-01

    图式形成于对外部世界的信息处理过程中,是世界知识的精神结构.中西方受众不同的图式要求高校网页翻译以受众为中心,保留对应图式,化解图式冲突,填补图式缺省,从而将源语所承载的信息最大限度传入译入语中并有效影响受众,实现高校外宣翻译目的.%The process of information processing pattern formed in the outside world, is the world's knowledge structure. Web translation between Chinese and western audience different schema requires colleges and universities to the audience as the center, keep the corresponding schema, dissolve the schema conflict, fill the schema of the default, thus the information carried by the source language is maximum incoming in the target language and effective influence audience, realize the heralded the translation purpose.

  4. Topological schemas of cognitive maps and spatial learning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrey eBabichev

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment---a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment---the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  5. Topological Schemas of Cognitive Maps and Spatial Learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babichev, Andrey; Cheng, Sen; Dabaghian, Yuri A

    2016-01-01

    Spatial navigation in mammals is based on building a mental representation of their environment-a cognitive map. However, both the nature of this cognitive map and its underpinning in neural structures and activity remains vague. A key difficulty is that these maps are collective, emergent phenomena that cannot be reduced to a simple combination of inputs provided by individual neurons. In this paper we suggest computational frameworks for integrating the spiking signals of individual cells into a spatial map, which we call schemas. We provide examples of four schemas defined by different types of topological relations that may be neurophysiologically encoded in the brain and demonstrate that each schema provides its own large-scale characteristics of the environment-the schema integrals. Moreover, we find that, in all cases, these integrals are learned at a rate which is faster than the rate of complete training of neural networks. Thus, the proposed schema framework differentiates between the cognitive aspect of spatial learning and the physiological aspect at the neural network level.

  6. An empirical test of schema mode conceptualizations in personality disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Van Vreeswijk, Michiel F; Arntz, Arnoud

    2008-07-01

    Although the use of schema modes in schema-focused therapy (SFT) has been very popular since its introduction, Young's schema mode concept remained largely empirically untested. In order to provide insight into the mode conceptualization of personality disorders (PDs), the current study assessed the relationships between 14 schema modes and all PDs. Relationships between dimensional PD scores and self-reported mode scores were tested in a mixed study group of 489 participants, consisting of axis I and axis II patients, and non-patients. Psychopathology was assessed by means of the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV axis I and axis II disorders (SCID I and SCID II) or the Structural Interview for DSM-IV Personality Disorders (SIDP-IV), and modes were assessed by the Schema Mode Inventory. Kendall's partial tau coefficients, controlling each PD-mode correlation for all other PD scores, indicated unique mode profiles for all PDs and corroborated most of the hypothesized PD-mode correlations, supporting the construct validity of the mode model. Nevertheless, the high number of correlations found for some PDs raises concerns about the specificity of the mode model. Implications for both research and therapy are discussed.

  7. A Metadata Schema for Geospatial Resource Discovery Use Cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darren Hardy

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available We introduce a metadata schema that focuses on GIS discovery use cases for patrons in a research library setting. Text search, faceted refinement, and spatial search and relevancy are among GeoBlacklight's primary use cases for federated geospatial holdings. The schema supports a variety of GIS data types and enables contextual, collection-oriented discovery applications as well as traditional portal applications. One key limitation of GIS resource discovery is the general lack of normative metadata practices, which has led to a proliferation of metadata schemas and duplicate records. The ISO 19115/19139 and FGDC standards specify metadata formats, but are intricate, lengthy, and not focused on discovery. Moreover, they require sophisticated authoring environments and cataloging expertise. Geographic metadata standards target preservation and quality measure use cases, but they do not provide for simple inter-institutional sharing of metadata for discovery use cases. To this end, our schema reuses elements from Dublin Core and GeoRSS to leverage their normative semantics, community best practices, open-source software implementations, and extensive examples already deployed in discovery contexts such as web search and mapping. Finally, we discuss a Solr implementation of the schema using a "geo" extension to MODS.

  8. The image schema and innate archetypes: theoretical and clinical implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merchant, John

    2016-02-01

    Based in contemporary neuroscience, Jean Knox's 2004 JAP paper 'From archetypes to reflective function' honed her position on image schemas, thereby introducing a model for archetypes which sees them as 'reliably repeated early developmental achievements' and not as genetically inherited, innate psychic structures. The image schema model is used to illustrate how the analyst worked with a patient who began life as an unwanted pregnancy, was adopted at birth and as an adult experienced profound synchronicities, paranormal/telepathic phenomena and visions. The classical approach to such phenomena would see the intense affectivity arising out of a ruptured symbiotic mother-infant relationship constellating certain archetypes which set up the patient's visions. This view is contrasted with Knox's model which sees the archetype an sich as a developmentally produced image schema underpinning the emergence of later imagery. The patient's visions can then be understood to arise from his psychoid body memory related to his traumatic conception and birth. The contemporary neuroscience which supports this view is outlined and a subsequent image schema explanation is presented. Clinically, the case material suggests that a pre-birth perspective needs to be explored in all analytic work. Other implications of Knox's image schema model are summarized.

  9. Comparison of Early Maladaptive Schemas in Neurotic Perfectionism and Non-

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borzoo Amirpour

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Perfectionist is an important psychological construct and it is highly relevant to education contexts because of the role that standards in general and perfectionism in particular play in the motivation, affect, cognitions, and performance of students. This study aimed at investigating the comparison of early maladaptive schemas in perfectionist and non-perfectionist middle school students of Kangavar city. Materials and Methods This cross sectional study was performed on 500 middle-school girl’s student of Kangavar city, who were selected using multistage randomized cluster sampling, completed the perfectionism questionnaire and schema inventory for children (SIC. The data were analyzed through descriptive (mean, SD, maximum, minimum, person product moment correlation, stepwise regression and inferential static (t-test. Results: The study demonstrated that perfectionist students gained significantly higher scores in the nine form eleven schemas, and results showed that there was a positive significant relationship among early maladaptive schemas and perfectionist, also unrelenting standards, subjugation, entitlement, enmeshment vulnerability, can predict perfectionist in students. Conclusion: Early maladaptive schema have important role in vulnerable to the perfectionist and they are appropriate components for psychological analysis of perfectionism.

  10. Web Database Schema Identification through Simple Query Interface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Ling; Zhou, Lizhu

    Web databases provide different types of query interfaces to access the data records stored in the backend databases. While most existing works exploit a complex query interface with multiple input fields to perform schema identification of the Web databases, little attention has been paid on how to identify the schema of web databases by simple query interface (SQI), which has only one single query text input field. This paper proposes a new method of instance-based query probing to identify WDBs' interface and result schema for SQI. The interface schema identification problem is defined as generating the fullcondition query of SQI and a novel query probing strategy is proposed. The result schema is also identified based on the result webpages of SQI's full-condition query, and an extended identification of the non-query attributes is proposed to improve the attribute recall rate. Experimental results on web databases of online shopping for book, movie and mobile phone show that our method is effective and efficient.

  11. Dating Violence Perpetration: Associations With Early Maladaptive Schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Strauss, Catherine; Zapor, Heather; Stuart, Gregory L

    2017-08-01

    Violence between dating couples is a serious and prevalent problem among college students (Shorey, Cornelius, & Bell, 2008). Social-cognitive theories of aggression (e.g., Berkowitz, 1990) propose that perpetrators may have more maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression than non-perpetrators. Thus, this study examined differences between perpetrators and non-perpetrators of dating violence on early maladaptive schemas, which are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003). Within a sample of female (n = 242) and male (n = 193) college students, results demonstrated that many early maladaptive schema domains were associated with psychological and physical dating violence perpetration, although mostly for women. In addition, the schema domain of impaired autonomy showed medium-to-large differences between female perpetrators and non-perpetrators, whereas the domain of impaired limits showed a medium-to-large difference for male perpetrators and non-perpetrators of physical aggression. These findings add to a growing body of literature on risk factors for dating violence, suggesting that early maladaptive schemas may be associated with individual differences in aggression risk. The results also further support social-cognitive models of aggressive behavior.

  12. Early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers and their intimate partners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2013-01-01

    The influence of intimate partners in the recovery of substance abuse has been increasingly recognized in the professional literature. Couples-based substance abuse treatment has demonstrated effectiveness in reducing substance abuse and increasing healthy couple functioning. Recently, research has begun to investigate enduring cognitive beliefs that may impact substance abusers and their intimate partners, which could advance our understanding of factors that may impact couple's functioning. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas and substance use of a sample of adult substance abusers who have sought residential substance abuse treatment and their intimate partners (N = 102). Results demonstrated that the early maladaptive schemas of patients and their intimate partners may be interrelated and that patients scored significantly higher than their partners on 13 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Substance use was only associated with a few early maladaptive schemas. These findings highlight the potential importance of assessing early maladaptive schemas in couples where one partner has a substance abuse problem. Implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas in the risk for bipolar spectrum disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawke, Lisa D; Provencher, Martin D; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-10-01

    The hypomanic personality style is a risk factor for bipolar spectrum disorders and shares many cognitive and affective features with the bipolar spectrum. Schema theory may serve as a unifying theory that would explain many of these features. This study is an exploratory investigation of Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) in association with the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum risk. A sample of 966 participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Hypomanic Personality Scale and the Patient Health Questionnaire. Associations were investigated using univariate and multivariate analyses. Participants deemed at risk of developing a bipolar disorder (N=107) were compared to low-risk controls (N=681). The Entitlement/Grandiosity and Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline positively predicted the risk of developing a bipolar disorder, while Emotional Inhibition negatively predicted risk. High-risk participants demonstrated higher mean scores on all EMSs except Emotional Inhibition. These three EMSs, combined with Vulnerability to Harm or Illness, significantly predicted group membership. A bipolar spectrum EMS profile was identified, consisting of Entitlement/Grandiosity, Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline and the absence of Emotional Inhibition. These EMSs are highly consistent with characteristics of the bipolar spectrum. This study supports the application of schema theory to the hypomanic personality and bipolar spectrum. Future research should explore the possible interaction between EMSs, life events and affective symptoms and the applicability of schema therapy to the bipolar spectrum. Crown Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Schema Therapy: An Approach for Treating Narcissistic Personality Disorder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dieckmann, E; Behary, W

    2015-08-01

    In this article, we review the history of the construct of narcissism and the diagnostic criteria for narcissistic personality disorder. We then discuss some etiological models of narcissism and introduce the model of Jeffrey Young, who developed Schema Therapy (ST) as an alternative to standard cognitive therapy for patients with personality disorders. ST differs from standard cognitive therapies in important respects, including limited reparenting, a focus on the patient's basic needs, and emotional activating techniques in addition to cognitive and behavioral ones. We then discuss Young's theory of basic needs, early maladaptive schemas, and schema modes. According to ST theory, narcissists are traumatized in the schema domain having to do with attachment needs. They are prone to vulnerable emotions in response to narcissistic injuries, although they often do not show these emotions directly. Instead, they use maladaptive coping strategies, resulting in emotional states, known as "schema modes". This includes the Self-Aggrandizer mode and Detached Self-Soother mode, in which a superior, arrogant self-presentation and addictive or compulsive behavior serve a self-regulatory function. These concepts are illustrated by case examples of patients with Narcissistic Personality Disorder. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  15. Schema change without schema therapy: the role of early maladaptive schemata for a successful treatment of major depression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Ingo; Alfter, Susanne; Geiser, Franziska; Liedtke, Reinhard; Conrad, Rupert

    2013-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemata (EMS) have repeatedly been shown to be associated with several psychopathological conditions, including depression. Schema therapy proposes interventions that aim at altering EMS. In the present study, we examined the effect of an integrative psychodynamic inpatient therapy without explicit focus on EMS in a sample with major depression. Forty-seven (38 female, 9 male) patients filled out the Symptom Checklist (SCL-90-R) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) at the beginning and end of the treatment. Results revealed that EMS were significantly reduced in three out of five schema domains. Strong endorsement of EMS at the beginning of treatment tended to predict symptom reduction. More importantly, the reduction of symptom distress during treatment was strongly associated with a reduction in EMS of the schema domain Impaired Autonomy/Performance. We discuss that changes in EMS are highly relevant for changes in symptom distress but that EMS can not only be changed by schema therapy but also by other approaches, like psychodynamic therapy.

  16. Trouble ahead, trouble behind: Narcissism and early maladaptive schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigler-Hill, Virgil; Green, Bradley A; Arnau, Randolph C; Sisemore, Teddi B; Myers, Erin M

    2011-03-01

    Narcissism is a multifaceted construct that is inconsistently defined and assessed between clinical psychology and social-personality psychology. The purpose of the present study was to examine the similarities and differences in the cognitive schemas underlying various forms of narcissism. This was accomplished by examining the associations of normal and pathological forms of narcissism with the early maladaptive schemas. The results showed important similarities in these associations (e.g., all of the narcissism scales were positively associated with the entitlement schema) as well as differences (e.g., vulnerable narcissism was the only form of narcissism that was positively associated with subjugation). Discussion focuses on the implications of these results for the ways in which individuals with these forms of narcissism perceive and navigate their social environments.

  17. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind's Parenting Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-06-01

    Families play an essential role in maintaining children's mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind's parenting styles (root development). A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind's parenting styles inventories. The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind's parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children's developmental needs, which is not acceptable.

  18. Cultural schemas for racial identity in Canadian television advertising.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Shyon; Ho, Loretta

    2014-05-01

    What meanings are attached to race in advertising? We analyze a sample of prime-time Canadian television advertising to identify cultural schemas for what it means to be White, Black, and East/Southeast Asian. Our empirical focus is on food and dining advertising. Through quantitative content analysis of associations between race and food subtypes, we show that there are systematic differences in the types of foods that groups are associated with. Through a qualitative content analysis of the commercials, we illuminate these quantitative patterns and discuss six cultural schemas for racial identity. The schemas allow for both diversity and privilege in the representation of Whites, and poignant contrasts regarding status and emotionality in the narrow representations of the other two groups.

  19. Antimnemonic effects of schemas in young and older adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badham, Stephen P; Maylor, Elizabeth A

    2016-01-01

    Schema-consistent material that is aligned with an individual's knowledge and experience is typically more memorable than abstract material. This effect is often more extreme in older adults and schema use can alleviate age deficits in memory. In three experiments, young and older adults completed memory tasks where the availability of schematic information was manipulated. Specifying nonobvious relations between to-be-remembered word pairs paradoxically hindered memory (Experiment 1). Highlighting relations within mixed lists of related and unrelated word pairs had no effect on memory for those pairs (Experiment 2). This occurred even though related word pairs were recalled better than unrelated word pairs, particularly for older adults. Revealing a schematic context in a memory task with abstract image segments also hindered memory performance, particularly for older adults (Experiment 3). The data show that processing schematic information can come with costs that offset mnemonic benefits associated with schema-consistent stimuli.

  20. Schemas and Borderline Personality Disorder symptoms in incarcerated women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Specht, Matt W; Chapman, Alex; Cellucci, Tony

    2009-06-01

    There is increasing interest regarding the role of maladaptive cognition in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). The current study examined the relationship between early maladaptive schema (EMS) domains and BPD symptoms as well as whether schema domains account for the relationship between childhood maltreatment and BPD severity. Incarcerated women (N=105) were assessed for BPD symptoms via semi-structured diagnostic interview. Disconnection/Rejection and Impaired Limits were associated with BPD pathology although these domains shared variance with depression and antisocial personality disorder pathology, respectively. In addition, the relationship between childhood abuse and BPD severity was non-significant after controlling for schema domains. Related findings and the implications for cognitive treatment of BPD are discussed.

  1. Evaluation Methodology for UML and GML Application Schemas Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chojka, Agnieszka

    2014-05-01

    INSPIRE Directive implementation in Poland has caused the significant increase of interest in making spatial data and services available, particularly among public administration and private institutions. This entailed a series of initiatives that aim to harmonise different spatial data sets, so to ensure their internal logical and semantic coherence. Harmonisation lets to reach the interoperability of spatial databases, then among other things enables joining them together. The process of harmonisation requires either working out new data structures or adjusting existing data structures of spatial databases to INSPIRE guidelines and recommendations. Data structures are described with the use of UML and GML application schemas. Although working out accurate and correct application schemas isn't an easy task. There should be considered many issues, for instance recommendations of ISO 19100 series of Geographic Information Standards, appropriate regulations for given problem or topic, production opportunities and limitations (software, tools). In addition, GML application schema is deeply connected with UML application schema, it should be its translation. Not everything that can be expressed in UML, though can be directly expressed in GML, and this can have significant influence on the spatial data sets interoperability, and thereby the ability to valid data exchange. For these reasons, the capability to examine and estimate UML and GML application schemas quality, therein also the capability to explore their entropy, would be very important. The principal subject of this research is to propose an evaluation methodology for UML and GML application schemas quality prepared in the Head Office of Geodesy and Cartography in Poland within the INSPIRE Directive implementation works.

  2. The Container Schema and its Usage in the Expression of Mystical Experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a mohamadi Asiabadi

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available One of the important theories of semantics is Cognitive Semantics. Among conceptual structures and processes approached by cognitive semanticists are image schemas. Image schemas are deep structures of cognitive metaphors that make relations between our physical experiences and cognitive fields possible. Based on the container schema, physical experience of being in a container is the base of man's experience of abstract concepts which are understood through this schema. The mystical experiences and concepts that represent being as an abstract thing in the abstract container can be analyzed through container schema and metaphors which are based on this schema. In this research, the concepts and symbols of the Noor (light verse, the Monotheism Word, the Heart's Approaches, the sea, Eighth Climate and its emerald cities are studied in terms of this schema. Based on the theory of Cognitive Semantics, the man can understand the abstract concepts and esoteric experiences of mysticism in terms of this schema.

  3. Early maladaptive schemas in adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Philipsen, Alexandra; Lam, Alexandra P; Breit, Sigrid; Lücke, Caroline; Müller, Helge H; Matthies, Swantje

    2017-06-01

    The main purpose of this study was to examine whether adult patients with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) demonstrate sets of dysfunctional cognitive beliefs and behavioural tendencies according to Jeffrey Young's schema-focused therapy model. Sets of dysfunctional beliefs (maladaptive schemas) were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2) in 78 adult ADHD patients and 80 control subjects. Patients with ADHD scored significantly higher than the control group on almost all maladaptive schemas. The 'Failure', 'Defectiveness/Shame', 'Subjugation' and 'Emotional Deprivation' schemas were most pronounced in adult ADHD patients, while only 'Vulnerability to Harm or Illness' did not differ between the two groups. The schemas which were most pronounced in adult patients with ADHD correspond well with their learning histories and core symptoms. By demonstrating the existence of early maladaptive schemas in adults suffering from ADHD, this study suggests that schema theory may usefully be applied to adult ADHD therapy.

  4. SRY mutation analysis by next generation (deep sequencing in a cohort of chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development (DSD patients with a mosaic karyotype

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hersmus Remko

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The presence of the Y-chromosome or Y chromosome-derived material is seen in 4-60% of Turner syndrome patients (Chromosomal Disorders of Sex Development (DSD. DSD patients with specific Y-chromosomal material in their karyotype, the GonadoBlastoma on the Y-chromosome (GBY region, have an increased risk of developing type II germ cell tumors/cancer (GCC, most likely related to TSPY. The Sex determining Region on the Y gene (SRY is located on the short arm of the Y-chromosome and is the crucial switch that initiates testis determination and subsequent male development. Mutations in this gene are responsible for sex reversal in approximately 10-15% of 46,XY pure gonadal dysgenesis (46,XY DSD cases. The majority of the mutations described are located in the central HMG domain, which is involved in the binding and bending of the DNA and harbors two nuclear localization signals. SRY mutations have also been found in a small number of patients with a 45,X/46,XY karyotype and might play a role in the maldevelopment of the gonads. Methods To thoroughly investigate the presence of possible SRY gene mutations in mosaic DSD patients, we performed next generation (deep sequencing on the genomic DNA of fourteen independent patients (twelve 45,X/46,XY, one 45,X/46,XX/46,XY, and one 46,XX/46,XY. Results and conclusions The results demonstrate that aberrations in SRY are rare in mosaic DSD patients and therefore do not play a significant role in the etiology of the disease.

  5. Effectiveness of Schema Therapy on Symptoms Intensity Reduction and Anxiety

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Sadegh Montazeri

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of schema therapy on symptoms intensity reduction and anxiety in a special case with obsessive compulsive personality disorder. In this study a single case method with A-B design was used on a woman with obsessive compulsive personality disorder that was diagnosed by semi-structure interview for axis I and II of DSM-IV-TR (SCID. Martukovich -s obsessive compulsive personality disorder questionnaire and Beck -s anxiety inventory were used to collect data. Schema therapy intervention was effective in symptom reduction of obsessive compulsive personality disorder.

  6. Schema for the LANL infrasound analysis tool, infrapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dannemann, Fransiska Kate [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Marcillo, Omar Eduardo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-04-14

    The purpose of this document is to define the schema used for the operation of the infrasound analysis tool, infrapy. The tables described by this document extend the CSS3.0 or KB core schema to include information required for the operation of infrapy. This document is divided into three sections, the first being this introduction. Section two defines eight new, infrasonic data processing-specific database tables. Both internal (ORACLE) and external formats for the attributes are defined, along with a short description of each attribute. Section three of the document shows the relationships between the different tables by using entity-relationship diagrams.

  7. Semi-structured Data Extraction and Schema Knowledge Mining

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A semi-structured data extraction method to get the us eful information embedded in a group of relevant web pages and store it with OE M(Object Exchange Model) is proposed. Then, the data mining method is adopted t o discover schema k nowledge implicit in the semi-structured data. This knowledge can make users un derstand the information structure on the web more deeply and thourouly. At the same time, it can also provide a kind of effective schema for the querying of we b information.

  8. Parametric Design of Outdoor Broadcasting Studio Based on Schema Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper mainly demonstrates that the schema is an important way for the architect to cognize architecture form logic. It connects schema to algorithm of parametric design in order to seek the “algorithm schema” generation in parametric design of architecture. Meanwhile, this paper discusses the generative process and methods of the “algorithm schema” in parametric design of architecture by describing a case of outdoor broadcasting studio of Hunan Economic Radio. It also reveals the importance of “algorithm schema” for the cognition and architectural form logic generation.

  9. Exploration on the Cognitive Schema and Its Transformation of Knowledge Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨从印; 严玲

    2007-01-01

    Knowledge management (KM) has been receiving considerable attention in the human-system research community. And it is one of the key issues on what the cognitive structure (schema) is and how it transfers. From different perspectives, such as the cognitive science, the concepts, elements and characteristics of cognitive schema, the knowledge structure, knowledge acquisition and influence of schema on it, this paper explores the cognitive schema of knowledge management.

  10. Semantic and phonological schema influence spoken word learning and overnight consolidation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havas, Viktória; Taylor, J S H; Vaquero, Lucía; de Diego-Balaguer, Ruth; Rodríguez-Fornells, Antoni; Davis, Matthew H

    2017-08-31

    We studied the initial acquisition and overnight consolidation of new spoken words that resemble words in the native language (L1) or in an unfamiliar, non-native language (L2). Spanish-speaking participants learned the spoken forms of novel words in their native language (Spanish) or in a different language (Hungarian), which were paired with pictures of familiar or unfamiliar objects, or no picture. We thereby assessed, in a factorial way, the impact of existing knowledge (schema) on word learning by manipulating both semantic (familiar vs. unfamiliar objects) and phonological (L1- vs. L2-like novel words) familiarity. Participants were trained and tested with a 12-hour intervening period that included overnight sleep or daytime awake. Our results showed; i) benefits of sleep to recognition memory that were greater for words with L2-like phonology; ii) that learned associations with familiar but not unfamiliar pictures enhanced recognition memory for novel words. Implications for complementary systems accounts of word learning are discussed.

  11. A Cognitive Therapy Approach to Increasing Father Involvement by Changing Restrictive Masculine Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahalik, James R.; Morrison, Jay A.

    2006-01-01

    Cognitive therapists may be able to help fathers increase their involvement with their children by identifying and changing restrictive masculine schemas that interfere with men's parenting roles. In this paper, we (a) discuss the development of restrictive masculine schemas, (b) explain how these schemas may affect men's involvement in fathering…

  12. A comparative study of patients and therapists' reports of schema modes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lobbestael, J.; Arntz, A.R.; Lobbes, A.; Cima, M.

    2009-01-01

    The current study assesses whether patients and therapists report similar levels of schema modes, one of the central features in Schema-Focused Therapy. Patient's self-report and therapists' report on an abbreviated Schema Mode Inventory were compared in a sample of 92 patients with antisocial, bord

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Sample of British Adolescent Sexual Abusers: Implications for Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richardson, Graeme

    2005-01-01

    This study describes the results of the administration of the Young Schema Questionnaire in a British sample of 54 sexually abusive adolescents. This questionnaire is a measurement of the 16 Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) as conceptualized by Young in his schema model of psychopathology. A clinical group of 40 was differentiated from a…

  14. Constraint-based query distribution framework for an integrated global schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Malik, Ahmad Kamran; Qadir, Muhammad Abdul; Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2009-01-01

    Distributed heterogeneous data sources need to be queried uniformly using global schema. Query on global schema is reformulated so that it can be executed on local data sources. Constraints in global schema and mappings are used for source selection, query optimization, and querying partitioned...

  15. The Activation and Application of Schema Theory in Pre-listening Activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程晓燕; 马媛

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, the author will base on the important function of schema applied in teaching English listening, analyze the definition and classification of schema theory. Then, explain how important it is in pre-listening activities to activate students’schema.

  16. Effects of schema group therapy in older outpatients : A proof of concept study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Videler, A.C.; Rossi, G.; Schoevaars, M.; van der Feltz, C.M.; van Alphen, S.P.J.

    2014-01-01

    Short-term group schema cognitive behavior therapy (SCBT-g) showed improvements in overall symptomatology, early maladaptive schemas (EMS) and schema modes, both in adults and adolescents with personality disorder (PD) features and long-standing mood disorders. However, no research has yet been carr

  17. ECG Rhythm Analysis with Expert and Learner-Generated Schemas in Novice Learners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blissett, Sarah; Cavalcanti, Rodrigo; Sibbald, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Although instruction using expert-generated schemas is associated with higher diagnostic performance, implementation is resource intensive. Learner-generated schemas are an alternative, but may be limited by increases in cognitive load. We compared expert- and learner-generated schemas for learning ECG rhythm interpretation on diagnostic accuracy,…

  18. Meta-Language Support for Type-Safe Access to External Resources

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hills, M.A.; Klint, P.; Vinju, J.J.; Czarnecki, K.; Hedin, G.

    2012-01-01

    Meta-programming applications often require access to heterogeneous sources of information, often from different technological spaces (grammars, models, ontologies, databases), that have specialized ways of defining their respective data schemas. Without direct language support, obtaining typed acce

  19. Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines machismo (strict adherence to traditional masculine gender identity) in terms of Bem's gender schema theory. Uses the example of a Mexican immigrant family facing social and cultural changes to demonstrate the dynamics of machismo and how it might lead to emotional problems and physical symptoms in Hispanic men and their families.…

  20. Partner Schemas and Relationship Functioning: A States of Mind Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatav, Yael; Whisman, Mark A.

    2009-01-01

    Cognitions such as relationship attributions and beliefs, measured by self-report, have been identified as robust correlates of relationship (e.g., marital) satisfaction. This study sought to build on the theory and assessment of cognitions in relationships by evaluating partner schemas, defined in terms of self-ratings and recall of positive and…

  1. Intelligent binary schema matching system in heterogeneity environment

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    For the past three decades, interoperability among heterogeneous systems had been a hard nut to crack due to the schematic and semantic perspectives that exist between objects. These systems were built under different data models. As such, levels of the local schemas are semantically very poor due to the limited expressiveness of traditional data models in which they were designed. Further more, most of the existing schema integration architectural conponents are inadequately equipped to handle the mapping schemas, especially when the semantics and structural conflicts are involved. This paper introduces an Intelligent Binary Schema Matching system (IBSMS), which exploits the phenomenon of making its components intelligent. That's equipping its components such as translators and integrators with adequate knowledge about various data models. This allows the components acquire enough intelligence to maneuver or manipulate the correspondence between constructs from different models. In addition, the system has a Binary Matcher, which compares the attribute correspondences of various databases in a pairwise form, in order to establish the equivalences. With the establishment of the mappings, the users shall be able to access them (mappings) for their desired usage.

  2. A systematic review of the evidence base for Schema Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masley, Samantha A; Gillanders, David T; Simpson, Susan G; Taylor, Morag A

    2012-01-01

    Schema Therapy is becoming an increasingly popular psychological model for working with individuals who have a variety of mental health and personality difficulties. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence base for Schema Therapy and highlight directions for further research. A systematic search of the literature was conducted up until January 2011. All studies that had clinically tested the efficacy of Schema Therapy as described by Jeffrey Young (1994 and 2003) were considered. These studies underwent detailed quality assessments based on Scottish Intercollegiate Guidelines Network (SIGN-50) culminating in 12 studies being included in the review. The culminative message (both from the popularity of this model and the medium-to-large effect sizes) is of a theory that has already demonstrated clinically effective outcomes in a small number of studies and that would benefit from ongoing research and development with complex client groups. It is imperative that psychological practice be guided by high-quality research that demonstrates efficacious, evidence-based interventions. It is therefore recommended that researchers and clinicians working with Schema Therapy seek to build on these positive outcomes and further demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of this model through ongoing research.

  3. The schema deceptiveness and deceptive problems of genetic algorithms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李敏强; 寇纪淞

    2001-01-01

    Genetic algorithms (GA) are a new type of global optimization methodology based on nature selection and heredity, and its power comes from the evolution process of the population of feasi ble solutions by using simple genetic operators. The past two decades saw a lot of successful industrial cases of GA application, and also revealed the urgency of practical theoretic guidance. This paper sets focus on the evolution dynamics of GA based on schema theorem and building block hypothesis (Schema Theory), which we thought would form the basis of profound theory of GA. The deceptiveness of GA in solving multi-modal optimization problems encoded on {0,1} was probed in detail. First,a series of new concepts are defined mathematically as the schemata containment, schemata competence. Then, we defined the schema deceptiveness and GA deceptive problems based on primary schemata competence, including fully deceptive problem, consistently deceptive problem, chronically deceptive problem, and fundamentally deceptive problem. Meanwhile, some novel propositions are formed on the basis of primary schemata competence. Finally, we use the trap function, a kind of bit unitation function, and a NiH function (needle-in-a-haystack) newly designed by the authors, to display the affections of schema deceptiveness on the searching behavior of GA.

  4. Parental Practices and the Development of Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunty, Amy L.; Buri, John R.

    2008-01-01

    The relationship between Young's (1999) Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and several parental variables was investigated. The parental variables of interest were: (a) Nurturance, (b) Authority, (c) Intrusiveness, (d) Psychological Control, (e) Overprotection, and (f) Parentification. Regression analyses revealed that these parental practices…

  5. Incremental Mining of the Schema of Semistructured Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Aoying; JIN Wen; ZHOU Shuigeng; QIAN Weining; TIAN Zenping

    2000-01-01

    Semistructured data are specified in lack of any fixed and rigid schema, even though typically some implicit structure appears in the data. The huge amounts of on-line applications make it important and imperative to mine the schema of semistructured data, both for the users (e.g., to gather useful information and facilitate querying) and for the systems (e.g., to optimize access). The critical problem is to discover the hidden structure in the semistructured data. Current methods in extracting Web data structure are either in a general way independent of application background, or bound in some concrete environment such as HTML, XML etc. But both face the burden of expensive cost and difficulty in keeping along with the frequent and complicated variances of Web data. In this paper, the problem of incremental mining of schema for semistructured data after the update of the raw data is discussed. An algorithm for incrementally mining the schema of semistructured data is provided, and some experimental results are also given, which show that incremental mining for semistructured data is more efficient than non-incremental mining.

  6. Hispanic Masculinity: Myth or Psychological Schema Meriting Clinical Consideration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casas, J. Manuel; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examines machismo (strict adherence to traditional masculine gender identity) in terms of Bem's gender schema theory. Uses the example of a Mexican immigrant family facing social and cultural changes to demonstrate the dynamics of machismo and how it might lead to emotional problems and physical symptoms in Hispanic men and their families.…

  7. The Role of Schema Salience in Ad Processing and Evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    J. Loef; G. Antonides (Gerrit); W.F. van Raaij (Fred)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractAdvertising grids such as the Rossiter-Percy grid (Rossiter & Percy 1991, 1997) propose that brand-matching advertising is more effective than brand-mismatching advertising. However, for the match hypothesis to hold the brand schema needs to be salient in ad processing and evaluation. In

  8. Representation of categories: metaphorical use of the container schema

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boot, I.; Pecher, D.

    2011-01-01

    In the present study we investigated whether the mental representation of the concept categories is represented by the container image schema (Lakoff & Johnson, 1980). In two experiments participants decided whether two pictures were from the same category (animal or vehicle). Pictures were

  9. Tuning Schema Matching Systems using Parallel Genetic Algorithms on GPU

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuting Feng

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Most recent schema matching systems combine multiple components, each of which employs a particular matching technique with several knobs. The multi-component nature has brought a tuning problem, that is to determine which components to execute and how to adjust the knobs (e.g., thresholds, weights, etc. of these components for domain users. In this paper, we present an approach to automatically tune schema matching systems using genetic algorithms. We match a given schema S against generated matching scenarios, for which the ground truth matches are known, and find a configuration that effectively improves the performance of matching S against real schemas. To search the huge space of configuration candidates efficiently, we adopt genetic algorithms (GAs during the tuning process. To promote the performance of our approach, we implement parallel genetic algorithms on graphic processing units (GPUs based on NVIDIA’s Compute Unified Device Architecture (CUDA. Experiments over four real-world domains with two main matching systems demonstrate that our approach provides more qualified matches over different domains.

  10. Building Schema: Exploring Content with Song Lyrics and Strategic Reading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stygles, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Teaching with song lyrics has many popular variations. The Common Core State Standards discourage pre-teaching, leaving students somewhat adrift. Song lyrics possess the potential to scaffold students' schema in select social studies topics. Using reciprocal teaching (Palinscar & Brown 1984) within the reading workshop students ponder…

  11. Computing a Canonical Polygonal Schema of an Orientable Triangulated Surface

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lazarus, Francis; Pocchiola, Michel; Vegter, Gert; Verroust, Anne

    2001-01-01

    A closed orientable surface of genus g can be obtained by appropriate identification of pairs of edges of a 4g-gon (the polygonal schema). The identified edges form 2g loops on the surface, that are disjoint except for their common end-point. These loops are generators of both the fundamental group

  12. XML Schema of PaGE-OM: fuge.xsd [

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available cters that identifies an abstract or physical resource. FuGE (http://fuge.sourceforge.net/) is a model of the shared compon...://www.omg.org/spec/PAGE-OM/20090722/snp schemaLocation=snp.xsd/> ... type=fuge:Ontology_source/> rce> The source... maxOccurs=1> A URI is short for Uniform Resource Identifier.

  13. Acquiring Software Design Schemas: A Machine Learning Perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harandi, Mehdi T.; Lee, Hing-Yan

    1991-01-01

    In this paper, we describe an approach based on machine learning that acquires software design schemas from design cases of existing applications. An overview of the technique, design representation, and acquisition system are presented. the paper also addresses issues associated with generalizing common features such as biases. The generalization process is illustrated using an example.

  14. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Depressed Women and Its Relationship with Depression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hacer Bolat KONUKÇU

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Objective: Schemas are deep enduring cognitive structures that are the source of dysfunctional cognitions, emotions and behaviors, activate after critical incidents in depression. A subset of schemas called Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMS which are hyphotised to arise from early traumatic and adverse life events are also claimed to be related with not only personality disorders but also mood disorders. In this study we aimed to investigate the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and depression and relationship between schema scores and depression severity in depressed women and compare it with non-depressed controls.Methods: 40 women attending to an outpatient psychiatry clinic and 30 healthy controls participated. All participants were assessed with SCID-1. Data were obtained by using a Sociodemographic Questionnaires, Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form 3 (YSQ and Beck Depression Inventory (BDI.Results: All except one (enmeshment/undeveloped self maladaptive schema scores of depressed women were higher than controls. BDI was correlated to some schema and schema domain scores in both depressed and control groups but the correlations were stronger in control group. Mean emotional deprivation, negativism, abandonment and instability, failure EMS scores showed the highest difference between two groups. The schema domains most related to depression symptom severity were disconnection and rejection, impaired autonomy and performance.Conclusions: Almost all early maladaptive schemas are related to depression, and some schemas are related to depression symptom severity but these correlations are weaker in control group. This may mean that EMS are stable and mood independent structures. Although other schemas are related to depression, mostly related EMS in women might be emotional deprivation schema. These schemas may also overlap with Beck’s unlovability core belief or sociotropy dimension

  15. Role and treatment of early maladaptive schemas in Vietnam Veterans with PTSD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cockram, David M; Drummond, Peter D; Lee, Christopher W

    2010-01-01

    The role of early maladaptive schemas in understanding and treating post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) was investigated. The first study examined the role of perceived adverse parenting and early maladaptive schemas in the development of PTSD in Australian and New Zealand Vietnam war veterans (n = 220). Veterans diagnosed with PTSD scored higher on the Young Schema Questionnaire (L3) and had higher scores on the Measure of Parental Style than veterans not diagnosed with PTSD. The results suggest that early maladaptive schemas have an important role in the development or maintenance of PTSD in Vietnam veterans. The second study measured at baseline, termination and 3 months the early maladaptive schemas, PTSD, anxiety and depression of war veterans (n = 54) participating in a PTSD group treatment programme that included schema-focused therapy. Scores on the PTSD Checklist, the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and 17 schemas decreased significantly after treatment. Change scores for the schema treatment were compared with change scores of war veterans (n = 127) who had completed a manualized cognitive-behavioural therapy programme without schema-focused therapy. Pre-treatment measures were similar in both groups. Nevertheless, PTSD and anxiety improved more significantly for the schema-focused therapy group. Together, these findings support the feasibility of schema-focused therapy to assist veterans with PTSD.

  16. Psychometric Properties and Normative values of Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Güner, Olcay

    2016-10-13

    The Early Maladaptive Schema Questionnaires Set for Children and Adolescents (SQS) was developed to assess early maladaptive schemas in children between the ages of 10 and 16 in Turkey. The SQS consists of five questionnaires that represent five schema domains in Young's schema theory. Psychometric properties (n = 983) and normative values (n = 2250) of SQS were investigated in children and adolescents between the ages of 10 and 16. Both exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses were performed. Results revealed 15 schema factors under five schema domains, with good fit indexes. A total of 14 schema factors were in line with Young's early maladaptive schemas. In addition to these factors, one new schema emerged: self-disapproval. Reliability analyses showed that SQS has high internal consistency and consistency over a 1-month interval. Correlations of SQS with the Adjective Check List (ACL), the Inventory of Parent and Peer Attachment (IPPA), the Symptom Assessment (SA-45) and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) were investigated to assess criterion validity, and the correlations revealed encouraging results. SQS significantly differentiated between children who have clinical diagnoses (n = 78) and children who have no diagnosis (n = 100). Finally, general normative values (n = 2,250) were determined for age groups, gender and age/gender groups. In conclusion, the early maladaptive schema questionnaires set for children and adolescents turned out to be a reliable and valid questionnaire with standard scores.Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Multiunit Sequences in First Language Acquisition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theakston, Anna; Lieven, Elena

    2017-07-01

    Theoretical and empirical reasons suggest that children build their language not only out of individual words but also out of multiunit strings. These are the basis for the development of schemas containing slots. The slots are putative categories that build in abstraction while the schemas eventually connect to other schemas in terms of both meaning and form. Evidence comes from the nature of the input, the ways in which children construct novel utterances, the systematic errors that children make, and the computational modeling of children's grammars. However, much of this research is on English, which is unusual in its rigid word order and impoverished inflectional morphology. We summarize these results and explore their implications for languages with more flexible word order and/or much richer inflectional morphology. Copyright © 2017 Cognitive Science Society, Inc.

  18. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Substance Use Patients and their Intimate Partners: A Preliminary Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Recent research has documented that substance users have a number of early maladaptive schemas that may underlie their substance use and that treatment that addresses these schemas may result in improved outcomes. Research has also shown that intimate partners of substance users have a number of mental and physical health problems, although no known research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of these relationship partners. The current study examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance use treatment patients and their intimate partners (N = 80). Findings showed that both patients and intimate partners had a number of problematic early maladaptive schemas; that patients scored significantly higher than their intimate partners on a few early maladaptive schemas; and that patient and intimate partner schemas may be interrelated. Implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22745593

  19. The Relation between Trait Mindfulness and Early Maladaptive Schemas in Men Seeking Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Brasfield, Hope; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-04-01

    Recent research has examined the relation between mindfulness and substance use, demonstrating that lower trait mindfulness is associated with increased substance use, and that mindfulness-based interventions help to reduce substance use. Research has also demonstrated that early maladaptive schemas are prevalent among individuals seeking substance use treatment and that targeting early maladaptive schemas in treatment may improve outcomes. However, no known research has examined the relation between mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas despite theoretical and empirical reasons to suspect their association. Therefore, the current study examined the relation between trait mindfulness and early maladaptive schemas among adult men seeking residential substance abuse treatment (N = 82). Findings demonstrated strong negative associations between trait mindfulness and 15 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Moreover, men endorsing multiple early maladaptive schemas reported lower trait mindfulness than men with fewer early maladaptive schemas. The implications of these findings for future research and treatment are discussed.

  20. Short-term group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy for young adults with personality disorders and personality disorder features: associations with changes in symptomatic distress, schemas, schema modes and coping styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renner, Fritz; van Goor, Michiel; Huibers, Marcus; Arntz, Arnoud; Butz, Betty; Bernstein, David

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this pilot study was to document the effects of a group schema cognitive-behavioral therapy intervention (SCBT-g; van Vreeswijk & Broersen, 2006) on global symptomatic distress in young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features. We also sought to determine the stability of maladaptive schemas, schema modes, and coping responses throughout treatment as well as relations among these variables with improvement in symptomatic distress during treatment. Twenty-six young adults (mean age 22.5 years; range: 18-29 years) with a primary diagnosis of a DSM-IV Cluster-B or Cluster-C personality disorder or with personality disorder features participated in the 20-session SCBT-g protocol. Global symptomatic distress decreased substantially from pre-treatment to post-treatment (d = 0.81). Maladaptive schemas, schema modes and dysfunctional coping responses decreased with medium to large effect sizes (d's = 0.56 and 0.98, respectively), however decrease in maladaptive schemas was not significant after controlling for symptomatic distress. Adaptive schema modes increased slightly (d = 0.40) throughout treatment. Baseline levels of maladaptive schemas predicted symptomatic distress concurrently and at mid-treatment but not at post-treatment. Our findings provide preliminary evidence that SCBT-g might be an effective treatment for young adults with personality disorders or personality disorder features in terms of improvements in global symptomatic distress and underlying vulnerability.

  1. Analogical Reasoning in Children with Specific Language Impairment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sandrine; Parisse, Christophe; Maillart, Christelle

    2012-01-01

    Usage-based theory considers analogical reasoning as a cognitive process required in language development. We hypothesized that difficulties with analogical reasoning could hinder the abstraction of construction schemas, thus slowing down morphosyntactic development for children with specific language impairment (SLI). We also hypothesized, in…

  2. First observations of $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-$, $D_s^+D^-$ and $D^0\\bar{D}^0$ decays

    CERN Document Server

    Aaij, R; Adeva, B; Adinolfi, M; Adrover, C; Affolder, A; Ajaltouni, Z; Albrecht, J; Alessio, F; Alexander, M; Ali, S; Alkhazov, G; Alvarez Cartelle, P; Alves Jr, A A; Amato, S; Amerio, S; Amhis, Y; Anderlini, L; Anderson, J; Andreassen, R; Appleby, R B; Aquines Gutierrez, O; Archilli, F; Artamonov, A; Artuso, M; Aslanides, E; Auriemma, G; Bachmann, S; Back, J J; Baesso, C; Balagura, V; Baldini, W; Barlow, R J; Barschel, C; Barsuk, S; Barter, W; Bauer, Th; Bay, A; Beddow, J; Bedeschi, F; Bediaga, I; Belogurov, S; Belous, K; Belyaev, I; Ben-Haim, E; Benayoun, M; Bencivenni, G; Benson, S; Benton, J; Berezhnoy, A; Bernet, R; Bettler, M -O; van Beuzekom, M; Bien, A; Bifani, S; Bird, T; Bizzeti, A; Bjørnstad, P M; Blake, T; Blanc, F; Blouw, J; Blusk, S; Bocci, V; Bondar, A; Bondar, N; Bonivento, W; Borghi, S; Borgia, A; Bowcock, T J V; Bowen, E; Bozzi, C; Brambach, T; van den Brand, J; Bressieux, J; Brett, D; Britsch, M; Britton, T; Brook, N H; Brown, H; Burducea, I; Bursche, A; Busetto, G; Buytaert, J; Cadeddu, S; Callot, O; Calvi, M; Calvo Gomez, M; Camboni, A; Campana, P; Carbone, A; Carboni, G; Cardinale, R; Cardini, A; Carranza-Mejia, H; Carson, L; Carvalho Akiba, K; Casse, G; Cattaneo, M; Cauet, Ch; Charles, M; Charpentier, Ph; Chen, P; Chiapolini, N; Chrzaszcz, M; Ciba, K; Cid Vidal, X; Ciezarek, G; Clarke, P E L; Clemencic, M; Cliff, H V; Closier, J; Coca, C; Coco, V; Cogan, J; Cogneras, E; Collins, P; Comerma-Montells, A; Contu, A; Cook, A; Coombes, M; Coquereau, S; Corti, G; Couturier, B; Cowan, G A; Craik, D; Cunliffe, S; Currie, R; D'Ambrosio, C; David, P; David, P N Y; De Bonis, I; De Bruyn, K; De Capua, S; De Cian, M; De Miranda, J M; De Oyanguren Campos, M; De Paula, L; De Silva, W; De Simone, P; Decamp, D; Deckenhoff, M; Del Buono, L; Derkach, D; Deschamps, O; Dettori, F; Di Canto, A; Dijkstra, H; Dogaru, M; Donleavy, S; Dordei, F; Dosil Suárez, A; Dossett, D; Dovbnya, A; Dupertuis, F; Dzhelyadin, R; Dziurda, A; Dzyuba, A; Easo, S; Egede, U; Egorychev, V; Eidelman, S; van Eijk, D; Eisenhardt, S; Eitschberger, U; Ekelhof, R; Eklund, L; El Rifai, I; Elsasser, Ch; Elsby, D; Falabella, A; Färber, C; Fardell, G; Farinelli, C; Farry, S; Fave, V; Ferguson, D; Fernandez Albor, V; Ferreira Rodrigues, F; Ferro-Luzzi, M; Filippov, S; Fitzpatrick, C; Fontana, M; Fontanelli, F; Forty, R; Francisco, O; Frank, M; Frei, C; Frosini, M; Furcas, S; Furfaro, E; Gallas Torreira, A; Galli, D; Gandelman, M; Gandini, P; Gao, Y; Garofoli, J; Garosi, P; Garra Tico, J; Garrido, L; Gaspar, C; Gauld, R; Gersabeck, E; Gersabeck, M; Gershon, T; Ghez, Ph; Gibson, V; Gligorov, V V; Göbel, C; Golubkov, D; Golutvin, A; Gomes, A; Gordon, H; Grabalosa Gándara, M; Graciani Diaz, R; Granado Cardoso, L A; Graugés, E; Graziani, G; Grecu, A; Greening, E; Gregson, S; Grünberg, O; Gui, B; Gushchin, E; Guz, Yu; Gys, T; Hadjivasiliou, C; Haefeli, G; Haen, C; Haines, S C; Hall, S; Hampson, T; Hansmann-Menzemer, S; Harnew, N; Harnew, S T; Harrison, J; Hartmann, T; He, J; Heijne, V; Hennessy, K; Henrard, P; Hernando Morata, J A; van Herwijnen, E; Hicks, E; Hill, D; Hoballah, M; Hombach, C; Hopchev, P; Hulsbergen, W; Hunt, P; Huse, T; Hussain, N; Hutchcroft, D; Hynds, D; Iakovenko, V; Idzik, M; Ilten, P; Jacobsson, R; Jaeger, A; Jans, E; Jaton, P; Jing, F; John, M; Johnson, D; Jones, C R; Jost, B; Kaballo, M; Kandybei, S; Karacson, M; Karbach, T M; Kenyon, I R; Kerzel, U; Ketel, T; Keune, A; Khanji, B; Kochebina, O; Komarov, I; Koopman, R F; Koppenburg, P; Korolev, M; Kozlinskiy, A; Kravchuk, L; Kreplin, K; Kreps, M; Krocker, G; Krokovny, P; Kruse, F; Kucharczyk, M; Kudryavtsev, V; Kvaratskheliya, T; La Thi, V N; Lacarrere, D; Lafferty, G; Lai, A; Lambert, D; Lambert, R W; Lanciotti, E; Lanfranchi, G; Langenbruch, C; Latham, T; Lazzeroni, C; Le Gac, R; van Leerdam, J; Lees, J -P; Lefèvre, R; Leflat, A; Lefrançois, J; Leo, S; Leroy, O; Leverington, B; Li, Y; Li Gioi, L; Liles, M; Lindner, R; Linn, C; Liu, B; Liu, G; von Loeben, J; Lohn, S; Lopes, J H; Lopez Asamar, E; Lopez-March, N; Lu, H; Lucchesi, D; Luisier, J; Luo, H; Machefert, F; Machikhiliyan, I V; Maciuc, F; Maev, O; Malde, S; Manca, G; Mancinelli, G; Marconi, U; Märki, R; Marks, J; Martellotti, G; Martens, A; Martin, L; Martín Sánchez, A; Martinelli, M; Martinez Santos, D; Martins Tostes, D; Massafferri, A; Matev, R; Mathe, Z; Matteuzzi, C; Maurice, E; Mazurov, A; McCarthy, J; McNulty, R; Mcnab, A; Meadows, B; Meier, F; Meissner, M; Merk, M; Milanes, D A; Minard, M -N; Molina Rodriguez, J; Monteil, S; Moran, D; Morawski, P; Morello, M J; Mountain, R; Mous, I; Muheim, F; Müller, K; Muresan, R; Muryn, B; Muster, B; Naik, P; Nakada, T; Nandakumar, R; Nasteva, I; Needham, M; Neufeld, N; Nguyen, A D; Nguyen, T D; Nguyen-Mau, C; Nicol, M; Niess, V; Niet, R; Nikitin, N; Nikodem, T; Nomerotski, A; Novoselov, A; Oblakowska-Mucha, A; Obraztsov, V; Oggero, S; Ogilvy, S; Okhrimenko, O; Oldeman, R; Orlandea, M; Otalora Goicochea, J M; Owen, P; Pal, B K; Palano, A; Palutan, M; Panman, J; Papanestis, A; Pappagallo, M; Parkes, C; Parkinson, C J; Passaleva, G; Patel, G D; Patel, M; Patrick, G N; Patrignani, C; Pavel-Nicorescu, C; Pazos Alvarez, A; Pellegrino, A; Penso, G; Pepe Altarelli, M; Perazzini, S; Perego, D L; Perez Trigo, E; Pérez-Calero Yzquierdo, A; Perret, P; Perrin-Terrin, M; Pessina, G; Petridis, K; Petrolini, A; Phan, A; Picatoste Olloqui, E; Pietrzyk, B; Pilař, T; Pinci, D; Playfer, S; Plo Casasus, M; Polci, F; Polok, G; Poluektov, A; Polycarpo, E; Popov, D; Popovici, B; Potterat, C; Powell, A; Prisciandaro, J; Pugatch, V; Puig Navarro, A; Punzi, G; Qian, W; Rademacker, J H; Rakotomiaramanana, B; Rangel, M S; Raniuk, I; Rauschmayr, N; Raven, G; Redford, S; Reid, M M; dos Reis, A C; Ricciardi, S; Richards, A; Rinnert, K; Rives Molina, V; Roa Romero, D A; Robbe, P; Rodrigues, E; Rodriguez Perez, P; Roiser, S; Romanovsky, V; Romero Vidal, A; Rouvinet, J; Ruf, T; Ruffini, F; Ruiz, H; Ruiz Valls, P; Sabatino, G; Saborido Silva, J J; Sagidova, N; Sail, P; Saitta, B; Salzmann, C; Sanmartin Sedes, B; Sannino, M; Santacesaria, R; Santamarina Rios, C; Santovetti, E; Sapunov, M; Sarti, A; Satriano, C; Satta, A; Savrie, M; Savrina, D; Schaack, P; Schiller, M; Schindler, H; Schlupp, M; Schmelling, M; Schmidt, B; Schneider, O; Schopper, A; Schune, M -H; Schwemmer, R; Sciascia, B; Sciubba, A; Seco, M; Semennikov, A; Senderowska, K; Sepp, I; Serra, N; Serrano, J; Seyfert, P; Shapkin, M; Shapoval, I; Shatalov, P; Shcheglov, Y; Shears, T; Shekhtman, L; Shevchenko, O; Shevchenko, V; Shires, A; Silva Coutinho, R; Skwarnicki, T; Smith, N A; Smith, E; Smith, M; Sokoloff, M D; Soler, F J P; Soomro, F; Souza, D; Souza De Paula, B; Spaan, B; Sparkes, A; Spradlin, P; Stagni, F; Stahl, S; Steinkamp, O; Stoica, S; Stone, S; Storaci, B; Straticiuc, M; Straumann, U; Subbiah, V K; Swientek, S; Syropoulos, V; Szczekowski, M; Szczypka, P; Szumlak, T; T'Jampens, S; Teklishyn, M; Teodorescu, E; Teubert, F; Thomas, C; Thomas, E; van Tilburg, J; Tisserand, V; Tobin, M; Tolk, S; Tonelli, D; Topp-Joergensen, S; Torr, N; Tournefier, E; Tourneur, S; Tran, M T; Tresch, M; Tsaregorodtsev, A; Tsopelas, P; Tuning, N; Ubeda Garcia, M; Ukleja, A; Urner, D; Uwer, U; Vagnoni, V; Valenti, G; Vazquez Gomez, R; Vazquez Regueiro, P; Vecchi, S; Velthuis, J J; Veltri, M; Veneziano, G; Vesterinen, M; Viaud, B; Vieira, D; Vilasis-Cardona, X; Vollhardt, A; Volyanskyy, D; Voong, D; Vorobyev, A; Vorobyev, V; Voß, C; Voss, H; Waldi, R; Wallace, R; Wandernoth, S; Wang, J; Ward, D R; Watson, N K; Webber, A D; Websdale, D; Whitehead, M; Wicht, J; Wiechczynski, J; Wiedner, D; Wiggers, L; Wilkinson, G; Williams, M P; Williams, M; Wilson, F F; Wishahi, J; Witek, M; Wotton, S A; Wright, S; Wu, S; Wyllie, K; Xie, Y; Xing, F; Xing, Z; Yang, Z; Young, R; Yuan, X; Yushchenko, O; Zangoli, M; Zavertyaev, M; Zhang, F; Zhang, L; Zhang, W C; Zhang, Y; Zhelezov, A; Zhokhov, A; Zhong, L; Zvyagin, A

    2013-01-01

    First observations and measurements of the branching fractions of the $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-$, $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^+D^-$ and $\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^0\\bar{D}^0$ decays are presented using $1.0$~fb$^{-1}$ of data collected by the LHCb experiment. These branching fractions are normalized to those of $\\bar{B}^0\\to D^+D^-$, $B^0\\to D_s^+D^-$ and $B^-\\to D^0D_s^-$, respectively. An excess of events consistent with the decay $\\bar{B}^0\\to D^0\\bar{D}^0$ is also seen, and its branching fraction is measured relative to that of $B^-\\to D^0D_s^-$. Improved measurements of the branching fractions ${\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D_s^+D_s^-)$ and ${\\cal{B}}(B^-\\to D^0D_s^-)$ are reported, each relative to ${\\cal{B}}(B^0\\to D_s^+D^-)$. The ratios of branching fractions are \\begin{align*} {{\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}_s^0\\to D^+D^-)\\over {\\cal{B}}(\\bar{B}^0\\to D^+D^-)} &= 1.08\\pm 0.20\\pm0.10, \

  3. Motor Schema-Based Cellular Automaton Model for Pedestrian Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Wenguo; Hasemi, Yuji; Fan, Weicheng

    A new cellular automaton model for pedestrian dynamics based on motor schema is presented. Each pedestrian is treated as an intelligent mobile robot, and motor schemas including move-to-goal, avoid-away and avoid-around drive pedestrians to interact with their environment. We investigate the phenomenon of many pedestrians with different move velocities escaping from a room. The results show that the pedestrian with high velocity have predominance in competitive evacuation, if we only consider repulsion from or avoiding around other pedestrians, and interaction with each other leads to disordered evacuation, i.e., decreased evacuation efficiency. Extensions of the model using learning algorithms for controlling pedestrians, i.e., reinforcement learning, neural network and genetic algorithms, etc. are noted.

  4. Schema Redescription in Cellular Automata: Revisiting Emergence in Complex Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Marques-Pita, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    We present a method to eliminate redundancy in the transition tables of Boolean automata: schema redescription with two symbols. One symbol is used to capture redundancy of individual input variables, and another to capture permutability in sets of input variables: fully characterizing the canalization present in Boolean functions. Two-symbol schemata explain aspects of the behaviour of automata networks that the characterization of their emergent patterns does not capture. We use our method to compare two well-known cellular automata for the density classification task: the human engineered CA GKL, and another obtained via genetic programming. We show that despite having very different collective behaviour, these rules are very similar. Indeed, GKL is a special case of GP. Therefore, we demonstrate that it is more feasible to compare cellular automata via schema redescriptions of their rules, than by looking at their emergent behaviour, leading us to question the tendency in complexity research to pay much m...

  5. Priming the Secure Attachment Schema: Effects on Emotion Information Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Panoraia Andriopoulos

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study examined the effects of secure schema activation on selective attention towards attachment-related and emotional information. Seventy two participants were randomly allocated into two conditions–subliminal priming of mental representations of supportive attachment figures (a Picasso sketch of a mother holding a baby and looking into his eyes and a no priming condition followed by an administration of a dot probe task that included positive and negative attachment-related and emotion words. The results showed that the activation of the secure prime in conjunction with chronic attachment orientations affected the processing of positive and negative attachment-unrelated emotional information. Results highlight relationships between higher-order processes of the attachment system (attachment schema activation with early stage information processing (selective attention as assessed by the dot probe task. Methodological issues are discussed with reference to the priming method used and the traditional version of the dot-probe task.

  6. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlieke T R van Kesteren

    Full Text Available Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently supported in the literature, with differential schema effects reported for different types of memory, different retrieval cues, and the possibility of time-dependent effects related to consolidation processes. To examine these effects more directly, we tested participants on two different types of memory (item recognition and associative memory for newly encoded visuo-tactile associations at different study-test intervals, thus probing memory retrieval accuracy for schema-congruent and schema-incongruent items and associations at different time points (t = 0, t = 20, and t = 48 hours after encoding. Results show that the schema effect on visual item recognition only arises after consolidation, while the schema effect on associative memory is already apparent immediately after encoding, persisting, but getting smaller over time. These findings give further insight into different factors influencing the schema effect on memory, and can inform future schema experiments by illustrating the value of considering effects of memory type and consolidation on schema-modulated retrieval.

  7. A Survey of Appliactions and Researches on Schema Matching between GIS Spatial Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Y.-H.; Zhang, H.-B.; Xu, J.

    2015-06-01

    As a fundamental problem of data management and application technology, schema matching has aroused the universal concern of the academic circles worldwide in recent years. In order to deepen the understandings of schema matching between spatial data and to identify its uses, the documentation method is adopted in this paper to firstly summarize and describe the foundation position and guidance role of schema matching in some typical applications such as spatial data integration (including schema-level integration and instance-level integration), updating information propagation, semantic query and handling, web geo-service finding. Then, aiming to the manual performance limitations of schema matching task in most systems, the previous works on schema matching are discussed mainly from four aspects of matching implementation approaches, matching efficiency optimization, matching results representation and matching capability evaluation for designing an automated approach and system. The related theories, models, approaches, limitations and new trends of current researches on schema matching are respectively analyzed. The conclusion is drawn by these analyses that schema matching researches are still faced with many theoretical and technological problems, the matching between schemas of spatial data will be more difficult and severe, and thus needs further studies since they are more heterogeneous, vaster and complex in structure than schemas of common data.

  8. Relationships between Childhood Traumatic Experiences, Early Maladaptive Schemas and Interpersonal Styles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya Tezel, Fulya; Tutarel Kişlak, Şennur; Boysan, Murat

    2015-09-01

    Cognitive theories of psychopathology have generally proposed that early experiences of childhood abuse and neglect may result in the development of early maladaptive self-schemas. Maladaptive core schemas are central in the development and maintenance of psychological symptoms in a schema-focused approach. Psychosocial dysfunction in individuals with psychological problems has been consistently found to be associated with symptom severity. However, till date, linkages between psychosocial functioning, early traumatic experiences and core schemas have received little attention. The aim of the present study was to explore the relations among maladaptive interpersonal styles, negative experiences in childhood and core self-schemas in non-clinical adults. A total of 300 adults (58% women) participated in the study. The participants completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, Young Schema Questionnaire, Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and Interpersonal Style Scale. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the Disconnection and Rejection and Impaired Limits schema domains were significant antecedents of maladaptive interpersonal styles after controlling for demographic characteristics and childhood abuse and neglect. Associations of child sexual abuse with Emotionally Avoidant, Manipulative and Abusive interpersonal styles were mediated by early maladaptive schemas. Early maladaptive schemas mediated the relations of emotional abuse with Emotionally Avoidant and Avoidant interpersonal styles as well as the relations of physical abuse with Avoidant and Abusive interpersonal styles. Interpersonal styles in adulthood are significantly associated with childhood traumatic experiences. Significant relations between early traumatic experiences and maladaptive interpersonal styles are mediated by early maladaptive schemas.

  9. Schema Exchange: A Template-Based Approach to Data and Metadata Translation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papotti, Paolo; Torlone, Riccardo

    In this paper we study the problem of schema exchange, a natural extension of the data exchange problem to an intensional level. To this end, we first introduce the notion of schema template, a tool for the representation of a class of schemas sharing the same structure. We then define the schema exchange notion as the problem of (i) taking a schema that matches a source template, and (ii) generating a new schema for a target template, on the basis of a set of dependencies defined over the two templates. This framework allows the definition, once for all, of generic transformations that work for several schemas. A method for the generation of a "correct" solution of the schema exchange problem is proposed and a number of general results are given. We also show how it is possible to generate automatically a data exchange setting from a schema exchange solution. This allows the definition of queries to migrate data from a source database into the one obtained as a result of a schema exchange.

  10. 运用图式理论来提高英语听力教学中的质量%Improving the Quality of English Listening Teaching by Using the Theory of Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈琳

    2012-01-01

    听力教学虽然越来越受到重视,但是教师往往只注重语言知识而忽视了对于提高听力教学质量的作用。本文从教师如何激活学生图式,和学生如何在课外主动构建图式来探讨运用图式理论提高英语听力教学质量。%Although listening teaching is receiving more and more attention,teachers always focus on language knowledge and ignore the importance of improving teaching quality.This article discusses how to use schema to improve the English listening quality from two aspects: how to activate students' schema in class;how to built new schema actively outside class.

  11. Data Warehouse Design from HL7 Clinical Document Architecture Schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecoraro, Fabrizio; Luzi, Daniela; Ricci, Fabrizio L

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a semi-automatic approach to extract clinical information structured in a HL7 Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and transform it in a data warehouse dimensional model schema. It is based on a conceptual framework published in a previous work that maps the dimensional model primitives with CDA elements. Its feasibility is demonstrated providing a case study based on the analysis of vital signs gathered during laboratory tests.

  12. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    OpenAIRE

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 20...

  13. Sexual Functioning During Menopause: Schemas, Hormones, and Race

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-08

    menopause is linked with decreases in bone loss (i.e., osteoporosis ); increases in adipose mass; increased risk of cardiovascular disease...especially AA women, are free to enjoy sexuality without the possibility of pregnancy Sexual Self-Schemas & Menopause 127 This study also...2006, 2008a, 2008b, 2009). Like sexual functioning, menopause is an individual process that also is affected by many factors such as pregnancies

  14. Applications of schema theory in information security teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qiu, Chunyan; Zhao, Wei; Han, Jialing; Jiang, Jianhua

    2012-04-01

    Information security knowledge is more and more important to students in universities of finance and economics. However, mastering the skill of information security is not easy to them. Schema theory is applied into information security teaching to help students improve their skills. The teaching result shows that there is a significant difference in final exam and practice exam between the proposed model and a regular teaching model.

  15. Predicting Early Maladaptive Schemas Using Baumrind’s Parenting Styles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esmali Kooraneh, Ahmad; Amirsardari, Leili

    2015-01-01

    Background: Families play an essential role in maintaining children’s mental, social, and physical health. The family provides the first and the most important social context for human development. Objectives: The present study aimed to predict early maladaptive schemas using Baumrind’s parenting styles (root development). Patients and Methods: A total of 357 undergraduate students of Islamic Azad University, Urmia Branch, Iran, were selected through random cluster sampling during 2013 and 2014. The students were assessed using the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF) and the Baumrind’s parenting styles inventories. Results: The result of regression analysis showed that Baumrind’s parenting styles are significant predictors of early maladaptive schemas (P < 0.001). Conclusions: The authoritative parenting style has some features such as showing high levels of warmth or encouraging kids to express their own possibly divergent opinions. The authoritarian parenting style, however, possesses traits such as heartlessness, impassiveness, strictness, and lack of attention to the children’s developmental needs, which is not acceptable. PMID:26288648

  16. A study on DB schema of the electronic SAMG

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, S. H.; Ahn, K. I.; Jin, Y. H. [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    As a part of the Ministry of Science, Ict and future Planning (MSIP) Project, we at KAERI are developing electronic SAMG (e-SAMG, severe accident mitigation guideline) for a general SAMG for nuclear power plants. For the eSAMG, all of the procedural contents are saved in a database, and the database schemas are contrived through trials and error. To make possible the application of the eSAMG system for most of the NPP site, the database schemas are important for a rapid and exact confrontation. To contribute a rapid and accurate processing for a severe accident, based on the eSAMG framework, database systems have been studied and developed. This paper describes a study on the e-SAMG database. Through the database construction for the eSAMG system, the management for the guidance contents can be consistent and the basis of the site-specific SAMG adjustment can be prepared. In the future, the refinement of the database system will be continuously processed and the effectiveness of the database sub-schema will be refined. This system will be extended into the entire SAMG for the complete eSAMG.

  17. Cultural schema and design activity in an architectural design studio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçe Ketizmen Önal

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Research on the cognitive activities and on the structure and quality of knowledge flow involved in architectural design education is increasing. These studies generally focus on the interaction between student and instructor, including processes such as producing ideas, solving display problems, and integrating design strategies. These studies commonly include computational evaluations and confirmation of the coding of knowledge. They may also include the determination of designer׳s thoughts and cognitive actions of design process, as well as the analysis and digitization of verbal protocols during the design process. In most of these studies, the designer׳s cultural and psychological components are not considered. Accordingly, research on the effects of designers’ cultural schema on design activity in design studios is limited. This study aimed to solve this problem by analyzing the relationship between design activity and the designer׳s cultural schema in a design studio. We performed an experimental study based on a specific conceptual framework and a research model aimed at identifying the relationships among cultural schemas, the architectural design process, and design studios.

  18. DSD-1-Proteoglycan/Phosphacan and receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase-beta isoforms during development and regeneration of neural tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faissner, Andreas; Heck, Nicolas; Dobbertin, Alexandre; Garwood, Jeremy

    2006-01-01

    Interactions between neurons and glial cells play important roles in regulating key events of development and regeneration of the CNS. Thus, migrating neurons are partly guided by radial glia to their target, and glial scaffolds direct the growth and directional choice of advancing axons, e.g., at the midline. In the adult, reactive astrocytes and myelin components play a pivotal role in the inhibition of regeneration. The past years have shown that astrocytic functions are mediated on the molecular level by extracellular matrix components, which include various glycoproteins and proteoglycans. One important, developmentally regulated chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan is DSD-1-PG/phosphacan, a glial derived proteoglycan which represents a splice variant of the receptor protein tyrosine phosphatase (RPTP)-beta (also known as PTP-zeta). Current evidence suggests that this proteoglycan influences axon growth in development and regeneration, displaying inhibitory or stimulatory effects dependent on the mode of presentation, and the neuronal lineage. These effects seem to be mediated by neuronal receptors of the Ig-CAM superfamily.

  19. On the effectiveness of XML schema validation for countering XML signature wrapping attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher; Somorovsky, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    investigated closely enough to make any claims about their effectiveness. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the specific countermeasure of XML Schema validation in terms of fending Signature Wrapping attacks. We investigate the problems of XML Schema validation for Web Services messages......In the context of security of Web Services, the XML Signature Wrapping attack technique has lately received increasing attention. Following a broad range of real-world exploits, general interest in applicable countermeasures rises. However, few approaches for countering these attacks have been......, and discuss the approach of Schema Hardening, a technique for strengthening XML Schema declarations. We conclude that XML Schema validation with a hardened XML Schema is capable of fending XML Signature Wrapping attacks, but bears some pitfalls and disadvantages as well. © 2011 IEEE....

  20. An Examination of Early Maladaptive Schemas among Substance Use Treatment Seekers and their Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas, which are cognitive and behavioral patterns of viewing oneself and the world that result in substantial distress, are gradually being documented as important vulnerabilities for substance abuse. Unfortunately, there is limited research on early maladaptive schemas among substance abusers and their family members. Research on this topic may carry important implications for family-focused substance use interventions. The current study examined similarities and differences in early maladaptive schemas among a sample of substance abuse treatment seeking adults (n = 47) and at least one parent (n = 58). Results demonstrated that the substance abusers scored higher than their parents on 17 of 18 early maladaptive schemas, with most differences falling into the large effect size range. There were some similarities in the specific early maladaptive schemas endorsed by both groups despite substance abusers scoring higher on all schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and family-focused substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23162210

  1. Changes in early maladaptive schemas after residential treatment for substance use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Stuart, Gregory L; Anderson, Scott; Strong, David R

    2013-09-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are cognitive and behavioral patterns that cause considerable distress and are theorized to underlie mental health problems. Research suggests that early maladaptive schemas may underlie substance abuse and that the intensity of early maladaptive schemas may decrease after brief periods of abstinence. The current study examined changes in early maladaptive schemas after a 4-week residential substance use treatment program. Preexisting records of a sample of male alcohol- and opioid-dependent treatment seeking adults (N = 97; mean age = 42.55) were reviewed for the current study. Pre-post analyses demonstrated that 8 of the early maladaptive schemas significantly decreased by the end of the 4-week treatment. Findings indicate that early maladaptive schemas can be modified during brief substance use treatment and may be an important component of substance use intervention programs. Implications of these findings for substance use treatment are discussed. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Extracting Local Schema from Semistructured Data Based on Graph-Oriented Semantic Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Tengjiao; TANG Shiwei; YANG Dongqing; LIU Yunfeng; LIN Bin

    2001-01-01

    Many modern applications (e-commerce, digital library, etc.) require integrated access to various information sources (from traditional RDBMS to semistructured Web repositories). Extracting schema from semistructured data is a prerequisite to integrate heterogeneous information sources. The traditional method that extracts global schema may require time (and space) to increase exponentially with the number of objects and edges in the source.A new method is presented in this paper, which is about extracting local schema. In this method, the algorithm controls the scale of extracting schema within the “schema diameter”by examining the semantic distance of the target set and using the Hash class and its path distance operation. This method is very efficient for restraining schema from expanding. The prototype validates the new approach.

  3. Earth Science Markup Language: Transitioning From Design to Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moe, Karen; Graves, Sara; Ramachandran, Rahul

    2002-01-01

    The primary objective of the proposed Earth Science Markup Language (ESML) research is to transition from design to application. The resulting schema and prototype software will foster community acceptance for the "define once, use anywhere" concept central to ESML. Supporting goals include: 1. Refinement of the ESML schema and software libraries in cooperation with the user community. 2. Application of the ESML schema and software libraries to a variety of Earth science data sets and analysis tools. 3. Development of supporting prototype software for enhanced ease of use. 4. Cooperation with standards bodies in order to assure ESML is aligned with related metadata standards as appropriate. 5. Widespread publication of the ESML approach, schema, and software.

  4. Object Oriented Approach for Integration of Heterogeneous Databases in a Multidatabase System and Local Schemas Modifications Propagation

    CERN Document Server

    Ali, Mohammad Ghulam

    2009-01-01

    One of the challenging problems in the multidatabase systems is to find the most viable solution to the problem of interoperability of distributed heterogeneous autonomous local component databases. This has resulted in the creation of a global schema over set of these local component database schemas to provide a uniform representation of local schemas. The aim of this paper is to use object oriented approach to integrate schemas of distributed heterogeneous autonomous local component database schemas into a global schema. The resulting global schema provides a uniform interface and high level of location transparency for retrieval of data from the local component databases. A set of integration operators are defined to integrate local schemas based on the semantic relevance of their classes and to provide a model independent representation of virtual classes of the global schema. The schematic representation and heterogeneity is also taken into account in the integration process. Justifications about Object...

  5. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karatzias, Thanos; Jowett, Sally; Begley, Amelie; Deas, Suzanne

    2016-01-01

    Background Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS) is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82). We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78). We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. Highlights of the article Interpersonal trauma survivors are distinguished primarily by a generalised elevation of their maladaptive schemas, rather than a unique schema profile

  6. The flesh and blood of embodied understanding: the source-path-goal schema in animation film

    OpenAIRE

    Forceville, C.; Jeulink, M.

    2011-01-01

    According to Conceptual Metaphor Theory (CMT), the Source-Path-Goal (SPG) schema constitutes a central concept in cognition. Apart from literally structuring "movement," SPG also shapes our understanding of "purposive activity," including questing and story-telling. A problem in CMT, however, is that the existence of image schemas is almost exclusively postulated on the basis of verbal expressions. To examine the claim that people recruit image schemas such as SPG to make sense of life, it is...

  7. Implementation of outpatient schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: study design

    OpenAIRE

    van Asselt Thea; Spinhoven Philip; Eikelenboom Merijn; Giesen-Bloo Josephine; Smit Johannes H; Arntz Arnoud; Nadort Marjon; Wensing Michel; van Dyck Richard

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Schema Therapy (ST) is an integrative psychotherapy based upon a cognitive schema model which aims at identifying and changing dysfunctional schemas and modes through cognitive, experiential and behavioral pathways. It is specifically developed for patients with personality disorders. Its effectiveness and efficiency have been demonstrated in a few randomized controlled trials, but ST has not been evaluated in regular mental healthcare settings. This paper describes the st...

  8. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a su...

  9. Insecure attachment and maladaptive schema in disordered eating: The mediating role of rejection sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Paoli, Tara; Fuller-Tyszkiewicz, Matthew; Krug, Isabel

    2017-05-09

    The current study aimed to assess insecure attachment and the disconnection and rejection domain of maladaptive schema in the context of disordered eating. Rejection sensitivity (RS) was proposed as a mediator between maladaptive schema and disordered eating. The sample consisted of 108 female participants with a lifetime eating disorder diagnosis and 508 female control participants. Participants were asked to complete a number of self-report measures related to insecure attachment (anxious and avoidant), maladaptive schema (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, social isolation, and defectiveness), RS (interpersonal and appearance-based), and disordered eating. Path analysis indicated that anxious attachment was associated with disordered eating through multiple pathways involving emotional deprivation, abandonment, interpersonal RS, and appearance-based RS. Avoidant attachment was not related to disordered eating behaviours. The results indicate that both interpersonal and appearance-based RS are important mediators for the relationships between insecure attachment, maladaptive schema, and disordered eating. The results from the current study suggest that insecure attachment leads to maladaptive schema, which in turn leads to sensitivity to rejection and subsequent disordered eating behaviour. Attachment anxiety, but not attachment avoidance, was related to greater endorsement of all five schemas in the disconnection and rejection domain. Path analysis revealed that, of the schema in the disconnection and rejection domain, only emotional deprivation and abandonment were related to disordered eating. Interpersonal and appearance-based rejection sensitivity were significant mediators of the relationship between emotional deprivation and disordered eating as well as the relationship between abandonment and disordered eating. Differentiating between schemas within schema domains has clinical value in further understanding the pathway to disordered eating. The

  10. Early maladaptive schemas and interpersonal problems in Norwegian offenders suffering from psychopaths

    OpenAIRE

    Stedal, Lise-Martine; Welander, Malin

    2015-01-01

    People suffering from psychopathy are known to have difficulties in relating to others, and according to Schema Theory, there is a close connection between Early Maladaptive Schemas (EMSs) and interpersonal problems. The current study aimed to investigate the relationship between psychopathy, EMSs, and interpersonal problems. A sample of incarcerated offenders (N = 16) completed the Screening Version of the Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL:SV), the Young Schema Questionnaire ...

  11. An empirical investigation of suicide schemas in individuals with Posttraumatic Stress Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panagioti, Maria; Gooding, Patricia A; Pratt, Daniel; Tarrier, Nicholas

    2015-06-30

    Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) has been strongly associated with suicidality. Despite the growing evidence suggesting that suicidality is heightened by the presence of an elaborated suicide schema, investigations of suicide schemas are sparse. Using novel methodologies, this study aimed to compare the suicide schema of PTSD individuals with and without suicidal ideation in the past year. Fifty-six participants with a diagnosis of PTSD (confirmed via the Clinician Administered PTSD Scale) completed questionnaires to assess suicidality, depressive severity and hopelessness. A series of direct and indirect cognitive tasks were used to assess suicide schemas. The pathfinder technique was employed to construct graphical representations of the groups׳ suicide schemas. The suicidal group reported significantly more severe PTSD symptoms, depressive symptoms, hopelessness and suicidality. The suicide schema of the suicidal group was significantly more extensive compared to the non-suicidal group even after taking into account in the analyses group differences in clinical measures. Moreover, the suicide schemas of the two groups were qualitatively distinct from each other. These findings provide support for contemporary theories of suicide which view suicide schemas as an important indicator of suicide risk. The investigation of schema constructs opens a new avenue of research for understanding suicide.

  12. The Effects of Schema Instruction on Reading Comprehension of English Argumentation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    申昭华

    2013-01-01

    Based on the perspective of the schema theory and modern education technology, In this paper, the method of ran-dom experimnet is used to measure how two types of schema instruction‘video clip’and‘multimedia courseware’influence Chinese college students’reading comprehension of English argumentation. The results illustrate the schema instruction can not only develop the students’sensibility of English argumentation structure, but also activate the schema in students’memory. Mul-timedia courseware instruction is superior to video clip instruction. The paper proposes its viewpoints concerned.

  13. Maladaptive schemas mediate poor parental attachment and suicidality in college students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langhinrichsen-Rohling, Jennifer; Thompson, Kali; Selwyn, Candice; Finnegan, Heather; Misra, Tiffany

    2017-07-01

    In college-aged adults (n = 766), the transition to adulthood may aggravate risk factors for suicidal behavior such as poor parental attachment and maladaptive self-schemas. Because poor parental attachment may facilitate developing maladaptive self-related schemas, this study was designed to determine whether specific maladaptive schemas mediate the relation between poor parental attachment and college students' suicide proneness and ideation. Findings supported this hypothesis. Defectiveness and emotional deprivation schemas, which are consistent with "perceived burdensomeness" and "thwarted belonging," may be important intervention targets for suicide prevention programs. The ongoing role of parental attachment during early adult development is highlighted.

  14. What language is the language-ready brain ready for?. Comment on "Towards a Computational Comparative Neuroprimatology: Framing the language-ready brain" by Michael A. Arbib

    Science.gov (United States)

    Croft, William

    2016-03-01

    Arbib's computational comparative neuroprimatology [1] is a welcome model for cognitive linguists, that is, linguists who ground their models of language in human cognition and language use in social interaction. Arbib argues that language emerged via biological and cultural coevolution [1]; linguistic knowledge is represented by constructions, and semantic representations of linguistic constructions are grounded in embodied perceptual-motor schemas (the mirror system hypothesis). My comments offer some refinements from a linguistic point of view.

  15. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbunugafor, C Brandon; Robinson, Sean P

    2016-01-01

    Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL.) Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative) abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  16. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs) by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of “ODEs and formalized flow diagrams” as OFFL.) Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative) abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler’s behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features. PMID:27270918

  17. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graziano, Michael S A; Webb, Taylor W

    2015-01-01

    We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain's limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the 'attention schema,' in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the 'body schema.' The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain's internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  18. OFFl Models: Novel Schema for Dynamical Modeling of Biological Systems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Brandon Ogbunugafor

    Full Text Available Flow diagrams are a common tool used to help build and interpret models of dynamical systems, often in biological contexts such as consumer-resource models and similar compartmental models. Typically, their usage is intuitive and informal. Here, we present a formalized version of flow diagrams as a kind of weighted directed graph which follow a strict grammar, which translate into a system of ordinary differential equations (ODEs by a single unambiguous rule, and which have an equivalent representation as a relational database. (We abbreviate this schema of "ODEs and formalized flow diagrams" as OFFL. Drawing a diagram within this strict grammar encourages a mental discipline on the part of the modeler in which all dynamical processes of a system are thought of as interactions between dynamical species that draw parcels from one or more source species and deposit them into target species according to a set of transformation rules. From these rules, the net rate of change for each species can be derived. The modeling schema can therefore be understood as both an epistemic and practical heuristic for modeling, serving both as an organizational framework for the model building process and as a mechanism for deriving ODEs. All steps of the schema beyond the initial scientific (intuitive, creative abstraction of natural observations into model variables are algorithmic and easily carried out by a computer, thus enabling the future development of a dedicated software implementation. Such tools would empower the modeler to consider significantly more complex models than practical limitations might have otherwise proscribed, since the modeling framework itself manages that complexity on the modeler's behalf. In this report, we describe the chief motivations for OFFL, carefully outline its implementation, and utilize a range of classic examples from ecology and epidemiology to showcase its features.

  19. A schema theory analysis of students' think aloud protocols in an STS biology context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinlan, Catherine Louise

    This dissertation study is a conglomerate of the fields of Science Education and Applied Cognitive Psychology. The goal of this study is to determine what organizational features and knowledge representation patterns high school students exhibit over time for issues pertinent to science and society. Participants are thirteen tenth grade students in a diverse suburban-urban classroom in a northeastern state. Students' think alouds are recorded, pre-, post-, and late-post treatment. Treatment consists of instruction in three Science, Technology, and Society (STS) biology issues, namely the human genome project, nutrition and health, and stem cell research. Coding and analyses are performed using Marshall's knowledge representations---identification knowledge, elaboration knowledge, planning knowledge, and execution knowledge, as well as qualitative research analysis methods. Schema theory, information processing theory, and other applied cognitive theory provide a framework in which to understand and explain students' schema descriptions and progressions over time. The results show that students display five organizational features in their identification and elaboration knowledge. Students also fall into one of four categories according to if they display prior schema or no prior schema, and their orientation "for" or "against," some of the issues. Students with prior schema and orientation "against" display the most robust schema descriptions and schema progressions. Those with no prior schemas and orientation "against" show very modest schema progressions best characterized by their keyword searches. This study shows the importance in considering not only students' integrated schemas but also their individual schemes. A role for the use of a more schema-based instruction that scaffolds student learning is implicated.

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas in Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder and Anxiety Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoosefi, Afsaneh; RajeziEsfahani, Sepideh; Pourshahbaz, Abbas; Dolatshahee, Behrooz; Assadi, Abbasali; Maleki, Fahime; Momeni, Sara

    2016-10-01

    Purpose of this study is comparing early maladaptive schemas which are active in patients suffering from obsessive-compulsive disorder and anxiety disorders together, considering recent DSM-5 changes through which OCD has been placed in a separate and new diagnostic level. This research is a causal-comparative study. 151 persons were categorized in three groups of people suffering from OCD (50), suffering from anxiety disorders (50), and control group (51). Early diagnosis of disorders in two clinical groups were verified based on structured clinical interview for DSM )SCID-I) and Yale-Brown obsessive-compulsive scale (Y-BOCS). General health questionnaire (GHQ-28), the short versions of the Young schemas questionnaire (YSQ), and Padua inventory-Washington State University Revision (PI-WSUR) were also implemented. Findings revealed that mean scores of all schemas of those suffering from anxiety disorders, except for Self-Sacrifice, Unrelenting-Standards/Hypercriticalness, Entitlement/Grandiosity schemas, and mean scores of all early maladaptive schemas of those suffering from obsessive compulsive disorder are significantly higher than those of control group. OCD group had significantly higher scores in Emotional Deprivation, Mistrust/Abuse, and Defectiveness/Shame schemas than anxiety disorders group. Defectiveness/Shame and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness schemas can explain 38 percent of variance of obsessive compulsive symptoms. The dominant and specific early maladaptive schemas of OCD are Defectiveness/Shame, Mistrust/Abuse, and Emotional Deprivation Schemas. This study besides supporting the theory of early maladaptive schemas, suggests that interventions based on specific schemas can be useful methods in treatment of OCD and anxiety disorders.

  1. Knowledge Representation from Classification Schema to Semantic Web (II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia-Adriana Tomescu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We aim to approach in this essay the technical paths used to represent hibrid documents in online environment using specific standars. The multimedia contents increase and the diverse storage formats need refined instruments for the search and retrieval process. Dedicated applications require a high level of interperability therefore the necesity of standardization. This study tries to argument theoretically the need to set and reflect logically the media objects properties in metadata schema and to illustrate the importance of ontologies and taxonomies in online environment representation.

  2. Ontology Alignment at the Instance and Schema Level

    CERN Document Server

    Suchanek, Fabian; Senellart, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    We present PARIS, an approach for the automatic alignment of ontologies. PARIS aligns not only instances, but also relations and classes. Alignments at the instance-level cross-fertilize with alignments at the schema-level. Thereby, our system provides a truly holistic solution to the problem of ontology alignment. The heart of the approach is probabilistic. This allows PARIS to run without any parameter tuning. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and its precision through extensive experiments. In particular, we obtain a precision of around 80% in experiments with two of the world's largest ontologies.

  3. SCHeMA open and modular in situ sensing solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tercier-Waeber, Marie Louise; Novellino, Antonio

    2017-04-01

    Marine environments are highly vulnerable and influenced by a wide diversity of anthropogenic and natural substances and organisms that may have adverse effects on the ecosystem equilibrium, on living resources and, ultimately, on human health. Identification of relevant types of hazards at the appropriate temporal and spatial scale is crucial to detect their sources and origin, to understand the processes governing their magnitude and distribution, and to ultimately evaluate and manage their risks and consequences preventing economic losses. This can be addressed only by the development of innovative, compact, rugged, automated, sensor networks allowing long-term monitoring. Development of such tools is a challenging task as it requires many analytical and technical innovations. The FP7-OCEAN 2013-SCHeMA project aims to contribute to meet this challenge by providing an open and modular sensing solution for autonomous in situ high resolution mapping of a range of anthropogenic and natural chemical compounds (trace metals, nutrients, anthropogenic organic compounds, toxic algae species and toxins, species relevant to the carbon cycle). To achieve this, SCHeMA activities focus on the development of : 1) an array of miniature sensor probes taking advantage of various innovative solutions, namely: (polymer-based) gel-integrated sensors; solid state ion-selective membrane sensors coupled to an on-line desalination module; mid-infrared optical sensors; optochemical multichannel devices; enOcean technology; 2) dedicated hardware, firmware and software components allowing their plug-and-play integration, localization as well as wireless bidirectional communication via advanced OGC-SWE wired/wireless dedicated interfaces; 3) a web-based front-end system compatible with EU standard requirements and principles (INSPIRE, GEO/GEOSS) and configured to insure easy interoperability with national, regional and local marine observation systems. This lecture will present examples of

  4. Exploring correlation between perceived parenting styles, early maladaptive schemas, and depression among women with depressive symptoms in iran and India- role of early maladaptive schemas as mediators and moderatos

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Khajouei Nia, Maryam; Sovani, Anuradha; Sarami Forooshani, Gholam Reza

    2014-01-01

    .... This study aimed to investigate the association of dysfunctional schemas and parenting style with depression, as well as the role of maladaptive schemas such as moderators and mediators in Iran and India...

  5. STMML. A markup language for scientific, technical and medical publishing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Murray-Rust

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available STMML is an XML-based markup language covering many generic aspects of scientific information. It has been developed as a re-usable core for more specific markup languages. It supports data structures, data types, metadata, scientific units and some basic components of scientific narrative. The central means of adding semantic information is through dictionaries. The specification is through an XML Schema which can be used to validate STMML documents or fragments. Many examples of the language are given.

  6. The effect of schema therapy on reducing symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Maleki

    2015-06-01

    Conclusion: schema therapy is an effective method to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression in nursing and midwifery students. Counselors and therapist can use schema therapy to reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression disorder.

  7. Gambling and Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment Seeking Sample of Male Alcohol Users: A Preliminary Investigation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2012-12-01

    Gambling problems are overrepresented among men seeking treatment for substance use problems, including alcohol dependence. Early maladaptive schemas are overrepresented among substance users, although no known study has examined the early maladaptive schemas of men with potential gambling problems. The current study examined the relations among potential gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas among a sample of alcohol dependent men seeking treatment at a residential substance use facility (N = 628). Using pre-existing patient records of self-report measures for early maladaptive schemas and potential gambling problems, results showed that a number of early maladaptive schemas were associated with gambling. Men with potential gambling problems scored significantly higher than non-problem gamblers on a number of early maladaptive schemas. These results suggest that early maladaptive schemas may be an important underlying characteristic for gambling problems, and that substance use treatment programs should considering screening for and targeting gambling problems and early maladaptive schemas.

  8. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, Lesley; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; Keulen, van Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition langua

  9. Consolidation differentially modulates schema effects on memory for items and associations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kesteren, M.T. van; Rijpkema, M.J.P.; Ruiter, D.J.; Fernandez, G.S.E.

    2013-01-01

    Newly learned information that is congruent with a preexisting schema is often better remembered than information that is incongruent. This schema effect on memory has previously been associated to more efficient encoding and consolidation mechanisms. However, this effect is not always consistently

  10. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  11. Design of an international multicentre RCT on group schema therapy for borderline personality disorder

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P. Wetzelaer; J. Farrell; S.M.A.A. Evers; G.A. Jacob; C.W. Lee; O. Brand; G. van Breukelen; E. Fassbinder; H. Fretwell; R.P. Harper; A. Lavender; G. Lockwood; I.A. Malogiannis; U. Schweiger; H. Startup; T. Stevenson; G. Zarbock; A. Arntz

    2014-01-01

    Background: Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a severe and highly prevalent mental disorder. Schema therapy (ST) has been found effective in the treatment of BPD and is commonly delivered through an individual format. A group format (group schema therapy, GST) has also been developed. GST has

  12. Schema and Locus of Control as Predictors of Obsessive Compulsive Disorder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamidreza Akbarikia

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The study aimed to evaluate the correlation of maladjusted schema and locus of control with OCD, with the emphasis on cognitive approach to OCD. Method: In this study, 273 Iranian participants were selected; of whom,30% were male and 70% were female. Participants’age ranged from 19 to 34 and the mean age for the sample was 23.42(SD=2.46. Participants completed questionnaire batteries including measure of Levenson Locus of Control, Young Schema Scale and Y –bocsOCD Scale. One sample consisted of patients with a primary OCD according to DSM-IV criteria. The other sample selected for this cross-sectional study was university students.Result: Regression statistics item and reliability analysis were calculated with SPSS and LISREL software. Obsessive compulsive disorder was significantly predicted with both schema and powerful others’ locus of control, as these relations were large but association schema with OCDwas larger than the correlation OCD with powerful others (OCD with schema p.v<0.001 β=.47 and OCD with powerful others p.v<0.001 β=.15.Conclusion: The findings of the present study showed that schema and powerful others type of locus of control, were significantly related to both total OCD symptom severity and also to other sub scale of OCD. It is important to mention that schema can significantly predict all symptoms dimension of OCD. Furthermore, the analyses showed that schema was a strong predictor for obsessive thinking.

  13. Comparison of Types of Generalizations and Problem-Solving Schemas Used to Solve a Mathematical Problem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodnik Cadež, Tatjana; Manfreda Kolar, Vida

    2015-01-01

    A cognitive schema is a mechanism which allows an individual to organize her/his experiences in such a way that a new similar experience can easily be recognised and dealt with successfully. Well-structured schemas provide for the knowledge base for subsequent mathematical activities. A new experience can be assimilated into a previously existing…

  14. The Potential Role of Conflict Resolution Schemas in Adolescent Psychosocial Adjustment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jutengren, Goran; Palmerus, Kerstin

    2007-01-01

    Four specific schemas of cognitive structures that adolescents may hold concerning interpersonal disagreements with their parents were identified, each reflecting an authoritative, authoritarian, indulgent, or a neglecting parenting style. To examine the occurrence of such schemas across high and low levels of psychosocial adjustment, 120 Swedish…

  15. Interaction of parent- child schemas in different types of personality disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neda Ali Beigi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In addition to Personality traits, cognitive theories emphasize on the role of cognitive errors in incidence of personality disorders. Schemas are one of the specific cognitive errors. The aim of present research was determining the role of parents' schemas in etiology of Childs' schemas in different types of personality disorders. Methods: It was an expo-facto research in individuals with personality disorder. From a private clinic in Tehran we selected 50 ones with personality disorder which were welcome to enter to the project. In addition to diagnosis of the therapist, we used MCMI-III for diagnosis of personality disorder. We asked for completing questionnaires by clients and also their parents. YSQ-75 used for assessing schemas in children and parents which presents 15 schemas in 5 categories. Results: Abandonment and unbalanced standards in cluster A, Unbalanced standards and entitlement in Cluster B and C were dominant. There were significant relations between child-parent schemas. Discussion: Unbalanced Standards was not a specific schema for a specified personality disorder and it was the dominant schema in all cases. It shows a difficult parenting style in Iranian populations and Tehran dominant child rearing. The implicit message is idealized and high expectations of parents. It indicate the necessity of educating child rearing for modifying rearing styles of parents.

  16. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  17. Young Adolescents' Gender-, Ethnicity-, and Popularity-Based Social Schemas of Aggressive Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clemans, Katherine H.; Graber, Julia A.

    2016-01-01

    Social schemas can influence the perception and recollection of others' behavior and may create biases in the reporting of social events. This study investigated young adolescents' (N = 317) gender-, ethnicity-, and popularity-based social schemas of overtly and relationally aggressive behavior. Results indicated that participants associated overt…

  18. Applying a Schema for Studying the Instructive Techniques Employed by Authors of Four Novels for Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severin, Mary Susan

    The purpose of this study was to apply a schema to adolescent novels, to determine what lessons the authors teach and what techniques they employ in their teaching. A historical review of literary criticism established a background for interpreting the educational function of literature. A schema of questions based on the historical background was…

  19. Beacon- and Schema-Based Method for Recognizing Algorithms from Students' Source Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Ahmad; Malmi, Lauri

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for recognizing algorithms from students programming submissions coded in Java. The method is based on the concept of "programming schemas" and "beacons". Schemas are high-level programming knowledge with detailed knowledge abstracted out, and beacons are statements that imply specific…

  20. Individual and Sociocultural Influences on Pre-Adolescent Girls' Appearance Schemas and Body Dissatisfaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinton, Meghan M.; Birch, Leann L.

    2006-01-01

    Appearance schemas, a suggested cognitive component of body image, have been associated with body dissatisfaction in adolescent and adult samples. This study examined girls' weight status (BMI), depression, and parent, sibling, peer, and media influences as predictors of appearance schemas in 173 pre-adolescent girls. Hierarchical regression…

  1. The Evolution of a Coding Schema in a Paced Program of Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winters, Charlene A.; Cudney, Shirley; Sullivan, Therese

    2010-01-01

    A major task involved in the management, analysis, and integration of qualitative data is the development of a coding schema to facilitate the analytic process. Described in this paper is the evolution of a coding schema that was used in the analysis of qualitative data generated from online forums of middle-aged women with chronic conditions who…

  2. Cultural Schemas and Their Implications-Based on Investigations of Oral English Class

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Cheng-ping

    2015-01-01

    This is a reflection on how cultural schema principles might be incorporated into the Oral English classroom. More specifically, it notes on how a strategy was developed for freshmen and sophomore classes of English majors over the period of an entire term. The findings indicate that Cultural Schema Theory plays a significant role in the facilitation of College English.

  3. Analysis of the blocking behaviour of schema transformations in relational database systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wevers, L.; Hofstra, Matthijs; Tammens, Menno; Huisman, Marieke; van Keulen, Maurice

    2015-01-01

    In earlier work we have extended the TPC-C benchmark with basic and complex schema transformations. This paper uses this benchmark to investigate the blocking behaviour of online schema transformations in PostgreSQL, MySQL and Oracle 11g. First we discuss experiments using the data definition langua

  4. The "Mother" of All Schemas: Creating Cognitive Dissonance in Children's Fantasy Literature Using the Mother Figure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palkovich, Einat Natalie

    2015-01-01

    Mothers are essential facilitators of early Theory of Mind development and intrinsic to the acquisition, as well as the content, of many basic schemas learnt in infancy. In this article it is argued that the "mother" schema in children's literature can ease a child's transition into literary discourse by exploiting the child's…

  5. Life Event Stress and Binge Eating Among Adolescents: The Roles of Early Maladaptive Schemas and Impulsivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hong; Luo, Xingwei; Cai, Taisheng; He, Jinbo; Lu, Yao; Wu, Siyao

    2016-10-01

    This study examined the relationships between life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating among adolescents and investigated the effects of early maladaptive schemas and impulsivity on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Specifically, we examined a moderated mediation model in which early maladaptive schemas mediated this relationship and impulsivity moderated the mediation effect. Life event stress, early maladaptive schemas, impulsivity and binge eating were investigated in a sample of 2172 seventh-, eighth- and tenth-grade middle and high school students (mean age = 14.55 years, standard deviation = 1.29). The results indicated that adolescents with greater life event stress, more early maladaptive schemas and higher levels of impulsivity displayed more severe binge eating. In addition, early maladaptive schemas mediated the relationship between life event stress and binge eating, while impulsivity moderated this relationship. Furthermore, impulsivity also moderated the mediation effect of early maladaptive schemas; as impulsivity levels increased, the strength of the association between life event stress and early maladaptive schemas increased. This study illustrates the importance of understanding individual differences and their effects on the relationship between life event stress and binge eating. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  6. Testing Three-Item Versions for Seven of Young's Maladaptive Schema

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blau, Gary; DiMino, John; Sheridan, Natalie; Pred, Robert S.; Beverly, Clyde; Chessler, Marcy

    2015-01-01

    The Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ) in either long-form (205- item) or short-form (75-item or 90-item) versions has demonstrated its clinical usefulness for assessing early maladaptive schemas. However, even a 75 or 90-item "short form", particularly when combined with other measures, can represent a lengthy…

  7. Social Information Processing as a Mediator between Cognitive Schemas and Aggressive Behavior in Adolescents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Orue, Izaskun

    2012-01-01

    This longitudinal investigation assessed whether cognitive schemas of justification of violence, mistrust, and narcissism predicted social information processing (SIP), and SIP in turn predicted aggressive behavior in adolescents. A total of 650 adolescents completed measures of cognitive schemas at Time 1, SIP in ambiguous social scenarios at…

  8. Schema-Driven Facilitation of New Hierarchy Learning in the Transitive Inference Paradigm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumaran, Dharshan

    2013-01-01

    Prior knowledge, in the form of a mental schema or framework, is viewed to facilitate the learning of new information in a range of experimental and everyday scenarios. Despite rising interest in the cognitive and neural mechanisms underlying schema-driven facilitation of new learning, few paradigms have been developed to examine this issue in…

  9. A natural language interface plug-in for cooperative query answering in biological databases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamil, Hasan M

    2012-06-11

    One of the many unique features of biological databases is that the mere existence of a ground data item is not always a precondition for a query response. It may be argued that from a biologist's standpoint, queries are not always best posed using a structured language. By this we mean that approximate and flexible responses to natural language like queries are well suited for this domain. This is partly due to biologists' tendency to seek simpler interfaces and partly due to the fact that questions in biology involve high level concepts that are open to interpretations computed using sophisticated tools. In such highly interpretive environments, rigidly structured databases do not always perform well. In this paper, our goal is to propose a semantic correspondence plug-in to aid natural language query processing over arbitrary biological database schema with an aim to providing cooperative responses to queries tailored to users' interpretations. Natural language interfaces for databases are generally effective when they are tuned to the underlying database schema and its semantics. Therefore, changes in database schema become impossible to support, or a substantial reorganization cost must be absorbed to reflect any change. We leverage developments in natural language parsing, rule languages and ontologies, and data integration technologies to assemble a prototype query processor that is able to transform a natural language query into a semantically equivalent structured query over the database. We allow knowledge rules and their frequent modifications as part of the underlying database schema. The approach we adopt in our plug-in overcomes some of the serious limitations of many contemporary natural language interfaces, including support for schema modifications and independence from underlying database schema. The plug-in introduced in this paper is generic and facilitates connecting user selected natural language interfaces to arbitrary databases using a

  10. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Trincas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings.

  11. Complexity of Data Dependence problems for Program Schemas with Concurrency

    CERN Document Server

    Danicic, Sebastian; Laurence, Michael R

    2010-01-01

    The problem of deciding whether one point in a program is data dependent upon another is fundamental to program analysis and has been widely studied. In this paper we consider this problem at the abstraction level of program schemas, in which computations occur in the Herbrand domain of terms and predicate symbols, which represent arbitrary predicate functions, are allowed. Given a vertex l in the flowchart of a schema S having only equality assignments and variables v,w, we show that it is PSPACE-hard to decide whether there exists an execution of a program defined by S in which v holds the initial value of w at at least one occurrence of l on the path of execution, with membership in PSPACE holding provided there is a constant upper bound on the arity of any predicate in S. We also consider the `dual' problem in which v is required to hold the initial value of w at every occurrence of l, for which the analogous results hold. Additionally, the former problem for programs with non-deterministic branching (in ...

  12. Specific Dysphoric Symptoms Are Predicted by Early Maladaptive Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Couyoumdjian, Alessandro; Tenore, Katia; Spitoni, Grazia; Mancini, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) are cognitive patterns resulting from unmet core emotional needs in childhood that have been linked to the development of psychopathology. As depression is a multifaceted phenomenon, we hypothesized that specific dysphoric symptoms would be predicted by different EMSs. Four hundred and fifty-six participants completed a measure of EMSs (Young Schema Questionnaire) and reported on the severity of the symptoms of criterion A for major depression in DSM-IV during the occurrence of a dysphoric episode in the previous 12 months. A series of stepwise multiple regression analyses were performed to investigate the predictive power of the EMSs for the severity of each specific depressive symptom. When controlling for gender and current levels of depression, specific symptoms were predicted by different EMSs: sadness by Negativity/Pessimism; anhedonia by Failure; self-harm by Emotional Deprivation and Vulnerability to Harm or Illness; worthlessness by Failure and Negativity/Pessimism; psychomotor retardation/restlessness by Vulnerability to Harm or Illness and Entitlement/Grandiosity; and poor concentration by Insufficient Self-Control/Self-Discipline. The more physical symptoms of fatigue, insomnia/hypersomnia, and appetite loss/appetite gain were not predicted by any of the EMSs. Although the cross-sectional design of the study does not allow for conclusions about the direction of effects, results suggest that depression is not a unitary phenomenon and provide a possible explanation for previous inconsistent findings. PMID:24511281

  13. 图式理论在诗词翻译中的应用%The Application of Schema Theory in Translation of Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏薇; 刘明东

    2012-01-01

    Translation can be regarded as "Schema Translation" to some extent.The thesis applies schema theory to the translation process of Chinese poetry,and tries to analyze schema transfer in the translation of Chinese poetry from three aspects of language schemata,content schemata(image schemata,culture schemata,context schemata and sensibility schemata) and form schemata(rhyme schemata and intonation schemata).%翻译的实质,在某种程度上可理解为"图式翻译"。运用图式理论探讨中国古诗词的翻译过程,从语言图式、内容图式(包括意象图式、文化图式、语境图式和情感图式)和形式图式(包括韵律图式和音调图式)三方面来审视诗词翻译中图式的传译。

  14. 基于图式理论的英语听力理解研究%English Listening Study Based on Schema Theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    甘晓莉

    2012-01-01

    Listening is a complicated interactive activity involving text and schema existing in English learners. From the perspective of cognitive psychology, pragmatics, information processing, artificial intelligence, etc, schema theory provides listening comprehension with new viewpoint. During this, the semantic and background schema is a must information loaded in language are of equal importance. Therefore, to construct and optimize in English listening comprehension.%听力理解是语篇与听者大脑中已有的图式相互作用的过程。图式理论从认知心理学、语用学、信息处理和人工智能等方面为听力教学提供了新的视角。在英语听力理解的过程中,语言所承载的语义信息与文化背景知识同等重要。在听力教学中图式构建和优化有其必要性。

  15. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  16. Trans-generational transfer of early maladaptive schemas – a preliminary study performed on a non-clinical group

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background The maladaptive schemas theory assumes the creation of schemas as a result of relationships with parents during childhood. The aim of the study was to answer questions about the relations between dysfunctional parents’ schemas and their parental attitudes and their children’s schemas. Participants and procedure Eighty people participated in the study: 20 full families with grown children: a daughter and a son. The Questionnaire of Retrospective Assessment of Parental Attitudes (KPR-Roc by Plopa and the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 were used. Results The results indicate that in the case of daughters the relationships between parental attitudes and schemas relate primarily to the perception of the mother’s attitudes. The strongest positive relationship between maladaptive daughter’s schemas were in relation to an excessively demanding attitude of the mother. There were no relations between the perception of the father’s attitudes and schemas of daughters. In the case of boys there were less significant correlations for both the perception of the mother and father. With regard to the relationship between parents’ schemas and children’s schemas, such mothers’ schemas as defectiveness, vulnerability to harm or illness and absolute severity and such fathers’ schemas as defectiveness, entanglement and self-sacrifice showed especially strong links with daughters’ schemas. The strongest relationships with sons’ schemas occurred in relation to the mother’s schema connected with pessimism and the father’s vulnerability to harm. Conclusions Young’s schemas theory seems to be significant from the perspective of understanding intergenerational transfers of beliefs and accompanying behaviours.

  17. [M. sternocleidomastoideus mechanical stimulation produces lateralized effect on body schema perception].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zartor, A S; Mikheev, M M; Popov, P V; Afanas'ev, S V

    2014-09-01

    Neck muscles play important role in body schema perception, pose and motor control. The mechanical neck muscles stimulation can influence these processes. On present investigation the kinesiology tape (KT) application was used as a local mechanical stimulation for M. sternocleidomastoideus. The results confirmed the influence of the KT application on the body schema perception. Moreover, the influence effect was lateralized in dependence on the side of the KT application. In most of the subjects the KT left application diminished the reaction time in the body schema mental rotation task. The right the KT application has not shown this effect. The possible causes of the KT application lateralized effect can be the proprioceptive asymmetry in neck muscles or the hemispheric functional asymmetry of the body schema perception process. The results may be useful for understanding the neurological nature of asymmetric body schema perception impairments as well as for the development of sport training methods.

  18. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke; Simonsen, Erik

    2016-08-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered expressions of schema therapy constructs, which psychotherapists might take advantage of in terms of case formulation and targets of treatment. In turn, schema therapy constructs add theoretical understanding to DSM-5 traits.

  19. Cognitive schemas as longitudinal predictors of self-reported adolescent depressive symptoms and resilience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedmann, Jordan S; Lumley, Margaret N; Lerman, Bethany

    2016-01-01

    Given that depression risk intensifies in adolescence, examining associates of depressive symptoms during the shift from childhood to adolescence is important for expanding knowledge about the etiology of depression symptoms and disorder. A longitudinal youth report was employed to examine the trajectory of both the content and structure of positive and negative schemas in adolescence and also whether these schemas could prospectively predict depressive symptoms and youth-reported resilience. One hundred and ninety-eight participants (aged 9 to 14) were recruited from four schools to complete measures of youth depressive symptoms, resilience, and schema content and structure. Those who consented to a follow-up study completed the same measures online (50 participants completed). Negative and positive schema content and structure were related over time. After controlling depressive symptoms/resilience at Time 1, negative schema content was the only significant predictor (trend level) of depressive symptoms and resilience at Time 2. Implications for cognitive theories and clinical practice are discussed.

  20. Extracting Result Schema Based on Query Instances in the Deep Web

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    NIE Tiezheng; YU Ge; SHEN Derong; KOU Yue; LIU Wei

    2007-01-01

    Deep Web sources contain a large of high-quality and query-related structured date. One of the challenges in the Deep Web is extracting result schemas of Deep Web sources. To address this challenge, this paper describes a novel approach that extracts both result data and the result schema of a Web database.The approach first models the query interface of a Deep Web source and fills in it with a specifically query instance. Then the result pages of the Deep Web sources are formatted in the tree structure to retrieve subtrees that contain elements of the query instance. Next, result schema of the Deep Web source is extracted by matching the subtree' nodes with the query instance, in which,a two-phase schema extraction method is adopted for obtaining more accurate result schema. Finally, experiments on real Deep Web sources show the utility of our approach, which provides a high precision and recall.

  1. Prediction of Anxiety Based on Attachment Styles: The Mediating Effect of Emotional Schemas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seyed Mohammad Shahvarani

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research was to predict anxiety based on attachment styles with intermediary role of emotional schemas. Statistical population consisted of all students at the University of Shiraz. From among this population, 270 individuals (140 girls and 130 boys were selected by convenient sampling for participation in the study. Participants completed the Adult Attachment Scale (Besharat, 2005, Revised Emotional Schemas Scale (Shahvarani, 2014 and Spielberger’s Anxiety Scale (2004, respectively. For data analysis, descriptive statistics and path analysis and modeling was used. Analysis of research data showed the two styles of attachment secure and ambivalent and emotional schemas of understanding and control and rumination meaningfully predict anxiety and ultimately ambivalent attachment style with complete intermediation by two emotional schemas of understanding and control and rumination predicts anxiety. With consideration of the desired model fit and complete intermediary influence in the final research model, it can be concluded that emotional schemas have high explanatory power regarding emotional disorders.

  2. Unifying Speech and Language in a Developmentally Sensitive Model of Production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redford, Melissa A

    2015-11-01

    Speaking is an intentional activity. It is also a complex motor skill; one that exhibits protracted development and the fully automatic character of an overlearned behavior. Together these observations suggest an analogy with skilled behavior in the non-language domain. This analogy is used here to argue for a model of production that is grounded in the activity of speaking and structured during language acquisition. The focus is on the plan that controls the execution of fluent speech; specifically, on the units that are activated during the production of an intonational phrase. These units are schemas: temporally structured sequences of remembered actions and their sensory outcomes. Schemas are activated and inhibited via associated goals, which are linked to specific meanings. Schemas may fuse together over developmental time with repeated use to form larger units, thereby affecting the relative timing of sequential action in participating schemas. In this way, the hierarchical structure of the speech plan and ensuing rhythm patterns of speech are a product of development. Individual schemas may also become differentiated during development, but only if subsequences are associated with meaning. The necessary association of action and meaning gives rise to assumptions about the primacy of certain linguistic forms in the production process. Overall, schema representations connect usage-based theories of language to the action of speaking.

  3. Initial investigation of the effects of an experimentally learned schema on spatial associative memory in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buuren, Mariët; Kroes, Marijn C W; Wagner, Isabella C; Genzel, Lisa; Morris, Richard G M; Fernández, Guillén

    2014-12-10

    Networks of interconnected neocortical representations of prior knowledge, "schemas," facilitate memory for congruent information. This facilitation is thought to be mediated by augmented encoding and accelerated consolidation. However, it is less clear how schema affects retrieval. Rodent and human studies to date suggest that schema-related memories are differently retrieved. However, these studies differ substantially as most human studies implement pre-experimental world-knowledge as schemas and tested item or nonspatial associative memory, whereas animal studies have used intraexperimental schemas based on item-location associations within a complex spatial layout that, in humans, could engage more strategic retrieval processes. Here, we developed a paradigm conceptually linked to rodent studies to examine the effects of an experimentally learned spatial associative schema on learning and retrieval of new object-location associations and to investigate the neural mechanisms underlying schema-related retrieval. Extending previous findings, we show that retrieval of schema-defining associations is related to activity along anterior and posterior midline structures and angular gyrus. The existence of such spatial associative schema resulted in more accurate learning and retrieval of new, related associations, and increased time allocated to retrieve these associations. This retrieval was associated with right dorsolateral prefrontal and lateral parietal activity, as well as interactions between the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and medial and lateral parietal regions, and between the medial prefrontal cortex and posterior midline regions, supporting the hypothesis that retrieval of new, schema-related object-location associations in humans also involves augmented monitoring and systematic search processes.

  4. Why Did This Happen to Me? Cognitive Schema Disruption and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2010-01-01

    Many trauma researchers have proposed cognitive schemas as a heuristic device to understand the elusive process of integrating traumatic events. We examined the schemas of a sample (N = 257) of female participants classified by exposure to sexual trauma, nonsexual trauma, and no trauma experience. Cognitive schema was assessed with the Traumatic…

  5. Why Did This Happen to Me? Cognitive Schema Disruption and Posttraumatic Stress Disorder in Victims of Sexual Trauma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Caroline Vaile; Collinsworth, Linda L.; Fitzgerald, Louise F.

    2010-01-01

    Many trauma researchers have proposed cognitive schemas as a heuristic device to understand the elusive process of integrating traumatic events. We examined the schemas of a sample (N = 257) of female participants classified by exposure to sexual trauma, nonsexual trauma, and no trauma experience. Cognitive schema was assessed with the Traumatic…

  6. Information schema constructs for defining warehouse databases of genotypes and phenotypes of system manifestation features

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shahab POURTALEBI‡; Imre HORVÁTH

    2016-01-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop a software toolbox for pre-embodiment design of complex and heterogeneous systems, such as cyber-physical systems. The novelty of this toolbox is that it uses system manifestation features (SMFs) for transdisciplinary modeling of these systems. The main challenges of implementation of the toolbox are functional design- and language-independent computational realization of the warehouses, and systematic development and management of the various evolving implements of SMFs (genotypes, phenotypes, and instances). Therefore, an information schema construct (ISC) based approach is proposed to create the schemata of the associated warehouse databases and the above-mentioned SMF implements. ISCs logically arrange the data contents of SMFs in a set of relational tables of varying semantics. In this article we present the ISCs necessary for creation of genotypes and phenotypes. They increase the efficiency of the database development process and make the data relationships transparent. Our follow-up research focuses on the elaboration of the SMF instances based system modeling methodology.

  7. Dialogue as Process: Making Communication "Real" in the Second Language Classroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melrose, Robin

    1992-01-01

    Two concerns are addressed: the growing interest in process-oriented approaches to language learning, and the search for a nonparticulate linguistics of the type hinted at by Halliday and given some credibility by the findings of neuroscience. Focus is on somatic phenomena such as tone of voice, body language, and certain schemas. (15 references)…

  8. Some Aspects of Developing Background Knowledge in Second Language Acquisition Revisited

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zashchitina, Galina; Moysyak, Natalia

    2017-01-01

    The article focuses on defining how background knowledge impacts on second-language acquisition by giving a brief overview of schema theory, the interaction of the basic modes of information processing. A challenge of dealing with culturally specific texts in second language acquisition is also touched upon. Different research-supported views on…

  9. Development of Information Datasheets of Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) Equipment using cfiXLM schema

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jaiho; Song, Eunhye [KHNP-Central Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    In 2009, EPRI (Electrical Power Research Institute) published a new NPP information handover guide to provide NPP owners and operators with data handover templates in consistent format for effective delivery of information during all stages of the handover process. Another difficult concern for NPP data information management is to exchange the data information among many organizations such as NPP owners, operators, engineering companies, suppliers, and vendors. As a matter of fact, the improperly formatted handover of information sometimes occurs due to the discrepancy of data format (e. g., data description language type). This improper delivery can make negative effects on NPP integrity and safety. Thus, the lack of proper exchange for different data information systems of organizations should be resolved by using an international standard data format. The standard data format can reduce the cost and time for data exchange in each phase for design, procurement, delivery, installation, operation and maintenance of equipment. The AEX(automating equipment information exchange) pilot implementation project team under EPRI advanced nuclear technology (ANT) program has been conducted a research for the use of XML equipment schemas for electronic data exchange(EDE). They applied XML equipment schema for the design, selection, quotation, purchase and mock install of a safety injection centrifugal pump using EDE standard HI(hydraulic institute) 50.7. For data exchange, FIATECH, an industry consortium, has equally developed library of templates and reference data for ISO-15926, which is an international standard capable of reducing data-error and delivery time for exchanging data among different organizations. KHNP as an only owner/operator company has not experienced much difficulty in data interoperability with other organizations, but continued its unremitting exertions to develop a robust system capable of managing data information generated in all the stages of NPP

  10. Gender Differences in Early Maladaptive Schemas in a Treatment-Seeking Sample of Alcohol-Dependent Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Anderson, Scott E.; Stuart, Gregory L.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined early maladaptive schemas among alcohol-dependent men and women and sought to determine whether men and women differed in their early maladaptive schemas. Using preexisting patient records of adults diagnosed with alcohol dependence from a residential treatment center in the Southeastern United States, from 2005 to 2010 (N = 854), results showed that women scored significantly higher than men on 14 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas assessed. Both women and men endorsed having a number of early maladaptive schemas, with four schemas being particularly prevalent across gender. Study limitations are noted and implications of these findings for treatment and future research are discussed. PMID:22060801

  11. Effect of context and personality on the forgiveness schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauché, Mélanie; Mullet, Etienne

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the extent to which the type of aggressive behavior affected the impact of circumstances of the aggression on the victim's willingness to forgive. The participants were 97 adults aged 17 to 68 years. They expressed willingness to forgive in 3 contexts: breaking up of a love affair, gossiping at work, and collision during a game. As hypothesized, apologies and intent had more impact in the physical aggression condition than in the psychological aggression conditions, cancellation of consequences had more impact in the psychological aggression conditions than in the physical aggression condition, the structure of the forgiveness schema varied as a function of the type of harmful situation, and participants with a higher score in emotional stability and agreeableness were more willing to forgive than participants with a lower score.

  12. PARIS: Probabilistic Alignment of Relations, Instances, and Schema

    CERN Document Server

    Suchanek, Fabian M; Senellart, Pierre

    2011-01-01

    One of the main challenges that the Semantic Web faces is the integration of a growing number of independently designed ontologies. In this work, we present PARIS, an approach for the automatic alignment of ontologies. PARIS aligns not only instances, but also relations and classes. Alignments at the instance level cross-fertilize with alignments at the schema level. Thereby, our system provides a truly holistic solution to the problem of ontology alignment. The heart of the approach is probabilistic, i.e., we measure degrees of matchings based on probability estimates. This allows PARIS to run without any parameter tuning. We demonstrate the efficiency of the algorithm and its precision through extensive experiments. In particular, we obtain a precision of around 90% in experiments with some of the world's largest ontologies.

  13. Early Maladaptive Schemas and Aggression in Men Seeking Residential Substance Use Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C; Elmquist, Joanna; Anderson, Scott; Stuart, Gregory L

    2015-09-01

    Social-cognitive theories of aggression postulate that individuals who perpetrate aggression are likely to have high levels of maladaptive cognitive schemas that increase risk for aggression. Indeed, recent research has begun to examine whether early maladaptive schemas may increase the risk for aggression. However, no known research has examined this among individuals in substance use treatment, despite aggression and early maladaptive schemas being more prevalent among individuals with a substance use disorder than the general population. Toward this end, we examined the relationship between early maladaptive schemas and aggression in men in a residential substance use treatment facility (N = 106). Utilizing pre-existing patient records, results demonstrated unique associations between early maladaptive schema domains and aggression depending on the type of aggression and schema domain examined, even after controlling for substance use, antisocial personality, age, and education. The Impaired Limits domain was positively associated with verbal aggression, aggressive attitude, and overall aggression, whereas the Disconnection and Rejection domain was positively associated with physical aggression. These findings are consistent with social-cognitive models of aggression and advance our understanding of how early maladaptive schemas may influence aggression. The implications of these findings for future research are discussed.

  14. A Clustering Algorithm for Planning the Integration Process of a Large Number of Conceptual Schemas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Carlo Batini; Paola Bonizzoni; Marco Comerio; Riccardo Dondi; Yuri Pirola; Francesco Salandra

    2015-01-01

    When tens and even hundreds of schemas are involved in the integration process, criteria are needed for choosing clusters of schemas to be integrated, so as to deal with the integration problem through an efficient iterative process. Schemas in clusters should be chosen according to cohesion and coupling criteria that are based on similarities and dissimilarities among schemas. In this paper, we propose an algorithm for a novel variant of the correlation clustering approach that addresses the problem of assisting a designer in integrating a large number of conceptual schemas. The novel variant introduces upper and lower bounds to the number of schemas in each cluster, in order to avoid too complex and too simple integration contexts respectively. We give a heuristic for solving the problem, being an NP hard combinatorial problem. An experimental activity demonstrates an appreciable increment in the effectiveness of the schema integration process when clusters are computed by means of the proposed algorithm w.r.t. the ones manually defined by an expert.

  15. 图式理论对英语新闻理解研究的启示%Schema Theory's Inspirations to the Research of English News Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张君

    2011-01-01

    Listening to English news is .a primary means for English learners to learn the language and get acquainted with the western society and culture, but most learners have difficulty in enhancing their listening comprehension of the news. This paper, based on Schema Theory, analyses the linguistic schema and structural schema of English news, and also proposes some corresponding strategies to construct and improve the schema of English news.%收听英语新闻是英语学习者学习语言,了解西方社会和文化的重要途径,但是很多学习者都在英语新闻的听力理解方面感到困难。结合图式理论,分析英语新闻的主要语言图式和结构图式特点.提出建立和完善英语新闻图式的策略。

  16. Emotion regulation in schema therapy and dialectical behavior therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Fassbinder

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Schema therapy (ST and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross’ process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g. lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect. These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogues and imagery rescripting.

  17. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting.

  18. Schema Therapy for Emotional Dysregulation: Theoretical Implication and Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadomo, Harold; Grecucci, Alessandro; Giardini, Irene; Ugolini, Erika; Carmelita, Alessandro; Panzeri, Marta

    2016-01-01

    The term emotional dysregulation refers to an impaired ability to regulate unwanted emotional states. Scientific evidence supports the idea that emotional dysregulation underlies several psychological disorders as, for example: personality disorders, bipolar disorder type II, interpersonal trauma, anxiety disorders, mood disorders and post-traumatic stress disorder. Emotional dysregulation may derive from early interpersonal traumas in childhood. These early traumatic events create a persistent sensitization of the central nervous system in relation to early life stressing events. For this reason, some authors suggest a common endophenotypical origin across psychopathologies. In the last 20 years, cognitive behavioral therapy has increasingly adopted an interactive-ontogenetic view to explain the development of disorders associated to emotional dysregulation. Unfortunately, standard Cognitive Behavior Therapy (CBT) methods are not useful in treating emotional dysregulation. A CBT-derived new approach called Schema Therapy (ST), that integrates theory and techniques from psychodynamic and emotion focused therapy, holds the promise to fill this gap in cognitive literature. In this model, psychopathology is viewed as the interaction between the innate temperament of the child and the early experiences of deprivation or frustration of the subject's basic needs. This deprivation may lead to develop early maladaptive schemas (EMS), and maladaptive Modes. In the present paper we point out that EMSs and Modes are associated with either dysregulated emotions or with dysregulatory strategies that produce and maintain problematic emotional responses. Thanks to a special focus on the therapeutic relationship and emotion focused-experiential techniques, this approach successfully treats severe emotional dysregulation. In this paper, we make several comparisons between the main ideas of ST and the science of emotion regulation, and we present how to conceptualize pathological

  19. Emotion Regulation in Schema Therapy and Dialectical Behavior Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fassbinder, Eva; Schweiger, Ulrich; Martius, Desiree; Brand-de Wilde, Odette; Arntz, Arnoud

    2016-01-01

    Schema therapy (ST) and dialectical behavior therapy (DBT) have both shown to be effective treatment methods especially for borderline personality disorder. Both, ST and DBT, have their roots in cognitive behavioral therapy and aim at helping patient to deal with emotional dysregulation. However, there are major differences in the terminology, explanatory models and techniques used in the both methods. This article gives an overview of the major therapeutic techniques used in ST and DBT with respect to emotion regulation and systematically puts them in the context of James Gross' process model of emotion regulation. Similarities and differences of the two methods are highlighted and illustrated with a case example. A core difference of the two approaches is that DBT directly focusses on the acquisition of emotion regulation skills, whereas ST does seldom address emotion regulation directly. All DBT-modules (mindfulness, distress tolerance, emotion regulation, interpersonal effectiveness) are intended to improve emotion regulation skills and patients are encouraged to train these skills on a regular basis. DBT assumes that improved skills and skills use will result in better emotion regulation. In ST problems in emotion regulation are seen as a consequence of adverse early experiences (e.g., lack of safe attachment, childhood abuse or emotional neglect). These negative experiences have led to unprocessed psychological traumas and fear of emotions and result in attempts to avoid emotions and dysfunctional meta-cognitive schemas about the meaning of emotions. ST assumes that when these underlying problems are addressed, emotion regulation improves. Major ST techniques for trauma processing, emotional avoidance and dysregulation are limited reparenting, empathic confrontation and experiential techniques like chair dialogs and imagery rescripting. PMID:27683567

  20. Early Maladaptive Schemas among Young Adult Male Substance Abusers: A Comparison with a Non-Clinical Group

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2012-01-01

    Early maladaptive schemas are rigidly held cognitive and behavioral patterns that guide how individuals encode and respond to stimuli in their environments (Young, 1994). Research has examined the early maladaptive schemas of substance abusers, as schemas are believed to underlie, perpetuate, and maintain problematic substance use. To date, research has not examined whether young adult male substance abuse treatment seekers (ages 18 to 25) report greater early maladaptive schema endorsement than a non-clinical comparison group. The current study extended the research on substance use and schemas by comparing the early maladaptive schemas of young adult male residential substance abuse patients (n = 101) and a group of non-clinical male college students (n = 175). Results demonstrated that the substance abuse group scored higher than the non-clinical comparison group on 9 of the 18 early maladaptive schemas. Implications of these findings for future research and substance use treatment programs are discussed. PMID:23312769

  1. A Multianalyzer Machine Learning Model for Marine Heterogeneous Data Schema Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Yan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The main challenges that marine heterogeneous data integration faces are the problem of accurate schema mapping between heterogeneous data sources. In order to improve the schema mapping efficiency and get more accurate learning results, this paper proposes a heterogeneous data schema mapping method basing on multianalyzer machine learning model. The multianalyzer analysis the learning results comprehensively, and a fuzzy comprehensive evaluation system is introduced for output results’ evaluation and multi factor quantitative judging. Finally, the data mapping comparison experiment on the East China Sea observing data confirms the effectiveness of the model and shows multianalyzer’s obvious improvement of mapping error rate.

  2. Developing schemas for assessing personal and social competences among unskilled young people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aarkrog, Vibe; Wahlgren, Bjarne

    2016-01-01

    competences. The schema was developed in cooperation with practitioners, i.e. representatives from workplaces, from municipal youth guidance centres, and from VET colleges. Based on the experiences accrued in developing the schema, the article discusses how personal and social competences can be assessed......Personal and social competences are crucial parts of VET competences. As part of a development project preparing unskilled young people for vocational education and training, a research project was conducted with the aim of developing a schema for assessing and grading personal and social...

  3. The interaction between schema matching and record matching in data integration (extended abstract)

    KAUST Repository

    Gu, Binbin

    2017-05-18

    Schema Matching (SM) and Record Matching (RM) are two necessary steps in integrating multiple relational tables of different schemas, where SM unifies the schemas and RM detects records referring to the same real-world entity. The two processes have been thoroughly studied separately, but few attention has been paid to the interaction of SM and RM. In this work we find that, even alternating them in a simple manner, SM and RM can benefit from each other to reach a better integration performance (i.e., in terms of precision and recall). Therefore, combining SM and RM is a promising solution for improving data integration.

  4. Towards the XML schema measurement based on mapping between XML and OO domain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakić, Gordana; Budimac, Zoran; Heričko, Marjan; Pušnik, Maja

    2017-07-01

    Measuring quality of IT solutions is a priority in software engineering. Although numerous metrics for measuring object-oriented code already exist, measuring quality of UML models or XML Schemas is still developing. One of the research questions in the overall research leaded by ideas described in this paper is whether we can apply already defined object-oriented design metrics on XML schemas based on predefined mappings. In this paper, basic ideas for mentioned mapping are presented. This mapping is prerequisite for setting the future approach to XML schema quality measuring with object-oriented metrics.

  5. 图式理论与日语听解实践研究%Schema Theory and the Empirical Study of Japanese Listening Comprehension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    窦硕华

    2011-01-01

    图式理论在研究大脑对外界信息的处理模式方面具有较强的解释力,因而被广泛应用于外语听力理解的研究与实践中。该理论认为,听者通过"自下而上"和"自上而下"两种模式共同作用于听力理解过程中。听者图式储存越丰富,对语篇的理解就越准确。鉴于此,在日语听解实践中,应积极构建并激活语言、内容、形式三种图式,以加速听力理解的进程,促进语用能力的提高。%Schema theory has a strong explanation in the respect of researching the model by which cerebrum processes information outside, which is widely applied in researches and practices of foreign language listening comprehension. It holds that listeners adopt "bottom-up" and "top-down" together in their listening comprehension. The richer listener' schema storage is, the more accurately they understand discourses. Therefore, in Japanese listening practices , it is necessary to construct and activate language, content, and form schemas to accelerate the process of listening comprehension and to promote the improvement of pragmatic competence.

  6. 图式理论与高职高专公共英语词汇教学%Schema Theory and Vocabulary Teaching in College

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张薇薇

    2014-01-01

    Vocabulary has always been a difficult part for English learners. English teachers in college face even more difficult problems in teaching vocabulary. Schema-based instruction will have positive effects on students ’vocabulary learning strategy. Schema theory explores the language learning process from the cognitive perspective. Based on schema theory, the present study demonstrates how schema-based instruction influence vocabulary learning strategies by combining the theory with vocabulary teaching. The investigation attempts to offer a new line of thinking to the schema theory and provide theoretical and practical ba-sis for improving the traditional vocabulary instruction model. It will improve the results of vocabulary teaching, meanwhile, the students’ability in vocabulary learning will make a big progress.%词汇一直是困扰英语学习者的难题,近几年由于生源质量不断下降,英语词汇教学更是成为高职高专院校教师颇为头疼的问题。基于图式理论的词汇教学将会给英语教学带来积极影响。图式理论是从认知的角度探讨语言学习过程。从图式理论的角度出发,在英语词汇教学中与之结合,分析基于图式理论的词汇教学对词汇学习策略的影响。这将从另一角度探讨图式理论,将会为改变传统的词汇教学模式提供理论基础和实践依据,有助于改善词汇教学效果,从而促进高职高专学生英语词汇学习能力的发展。

  7. Are maladaptive schema domains and perfectionism related to body image concerns in eating disorder patients?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boone, Liesbet; Braet, Caroline; Vandereycken, Walter; Claes, Laurence

    2013-01-01

    Both maladaptive schemas (MS) and perfectionism have been associated with eating pathology. However, previous research has not examined these variables simultaneously and has not studied possible mediating relationships between MS and multidimensional perfectionism for body image concerns in eating disorder (ED) patients. Eighty-eight female ED patients completed the Young Schema Questionnaire, the Frost Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale, and the Body Attitude Test. Body image concerns were found to be positively related to Personal Standards (PS) and Evaluative Concerns (EC) perfectionism and all five schema domains. PS Perfectionism was positively associated with Disconnection, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. EC Perfectionism was positively related to Disconnection, Impaired Autonomy, Other-directedness, and Overvigilance. Moreover, EC perfectionism was found to be a significant mediator in the relationship between the schema domains Impaired Autonomy and Overvigilance and body image concerns. These findings denote the importance to address both core beliefs and perfectionism in ED treatment.

  8. Ontology-Based Big Dimension Modeling in Data Warehouse Schema Design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xiufeng, Liu; Iftikhar, Nadeem

    2013-01-01

    During data warehouse schema design, designers often encounter how to model big dimensions that typically contain a large number of attributes and records. To investigate effective approaches for modeling big dimensions is necessary in order to achieve better query performance, with respect...... partitioning, vertical partitioning and their hybrid. We formalize the design methods and propose an algorithm that describes the modeling process from an OWL ontology to a data warehouse schema. In addition, this paper also presents an effective ontology-based tool to automate the modeling process. The tool...... can automatically generate the data warehouse schema from the ontology of describing the terms and business semantics for the big dimension. In case of any change in the requirements, we only need to modify the ontology, and re-generate the schema using the tool. This paper also evaluates the proposed...

  9. Choosing the Right Path: Image Schema Theory as a Foundation for Concept Invention

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hedblom, Maria M.; Kutz, Oliver; Neuhaus, Fabian

    2015-12-01

    Image schemas are recognised as a fundamental ingredient in human cognition and creative thought. They have been studied extensively in areas such as cognitive linguistics. With the goal of exploring their potential role in computational creative systems, we here study the viability of the idea to formalise image schemas as a set of interlinked theories. We discuss in particular a selection of image schemas related to the notion of `path', and show how they can be mapped to a formalised family of microtheories reflecting the different aspects of path following. Finally, we illustrate the potential of this approach in the area of concept invention, namely by providing several examples illustrating in detail in what way formalised image schema families support the computational modelling of conceptual blending.

  10. Building HVAC control knowledge data schema – Towards a unified representation of control system knowledge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Yan; Treado, Stephen J.; Messner, John I.

    2016-12-01

    Building control systems for Heating, Ventilation, and Air Conditioning (HVAC) play a key role in realizing the functionality and operation of building systems and components. Building Control Knowledge (BCK) is the logic and algorithms embedded throughout building control system. There are different methods to represent the BCK. These methods differ in the selection of BCK representing elements and the format of those elements. There is a lack of standard data schema, for storing, retrieving, and reusing structured BCK. In this study, a modular data schema is created for BCK representation. The data schema contains eleven representing elements, i.e., control module name, operation mode, system schematic, control flow diagram, data point, alarm, parameter, control sequence, function, and programming code. Each element is defined with specific attributes. This data schema is evaluated through a case study demonstration. The demonstration shows a new way to represent the BCK with standard formats.

  11. Personality and early maladaptive schemas: a five-factor model perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-12-01

    According to Young's schema model (Young, J. E., Klosko, J. S., & Weishaar, M. E. (2003). Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press), innate personality tendencies are important for the understanding of early maladaptive schemas (EMS). The current study examined the relations between EMS and the dimensions of the five-factor model of personality (FFM). One hundred and forty-seven adult outpatients completed the NEO PI-R, the Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (SQ-SF), and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Correlational analyses showed a substantial overlap between EMS and the FFM, neuroticism in particular. EMS predicted depressive symptoms above and beyond the FFM personality dimensions. Implications of these findings are discussed.

  12. Effects of bombing after five years: Development of early maladaptive cognitive schemas in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nikoloski-Končar Nataša

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available The main aim of the study is to examine effects of bombing on development of early maladaptive schemas in children who live in directly bombed towns in comparison with children who live in towns not directly exposed to bombing. The subjects were twelve years old at the moment of testing (February 2005 meaning that they were at the age of seven during the bombing. Additional aim was to examine gender differences in development of early maladaptive schemas. The theory of Young (1990 provided framework for the study. According to the theory, early maladaptive cognitive schemas, which present basis for psychological disorder later in life, begin to develop in childhood in connection with traumatic experiences and/or other aversive circumstances. The results showed that the early maladaptive schemas are more frequent in children from directly exposed towns; and in male subjects comparing with females.

  13. A Cooperative Schema between Web Sever and Search Engine for Improving Freshness of Web Repository

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Because the web is huge and web pages are updated frequently, the index maintained by a search engine has to refresh web pages periodically. This is extremely resource consuming because the search engine needs to crawl the web and download web pages to refresh its index. Based on present technologies of web refreshing, we present a cooperative schema between web server and search engine for maintaining freshness of web repository. The web server provides meta-data defined through XML standard to describe web sites. Before updating the web page the crawler visits the meta-data files. If the meta-data indicates that the page is not modified, then the crawler will not update it. So this schema can save bandwidth resource. A primitive model based on the schema is implemented. The cost and efficiency of the schema are analyzed.

  14. Adult age differences in memory in relation to availability and accessibility of knowledge-based schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arbuckle, T Y; Vanderleck, V F; Harsany, M; Lapidus, S

    1990-03-01

    Three experiments investigated whether, over adulthood, the use of schemas to process and remember new information increases (developmental shift hypothesis), decreases (production deficiency hypothesis) or remains constant (age-invariance hypothesis). Effects of schema access were studied by having young, middle-aged, and old music experts and nonexperts recall information that was relevant or irrelevant to music (Experiment 1) and by comparing young and old participants' memory for prose passages when they knew or did not know the subject of the passage (Experiments 2 and 3). In each case, schema access facilitated memory equally across age levels, supporting the age-invariance hypothesis and implying that the basic structures and operations of memory do not necessarily change with age. Possible limits on the independence of age and schema utilization were considered in relation to the conditions under which each of the two alternative hypotheses might hold.

  15. The Application of Schema Theory in the Prelistening Activities of IELTS Listening Tests

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭艳琴

    2014-01-01

    According to schema theory, the knowledge is stored in human brain by these units, and such units are the Schemata. Teachers can design prelistening tasks to build or activate the learners’ schemata in the IELTS listening teaching.

  16. Whether social schema violations help or hurt creativity depends on need for structure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gocłowska, M.A.; Baas, M.; Crisp, R.J.; de Dreu, C.K.W.

    2014-01-01

    Although people and events that disconfirm observers’ expectancies can increase their creativity, sometimes such social schema violations increase observers’ rigidity of thought and undermine creative cognition. Here we examined whether individual differences in the extent to which people prefer str

  17. The role of sexual self-schema in a diathesis–stress model of sexual dysfunction

    OpenAIRE

    Cyranowski, Jill M.; AARESTAD, SUSAN L.; Andersen, Barbara L.

    1999-01-01

    Sexual self-schemas are cognitive generalizations regarding sexual aspects of the self that represent a core component of one’s sexuality. We contend that individual differences in the sexual self-view represent an important cognitive diathesis for predicting sexual difficulty or dysfunction. We illustrate the role of sexual self-schemas on sexual behavior and responsiveness in healthy female and male samples. Next, we describe how diathesis–stress models of psychopathology have been applied ...

  18. Therapy of anorexia and Young’s early maladaptive schemas. Longitudinal study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Mącik

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Young’s early maladaptive schemas are defined as convictions about oneself acquired in childhood, formed by a child in response to deprivation of his or her basic needs, especially in the area of relationships. In the case of anorexia, the role of the family and relations is emphasized as crucial for the genesis of this disorder. The aim of the research was to investigate whether Young’s early maladaptive schemas change during the therapy, which would prognosticate higher treatment efficiency. Participants and procedure The study group included 30 women suffering from anorexia, starting their 6-week therapeutic program. The procedure included double measurement: during the administration and discharge. The respondents filled in the Young Schema Questionnaire in its short form (YSQ-S3 (twice, the Acceptance of Illness Scale (AIS adapted by Juczyński (twice, and a demographic chart (once. Results The intensity of all schemas decreased after completion of the therapeutic program; the differences were mostly statistically significant. The composition of the most intense schemas did not change significantly: unrelenting standards and abandonment were the highest during both measurements. What changed were the interrelations between the schemas. They are also connected with the acceptance of the illness (the weaker they are, the greater the acceptance, and the stronger the relations and with psychological well-being, especially during the post-therapy measurement. Conclusions The schemas seem to be significant from the perspective of understanding anorexia. They are susceptible to be changed by integrative therapies. Nevertheless, it seems that in order to achieve a durable change, schema therapy should be applied.

  19. MS SQL Server 7.0 as a Platform for a Star Join Schema Data Warehouse

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Jens Otto; Alnor, Karl

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we construct a Star Join Schema and show how this schema can be created using the basic tools delivered with SQL Server 7.0. Major objectives are to keep the operational database unchanged so that data loading can be done without disturbing the business logic of the operational...... database. The operational data base is an expanded version of the Pubs database....

  20. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: a pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Skewes, Sally A.; Samson, Rachel A.; Simpson, Susan G.; van Vreeswijk, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group schema therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability, and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included c...

  1. Short-term group schema therapy for mixed personality disorders: A pilot study

    OpenAIRE

    Sally Ann Skewes; Rachel Anne Samson; Simpson, Susan G.; Michiel evan Vreeswijk

    2015-01-01

    Schema Therapy has shown promising results for personality disorders but there is a limited evidence base for group Schema Therapy (ST-g) with mixed personality disorders. The aim of this study was to explore the feasibility, acceptability and preliminary effectiveness of ST-g in a sample of eight participants with mixed personality disorders (with a predominant diagnosis of avoidant personality disorder) and high levels of comorbidity. Treatment was comprised of 20 sessions which included co...

  2. On Typechecking Top-Down XML Tranformations: Fixed Input or Output Schemas

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, Wim; Neven, Frank; Gyssens, Marc

    2006-01-01

    Typechecking consists of statically verifying whether the output of an XML transformation always conforms to an output type for documents satisfying a given input type. In this general setting, both the input and output schema as well as the transformation are part of the input for the problem. However, scenarios where the input or output schema can be considered to be fixed, are quite common in practice. In the present work, we investigate the computational complexity of the typechecking pro...

  3. Typechecking top-down XML transformations: Fixed input or output schemas

    OpenAIRE

    Martens, W.; Neven, Frank; Gyssens, Marc

    2008-01-01

    Typechecking consists of statically verifying whether the output of an XML transformation always conforms to an output type for documents satisfying a given input type. In this general setting, both the input and output schema as well as the transformation are part of the input for the problem. However, scenarios where the input or output schema can be considered to be fixed, are quite common in practice. In the present work, we investigate the computational complexity of the typechecking pro...

  4. A Study on Brand Name Translation from the Perspective of Cultural Schema

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hu Yuan

    2016-01-01

    The brand name which represents the image of a company needs to be effective in the market if the merchandisers attempt to harvest competitive advantages. With the development of modern cognitive psychology, the theory of schema has been widely applied to linguistics. The author attempts to study brand name translation from the perspective of cultural schema and expects to arouse certain enlightenment on the brand name translation.

  5. Early maladaptive schemas in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma: foundations for a cognitive theory of psychopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thanos Karatzias

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although the association between psychological trauma and early maladaptive schemas (EMS is well established in the literature, no study to date has examined the relationship of EMS to PTSD and psychopathologies beyond depression and anxiety in a sample of adult survivors of interpersonal trauma. This information may be useful in helping our understanding on how to best treat interpersonal trauma. Objective: We set out to investigate the association between EMS and common forms of psychopathology in a sample of women with a history of interpersonal trauma (n=82. We have hypothesised that survivors of interpersonal trauma will present with elevated EMS scores compared to a non-clinical control group (n=78. We have also hypothesised that unique schemas will be associated with unique psychopathological entities and that subgroups of interpersonal trauma survivors would be present in our sample, with subgroups displaying different profiles of schema severity elevations. Method: Participants completed measures of trauma, psychopathology, dissociation, self-esteem, and the Young Schema Questionnaire. Results: It was found that survivors of interpersonal trauma displayed elevated EMS scores across all 15 schemas compared to controls. Although the pattern of associations between different psychopathological features and schemas appears to be rather complex, schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy formed significant associations with all psychopathological features in this study. Conclusions: Our findings support the usefulness of cognitive behavioural interventions that target schemas in the domains of Disconnection and Impaired Autonomy in an effort to modify existing core beliefs and decrease subsequent symptomatology in adult survivors of interpersonal trauma.

  6. Interpretation of Pragmatic Misunderstanding in Communication from the Perspective of Cognitive Psychological Schema%认知心理图式对言语交际中语用误解现象的解读

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小红

    2012-01-01

    Cognitive psychologists think that humans have the ability to sum up the past experience, establish and store this knowledge structure in memory, in subsequent communication, humans will apply this knowledge structure to the current understanding of the text, which is the schema theory and its effect. Language communication is based on cognition, psychological schema theory, which its mental schema embodiment is image and knowledge script, combines psychology with linguistics in the cognitive process. Based on the cognitive schema theory, through an analysis on the fact that knowledge script error and the image highlights differences lead to misunderstanding in communication, cognitive causes of misunderstanding in communication are illustrated. Key words: psychological schema, misunderstanding, scripts, image prominent%认知心理学家认为人类具有总结过去经历的能力,能够建立起一定的知识结构,并将其储存在记忆中,在以后交际中遇到类似的语篇,人们会自动地运用这种知识结构来解读或理解当前的语篇,这就是图式理论及其作用。语言交际以认知为基础,心理图式理论是认知过程中心理学与语言学相结合的产物,其心理图式体现方式为意象和知识脚本。本文以认知心理图式理论为依据,通过实例分析知识脚本的错误选择和意象突显部分的差异导致交际中误解的事实,并且解释了误解形成的认知根源。

  7. Reliability and validity of the Danish version of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reiss, Neele; Krampen, Dorothea; Christoffersen, Peter; Bach, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Schema modes are conceptualized as different parts of oneself, related to specific emotions, cognitions, and behaviors. They are a central concept in schema therapy for personality pathology and other chronic psychiatric disorders. Prior research confirms the factorial validity of the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI), an instrument to assess schema modes. This study presents an evaluation of the Danish version of the SMI, including reliability and validity analyses. Psychometric properties, such as factor structure, internal reliability, as well as intercorrelations between subscales were assessed. This was done on the basis of a mixed Danish sample (N = 657; M age = 29.32 years; range = 18-66 years; 78.5% females) composed of 266 clinical and 391 nonclinical adult participants. Results indicated model fit for the 14-factor structure of the SMI and adequate to excellent internal reliabilities of the 14 subscales (Cronbach's α =.74-.96). Furthermore, the SMI scales differentiated between clinical and nonclinical participants as theoretically predicted. These findings imply that the SMI is a sound instrument to measure the schema mode model in a Danish setting, both for clinical and research purposes, and in particular for assessment prior to schema therapy.

  8. The role of optimism in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy of personality problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffart, Asle; Sexton, Harold

    2002-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the determinants and effects of optimism in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy of personality problems. The sample consisted of 35 patients with panic disorder and/or agoraphobia and DSM-IV Cluster C personality traits who participated in an 11-week residential program with one symptom-focused and one personality-focused phase. This study examines the role played by optimism during the individual sessions of the second phase, using a time series approach. Decreased patient's belief in his/her primary Early Maladaptive Schema and increased patient-experienced empathy from the therapist in a session predicted increased patient-rated optimism before the subsequent session. Increased patient-rated optimism in turn predicted decreased schema belief and distress and increased insight, empathy, and therapist-rated optimism. The slope of optimism across sessions was related to change in most of the overall outcome measures. There appears to be a positive feedback in the process of schema-focused cognitive therapy between decreased schema belief and increased optimism. In addition, optimism appears to mediate the effects of schema belief and therapist empathy on overall improvement, and to serve as an antecedent to decreased distress and to increased empathy, insight, and therapist's optimism.

  9. The effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire: short form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stopa, Lusia; Waters, Anne

    2005-03-01

    The schema concept has had an important role in both early and more recent accounts of psychopathology. Schemas are underlying cognitive structures that are thought to create vulnerability to disorders, because they act as templates for the perception, encoding, storage, and retrieval of information. Recent approaches to the understanding and treatment of personality disorders give schemas particular prominence, and the concept of early maladaptive schemas forms the cornerstone of Young's (1999) schema-focused cognitive therapy. The aim of this paper is to examine the effect of mood on responses to the Young Schema Questionnaire--short form (YSQ-S; Young, 1998). A sample of 50 non-clinical participants completed the YSQ-S on three different occasions: in neutral mood, and following happy and depressed mood inductions. The results of 30 participants with full data sets showed that emotional deprivation and defectiveness scores increased after the depressed mood induction, whereas entitlement scores increased after the happy mood induction. The results are discussed in relation to cognitive theories of vulnerability to psychopathology, and future directions for research are suggested.

  10. Changes in schemas of patients with severe borderline personality disorder: the Oulu BPD study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leppänen, Virpi; Kärki, Anna; Saariaho, Tom; Lindeman, Sari; Hakko, Helinä

    2015-02-01

    Borderline personality disorder (BPD) is a relatively common and severe psychiatric disorder that can impair quality of life in many ways. The aim of this study was to determine whether a combined treatment model for BPD patients, utilising major principles from schema-focused therapy (SFT) and dialectical behavioral therapy (DBT), could be more effective in relieving early maladaptive schemas of BPD patients, compared to treatment as usual (TAU). This study is a part of the Oulu BPD study conducted at mental health care services run by Oulu city social and health care services. The study is a multisite, randomized controlled trial conducted over a one year period, involving two groups of patients with severe BPD: (1) Community Treatment By Experts (CTBE) patients (n = 18) receiving the combined treatment model, and 2) TAU patients (n = 27). The patients' schemas were assessed using the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-L3a) before and after one year of treatment. The results reveal that CTBE patients who attended the combined treatment model showed a statistically significant reduction in eight out of 18 early maladaptive schemas, while patients receiving treatment as usual did not demonstrate any significant changes in schemas. The cognitive therapeutic treatment model can be applied for clinical use in public mental health settings using existing professionals, and appears to produce positive changes in patients with BPD.

  11. Continued Bullying Victimization in Adolescents: Maladaptive Schemas as a Mediational Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvete, Esther; Fernández-González, Liria; González-Cabrera, Joaquín M; Gámez-Guadix, Manuel

    2017-04-22

    Bullying victimization in adolescence is a significant social problem that can become persistent over time for some victims. However, there is an overall paucity of research examining the factors that contribute to continued bullying victimization. Schema therapy proposes a model that can help us understand why bullying victimization can be persistent for some victims. This study examines the role of maladaptive schemas, the key concept in schema therapy, as a mechanism of continued bullying victimization. The hypothesis was that maladaptive schemas of rejection mediate the predictive association between victimization in both the family and at school and future bullying victimization. Social anxiety was also considered, as previous research suggests that it can increase the risk of victimization. The participants were 1328 adolescents (45% female) with a mean age of 15.05 years (SD = 1.37), who completed questionnaires at three time points with a 6-month interval between them. Time 2 maladaptive schemas of rejection significantly mediated the predictive association from Time 1 bullying victimization, family abuse and social anxiety to Time 3 bullying victimization. The findings pertaining to potentially malleable factors, such as maladaptive schemas that maintain continued interpersonal victimization, have important implications for prevention and treatment strategies with adolescents.

  12. Maladaptive interpersonal schemas as sensitive and specific markers of borderline personality disorder among psychiatric inpatients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Lisa J; Tanis, Thachell; Ardalan, Firouz; Yaseen, Zimri; Galynker, Igor

    2016-08-30

    Diagnostic criteria for borderline personality disorder (BPD) and mood and psychotic disorders characterized by major mood episodes (i.e., major depressive, bipolar and schizoaffective disorder) share marked overlap in symptom presentation, complicating differential diagnosis. The current study tests the hypothesis that maladaptive interpersonal schemas (MIS) are characteristic of BPD, but not of the major mood disorders. One hundred psychiatric inpatients were assessed by SCID I, SCID II and the Young Schema Questionnaire (YSQ-S2). Logistic regression analyses tested the association between MIS (measured by the YSQ-S2) and BPD, bipolar, major depressive and schizoaffective disorder. Receiver operator characteristic (ROC) curve analyses assessed the sensitivity and specificity of MIS as a marker of BPD. After covariation for comorbidity with each of the 3 mood disorders, BPD was robustly associated with 4 out of 5 schema domains. In contrast, only one of fifteen regression analyses demonstrated a significant association between any mood disorder and schema domain after covariation for comorbid BPD. ROC analyses of the 5 schema domains suggested Disconnection/Rejection had the greatest power for identification of BPD cases. These data support the specific role of maladaptive interpersonal schemas in BPD and potentially contribute to greater conceptual clarity about the distinction between BPD and the major mood disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Metaphorical constructions of english language learners about their role in learning an additional language

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Silva

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on a corpus composed of 64 Language Learning Histories, the article focuses on the way the image of learners is talked about metaphorically in young English language learners’ discourse. The metaphors found were qualitatively analyzed according to the Conceptual Metaphor Theory (LAKOFF & JOHNSON, 1980 and the Image Schemas (LAKOFF, 1987. The results show that the group of learners investigated conceptualizes themselves as workers, machines, containers and builders. It thus, seems clear that there is a need to conduct research on this topic to provide reflective development by teachers and researchers about the teaching and learning process of this language nowadays.

  14. [The 5 mental dimensions identified in early maladaptive schemas statistical analysis of Young's schema questionnaire (YSQ-s3)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavergne, F; Marie, N; Mehran, F

    2015-09-01

    Schemas represent a stable vision of oneself. Young's schema questionnaire-s3 (YSQ-s3) presents 90 perceptions of oneself, specifying 18 early maladaptive schemas (EMS). We studied the intensity and inter-relations of these 18 EMS and how they pool together into a specific domain. Two hundred and ninety four subjects (294 patients from a French private practice in psychiatry and 12 volunteers) filled in a French version of the YSQ-s3. Item scores range from 1 to 6. Only the scores of 4 "true for me during most of my life" or higher were kept for the statistical analysis. Data analysis was conducted using descriptive statistics, principal component analysis (PCA) and hierarchical clustering analysis (HCA). The EMS mean scores ranged from 3.4 to 12.9 and standard deviations from 5.9 to 9.7. EMS score correlations range from 0.009 to 0.55. The principal component analysis (PCA), that provides linear combinations of each EMS score, yields only one meaningful component. Indeed, the screen plot that provides the eigen values associated with each principal component, suggests keeping only the first component. This component presents a size-effect and represents the "global scores intensity". The hierarchical clustering analysis (HC) fits the 18 EMS in 5 domains (r(2) = 0.4): (1) "avoidance" (with 3 EMS: emotional deprivation, social isolation/alienation, emotional inhibition), (2)"give" (with 1 EMS: self-sacrifice), (3) "take" (with 3 EMS: entitlement/grandiosity, insufficient self-control/self-discipline, approval-seeking/recognition-seeking) (4) "awareness" (with 8 EMS: abandonment/instability, mistrust/abuse, defectiveness/shame, dependence/incompetence, vulnerability to harm or illness, enmeshment/undeveloped self, failure, subjugation) (5) "faith" (with 3 EMS: negativity/pessimism, unrelenting standards/hyper-criticalness, punitiveness). When the HC analysis is applied to the population (n = 294), it yields 6 classes of patients. The mean score of the 5 domains

  15. Personal Self-Support, Self-Schema, and Other-Schema%个人自立与自我图式、他人图式

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏凌翔; 耿文超

    2012-01-01

    根据前期系列研究的结果提出了高个人自立者的自我图式、他人图式均比低个人自立者积极的假设,从外显和内隐两个方面分别设计实验对个人自立高分组和低分组各30名大学生进行了研究,以检验该假设.研究1采用形容词4级评定任务,结果发现:①在反应时指标上,高、低个人自立组的差异不显著;②在评价等级指标上,个人自立高分组对积极词的评价等级显著高于低分组,对消极词的评价等级边缘显著的低于低分组.研究2采用外来情绪Simon任务(extrinsic affective Simon task,EAST),结果发现:①在反应时指标上,在过去自我和将来自我条件下,高、低个人自立组的EAST分数没有显著差异,在现在自我条件下,个人自立高分组的EAST分数显著高于低分组;在过去、现在和将来他人条件下,个人自立高分组的EAST分数均显著高于低分组.②在错误率指标上,高、低个人自立组的差异不显著.总的来看,两个子研究的结果均支持了研究假设.%Interest in the relationship between personality and the self has a long history. Prior studies showed that individuals have trait-congruency self-schema and that some health-related personality traits are related to positive or negative self-schema. Other-schemas also are important and related to mental health. However, few studies have focused on the relation of personality, self-schema and other-schema. According to previous studies, self-schema and other-schema are assumed to be the cognitive units of personal self-support. Specifically, the present study presumed that the self-schema and other-schema of high personal self-support people would be more positive than those for low personal self-support people. Two studies were designed to test our hypotheses by explicit and implicit experiments, respectively. Sixty undergraduate students selected from a larger pool of 189 students were invited to participate in the

  16. Medical and Transmission Vector Vocabulary Alignment with Schema.org

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, William P.; Chappell, Alan R.; Corley, Courtney D.

    2015-04-21

    Available biomedical ontologies and knowledge bases currently lack formal and standards-based interconnections between disease, disease vector, and drug treatment vocabularies. The PNNL Medical Linked Dataset (PNNL-MLD) addresses this gap. This paper describes the PNNL-MLD, which provides a unified vocabulary and dataset of drug, disease, side effect, and vector transmission background information. Currently, the PNNL-MLD combines and curates data from the following research projects: DrugBank, DailyMed, Diseasome, DisGeNet, Wikipedia Infobox, Sider, and PharmGKB. The main outcomes of this effort are a dataset aligned to Schema.org, including a parsing framework, and extensible hooks ready for integration with selected medical ontologies. The PNNL-MLD enables researchers more quickly and easily to query distinct datasets. Future extensions to the PNNL-MLD will include Traditional Chinese Medicine, broader interlinks across genetic structures, a larger thesaurus of synonyms and hypernyms, explicit coding of diseases and drugs across research systems, and incorporating vector-borne transmission vocabularies.

  17. Influence of the body schema on mirror-touch synesthesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina, Jared; DePasquale, Carrie

    2017-03-01

    Individuals with mirror-touch synesthesia (MTS) report feeling touch on their own body when seeing someone else being touched. We examined how the body schema - an on-line representation of body position in space - is involved in mapping touch from a viewed body to one's own body. We showed 45 mirror-touch synesthetes videos of a hand being touched, varying the location of the viewed touch by hand (left, right), skin surface (palmar, dorsal) and finger (index, ring). Participant hand posture was either congruent or incongruent with the posture of the viewed hand. After seeing the video, participants were asked to report whether they felt touch on their own body and, if so, the intensity and location of their percepts. We found that participants reported more frequent and more veridical (i.e., felt at the same somatotopic location as the viewed touch) mirror-touch percepts on posturally congruent versus posturally incongruent trials. Furthermore, participant response patterns varied as a function of postural congruence. Some participants consistently felt sensations on the hand surface that was stimulated in the video - even if their hands were in the opposite posture. Other participants' responses were modulated based on their own hand position, such that percepts were more likely to be felt on the upright, plausible hand surface in the posturally incongruent condition. These results provide evidence that mapping viewed touch to one's own body involves an on-line representation of body position in space. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. The secure base script: associated with early maladaptive schemas related to attachment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Heather R; Bailey, Heidi N; Lumley, Margaret N

    2014-12-01

    To examine the relations between traditionally assessed early maladaptive schemas and the attachment-specific secure base script (a script-like representation of what individuals expect to happen when they face distress), to inform our understanding of beliefs about the self in relation to others. The present study took an ecologically driven approach, assessing knowledge of the secure base script from descriptions of current relationships. A cross-sectional design was used. One hundred forty-six undergraduate students, recruited as part of a larger study on adversity and self-concept, provided narrative descriptions of their current relationships. Narratives were coded for attachment-related 'secure base' content using a secure base script scale for relationship narratives. Early maladaptive schemas were assessed with the Young Schema Questionnaire, and attachment was additionally evaluated using the Experiences in Close Relationships questionnaire. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety were related to secure base script content in theory-consistent ways. The extent to which participants described secure base script content was inversely associated with four out of five maladaptive schemas characterized most centrally by disconnection from others. Furthermore, these associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported attachment style. Self-reported attachment avoidance and anxiety also were related to maladaptive schemas in a predictable pattern. Results bridge cognitive and attachment theories, supporting the interrelatedness of secure base script knowledge assessed in current relationships, and schema-related content regarding connectedness with others. Better integration of theories regarding internal representations may serve to enrich psychotherapeutic formulation from a variety of clinical perspectives. Schema Therapy's (Young, Klosko, & Weishaar, 2003 , Schema therapy: A practitioner's guide. New York: Guilford Press) early

  19. Definitions and validation criteria for biomarkers and surrogate endpoints: development and testing of a quantitative hierarchical levels of evidence schema

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassere, Marissa N; Johnson, Kent R; Boers, Maarten

    2007-01-01

    of the National Institutes of Health definitions of biomarker, surrogate endpoint, and clinical endpoint was useful. CONCLUSION: Further development and application of this schema provides incentives and guidance for effective biomarker and surrogate endpoint research, and more efficient drug discovery...... endpoints, and leading indicators, a quantitative surrogate validation schema was developed and subsequently evaluated at a stakeholder workshop. RESULTS: The search identified several classification schema and definitions. Components of these were incorporated into a new quantitative surrogate validation...

  20. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2008-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...... of a language. Given such a specification, the XSugar tool can translate from alternative syntax to XML and vice versa. Moreover, the tool statically checks that the transformations are reversible and that all XML documents generated from the alternative syntax are valid according to a given XML schema....

  1. Dual Syntax for XML Languages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brabrand, Claus; Møller, Anders; Schwartzbach, Michael Ignatieff

    2005-01-01

    XML is successful as a machine processable data interchange format, but it is often too verbose for human use. For this reason, many XML languages permit an alternative more legible non-XML syntax. XSLT stylesheets are often used to convert from the XML syntax to the alternative syntax; however......, such transformations are not reversible since no general tool exists to automatically parse the alternative syntax back into XML. We present XSugar, which makes it possible to manage dual syntax for XML languages. An XSugar specification is built around a context-free grammar that unifies the two syntaxes...... of a language. Given such a specification, the XSugar tool can translate from alternative syntax to XML and vice versa. Moreover, the tool statically checks that the transformations are reversible and that all XML documents generated from the alternative syntax are valid according to a given XML schema....

  2. Prototype Schemas, Variation Theory, and the Structural Syllabus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamson, H. D.

    1990-01-01

    A review of theories and research regarding cognitive psychology and second-language acquisition discusses Krashen's monitor model (1982), Pienemann's teachability hypothesis (1985), variation theory, the structural syllabus, and grammatical prototypes. (29 references) (CB)

  3. 意象图式在地图符号结构生成中的应用研究%The Application of Image Schema in the Generation of Map Symbols

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢瑞; 贾奋励; 田江鹏; 宋国民

    2016-01-01

    With the continuous development of computer technology, the purpose of map is more and more diverse, and the demand of map automation is increasingly high. As an important part of map, the automatic generation of symbols is also improved. Many researchers, including Jia Fenli, Tian Jiangpeng, and Peng Keman, have connected the symbol design with the semantic analysis based on the analogy between map symbols and natural language;proposed the concept of symbol-morpheme and associated it with the symbolic structures; and then realized the automatic generation of symbols on computer. However, the creation of symbol-morpheme combination and the reason behind this combination is still lack of good theoretical support and explanation. In order to solidify the theoretical basis of map symbol structure, this paper introduces the concept of image schema, and puts forward the theory of map symbol structure generation based on image schema. Through analyzing the cognitive mechanism of geographical entities, this paper illustrates the basic function of the image schema in forming the concepts of geographical entities and mental space. Secondly, the types of image schema used to represent the geographical entities are summarized and seven most basic image schema types are obtained. Finally, we summarize the graphic structure expression and the parametric description of each image schema by studying the relationship between the topological relationship and the image schema. In order to verify the correctness and the scientific nature of the theory for map symbol structure generation based on image schema, we conducted two experiments in this paper. The results of the experiments prove that the image schema plays a decisive role in the generation of map symbols and gives a good cognitive effect for the generated map symbols based on image schema.%地图符号结构是指生成地图符号的各符素间的组合关系,它具有图形结构和意义上的双重含义。为了解

  4. Utilizing WordNet and Regular Expressions for Instance-based Schema Matching

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mounaf Mahdi

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Instance-based matching is the process of finding the correspondence of schema elements by comparing the data from different data sources. It is used as an alternative option when the match between schema elements fails. Instance-based matching is applied in many application areas such as website creation and management, schema evolution and migration, data warehousing, database design and data integration. Sometimes the schema information such as (element name, description, data type, etc. is unavailable or is unable to get the correct match especially when the element name is abbreviation, therefore, if the schema matching failed, the next step is to focus on values stored in the schemas. For these reasons, many recent approaches focus on instance-based matching. In this study, we propose an approach that combines the strength of pattern recognition utilizing regular expressions for numerical domain as well with WordNet for string domain by getting the similarity coefficient in the range of [0,1]. In previous approach, the regular expression is achieved with a good accuracy for numerical instances only and is not implemented on string instances because we need to know the meaning of string to decide if there is a match or not. The using of WordNet-based measures for string instances should guarantee to improve the effectiveness in terms of Precision (P, Recall (R and F-measure (F. This approach is evaluated with real dataset and the results are found better than using just equality measure for string especially if the schemas are disjoint. The approach achieved 95.3% F-measure (F.

  5. Early Maladaptive Schemas Related to Unipolar and Bipolar Depression: Similarities and Differences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nergis LAPSEKİLİ

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective and methodology: Cognitive theory of depression has begun to examine the difference between bipolar and unipolar depression in the context of thinking features. Yet, little is known about the same and seperated points of bipolar and unipolar depression. The objective is evaluating relationship between cognitive schemas of bipolar and unipolar patients. Bipolar and unipolar depression patients and a control group were enrolled in the study. Beck Depression Inventory, Young Mania Scale and Young Schema Questionnaire were administered to the groups. Results: There was significant difference between unipolar and control groups in “Abandonment/instability”. In “mistrust/ abuse” significant difference was between unipolar and bipolar and between unipolar and control groups. ln “entitlement/self-centeredness” difference was between unipolar and control groups. In all other schemas, difference was between unipolar and control and bipolar and control groups. In these schemas, control group had significantly lower scores than others. Unipolar and bipolar groups were similar. Conclusion: In patient groups, schemas like defectiveness, incompetence, failure, vulnerability to danger and undeveloped self were indicative of low self-perception. This case draws attention to distortions in self-perception. When the absence of difference between bipolar and controls in “mistrust/abuse” and “abandonment/instability” schemas is evaluated in terms of cognitive triad, it is suggested that environmental perspective in this group of patients did not exhibit pessimistic features. The only significantly different schema between unipolar and bipolar groups was “mistrust/ abuse”. This suggests that bipolar group didn’t have negative thoughts like unipolar patients about the perception of the enviroment.

  6. XML-Data模式的一致性问题%On XML-Data Schema Consistency Problem

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闫萍; 吕腾; 盛其荣

    2004-01-01

    This paper has studied the consistency problem for XML-Data schema in terms of XML-Data schema hedge as well as keys and foreign keys. The consistency problem is to check whether there exists an XML-Data schema hedge that both conforms to the schema and satisfies integrity constraints. Definitions of XML-Data schema and XML-Data schema hedge for the purpose of investigating this problem are proposed, moreover, an algorithm for constructing the XML-Data schema hedge from a given XML-Data schema is given. The undecidability of the consistency problem for XML-Data schema is also presented.%运用键、外键和XML-Data模式篱笆等概念研究了XML-Data模式的一致性问题.XML-Data模式的一致性问题就是判断是否存在一个既满足XML-Data模式又满足完整性约束的XML-Data模式篱笆.提出了XML-Data模式及XML-Data模式篱笆的概念.给出了如何从现有的XML-Data模式构造XML-Data模式篱笆的算法并且证明了XML-Data模式的一致性问题是不可判定的.

  7. Image schema theory in cognitive linguistics%浅析认知语言学中的意象图式理论

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘丹

    2015-01-01

    This paper mainly describes the image schema definition, theoretical basis, characteristics, types and research significance. Image schema is an abstract cognitive ability, to experience philosophy, Piaget's theory of constructivism and interaction as the theoretical foundation, has the experience, abstract, dynamic and unconscious sexual characteristics, the main types include: container, part - overall, connection, center, edge, ancestor, path, destination and other. Research on the theory of image schema is understanding the real world and important link in the process of language comprehension, has important significance for the interpretation of the children's acquisition of mother tongue.%本文主要描述了意象图式的含义、理论基础、特征、类型以及研究意义.意象图式是一种抽象的认知能力,以体验哲学、皮亚杰的建构论和互动论为理论基础,具有体验性、抽象性、动态性和无意识性的特点,主要类型包括:容器图式、部分—整体图式、连接图式、中心—边缘图式、始源—路径—目的地图式和其他图式.意象图式理论的研究是认识现实世界和语言理解过程的重要环节,对于儿童习得母语的解释有重要意义.

  8. The attention schema theory: a mechanistic account of subjective awareness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor W. Webb

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available We recently proposed the attention schema theory, a novel way to explain the brain basis of subjective awareness in a mechanistic and scientifically testable manner. The theory begins with attention, the process by which signals compete for the brain’s limited computing resources. This internal signal competition is partly under a bottom-up influence and partly under top-down control. We propose that the top-down control of attention is improved when the brain has access to a simplified model of attention itself. The brain therefore constructs a schematic model of the process of attention, the ‘attention schema’, in much the same way that it constructs a schematic model of the body, the ‘body schema’. The content of this internal model leads a brain to conclude that it has a subjective experience. One advantage of this theory is that it explains how awareness and attention can sometimes become dissociated; the brain’s internal models are never perfect, and sometimes a model becomes dissociated from the object being modeled. A second advantage of this theory is that it explains how we can be aware of both internal and external events. The brain can apply attention to many types of information including external sensory information and internal information about emotions and cognitive states. If awareness is a model of attention, then this model should pertain to the same domains of information to which attention pertains. A third advantage of this theory is that it provides testable predictions. If awareness is the internal model of attention, used to help control attention, then without awareness, attention should still be possible but should suffer deficits in control. In this article, we review the existing literature on the relationship between attention and awareness, and suggest that at least some of the predictions of the theory are borne out by the evidence.

  9. An experimental test of the schema mode model of borderline personality disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arntz, Arnoud; Klokman, Janet; Sieswerda, Simkje

    2005-09-01

    Young has proposed a schema mode model of borderline personality disorder (BPD), hypothesizing that BPD patients tend to flip from 1 of 4 maladaptive schema modes to another. The present study is the first empirical test of this model, investigating whether these 4 modes are specific for BPD patients and whether BPD-relevant stress specifically increases one of the modes, the detached protector mode. Eighteen BPD patients, 18 cluster-C personality disorder (PD) patients and 18 non-patient controls (all women) filled out trait and state versions of a newly developed schema mode questionnaire, assessing cognitions, feelings and behaviors characteristic of 7 schema modes. Using a cross over design, subjects subsequently watched a neutral and a BPD-specific emotional movie fragment (order balanced). After watching each movie, subjects again filled out the schema mode questionnaire, state version. Trait as well as state versions indicated that BPD patients were indeed characterized by the hypothesized four maladaptive modes (Detached Protector, Punitive Parent, Abused/Abandoned Child, Angry/Impulsive Child). BPD patients were lowest on the Healthy Adult mode. The stress induction induced negative emotions in all groups, but the BPD group was unique in that the Detached Protector mode increased significantly more than in both control groups.

  10. Early maladaptive schemas and personality disorder traits in perpetrators of intimate partner violence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corral, Carmen; Calvete, Esther

    2014-01-01

    Personality disorders (PDs) are highly prevalent among perpetrators of intimate partner violence (IPV). Schema Therapy proposes a number of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) that are involved in the development of PDs. This study examined the prevalence of PD traits in a sample of men who committed violence against their partners and the relationship between EMSs domains and PD traits. With this aim, a sample of 119 convicted men completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (YSQ-SF; Young & Brown, 1994) and the Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory (MCMI-III; Millon, Millon, & Davis, 1994). The results showed that the most prevalent PD traits were narcissistic (24.6%), obsessive-compulsive (21.9%), and paranoid (17.5%). These PD traits were linked to several EMSs in ways consistent with the Schema Therapy model. Namely, narcissistic PD traits were positively associated with schemas of the impaired limits domain and were negatively associated with the other-directedness domain. The paranoid PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired autonomy and performance domain. Finally, both borderline and antisocial PD traits were associated with the disconnection and rejection domain and the impaired limits domain. These findings suggest that the assessment and modification of EMSs should be a factor to consider for inclusion in the treatment programs for perpetrators of IPV in order to provide comprehensive intervention of this population.

  11. A comparative study of early maladaptive schemas in obsessive-compulsive disorder and panic disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwak, Kyung-Hwa; Lee, Seung Jae

    2015-12-30

    Schema theory and therapy may be an additional therapeutic approach to identify and treat chronic psychological problems, namely early maladaptive schemas (EMSs), in patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and panic disorder (PAD). In the current study, we investigated the characteristics in EMSs between patients with OCD and PAD. Fifty-one patients with OCD, 46 patients with PAD, and 70 normal controls participated in this study. EMSs and depressive symptoms were measured using the Young Schema Questionnaire and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), respectively. Analysis of covariance was conducted with age, sex, BDI score, and education level as covariates to assess group differences. Direct comparisons among the three groups revealed that the defectiveness/shame and social isolation/alienation schemas were prominently activated in patients with OCD, whereas the vulnerability to harm or illness and self-sacrifice were activated in patients with PAD. In subgroup analysis, these differences were observed between subgroups with lower BDI scores, but not between the patient subgroups with higher BDI scores. However, the differences between the patient groups in the defectiveness/shame and vulnerability to harm or illness schemas almost reached significance. Patients with OCD and PAD differed in particular EMS characteristics, which could have potential therapeutic implications.

  12. Neither dichotomous nor split, but schema-related negative interpersonal evaluations characterize borderline patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieswerda, Simkje; Barnow, Sven; Verheul, Roel; Arntz, Arnoud

    2013-02-01

    Cognitive models explain extreme thoughts, affects, and behaviors of patients with Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) by specific mal-adaptive schemas and dichotomous thinking. Psychodynamic theories ascribe these to splitting. This study expanded the study of Veen and Arntz (2000) and investigated whether extreme evaluations in BPD are (1) dichotomous, negativistic, or split; (2) limited to specific (schema-related) interpersonal situations; and (3) related to traumatic childhood experiences. BPD (n = 18), cluster C personality disorder (n = 16), and nonpatient (n = 17) groups were asked to judge 16 characters portrayed in film fragments in a specific or nonspecific context and with negative, positive, or neutral roles on visual analogue scales. These scales were divided in negative-positive trait opposites related to BPD schemas, negative-positive trait opposites unrelated to BPD schemas, and neutral trait opposites. Interpersonal evaluations of patients with BPD were (1) negativistic; (2) schema related; and (3) partially related to traumatic childhood experiences. Negative evaluations of caring characters in an intimate context particularly characterized BPD. No evidence was found for dichotomous thinking or splitting in BPD.

  13. Schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults: a multiple-baseline study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Videler, Arjan C; van Alphen, Sebastiaan P J; van Royen, Rita J J; van der Feltz-Cornelis, Christina M; Rossi, Gina; Arntz, Arnoud

    2017-04-21

    No studies have been conducted yet into the effectiveness of treatment of personality disorders in later life. This study is a first test of the effectiveness of schema therapy for personality disorders in older adults. Multiple-baseline design with eight cluster C personality disorder patients, with a mean age of   69. After a baseline phase with random length, schema therapy was given during the first year, followed by follow-up sessions during six months. Participants weekly rated the credibility of dysfunctional core beliefs. Symptomatic distress, early maladaptive schemas, quality of life and target complaints were assessed every six months and personality disorder diagnosis was assessed before baseline and after follow-up. Data were analyzed with mixed regression analyses. Results revealed significant linear trends during treatment phases, but not during baseline and follow-up. The scores during follow-up remained stable and were significantly lower compared to baseline, with high effect sizes. Seven participants remitted from their personality disorder diagnosis. Schema therapy appears an effective treatment for cluster C personality disorders in older adults. This finding is highly innovative as this is the first study exploring the effectiveness of psychotherapy, in this case schema therapy, for personality disorders in older adults.

  14. A Comparative Study of Cognitive Schemas of HRM During Economic Crisis in Two Slovenian Sectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Arzenšek

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this article is to present a qualitative studyof HRM schemas in the recent economic crisis in Slovenia. Cognitiveschemas influence perception and behavior and serve aspowerful sense-making frameworks. In-depth interviews with 16ceos, HR executives and trade unionists from the production andservice sectors and analyses of annual reports were conducted tofind the content of their HRM schemas. In addition, a comparisonbetween schemas from companies from both sectors was made.Results reveal that HRM schemas in companies from the financialsector include more ‘HRM is bureaucratic’ attributes, whereas incompanies from the automotive sector ‘HRM is strategic’ attributesprevail. In companies’ annual reports, the socially responsiblerole of HRM toward employees is only moderately present. Whilethe crisis in 1990s was an influential factor for the sense-makingand ‘flexibility is crucial’ attribution in companies in the automotivesector, the current HRM schema in selected companies fromthe financial sector was influenced by the occurrence of conjuncture.

  15. Examining the Scope and Concept of Schema: Should We Look Beyond Cognitive Structures?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank M. Dattilio

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, cognitive therapy and the cognitive-behavior therapies have focused on three levels of cognitive phenomenon: automatic thoughts, cognitive distortion, and underlying assumptions. Underlying assumptions constitute the general notion of what is referred to as "schema." Schemas have traditionally served as sort of a template for the way in which an individual views him/herself, the world, and others. In addition, a proposed model has also appeared in the professional literature that includes memory structures and multimodal representations of stored information that serve to explain the concept of schema in general. Recently, some controversial research has raised the question as to whether separate memory cell networks in the body may play an additional role beyond cognitive structures.This article reviews some of the research on the role of neuropeptides in the process of memory and emotions and raises the question of whether or not an expansion of the concept of schema should be considered. The article also discusses what scientific support exists at this time and whether we can draw any clinical implications from such a theory. The article also discusses the impact of this theory on the view of schema resistance and the role of cognitive therapy, particularly as it relates to conditions involving trauma.

  16. The Comparison of Maladaptive Schema and Lifestyles in Drug Dependence and Non-Drug Dependence People

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vahideh Purmohammad

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to compare early maladaptive schemas and life styles in drug dependences and normal population to recognize their role in drug dependence. Due to their importance in interpretation of special situations, cognitive schemas and life styles have a significant role in cognitive theories. Methods: The method of this research were post-facto and sectional styles. The population were included of 100 drug dependence adults and 100 non-drug dependence who were selected by at-reach methods. Young early maladaptive schema-short form and Basic Adlerian scales for interpersonal success-adult form questionnaires were used. Findings: the results showed that there were significant differences between early maladaptive schemas and life styles in groups under research. Conclusion: the study showed that drug dependence people suffer from high levels of early maladaptive schemas and their life styles are maladaptive. As a result, in prediction of dependence to drug and in treating it too much attention must be given to cognitive factors.

  17. The acquisition process of musical tonal schema: Implications from connectionist modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rie eMatsunaga

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Using connectionist modeling, we address fundamental questions concerning the acquisition process of musical tonal schema of listeners. Compared to models of previous studies, our connectionist model (LeNTS was better equipped to fulfill three basic requirements. Specifically, LeNTS was equipped with a learning mechanism, bound by culture-general properties, and trained by sufficient melody materials. When exposed to Western music, LeNTS acquired musical ‘scale’ sensitivity early and ‘harmony’ sensitivity later. The order of acquisition of scale and harmony sensitivities shown by LeNTS was consistent with the culture-specific acquisition order shown by musically westernized children. The implications of these results for the acquisition process of a tonal schema of listeners are as follows: (a the acquisition process may entail small and incremental changes, rather than large and stage-like changes, in corresponding neural circuits; (b the speed of schema acquisition may mainly depend on musical experiences rather than maturation; and (c the learning principles of schema acquisition may be culturally invariant while the acquired tonal schemas are varied with exposed culture-specific music.

  18. Early Maladaptive Schemas: A Comparison Between Bipolar Disorder and Major Depressive Disorder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, Kristine Kahr; Nielsen Straarup, Krista; Halvorsen, Marianne

    2015-01-01

    It is still unclear how bipolar disorder (BD) differentiates from major depressive disorder (MDD) outside major mood episodes. To further elucidate this area, the present study compared the two mood disorders in terms of early maladaptive schemas (EMSs) during remission. The sample consisted of 49 participants with BD and 30 participants with MDD who were currently in remission. The participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire. The BD group scored significantly higher than the MDD group on seven EMSs: abandonment, failure to achieve, insufficient self-control, subjugation, unrelenting standards, enmeshment and entitlement. By suggesting that EMSs are more severe in BD compared with MDD, the findings highlight potential vulnerabilities in BD, which merit further examination in terms of their underlying causes and potential treatment implications. Early maladaptive schemas are relevant psychological dimensions to consider in remitted phases of major mood disorders. Findings from the current study suggest that early maladaptive schemas are more prevalent in adults with bipolar disorder compared to adults with major depressive disorder when measured during remission. Interventions targeting early maladaptive schemas may be valuable in treatment of bipolar disorder. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  19. One of early maladaptive schemas' causal relationship through metacognitive beliefs with borderline and antisocial personality patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zirakbash, Amin; Naderi, Farah; Enayati, Mir Salahedin

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed at determining the causal relationship of metacognitive beliefs as a mediator between one of early maladaptive schemas including (emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust/abuse, social isolation/alienation and defectiveness/shame) and borderline and antisocial personality patterns. The study type has been relational and seeking causal modeling of path analysis has been used. The population used in this study included outpatients in counseling, psychological and psychiatric centers in 2012-2013. We randomly distributed 350 questionnaires in five centers out of three parts in Isfahan, and finally 230 valid questionnaires were evaluated and analyzed. Data collection tool has been Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventory-III's (MCMI-III's) personality questionnaire, Yang's schema questionnaire (75 items), Metacognition Questionnaire-30 (30 items). Reliability of the Yang's Schema Questionnaire in this study was calculated by Cronbach's alpha (α =96%), and that of metacognition was calculated the same way (α =87%). Data analysis has been done using MCMI-III's software for Millon's personality questionnaire, and SPSS-16 and AMOS-18 software. We used path analysis method for testing each model in statistical data analysis. The results of this study suggest a possible causal relationship between the number of one of the early maladaptive schemas and the patterns of anti-social and borderline personalities through some metacognitive beliefs. This study showed that cognitive beliefs can be activators of the early schema and continuation's coping behaviors in personality patterns.

  20. Baby schema in human and animal faces induces cuteness perception and gaze allocation in children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta eBorgi

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available The baby schema concept was originally proposed as a set of infantile traits with high appeal for humans, subsequently shown to elicit caretaking behavior and to affect cuteness perception and attentional processes. However, it is unclear whether the response to the baby schema may be extended to the human-animal bond context. Moreover, questions remain as to whether the cute response is constant and persistent or whether it changes with development. In the present study we parametrically manipulated the baby schema in images of humans, dogs and cats. We analyzed responses of 3-6-year-old children, using both explicit (i.e. cuteness ratings and implicit (i.e. eye gaze patterns measures. By means of eye-tracking, we assessed children’s preferential attention to images varying only for the degree of baby schema and explored participants’ fixation patterns during a cuteness task. For comparative purposes, cuteness ratings were also obtained in a sample of adults. Overall our results show that the response to an infantile facial configuration emerges early during development. In children, the baby schema affects both cuteness perception and gaze allocation to infantile stimuli and to specific facial features, an effect not simply limited to human faces. In line with previous research, results confirm human positive appraisal towards animals and inform both educational and therapeutic interventions involving pets, helping to minimize risk factors (e.g. dog bites.

  1. Learning causes reorganization of neuronal firing patterns to represent related experiences within a hippocampal schema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Sam; Robinson, Nick T M; Herrera, Lauren; Churchill, Jordana C; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-06-19

    According to schema theory as proposed by Piaget and Bartlett, learning involves the assimilation of new memories into networks of preexisting knowledge, as well as alteration of the original networks to accommodate the new information. Recent evidence has shown that rats form a schema of goal locations and that the hippocampus plays an essential role in adding new memories to the spatial schema. Here we examined the nature of hippocampal contributions to schema updating by monitoring firing patterns of multiple CA1 neurons as rats learned new goal locations in an environment in which there already were multiple goals. Before new learning, many neurons that fired on arrival at one goal location also fired at other goals, whereas ensemble activity patterns also distinguished different goal events, thus constituting a neural representation that linked distinct goals within a spatial schema. During new learning, some neurons began to fire as animals approached the new goals. These were primarily the same neurons that fired at original goals, the activity patterns at new goals were similar to those associated with the original goals, and new learning also produced changes in the preexisting goal-related firing patterns. After learning, activity patterns associated with the new and original goals gradually diverged, such that initial generalization was followed by a prolonged period in which new memories became distinguished within the ensemble representation. These findings support the view that consolidation involves assimilation of new memories into preexisting neural networks that accommodate relationships among new and existing memories.

  2. Maladaptive Schemas as Mediators in the Relationship Between Child Sexual Abuse and Displaced Aggression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estévez, Ana; Ozerinjauregi, Nagore; Herrero-Fernández, David

    2016-01-01

    Child sexual abuse is one of the most serious forms of abuse due to the psychological consequences that persist even into adulthood. Expressions of anger among child sexual abuse survivors remain common even years after the event. While child sexual abuse has been extensively studied, the expression of displaced aggression has been studied less. Some factors, such as the maladaptive early schemas, might account for this deficiency. The objective of this study was to analyze the relationships between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and these schemas according to gender and determine if these early schemas mediate the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression. A total of 168 Spanish subjects who were victims of child sexual abuse completed measures of childhood trauma, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. The results depict the relationship between child sexual abuse, displaced aggression, and early maladaptive schemas. Women scored higher than men in child sexual abuse, emotional abuse, disconnection or rejection and impaired autonomy. Mediational analysis found a significant mediation effect of disconnection or rejection on the relationship between child sexual abuse and displaced aggression; however, impaired autonomy did not mediate significantly.

  3. A comparative study of patients and therapists' reports of schema modes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbestael, Jill; Arntz, Arnoud; Löbbes, Annette; Cima, Maaike

    2009-12-01

    The current study assesses whether patients and therapists report similar levels of schema modes, one of the central features in Schema-Focused Therapy. Patient's self-report and therapists' report on an abbreviated Schema Mode Inventory were compared in a sample of 92 patients with antisocial, borderline or cluster C personality disorder. Results indicate a markedly stronger self-therapist discrepancy in mode rating in antisocial patients than in borderline and cluster C patients. Compared to their therapists, ASPD-patients report less presence of most maladaptive modes, whereas there was no difference in adaptive modes. These findings underscore the importance for the use of alternative assessment methods of cognitive concepts in antisocial patients.

  4. Schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder: a single case series.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordahl, Hans M; Nysaeter, Tor E

    2005-09-01

    The effectiveness of schema therapy for patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD) developed by Young was investigated using a single case series trial of six patients who all had primarily a DSM-IV BPD diagnosis. The treatment approach comprised the core elements of schema therapy with an emphasis on schema mode work and limited re-parenting. An A-B direct replication series with follow-up assessments at 12 months was implemented. From baseline to follow-up improvement was large, as indicated by large effect sizes, and improvement was clinically meaningful for five of the six patients included. Three of the six patients did not any longer fulfill the criteria for BPD by the end of the treatment.

  5. How Do DSM-5 Personality Traits Align With Schema Therapy Constructs?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Bo; Lee, Christopher; Mortensen, Erik Lykke

    2015-01-01

    DSM-5 offers an alternative model of personality pathology that includes 25 traits. Although personality disorders are mostly treated with psychotherapy, the correspondence between DSM-5 traits and concepts in evidence-based psychotherapy has not yet been evaluated adequately. Suitably, schema...... therapy was developed for treating personality disorders, and it has achieved promising evidence. The authors examined associations between DSM-5 traits and schema therapy constructs in a mixed sample of 662 adults, including 312 clinical participants. Associations were investigated in terms of factor...... loadings and regression coefficients in relation to five domains, followed by specific correlations among all constructs. The results indicated conceptually coherent associations, and 15 of 25 traits were strongly related to relevant schema therapy constructs. Conclusively, DSM-5 traits may be considered...

  6. Dealing with large schema sets in mobile SOS-based applications

    CERN Document Server

    Tamayo, Alain; Huerta, Joaquín; 10.1145/1999320.1999336

    2011-01-01

    Although the adoption of OGC Web Services for server, desktop and web applications has been successful, its penetration in mobile devices has been slow. One of the main reasons is the performance problems associated with XML processing as it consumes a lot of memory and processing time, which are scarce resources in a mobile device. In this paper we propose an algorithm to generate efficient code for XML data binding for mobile SOS-based applications. The algorithm take advantage of the fact that individual implementations use only some portions of the standards' schemas, which allows the simplification of large XML schema sets in an application-specific manner by using a subset of XML instance files conforming to these schemas.

  7. The meaning of the body schema in reaching maturity during late adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirucka Beata

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the research presented in this paper was to investigate whether an association existed between the activation of the body schema and reaching adulthood among people in late adolescence. Three activities that are known to enjoy popularity among young people were analysed, namely: dancing, playing computer games that require motor involvement (e.g. Kinect, and playing computer games of an educational and entertaining character. It was assumed that the chosen forms of activity correspond to three levels of activation of the body schema. The following research methods have been applied to this study: the Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (SES, the Defence Style Questionnaire (DSQ, and the Bodily Self Representation Questionnaire. The study has proven that the activation of body schema through dance is significantly related to high self-esteem and the use of mainly mature and neurotic defence mechanisms in threat situations.

  8. Component Prioritization Schema for Achieving Maximum Time and Cost Benefits from Software Testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Praveen Ranjan; Pareek, Deepak

    Software testing is any activity aimed at evaluating an attribute or capability of a program or system and determining that it meets its required results. Defining the end of software testing represents crucial features of any software development project. A premature release will involve risks like undetected bugs, cost of fixing faults later, and discontented customers. Any software organization would want to achieve maximum possible benefits from software testing with minimum resources. Testing time and cost need to be optimized for achieving a competitive edge in the market. In this paper, we propose a schema, called the Component Prioritization Schema (CPS), to achieve an effective and uniform prioritization of the software components. This schema serves as an extension to the Non Homogenous Poisson Process based Cumulative Priority Model. We also introduce an approach for handling time-intensive versus cost-intensive projects.

  9. [Relationship between early maladaptive schemas, attachment quality and fear of darkness].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kopcsó, Krisztina; Láng, András

    2014-12-07

    Although fear of darkness is most common in childhood, it is also a remarkable phenomenon in young adulthood. To examine the relationship between fear of darkness, early maladaptive schemas and attachment quality in young adults and assess fear related sex differences. A self-developed scale was used to measure fear of darkness' intensity and frequency. Young Schema Questionnaire - Short Form and two scales that measure attachment dimensions were also applied. 120 university students (68 women, 52 men) filled in the tests. Fear of darkness' frequency correlated with avoidant attachment, and intensity with independent and anxious attachment. Fear of darkness variables correlated with several early maladaptive schemas. Women reported more frequent and intensive fear of darkness than men. These results indicated that the elevated level of fear of darkness is related to specific cognitive style and attachment quality. This highlights the potential clinical relevance of fear of darkness.

  10. Extended Schema Mode conceptualizations for specific personality disorders: an empirical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamelis, Lotte L M; Renner, Fritz; Heidkamp, David; Arntz, Arnoud

    2011-02-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate newly formulated schema mode models for cluster-C, paranoid, histrionic and narcissistic personality disorders. In order to assess 18 hypothesized modes, the Schema Mode Inventory (SMI) was modified into the SMI-2. The SMI-2 was administered to a sample of 323 patients (with a main diagnosis on one of the PDs mentioned) and 121 nonpatients. The SMI-2 was successful in distinguishing patients and controls. Newly formulated modes proved to be appropriate for histrionic, avoidant, and dependent PD. The modification of the Overcontroller mode into the Perfectionistic and Suspicious Overcontroller mode was valuable for characterizing paranoid and obsessive-compulsive PD. The results support recent theoretical developments in Schema Therapy, and are useful for application in clinical practice.

  11. Mechanisms of change in cognitive therapy for obsessive compulsive disorder: role of maladaptive beliefs and schemas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilhelm, Sabine; Berman, Noah C; Keshaviah, Aparna; Schwartz, Rachel A; Steketee, Gail

    2015-02-01

    The present study aimed to identify mechanisms of change in individuals with moderately severe obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) receiving cognitive therapy (CT). Thirty-six adults with OCD received CT over 24 weeks. At weeks 0, 4/6, 12, 16/18, and 24, independent evaluators assessed OCD severity, along with obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas. To examine mechanisms of change, we utilized a time-varying lagged regression model with a random intercept and slope. Results indicated that perfectionism and certainty obsessive beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency and incompetence significantly mediated (improved) treatment response. In conclusion, cognitive changes in perfectionism/certainty beliefs and maladaptive schemas related to dependency/incompetence precede behavioral symptom reduction for OCD patients. Targeting these mechanisms in future OCD treatment trials will emphasize the most relevant processes and facilitate maximum improvement. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Manualized treatment for substance abusers with personality disorders: dual focus schema therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ball, S A

    1998-01-01

    The presence of an untreated personality disorder may be associated with worse compliance and outcome in substance abuse treatment. Therapeutic attention to the symptoms of personality disorder may reduce the severity of substance abuse and other Axis I symptoms which potentially contribute to relapse. A 24-week manual-guided individual cognitive-behavioral therapy approach has been developed that integrates relapse prevention with targeted intervention for early maladaptive schemas (enduring negative beliefs about oneself, others, and events) and coping styles. This Dual Focus Schema Therapy is being compared to 12-Step Drug Counseling for opioid-dependent individuals with personality disorders in an ongoing study funded by the National Institute on Drug Abuse. This article reviews Young's (1994) schema-focused theory and approach and summarizes the treatment manual, which integrates relapse prevention for substance abuse.

  13. Child abuse, early maladaptive schemas, and risky sexual behavior in college women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L

    2011-05-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual, physical, and emotional, and assessed early maladaptive schemas within two domains: Disconnection/rejection and Other-Directedness. Disconnection/rejection schemas fully mediated the relation between child emotional abuse and number of sexual partners and partially mediated the relationship for sexual and physical abuse. However, when frequency of specific risky sexual acts (e.g., sex without contraception) was examined in the previous six months, only abandonment was a partial mediator. Implications for intervention and future research are discussed.

  14. Psychic tonus, body schema and the parietal lobes: a multiple lesion case analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braun, C M J; Desjardins, S; Gaudelet, S; Guimond, A

    2007-01-01

    The psychic tonus model (Braun and colleagues, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2006) states that the left hemisphere is a "booster" of internal experience and behavior in general, and that the right hemisphere is a "dampener". Twenty-five patients with a "positive" extreme disturbance of body schema (somatoparaphrenia) and 37 patients with a "negative" disturbance of body schema (autotopagnosia or Gerstmann's syndrome), all following a unilateral parietal lesion, were found in the literature and were analyzed to test predictions from Braun's "psychic tonus" model. As expected, patients with a positive syndrome had a right hemisphere lesion significantly more frequently, and those with a negative syndrome had a left hemisphere lesion significantly more frequently. Thus the psychic tonus model of hemispheric specialization, previously supported with regard to psychomotor baseline, libido, talkativeness, memory, auditory and visual perceptual tonus, now incorporates the tonus of representation of the body (body schema) in the parietal lobes.

  15. Online body schema adaptation based on internal mental simulation and multisensory feedback

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro eVicente

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we describe a novel approach to obtain automatic adaptation of the robot body schema and to improve the robot perceptual and motor skills based on this body knowledge. Predictions obtained through a mental simulation of the body are combined with the real sensory feedback to achieve two objectives simultaneously: body schema adaptation and markerless 6D hand pose estimation. The body schema consists of a computer graphics simulation of the robot, which includes the arm and head kinematics (adapted online during the movements and an appearance model of the hand shape and texture. The mental simulation process generates predictions on how the hand will appear in the robot camera images, based on the body schema and the proprioceptive information (i.e. motor encoders. These predictions are compared to the actual images using Sequential Monte Carlo techniques to feed a particle-based Bayesian estimation method to estimate the parameters of the body schema. The updated body schema will improve the estimates of the 6D hand pose, which is thenused in a closed-loop control scheme (i.e. visual servoing, enabling precise reaching. We report experiments with the iCub humanoid robot that support the validity of our approach. A number of simulations with precise ground-truth were performed to evaluate the estimation capabilities of the proposed framework. Then, we show how the use of high-performance GPU programming and an edge-based algorithm for visual perception allow for real-time implementation in real world scenarios.

  16. A Review of Schema Psychotherapy%图式心理疗法述评

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘将

    2011-01-01

    Schema Therapy is also properly called Schema- Focused Cognitive Therapy. Schema therapy integrates elements of cognitive therapy, behavior therapy, object relations, and gestalt therapy into one unified, systematic ,innovative approach of psychotherapy. Schema Therapy consists of two main stages. First is the assessment phase, in which schemas are identified during the initial sessions. Next is the behavioral change stage ,during which the client is actively involved in replacing negative, habitual thoughts and behaviors with new, healthy cognitive and behavioral options. Schema Therapy combines help people with long- term mental health problems including personality disorders and chronic depression.%图式疗法也称图式聚焦疗法,是在整合了认知疗法、行为疗法、客体关系、格式塔理论的有利元素基础上,而形成的一个统一性、系统性、创新性的心理疗法.图式疗法包括两个主要的阶段,一是评定阶段,这一阶段主要用来识别、评定来访者的图式;二是改变阶段,在这一阶段来访者由消极、适应不良的思维和行为习惯转变为积极、健康的认知和行动.图式疗法对治疗人格障碍、慢性抑郁症等长期的心理问题有很好的效果.

  17. Schema generation in recurrent neural nets for intercepting a moving target.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fleischer, Andreas G

    2010-06-01

    The grasping of a moving object requires the development of a motor strategy to anticipate the trajectory of the target and to compute an optimal course of interception. During the performance of perception-action cycles, a preprogrammed prototypical movement trajectory, a motor schema, may highly reduce the control load. Subjects were asked to hit a target that was moving along a circular path by means of a cursor. Randomized initial target positions and velocities were detected in the periphery of the eyes, resulting in a saccade toward the target. Even when the target disappeared, the eyes followed the target's anticipated course. The Gestalt of the trajectories was dependent on target velocity. The prediction capability of the motor schema was investigated by varying the visibility range of cursor and target. Motor schemata were determined to be of limited precision, and therefore visual feedback was continuously required to intercept the moving target. To intercept a target, the motor schema caused the hand to aim ahead and to adapt to the target trajectory. The control of cursor velocity determined the point of interception. From a modeling point of view, a neural network was developed that allowed the implementation of a motor schema interacting with feedback control in an iterative manner. The neural net of the Wilson type consists of an excitation-diffusion layer allowing the generation of a moving bubble. This activation bubble runs down an eye-centered motor schema and causes a planar arm model to move toward the target. A bubble provides local integration and straightening of the trajectory during repetitive moves. The schema adapts to task demands by learning and serves as forward controller. On the basis of these model considerations the principal problem of embedding motor schemata in generalized control strategies is discussed.

  18. Language, Language Teaching and Language Testing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴文华

    2002-01-01

    Departing from a brief presentation of the various views of language, this article elaborates the influence of views of languageon language teaching and language testing. This will help us have background knowledge on language teaching and language testing.

  19. Psychic Tonus, Body Schema and the Parietal Lobes: A Multiple Lesion Case Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    C. M. J. Braun; Desjardins, S.; Gaudelet, S.; Guimond, A.

    2007-01-01

    The psychic tonus model (Braun and colleagues, 1999, 2002, 2003, 2006) states that the left hemisphere is a “booster” of internal experience and behavior in general, and that the right hemisphere is a “dampener”. Twenty-five patients with a “positive” extreme disturbance of body schema (somatoparaphrenia) and 37 patients with a “negative” disturbance of body schema (autotopagnosia or Gerstmann’s syndrome), all following a unilateral parietal lesion, were found in the literature and were analy...

  20. [Treatment of borderline personality disorder with the schema-focused approach].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cousineau, P; Young, J E

    1997-01-01

    The treatment of Borderline Personality Disorder has been a challenge for Cognitive Therapy (CT): some modifications to the CT basic model had to be implemented in order to intervene with BPD patients. Young's schema-focused approach offers an intervention model which relies on early maladaptive schemas and modes concepts. According to this model, the BDP presents four dysfunctional modes: the Abandoned Child mode, the Detached Protector mode, the Punitive Parent mode, the Angry Child mode. The therapist must identify the presence of these modes and implement therapeutic strategies specific to each of them. There are four different kinds of therapeutic strategies: interpersonal (therapy relationship), experiential, cognitive and behavioral.

  1. METS as an 'Intermediary' Schema for a Digital Library of Complex Scientific Multimedia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Gartner

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of the Metadata Encoding and Transmission Standard (METS schema as a mechanism for delivering a digital library of complex scientific multimedia is examined as an alternative to the Fedora Content Model (FCM. Using METS as an 'intermediary' schema, where it functions as a template which is populated with content metadata on-the-fly using an XSLT transformation, it is possible to replicate the flexibility of structure and granularity of FCM while avoiding its complexity and often substantial demands on developers.

  2. An Analysis and Design of the Redirection Schema in ForCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming Gao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The idea of Forwarding and Control Element Separation has widely accepted by next generation network researchers, the regain attention of IETF (The Internet Engineering Task Force ForCES (Forwarding and Control Element Separation is the best proof. An IP tunnel-based redirection schema was proposed to solve the problem of routing protocol messages interaction between ForCES router and the external merchant routers. The technology of network virtualization is introduced to map network interface from ForCES FE (Forwarding Element to CE (Control Element which collaborating with the redirect schema.

  3. OrientX: An Integrated, Schema Based Native XML Database System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Xiaofeng; WANG Xiaofeng; XIE Min; ZHANG Xin; ZHOU Junfeng

    2006-01-01

    The increasing number of XML repositories has stimulated the design of systems that can store and query XML data efficiently. OrientX, a native XML database system, is designed to meet this requirement. In this paper, we described the system structure and design of OrientX, an integrated, schema-based native XML database. The main contributions of OrientX are: a)We have implemented an integrated native XML database system, which supports native storage of XML data, and based on it we can handle XPath& XQuery efficiently; b)In our OrientX system, schema information is fully explored to guide the storage, optimization and query processing.

  4. On the effectiveness of XML schema validation for countering XML signature wrapping attacks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Meiko; Meyer, Christopher; Somorovsky, Juraj

    2011-01-01

    In the context of security of Web Services, the XML Signature Wrapping attack technique has lately received increasing attention. Following a broad range of real-world exploits, general interest in applicable countermeasures rises. However, few approaches for countering these attacks have been...... investigated closely enough to make any claims about their effectiveness. In this paper, we analyze the effectiveness of the specific countermeasure of XML Schema validation in terms of fending Signature Wrapping attacks. We investigate the problems of XML Schema validation for Web Services messages...

  5. An Ontology-Based Framework for Semi-Automatic Schema Integration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zille Huma; Muhammad Jaffar-Ur Rehman; Nadeem Iftikhar

    2005-01-01

    Currently, schema integration frameworks use approaches like rule-based, machine learning, etc. This paper presents an ontology-based wrapper-mediator framework that uses both the rule-based and machine learning strategies at the same time. The proposed framework uses global and local ontologies for resolving syntactic and semantic heterogeneity,and XML for interoperability. The concepts in the candidate schemas are merged on the basis of the similarity coefficient,which is calculated using the defined rules and the prior mappings stored in the case-base.

  6. Mediation of early maladaptive schemas between perceptions of parental rearing style and personality disorder symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thimm, Jens C

    2010-03-01

    In schema therapy (ST), early maladaptive schemas (EMS) are proposed to be the defining core of personality disorders. Adverse relational experiences in childhood are assumed to be the main cause for the development of EMS. The present study explored the links between perceived parental rearing behaviours, EMS, and personality disorder symptoms in a clinical sample (N=108). Results from mediation analyses suggest that EMS mediate the relationships between recalled parenting rearing behaviours and personality disorder symptoms. Findings give support to the theoretical model ST is based on.

  7. The Early Maladaptive Schemas of an Opioid Dependent Sample of Treatment Seeking Young Adults: A Descriptive Investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shorey, Ryan C.; Stuart, Gregory L.; Anderson, Scott

    2011-01-01

    Opioid dependence is an increasingly prevalent problem throughout the world, particularly for young adults (e.g., ages 17–25). Opioid dependence is associated with a wealth of negative consequences and is often a chronic, relapsing condition. Research on factors that may contribute to the etiology of opioid dependence could result in improved treatment outcomes. Using pre-existing patient records, the current study examined the early maladaptive schemas among young adult opioid dependent residential treatment patients (N = 169), as it is theorized that early maladaptive schemas may underlie or maintain substance use. Results showed that all 18 early maladaptive schemas were endorsed at various levels among male and female patients, with insufficient self-control being the most prevalent schema. In addition, females scored significantly higher than males on 11 of the 18 schemas. Findings from the current study are discussed in terms of future research and implications for the treatment of opioid dependence. PMID:22014405

  8. Measurement of BR(B0 -> Ds*+D*-) and Determination of the Ds+ -> phi pi+ Branching Fraction with a Partial-Reconstruction Method

    CERN Document Server

    Aubert, Bernard; Abe, T; Abrams, G S; Adye, T; Ahmed, S; Alam, M S; Albert, J; Aleksan, Roy; Allison, J; Altenburg, D; Andreotti, M; Angelini, C; Anulli, F; Aston, D; Azzolini, V; Baak, M A; Back, J J; Bailey, S; Baldini-Ferroli, R; Band, H R; Banerjee, Sw; Barate, R; Barlow, N R; Barlow, R J; Bartoldus, R; Batignani, G; Bauer, J M; Beck, T W; Behera, P K; Bellini, F; Benayoun, M; Berger, N; Beringer, J; Bernard, D; Berryhill, J W; Best, D; Bettarini, S; Bettoni, D; Bevan, A J; Bhimji, W; Bianchi, F; Biasini, M; Blanc, F; Blaylock, G; Blinov, V E; Bloom, P; Bóna, M; Bondioli, M; Bonneaud, G R; Borean, C; Borgland, A W; Bosisio, L; Boutigny, D; Bowerman, D A; Boyarski, A M; Boyd, J T; Bozzi, C; Brandt, T; Brau, B; Brau, J E; Breon, A B; Briand, H; Brigljevic, V; Brochard, F; Brose, J; Brown, C L; Brown, C M; Brown, D; Brown, D N; Bruinsma, M; Brunet, S; Bucci, F; Buchanan, C; Buchmüller, O L; Bugg, W; Bukin, A D; Burchat, Patricia R; Button-Shafer, J; Buzzo, A; Cahn, R N; Calabrese, R; Calcaterra, A; Calderini, G; Campagnari, C; Capra, R; Carpinelli, M; Cartaro, C; Cavallo, N; Cavoto, G; Chao, M; Charles, E; Chauveau, J; Chen, E; Chen, J C; Chen, S; Cheng, C H; Chevalier, N; Christ, S; Cibinetto, G; Clark, P J; Cochran, J; Cohen-Tanugi, J; Colberg, T; Colecchia, F; Coleman, J P; Contri, R; Convery, M R; Cote-Ahern, D; Cottingham, W N; Coupal, D P; Covarelli, R; Cowan, G; Cowan, R; Crawley, H B; Cremaldi, L M; Crosetti, G; Çuhadar-Dönszelmann, T; Dahmes, B; Dallapiccola, C; Danielson, N; Dasu, S; Datta, M; Dauncey, P D; David, P; Davier, M; Davis, C L; Day, C T; De Groot, N; De Nardo, Gallieno; Del Buono, L; Del Gamba, V; Della Ricca, G; Di Lodovico, F; Dickopp, M; Dittongo, S; Dong, D; Dorfan, J; Dorigo, A; Dubitzky, R S; Dubois-Felsmann, G P; Dujmic, D; Dunwoodie, W M; Dvoretskii, A; Eckmann, R; Edwards, A J; Egede, U; Eichenbaum, A M; Eigen, G; Eisner, A M; Elmer, P; Emery, S; Ernst, J A; Eschenburg, V; Eschrich, I; Fabozzi, F; Faccini, R; Falciai, D; Farbin, A; Ferrarotto, F; Ferroni, F; Field, R C; Finocchiaro, G; Flack, R L; Flächer, H U; Flood, K T; Ford, K; Ford, W T; Forti, A C; Forti, F; Fortin, D; Franek, B J; Frey, R; Fry, J R; Gabathuler, Erwin; Gabriel, T A; Gaidot, A; Gaillard, J M; Gaillard, J R; Galeazzi, F; Gallo, F; Gamba, D; Gamet, R; Gan, K K; Ganzhur, S F; Gaspero, M; Gatto, C; Geddes, N I; George, S; Gill, M S; Giorgi, M A; Giraud, P F; Gladney, L; Glanzman, T; Godang, R; Goetzen, K; Golubev, V B; Gopal, G P; Gowdy, S J; Grancagnolo, S; Graugès-Pous, E; Green, M G; Grenier, G J; Grenier, P; Gritsan, A V; Grosdidier, G; Groysman, Y; Guo, Q H; Hadavand, H K; Hadig, T; Haire, M; Halyo, V; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Hamon, O; Harrison, P F; Harrison, T J; Hart, P A; Hartfiel, B L; Harton, J L; Hast, C; Hauke, A; Hawkes, C M; Hearty, C; Held, T; Hertzbach, S S; Heusch, C A; Hicheur, A; Hill, E J; Hitlin, D G; Höcker, A; Hodgkinson, M C; Honscheid, K; Hrynóva, T; Hu, T; Hufnagel, D; Innes, W R; Ivanchenko, V N; Izen, J M; Jackson, F; Jackson, P D; Jacobsen, R G; Jawahery, A; Jayatilleke, S M; Jessop, C P; John, M J J; Johnson, J R; Judd, D; Kadel, R W; Kadyk, J; Kagan, H; Karyotakis, Yu; Kass, R; Kay, M; Kelly, M P; Kelsey, M H; Kerth, L T; Khan, A; Kim, H; Kim, P; Kirkby, D; Kitayama, I; Knowles, D J; Koch, H; Kocian, M L; Kofler, R; Kolomensky, Yu G; Koptchev, V B; Kovalskyi, D; Kowalewski, R V; Kozanecki, Witold; Kral, J F; Kravchenko, E A; Krishnamurthy, M; Kroeger, R; Kukartsev, G; Kurup, A; Kutter, P E; Kuznetsova, N; Kyberd, P; Lacker, H M; Lae, C K; Lafferty, G D; Lamsa, J; Lanceri, L; Lange, D J; Langenegger, U; Langer, M; Lankford, A J; Laplace, S; Latham, T E; Lavin, D; Lazzaro, A; Le Clerc, C; Le Diberder, F R; Lee, S J; Lees, J P; Legendre, M; Leith, D W G S; Lepeltier, V; Leruste, P; Levesque, J A; Levi, M E; Levy, S L; Lewandowski, B; Li, H; Lillard, V; Lista, L; Liu, R; LoSecco, J M; Lo Vetere, M; Lockman, W S; London, G W; Long, O; Lou, X C; Lu, A; Lü, C; Luitz, S; Luppi, E; Lusiani, A; Lüth, V; Lutz, A M; Lynch, G; Lynch, H L; Lyon, A J; MacFarlane, D B; MacKay, C; Macri, M; Mallik, U; Maly, E; Mancinelli, G; Mandelkern, M A; Manfredi, P F; Mangeol, D J J; Marchiori, G; Margoni, M; Marker, C E; Marsiske, H; Martínez-Vidal, F; Mattison, T S; Mayer, B; Mazur, M A; Mazzoni, M A; McKemey, A K; McKenna, J A; McMahon, T R; Meadows, B T; Messner, R; Meyer, T I; Meyer, W T; Miftakov, V; Mihályi, A; Mir, L M; Mohapatra, A K; Mommsen, R K; Monge, M R; Moore, T B; Morandin, M; Morgan, S E; Morganti, M; Morganti, S; Morii, M; Morton, G W; Muheim, F; Müller, D R; Müller-Pfefferkorn, R; Narsky, I; Nash, J A; Nauenberg, U; Neal, H; Negrini, M; Neri, N; Nicholson, H; Nogowski, R; O'Grady, C P; Ocariz, J; Oddone, P J; Ofte, I; Olaiya, E O; Olivas, A; Olsen, J; Onuchin, A P; Orimoto, T J; Otto, S; Ozcan, V E; Paar, H P; Paick, K; Palano, A; Palombo, F; Pan, Y; Panetta, J; Panvini, R S; Paoloni, E; Paolucci, P; Parry, R J; Passaggio, S; Patel, P M; Patrignani, C; Patteri, P; Payne, D J; Pelizaeus, M; Penny, R C; Perazzo, A; Perl, M; Peruzzi, I M; Peters, K; Petersen, B A; Petersen, T C; Petrak, S; Piccolo, D; Piccolo, M; Piemontese, L; Pierini, M; Pioppi, M; Piredda, G; Pivk, M; Plaszczynski, S; Playfer, S; Pompili, A; Poropat, P; Porter, F C; Posocco, M; Potter, C T; Prell, S; Prepost, R; Pripstein, M; Pulliam, T; Purohit, M V; Qi, N D; Rahatlou, S; Rama, M; Rankin, P; Ratcliff, B N; Raven, G; Re, V; Reidy, J; Ricciardi, S; Richman, J D; Ritchie, J L; Rizzo, G; Roat, C; Robbe, P; Roberts, D A; Robertson, S H; Robutti, E; Roe, N A; Röthel, W; Romosan, A; Ronan, Michael T; Roney, J M; Rong, G; Roodman, A; Roos, L; Rosenberg, E I; Rotondo, M; Roy, J; Ryd, A; Safai-Tehrani, F; Saleem, M; Salnikov, A A; Salvatore, F; Samuel, A; Sanders, D A; Sanders, P; Sandrelli, F; Santroni, A; Saremi, S; Sarti, A; Schalk, T; Schindler, R H; Schmitz, R E; Schmücker, H; Schott, G; Schubert, J; Schubert, Klaus R; Schumm, B A; Schune, M H; Schwiening, J; Schwierz, R; Schwitters, R F; Sciacca, C; Sciolla, G; Seiden, A; Sekula, S J; Serednyakov, S I; Sharma, V; Shelkov, V G; Shen, B C; Shorthouse, H W; Simi, G; Simonetto, F; Sinev, N B; Skovpen, Yu I; Sloane, R J; Smith, A J S; Smith, J G; Snyder, A; Soffer, A; Soha, A; Sokoloff, M D; Solodov, E P; Spaan, B; Spanier, S M; Stängle, H; Stark, J; Steinke, M; Stelzer, J; Stoker, D P; Stroili, R; Strom, D; Strother, P; Stugu, B; Su, D; Sullivan, M K; Summers, D J; Swain, J E; T'Jampens, S; Tantot, L; Taras, P; Taylor, F; Taylor, G P; Telnov, A V; Therin, G; Thiebaux, C; Thiessen, D; Tiozzo, G; Tisserand, V; Toki, W H; Torrence, E; Tosi, S; Touramanis, C; Treadwell, E; Turri, M; Vaitsas, G; Varnes, H A Tanaka E W; Vasileiadis, G; Vasseur, G; Vavra, J; Verderi, M; Verkerke, W; Vidal, P B; Vitale, L; Voci, C; Voena, C; Vuagnin, G; Wagner, G; Wagner, S R; Wagoner, D E; Waldi, R; Walkowiak, W; Walsh, J; Wang, P; Wappler, F R; Watson, A T; Watson, N K; Weatherall, J H; Weaver, M; Weidemann, A W; Weinstein, A J R; Wenzel, W A; Wilden, L; Williams, D C; Williams, J C; Willocq, S; Wilson, F F; Wilson, M G; Wilson, R J; Winter, M A; Wisniewski, W J; Won, E; Wong, Q K; Wormser, G; Wright, D H; Wright, D M; Wu, J; Wu Sau Lan; Xella, S M; Yamamoto, R K; Yang, S; Ye, S; Yéche, C; Yi, J; Young, C C; Yu, Z; Yumiceva, F X; Yushkov, A N; Zallo, A; Zghiche, A; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, H W; Zhu, Y S; Zito, M; De Sangro, R; Del Re, D; La Vaissière, C de; Van Hoek, W C; Von, J H

    2003-01-01

    We present model-independent measurements of the branching fractions ${\\cal B}(B^0\\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-})$ and ${\\cal B}(D_s^+ \\to \\phi \\pi^+)$ based on 19.3 $\\textup{fb}^{-1}$ of data collected by the $BABAR$ detector at the PEP-II $e^+e^-$ $B$ Factory. Neutral $B$-meson decays to the $D_s^{*+}D^{*-}$ final state are selected with a partial reconstruction of the $D_s^{*+}$; that is, only the $D^{*-}$ and the soft photon from the decay $D_s^{*+} \\to \\Ds \\gamma$ are reconstructed. The branching fraction ${\\cal B}(B^0\\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-})$ is extracted from these event yields, while ${\\cal B}(D_s^+ \\to \\phi \\pi^+)$ is determined by combining this result with a previous measurement of the product ${\\cal B}(B^0\\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}) \\times {\\cal B}(D_s^+ \\to \\phi \\pi^+)$ with partial reconstruction of the $D^{*-}$. We obtain the following preliminary results: ${\\cal B}(B^0\\to D_s^{*+} D^{*-}) = (1.50 \\pm 0.16 \\pm 0.12)%,$ ${\\cal B}(D_s^+ \\to \\phi \\pi^+) = (4.7 \\pm 0.6 \\pm 0.8)%$ where the first error is statistical, an...

  9. [Living environment and activation of early maladaptive schemas specific to the elderly: Comparative study among 80 individuals].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeid, S; Kazour, F; Kazour, G

    2015-06-01

    Early maladaptive schemas described by Young may be identified in the elderly. They represent models and themes of emotions, memories, thoughts and bodily sensations experienced by the individual. This study aims to evaluate the activation of early maladaptive thoughts in the elderly depending on their living environment. The Young Schema Questionnaire--short form--was administered to 80 elderly individuals (40 living in a nursing home, and 40 in their own home with at least one person). The studied schemas that were most relevant to the elderly were the maladaptive schemas of abandonment, emotional deprivation, mistrust, exclusion, dependency, vulnerability and emotional overcontrol. The Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the Geriatric Depression Scale were administered to eliminate dementia or depression among individuals. Individuals living in a nursing home, compared to their controls had increased activation of schemas of emotional deprivation (22.5% vs. 7.5%), abandonment (15% vs. 0%), mistrust (32.5% vs. 2.5%), exclusion (7.5% vs. 0%), and emotional overcontrol (25% vs. 2.5%). The activation of maladaptive schemas was significantly elevated in nursing homes for those 5 schemas, while there was no difference in activation between the 2 groups concerning the schemas of dependency and vulnerability. The activation of early maladaptive schemas of emotional deprivation, abandonment, mistrust, exclusion, and emotional overcontrol is higher in individuals living in nursing homes compared to a control group of individuals living in their homes with at least one companion. This schema activation may be related to a lack of emotional and family support in the elderly. Copyright © 2015 L’Encéphale, Paris. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  10. A Metadata Model for E-Learning Coordination through Semantic Web Languages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elci, Atilla

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports on a study aiming to develop a metadata model for e-learning coordination based on semantic web languages. A survey of e-learning modes are done initially in order to identify content such as phases, activities, data schema, rules and relations, etc. relevant for a coordination model. In this respect, the study looks into the…

  11. Toward a Normalized XML Schema for the GGP Data Archives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alban Gabillon

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Since 1997, the Global Geodynamics Project (GGP stations have used a text-based data format. The main drawback of this type of data coding is the lack of data integrity during the data flow processing. As a result, metadata and even data must be checked by human operators. In this paper, we propose a new format for representing the GGP data. This new format is based on the eXtensible Markup Language (XML.

  12. A Method of Refactoring Relation Schema Based on Ontology%一种基于本体的关系模式重构方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    亓开元; 崔宾格

    2008-01-01

    为有效集成分布异构的关系数据资源,提出了一种基于本体的关系模式重构方法,以领域本体作为模式重构的概念集,通过本体的推理能力实现模式的重构.为了描述重构模式,提出了一种重构模式描述语言RSDL(Refactored Schema Description Language).重构模式可以为分布异构关系数据源的有效集成提供逻辑视图.

  13. Danger-early maladaptive schemas at work!: The role of early maladaptive schemas in career choice and the development of occupational stress in health workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bamber, Martin; McMahon, Rachel

    2008-01-01

    The schema-focused model of occupational stress and work dysfunctions (Bamber & Price, 2006; Bamber, 2006) hypothesizes that individuals with EMS (unconsciously) gravitate toward occupations with similar dynamics and structures to the toxic early environments and relationships that created them. They subsequently re-enact these EMS and their associated maladaptive coping styles in the workplace. For most individuals, this results in 'schema healing', but for some individuals with more rigid and severe EMS, schema healing is not achieved and the structures and relationships of the workplace, together with the utilization of maladaptive coping styles, serve to perpetuate their EMS. The model hypothesizes that it is these individuals who are most vulnerable to developing occupational stress syndromesTo date, this model has been subjected to very little empirical investigation, so the main aim of this study was to address this gap in the literature by testing out some of its main assumptions and to provide empirical data, which would either support or reject the model using a population of health workers. Specifically, it was hypothesized that 'occupation-specific' EMS would be found in health workers from a range of different healthcare professions. It was also hypothesized that the presence of higher levels of EMS would be predictive of raised levels of occupational stress, psychiatric caseness and increased sickness absence in those individuals.A cross-sectional study design was employed and a total of 249 staff working within a NHS Trust, belonging to one of five occupational groups (medical doctors, nurses, clinical psychologists, IT staff and managers), participated in the study. All participants completed the Young Schema Questionnaire-Short Form (Young, 1998); the Maslach Burnout Inventory-Human Services Form (Maslach & Jackson, 1981), and the General Health Questionnaire-28-item version (Goldberg, 1978). A demographic questionnaire and sickness absence data

  14. Generic, network schema agnostic sparse tensor factorization for single-pass clustering of heterogeneous information networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Qinggang; Deng, Su; Huang, Hongbin; Wu, Yahui; Badii, Atta

    2017-01-01

    Heterogeneous information networks (e.g. bibliographic networks and social media networks) that consist of multiple interconnected objects are ubiquitous. Clustering analysis is an effective method to understand the semantic information and interpretable structure of the heterogeneous information networks, and it has attracted the attention of many researchers in recent years. However, most studies assume that heterogeneous information networks usually follow some simple schemas, such as bi-typed networks or star network schema, and they can only cluster one type of object in the network each time. In this paper, a novel clustering framework is proposed based on sparse tensor factorization for heterogeneous information networks, which can cluster multiple types of objects simultaneously in a single pass without any network schema information. The types of objects and the relations between them in the heterogeneous information networks are modeled as a sparse tensor. The clustering issue is modeled as an optimization problem, which is similar to the well-known Tucker decomposition. Then, an Alternating Least Squares (ALS) algorithm and a feasible initialization method are proposed to solve the optimization problem. Based on the tensor factorization, we simultaneously partition different types of objects into different clusters. The experimental results on both synthetic and real-world datasets have demonstrated that our proposed clustering framework, STFClus, can model heterogeneous information networks efficiently and can outperform state-of-the-art clustering algorithms as a generally applicable single-pass clustering method for heterogeneous network which is network schema agnostic. PMID:28245222

  15. Child Abuse, Early Maladaptive Schemas, and Risky Sexual Behavior in College Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roemmele, Melissa; Messman-Moore, Terri L.

    2011-01-01

    Previous research suggests that individuals abused as children are more likely to engage in risky sexual behavior during adulthood. The present study examined early maladaptive schemas as mediators of the child abuse-risky sexual behavior relationship among 653 college women. Self-report surveys assessed three forms of child abuse: Sexual,…

  16. Image Schemas in Verb-Particle Constructions: Evidence from a Behavioral Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Tangfeng

    2016-01-01

    Cognitive linguists claim that verb-particle constructions are compositional and analyzable, and that the particles contribute to the overall meaning in the form of image schemas. This article examined this claim with a behavioral experiment, in which participants were asked to judge the sensibility of short sentences primed by image-schematic…

  17. MIRD pamphlet No. 21: a generalized schema for radiopharmaceutical dosimetry--standardization of nomenclature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolch, Wesley E; Eckerman, Keith F; Sgouros, George; Thomas, Stephen R

    2009-03-01

    The internal dosimetry schema of the Medical Internal Radiation Dose (MIRD) Committee of the Society of Nuclear Medicine has provided a broad framework for assessment of the absorbed dose to whole organs, tissue subregions, voxelized tissue structures, and individual cellular compartments for use in both diagnostic and therapeutic nuclear medicine. The schema was originally published in 1968, revised in 1976, and republished in didactic form with comprehensive examples as the MIRD primer in 1988 and 1991. The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) is an organization that also supplies dosimetric models and technical data, for use in providing recommendations for limits on ionizing radiation exposure to workers and members of the general public. The ICRP has developed a dosimetry schema similar to that of the MIRD Committee but has used different terminology and symbols for fundamental quantities such as the absorbed fraction, specific absorbed fraction, and various dose coefficients. The MIRD Committee objectives for this pamphlet are 3-fold: to restate its schema for assessment of absorbed dose in a manner consistent with the needs of both the nuclear medicine and the radiation protection communities, with the goal of standardizing nomenclature; to formally adopt the dosimetry quantities equivalent dose and effective dose for use in comparative evaluations of potential risks of radiation-induced stochastic effects to patients after nuclear medicine procedures; and to discuss the need to identify dosimetry quantities based on absorbed dose that address deterministic effects relevant to targeted radionuclide therapy.

  18. Empathy, Perspective Taking and Personal Values as Predictors of Moral Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myyrya, Liisa; Juujarvi, Soile; Pesso, Kaija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between empathy variables, personal values and moral reasoning. The impact of empathic concern, perspective taking and personal values measured by the Portrait Value Questionnaire on moral schemas measured by the Defining Issues Test was investigated among 599 students from a university of…

  19. Empathy, Perspective Taking and Personal Values as Predictors of Moral Schemas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myyrya, Liisa; Juujarvi, Soile; Pesso, Kaija

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to clarify the relationships between empathy variables, personal values and moral reasoning. The impact of empathic concern, perspective taking and personal values measured by the Portrait Value Questionnaire on moral schemas measured by the Defining Issues Test was investigated among 599 students from a university of…

  20. Combined group and individual schema therapy for borderline personality disorder: a pilot study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    V. Dickhaut; A. Arntz

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Schema Therapy (ST) is a highly effective treatment for Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD). In a group format, delivery costs could be reduced and recovery processes catalyzed by specific use of group processes. As patients may also need individual attention, we piloted