WorldWideScience

Sample records for dryness

  1. Vaginal dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaginitis due to reduced estrogen; Atrophic vaginitis; Menopause vaginal dryness ... sexual intercourse more comfortable. It also helps decrease vaginal dryness. If estrogen levels drop off, the vaginal tissue ...

  2. Vaginal dryness alternative treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alternative treatments for vaginal dryness ... Question: Is there a drug-free treatment for vaginal dryness? Answer: There are many causes of vaginal dryness . It may be caused by reduced estrogen level, infection, medicines, and ...

  3. Stratospheric dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the extreme dryness of the stratosphere have been debated for decades. A key difficulty has been the lack of models which are able to reproduce the observations. Here we examine results from a new atmospheric chemistry general circulation model (ECHAM5/MESSy1 together with satellite observations. Our model results match observed temperatures in the tropical lower stratosphere and realistically represent recurrent features such as the semi-annual oscillation (SAO and the quasi-biennual oscillation (QBO, indicating that dynamical and radiation processes are simulated accurately. The model reproduces the very low water vapor mixing ratios (1–2 ppmv periodically observed at the tropical tropopause near 100 hPa, as well as the characteristic tape recorder signal up to about 10 hPa, providing evidence that the dehydration mechanism is well-captured, albeit that the model underestimates convective overshooting and consequent moistening events. Our results show that the entry of tropospheric air into the stratosphere at low latitudes is forced by large-scale wave dynamics; however, radiative cooling can regionally limit the upwelling or even cause downwelling. In the cold air above cumulonimbus anvils thin cirrus desiccates the air through the sedimentation of ice particles, similar to polar stratospheric clouds. Transport deeper into the stratosphere occurs in regions where radiative heating becomes dominant, to a large extent in the subtropics. During summer the stratosphere is moistened by the monsoon, most strongly over Southeast Asia.

  4. [Enduring oral dryness after acne treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bots, C P; van Nieuw Amerongen, A; Brand, H S

    2003-07-01

    Medication influences the salivary flow rate frequently. In this paper a 26-year old patient is described, who used a systemic retinoid (a vitamin A derivate) when he was 18 years old. Since then, irreversible xerostomia was present. The oral complaints have been monitored during three years. Saliva was collected to assess the salivary flow rate and pH. The visco-elasticity of unstimulated whole saliva was high. This indicates a relatively low contribution of the gl. parotidea and a high mucin concentration in the collected saliva. Furthermore, parafilm only slightly stimulated the salivary flow rate. On the other hand, application of a 4% citric acid solution raised the flow rate to normal levels, without any delay. The medical history revealed no factors which could explain the the severe oral dryness and low salivary flow rate in rest. It was concluded that the low salivary flow rates and xerostomia might be related to the previous use of isotretinoin (Roaccutane). It is suggested to register and monitor the use of medication in patients with sudden oral health changes.

  5. Stratospheric dryness: model simulations and satellite observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lelieveld

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The mechanisms responsible for the extreme dryness of the stratosphere have been debated for decades. A key difficulty has been the lack of comprehensive models which are able to reproduce the observations. Here we examine results from the coupled lower-middle atmosphere chemistry general circulation model ECHAM5/MESSy1 together with satellite observations. Our model results match observed temperatures in the tropical lower stratosphere and realistically represent the seasonal and inter-annual variability of water vapor. The model reproduces the very low water vapor mixing ratios (below 2 ppmv periodically observed at the tropical tropopause near 100 hPa, as well as the characteristic tape recorder signal up to about 10 hPa, providing evidence that the dehydration mechanism is well-captured. Our results confirm that the entry of tropospheric air into the tropical stratosphere is forced by large-scale wave dynamics, whereas radiative cooling regionally decelerates upwelling and can even cause downwelling. Thin cirrus forms in the cold air above cumulonimbus clouds, and the associated sedimentation of ice particles between 100 and 200 hPa reduces water mass fluxes by nearly two orders of magnitude compared to air mass fluxes. Transport into the stratosphere is supported by regional net radiative heating, to a large extent in the outer tropics. During summer very deep monsoon convection over Southeast Asia, centered over Tibet, moistens the stratosphere.

  6. Relationship between Aging-Related Skin Dryness and Aquaporins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nobutomo Ikarashi

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Skin function deteriorates with aging, and the dermal water content decreases. In this study, we have analyzed the mechanism of aging-related skin dryness focusing on aquaporins (AQPs, which are the water channels. Mice aged 3 and 20 months were designated as young and aged mice, respectively, to be used in the experiments. No differences were observed in transepidermal water loss between the young mice and aged mice. However, the dermal water content in aged mice was significantly lower than that in young mice, thus showing skin dryness. The expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP4, AQP7, and AQP9 was observed in the skin. All the mRNA expression levels of these AQPs were significantly lower in aged mice. For AQP3, which was expressed dominantly in the skin, the protein level was lower in aged mice than in young mice. The results of the study showed that the expression level of AQPs in the skin decreased with aging, suggesting the possibility that this was one of the causes of skin dryness. New targets for the prevention and treatment of aging-related skin dryness are expected to be proposed when the substance that increases the expression of AQP3 is found.

  7. Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Sandholt, Inge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh;

    2002-01-01

    Remote Sensing, hydrological modelling, dryness index, surface temperature, vegetation index, Africa, Senegal, soil moisture......Remote Sensing, hydrological modelling, dryness index, surface temperature, vegetation index, Africa, Senegal, soil moisture...

  8. Extreme dryness and DNA-protein cross-links

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieger-Dose, A.; Dose, K.; Meffert, R.; Mehler, M.; Risi, S.

    Exposure of fungal conidia (Aspergillus ochraceus) or spores of Bacillus subtilis to extreme dryness or vacuum induces DNA lesions, including strand breaks and the formation of DNA-protein cross-links. In wet cells only a small amount of protein is bound to DNA, but exposure to conditions of lowered water activity results in an increasing number of cross-links between DNA and proteins. In fungal conidia these cross-links are detected after selective iodination (125J) of the DNA-bound proteins followed by gel electrophoresis and subsequent autoradiography. Another approach is the labelling of DNA with 32p by means of nick translation and the detection of differences in the electrophoretic mobility of DNA before and after digestion with proteinase K of proteins bound to DNA.

  9. Vaginal microbiome and epithelial gene array in post-menopausal women with moderate to severe dryness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.B.S. Hummelen (Ruben); J.M. Macklaim (Jean); J.E. Bisanz (Jordan); J.-A. Hammond; A. McMillan (Amy); R. Vongsa (Rebecca); D. Koenig (David); G.B. Gloor (Gregory); G. Reid (Gregor)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractAfter menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an imp

  10. The burden of Sjögren's syndrome, dryness and fatigue

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, N.

    2014-01-01

    Dryness and fatigue are prevalent and debilitating symptoms in Sjögren’s syndrome. In this thesis, consequences of dryness for patients’ well-being and daily life functioning, and possible targets for treatment were described. In the first part of this thesis, an encompassing overview of the

  11. Estimating MCC System Dryness Index using the Vineyard Water Indicator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Conceição Marco Antônio Fonseca

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The Dryness Index (DI is one of the three Geoviticulture Multicriteria Climatic Classification System (MCC System indices and its calculation is based on a soil water balance approach. However, other climatic indices can be used for the same purpose. One of them is the Vineyard Water Indicator (VWI that represents the ratio between the total rainfall and the vineyard water requirement during the productive period of the culture. When compared to DI, the VWI presents a simpler calculation methodology. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to establish a model to estimate DI based on VWI values. Climate data of 80 winegrowing regions in 18 countries were used. Four regression models were evaluated: linear, quadratic, logarithmic and the Mitscherlich model. Real and simulated data were compared using the confidence coefficient (c that corresponds to the product of the correlation coefficient (r by the exactness coefficient (d. The best fit was obtained employing the quadratic model and DI can be calculated using the following equation: DI = −363.84 VWI2+ 834.47 VWI – 257.17 (R2 = 0.93, for VHI <0.905. For VHI values equal to or greater than 0.905, DI is constant and equal to 200.

  12. Assessment of surface dryness due to deforestation using satellite-based temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) in Rondônia, Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, J. H.; Cho, J.

    2016-12-01

    The Rondônia is the most deforested region in the Amazon due to human activities such as forest lumbering for the several decades. The deforestation affects to water cycle because evapotranspiration was reduced, and then soil moisture and precipitation will be changed. In this study, we assess surface dryness using satellite-based data such as moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) land surface temperature (LST), normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), albedo, TRMM Multi-sensor Precipitation Analysis (TMPA) precipitation from 2002 to 2014, and Global Ozone Monitoring Experiment-2 (GOME-2) sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) from 2007 to 2014. Temperature-vegetation dryness index (TVDI) was calculated using LST and NDVI to evaluate surface dryness during dry season (June-July). TVDI relatively represents the surface dryness on specific area and period. Forest, deforesting and deforested regions were selected in the Rondônia to assess the relative changes on surface dryness occurred from human activity. The relative TVDI (rTVDI) at deforesting region increased because of deforestation, it means that surface in deforesting region became more dryness. We also found that to assess the impact of deforestation using satellite-based precipitation and vegetation conditions such as NDVI and sun-induced fluorescence (SIF) is possible. The relative NDVI (rNDVI) and SIF decreased when TVDI increased, and two variables (rTVDI-rNDVI, rTVDI-SIF) had linear correlation. Thesis results can be helpful to comprehend impact of deforestation in Amazon, and to validate simulations of deforestation from hydrological models.

  13. Dynamic hydrologic modeling using the zero-parameter Budyko model with instantaneous dryness index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswal, Basudev

    2016-09-01

    Long-term partitioning of hydrologic quantities is achieved by using the zero-parameter Budyko model which defines a dryness index. However, this approach is not suitable for dynamic partitioning particularly at diminishing timescales, and therefore, a universally applicable zero-parameter model remains elusive. Here an instantaneous dryness index is proposed which enables dynamic hydrologic modeling using the Budyko model. By introducing a "decay function" that characterizes the effects of antecedent rainfall and solar energy on the dryness state of a basin at a time, I propose the concept of instantaneous dryness index and use the Budyko function to perform continuous hydrologic partitioning. Using the same decay function, I then obtain discharge time series from the effective rainfall time series. The model is evaluated by considering data form 63 U.S. Geological Survey basins. Results indicate the possibility of using the proposed framework as an alternative platform for prediction in ungagued basins.

  14. How did soil dryness intensify recent European heatwaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles, Diego; Teuling, Ryan; van Heerwaarden, Chiel; Vilá-Guerau de Arellano, Jordi

    2014-05-01

    In August 2010 a mega-heatwave hit large parts of Eastern Europe and Russia, breaking the historical records from the 2003 event in Western Europe. While such heatwaves are predicted to become common by the end of this century, our understanding of the physics behind these phenomena is still imperfect, and so is their representation in climate models. In this presentation we will provide new evidence of how land-atmosphere feedbacks contribute to the development of the extreme temperatures based on satellite observations, climate model reanalyses data (ERA Interim), balloon sounding measurements, soil moisture-temperature coupling diagnostics and mechanistic modelling of the lower atmosphere. Results of our analyses show that in both European mega-heatwaves, persistent synoptic conditions favored evaporation and intensified soil desiccation. As a consequence of soil dryness, a deep residual atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) developed, which allowed the multi-day storage of heat coming from: (a) large-scale horizontal advection, (b) intense warming from the land surface associated to the increasingly dry soils, and (c) enhanced warm air entrainment from the top of the ABL (which counteracted the dilution effect of the gradually deeper layer). This progressive storage of heat in the residual ABL played a crucial role in the escalation of temperatures, and therefore in the regulation and intensification of land feedbacks. Soil moisture deficits have both direct and indirect effects in all these processes, effects that have not been scrutinized separately in previous model studies. This suggests the need of revisiting the traditional view of the soil moisture-temperature coupling during mega-heatwaves, in which only the direct impact of dry soils on the surface energy balance is explicitly considered. Reinforced by our findings, a more complete conceptualization can be provided, with dry soils enhancing diurnal warm air entrainment and leading to the formation of

  15. Vaginal microbiome and epithelial gene array in post-menopausal women with moderate to severe dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hummelen, Ruben; Macklaim, Jean M; Bisanz, Jordan E; Hammond, Jo-Anne; McMillan, Amy; Vongsa, Rebecca; Koenig, David; Gloor, Gregory B; Reid, Gregor

    2011-01-01

    After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness) were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation.

  16. Vaginal microbiome and epithelial gene array in post-menopausal women with moderate to severe dryness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruben Hummelen

    Full Text Available After menopause, many women experience vaginal dryness and atrophy of tissue, often attributed to the loss of estrogen. An understudied aspect of vaginal health in women who experience dryness due to atrophy is the role of the resident microbes. It is known that the microbiota has an important role in healthy vaginal homeostasis, including maintaining the pH balance and excluding pathogens. The objectives of this study were twofold: first to identify the microbiome of post-menopausal women with and without vaginal dryness and symptoms of atrophy; and secondly to examine any differences in epithelial gene expression associated with atrophy. The vaginal microbiome of 32 post-menopausal women was profiled using Illumina sequencing of the V6 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Sixteen subjects were selected for follow-up sampling every two weeks for 10 weeks. In addition, 10 epithelial RNA samples (6 healthy and 4 experiencing vaginal dryness were acquired for gene expression analysis by Affymetrix Human Gene array. The microbiota abundance profiles were relatively stable over 10 weeks compared to previously published data on premenopausal women. There was an inverse correlation between Lactobacillus ratio and dryness and an increased bacterial diversity in women experiencing moderate to severe vaginal dryness. In healthy participants, Lactobacillus iners and L. crispatus were generally the most abundant, countering the long-held view that lactobacilli are absent or depleted in menopause. Vaginal dryness and atrophy were associated with down-regulation of human genes involved in maintenance of epithelial structure and barrier function, while those associated with inflammation were up-regulated consistent with the adverse clinical presentation.

  17. Estimating vegetation dryness to optimize fire risk assessment with spot vegetation satellite data in savanna ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verbesselt, J.; Somers, B.; Lhermitte, S.; van Aardt, J.; Jonckheere, I.; Coppin, P.

    2005-10-01

    The lack of information on vegetation dryness prior to the use of fire as a management tool often leads to a significant deterioration of the savanna ecosystem. This paper therefore evaluated the capacity of SPOT VEGETATION time-series to monitor the vegetation dryness (i.e., vegetation moisture content per vegetation amount) in order to optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystem of Kruger National Park in South Africa. The integrated Relative Vegetation Index approach (iRVI) to quantify the amount of herbaceous biomass at the end of the rain season and the Accumulated Relative Normalized Difference vegetation index decrement (ARND) related to vegetation moisture content were selected. The iRVI and ARND related to vegetation amount and moisture content, respectively, were combined in order to monitor vegetation dryness and optimize fire risk assessment in the savanna ecosystems. In situ fire activity data was used to evaluate the significance of the iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness for fire risk assessment. Results from the binary logistic regression analysis confirmed that the assessment of fire risk was optimized by integration of both the vegetation quantity (iRVI) and vegetation moisture content (ARND) as statistically significant explanatory variables. Consequently, the integrated use of both iRVI and ARND to monitor vegetation dryness provides a more suitable tool for fire management and suppression compared to other traditional satellite-based fire risk assessment methods, only related to vegetation moisture content.

  18. Sensitivity of greenhouse summer dryness to changes in plant rooting characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milly, P.C.D.

    1997-01-01

    A possible consequence of increased concentrations of greenhouse gases in Earth's atmosphere is "summer dryness," a decrease of summer plant-available soil water in middle latitudes, caused by increased availability of energy to drive evapotranspiration. Results from a numerical climate model indicate that summer dryness and related changes of land-surface water balances are highly sensitive to possible concomitant changes of plant-available water-holding capacity of soil, which depends on plant rooting depth and density. The model suggests that a 14% decrease of the soil volume whose water is accessible to plant roots would generate the same summer dryness, by one measure, as an equilibrium doubling of atmospheric carbon dioxide. Conversely, a 14% increase of that soil volume would be sufficient to offset the summer dryness associated with carbon-dioxide doubling. Global and regional changes in rooting depth and density may result from (1) plant and plant-community responses to greenhouse warming, to carbon-dioxide fertilization, and to associated changes in the water balance and (2) anthropogenic deforestation and desertification. Given their apparently critical role, heretofore ignored, in global hydroclimatic change, such changes of rooting characteristics should be carefully evaluated using ecosystem observations, theory, and models.

  19. Warming climate extends dryness-controlled areas of terrestrial carbon sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Chuixiang; Wei, Suhua; Hendrey, George

    2014-01-01

    At biome-scale, terrestrial carbon uptake is controlled mainly by weather variability. Observational data from a global monitoring network indicate that the sensitivity of terrestrial carbon sequestration to mean annual temperature (T) breaks down at a threshold value of 16°C, above which terrestrial CO2 fluxes are controlled by dryness rather than temperature. Here we show that since 1948 warming climate has moved the 16°C T latitudinal belt poleward. Land surface area with T > 16°C and now subject to dryness control rather than temperature as the regulator of carbon uptake has increased by 6% and is expected to increase by at least another 8% by 2050. Most of the land area subjected to this warming is arid or semiarid with ecosystems that are highly vulnerable to drought and land degradation. In areas now dryness-controlled, net carbon uptake is ~27% lower than in areas in which both temperature and dryness (T 16°C has implications not only for positive feedback on climate change, but also for ecosystem integrity and land cover, particularly for pastoral populations in marginal lands. PMID:24980649

  20. BP neural network based online prediction of steam turbine exhaust dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Danmei; CHEN Chang; XIONG Yangheng; GAO Shang; WANG Chun

    2014-01-01

    In large scale condensing turbine unit,the exhaust status always lies in wet steam area.Due to the lack of effective measuring method,the exhaust dryness of the steam turbine is difficult to obtain di-rectly,which has been the difficult problem in online economic analysis for thermal power units.By taking an N1000-25/600/600 ultra-supercritical steam turbine as an example,the nonlinear mapping ability of BP neural network was used to establish a model which can reflect the relationship between exhaust dryness and unit load and exhaust pressure.After learning and training under some typical conditions,this model was used for exhaust dryness online calculation under full condition.The results show the final error of the training samples and verifying samples were controlled within -0.006 1 and -0.001 0,which satisfies the accuracy requirement for engineering calculation,indicating the established BP neural network can be used in exhaust dryness prediction.

  1. Clinical trial shows lasting function of a new moisturizing cream against vaginal dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henneicke-von Zepelin, Hans-Heinrich; Williams, Ragna; Havemeister, Wiebke; Wigger-Alberti, Walter; Nolte, Klaus-Ulrich

    2017-01-13

    Vaginal dryness and associated symptoms may occur in women of any age and are a frequent burden after menopause. The North American Menopause Society recommends long-acting non-hormonal vaginal creams as first-line therapy. A new type of such creams was developed (Remifemin® FeuchtCreme in Austria and Germany). This hormone-free cream contains hamamelis virginiana distillate and well-established vaginal cream ingredients. We explored its physical function and tolerability in an open interventional clinical trial. 20 postmenopausal women (54 to 76 years, median 60) treated their vaginal dryness using this cream once daily for 7 days and reported about their symptoms before, 4 to 8 h after first and 14 to 22 h after last application. A physician assessed tolerability and local physical function. All patients completed the study. Local physical function significantly improved from dryness at baseline (mean 4.0 ± SD 1.8) to a normal moisture level, on average (6.3 ± 2.1 after first, 6.7 ± 2.1 after last application, p = 0.0001). Subjective assessment of a feeling vaginal dryness showed a significant improvement at both times (p = 0.0001). Onset and duration of feeling moisturized were reported to be 0 to 2 min and 11.3 ± 6.9 h after application. All women reported vaginal dryness at baseline. 55 and 80% of patients reported no dryness after first application and at the end of the investigation. The cream was seen at the application site for up to 21 h. Tolerability assessments did not reveal any relevant change over time. There were four adverse events in 4 patients, all not serious and of mild intensity: urinary urgency (2), diarrhoea (1) and mild spotting after first application (1). The latter was caused by the dry surface of the applicator and was avoided by moisturizing the surface of the applicator at subsequent applications. In conclusion, these study results indicate a well-tolerated and long-acting function of this new

  2. Crying Without Tears : Dimensions of Crying and Relations With Ocular Dryness and Mental Well-Being in Patients With Sjögren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, N; Bossema, E R; Vermeer, R R; Kruize, A A; Bootsma, H; Vingerhoets, A J J M; Bijlsma, J W J; Geenen, R

    2016-01-01

    This study examined dimensions of crying and its relations with ocular dryness and mental well-being in patients with Sjögren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease with dryness as primary symptom. Three-hundred patients with Sjögren's syndrome completed questionnaires on crying, dryness, and

  3. Crying Without Tears : Dimensions of Crying and Relations With Ocular Dryness and Mental Well-Being in Patients With Sjogren's Syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Leeuwen, N.; Bossema, E. R.; Vermeer, R. R.; Kruize, A. A.; Bootsma, H.; Vingerhoets, A. J. J. M.; Bijlsma, J. W. J.; Geenen, R.

    This study examined dimensions of crying and its relations with ocular dryness and mental well-being in patients with Sjogren's syndrome, a systemic autoimmune disease with dryness as primary symptom. Three-hundred patients with Sjogren's syndrome completed questionnaires on crying, dryness, and

  4. Variations of dryness/wetness across China: Changing properties, drought risks, and causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qingzhong; Zhang, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Shi, Peijun; Zheng, Yongjie

    2017-08-01

    Variations of wetness/dryness across China during 1949-2014 in both space and time were investigated using the grid climate data of Time-Series (TS) Version 3.23. The Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI) was used to evaluate the wetness and dryness conditions. Results indicated that the regions that experienced a drying/wetting tendency are similar in area, and the regions dominated by a drying tendency are east of 100°E and the regions experiencing a wetting tendency are west of 100°E. A significant wetting tendency was observed in the northern parts of northwestern China, Qaidam Basin and northeastern parts of the Tibetan Plateau. Analysis of water vapor flux by air mass propagation indicated that dry regimes are attributed to continental air mass and wet regimes to oceanic air mass. Propagation of water vapor flux can thus explain the occurrence of wetness/dryness events in both space and time. The shortening of periodicity or increased frequency of wet and/or dry regimes implies intensifying and amplifying wet and dry regimes across China. The results of this study would be useful for the management of agricultural irrigation and water resources across China in a changing environment.

  5. The amelioration effect of tranexamic acid in wrinkles induced by skin dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Takahashi, Yumi; Mafune, Eiichi

    2016-05-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) is a medical amino acid widely used as an anti-inflammatory and a whitening agent. This study examined the effect of tranexamic acid administration in wrinkle formation following skin dryness. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In these NOA mice, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), generation of wrinkles, decrease of collagen type I, and increases in mast cell proliferation and tryptase and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1) release were observed. However, these symptoms were improved by tranexamic acid treatment. Moreover, the increase in the β-endorphin level in the blood and the expression of μ-opioid receptor on the surface of fibroblasts increased by tranexamic acid treatment. In addition, when the fibroblasts induced by tranexamic acid treatment were removed, the amelioration effect by tranexamic acid treatment was halved. On the other hand, tranexamic acid treated NOA mice and mast cell removal in tranexamic acid treated NOA mice did not result in changes in the wrinkle amelioration effect. Additionally, the amelioration effect of mast cell deficient NOA mice was half that of tranexamic acid treated NOA mice. These results indicate that tranexamic acid decreased the proliferation of mast cells and increases the proliferation of fibroblasts, subsequently improving wrinkles caused by skin dryness.

  6. Long-term meteorological and hydrological dryness and wetness conditions in the Zhujiang River Basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Floods and droughts are frequently causing large economic losses in China. These conditions vary in space, time, and magnitude. In this study, long-term meteorological and hydrological dryness and wetness conditions are analyzed for the Xijiang River Basin which is the largest tributary of the Zhujiang (Pearl River. A very similar inter-annual course of precipitation and discharge can be observed. The standardized precipitation index (SPI is used to show dryness and wetness pattern in the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River. The SPI-24 correlates high with the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of Xijiang River. Distinct long-term dryness and wetness sequences are found in the time series for the SPI-24 and SDI-24. The principal component analysis reveals many spatial interdependencies in dryness and wetness conditions for the sub-basins and explains some spatio-temporal disparities. Moderate dryness conditions have a larger spatial impact than moderate wetness conditions in the sub-basins. The loading pattern of the first principal component shows that the correlation with the entire Xijiang River Basin is highest in the eastern and lowest in the western sub-basins. Further spatial dipole conditions explain the spatio-temporal heterogeneity of dryness and wetness conditions. Accordingly, the precipitation in the eastern sub-basins contributes more to the hydrological wetness conditions than in the western sub-basins, which mainly contribute to dryness patterns.

    The spectral analysis for the SPI-24 (entire Xijiang River Basin and SDI-24 shows similar peaks for periods of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periods can be found for the SPI-24 of Xijiang River's six sub-basins with some variability in the magnitude. The wavelet analysis shows that the most significant periods are stable over time since the 1980s. The extrapolations of the reconstructed time series

  7. Spatiotemporal characteristics of dryness and drought in the Republic of Moldova

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potop, V.; Soukup, J.

    2009-05-01

    This paper presents the results of a study on the estimation of climatic conditions of dryness and drought in the Republic of Moldova. The evaluation of drought was based on data from 18 weather stations, which were selected according to the length of the period of measurement (1945-2006) and from the Chisinau observatory, which has the longest statistical series from Moldova (1891-2006). Some of the basic principles in the selection of the drought identification indices were: to characterize the same period of time, provide information on the regional hydrothermic regime, and not to rely on constants that are specific to certain physical/geographical regions. Firstly, the registers of the droughts for spring, summer and autumn have been identified and processed. Secondly, the frequency, duration and tendency of the dryness and drought phenomena have been evaluated. Thirdly, the manifestation of dryness and drought, as well as their spatial distribution, have been estimated with a probability of 95%. As a result of the analysis of the drought register for a period of over 100 years, an increase in tendencies of frequency and intensities of the given phenomena after the 1980s was revealed. The longest drought periods were noticed at the beginning of the 1950s and 1960s, reaching their highest points in the decades of 1981-1990 and 1991-2001, with the lowest point in the 1970s. Accordingly, during the past 20 years, in 11 cases of drought, 9 of them were registered as being of either a severe or extreme intensity degree.

  8. Shift in potential evapotranspiration and its implications for dryness/wetness over Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shanlei; Chen, Haishan; Wang, Guojie; Li, Jinjian; Mu, Mengyuan; Yan, Guixia; Xu, Bei; Huang, Jin; Wang, Jie; Zhang, Fangmin; Zhu, Siguang

    2016-08-01

    During 1961-2012, the regional average annual potential evapotranspiration (PET) of Southwest China (SWC) and the four subregions (named as SR1, SR2, SR3, and SR4) showed different decreases (excluding SR3); while the breakpoint analysis suggested that PET changes (i.e., sign and magnitude) have shifted. Based on a group of sensitivity experiments with Penman-Monteith equation and a new separating method, the contributions of each climate factor alone (i.e., net radiation, Rn; mean temperature, Tave; wind speed, Wnd; and vapor pressure deficit, Vpd) to PET changes were calculated. Results showed that declined Wnd in SR1, reduced Rn in SR2, SR4, and SWC, and increased Vpd in SR3 were responsible for the PET changes during 1961-2012. However, the determinant factor for each subregion and SWC varied in different segmented periods, which were identified using the breakpoint analysis. The impacts of PET shifts on SWC dryness/wetness (reflected by the 3 month Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration index, SPEI-3) during 1961-2012 were then quantified. Briefly, SPEI-3 changes in SR3, SR4, and SWC had the determinant factor of PET in the first one or two period(s), and precipitation in the last period; while they were attributed to PET (precipitation) in SR1 (SR2) for each segmented period. It is found that PET and precipitation had comparable contributions to the variations in SWC dryness/wetness. Our findings have suggested that more attentions should be paid to the impacts of PET changes and shifts in future studies of dryness/wetness or drought.

  9. Comparison of the dryness/wetness index in China with the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Fengmei; Shi, Feng; Kang, Shuyuan; Wang, Shigong; Xiao, Ziniu; Nakatsuka, Takeshi; Shi, Jun

    2013-11-01

    It is not clear how the frequency and amplitude of droughts have varied over the past 500 years in China, as the instrumental record is too short to identify centennial-scale trends. While the Monsoon Asia Drought Atlas (MADA) provides some insights into past drought patterns, its accuracy in eastern China remains uncertain. A comparison of the MADA and Chinese historical documents indicates that the MADA alone cannot effectively represent dryness and wetness in eastern China, so it is not appropriate to use the MADA in this region.

  10. Relation between Clinical Oral Dryness Score and Denture Satisfaction among Patients’ in a Tertiary Care Centre, India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vundavalli, Sudhakar; Rao, A. Kaleswara; Vadapalli, Sriharsha babu; Rao, Duggineni Chalapathi; thabusum, Ayesha

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Xerostomia is a subjective feeling of dryness commonly seen in elderly populations which impairs the quality of life. Due to loss of lubricating property of saliva the buccal mucosa, tongue and lips tend to stick leading to dry, freckled, ulcerated and sore mucosa which is of major concern to the patient to use complete denture. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the relation between oral dryness score and denture satisfaction among elderly patients. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted in prosthodontics department of a dental institution. Patients wearing dentures for at least six months were invited to participate in study. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) with scores ranging from 0-100 was used to assess patient’s satisfaction and clinical oral dryness score was assessed using the criteria described by Osailan SM et al., with scores ranging from 0-10. Data was analysed with SPSS software (version-20) and Kendall’s tau-b correlation was used to determine the relationship between mean denture satisfactions and mean clinical oral dryness scores. Results A total of 220 participants were included in the study based on inclusion criteria. Mean dryness score of the participants was 1.8±0.6 and mean VAS-score for denture satisfaction was 74.32±21.20 for aesthetics, for chewing ability the mean score was 62.31±19.64 and for phonetics it was 67.82±30.60. Strong negative correlation between VAS-scores and oral dryness scores was observed. Conclusion Clinical oral dryness score is one of the important factors which influence denture satisfaction. Dentist should consider in predicting prognosis. PMID:28658910

  11. Relation between Clinical Oral Dryness Score and Denture Satisfaction among Patients' in a Tertiary Care Centre, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doppalapudi, Radhika; Vundavalli, Sudhakar; Rao, A Kaleswara; Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Rao, Duggineni Chalapathi; Thabusum, Ayesha

    2017-05-01

    Xerostomia is a subjective feeling of dryness commonly seen in elderly populations which impairs the quality of life. Due to loss of lubricating property of saliva the buccal mucosa, tongue and lips tend to stick leading to dry, freckled, ulcerated and sore mucosa which is of major concern to the patient to use complete denture. The aim of the study was to assess the relation between oral dryness score and denture satisfaction among elderly patients. A cross-sectional study was conducted in prosthodontics department of a dental institution. Patients wearing dentures for at least six months were invited to participate in study. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) with scores ranging from 0-100 was used to assess patient's satisfaction and clinical oral dryness score was assessed using the criteria described by Osailan SM et al., with scores ranging from 0-10. Data was analysed with SPSS software (version-20) and Kendall's tau-b correlation was used to determine the relationship between mean denture satisfactions and mean clinical oral dryness scores. A total of 220 participants were included in the study based on inclusion criteria. Mean dryness score of the participants was 1.8±0.6 and mean VAS-score for denture satisfaction was 74.32±21.20 for aesthetics, for chewing ability the mean score was 62.31±19.64 and for phonetics it was 67.82±30.60. Strong negative correlation between VAS-scores and oral dryness scores was observed. Clinical oral dryness score is one of the important factors which influence denture satisfaction. Dentist should consider in predicting prognosis.

  12. Assessment of hot flushes and vaginal dryness among obese women undergoing bariatric surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goughnour, S L; Thurston, R C; Althouse, A D; Freese, K E; Edwards, R P; Hamad, G G; McCloskey, C; Ramanathan, R; Bovbjerg, D H; Linkov, F

    2016-01-01

    Menopausal symptoms are associated with a negative impact on the quality of life, leading women to seek medical treatment. Obesity has been linked to higher levels of menopausal symptoms such as hot flushes. This assessment will explore whether the prevalence and bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness change from pre- to post-bariatric surgery among obese midlife women. This study is a longitudinal analysis of data from 69 women (ages 35-72 years) undergoing bariatric surgery with reported reproductive histories and menopausal symptoms at preoperative and 6-month postoperative visits. Prevalence of and degree of bother of hot flushes and vaginal dryness at pre- and post-surgery were compared using McNemar's test and Wilcoxon signed-rank test. The reported degree of bother of symptoms associated with hot flushes decreased from pre- to post-surgery (p bariatric surgery. These results highlight important secondary gains, including less bothersome menopausal symptoms, for women who choose bariatric surgery for weight loss.

  13. Is vaginal hyaluronic acid as effective as vaginal estriol for vaginal dryness relief?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stute, Petra

    2013-12-01

    In a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, parallel- group trial hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (Hyalofemme) was compared to estriol vaginal cream (Ovestin) in women with vaginal dryness due to various causes. A total of 144 supposedly postmenopausal women below age 70 years were randomized in a 1:1 ratio to either receive hyaluronic acid vaginal gel (5 g per application) or estriol vaginal cream (0.5 g cream per application = 0.5 mg estriol) every 3 days for a total of ten applications, respectively. Exclusion criteria included vaginal infections, conventional contraindications to estrogens, use of vaginal products other than the investigational compounds, being unmarried, pregnant, or breastfeeding. The aim of the study was to test for non-inferiority of hyaluronic acid vaginal gel compared to estriol vaginal cream. The primary efficacy end point was the percentage (%) improvement in vaginal dryness, with the secondary end points being the percentage (%) improvements in vaginal itching, burning, and dyspareunia. Efficacy was assessed by using a visual analog scale (VAS) (0-10; 0 = absent, 10 = intolerable) at baseline (V0), during telephone contact after the third administration (V1), and at the final visit after the tenth administration (V2). Safety parameters included vaginal pH, endometrial thickness, and a vaginal smear for vaginal microecosystem assessment. Adverse events were recorded according to international guidelines. 133 women completed the study. At baseline, participants' characteristics did not differ significantly. Mean age was 54 years, time since menopause was 5 years on average, and cause of menopause was mostly natural. However, mean menstrual cycle days were also reported, although according to inclusion criteria only postmenopausal women were eligible for the study. At V1, an improvement in vaginal dryness was reported by about 49 % of women using hyaluronic acid vaginal gel, and by 53 % of women using estriol vaginal cream (p = 0

  14. Dynamic Drought Monitoring in Guangxi Using Revised Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LU Yuan; TAG Heping; WU Hua

    2007-01-01

    Moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) data are very suitable for vast extent, long term and dynamic drought monitoring for its high temporal resolution, high spectral resolution and moderate spatial resolution. The composite Enhanced Vegetation Index (EVI) and composite land surface temperature (Ts) obtained from MODIS data MOD11A2 and MOD13A2 were used to construct the EVI-rs space. And Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) was calculated to evaluate the agriculture drought in Guangxi province, China in October of 2006. The results showed that the drought area in Guangxi was evidently increasing and continuously deteriorating from the middle of September to the middle of November. The TVDI, coming from the EVI-rs space, could effectively indicate the spatial distribution and temporal evolution of drought, so that it could provide a strong technical support for the forecasting agricultural drought in south China.

  15. Perspectives in using a remotely sensed dryness index in distributed hydrological models at river basin scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Asger; Sandholt, Inge; Jensen, Karsten Høgh

    2002-01-01

    -series of precipitation from 112 stations in the basin. The model was calibrated and validated based on river discharge data from nine stations in the basin for 11 years. Calibration and validation results suggested that the spatial resolution of the input data in parts of the area was not sufficient for a satisfactory...... evaluation of the modelling performance. The study further examined the spatial patterns in the model input and output, and it was found that particularly the spatial resolution of the precipitation input had a major impact on the model response. In an attempt to improve the model performance, this study...... examines a remotely sensed dryness index for its relationship to simulated soil moisture and evaporation for six days in the wet season 1990. The index is derived from observations of surface temperature and vegetation index as measured by the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) sensor...

  16. Management of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia in estrogen sensitive cancer patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, Lino

    2012-09-01

    Cancer patients suffer from vaginal dryness and dyspareunia earlier and longer than the general population, with more severe and distressing symptoms. Life-style advices are the first step and vaginal lubricants can be tried, but they can't completely relieve atrophic symptoms. The most effective therapy is use of vaginal estrogens, but compliance and management are particularly difficult in estrogen sensitive cancer patients because of their systemic absorption. Compliance can be improved if they are begun at a very low dose and gradually increased until the lowest effective dose is reached. Promestriene only possesses an intramucosal effect, it can be used at very low doses in cancer patients suffering from urogenital symptoms.

  17. Signs of oral dryness in relation to salivary flow rate, pH, buffering capacity and dry mouth complaints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farsi Najat MA

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aimed to investigate the signs of oral dryness in relation to different salivary variables and to correlate subjective complaints of oral dryness with salivary flow rate. Methods 312 unmedicated healthy individuals belonging to three age groups, (6–11, 12–17, and 18–40 years were examined clinically for signs of oral dryness. Resting and stimulated saliva were collected to determine flow rate, pH and buffering capacity. A questionnaire was used to obtain information on subjective sensation of dry mouth. Results Dry lip and dry mucosa were present in 37.5% and 3.2% of the sample respectively. The proportion of subjects who complained of oral dryness (19% showed a stimulated salivary flow rate significantly lower than non complainers. Dry lip was significantly related to low resting flow rate but pH and buffering capacity did not show any significant relation to dry lip. Dry mucosa was not related to any of the above mentioned parameters. Conclusion The finding that the stimulated salivary flow rate was reduced in subjects complaining of dry mouth is of great clinical relevance, since the reduction is expected to be reflected in compromising various salivary functions.

  18. Monitoring and quantifying future climate projections of dryness and wetness extremes: SPI bias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Sienz

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The adequacy of the gamma distribution (GD for monthly precipitation totals is reconsidered. The motivation for this study is the observation that the GD fails to represent precipitation in considerable areas of global observed and simulated data. This misrepresentation may lead to erroneous estimates of the Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI, evaluations of models, and assessments of climate change. In this study, the GD is compared to the Weibull (WD, Burr Type III (BD, exponentiated Weibull (EWD and generalised gamma (GGD distribution. These distributions extend the GD in terms of possible shapes (skewness and kurtosis and the behaviour for large arguments. The comparison is based on the Akaike information criterion, which maximises information entropy and reveals a trade-off between deviation and the numbers of parameters used. We use monthly sums of observed and simulated precipitation for 12 calendar months of the year. Assessing observed and simulated data, (i the Weibull type distributions give distinctly improved fits compared to the GD and (ii the SPI resulting from the GD overestimates (underestimates extreme dryness (wetness.

  19. Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index Estimation of Soil Moisture under Different Tree Species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shulin Chen

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The Laoshan forest is the largest forest in Nanjing, and it plays an important role in water resource management in Nanjing. The objectives of this study are to determine if the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI is suitable to estimate the soil moisture and if soil moisture is significantly affected by tree species in the Laoshan forest. This paper calculated the spatial distribution of TVDI using LANDSAT-5 TM data. Sixty-two observation points of in situ soil moisture measurements were selected to validate the effectiveness of the TVDI as an index for assessing soil moisture in the Laoshan forest. With the aid of the three different temporal patterns, which are 10 January 2011, 18 May 2011 and 23 September 2011, this paper used the TVDI to investigate the differences of soil moisture under four kinds of mono-species forests and two kinds of mixed forests. The results showed that there is a strong and significant negative correlation between the TVDI and the in situ measured soil moisture (R2 = 0.15–0.8, SE = 0.015–0.041 cm3/cm3. This means that the TVDI can reflect the soil moisture status under different tree species in the Laoshan forest. The soil moisture under these six types of land cover from low to high is listed in the following order: Eucommia ulmoides, Quercus acutissima, broadleaf mixed forest, Cunninghamia lanceolata, coniferous and broadleaf mixed forest and Pinus massoniana.

  20. Cyanogenesis and the onset of tapping panel dryness in rubber tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisabeth de Faÿ

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the influence of cyanogenesis on the onset of irreversible tapping panel dryness (TPD and the physiological and histological aspects of secondary phloem in the trunk (tapping panel of rubber trees (Hevea spp.. Two cyanogenic compounds, linamarin and KCN, were applied separately on the trunk bark of healthy mature trees belonging to two Brazilian clones (Fx 4098 and Fx 3899. Changes in histology, latex pressure potential (ΨP and cyanogenic potential (HCNp were followed in the trunk inner barks. In addition, the HCNp levels were determined in TPD-affected plants of both clones. The applications of linamarin or KCN in healthy plants decreased latex ΨP, and formed tylosoids associated with in situ coagulation of latex. The clone Fx 4098 had the higher HCNp and showed the quicker and stronger responses to the cyanogenic compounds. Plants with TPD syntoms had a higher HCNp than the untreated healthy ones. Since histological changes are also structural markers of early TPD, it can be inferred that excessive release of cyanide can induce it in sensitive rubber clones

  1. Identification and Analysis of Latex Proteins Related with the Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kun Yuan; Zhenhui Wang; Lifu Yang

    2012-01-01

    The Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis is a complex physiological syndrome and seriously limits the increase of natural rubber production.In order to separate and identify the proteins closely correlated with TPD in Hevea brasiliensis,the proteins of latex C-serum,lutoid,rubber particle and total latex from healthy and TPD trees were separated by 2-DE respectively.Software analysis showed that 157 protein spots were differentially expressed in TPD trees compared with healthy ones.Subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS and searching for NCBInr or rubber database,49 protein spots of them were successfully identified,including 39 spots down-regulated and 10 up-regulated in TPD trees.The proteins mainly involved in rubber biosynthesis,stress response and reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism process and they might play key roles in TPD occuring.The current study will provide theoretical bases for further elucidating the mechanism underlying TPD in Hevea brasiliensis at the molecular level.

  2. The effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia (mouth dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlić Verica

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Xerostomia is a subjective complaint of mouth/oral dryness, caused by a reduction in normal salivary secretion due to different causes. Even though there are many available treatment modalities to enhance salivary flow, the therapy often remains unsatisfactory. The low-level laser therapy (low-level laser irradiation, photo-biomodulation has been extensively used as a new, non-invasive approach and advantageous tool for reduction of xerostomia. Therefore, the aim of this study is to give a systematic overview on the effects of low-level laser therapy on xerostomia. Material and Methods. A systematic review of published articles in PubMed database was carried out using keywords: ”low-level laser therapy”, ”xerostomia”, ”mouth dryness”. Results. In all published articles, which were considered adequate for this overview, positive effects of low-level laser therapy were reported. Low-level laser therapy could significantly enhance salivary secretion and improve antimicrobial characteristics of secreted saliva (increased level of secretory immunoglobulin A; sIgA. Furthermore, low-level laser therapy could improve salivary flow and regeneration of salivary duct epithelial cells. Conclusion. The current literature suggests that low-level laser therapy can be safely and effectively used as an advanced treatment modality for reduction of xerostomia. Further in vivo, in vitro and clinical studies using different irradiation parameters are suggested to determine the best laser parameters to be used.

  3. Dna stability and survival of bacillus subtilis spores in extreme dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dose, Klaus; Gill, Markus

    1995-06-01

    The inactivation of Bacillus subtilis spores during long-term exposure (up to several months) to extreme dryness (especially vacuum) is strain-dependent, through only to a small degree. During a first phase (lasting about four days) monolayers of spores lose about 20% of their viability, regardless of the strain studied. During this phase loss in viability can be equally attributed both to damages of hydrophobic structures (membranes and proteins) and DNA. During a second phase lasting for the remaining time of experimental observation (weeks, months and years) the loss in viability is slowed. A viability of 55% to 75% (depending on the strain) is attained after a total exposure of 36 days. The loss in viability during the second phase can be correlated with the occurrence of DNA double strand breaks. Also covalent DNA-protein cross-links are formed by vacuum exposure. If the protein moiety of these cross-links is degraded by proteinase K-treatment in vitro additional DNA double strand breaks result. The data are also discussed with respect to survival on Mars and in near Earth orbits.

  4. Lacosamide diminishes dryness-induced hyperexcitability of corneal cold sensitive nerve terminals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovács, Illés; Dienes, Lóránt; Perényi, Kristóf; Quirce, Susana; Luna, Carolina; Mizerska, Kamila; Acosta, M Carmen; Belmonte, Carlos; Gallar, Juana

    2016-09-15

    Lacosamide is an anti-epileptic drug that is also used for the treatment of painful diabetic neuropathy acting through voltage-gated sodium channels. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of acute application of lacosamide on the electrical activity of corneal cold nerve terminals in lacrimo-deficient guinea pigs. Four weeks after unilateral surgical removal of the main lachrimal gland in guinea pigs, corneas were excised and superfused in vitro at 34°C for extracellular electrophysiological recording of nerve terminal impulse activity of cold thermosensitive nerve terminals. The characteristics of the spontaneous and the stimulus-evoked (cooling ramps from 34°C to 15°C) activity before and in presence of lacosamide 100µM and lidocaine 100µM were compared. Cold nerve terminals (n=34) recorded from dry eye corneas showed significantly enhanced spontaneous activity (8.0±1.1 vs. 5.2±0.7imp/s; Placosamide and lidocaine decreased spontaneous activity and peak response to cooling ramps significantly (Placosamide (P>0.05) to the irrigation fluid. In summary, the application of lacosamide results in a significant decrease of the augmented spontaneous activity and responsiveness to cold of corneal sensory nerves from tear-deficient animals. Based on these promising results we speculate that lacosamide might be used to reduce the hyperexcitability of corneal cold receptors caused by prolonged ocular surface dryness due to hyposecretory or evaporative dry eye disease.

  5. Assessment of Iranian Agroclimatological Zone Classification by Using TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asadi, Ebrahim; Lopez-Baeza, Ernesto; Coll Pajaron, M. Amparo; Kouzehgaran, Saeedeh; Haghighat, Masoud

    2016-07-01

    Agricultural zoning is an important tool for authorities to plan and decide about development of the agricultural sector, environmental sustainability issues and plan and provide irrigation and rural infrastructures. Previous different methods have suggested the definition of agroclimatological zones in big areas in Iran, but most of them are not easy to be validated or there are not clear criteria to evaluate whether the zones are correctly defined or not. The current {it Iranian Meteorological Organisation} classification is composed of six significant agroclimatological zones defined using the fundamental climate elements of temperature and precipitation obtained from 30 years data from 180 synoptic stations interpolated using regression kriging methods. Elevation was derived from SRTM (Shuttle Radar Topography Mission) digital elevation model of 90 m resolution. In this paper we assess the homogeneity of each of these conventionally defined agroclimatological zones using {bf TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index)} values obtained from MODIS land surface temperature and NDVI operational products of the last three years between 2013 and 2015.

  6. A Pilot Study of Perceived Mouth Dryness, Perceived Swallowing Effort, and Saliva Substitute Effects in Healthy Adults Across the Age Range.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogus-Pulia, Nicole M; Gangnon, Ronald; Kind, Amy; Connor, Nadine P; Asthana, Sanjay

    2017-09-06

    Xerostomia, or perceived mouth dryness, increases with advancing age, but its influence on swallowing effort is unknown. This study: (1) quantified relationships among age, perceived sense of swallowing effort, and ratings of perceived mouth dryness, and (2) examined changes in swallowing effort following application of a gel-based saliva substitute in healthy participants. This was a cross-sectional observational study and data were collected from attendees of a community healthy aging fair. Forty-two healthy participants (mean age = 65 years; 20 female) were enrolled. Each participant rated perceived effort with swallowing and perceived mouth dryness on a 10-cm horizontal, undifferentiated line. After participants applied a gel-based saliva substitute (Biotene(®) Oral Balance) to their tongue and oral mucosa, they rated perceived effort with swallowing again. Age was associated with greater perceived mouth dryness (r = 0.37, p < 0.03) but not with perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.16, p = 0.32). Perceived mouth dryness was associated with greater perceived swallowing effort (r = 0.62, p < 0.001). Perceived swallowing effort declined following application of the salivary substitute (mean difference = 9.39 mm, p < 0.002). Age was found to be a significant predictor of perceived mouth dryness (p < .02); and perceived mouth dryness was found to significantly predict perceived swallow effort (p < .001). Perceived mouth dryness increased with advancing age, but perceived swallowing effort did not. Regardless of age, participants with higher levels of perceived mouth dryness also reported more perceived effort with swallowing suggesting a role for adequate oral lubrication in this perception. Even in healthy participants, use of a gel-based saliva substitute lowered perceived swallowing effort.

  7. Future dryness in the southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, Daniel R; Das, Tapash; Pierce, David W; Barnett, Tim P; Tyree, Mary; Gershunov, Alexander

    2010-12-14

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  8. Future dryness in the Southwest US and the hydrology of the early 21st century drought

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cayan, D.R.; Das, T.; Pierce, D.W.; Barnett, T.P.; Tyree, Mary; Gershunova, A.

    2010-01-01

    Recently the Southwest has experienced a spate of dryness, which presents a challenge to the sustainability of current water use by human and natural systems in the region. In the Colorado River Basin, the early 21st century drought has been the most extreme in over a century of Colorado River flows, and might occur in any given century with probability of only 60%. However, hydrological model runs from downscaled Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Fourth Assessment climate change simulations suggest that the region is likely to become drier and experience more severe droughts than this. In the latter half of the 21st century the models produced considerably greater drought activity, particularly in the Colorado River Basin, as judged from soil moisture anomalies and other hydrological measures. As in the historical record, most of the simulated extreme droughts build up and persist over many years. Durations of depleted soil moisture over the historical record ranged from 4 to 10 years, but in the 21st century simulations, some of the dry events persisted for 12 years or more. Summers during the observed early 21st century drought were remarkably warm, a feature also evident in many simulated droughts of the 21st century. These severe future droughts are aggravated by enhanced, globally warmed temperatures that reduce spring snowpack and late spring and summer soil moisture. As the climate continues to warm and soil moisture deficits accumulate beyond historical levels, the model simulations suggest that sustaining water supplies in parts of the Southwest will be a challenge.

  9. Systane® lubricant eye drops in the management of ocular dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benelli U

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Umberto BenelliDepartment of Neurosciences, Section of Ophthalmology, University of Pisa, Pisa, ItalyAbstract: The understanding of dry eye disease has advanced recently through increasing recognition that the etiology of the condition involves both tear evaporation and insufficient tear production, and that tear film instability and inflammation play roles in the various stages of the disease. Of significance, it has been recognized that lipid layer thickness correlates with tear film stability. The management of dry eye involves various strategies and therapeutic approaches that address one or more etiopathological components of the disease. The purpose of this review is to outline the characteristics and clinical utility of the Systane® ocular lubricants that contain hydroxypropyl-guar and one or both of the demulcents, ie, polyethylene glycol 400 and propylene glycol. Clinically, these products are safe and are indicated for the temporary relief of burning and irritation due to dryness of the eye. In particular, this review describes the formulations, mechanisms of action, and clinical utility of the newest additions to this topical ocular lubricant family, Systane Ultra® and Systane Balance®. Both of these ocular products are formulated with an intelligent delivery system and both provide symptomatic relief to patients with dry eye. However, Systane Balance is a novel formulation that contains both polymer and lipid components designed to protect the ocular surface and replenish tear film lipids simultaneously, a factor that is of particular relevance to patients who have dry eye associated with meibomian gland dysfunction.Keywords: Systane Ultra, Systane Balance, dry eye, hydroxypropyl-guar, meibomian gland dysfunction, dimyristoylphosphatidylglycerol 

  10. Soil water retention and maximum capillary drive from saturation to oven dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morel-Seytoux, H. J.; Nimmo, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    This paper provides an alternative method to describe the water retention curve over a range of water contents from saturation to oven dryness. It makes two modifications to the standard Brooks and Corey [1964] (B-C) description, one at each end of the suction range. One expression proposed by Rossi and Nimmo [1994] is used in the high-suction range to a zero residual water content. (This Rossi-Nimmo modification to the Brooks-Corey model provides a more realistic description of the retention curve at low water contents.) Near zero suction the second modification eliminates the region where there is a change in suction with no change in water content. Tests on seven soil data sets, using three distinct analytical expressions for the high-, medium-, and low-suction ranges, show that the experimental water retention curves are well fitted by this composite procedure. The high-suction range of saturation contributes little to the maximum capillary drive, defined with a good approximation for a soil water and air system as H(cM) = {???)/(o) k(rw) dh(c), where k(rw) is relative permeability (or conductivity) to water and h(c) is capillary suction, a positive quantity in unsaturated soils. As a result, the modification suggested to describe the high-suction range does not significantly affect the equivalence between Brooks-Corey (B-C) and van Genuchten [1980] parameters presented earlier. However, the shape of the retention curve near 'natural saturation' has a significant impact on the value of the capillary drive. The estimate using the Brooks-Corey power law, extended to zero suction, will exceed that obtained with the new procedure by 25 to 30%. It is not possible to tell which procedure is appropriate. Tests on another data set, for which relative conductivity data are available, support the view of the authors that measurements of a retention curve coupled with a speculative curve of relative permeability as from a capillary model are not sufficient to accurately

  11. Spatio-temporal characteristics of precipitation and dryness/wetness in Yangtze River Delta, eastern China, during 1960-2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuefeng; Xu, Youpeng; Lei, Chaogui; Li, Guang; Han, Longfei; Song, Song; Yang, Liu; Deng, Xiaojun

    2016-05-01

    Changes in precipitation have a large effect on human society and are a key factor in the study of the patterns of hydrological and meteorological variables. Based on daily precipitation records during 1960-2012 at 24 meteorological stations in the Yangtze River Delta (YRD), the spatial and temporal variations of six extreme precipitation indices were detected by the modified Mann-Kendall test. Then, the characteristics of dryness/wetness patterns were assessed by Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) and principal component analysis (PCA) on a 24-month time scale. For precipitation extremes, most of the precipitation indices had increasing trends, especially the annual total precipitation in wet day (PRCPTOT), which showed a significant positive trend distributed mainly in the southern part of the YRD. In contrast, decreasing trends in consecutive dry days (CDD) were detected at most stations of the YRD, with more than 20% of the stations having negative trends that were statistically significant. Additionally, three dominant geographic sub-regions of dryness/wetness pattern were identified in YRD: the central and southern, northeastern, and northwestern areas of the YRD. With respect to temporal variations of dryness/wetness conditions in each sub-region, a long-term wet tendency in the central and southern area was characterized as being stronger than the tendency in other parts of the YRD over the past 53 years, which indicates that flood disaster may become increasingly serious in the area. Furthermore, a 4 to 8-year period of variation was observed for each sub-region. The results of this study suggest that adaptive water resource measures for future water resource management and water-related disaster reduction mitigation should be considered separately for these regions in the YRD.

  12. Reduced Mucin-7 (Muc7) Sialylation and Altered Saliva Rheology in Sjögren's Syndrome Associated Oral Dryness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Nayab M A; Proctor, Gordon B; Karlsson, Niclas G; Carpenter, Guy H; Flowers, Sarah A

    2016-03-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is a chronic autoimmune disorder characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and hypofunction of salivary and lacrimal glands. This loss of salivary function leads to oral dryness, impaired swallowing and speech, and increased infection and is associated with other autoimmune diseases and an increased risk of certain cancers. Despite the implications of this prevalent disease, diagnosis currently takes years, partly due to the diversity in patient presentation. Saliva is a complicated biological fluid with major constituents, including heavily glycosylated mucins MUC5B and MUC7, important for its viscoelastic and hydrating and lubricating properties. This study investigated Sjögren's patient's perception of dryness (bother index questionnaires) along with the rheological, protein composition, and glycan analysis of whole mouth saliva and the saliva on the mucosal surface (residual mucosal saliva) to understand the properties that most affect patient wellbeing. Sjögren's patients exhibited a statistically significant reduction in residual mucosal saliva, salivary flow rate, and extensional rheology, spinnbarkeit (stringiness). Although the concentration of mucins MUC5B and MUC7 were similar between patients and controls, a comparison of protein Western blotting and glycan staining identified a reduction in mucin glycosylation in Sjögren's, particularly on MUC7. LC-MS/MS analysis of O-glycans released from MUC7 by β-elimination revealed that although patients had an increase in core 1 sulfation, the even larger reduction in sialylation resulted in a global decline of charged glycans. This was primarily due to the loss of the extended core 2 disialylated structure, with and without fucosylation. A decrease in the extended, fucosylated core 2 disialylated structure on MUC7, residual mucosal wetness, and whole mouth saliva flow rate appeared to have a negative and cumulative effect on the perception of oral dryness. The observed changes in MUC7

  13. Spiritual Dryness as a Measure of a Specific Spiritual Crisis in Catholic Priests: Associations with Symptoms of Burnout and Distress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arndt Büssing

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Spirituality/religiosity is recognized as a resource to cope with burdening life events and chronic illness. However, less is known about the consequences of the lack of positive spiritual feelings. Spiritual dryness in clergy has been described as spiritual lethargy, a lack of vibrant spiritual encounter with God, and an absence of spiritual resources, such as spiritual renewal practices. To operationalize experiences of “spiritual dryness” in terms of a specific spiritual crisis, we have developed the “spiritual dryness scale” (SDS. Here, we describe the validation of the instrument which was applied among other standardized questionnaires in a sample of 425 Catholic priests who professionally care for the spiritual sake of others. Feelings of “spiritual dryness” were experienced occasionally by up to 40%, often or even regularly by up to 13%. These experiences can explain 44% of variance in daily spiritual experiences, 30% in depressive symptoms, 22% in perceived stress, 20% in emotional exhaustion, 19% in work engagement, and 21% of variance of ascribed importance of religious activity. The SDS-5 can be used as a specific measure of spiritual crisis with good reliability and validity in further studies.

  14. Sex differences regarding the amelioration of wrinkles due to skin dryness by the administration of tranexamic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiramoto, Keiichi; Sugiyama, Daijiro; Iizuka, Yasutaka; Yamaguchi, Tomohiko

    2016-10-01

    Tranexamic acid (trans-4-aminomethylcyclohexanecarboxylic acid) exerts an amelioration effect on wrinkle formation due to skin dryness. We examined the sex differences in this effect. We administered tranexamic acid (750mg/kg/day) orally for 20 consecutive days to male and female Naruto Research Institute Otsuka Atrichia (NOA) mice, which naturally develop skin dryness. In the treated female mice, the amelioration effect on the wrinkle score, deterioration of transepidermal water loss (TEWL), capacitance, and decrease in the expression of collagen type I was stronger than in the male treated mice. Furthermore, the level of β-endorphin in the plasma and the expression of β-endorphin, μ-opioid receptor, and macrophages in the dorsal skin increased after the administration of tranexamic acid, and this increase was higher in female mice than in males. In addition, the macrophage production was increased by the administration of tranexamic acid in the ovary but did not change after administration in the testes. A histological examination revealed that these macrophages produce the β-endorphin, clarifying the source of the elevated levels. The amelioration effect in the female treated mice was decreased by the administration of clophosome (a macrophage inhibitor) to a degree that did not markedly differ from the effect observed in the male treated mice. These results suggest that the amelioration effect on wrinkles is stronger in female NOA mice than in males and that β-endorphin produced by macrophages plays an important role in this sex difference.

  15. A phase III randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study of pilocarpine for vaginal dryness: North Central Cancer Treatment group study N04CA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loprinzi, Charles L; Balcueva, Ernie P; Liu, Heshan; Sloan, Jeff A; Kottschade, Lisa A; Stella, Philip J; Carlson, Mark D; Moore, Dennis F; Zon, Robin T; Levitt, Ralph; Jaslowski, Anthony J

    2011-01-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common problem for which effective and safe nonestrogenic treatments are needed. Based on preliminary promising data that pilocarpine attenuated vaginal dryness, the current trial was conducted. A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial design was used to compare pilocarpine, at target doses of 5 mg twice daily and 5 mg four times daily, with a placebo. Vaginal dryness was recorded by patient-completed questionnaires at baseline and weekly for 6 weeks after study initiation. The primary endpoint for this study was the area under the curve summary statistic composed of the longitudinal responses obtained at baseline and through the 6 weeks of treatment to a numerical analogue scale asking patients to rate their perceived amount of vaginal dryness. The primary analysis was carried out by a single t test using a two-side alternative to compare the collective pilocarpine treatment arms with the collective placebo arms. A total of 201 patients enrolled in this trial. The primary analysis, comparing vaginal dryness symptoms in the collective pilocarpine arms against the placebo arm, did not reveal any benefit for the pilocarpine treatment. This finding was confirmed by other secondary analyses. Toxicity evaluation revealed more nausea, sweating, rigors, and urinary frequency with the pilocarpine arms compared with the placebo arm.

  16. Dryness Indices Based on Remotely Sensed Vegetation and Land Surface Temperature for Evaluating the Soil Moisture Status in Cropland-Forest-Dominant Watersheds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heewon Moon and Minha Choi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI was derived from the relationship between remotely sensed vegetation indices and land surface temperature (TS in this study for assessing the soil moisture status at regional scale in South Korea. The Leaf Area Index (LAI is newly applied in this method to overcome the increasing uncertainty of using the Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI at high vegetation conditions. Both dryness indices were found to be well correlated with in situ soil moisture and 8-day average precipitation at most of the in situ measurement sites. The dryness indices accuracy was found to be influenced by rainfall events. An average correlation coefficient was improved from -0.253 to -0.329 when LAI was used instead of NDVI in calculating the TVDI. In the spatial analysis between the dryness indices and Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT surface soil moisture (SSM using geographically weighted regression (GWR, the results showed the average negative correlation (R between the variables, while LAI-induced TVDI was more strongly correlated with SSM on average with the R value improved from -0.59 to -0.62. Both dryness indices and ASCAT SSM mappings generally showed coherent patterns under low vegetation and dry conditions. Based on these results, the LAI-induced TVDI accuracy as an index for soil moisture status was validated and found appropriate for use as an alternative and complementary method for NDVI-induced TVDI.

  17. Accuracy of the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index using MODIS under water-limited vs. energy-limited evapotranspiration conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garcia, Monica; Fernández, N.; Villagarcía, L.

    2014-01-01

    water is the main control in dryland ecosystems, these can also undergo periods of energy and temperature limitation. In this paper we aimed to: (i) evaluate the TVDI (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index) to estimate water deficits (e.g. ratio between actual and potential evapotranspiration), and heat......Water deficit indices based on the spatial relationship between surface temperature (Ts) and NDVI, known as triangle approaches, are widely used for drought monitoring. However, their application has been recently questioned when the main factor limiting evapotranspiration is energy. Even though...... surface fluxes using MODIS data; and (ii) provide insights about the factors most affecting the accuracy of results. Factors considered included the type of climatic control on evapotranspiration, λE, (i.e. water-limited vs. energy-limited), the quality of Tair estimates, the heterogeneity of land cover...

  18. A New Two-Stage Approach to predicting the soil water characteristic from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup Jensen, Dan; Tuller, Markus; de Jonge, Lis Wollesen

    2015-01-01

    The present study proposes a new two-step approach to prediction of the continuous soil water characteristic (SWC) from saturation to oven-dryness from a limited number of measured textural data, organic matter content and dry bulk density. The approach combines dry- and wet-region functions...... to pore size fractions and utilizes the capillary rise equation to predict water content and matric potential pairs. Twenty-one Arizona source soils with clay and organic carbon contents ranging from 0.01 to 0.52 kg kg−1 and 0 to 0.07 kg kg−1, respectively, were used for the model development. The SWCs...... to obtain the entire SWC by means of parameterizing a previously developed continuous equation. The dry region function relates gravimetric soil fractions to adsorptive forces and the corresponding water adsorbed to soil particles. The wet region function converts the volumetric particle size fractions...

  19. Regular use of a hand cream can attenuate skin dryness and roughness caused by frequent hand washing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kampf Günter

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Aim of the study was to determine the effect of the regular use of a hand cream after washing hands on skin hydration and skin roughness. Methods Twenty-five subjects washed hands and forearms with a neutral soap four times per day, for 2 minutes each time, for a total of two weeks. One part of them used a hand cream after each hand wash, the others did not (cross over design after a wash out period of two weeks. Skin roughness and skin hydration were determined on the forearms on days 2, 7, 9 and 14. For skin roughness, twelve silicon imprint per subject and time point were taken from the stratum corneum and assessed with a 3D skin analyzer for depth of the skin relief. For skin hydration, five measurements per subject and time point were taken with a corneometer. Results Washing hands lead to a gradual increase of skin roughness from 100 (baseline to a maximum of 108.5 after 9 days. Use of a hand cream after each hand wash entailed a decrease of skin roughness which the lowest means after 2 (94.5 and 14 days (94.8. Skin hydration was gradually decreased after washing hands from 79 (baseline to 65.5 after 14 days. The hand wash, followed by use of a hand cream, still decreased skin hydration after 2 days (76.1. Over the next 12 days, however, skin hydration did not change significantly (75.6 after 14 days. Conclusion Repetitive and frequent hand washing increases skin dryness and roughness. Use of a hand cream immediately after each hand wash can confine both skin dryness and skin roughness. Regular use of skin care preparations should therefore help to prevent both dry and rough skin among healthcare workers in clinical practice.

  20. 治疗内燥莫忘温阳%Importance of Warming Yang in the Treatment of Endogenous Dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔民英

    2015-01-01

    “内燥”一词为清代医家提出,并认为其病机主要是脏腑阴液不足,内燥的治法遵循《素问·至真要大论》“燥者濡之”的原则,多以滋阴养血为主,但是临床上往往见到滋阴润燥之法难以取效的情况,笔者在治疗内燥证时发现,此类患者或因过用寒凉滋腻之品,或贪凉饮冷无度,以至于脾肾阳气耗损,或因素体阳虚,以至于阳虚不能蒸化津液,导致津液不得布散,每多上燥下寒或者上热下寒之证,根据《素问·至真要大论》中记载的“燥淫于内,治以苦温,佐以甘辛,以苦下之”治疗原则,运用温阳降火之剂治疗内燥,取得了较好的疗效。因此对燥证治疗源流及温阳法治疗内燥证的理论依据进行了阐述,并通过临床实例,对温阳法治疗内燥证加以具体的说明。%Endogenous dryness is put forward by the medical masters in the Qing dynasty and its pathogenesis is mainly relevant with insufficiency of yin of zangfu organs. The treatment should comply with the principle as“nourishing for dryness”mentioned in Suwen:Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun(Plain Question:Chapter 74). Nourishing yin and blood is the common principle in treatment,but the efficacy is seldom achieved in clinical practice. The writer discovered in the treatment that the patients were of consumption or damage of spleen and kidney yang qi due to cold and sticky food or overeating cold food,or were of yang deficiency con-stitution. Yang deficiency fails to evaporate body fluid,resulting in the dispersion of body fluid and the upper dryness and lower coldness or the upper heat and lower cold syndrome commonly. According to the record in Suwen:Zhi Zhen Yao Da Lun(Plain Question:Chapter 74),the herbs,bitter in flavor and warm in nature should be used and combined with those sweat and pungent in flavor. The good efficacy had been achieved by the formula for warming yang and reducing fire. In the paper

  1. Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900–2010: its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Xystrakis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894–2010, were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values or below (negative values the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyze the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence and meteorological extremes, we proceeded with a cross-tabulation analysis based on a Monte Carlo randomization. Positive/negative values of total annual precipitation were randomly associated with the corresponding values of burned areas, and significant associations were observed for seasonal precipitation totals (spring and fire season. Fire season precipitation is the dominant factor coinciding with negative values of area burned, while years with high spring precipitation coincide with large burnt area burned. These results demonstrate the dual role of precipitation in controlling a fire's extent through fuel build-up and dryness. Additionally, there is a clear outperformance of precipitation-related against temperature-related weather variables revealing that, at least in Greece, fire spread is controlled by precipitation totals rather than air temperature.

  2. Double Vortex Measurement of Saturated Steam Dryness%双涡街法测量饱和蒸汽干度研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜义朋; 王为民; 周立峰; 张纯静; 王庆; 汪笑楠; 李思宁; 刘杰

    2013-01-01

    The steam injection thermal recovery is key method to develop heavy oil fields. The recovery efficiency of this method mainly depends on the dryness fraction of steam. In the situation of injecting the same quantity of steam, the dryness fraction of steam is higher, the recovery efficiency and oil/gas ratio are higher. Only saturated steam with higher dryness fraction has driving effect on heavy oil. However, if the dryness fraction is too high, a lot of salt in the water will attach on inner wall of the boiler, which can reduce thermal efficiency of the boiler,even affect safe run of the boiler. If the dryness fraction of steam is too low, it will be lower when reaching the bottom of well through pipeline,and the steam will not effectively drive the heavy oil layer. So to measure the dryness fraction of saturated steam accurately and timely is very important. But there is still not dryness measurer for the practical engineer at home and abroad at present. In order to solve the problem, the measurement method of dryness fraction of steam based on double vortex street has been put forward.%  注汽热采是稠油油田开采的主要手段,此方法开采的效率主要取决于蒸汽干度的高低。经研究表明,在注入相同的蒸汽量的情况下,蒸汽的干度越大,采收率越大,油汽比越高。只有较高干度值的饱和蒸汽才能对稠油有很强的驱动效果。但是干度太高,会使注汽锅炉水中的盐份大量附着在炉墙壁上,致使锅炉结垢,降低锅炉的热效率,甚至危及锅炉的运行安全;干度太低,通过管道传送到井底后干度就更低了,无法有效驱动稠油层,达不到开采稠油目的。可见,对饱和蒸汽的干度值进行实时、准确测量具有重要意义。然而,现今国内外仍无工程上实用的干度仪,使其具有实时测量、准确度高、寿命长、造价低的性能,针对此问题提出了基于双涡街联合法测量湿饱和蒸汽干度的方法。

  3. Ultra-pure soft water ameliorates atopic skin disease by preventing metallic soap deposition in NC/Tnd mice and reduces skin dryness in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Akane; Matsuda, Akira; Jung, Kyungsook; Jang, Hyosun; Ahn, Ginnae; Ishizaka, Saori; Amagai, Yosuke; Oida, Kumiko; Arkwright, Peter D; Matsuda, Hiroshi

    2015-09-01

    Mineral ions in tap water react with fatty acids in soap, leading to the formation of insoluble precipitate (metallic soap) on skin during washing. We hypothesised that metallic soap might negatively alter skin conditions. Application of metallic soap onto the skin of NC/Tnd mice with allergic dermatitis further induced inflammation with elevation of plasma immunoglobulin E and proinflammatory cytokine expression. Pruritus and dryness were ameliorated when the back of mice was washed with soap in Ca2+- and Mg2+-free ultra-pure soft water (UPSW). Washing in UPSW, but not tap water, also protected the skin of healthy volunteers from the soap deposition. Furthermore, 4 weeks of showering with UPSW reduced dryness and pruritus of human subjects with dry skin. Washing with UPSW may be therapeutically beneficial in patients with skin troubles.

  4. 1873-2005年上海干湿变化%Observed dryness and wetness variability in Shanghai during 1873-2005

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张增信; 张强; 张金池; 邹兰军; 江剑民

    2009-01-01

    Dryness and wetness variations on different time scales in Shanghai were analyzed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) based on monthly precipitation data for 1873-2005. The SPI on scales of 3, 6, 12 and 24 months has been calculated. The SPI on 3, 6, 12 and 24 months present 4 wet periods prevailed during 1873-1885, 1904-1923, 1938-1960 and 1983-2005, and 3 dry episodes during 1888-1903, 1924-1937 and 1961-1982. Significant periods of higher wavelet power in the SPI-24 months occurred on the time scales of 2-7-year band in around 1880-1890, 1910-1950 and 1970-1990, and at 8-15-year band in 1920-1960 and 1965-2000 respectively. Periodicities in the SOI and ENSO indices are similar to those in SPI-24 months with little difference, namely, in the SPI-24 months, there are significant periods at the 2-7- and 8-15-year bands during 1930-1940. The periodicity components in individual SPI-24 months, SOI and ENSO indices are more complicated, showing the wetness and dryness variability in Shanghai is controlled by more than one physical factors. The research results indicate that the Shanghai area has experienced dryness and wetness variability on different time scales during the past 133 years.

  5. Skin irritation and dryness associated with two hand-hygiene regimens: soap-and-water hand washing versus hand antisepsis with an alcoholic hand gel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, J M; Kelliher, S; Vallande, N

    2000-07-01

    To compare the frequency of skin irritation and dryness associated with using an alcoholic-hand-gel regimen for hand antisepsis versus using soap and water for hand washing. Prospective randomized trial with crossover design. Irritation and dryness of nurses' hands were evaluated by self-assessment and by visual assessment by a study nurse. Epidermal water content of the dorsal surface of nurses' hands was estimated by measuring electrical capacitance of the skin. Miriam Hospital, a 200-bed university-affiliated teaching hospital. Thirty-two nurses working on three hospital wards participated in the trial, which lasted 6 weeks. Self-assessment scores of skin irritation and dryness decreased slightly during the 2 weeks when nurses used the alcoholic-hand-gel regimen (mean baseline score, 2.72; mean final score, 2.0; P=.08) but increased substantially during the 2 weeks when nurses used soap and water (mean baseline score, 2.0; mean final score, 4.8; Phand-gel regimen was used (mean baseline and final scores were both 0.55), but scores increased substantially when nurses used soap and water (baseline score, 0.59; mean final score, 1.21; P=.05). Epidermal water content of the dorsal surface of nurses' hands changed little when the alcoholic-hand-gel regimen was used (mean+/-standard deviation baseline electrical capacitance reading, 24.8+/-6.8; mean final reading, 25.7+/-7.3), but decreased significantly (skin became dryer) with soap-and-water hand washing (mean baseline, 25.9+/-7.5; mean final reading, 20.5+/-5.4; P=.0003). Hand antisepsis with an alcoholic-hand-gel regimen was well tolerated and did not result in skin irritation and dryness of nurses' hands. In contrast, skin irritation and dryness increased significantly when nurses washed their hands with the unmedicated soap product available in the hospital. Newer alcoholic hand gels that are tolerated better than soap may be more acceptable to staff and may lead to improved hand-hygiene practices.

  6. Establishment of Climacteric Hypertension Dryness Syndrome Model in Rats%更年期高血压燥证大鼠模型的构建

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    葛丽; 林雪; 李鸿霞

    2015-01-01

    Objective To explore the method of the establishment of climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model in rats.Methods A total of 12 female spontaneously hypertensive rats ( SHR) were selected as study subjects from January to March in 2014, SHR were randomly divided into climacteric hypertension group and climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group , there were 6 rats in each group.The bilateral ovaries of rats were removed by surgery , thus climacteric hypertension rats were obtained.Rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group were placed in artificial dryness syndrome environment, and were fed with food from northwest area which may cause dryness syndrome.The biological characteristics (coat color, mental state, degrees of excitement, food intake, water intake, body mass, characters of urine and stool, tongue picture, claws picture), serum levels of neurotransmitters 〔corticotropin -releasing hormone ( CRH), adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), 5 -hydroxytryptamine (5 -HT)〕 and hormones 〔estradiol (E2), testosterone ( T)〕, and histological changes of organs ( liver, spleen, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus ) were observed and recorded.Results Compared with rats in climacteric hypertension group , the body mass and urine volume were significantly decreased , and water intake was significantly increased among rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group, the differences were statistically significant ( P 0.05) .Compared with rats in climacteric hypertension group, serum levels of E2 and T were significantly decreased , and E2/T was significantly increased among rats in climacteric hypertension dryness syndrome model group , the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05) .The significant histological changes of liver , spleen, adrenal gland, and hypothalamus were observed among two groups of rats.Conclusion The artificial dryness syndrome environment , food from

  7. Precipitation dominates fire occurrence in Greece (1900-2010): its dual role in fuel build-up and dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xystrakis, F.; Kallimanis, A. S.; Dimopoulos, P.; Halley, J. M.; Koutsias, N.

    2014-01-01

    Historical fire records and meteorological observations spanning over one century (1894-2010) were assembled in a database to collect long-term fire and weather data in Greece. Positive/negative events of fire occurrence on an annual basis were considered as the years where the annual values of the examined parameters were above (positive values) or below (negative values) the 95% confidence limits around the trend line of the corresponding parameter. To analyse the association of positive/negative events of fire occurrence with meteorological extremes, we proceeded with a cross-tabulation analysis based on a Monte Carlo randomization. Positive/negative values of total annual precipitation were randomly associated with the corresponding values of burned areas, and significant associations were observed for seasonal precipitation totals (spring and fire season). Fire season precipitation is the dominant factor coinciding with negative values of area burned, while years with high spring precipitation coincide with years with large areas burned. These results demonstrate the dual role of precipitation in controlling a fire's extent through fuel build-up and dryness. Additionally, there is a clear outperformance of precipitation-related variables compared with temperature-related weather revealing that, at least in Greece, total area burned at the national scale is controlled by precipitation totals rather than air temperature. This analysis improves our understanding of the underlying mechanisms of fire regimes and provides valuable information concerning the development of models relating fire activity to weather parameters, which are essential when facing a changing climate that may be associated with shifts in various aspects of the typical fire regimes of ecosystems. Our results may allow fire managers to more easily incorporate the effect of extreme weather conditions into long-term planning strategies. They contribute to the exploration of fire

  8. Associations between oral and ocular dryness, labial and whole salivary flow rates, systemic diseases and medications in a sample of older people

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smidt, Dorte; Torpet, Lis Andersen; Nauntofte, Birgitte

    2011-01-01

    to the Anatomical therapeutic chemical (ATC) classification system), tobacco and alcohol consumption were registered, and unstimulated labial (LS) and unstimulated (UWS) and chewing-stimulated (SWS) whole salivary flow rates were measured in 668 randomly selected community-dwelling elderly aged 65–95. Results...... number of diseases and medications, but neither with age and gender per se nor with tobacco and alcohol consumption. New detailed information concerning associations between medications and oral and ocular dryness has been obtained using the ATC classification system....

  9. 影响注汽干度的可控因素研究%On Controllable Factors Influencing the Dryness of Steam

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林惠春

    2014-01-01

    According to the law of conservation of energy, the dryness of steam is influenced by the thermal efficiency of boiler, fuel consumption, boiler feed water and so on. In the actual operation of steam injection boiler field, some of these factors can be controlled, and others are not controllable. The controllable factors can be controlled through the methods of reducing the temperature of exhaust gas of steam boiler, controlling excess air coefficient, increasing the water temperature, regulating the water supply and fuel supply of steam boiler, then the dryness of steam could be efficiently controlled and promoted.%根据能量守恒定律,蒸汽干度受锅炉热效率、燃料消耗量、锅炉给水量等多种因素影响。现场注汽锅炉实际运行中,其中有些因素是可控的,而有些因素则不可控。针对可控因素,采用降低注汽锅炉排烟温度、控制过剩空气系数、提高注汽锅炉给水温度、调节锅炉供水量、燃料供应量等方法,可以有效控制或提高蒸汽干度。

  10. Influence of Soil Management on Water Retention from Saturation to Oven Dryness and Dominant Soil Water States in a Vertisol under Crop Rotation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderlinden, Karl; Pachepsky, Yakov; Pederera, Aura; Martinez, Gonzalo; Espejo, Antonio Jesus; Giraldez, Juan Vicente

    2014-05-01

    Unique water transfer and retention properties of Vertisols strongly affect their use in rainfed agriculture in water-limited environments. Despite the agricultural importance of the hydraulic properties of those soils, water retention data dryer than the wilting point are generally scarce, mainly as a result of practical constraints of traditional water retention measurement methods. In this work we provide a detailed description of regionalized water retention data from saturation to oven dryness, obtained from 54 minimally disturbed topsoil (0-0.05m) samples collected at a 3.5-ha experimental field in SW Spain where conventional tillage (CT) and direct drilling (DD) is compared in a wheat-sunflower-legume crop rotation on a Vertisol. Water retention was measured from saturation to oven dryness using sand and sand-kaolin boxes, a pressure plate apparatus and a dew point psychrometer, respectively. A common shape of the water retention curve (WRC) was observed in both tillage systems, with a strong discontinuity in its slope near -0.4 MPa and a decreasing spread from the wet to the dry end. A continuous function, consisting of the sum of a double exponential model (Dexter et al, 2008) and the Groenevelt and Grant (2004) model could be fitted successfully to the data. Two inflection points in the WRC were interpreted as boundaries between the structural and the textural pore spaces and between the textural and the intra-clay aggregate pore spaces. Water retention was significantly higher in DD (pdry water content states. References Dexter, A.R., E.A. Czyż, G. Richard, A. Reszkowska, 2008. A user-friendly water retention function that takes account of the textural and structural pore spaces in soil. Geoderma, 143:243-253. Groenevelt, P.A., C.D. Grant, 2004. A new model for the soil-water retention curve that solves the problem of residual water contents. Eur. J. Soil Sci. 55:479-485.

  11. 浅析“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之”%A brief analysis of “The kidney tends to suffer from dryness,which can be moistened by pungent flavor ”

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕艳; 刘微英; 李晓君

    2015-01-01

    “The kidney tends to suffer from dryness,which can be moistened by pungent flavor”comes from Discussion on the Association of the Visceral Qi with the Four Seasons of Plain Questions.In the au-thor’s view,“the dryness of kidney”is the pathological condition which is caused by the deficiency of kidney yang,failing in transformation of qi,so the fluid in the body cannot be generated and transported normally.The pungent flavor can contribute to the running of qi and opening the barrier of the skin,so that it can scatter enough water to moisten the dryness due to poor running of qi and body fluid natural transportation obstacle.%“肾苦燥,急食辛以润之”出自《素问·脏气法时论篇》。“肾燥”,是肾阳虚蒸腾气化失常,津液不得布散、运行不畅所致的病理状态。辛味(药物等)可以通达气机,宣发腠理,布津敷液,以治气机运行不畅、津液输布障碍之“燥”。

  12. 近55年来四川盆地气候的干湿变化趋势分析%Climatic Variations of Dryness and Wetness in Sichuan Basin during 1955-2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘劲龙; 徐刚; 杨娟; 张强

    2013-01-01

    通过对四川盆地18个站点1955-2009年降水和气温等资料计算得到近55年来的湿润度指数,并运用趋势系数、气候倾向率和Mann Kendall趋势检验等方法对四川盆地近55年的气候干湿变化趋势进行分析.研究结果显示,在空间分布上,四川盆地由西向东其气候变化趋势由变干趋势逐渐转为变湿趋势,但干湿差异并不显著;在时间变化趋势上,四川盆地气候在总体上没有呈现显著的变干或变湿趋势;乐山、绵阳、成都和宜宾在60年代后呈现变干趋势,并且在1966年、1993年、1997年和2001年存在气候的突变现象,达州和沙坪坝则呈现较显著的变湿趋势.四川盆地干湿气候变化主要是受降水和日照时数两个气象要素的影响.%According to the climate data (precipitation and temperature) of 18 meteorological stations in Sichuan Basin from 1955 to 2009, the relative moisture index is calculated, and the variations of dryness and wetness in the basin in the recent 55 years are analyzed with Climate Trend Coefficient and Mann-Kendall test. The results of the study show that, spatially, the variation of climate changes is characterized by a transition from dryness to wetness from west to east in Sichuan Basin, but the difference is not significant and, temporarily, the dryness or wetness in Sichuan Basin is steady, except for that in Leshan, Mianyang, Chengdu and Yibin the climate showed a significant tendency to dryness from 1960s, and there were sudden changes in 1966, 1993, 1997 and 2001. Oppositely, the climate in Dazhou and Shapingba became significantly wetter in this period. The climate change of dryness and wetness in Sichuan Basin is primarily influenced by the two meteorological factors of regional precipitation and sunshine hours.

  13. Mouth Dryness or Thick Saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... acidic drinks, and tobacco. Limit caffeine intake, from coffee, tea, energy drinks, and caffeinated soft drinks. Use ... Email Policies Our Volunteers More ACS Sites Bookstore Shop Cancer Atlas Press Room Cancer Statistics Center Volunteer ...

  14. The Difoprev® system in treatment of the skin of the elderly: preliminary data obtained in patients with dryness and hyperkeratosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aluigi L

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Leonardo AluigiCenter and School of Echography, Department of Internal Medicine, Maggiore Hospital, Bologna, ItalyBackground: Aging brings with it a number of structural and functional modifications of the skin and adnexa, particularly in the lower extremities, which may determine a gradual reduction in elasticity, with associated functional alterations which may determine preulcerative lesions. The aim of this study was to test the efficacy of the Difoprev® system, consisting in a sock functioning as a vehicle for microcapsules containing moisturizing agents (Pseudoalteromonas ferment extract, a glycoprotein synthesized by the bacterium, Pseudoalteromonas antarctica NF3. The system is already widely used for cutaneous treatment in cases of neuropathic diabetic foot, and in prevention/treatment of dryness and hyperkeratosis of the skin of the lower extremities in elderly persons (shin/foot.Methodology: Sixteen patients aged >70 years (group A were treated with the Difoprev® system for 8 weeks. This group was compared with 8 patients of the same age (group B who wore the same type of sock without microcapsules. Following initial assessment at the time of recruitment, the patients underwent controls at 15, 30, and 60 days to assess the degree of hydration of the skin derived from an objective evaluation of degree of keratosis according to an arbitrary scale of seriousness ranging from 1 (absent to 4 (marked. The changes were rated according to a scale ranging from 1 (no improvement to 5 (marked improvement. A comparative study of all cases was conducted by means of photographs taken as the treatment commenced and on termination of treatment.Results: Most patients treated with Difoprev® presented a reduction in the degree of keratosis of the skin (90%, of whom 15% had marked improvement, compared to the patients who wore only the sock with no microcapsules (10% with slight improvement. None of the patients undergoing Difoprev® system treatment

  15. Vaginal Testosterone Cream vs Estradiol Vaginal Ring for Vaginal Dryness or Decreased Libido in Women Receiving Aromatase Inhibitors for Early-Stage Breast Cancer: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melisko, Michelle E; Goldman, Mindy E; Hwang, Jimmy; De Luca, Amy; Fang, Sally; Esserman, Laura J; Chien, Amy J; Park, John W; Rugo, Hope S

    2017-03-01

    Aromatase inhibitors (AI) are associated with significant urogenital atrophy, affecting quality of life and drug compliance. To evaluate safety of intravaginal testosterone cream (IVT) or an estradiol-releasing vaginal ring (7.5 μg/d) in patients with early-stage breast cancer (BC) receiving an AI. Intervention was considered unsafe if more than 25% of patients had persistent elevation in estradiol (E2), defined as E2 greater than 10 pg/mL (to convert to pmol/L, multiply by 3.671) and at least 10 pg/mL above baseline after treatment initiation on 2 consecutive tests at least 2 weeks apart. Postmenopausal (PM) women with hormone receptor (HR)-positive stage I to III BC taking AIs with self-reported vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, or decreased libido were randomized to 12 weeks of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring. Estradiol was measured at baseline and weeks 4 and 12 using a commercially available liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry assay; follicle-stimulating hormone levels were measured at baseline and week 4. Gynecologic examinations and sexual quality-of-life questionnaires were completed at baseline and week 12. This randomized noncomparative design allowed safety evaluation of 2 interventions concurrently in the same population of patients, reducing the possibility of E2 assay variability over time and between the 2 interventions. The primary objective of this trial was to evaluate safety of IVT or an estradiol vaginal ring in patients with early-stage BC receiving an AI; secondary objectives included evaluation of adverse events, changes in sexual quality of life using the Cancer Rehabilitation Evaluation System sexuality subscales, changes in vaginal atrophy using a validated 4-point scale, and comparison of E2 levels. Overall, 76 women signed consent (mean [range] age, 56 [37-78] years), 75 started treatment, and 69 completed 12 weeks of treatment. Mean (range) baseline E2 was 20 (10 pg/mL) in 28 of 76 women (37%). Persistent E2 elevation was

  16. 中医辨证分型论治阴道干涩症60例的临床观察%Syndrome Differentiation on Treatment of Vaginal Dryness Clinical Observation of 60 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任爱玲

    2013-01-01

    目的:观察中医辨证分型论治阴道干涩症的临床疗效.方法:通过中医辨证将本病分为肝郁脾虚型、肾阴虚型、肾阳虚型、阴阳两虚型,临床入选60例病例进行临床治疗观察,分别给予相应方药,连服2个月为1个疗程.结果:本组60例,痊愈21例;显效15例;有效19例;无效5例;总有效率91.7%.治疗后在消除、缓解阴道干涩、性交疼痛等主症,改善阴道健康状态和萎缩指数变化等方面有较为明显变化.结论:中医辨证治疗阴道干涩有较好疗效,值得临床进一步探讨和推广应用.%Objective:To observe traditional Chinese medicine syndrome diffierentiation on treatwemt of reginal dryness.Methods:Diagnosis and Treatment by Chinese medicine syndromes are divided into stagnation and spleen deficiency,kidney,kidney yang,yin and yang deficiency type.Clinical selected 60 cases of vaginal dryness in patients with clinical observation,were given the appropriate herbs,and even served two months of a course of treatment.Results:21 cases was cured,15 cases sufficient,in 19 cases effective,5 cases ineffective,total efficiency was 91.7%.After treatment in the elimination,relieve the main symptoms of vaginal dryness,painful intercourse,improve vaginal health status and atrophy index change more obvious.Conclusion:Confirmed that Chinese medicine treatment of vaginal dryness has a good effect,and is worthy of further discussion and application.

  17. It’s more than dryness and fatigue: The patient perspective on health-related quality of life in Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome - A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lackner, Angelika; Ficjan, Anja; Stradner, Martin H.; Hermann, Josef; Unger, Julia; Stamm, Tanja; Stummvoll, Georg; Dür, Mona; Graninger, Winfried B.; Dejaco, Christian

    2017-01-01

    Objectives In Primary Sjögren’s Syndrome (PSS), there is an apparent lack of data concerning the perspectives of patients, their needs, preferences and difficulties of daily life. This qualitative study was conducted to explore perspectives and needs of patients with PSS that influence health related quality of life (HRQL). Methods We recruited 20 PSS patients fulfilling the American-European consensus classification criteria out of the PSS cohort of the Medical University Graz, Austria. In total, 6 focus group sessions (with three to four patients per group) were performed. A modified meaning condensation procedure was used to analyse the data. Results The interview analysis resulted in 484 meaning units, 254 subconcepts and 86 concepts. The identified concepts were grouped into three dimensions: physical dimension, psychological & emotional challenges and social life & daily living. A dependency between the three categories was identified. The concepts most commonly reported by patients were related to the physical dimension: pain and dryness as well as complaints associated with/provoked by these symptoms. Patients also reported shortness of breath, fatigue und constipation. Conclusions This qualitative study underpins that HRQL in PSS patients is affected by several factors. The problems are not limited to dryness, pain and fatigue while the complaints secondary to these symptoms are important to patients with PSS significantly affecting physical, psychological and social life components of HRQL. A disease-specific patient related outcome measures for clinical practice and trials should be developed considering the different aspects of HRQL in PSS. PMID:28182787

  18. Effect of Wellhead Injection Parameters on the Bottom of the Hot Steam Dryness%井口注汽参数对井底热蒸汽干度的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦健飞; 赵琳

    2015-01-01

    向地层中注入热蒸汽是开发稠油油藏最有效的方式之一。注蒸汽过程中,伴随着水蒸汽压力、温度的不断变化,水蒸汽变为气液两相流体,蒸汽干度、密度、粘度等参数也随之发生改变。本文应用Beggs-Brill方法计算注蒸汽过程中井筒压力场的分布,结合井筒传热模型计算了注入蒸汽到达井底时的蒸汽干度,并研究了井口注入参数,如注入蒸汽质量流量、注入压力、注入蒸汽干度对井底蒸汽干度的影响。结果表明,在注汽过程中应选用较大的注入速度、较低的井口注入压力和较高的井口干度,这样不仅可以降低注蒸汽过程中的热损失,提高井底蒸汽干度,还能缩短注蒸汽过程,提高注热效率。%Hot steam injected into the formation to develop heavy oil reservoirs is one of the most effec-tive ways.With the water vapor pressure and temperature changing,the steam dryness,density,viscosity and many other parameters changed as well.In this paper,Beggs-Brill method and Ramey model are ap-plied to calculate the parameters in the bottom of the well.It shows that,choosing the higher inj ection rate,the lower inj ection pressure and the higher steam dryness is benefit for the steam inj ection process. In this way,the bottom steam dryness will be improved and can short the steam inj ection process,improve the thermal efficiency of inj ection.

  19. 双V锥组合测量饱和湿蒸汽的干度及流量研究%Research on Measurement of Saturated Wet Steam Dryness and Flow Rate by Double V-cone System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张纯静

    2014-01-01

    Aiming at the problem of steam dryness and flow measurement, two V-cones with different structure and nature were combined together, and then the double V-cone system was established to carry out the field test. The double V-cone system was used to measure the steam parameters of boiler with capacity of 15 ~18 t/h and the dry degree of 55%~80%. And the steam dryness of boiler outlet was determined by artificial test, and the test data were analyzed in detail. The results show that the relative error of the measuring device is within 4%, the flow error is within 3%, the measuring device can be used in field measurement.%针对蒸汽干度、流量的测量问题,提出将两个结构特性不同的V锥测量元件组合在一起,建立双V锥组合体进行测量,并进行了现场试验,利用“双V锥”测量了锅炉排量为15~18 t/h、干度为55%~80%时蒸汽的参数,并对锅炉出口干度进行人工化验,经过对试验数据的详细分析,得出该装置测量蒸汽干度的相对误差都在4%之内、流量的相对误差都在3%之内,测量装置可应用于现场测量。

  20. 基于ECHAM5模式预估2050年前中国旱涝格局趋势%Patterns of Dryness/Wetness in China Before 2050 Projected by the ECHAM5 Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟建青; 曾小凡; 苏布达; 姜彤

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated future spatial distribution of dryness/wetness in China during the first 50 years of 21 st century according to standardized precipitation index (SPI) which was calculated from the monthly precipitation data projected by the ECHAM5/MPI-OM climate model under the SRES-A2 (high emission), SRES-A1B (mediate emission) and SRES-B 1 (low emission) scenarios ofanthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions. The results show that the projected dryness/wetness pattern in the future 50 years under the SRES-A2 scenario is similar to the observed one in 1961-2000, i.e. there is a SW-NE oriented drought belt from Southwest China to Northeast China; but the projected patterns under the SRES-A 1B and SRES-B 1 scenarios are different, especially under the SRES-B 1 scenario, a north-wetness-south-dryness pattern was projected. The area of drought was projected to weakly increase under the SRES-A2 scenario but to decline under the SRES-A 1B and SRES-B 1 scenarios. Spatial distributions of the frequency of droughts were also projected to be different from each other.%利用ECHAM5/MPI-OM气候模式输出的2001-2050年逐月降水量资料,考虑IPCC采用的3种排放情景(A2:温室气体高排放情景;A1B:温室气体中排放情景;B1:温室气体低排放情景),计算其标准化降水指数,分析了中国2050年前3种排放情景下的旱涝格局.结果表明:3种情景下旱涝趋势空间分布不同,其中A2情景下旱涝格局同1961-2000年观测到的旱涝格局相似,均存在一条由东北向西南的干旱带;而A1B和B1情景下旱涝格局则发生了很大的变化,尤其B1情景下出现了"北涝南旱"的格局.未来50 a干旱面积在A2情景下呈略增加趋势;A1B和B1情景下为减少趋势.3种情景下干旱频率的空间分布也各不相同.

  1. 橡胶树胶乳死皮相关蛋白的鉴定及分析%Identification and Analysis of Latex Proteins Related to Tapping Panel Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁坤; 徐智娟; 王真辉; 杨礼富

    2012-01-01

    XTapping panel dryness (TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis is a complex physiological syndrome and it seriously limits the increase of natural rubber production. In order to separate and identify the proteins closely correlated with TPD in H. brasiliensis, the proteomes from healthy and TPD trees were compared by 2-DE. 1 158 + 25 and 1 173 + 30 protein spots were observed in the protein profiles of healthy and TPD trees respectively. Among them, 54 protein spots were expressed differentially. Subjected to MALDI-TOF-MS and database searching, 16 proteins were identified successfully. Some of them, such as the glyc-eraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH), purple acid phosphatase (PAP), dynamin-related protein (DRP) , enolase and small rubber particle protein (SRPP) , might play key roles in the process of TPD occurance. The current study will provide theoretical bases for further elucidating the mechanism underlying TPD in H. brasiliensis at the molecular level.%橡胶树死皮(tapping panel dryness,TPD)是一种复杂的生理综合症,严重制约了天然橡胶产量的提高.为了分离鉴定橡胶树胶乳中与死皮发生密切相关的蛋白,采用双向电泳技术(2-DE)比较了其健康树和死皮树胶乳蛋白质组的差异.结果显示,在健康树和死皮树蛋白图谱上分别检测到1 158±25和1 173±30个蛋白点,其中54个蛋白点差异表达.经基质辅助激光解吸电离飞行时间质谱(MALDI-TOF-MS)分析和数据库检索后,成功鉴定16个蛋白,这些蛋白中的3-磷酸甘油醛脱氢酶、紫色酸性磷酸酶、动力相关蛋白、烯醇酶以及小橡胶粒子蛋白等可能在死皮发生过程中具有关键作用.为从分子水平上阐明橡胶树死皮发生机制提供了一定的理论依据.

  2. 橡胶树胶乳橡胶粒子死皮相关蛋白的鉴定及分析%Identification and analysis of latex rubber particle proteins related with tapping panel dryness in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁坤; 周雪梅; 王真辉; 杨礼富

    2014-01-01

    The tapping panel dryness ( TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis is one of the important factors influencing natural rub-ber production. In order to distinguish and identify the differentially expressed proteins of latex rubber particles in healthy and TPD trees, the two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) was used. 35 differentially expressed protein spots were ob-tained by software analysis. Subjecting to MALDI-TOF MS following by searching for Uniprot rubber database, 13 protein spots were successfully identified, Of them, REF, FPS, GPX, GR, TCTP and HSP were mainly involed in the rubber biosynthesis, reactive oxygen metabolism and cell apoptosis processes. This study further showed that the pathways of the rubber biosynthesis, reactive oxygen metabolism and cell apoptosis were possibly the key regulated ones of TPD and which would provide a theoretical basis for elucidating the TPD mechanism in Hevea brasiliensis.%橡胶树死皮是影响天然橡胶产量的重要因子之一。采用双向凝胶电泳对健康树和死皮树橡胶粒子中差异表达的蛋白进行分离,分析获得35个差异表达的蛋白点,通过基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI-TOF MS)分析及搜索Uniprot rubber数据库后,有13个蛋白点被成功鉴定,其中橡胶延长因子( rubber elongation factor,REF )、法尼基焦磷酸合成酶( Ffarnesyl-diphosphate synthase, FPS )、谷胱甘肽过氧化酶( glutathione peroxidase,GPX)、谷胱甘肽还原酶(glutathione reductase,GR)、翻译控制肿瘤蛋白(translationally controlled tumor protein,TCTP)、热激蛋白(heat shock protein, HSP)等主要蛋白参与了橡胶的生物合成、活性氧代谢及细胞凋亡过程。说明橡胶的生物合成、活性氧代谢及细胞凋亡途径可能是橡胶树死皮发生的关键调控途径。

  3. 云南橡胶树死皮病发生现状及田间分布研究%A Study on the Incidence of Tapping Panel Dryness and Field Distribution in Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏海鹏; 龙继明; 罗大全; 蒋桂芝; 杨焱; 刘昌芬

    2011-01-01

    At the same time with tapping, latex flow of rubber tree and distribution of TPD (tapping panel dryness) tree in different tapping year period and two clones were investigated in three locations in Yunnan Province. The result showed that the disease rate, disease index, and 7~9 degree rate (15. 99% , 11. 94, 7. 72% ) of 0 ~ 10 tapping year period were lower than those of 11 ~20 tapping age period (56.19%, 45.65, 37.26% ) and 21~25 tapping age period (54.19%, 46.39, 36. 59% ) . The average disease rate and average disease index of RRIM600 strain were lower than those of GT1. The analysis of the data indicated that a clustered distribution was more common in 11 ~ 20 and 21 ~25 tapping year period than that of 0 ~ 10 tapping age period. The longest band of TPD tree was 28 and 20 plants at 11 ~20 and 21~25 tapping age period respectively.%在胶工正常割胶时间,通过逐株观测橡胶树排胶动态的方法,调查了云南3个植胶区不同割龄段和不同品系橡胶树死皮病的发生现状及田间分布.结果表明:0~10割龄段的发病率、发病指数和7~9级株比例分别为15.99%,11.94,7.72%,均较11 ~20割龄段(分别为56.19%,45.65%,37.26%)和21~25割龄段(分别为54.19%,46.39,36.59%)的低;RRIM600品系的平均发病率和平均发病指数较GT1品系的略高;在0 ~ 10割龄段中,橡胶树死皮树大部分呈单株分布,而且,死皮树连续分布的条带较短,呈连续分布的橡胶树死皮树最高仅达8株(橄榄坝橡胶分公司,GT1品系),11~20割龄段,呈连续分布的橡胶树死皮树的比例较高,死皮树分布的条带最高长达28株,21~25割龄的橡胶树死皮树大部分呈连续分布,死皮树分布的条带最高长达20株(东风橡胶分公司,RRIM6000).

  4. Drought Monitoring by Remote Sensing over India and Pakistan Based on Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index%基于温度植被干旱指数的印度和巴基斯坦干旱监测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华; 张佳华; 夏学齐

    2016-01-01

    Drought has frequently been witnessed in the country due to various environmental changes such as rise in atmospheric pollution and climatic changes.Based on MOD13A3 and MOD11A2 data,the temperature vegetation dryness index (TVDI)model was constructed and verified.This study used MODIS data for many years during the same period over India and Pakistan to build the feature space of normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI)and land surface temperature (Ts),and fit dry and wet edge equations in the feature space.The TVDI was calculated over India and Pakistan of hot season (from March to May)from 2009 to 2014.In addition,the TVDI drought level standard is graded to analyze its temporal and spatial variation characteristics with using land use type and terrain data.TVDI is verified using the precipitation data from meteorological sites, and TVDI is contrasted with the standard precipitation index (SPI).The results show that:1)from the drought area statistics, the study region is mainly moderate drought,the area proportion of other grades is smaller;2)from the land use type,the land cover of entire district is good,the TVDI has certain rationality as drought evaluation index for study area;3 ) from meteorological sites,the inversion of TVDI from NDVI-Ts feature space and the total precipitation of the prophase and same period are closely related.%针对印度和巴基斯坦近年干旱频发的问题,该文使用温度植被干旱指数对印巴地区2009~2014年干季(3~5月)实现遥感干旱监测,利用多年同期 MODIS 卫星数据构建印巴地区归一化植被指数-陆地表面温度的特征空间,拟合特征空间中的干、湿边方程,进一步反演温度植被干旱指数,对该区土地利用和地形作了统计与分析,对温度植被干旱指数划分等级,并利用印巴气象站点的实测降水量以及标准降水指数进行验证。结果表明:1)从干旱等级面积统计来看,印巴地区干季主要

  5. 3个巴西橡胶树品种的死皮病调查%Tapping Panel Dryness Survey of Three Clones of Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艺坚; 刘进平

    2014-01-01

    A tapping panel dryness (TPD) survey of three clones of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. Arg.), Reyan 8-79, Reyan 7-33-97 and PR107, under the current tapping practices was conducted. The results showed that the incidence of TPD, the percentage of stopping tapping and disease index of all three clones at middle ages increased compared with those at young ages; the incidence of TPD and the percentage of stopping tapping of the three clones at young ages from large to small were as follows:Reyan 7-33-97 (after four tapping years), PR107(after six tapping years) and Reyan 8-79(after three tapping years), and those for the three clones at middle ages from large to small were as follows: PR107(after 15 tapping years)Reyan 7-33-97 (after eight tapping years), and Reyan 8-79(after 14 tapping years). Overall, the incidence of TPD and the percentage of stopping tapping of rubber trees at young ages planted in the plots with better soil fertility and rainwater condition which had high yield were relatively low, while those of rubber trees at middle ages planted in the plots with better soil fertility and rainwater condition which had high yield were relatively high but Reyan 7-33-97 is an exception. Of all TPD affected trees, a minority were brown bast(BB)type in which BB syndrome either appeared at the onset or developed from the TPD. Very low percentage (not exceeding 10%) of TPD affected trees were reversible after a rest period of at least one year with that of PR107 being highest and 8.70% TPD affected trees at young ages and 6.20% at middle ages of PR107 were recovered after a rest period, respectively.%在现有割胶制度下对巴西橡胶树3个品种(热研8-79、热研7-33-97、 PR107)的死皮病进行了调查。结果表明:这3个品种的幼龄树发病率和停割率从大到小依次为热研7-33-97(开割4年)> PR107(开割6年)>热研8-79(开割3年),中龄树发病率和停割率从大到小依次为 PR107(开割15年)>热研7-33-97(

  6. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of health claims related to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness (ID 4274) pursuant to Article 13(1) of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    Following a request from the European Commission, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies was asked to provide a scientific opinion on a list of health claims pursuant to Article 13 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006. This opinion addresses the scientific substantiation of health...... claims in relation to linoleic acid (LA) in combination with gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) and reduction of ocular dryness. The scientific substantiation is based on the information provided by the Member States in the consolidated list of Article 13 health claims and references that EFSA has received from...... Member States or directly from stakeholders. The food that is the subject of the health claims is linoleic acid in combination with gamma-linolenic acid. The Panel considers that the food constituents, linoleic acid and gamma-linolenic acid, are sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect is “ocular...

  7. 新疆高血压病中医症状、证型分析及其与西北燥证的关联研究%Analysis of TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and association study with northwest dryness syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 赵明芬; 荆晶; 张慧田; 毛丽旦·阿扎提

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To analyze the TCM symptoms and types of hypertension in Xinjiang area and correlation with northwest dryness syndrome (NDS). Methods: This study used methods of case-control, totally 249 hypertension cases group and 245 normal blood pressure cases control group. The hypertension cases group was analyzed with diagnostic assessment of hypertension patients, the questionnaire on TCM syndrome score and northwest dryness syndrome sore. The normal blood pressure control group was only analyzed with northwest dryness syndrome sore. The hypertension cases group was analyzed on the main symptoms and prevalence rate of NDS, and disease state scores and TCM syndrome indices were analyzed between dryness group and no-dryness group. Results: ①The main symptoms of the hypertension patients in Xinjiang area were vertigo, cephalalgia, palpitation, insomnia, soreness and weakness of waist and knee, etc. ②The incidence of NDS in the hypertension case group was 61.85%, higher than 14.69% in the normal blood pressure control group (P<0.01).③The score of pathological conditions of hypertension combining with NDS group was higher than no NDS group (P<0.01). ④Compared the indices of the TCM symptoms in two groups, the scores of TCM syndrome of excessive liver-fire and yin deficiency and yang hyperactivity in the hypertension with NDS group were higher than that of hypertension with no NDS group (P<0.01), while the difference was not significant in the excessive accumulation of phlegm-dampness syndrome and the deficiency syndrome of both yin and yang. Conclusion: There was a closed correlation between NDS and hypertension in Xinjiang area.%目的:探讨新疆高血压病中医症状证侯特点及其与西北燥证的相关关系.方法:采用问卷量表形式进行病例对照研究,共调查高血压病例组249例,正常血压对照组245例,对高血压病例组进行高血压诊断性评估、高血压中医证候类型调查及西北燥证计量评分,而对正

  8. 润燥止痒胶囊联合湿润烧伤膏治疗血虚风燥型湿疹的临床疗效观察%Clinical Efficacy Observation of Runzaozhiyang Capsule Combined with MEBO in Treating the Eczema of Blood Deficiency and Wind-dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘拥军; 王丽凌; 吴楷

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the clinical effect of Runzaozhiyang capsule combined with MEBO ( Moist Ex⁃posed Burn Ointment) in treating eczema of blood deficiency and wind⁃dryness. Methods Randomly divided the 60 cases with eczema of blood deficiency and wind⁃dryness into treatment group and control group, and each group had 30 cases. In the treatment group, the patient orally took 4 Runzaozhiyang capsules per time and 3 times a day and meanwhile applied MEBO on the damaged skin externally and kept the thickness of MEBO at about 1mm, changed the ointment every 4 ~6 hours. And in the control group, the patient simply orally took 4 Runzaozhiyang capsules per time and 3 times a day. Ob⁃serve the treatment efficacy for 4 weeks treatment. Results The effective rate in treatment group was 93�33%, as it was 80% in control group. According to the curative efficacy examination byχ2 test, P<0�05, the difference has statistical sig⁃nificance. Conclusion Runzaozhiyang capsule combined with MEBO in treating eczema of blood deficiency and wind⁃dry⁃ness can relieve the pain of the patient and promote the wound healing, and the curative effect is significant.%目的:对比观察润燥止痒胶囊联合湿润烧伤膏治疗血虚风燥型湿疹的临床疗效。方法将60例血虚风燥型湿疹患者随机分为治疗组和对照组,每组30例。治疗组患者口服润燥止痒胶囊,4粒/次,3次/d,同时将湿润烧伤膏均匀涂抹于皮损处,厚度薄于1 mm,每4~6 h换药1次;对照组患者单纯口服润燥止痒胶囊,4粒/次,3次/d;连续治疗4周后观察疗效。结果治疗组有效率为93�33%,对照组有效率为80�00%,两组疗效经χ2检验, P<0�05,差异具有统计学意义。结论润燥止痒胶囊联合湿润烧伤膏治疗血虚风燥型湿疹可缓解患者痛苦,促进创面愈合,疗效显著。

  9. Clinical and Immunohistochemical Research of Piyan Xiaojin Decoction-2 Combining with Narrow-Spectrum UVB Exposure Treating Atopic Dermatitis (AD) with Blood Deficiency and Wind Dryness%皮炎消净饮Ⅱ号联合窄谱UVB照射治疗血虚风燥型特应性皮炎的临床及免疫组化研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴蓓玲; 杨晓红; 曹毅; 余土根; 奚爱妮; 程立峰; 金瀛凯; 陈琼

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the article is to observe the clinical effectiveness of Piyan Xiaojin Decoction - 2 combining with narrow - spectrum UVB exposure to treat Atopic Dermatitis (AD) with blood deficiency and wind dryness, and to evaluate the expressions of 1CAM - 1 and VCAM -1 in local impaired skin before and after the treatment, therefore to investigate its pathogenesis and clinical significance. Method; 29 AD patients with blood deficiency and wind dry-ness have been treated by combination of Piyan Xiaojin Decoction - 2 and narrow - spectrum UVB exposure. The authors used SCORAD integral system to evaluate clinical severity of impaired skin before and after the treatment, meanwhile a-dopting SABC immunohistochemical method to assess the positive area, average optical density, total optical density,expressions of ICAM - 1 and VCAM - 1 in impaired skin. Result; Among 29 AD patients, 6 were completely healed (20. 69% ) , 16 gained significant effect (55.17% ) , 7 had good effect (24. 14% ), no patient showed ineffective, and the total efficiency rate was 75. 86%. After and before the treatment, AD patients'positive expressions of ICAM - 1 and VCAM - 1 of impaired skin were all higher than those in normal group (P < 0. 01); After the treatment, AD patients' positive expressions of ICAM - 1 and VCAM - 1 in skin impairment were all declined ( P <0.05). Conclusion; Piyan Xiaojin Decoction -2 combining with exposure of narrow - spectrum UVB is effective and safe in treating blood deficiency and wind dryness AD. The possible mechanism is suppressing the release of inflammatory factor, and modulating the expressions of ICAM - 1 and VCAM - 1 in local impaired skin , consequently suppressing the conglutination of cells and the aggregation of inflammatory corpuscles, thus to reach the goal of anti - inflammation and regulating immune system.%目的:观察皮炎消净饮Ⅱ号联合窄谱UVB照射对血虚风燥型特应性皮炎(AD)的临床疗效,及对AD患

  10. Comparative study of relevant factors of dampness-heat stagnation type and yin deficiency with dryness heat type primary Sjogren syndrome%湿阻热郁型与阴虚燥热型原发性干燥综合征相关因素对比研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡建东; 袁旭; 薛鸾

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the difference between dampness - heat stagnation type and yin deficiency with dryness heat type primary Sjogren syndrome in such factors as life habits,salivary glands secretion,organ involvement, β2 ~ MG. Methods A questionaire to investigate the habit for drinking and smoking,eating heavy taste food was conducted in thirty - five dampness - heat stagnation type Sjogren syndrome ( DHS - PSS) and eighty - two yin deficiency with dryness heat type Sjogren syndrome ( YDDH - PSS). The number of dental caries, oral sugar clearance time,14C breath test for detection of Hp infection rate,chest CT detection of interstitial lung disease incidence; serum uric acid,creatinine,and blood, urine, saliva, β2 ~ microglobulin ( β2 - MG) detection of all the patients was elevated. Results There was no significant difference in age,duration of disease,gender ratio,the habit for smoking and drinking between the two types of primary Sjogren syndrome. Compared with the YDDH - PSS group, the DHS - SS group had more serious bad food habit in eating greasy,sweet and heavy - taste food,higher BMI,higher frequency interstitial pneumonia. Time of oral Sugar clearance in DHS - PSS group was significantly longer than that in YDDH - PSS group. The serum and salivary β2 ~ MG were significantly higher in DHS - PSS group than that in YDDH - PSS group. Conclusion There are differences between dampness - heat stagnation type and yin deficiency with dryness heat type primary Sjogren syndrome in the duration of disease,BMI,diet,the number of dental caries,in- volved organs and β2 - MG in, etc. The analysis of these projects contribute to the understanding of the PSS traditional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation clinical features, and provide the evidence base for the objective of the tradi- tional Chinese medicine syndrome differentiation.%目的 对比原发性干燥综合征(PSS)湿阻热郁型与阴虚燥热型在生活习惯、唾液腺分泌及脏器

  11. Oral Dryness, Dietary Intake, and Alterations in Taste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dynesen, Anja Weirsøe

    2015-01-01

    Xerostomia and decreased salivary secretion may give rise to a number of oral complications. These include dry, atrophic and tender oral mucosa; impaired mastication, food bolus formation, and swallowing; altered sensation of taste; as well as increased risk of developing dental caries and erosio...

  12. Identification and analysis of proteins in the latex C-serum related to the tapping panel dryness in Hevea brasiliensis%橡胶树胶乳C-乳清死皮相关蛋白的鉴定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 杨礼富; 王真辉; 邹智; 袁坤

    2012-01-01

    橡胶树死皮是影响天然橡胶产量的重要限制因子.通过双向凝胶电泳技术(2 - DE)研究了橡胶死皮树与健康树胶乳C-乳清蛋白表达谱的差异.以软件分析后共获得31个差异表达的蛋白点,经基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱( MALDI - TOF MS)分析后,搜索NCBInr数据库,结果有10个蛋白点被成功鉴定,其中6个为未知蛋白,其余4个蛋白分别为chain A,structure of ubiquitin-like protein,Rub1;β-1,3-glucanase;AIR9 protein和flagellar inner dynein arm heavy chain 11.这些蛋白可能在橡胶树死皮发生过程中扮演重要角色.%The tapping panel dryness (TPD) in Hevea brasiliensis is a significant limit factor influencing natural rubber production. In this experiment, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) was used to study the differentiation of protein expression profiles of latex C-serum between TPD trees and healthy ones of H. brasiliensis. Thirty-one differentially expressed protein spots were obtained by software analysis. After these spots were subjected to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS) followed by searching for NCBInr database, ten spots were successfully identified. Six of them were identified as the unknown proteins and the remaining 4 were the chain A, structure of ubiquitin-like protein, Rubl; (β-1, 3-glucanase; AIR9 protein and flagellar inner dynein arm heavy chain 11. These proteins might play important roles in the process of TPD occuring.

  13. Drought variation characteristics in Ningxia from 2000 to 2010 based on temperature vegetation dryness index by remote sensing%基于遥感温度植被干旱指数的宁夏2000-2010年旱情变化特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜灵通; 候静; 胡悦; 王新云; 王磊

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨近10 a来宁夏的旱情变化特征及演变趋势,利用MODIS的地表昼夜温度数据计算昼夜温差,结合归一化植被指数产品计算温度植被干旱指数(temperature vegetation dryness index,TVDI),对2000-2010年的逐月干旱进行了监测,并分析其与气象干旱和农业受旱灾情况的关系.研究结果表明,从空间上来看,宁夏干旱发生频率和强度最高的是中部干旱带,次之是南部丘陵山区,而较少发生干旱的是北部引黄灌区,其中南部六盘山和北部贺兰山林区也很少受干旱影响;在2000-2010年间有3次明显的极端干旱过程,分别是2000、2005和2009年;从旱情变化趋势来看,近10 a来宁夏平均干旱强度在减弱,但极端干旱事件有增强的趋势,且春、夏季显著增强,而秋、冬季显著减弱;宁夏TVDI的变化主要取决于降水量,年平均TVDI、年最大TVDI与降水量、标准化降水指数和标准化降水蒸散指数均呈负相关关系,除年平均TVDI与降水量(P=0.08)和标准化降水指数(P=0.06)的相关性未通过显著性检验外,其他均通过了P<0.05的显著性检验,但TVDI与气温关系不大,这与当地的土地利用格局及植被类型有关;农业受旱灾面积与年平均TVDI有关,二者相关关系为0.69(P<0.05),而与年内单次极端干旱强度关系不大;从不同季节来看,夏季干旱最容易导致宁夏农业减产,次之是春季和秋季干旱,而冬季干旱几乎对农业生产没有影响.该研究可为地方政府制定抗旱救灾和农业生产政策提供一定参考.%Drought is a period of deficit in precipitation with impact on agriculture, water resources and natural ecosystems. It has always an impact on agricultural and ecological fields and causes serious environmental consequences worldwide. Drought has been a prevalent concern for local government in Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region over the last decades. Therefore, monitoring drought characteristics and exploring

  14. Detection of Allergens for Senile Eczema Due to Blood Deficiency and Wind Dryness and Clinical Observation of Laser Therapy Combined with Chinese Medicine Fumigation%老年血虚风燥型湿疹过敏原检测与光疗联合中药熏洗的疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    兰东; 冉立伟; 贾红侠; 郭艳杰; 董丽

    2011-01-01

    Objective To explore the influence background of allergens for senile eczema due to blood deficiency and wind dryness and the efficacy of narrow - band ultraviolet B( NB - UVB )laser therapy combined with fumigation with compound senbai lotion.Methods 96 cases were divided randomly into three groups.In a NB - UVB + Chinese medicine group( 32 cases ), NB - UVB irradiation combined with fumigation with compound senbai lotion was applied.In a NB - UVB group( 32 cases ), only NB - UVB irradiation was provided.In a Chinese medicine group ,only fumigation with compound senbai lotion was adopted.Enzyme - linked immunosorbent assay was used to detect serum allergens for 96 cases.Results The efficacy in NB -UVB + Chinese medicine goup was highe appaently than that in eithe NB - UVB group or Chinese medicine group( P < 0.05 or P < 0.01 ).The scores after treatment were lower apparently than those before treatment in NB - UVB + Chinese medicine group, indicating statistical significant difference( P < 0.01 ).The detection of serum allergens before treatment showed the order of percentage from the high to the low was house dust( 32/96 ),dust mite( 21/96 ), polyvalent molds( 14/96 ), pollen( 11/96 )and Artemisia plant( 5/96 )in inhalation group.In food intake group, the order of percentage the high to the low included beef and lamp( 27/96 ), egg ( 21/96 )and milk( 15/96 ).Totally,35 cases indicated positive reaction of serum allergens and the positive rate was 36.5%.Of them,26 cases presented positive reactions to two or more than two allergens, accounting for 74.3%.It was explained that the majority of allergen - positive - reaction patients had the allergic background with many allergens involved during the repeated skin lesion of the sickness,which probably was one of the reasons for the persistent sickness of repeated attacks.Conclusion The senile eczema due to blood deficiency and wind dryness is impacted apparently by allergens.NB - UVB combined with Chinese

  15. Logistic Regression Analysis on Risk Factors of Northwest Dryness Syndrome Among Patients of Metabolic Syndrome in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region%新疆地区代谢综合征患者西北燥证危险因素 Logistic回归分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王燕; 王晓忠; 马燕; 庄小芳; 郭峰; 何佳颖

    2015-01-01

    目的:分析新疆地区代谢综合征患者中西北燥证危险因素。方法在新疆喀什、哈密、乌鲁木齐地区共收集321例代谢综合征患者,共筛选15类变量,计算OR值和95%CI,并用条件Logistic回归分析方法进行单因素及多因素分析。结果单因素 Logistic 回归分析结果显示,饮食习惯嗜食肥甘,饮食偏嗜喜辣、喜咸,及吸烟史、高血压是西北燥证危险因素,其OR值分别为0.387、0.071、0.033、2.614、0.440,均P<0.05。多因素Logistic回归分析结果,吸烟史、饮酒史、嗜食肥甘及高血压均进入回归模型,其OR值分别为3.945、4.334、0.370、2.142,均 P<0.01。结论建议代谢综合征患者中嗜食肥甘及喜辣、喜咸者适当调整饮食口味,增加酸味饮食,荤素搭配,戒烟酒,控制血压,可能有助于适应当地气候、生活环境,减少西北燥证的发生,利于疾病康复。%Objective To analyze risk factors of northwest dryness syndrome (NDS) among the patients of metabolic syndrome in Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region.Methods Totally 321 cases of metabolic syndrome in Kashgar, Hami and Urumqi were collected to filter 15 variables to calculate OR value and 95% CI, and evaluated by single factor and multi-factor analysis by applying conditional Logistic regression analysis.Results Single factor conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that high fat diet, addiction to hot diet, salty diet, smoking history and hypertension were the risk factors of NDS. The OR values of them were 0.387, 0.071, 0.033, 2.614 and 0.440, respectively (P<0.05). Multi-factor conditional Logistic regression analysis showed that smoking history, alcohol drinking history, high fat diet and hypertension were all entered into regression model. The OR values of them were 3.945, 4.334, 0.370 and 2.142, respectively (P<0.01).Conclusion Patients of metabolic syndrome with a high fat, salty and hot diet are suggested to adjust their diet habit by adding sour

  16. Commercial glucocorticoid formulations and skin dryness. Could it be caused by the vehicle?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korting, H C; Kerscher, M; Vieluf, D; Mehringer, L; Megele, M; Braun-Falco, O

    1991-01-01

    Eczema craquelé can be induced by repeated open application of a topical glucocorticoid, viz. 0.05% clobetasole 17-propionate cream. This might not be invariably due to the active component. Comparison of the skin surface roughness as assessed by profilometry and as expressed by RZDIN showed a decrease after repeated open application of 0.1% betamethasone 17-valerate cream and 0.25% prednicarbate cream, but an increase following the vehicle of the latter preparation. Thus commercial oil-in-water emulsion preparations seem to be potentially injurious to human skin, though this may be masked when a glucocorticoid is added.

  17. Prediction of the soil water retention curve for structured soil from saturation to oven-dryness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karup, Dan; Møldrup, Per; Tuller, Markus

    2017-01-01

    The soil water retention curve (SWRC) is the most fundamental soil hydraulic function required for modelling soil–plant–atmospheric water flow and transport processes. The SWRC is intimately linked to the distribution of the size of pores, the composition of the solid phase and the soil specific....... In this research we evaluated a new two-stage approach developed recently to predict the SWRC based onmeasurements for disturbed repacked soil samples. Our study involved undisturbed structured soil and took into account the effects of bulk density, organic matter content and particle-size distribution....... Independently measured SWRCs for 171 undisturbed soil samples with organic matter contents that ranged from 3 to 14% were used for model validation. The results indicate that consideration of the silt and organic matter fractions, in addition to the clay fraction, improved predictions for the dry-end SWRC...

  18. Environmental effects on stem water deficit in co-occurring conifers exposed to soil dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oberhuber, Walter; Kofler, Werner; Schuster, Roman; Wieser, Gerhard

    2015-04-01

    We monitored dynamics of stem water deficit (Δ W) and needle water potential ( Ψ) during two consecutive growing seasons (2011 and 2012) in a dry inner Alpine environment (750 m above sea level, Tyrol, Austria), where Pinus sylvestris, Picea abies and Larix decidua form mixed stands. Δ W was extracted from stem circumference variations, which were continuously recorded by electronic band dendrometers (six trees per species) and correlations with environmental variables were performed. Results revealed that (i) Δ W reached highest and lowest values in P. abies and L. decidua, respectively, while mean minimum water potential ( Ψ ea) amounted to -3.0 MPa in L. decidua and -1.8 MPa in P. abies and P. sylvestris. (ii) Δ W and Ψ ea were significantly correlated in P. abies ( r = 0.630; P = 0.038) and L. decidua ( r = 0.646; P = 0.032). (iii) In all species, Δ W reached highest values in late summer and was most closely related to temperature ( P bark. Quite similar Δ W developed in drought-sensitive L. decidua and drought-tolerant P. sylvestris indicate that various water storage locations are depleted in species showing different strategies of water status regulation, i.e. anisohydric vs. isohydric behavior, respectively, and/or water uptake efficiency differs among these species. Close coupling of Δ W to temperature suggests that climate warming affects plant water status through its effect on atmospheric demand for moisture.

  19. Predicting Summer Dryness Under a Warmer Climate: Modeling Land Surface Processes in the Midwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winter, J. M.; Eltahir, E. A.

    2009-12-01

    One of the most significant impacts of climate change is the potential alteration of local hydrologic cycles over agriculturally productive areas. As the world’s food supply continues to be taxed by its burgeoning population, a greater percentage of arable land will need to be utilized and land currently producing food must become more efficient. This study seeks to quantify the effects of climate change on soil moisture in the American Midwest. A series of 24-year numerical experiments were conducted to assess the ability of Regional Climate Model Version 3 coupled to Integrated Biosphere Simulator (RegCM3-IBIS) and Biosphere-Atmosphere Transfer Scheme 1e (RegCM3-BATS1e) to simulate the observed hydroclimatology of the midwestern United States. Model results were evaluated using NASA Surface Radiation Budget, NASA Earth Radiation Budget Experiment, Illinois State Water Survey, Climate Research Unit Time Series 2.1, Global Soil Moisture Data Bank, and regional-scale estimations of evapotranspiration. The response of RegCM3-IBIS and RegCM3-BATS1e to a surrogate climate change scenario, a warming of 3oC at the boundaries and doubling of CO2, was explored. Precipitation increased significantly during the spring and summer in both RegCM3-IBIS and RegCM3-BATS1e, leading to additional runoff. In contrast, enhancement of evapotranspiration and shortwave radiation were modest. Soil moisture remained relatively unchanged in RegCM3-IBIS, while RegCM3-BATS1e exhibited some fall and winter wetting.

  20. Performance Evaluation of Models that Describe the Soil Water Retention Curve between Saturation and Oven Dryness

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this work was to evaluate eight closed-form unimodal analytical expressions that describe the soil-water retention curve over the complete range of soil water contents. To meet this objective, the eight models were compared in terms of their accuracy (root mean square error, RMSE), ...

  1. Vaginal Dryness and Beyond: The Sexual Health Needs of Women Diagnosed With Metastatic Breast Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McClelland, Sara I; Holland, Kathryn J; Griggs, Jennifer J

    2015-01-01

    While research on the sexual health of women with early stage cancer has grown extensively over the past decade, markedly less information is available to support the sexual health needs of women diagnosed with advanced breast cancer. Semistructured interviews were conducted with 32 women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer (ages 35 to 77) about questions they had concerning their sexual health and intimate relationships. All participants were recruited from a comprehensive cancer center at a large Midwestern university. Three themes were examined: the role of sexual activity and intimate touch in participants' lives, unmet information needs about sexual health, and communication with medical providers about sexual concerns. Findings indicated that sexual activities with partners were important; however, participants worried about their own physical limitations and reported frequent physical (e.g., bone pains) and vaginal pain associated with intercourse. When women raised concerns about these issues in clinical settings, medical providers often focused exclusively on vaginal lubricants, which did not address the entirety of women's problems or concerns. In addition, women diagnosed with metastatic breast cancer reported needing additional resources about specialized vaginal lubricants, nonpenetrative and nongenitally focused sex, and sexual positions that did not compromise their physical health yet still provided pleasure.

  2. Effect of process parameters on the dryness of molded pulp products

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Didone, Mattia; Tosello, Guido

    2016-01-01

    Molded pulp products are made from cellulose fibers dispersed in water then formed, drained and dried. As in the conventional papermaking process, the most energ yintensive operation (including time) is drying. To gain a better understanding of the process parameters involved and to investigate...

  3. 七种秋季消燥粥%Porridges Good for Autumn-dryness

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李金兰

    2010-01-01

    @@ 秋季天高气爽,气候干燥,人们易出现秋燥症状.如:口鼻咽干、皮肤干燥、眼涩口渴、干咳少痰以及便秘等.这时养生应以养阴生津、润肺补液为主.现介绍以下4种消燥药粥,其既有米粥的养护作用,又有药物的治疗作用.

  4. A new neurohypophysial peptide, seritocin ([Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin), identified in a dryness-resistant African toad, Bufo regularis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauvet, J; Michel, G; Ouedraogo, Y; Chou, J; Chait, B T; Acher, R

    1995-05-01

    From the pituitary neurointermediate lobe of the African toad Bufo regularis, vasotocin, hydrin 2 (vasotocinyl-Gly) and a mesotocin-like peptide have been isolated by HPLC and characterized by mass spectrometry, amino acid sequence and chromatographic coelution with synthetic peptides. The mesotocin-like peptide has been identified as [Ser5,Ile8]-oxytocin in place of mesotocin ([Ile8]-oxytocin) found in all other amphibians investigated to date. The name seritocin is suggested. The molecule is virtually devoid of oxytocic activity on rat uterus in contrast to mesotocin. On the other hand, the molar ratio of hydrin 2 to vasotocin in the pituitary reaches 2, whereas it is about 1 in toads and frogs from temperate regions. B. regularis is an anuran species able to withstand a hot and dry season by burrowing. The possible relationship between occurrence of seritocin and adaptation to arid environment remains to be demonstrated.

  5. Odors and sensations of humidity and dryness in relation to sick building syndrome and home environment in Chongqing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Wang

    Full Text Available The prevalence of perceptions of odors and sensations of air humidity and sick building syndrome symptoms in domestic environments were studied using responses to a questionnaire on the home environment. Parents of 4530 1-8 year old children from randomly selected kindergartens in Chongqing, China participated. Stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, mold odor, tobacco smoke odor, humid air and dry air in the last three month (weekly or sometimes was reported by 31.4%, 26.5%, 16.1%, 10.6%, 33.0%, 32.1% and 37.2% of the parents, respectively. The prevalence of parents' SBS symptoms (weekly or sometimes were: 78.7% for general symptoms, 74.3% for mucosal symptoms and 47.5% for skin symptoms. Multi-nominal regression analyses for associations between odors/sensations of air humidity and SBS symptoms showed that the odds ratio for "weekly" SBS symptoms were consistently higher than for "sometimes" SBS symptoms. Living near a main road or highway, redecoration, and new furniture were risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air. Dampness related problems (mold spots, damp stains, water damage and condensation were all risk factors for perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air, as was the presence of cockroaches, rats, and mosquitoes/flies, use of mosquito-repellent incense and incense. Protective factors included cleaning the child's bedroom every day and frequently exposing bedding to sunshine. In conclusion, adults' perceptions of odors and sensations of humid air and dry air are related to factors of the home environment and SBS symptoms are related to odor perceptions.

  6. Effect of biofilm dryness on the transfer of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel to bologna and hard salami.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Andrés; Autio, Wesley R; McLandsborough, Lynne A

    2007-11-01

    Listeria monocytogenes continues to be a major cause of class I food recalls in the United States. Very little is known about its transfer and cross-contamination in processing scenarios. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of hydration level on L. monocytogenes biofilms grown on stainless steel and its effect on the biofilm transfer to foods. Biofilms were grown on stainless steel in diluted tryptic soy broth 1:20 for 48 h at 32 degrees C. After this, biofilms were equilibrated over saturated salt solutions at 20 degrees C for 24 h (94, 75, 58, and 33% relative humidity; % RH) prior to transferring. Transfer experiments were conducted from inoculated stainless steel to bologna and hard salami at a constant pressure (45 kPa) and time (30 s) with a universal testing machine. The experiment was designed with a factorial design 4 x 2 (biofilms equilibrated at 4% RH and two foods) and duplicated every day, and the whole experiment was repeated nine times. The results were analyzed with an analysis of variance by SAS Statistical Analysis Software. Our results showed that more bacteria were transferred to bologna (mean efficiency of transfer [EOT] = 3.0) than to hard salami (mean EOT = 0.35, P biofilms became drier, the transfer of Listeria from stainless steel to both foods increased (P biofilm for bologna and hard salami, respectively. This study may be an indication that as biofilms were dried, the cell-cell and cell-surface interactions became weaker, and bacterial transfer increased. This phenomenon was enhanced in foods containing higher water activity levels. We hypothesize that this increased in transfer was due to the presence of capillary forces in the food.

  7. 秋食花粥袪燥清热%Flowers porridges for removing dryness and clearing heat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张远桃

    2009-01-01

    @@ 秋季为阳消阴长、由热转冷的过度时期,"燥"为秋季之主气,故称为"秋燥".秋季饮食调养应贯彻提出的"秋冬养阴"的原则,以滋阴润燥、清润甘酸、温凉调配清淡新鲜为主,以达到清肺、补肝、健脾和胃之目的.多食些清淡润燥的粥食,特别是每天早餐吃些"花粥",对祛燥清热、清肝明目是大有益处的.

  8. Efficacy of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) on moderate to severe dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy, and of the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labrie, Fernand; Archer, David F; Koltun, William; Vachon, Andrée; Young, Douglas; Frenette, Louise; Portman, David; Montesino, Marlene; Côté, Isabelle; Parent, Julie; Lavoie, Lyne; Beauregard, Adam; Martel, Céline; Vaillancourt, Mario; Balser, John; Moyneur, Érick

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm the local beneficial effects of intravaginal dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA, Prasterone) on moderate to severe dyspareunia or pain at sexual activity, the most frequent symptom of vulvovaginal atrophy due to menopause or genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). In a prospective, randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled phase III clinical trial, the effect of daily intravaginal 0.50% DHEA (6.5 mg) (Prasterone, EndoCeutics) was examined on four coprimary objectives, namely percentage of parabasal cells, percentage or superficial cells, vaginal pH, and moderate to severe pain at sexual activity (dyspareunia) identified by the women as their most bothersome vulvovaginal atrophy symptom. The intent-to-treat population included 157 and 325 women in the placebo and DHEA-treated groups, respectively. After daily intravaginal administration of 0.50% DHEA for 12 weeks, when compared to baseline by the analysis of covariance test, the percentage of parabasal cells decreased by 27.7% over placebo (P DHEA (Prasterone) has shown clinically and highly statistically significant effects on the four coprimary parameters suggested by the US Food and Drug Administration. The strictly local action of Prasterone is in line with the absence of significant drug-related adverse events, thus showing the high benefit-to-risk ratio of this treatment based upon the novel understanding of the physiology of sex steroids in women.

  9. Speculating on Research Methods of Molecular Biology of Northwest Dryness Syndrome%西北燥证分子生物学研究构想

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李鹏; 赵晓东; 周铭心

    2008-01-01

    中医证的实质研究一直是中医基础理论研究的重点,而分子生物学作为从分子水平上研究生物体生命活动规律的学科,已成为生命科学领域的前沿学科,且推动着中医证实质研究向更深层次发展.西北燥证是新疆人群亚健康状态的主要地域性表现,从分子生物学角度来构想西北燥证的研究,有助于揭示不同民族西北燥证罹患率差异的深刻机理,以及人体体质差异对其病因敏感性、耐受性和适应性的内在关系.

  10. Treating Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy from Dryness Pathogen%从燥论治糖尿病周围神经病变

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜南; 王强

    2014-01-01

    糖尿病周围神经病变(Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy,DPN)是糖尿病的慢性并发症之一,属于中医的“痹证”、“痛证”、“痿证”等范围.分析“燥”在DPN发病中的作用.

  11. Dryness crisis of the late V BP milenium in the west coast of Port of Mazarron (Murcia, Spain); Crisis de aridez a finales del V milenio BP en el litoral occidental del puerto de Mazarron (Murcia, Espana)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Navarro Hervas, F.; Rodriguez Estrella, T.; Carrion Garcia, J. S.; Ros Sala, M. M.; Fernandez Jimenez, S.; Garcia Martinez, M. S.; Mancheno Jimenez, M. A.; Alvarez Rogel, Y.

    2009-07-01

    Here we describe a formerly unrecognized dry spell dated at between c. 4330 and 3950 radiocarbon years BP, and located in the Puerto de Mazarron (Murcia, southeastern Spain). The palaeoclimatical inference is provided by halite levels within a long sequence of a multiple core study carried in a palaeo-lagoon. The lithological inference is corroborated by palynological records involving a forest depletion. The event is also linked to a population decline in the study region. (Author) 6 refs.

  12. 环空注氮气稠油热采井筒中的干度变化%Dryness Changes of Wellbore in Viscous Crude Oil Production with Nitrogen Injection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张金华; 陈保东; 臧雅生; 刘权升; 王臣

    2010-01-01

    蒸汽干度是影响注汽开采稠油工艺的主要参数,本文运用传热学、热力学及流体力学等学科知识,提出一种蒸汽干度的计算方法.首先分析了注汽井筒的传热过程,并在考虑压力变化的前提下建立了数学模型,计算得出井筒热损失量,最后确定井筒中任意处的蒸汽干度.以海底蒸汽井为例,分析井中干度随深度的变化情况,为热采注汽系统的现场工艺设计提供参考.

  13. 贵阳汛期旱涝演变特征及未来趋势预估%The Evolution Characteristic and Future Tendency Estimate of Guiyang Dryness and Wetness in Flood Season

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    严小冬; 吴战平; 徐丹丹; 古书鸿; 徐智慧

    2011-01-01

    首先对贵阳近500 a(1470—2008年)旱涝等级资料进行增补,利用该资料进行等级序列展开频次和多尺度分析。结果表明:近58 a,贵阳出现极端旱、偏旱的频次明显高于过去近500 a的平均状况;汛期出现偏旱和旱的次数明显增多,旱重于涝的趋势非常明显。从年代际和百年际尺度看,210 a周期是贵阳旱涝振荡的主周期,而50 a周期是次周期,且20世纪80年代的干旱程度高于历史上任何一个年代;从年际和年代际尺度上,24 a周期是贵阳旱涝振荡的主周期,而7 a周期是次周期;汛期降水偏少,一般与旱灾对应一致,但若降水偏多,对应汛期各月降水分布均匀,则不一定对应涝灾。最后,结合诊断结果,借助IPCC AR4最新的模式预估数据集,预估贵阳汛期降水在未来10 a左右将处于旱涝交替频发期,之后至21世纪40年代中期将处于少雨阶段,可能会出现较长时期的干旱。%Use the supplementation the data of the drought and flood grades for five hundred years in GuiYang,to make grades sequences frequency and multiple dimensioned analysis.The results showed that the frequencies of Guiyang appeared extreme drought and more drought in recent 58 years more than the mean value of recent 500 years.In flood season the frequencies of drought increased obviously and the drought more severe than flood.For the decadal and hundred decadal scales,210-year cycle is the main period of drought and flood oscillation and the 50-year cycle is the secondary.The 20 century and 80 years had the most server drought.For the inter-annual and decadal,24 years cycle is the main period of drought and flood oscillation and the 7 years cycle is the secondary.If the precipitation is less in the flood season,the drought may happen.But if the rainfall is more,the flood may not happen and the distribution of rainfall not even in each month.In the end combined the results of the model of IPCC AR4,in the future 10 years flood seasons,drought and flood will happen high frequency,and in the 40 years of the 21st century there are less precipitations and the drought will last long period.

  14. 我国温度植被旱情指数TVDI的应用现状及问题简述%Introduction of Application of Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙莎; 郭铌; 李耀辉; 韩涛; 赵艳霞

    2014-01-01

    Reducing of vegetation index and rising of surface temperature are two kinds of important physiological performance of plants when they are under severe drought stress,so remote -drought indices based on vegetation index(VI)and land surface temperature (LST)are commonly used in drought monitoring.Indices based on vegetation index are difficult to exclude the influence of irrigation, pest and the flood disasters,and due to their larger lag time,they are difficult to monitor drought events which occurred suddenly.The land surface temperature is rising rapidly under the condition of water deficiency,so the indices based on land surface temperature (LST)can detect drought events,but it can’t distinguish water stress conditions under different vegetation cover and it’s easy to be influenced by the surface heat exchange and soil background temperature.The temperature vegetation drought index(TVDI)based on spectral feature space combined the vegetation index and land surface temperature,its physical meaning is more definite and it is well defined.TVDI could overcoming the deficiency of using VI and LST only,there for it is widely used to estimate evapotranspiration and soil moisture.For well understanding the application situation of TVDI in our country and the method to calculate and improve it,this paper expounded the principle of TVDI firstly,and then gave a detail introduce about the calculation and improving methods as well as the way of monitoring drought based on TVDI,etc.The aim is to offer some reference for the calculation and application of TVDI.%植被指数和地表温度是2类常见的遥感干旱监测方法,它们分别利用植被受旱时植被指数降低和植被冠层温度升高这2种重要的生理表现来监测干旱。但植被指数对干旱指示具有一定滞后性,地表温度监测干旱时易受土地背景等影响。基于特征空间的温度植被旱情指数(TVDI )综合了植被指数和地表温度监测干旱的特点,物理意义明确,克服部分单独使用植被指数或地表温度的缺点,是目前干旱研究和业务应用中使用最广的遥感干旱指数之一。本文介绍了TVDI的原理、计算方法、应用中的改进及TVDI干旱监测方法,旨在为TVDI的研究及应用提供一些参考。

  15. Identification and Analysis of Proteins in Latex Lutoid Associated with Tapping Panel Dryness of Hevea brasiliensis%橡胶树胶乳黄色体死皮相关蛋白的鉴定及分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周雪梅; 杨礼富; 王真辉; 邹智; 袁坤

    2012-01-01

    本实验通过双向凝胶电泳技术(2-DE)比较橡胶死皮树与健康树胶乳黄色体蛋白表达谱的差异,通过软件分析比较获得37个差异表达的蛋白点,经基质辅助激光解析电离飞行时间质谱(MALDI-TOF MS)分析后,搜索NCBInr数据库,结果表明,有11个蛋白点被成功鉴定,其中7个为未知蛋白,其余4个蛋白分别为chloroplast 23 kDa polypeptide of photosystem Ⅱ、ATP synthse beta chain、NADP-dependent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase和vitamin-b12 independent methionine synthase.这4个蛋白在死皮树中表达量均下调,可能在死皮发生过程中起着重要作用.本研究将为进一步阐明橡胶树死发发生的分子机制提供理论依据.%In this experiment, the two-dimensional gel electrophoresis(2-DE) was used to study the differentiation of protein expression profiles of latex lutoid between TPD trees and healthy ones in Hevea brasiliatsis. 37 differentially expressed protein spots were obtained by software analysis. After these spots were subjected to matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry ( MALDI-TOF MS) followed by searching for NCBInr database, the result showed that 11 spots were successfully identified, of which 7 were identified as the unknown proteins, and the remaining 4 were the chloroplast 23 kDa polypeptide of photosystem Ⅱ, ATP synthase beta chain, NADP-depend-ent sorbitol-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and vitamin-bl2 independent methionine synthase. There were some relationship between osmotin protein and TPD broom according to the functions of down-regulated proteins in TPD trees. This research provided a theoretical basis for TPD.

  16. Ubiquitination of Latex Protein during Tapping Panel Dryness (TPD) Process in Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg%橡胶树死皮(TPD)发生过程中胶乳蛋白质的泛素化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    覃碧; 刘长仁; 杜磊

    2013-01-01

    以健康和不同级别死皮(TPD)橡胶树为材料,用Western blot分析橡胶树TPD发生过程中胶乳蛋白质泛素化水平的动态变化,结果表明,健康与TPD橡胶树胶乳蛋白质的泛素化水平存在显著差异,其中2个蛋白的泛素化水平在TPD中显著升高,而7个蛋白的泛素化水平在TPD中明显降低.这些蛋白可能在TPD发生过程中发挥重要调控作用.本文结果为进一步研究泛素化在橡胶树TPD发生过程中的作用提供依据,同时也为揭示TPD发生的分子机制提供新的思路和观点.

  17. Assessment of fatigue and dryness in primary Sjögren's syndrome: Brazilian version of "Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort - Sicca Symptoms Inventory (short form) (PROFAD-SSI-SF)".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyamoto, Samira Tatiyama; Paganotti, Maurício Aquino; Serrano, Érica Vieira; Giovelli, Raquel Altoé; Valim, Valéria

    2015-01-01

    To perform a cross-cultural adaptation and validation of the Profile of Fatigue and Discomfort - Sicca Symptoms Inventory (short form) (PROFAD-SSI-SF) questionnaire assessing the subjective aspects of the symptoms of primary Sjögren syndrome (pSS), for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Conceptual, of the item, semantic and operational equivalences were evaluated. The Brazilian version of PROFAD-SSI-SF was administered to 62 women with pSS according to the European-American consensus 2002 to assess measurement equivalence. α-Cronbach was used for internal consistency; intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) for intraobserver reproducibility; and Spearman correlation coefficient for validity by comparing with Patient Global Assessment (PaGA), EULAR Sjögren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI), Functional Assessment of Chronic Illness Therapy Fatigue Subscale (FACIT-F) and EuroQOL (EQ-5D). The internal consistency of PROFAD, SSI and total score was 0.80; 0.78; and 0.87, respectively. The intraobserver reproducibility of total PROFAD was 0.89; of total SSI of 0.86; and total score of 0.89. In terms of validity, PROFAD correlated significantly with PaGA (r = 0.50), FACIT-F (r = 0.59), ESSPRI (r = 0.58) and all domains of EQ-5D, with the exception of Mobility. On the other hand, SSI correlated significantly with PaGA (r = 0.43), FACIT-F (r = 0.57), ESSPRI (r = 0.55) and most areas of EQ-5D. The total score of PROFAD-SSI-SF had a non-statistically significant correlation only with Mobility domain and with 1-100 range of EQ-5D. The Portuguese version of PROFAD-SSI-SF proved to be an adaptable, reproducible and valid tool for the Brazilian Portuguese language. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  18. AN EXPERIMENT FOR FORECASTING DRYNESS/WETNESS IN CHINA DURING THE PERIOD FROM 1958 TO 1993%1958~1993中国夏季旱涝预报试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡尔诚; 赵良琦; 崔贵华

    1999-01-01

    根据作者提出的波状低云在大气加热场中的冷源作用的新观点,用过去36年(1958~1993)每年12~2月的资料预报6~8月的降水.结果表明:36个夏季中国东部的主要旱涝区均可正确预报出来,证实了上述论点的普遍性.

  19. Hormone therapy for breast cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... causes symptoms of menopause: Hot flashes Night sweats Vaginal dryness Mood swings Depression Loss of interest in sex ... side effects include hot flashes, night sweats, and vaginal dryness . Some drugs can cause less common but more ...

  20. Decadal Variation of Summer Dryness/Wetness over the Middle and Lower Reaches of the Yangtze River and the Evolution of Atmospheric Circulation in the Last 52 Years%近52年长江中下游地区夏季年代际尺度干湿变化及其环流演变分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李淑萍; 侯威; 封泰晨

    2015-01-01

    利用中国气象局国家气象信息中心提供的长江中下游地区353站1961~2012年逐月降水资料,通过计算得到各站点夏季标准化降水指数(SPI)。根据长江中下游地区夏季中旱及以上等级站点数目及其突变检测(Mann-Kendall方法,MK)结果,将时间序列划分为三个时段。在此基础上,利用NCEP/NCAR再分析资料及NOAA海洋表面温度重建资料,分析了各个时段前冬至夏季环流背景场的异常特征及其演变过程,并建立了各时段的概念模型。结果表明:(1)长江中下游夏季在第一时段(1961~1973年)呈明显干旱状态;第二时段(1974~1986年)为干旱向湿润转变的阶段;第三时段(1987~2012年)基本转为湿润状态。(2)第二时段为第一时段与第三时段的过渡期,环流背景场在该时段发生明显变化,使得第一时段与第三时段所对应季节的环流距平场相位相反。(3)第一时段,前冬至夏季全球海温持续偏冷,印度洋海温冷异常在夏季尤为显著,南亚高压与西太平洋副热带高压偏弱;前冬,青藏高原北部脊偏弱,蒙古高压明显偏弱;夏季,印度低压偏强、南支槽加深,夏季风水汽输送偏强,而亚洲中高纬度为平直西风气流,北方冷空气不易南下至我国南方地区,冷暖空气交绥受阻,使得长江中下游夏季出现大范围的干旱。第三时段相对于第一时段,前冬至夏季全球海温暖异常,印度洋海温显著偏暖,西太平洋副热带高压偏强;前冬,青藏高原北部脊偏强,蒙古高压异常偏强;夏季,印度低压减弱、南支槽异常偏弱,夏季风水汽输送较弱,水汽滞留在长江流域,且贝加尔湖高压脊发展,脊前冷空气南下,使得长江中下游夏季降水偏多。%AbstractMonthly precipitation records at 353 stations in the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River during 1961–2012, provided by the National Climate Center of the China Meteorological Administration, were used to calculate the Standardized Precipitation Index in summer. The Mann–Kendall (MK) statistical test was applied to detect the trend in the number of stations at which summer SPI reached a value of−1.0 or less. According to the MK test results, the whole time series could be divided into three stages, separated by abrupt change points. Furthermore, based on National Centers for Environmental Prediction/National Center for Atmospheric Research reanalysis data and National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration extended reconstructed sea surface temperature (SST) data, the evolution of the large-scale atmospheric circulation was analyzed from pre-winter to summer, and a conceptual model established for each stage. The results showed that: (1) the first stage (1961–1973) was in an obvious state of drought, the second stage (1974–1986) was a dry-to-wet transition phase, and the third stage (1987–2012) was basically wet; (2) the atmospheric circulation changed notably in the second stage, leading to an opposite phase of the circulation anomaly between the first and third stages; and (3) global SST remained abnormally cold from pre-winter to summer, and Indian Ocean SST was especially colder in summer, which led to a dramatically weaker South Asian high and western Pacific subtropical high. The high pressure ridge over the northern Tibetan Plateau was weaker, resulting in weaker high pressure over Mongolia in pre-winter. Low pressure over India was stronger, the southern branch of the trough deepened, and southerly moisture transported by the summer monsoon prevailed over eastern China. Meanwhile, there was straight westerly wind over the mid-high latitudes of Asia, which was unfavorable for the cold air to extend into southern China. Under the above evolution and configuration of the atmospheric circulation, the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River were prone to widespread drought in summer during the first stage. However, the circulation from pre-winter to summer during the third stage was opposite to that during the first stage. Global SST was warmer from pre-winter to summer, especially in the Indian Ocean, resulting in a stronger western Pacific subtropical high. The stronger high pressure ridge over the northern Tibetan Plateau reinforced the high pressure in pre-winter over Mongolia. Moreover, the low pressure over India and the southern branch of the trough weakened, and water vapor stagnated over the Yangtze River basin because of the weaker summer monsoon; plus, the high ridge over Lake Baikal was favorable for the cold air to extend into southern China. Therefore, the circulation from pre-winter to summer during the third stage led to more precipitation in summer over the middle and lower reaches of the Yangtze River.

  1. 1480-1940年广东地区气候干湿变化与旱涝灾害区域分异特征%Dryness-wetness change and regional differentiation of flood-drought disasters in Guangdong during 1480-1940AD

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟巍; 薛积彬; 彭晓莹

    2005-01-01

    Based on the historical records of the drought and flood disasters during 1480-1940AD, this paper reconstructs the sequences of wetness index (WI) and drought and flood disasters. We find a good identical relationship between the fluctuation of WI sequence and the δ18O record of the GISP2 ice core in Greenland, which shows an apparent monsoonal disposal pattern of moisture and temperature. By applying the Morlet Wavelet Transform Method to deal with the data, several apparent periodicities, such as 7-8a, 11-15a, 20-23a and ca 50a, are revealed, among which some can be attributed to the solar forcing. Based on results of Cluster Analysis of dry-wet changes, we resume the regional differentiation pattern of flood-drought disasters all over Guangdong during different climatic intervals in the LIA and, find the western and northern parts of Guangdong have undergone drastic changes in drought-flood regional differentiation, but the eastern part is relatively stable, and the area of the Pearl River Delta shows stable condition of more flood disasters.

  2. 温度植被干旱指数法(TVDI)在黄淮海平原土壤湿度反演中的应用研究%Application of Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) in Estimation of Soil Moisture in the HHH Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王纯枝; 毛留喜; 何延波; 韩丽娟; 陈健; 宇振荣

    2009-01-01

    植被指数和地表温度是描述地表特征的两个重要参数,基于遥感植被指数和地表温度信息进行区域地表水分状况等陆表变化过程研究,是目前遥感和陆表过程研究中的前沿方向.利用MODIS数据产品MOD13A2和MOD11A2获取的归-化植被指数(NDVI)和地表温度(Ts),构建Ts-NDVI特征空间,依据该特征空间计算的温度植被干旱指数(TVDI)作为土壤湿度监测指标,反演了黄淮海平原2004年冬小麦4~5月份和夏玉米7~10月份每16 d的土壤湿度,并经相应的土壤湿度数据验证.结果表明:TVDI与土壤湿度显著相关(α=0.05),且反演的黄淮海平原土壤湿度的时空分布特征与农作物生育期规律、生长季总降雨量分布规律基本吻合;特别是0~10 cm、10~20 cm、20~40 cm三个土层中,TVDI更能稳定反映和指示地表10~20 cm土壤水分状况,因而TVDI方法适用于黄淮海平原作物生长季的土壤湿度动态监测.

  3. 橡胶死皮相关液泡型水通道蛋白基因TIP1的克隆与序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of a Tonoplast Aquaporin Gene TIP1 Associated with Tapping Panel Dryness in Hevea brasiliensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 王丹华; 莫业勇; 安峰; 杨礼富

    2013-01-01

    [目的]死皮是指橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)产排胶过程中出现的一种割线症状,它会造成橡胶减产甚至完全绝收.研究对一死皮相关的水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)基因进行克隆和序列分析,以探讨AQP在死皮发生过程中的作用.[方法]基于一条在死皮植株中下调表达的EST,研究采用电子克隆和RT-PCR相结合的方法从橡胶树的树皮中扩增出HbTIP1 774 bp的cDNA,在此基础上采用生物信息学对基因的序列特征、编码蛋白的理化特性及进化关系进行了分析.[结果]该cDNA包含759 bp的ORF、8 bp的5'UTR和7bp的3' UTR;基因预测编码252个氨基酸,理论分子量为25.88 kD,等电点为4.96.生物信息学分析显示,HbTIP1含有1个保守的MIP结构域,6个跨膜螺旋,液泡膜定位,可归为水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)家族TIP亚族.同源分析显示,Hb TIP1与可可(Theobroma cacao)、人参(Prunus persica)、橙子(Citrus sinensis)和蓖麻(Ricinus communis)中同源蛋白的相似性都在90%以上,显示出高度的保守性.[结论]该研究为下一步揭示AQP调控死皮发生机制创造了条件.

  4. 橡胶死皮相关水通道蛋白编码基因的克隆与序列分析%Molecular Cloning and Sequence Analysis of an Aquaporin Gene Related to Tapping Panel Dryness in Rubber Tree (Hevea brasiliensis Muell.Arg.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹智; 莫业勇; 王丹华; 安锋; 杨礼富

    2013-01-01

    死皮是指橡胶树(Hevea brasiliensis)产排胶过程中出现的一种割线症状,它是影响橡胶产量的关键因素.研究基于一条在死皮植株中下调表达的EST,采用电子克隆和RT-PCR相结合的方法从橡胶树的树皮中扩增出HbPIP2;2 903 bp的cDNA,该序列包含867 bp的ORF,13 bp的5'UTR和23 bp的3'UTR;基因预测编码288个氨基酸,理论分子量为30.71 kD,等电点为8.20.生物信息学分析显示,HbPIP2;2含有1个保守的MIP结构域,6个跨膜螺旋,细胞膜定位,可归为水通道蛋白(Aquaporin,AQP)家族PIP亚族.同源分析显示,HbHP2;2与蓖麻(Ricinus communis)、杨树(Populus trichocarpa)、核桃(Juglans regia)和可可(Theobroma cacao)中同源蛋白的相似性都在90%以上,显示出进化的高度保守性.该研究为下一步揭示AQP调控死皮发生的机制创造了条件.

  5. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may cause occasional spotting) Ectopic pregnancy Miscarriage Other pregnancy complications Vaginal dryness due to lack of estrogen after menopause Stress Stopping and starting birth control pills or estrogens ...

  6. The extreme dry/wet events in northern China during recent 100 years%中国近代北方极端干湿事件的演变规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马柱国; 丹利; 胡跃文

    2004-01-01

    Using monthly precipitation and monthly mean temperature, a surface humid index was proposed. According to the index, the distributed characteristics of extreme dryness has been fully analyzed. The results indicated that there is an obvious increasing trend of extreme dryness in the central part of northern China and northeastern China in the last 10 years, which shows a high frequency period of extreme dryness; while a low frequency period in the regions during the last 100 years. Compared with variation trend of the temperature in these regions, the region of high frequent extreme dryness is consistent with the warming trend in the same region.

  7. Analysis and Operational Feasibility of Potable Water Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    Calcium Chloride (CaCl2), lithium Chloride (LiCl), Bentonite clay , and Carbon (Oak Ridge National Laboratory 1992). Some are used to absorb humidity...dryness needed Bentonite Clay Solid Humidity Slow rate of absorption between 35- 55% 150-300 depends on dryness needed Carbon Solid Odor/ Gas >40

  8. Experience with experimental biological treatment and local gene therapy in Sjogren's syndrome: implications for exocrine pathogenesis and treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Lodde; B.J. Baum; P.P. Tak; G. Illei

    2006-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune exocrinopathy, mainly affecting the lacrimal and salivary glands, and resulting in ocular and oral dryness (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and xerostomia). The aetiology and pathogenesis are largely unknown, and only palliative treatment is currently available. Data o

  9. Effects of ozone chemistry and outside air supply on passenger self-evalua-tion of symptoms during 4-hour exposures in a simulated aircraft cabin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Strøm-Tejsen, Peter; Tamás, Gyöngyi; Myśków, Danuta;

    2006-01-01

    flow with and without ozone. The subjects completed questionnaires to provide subjective assessments of air quality, cabin environment, intensity of symptoms commonly experienced during flight, and thermal comfort. Physiological tests, specifically Visual Acuity, Nasal Peak Flow and Skin Dryness, were...

  10. Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Carola S.; Armstrong, Sarah; Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background During menopause a decreasing ovarian follicular response generally causes a fluctuation and eventual decrease in estrogen levels. This can lead to the development of various perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (for example hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness).

  11. Genetics Home Reference: Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of SJS/TEN can include changes in skin coloring (pigmentation), dryness of the skin and mucous membranes ( ... causes immune cells called cytotoxic T cells and natural killer (NK) cells to release a substance called ...

  12. How to Do It. Impact of Environmental Factors on Populations of Soil Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert, Francoise M.

    1990-01-01

    Described are simple experiments designed to demonstrate the effect of some factors of the environment (dryness, temperature, and fungicide application) on the size of some populations of soil microorganisms. Materials, media, techniques, procedures, and results are discussed. (CW)

  13. 235-IJBCS-Article-Prof G R Kassenga

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    RHUMSIKI

    Arsenic contamination levels in drinking water sources in mining areas in. Lake Victoria Basin ... arsenic poisoning include burning and dryness of the mouth and throat, ... measure needed is to prevent further exposure of population by ...

  14. Dehydroepiandrosterone for women in the peri- or postmenopausal phase

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scheffers, Carola S.; Armstrong, Sarah; Cantineau, Astrid E. P.; Farquhar, Cindy; Jordan, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Background During menopause a decreasing ovarian follicular response generally causes a fluctuation and eventual decrease in estrogen levels. This can lead to the development of various perimenopausal and postmenopausal symptoms (for example hot flushes, night sweats, vaginal dryness). Dehydroepiand

  15. A simple interpretation of the surface temperature/vegetation index space for assessment of surface moisture status

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandholt, Inge; Rasmussen, Kjeld; Andersen, Jens Asger

    2002-01-01

    A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing interpre......A simplified land surface dryness index (Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index, TVDI) based on an empirical parameterisation of the relationship between surface temperature (T-s) and vegetation index (NDVI) is suggested. The index is related to soil moisture and, in comparison to existing...... interpretations of the T-s/NDVI space, the index is conceptually and computationally straightforward. It is based on satellite derived information only, and the potential for operational application of the index is therefore large. The spatial pattern and temporal evolution in TVDI has been analysed using 37 NOAA...

  16. Hormone Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... types of estrogen therapy relieve vaginal dryness. • Systemic estrogen protects against the bone loss that occurs early in menopause and helps prevent hip and spine fractures. • Combined estrogen and progestin therapy may reduce the risk of ...

  17. Cloudy cornea

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of lid tissue Computer mapping of the cornea (corneal topography) Schirmer's test for eye dryness Special photographs to measure the cells of the cornea Standard eye exam Ultrasound to measure corneal thickness ...

  18. Hormone Replacement Therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... before and during menopause, the levels of female hormones can go up and down. This can cause ... hot flashes and vaginal dryness. Some women take hormone replacement therapy (HRT), also called menopausal hormone therapy, ...

  19. Emotional Issues and Bathroom Problems

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of complete dryness, or pleading to return to diapers are disturbing and even frightening to many parents— ... to ask you if she can start wearing diapers again. For toilet-trained children, as well as ...

  20. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips > Dry Mouth Tips > Other Dryness Tips > Diet & Food Tips > Peripheral Neuropathy ... > Social Security Disability & Sjögren’s Board of Directors Medical & Scientific Advisory ...

  1. STUDIES ON ACTIVE COMPONENTS ISOLATED FROM PLANTS FOR TERMINATION OF EARLY PREGNANCY OR ANTI-IMPLANTATION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DINGWei-Pei; SHIJian-Ping; TUZhi-Ben; ZHAOZhi-En; MABao-Xia; YUANJin-Lan; CHENGui-Xian; CHANGCui-Fang

    1989-01-01

    Since 1982, 46 species of plants, assigned by WHO and distributed in China, have been extracted or isolated and submitted for bioassay. The eollection, specimcn preparation, dryness of plants,phytoehemical work, bioassay and animals used for

  2. Your Sexual Health

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... foreplay. • Try a vaginal lubricant for dryness. •Do Kegel exercises (contract and relax pelvic muscles). • Do not ... body to control the functions of various organs. Kegel Exercises: Pelvic muscle exercises that assist in bladder ...

  3. Sexual Health Issues in Women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancer treatments such as chemotherapy, hormone therapy, and radiation may cause sexual problems in women. Conditions may include vaginal dryness, vaginal stenosis, and vaginal atrophy. Learn how to manage and treat these sexual problems.

  4. Sore Throat: Symptoms and Causes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may be complicated by postnasal drip, which can irritate and inflame the throat. Dryness. Dry indoor air, ... drinking alcohol and eating spicy foods also can irritate your throat. Muscle strain. You can strain muscles ...

  5. Disease: H00677 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available and salivary systems. Patients with ALSG suffer from irritable eyes and dryness of the mouth. Mutations in F..., Hayashi Y, Ohuchi H, Falahat B, Bolstad AI, Jonsson R, Wahren-Herlenius M, Dahl N Mutation

  6. Patienters oplevelse af medicinsk brystkraeftbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2007-01-01

    hair loss, nausea, hot flushes, mucositis, fatigue, and cognitive side effects. Overall quality of life, social relations, and sexuality may also be affected. Endocrine therapies are characterised by hot flushes, vaginal dryness, arthralgias, and reduced libido. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-10...

  7. The relation between antihistamine medication during early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rabah M. Shawky

    2015-05-11

    May 11, 2015 ... 288. 2.2. Second generation histamine H1 receptor antagonists: . .... ria, incoordination, anxiety, insomnia, tremors, nausea and vomiting, dryness of the mouth, ... gastroschisis [18,19]. Diphenhydramine has also an oxytocin.

  8. Palmoplantar keratoderma in myxedema

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal R

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A 45-years-old woman came with diffuse yellowwaxy thickening, dryness and scaly skin of palms and soles and thickening of knuckles on dorsa of hands since 2 years. In addition, she had hoarseness of voice, weight gain, slow response, intolerance to cold, loss of pubic and axillary hair, generalised dryness and coarseness of skin, and mask like fades. Diagnosis of palmoplantar keratoderma and myxedema was confirmed by investigations.

  9. Treatment of Sjogren's syndrome based on Plain Questions Mystery Original%从《素问玄机原病式》辨治干燥综合征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘维; 律英华

    2013-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is considered to be a chronic inflammatory systemic autoimmune disease predominantly affecting the exocrine glands, which belongs to dryness arthralgia syndrome category in traditional Chinese medicine. Traditional Chinese medicine believes that dryness is an etiological factor of Sjogren's syndrome. By reviewing Plain Questions Mystery Original, we found that characteristics of pathogenic dryness with dryness of the mouth and eyeball and other major symptoms of Sjogren's syndrome are very similar. Consequently, we remedy the dryness arthralgia syndrome with an emphasis on removing wind and dispelling heat, promoting blood circulation and nourishing fluid, moistening dryness and activating qi.%干燥综合征是一个主要累及外分泌腺体的慢性炎症性自身免疫性疾病,属中医“燥痹”范畴.中医认为本病致病因素为燥邪.通过重温《素问玄机原病式》,燥邪致病特点与干燥综合征口眼干燥等主要症状极为相似,故治疗强调退风散热、活血养液、润燥通气.

  10. Land surface changes enhanced drought over the Loess Plateau

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Xianli; Liu, Meixian

    2017-04-01

    In order to prevent the severe soil-water erosion over the Loess Plateau (LP), the Chinese Government initiated large scale ecological restoration (ER) in the past half century. The ER had successfully reduced soil erosion however also changed the land surface and altered the regional water-energy balance and consequently the dryness/wetness conditions, which in turn affects the vegetation. Knowledge of the impacts of the ER on dryness/wetness conditions is essential for developing future effective ER measures. For this purpose, a new drought index, the standardized wetness index (SWI), was proposed. The SWI can represent the dryness/wetness brought by solely climate change (denoted as SWIf in this case), and the dryness/wetness brought by the joint effects of climate change and land surface change (SWI_m). A total of 13 main catchments were selected to investigate the effects of ER on dryness/wetness conditions during 1961-2009 over LP. Results showed that the overall increasing parameter n (a parameter of the Budyko formulae) could be well explained by the ER measures (R^2=1) in these catchments. The SWIf and SWIm had similar fluctuating features and exhibited downward trends. However, the SWIm had larger negative trends than the SWI_f, implying that ER actions enhanced the drought conditions over the drying LP in the past decades. Therefore, we suggest that the government should manage and maintain the existing achievements but not further expand revegetation because of unintended consequences on drought vulnerability.

  11. Satellite Observations of the Drought Factor and Their Applications to Bushfire Risk Assessment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, D.; McColl, K. A.

    2010-12-01

    Estimating moisture content of surface soil and biomass is important not only for monitoring vegetation water stress and primary production but also for assessing the risk of natural hazards such as land slide and bushfire. There exist a number of methods to estimate spatially distributed land surface dryness using remotely sensed surface emissions in visible, infrared and microwave ranges. In this work, a lumped index of surface dryness, which is reflecting the moisture content in the surface soil and biomass, is generated using the ratio of the surface temperature to the air temperature. Daily time series of surface temperature observed by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) onboard Aqua is used with gauge-interpolated air temperature over the entire region of Victoria, Australia. As an alternative source of the surface temperature, 37 GHz microwave emission observed by the Advanced Microwave Scanning Radiometer for EOS (AMSR-E) is used and compared with the MODIS-based estimates. Daily time series of the surface dryness index is then sampled in the area burned during the Black Saturday bushfire in February 2009 to explore the utility of the index for estimating the Drought Factor (DF); DF is a key input to the Forest Fire Danger Index (FFDI). The surface dryness index, based on both thermal infrared and microwave emissions, exhibit significant increase prior to the Black Saturday bushfire. The remotely sensed surface dryness index is compared with the operational Drought Factor and implications of the results are discussed.

  12. Efficacy of an emollient containing diethylene glycol/dilinoleic acid copolymer for the treatment of dry skin and pruritus in patients with senile xerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Izumi, Runa; Negi, Osamu; Suzuki, Tamie; Tominaga, Mitsutoshi; Kamo, Atsuko; Suga, Yasushi; Matsukuma, Shoko; Takamori, Kenji

    2017-03-30

    Pruritus frequently reduces quality of life (QOL) in patients with senile xerosis. This study investigated the moisturizing and antipruritic effects of a topical emollient containing a diethylene glycol/dilinoleic acid copolymer (D/DC) in patients with pruritic senile xerosis. This single-blind study involved 50 subjects, aged 50-75 years. Patients were randomized to self-applied treatment of the lower legs with 10% (n = 20) or 20% (n = 20) D/DC-containing cream, white petrolatum (n = 5), or no treatment (n = 5) thrice daily for four weeks. Clinical scores of skin dryness and scratch marks, skin conductance, and Skindex-16 were evaluated before and after treatment. The degree of pruritus was evaluated by visual analog scale (VAS) score once a week. Patients treated with 10% and 20% D/DC showed significant improvements in skin dryness and scratch mark scores, as well as increased skin conductance, compared with the untreated group, whereas white petrolatum treatment improved only skin dryness scores. Moreover, patients treated with 20% D/DC showed significant improvements in skin dryness scores and skin conductance compared with white petrolatum treatment. The VAS scores in the D/DC-treated and white petrolatum-treated groups were significantly lower than in the untreated group, being particularly lower after one week of treatment with 20% D/DC. Topical application of an emollient containing D/DC is effective in improving skin dryness and pruritus in patients with senile xerosis. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  13. Functional Characteristics of Tumor Associated Protein Spot14 and Interacting Proteins in Mouse Mammary Epithelial and Breast Cancer Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-01

    lipids were extracted using 1 mL of 2:1 isooctane -ethyl acetate. Total lipids were taken to dryness using a Savant Speed Vacuum, and lipid pellets were...acidified with 600 uL of 1 M HCL and extracted with 1 mL of isooctane . Fatty acids were taken to dryness by vacuum centrifugation and derivatized with...resuspended in 100 uL of isooctane for GC-MS analysis. Fatty acids of the de novo fatty acids synthesis pathway are known to be < 16 carbons in chain

  14. Atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stika, Catherine S

    2010-01-01

    With the loss of estrogen that occurs with menopause, physiologic and structural changes occur within the vulvovaginal mucosa that lead to a condition commonly called atrophic vaginitis. Although mild genital changes occur in most women, 10-47% of postmenopausal women will develop one or more debilitating symptoms that include vulvovaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vulvar itching or pain, recurrent urinary tract infections, as well as abnormal vaginal discharge. Topical estrogen replacement therapies reverse these mucosal changes and are effective treatments for the symptoms of atrophic vaginitis. Vaginal moisturizers and lubricants also provide symptomatic relief for vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, respectively. © 2010 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. OBJECTIVE: Our objecti...

  16. Primary Ovarian Insufficiency

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... including Night sweats Vaginal dryness Irritability, depression, or anxiety Trouble sleeping Trouble with concentration or memory What causes POI? In most cases the cause of POI is unknown. Women with certain genetic disorders, such as Turner syndrome and fragile X syndrome, ...

  17. speciation of heavy metals in street dust samples from sakarya i ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Preferred Customer

    20 dust samples collected from the streets of the Organized Industrial District in ... The presence of heavy metals pollution is of great concern since their harmful effects on human ... The collected samples stored in air and moisture .... volume in the uncovered tube was reduced almost to dryness after cooling, 25 mL of 1 M.

  18. Clinical, histological and histochemical efficiency of Biafin on the skin effects of the external cervical radiotherapy; Efficacite clinique, histologique et histochimique de la biafine sur les effets cutanes de la radiotherapie externe cervicale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizri, D.; Boisnic, S.; Benslama, L.; Branchet, C.; Bervialle, C. [Groupe de la Pitie-Salpetriere, 75 - Paris (France); Cassam-Chenai, A.; Bergogne, F. [MEDIX, 78 - Houdan (France); Kappler, M. [UMANIS, 92 - Levallois-Perret (France); Atlan, D. [Johnson et Johnson Janssen, 92 - Issy-Les-Moulineaux (France)

    2006-11-15

    The Biafin is an efficient complement of prevention for erythema during and after the radiotherapy of cancers of superior aero digestive tracts but also on the dryness and skin elasticity and on the histological level with vasodilation reduction and endothelial regeneration. (N.C.)

  19. Propanthelinbromid er effektivt mod savlen hos hunde

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition characterized by extensive sweat secretion. Systemic treatment with anticholinergics might prove effective, but patients often suffer from side effects, e.g. dryness of the mouth. We present a clinical case of severe polydipsia in a six-month-old puppy who had...

  20. 7 CFR 51.1817 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...; (8) Dryness or mushy condition; (9) Green spots; (10) Hail; (11) Insects; (12) Oil spots; (13) Scab...

  1. 7 CFR 51.1143 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... or other foreign material; (7) Disease; (8) Dryness or mushy condition; (9) Green spots; (10) Hail...

  2. 7 CFR 51.752 - U.S. No. 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946... other foreign material; (6) Disease; (7) Dryness or mushy condition; (8) Green spots; (9) Hail; (10...

  3. 78 FR 73549 - Government-Owned Inventions; Availability for Licensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-12-06

    ... system. The disease is marked by disabling dryness of the mouth and eyes as well as fatigue and pain. Researchers at the National Institute of Dental and Craniofacial Research have developed a therapy that... xerostomia-associated pain associated with Sj gren's syndrome. Potential Commercial Applications:...

  4. Coffee harvest management by manipulation of coffee flowering with plant growth regulators

    Science.gov (United States)

    The breaking of coffee flower bud dormancy is known to be associated with one or more significant rainfall events following an extended period of dryness. In Hawaii, lack of a distinct wet-dry season poses serious problems for coffee growers because flowering is spread over several months. Multiple...

  5. 全厚植皮早期修复及早期术后康复治疗手深度烧伤%Early repairing with full thickness skin graft and postoperational rehabilitation treatment on deep burn of hand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋知仁

    2002-01-01

    Background:To deep burn of hand, some adopted natural healing, some adopted removal of eschar,thin and intermediate thickness skin flap repairing.But after healing,proliferation and contracture of scar or pigmentation, obvious dryness,no brightness, bad elasticity often appeared that would reduce tolerance of abrade and impair function and appearnce of fingers.

  6. The impact of primary Sjogren's syndrome on female sexual function

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Nimwegen, Jolien F.; Arends, Suzanne; van Zuiden, Greetje S.; Vissink, Arjan; Kroese, Frans G. M.; Bootsma, Hendrika

    2015-01-01

    Objective. Prevalence of vaginal dryness and dyspareunia is high in women with primary SS (pSS). Our aim was to compare sexual function and sexual distress in women with pSS with healthy controls, as well as to assess parameters that are associated with sexual dysfunction and distress in pSS. Method

  7. Chinese restaurant syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balachandran C

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available A 24-year-old Chinese student with history of recurrent attacks of flushing with burning and dryness of face of 4 years duration showed exacerbation of the symptoms after oral provocation with 1 mg of Chinese salt. Patient was treated with 50 mg pyridoxine daily and restriction of the Chinese salt in diet with moderate improvement.

  8. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D.; Panay, N.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented. PMID:26707589

  9. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  10. Xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Kroese, F.G.M.; Bootsma, H.; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of oral dryness. The major causes are Sjögren's syndrome (SS), medication and radiotherapy to the head and neck. SS is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by infiltration of the exocrine glands, the salivary and lacrimal ones in particular. The pa

  11. Adverse effects including sexual problems associated with the use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors in a tertiary care center of Eastern Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhawesh Koirala

    2015-08-01

    Conclusion: Adverse effect (irrespective of severity was commonly seen with SSRI use. Common adverse effects seen among remitted subjects were weight gain, dryness of mouth, headache, dizziness, paresthesia, etc. SD was other important side effect. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2015; 4(4.000: 651-656

  12. Effect of streamer plasma air purifier on sbs symptoms and performance of office work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, X.J.; Fang, Lei; Wargocki, Pawel;

    2011-01-01

    level of air pollution. Intensity of SBS symptoms were indicated using visual-analogue scales. Subjects’ performance was evaluated with several computer tasks. The results show that operation of the air purifiers improved perceived air quality and reduced the odor intensity of indoor air. Eye dryness...

  13. Treatment of xerostomia with polymer-based saliva substitutes in patients with Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    vanderReijden, WA; vanderKwaak, H; Vissink, A; Veerman, ECI; Amerongen, AVN

    1996-01-01

    Objective. To determine the efficacy of 3 types of polymer-based saliva substitutes in reducing oral dryness in patients with Sjogren's syndrome (SS). Methods. Subjective efficacy of 3 different saliva substitutes (determined by self-administered questionnaire) was evaluated in a double-blind, place

  14. Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus by Acupuncture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Qin-feng; QI Li-zhen; LI Sheng; XIAO Yuan-chun

    2004-01-01

    @@ Diabetes mellitus (DM) is a syndrome characterized by abnormally elevated blood sugar because the pancreas does not release adequate insulin and/or the insulin does not work fully. In TCM, DM results from weak constitution and yin deficiency and dryness heat,belonging to the categories of"Xiaoke" and "Xiaodan".

  15. Diaper area and disposable diapers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erasala, G N; Romain, C; Merlay, I

    2011-01-01

    Since the 1960s, cloth diapers have been replaced by disposable diapers. The evolution of healthier skin in the diaper area has been demonstrated in parallel to that of disposable diapers. The improvements of disposable diapers--fit, dryness, comfort--have been based on the understanding of factors playing a role in the development of diaper dermatitis.

  16. Effects of Near-Surface Atmospheric Stability and Moisture on Wildfire Behavior and Consequences for Haines Index

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiyu Sun; Mary Ann Jenkins

    2003-01-01

    Since the 1950s, extensive research has been conducted to investigate the relationship between near-surface atmospheric conditions and large wildfire growth and occurrence. Observational studies have demonstrated that near-surface dryness (e-g., Fahnestock 1965) and atmospheric instability (e-g., Brotak and Reifsnyder 1977) are correlated with large wildfire growth and...

  17. 7 CFR 51.1148 - U.S. No. 2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards, Inspections, Marketing Practices), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS UNDER THE AGRICULTURAL MARKETING ACT OF 1946...; (8) Dryness or mushy condition; (9) Green spots; (10) Hail; (11) Insects; (12) Oil spots;...

  18. Skin Aging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Your skin changes as you age. You might notice wrinkles, age spots and dryness. Your skin also becomes thinner and loses fat, making it ... heal, too. Sunlight is a major cause of skin aging. You can protect yourself by staying out ...

  19. Early diagnosis of primary Sjögren's syndrome : EULAR-SS task force clinical recommendations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brito-Zerón, Pilar; Theander, Elke; Baldini, Chiara; Seror, Raphaèle; Retamozo, Soledad; Quartuccio, Luca; Bootsma, Hendrika; Bowman, Simon J; Dörner, Thomas; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Mariette, Xavier; Bombardieri, Stefano; de Vita, Salvatore; Mandl, Thomas; Ng, Wan-Fai; Kruize, Aike A; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Vitali, Claudio; Buyon, Jill; Izmirly, Peter; Fox, Robert; Ramos-Casals, Manuel; On Behalf Of The Eular Sjögren Syndrome Task Force, [Unknown

    2015-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome (SjS) is a systemic autoimmune disease that mainly affects the exocrine glands, leading to generalized mucosal dryness. However, primary SjS may initially present with non-sicca (systemic) manifestations. When these features appear before the onset of an overt sicca syndrome, we m

  20. EULAR Sjogren's Syndrome Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI) : development of a consensus patient index for primary Sjogren's syndrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Seror, Raphaele; Ravaud, Philippe; Mariette, Xavier; Bootsma, Hendrika; Theander, Elke; Hansen, Arne; Ramos-Casals, Manel; Doerner, Thomas; Bombardieri, Stefano; Hachulla, Eric; Brun, Johan G.; Kruize, Aike A.; Praprotnik, Sonja; Tomsic, Matija; Gottenberg, Jacques-Eric; Devauchelle, Valerie; Devita, Salvatore; Vollenweider, Cristina; Mandl, Thomas; Tzioufas, Athanasios; Carsons, Steven; Saraux, Alain; Sutcliffe, Nurhan; Vitali, Claudio; Bowman, Simon J.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives To develop a score for assessment of patients' symptoms in primary Sjogren's syndrome (SS): the EULAR SS Patient Reported Index (ESSPRI). Methods Dryness, pain, somatic and mental fatigue were identified as the main symptoms of patients with primary SS, in studies developing the Profile o

  1. Treating vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause: how important is vaginal lubricant and moisturizer composition?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D; Panay, N

    2016-04-01

    Vaginal dryness is a common condition that is particularly prevalent during and after the menopause, and is one of the symptoms of vulvovaginal atrophy/genitourinary syndrome of menopause. The impact of vaginal dryness on interpersonal relationships, quality of life, daily activities, and sexual function can be significant, but is frequently underestimated. Furthermore, barriers exist to treatment-seeking, and this condition is often underreported and undertreated. Greater education about vaginal dryness and the range of available treatments is essential to encourage more women to seek help for this condition. Personal lubricants and moisturizers are effective at relieving discomfort and pain during sexual intercourse for women with mild to moderate vaginal dryness, particularly those who have a genuine contraindication to estrogen, or who choose not to use estrogen. However, there is a distinction between lubricants and moisturizers, and notable differences between commercially available products. Women should be advised to choose a product that is optimally balanced in terms of both osmolality and pH, and is physiologically most similar to natural vaginal secretions. A series of recommendations for the use of vaginal lubricants and moisturizers, either on their own or in combination with systemic or topical hormone replacement therapy, is presented.

  2. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Trials – What’s Involved Video: A Place to Begin Family & Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye Tips > Dry Mouth Tips > Other Dryness Tips > Diet & Food Tips > Peripheral Neuropathy Tips > Surgery Tips Survival Tips Brochures & Resource Sheets Books, CDs & ...

  3. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dryness Tips > Diet & Food Tips > Peripheral Neuropathy Tips > Surgery Tips Survival Tips Brochures & Resource Sheets Books, CDs & ... Faces of Sjögren's Wake Up, Koala! Provider/Researcher Research Grants > Grant Application > Current Recipients > Past Recipients Student ...

  4. V锥流量计在蒸汽干度计量中的应用%Application of V-cone Flowmeter in Steam Quality Measurement

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国军; 申龙涉; 杜义朋; 张纯静; 官学源; 谷文渊; 魏鹏飞

    2012-01-01

    针对稠油开采过程中采用人工化验法进行蒸汽干度测量时,随机性强且稳定性差的缺陷,采用V锥流量计结合流体体积变化法测量蒸汽干度,在线监测蒸汽干度及蒸汽压力等参数.通过分析蒸汽干度与蒸汽压力以及V锥流量计测得的压差之间的关系,证实蒸汽压力、流量和压差是影响蒸汽干度的主要因素,得出蒸汽干度与压差值成近似一次函数关系的结论.%Aiming at the artificial steam quality measurement with strong randomicity and weak stability in thickened oil recovery, the method which combing V-cone flowmeter with fluid' s volume change was proposed to measure steam dryness and to monitor its pressure on line. Through analyzing the relationship between steam dryness and steam pressure and the pressure difference measured by the V-cone flowmeter shows that the steam pressure and flow rate and pressure difference mainly influence the steam dryness, and the relation between steam dryness and pressure approximates one-function relationship.

  5. Surgery, Hospitals, and Medications

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... involved in your hospital care that you have Sjögren’s syndrome. • Share information about your dryness symptoms and routine ... neck, jaw, or back. For more information on Sjögren’s syndrome, visit the SSF Web site at www.sjogrens. ...

  6. Water--Problems and Solutions. A Report Concerning the Problems and Solutions of Negative Water Balance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ewert, Alan

    Outdoor leaders constantly face problems created by water shortage and, to act effectively, must thoroughly understand the body's use of water and the ways to delay dehydration when water shortage occurs. Dehydration begins when there is a negative water balance, or more water lost than ingested, and progresses from the stage of dryness, to the…

  7. Xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Delli, K.; Spijkervet, F.K.L.; Kroese, F.G.M.; Bootsma, H.; Vissink, A.

    2014-01-01

    Xerostomia is the subjective feeling of oral dryness. The major causes are Sjögren's syndrome (SS), medication and radiotherapy to the head and neck. SS is a chronic systemic autoimmune disease characterized by infiltration of the exocrine glands, the salivary and lacrimal ones in particular. The

  8. Symptoms and perceived indoor air quality among occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruotsalainen, R.; Roennberg, R.; Majanen, A.; Seppaenen, O. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland)); Jaakkola, J.J.K. (Laboratory of Heating, Ventilating and Air Conditioning, Helsinki University of Technology, Espoo (Finland) Department of Public Health, University of Helsinki (Finland))

    1991-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of symptoms and the perception of poor indoor air quality among the occupants of houses and apartments with different ventilation systems. The study population consisted of the 473 occupants of 242 dwellings in the Helsinki metropolitan area who responded to a self-administered questionnaire (response rate 93.1%) after a two-week period of indoor air quality measurements. The symptoms of interest were those often related to poor indoor air quality including dryness or itching of the skin; dryness, irritation or itching of the eyes; nasal congestion (''blocked nose''); nasal dryness; nasal discharge (''runny nose''); sneezing; cough; breathlessness; headache or migraine; and lethargy, weakness or nausea. Perception of coldness; warmness; draught; dryness; stuffiness; and sufficiency of air exchange was also requested. The age-standardized period prevalences of the symptoms and complaints were systematically more common among the occupants of the apartments than those of the houses. The occupants of the houses with natural ventilation seemed to have more symptoms and complaints than those with balanced ventilation. However, in the apartments with blanced ventilation the occupants reported, in general, more symptoms and complaints than those with natural ventilation. (au) (9 refs.).

  9. A Guide to Medications Inducing Salivary Gland Dysfunction, Xerostomia, and Subjective Sialorrhea : A Systematic Review Sponsored by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wolff, Andy; Joshi, Revan Kumar; Ekström, Jörgen; Aframian, Doron; Pedersen, Anne Marie Lynge; Proctor, Gordon; Narayana, Nagamani; Villa, Alessandro; Sia, Ying Wai; Aliko, Ardita; McGowan, Richard; Kerr, Alexander Ross; Jensen, Siri Beier; Vissink, Arjan; Dawes, Colin

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD), xerostomia (sensation of oral dryness), and subjective sialorrhea cause significant morbidity and impair quality of life. However, no evidence-based lists of the medications that cause these disorders exist. OBJECTIVE: Our objective

  10. Sjogren's Syndrome: A Place to Begin

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... SSF Store | Contact Us About Sjögren's Symptoms > Dry Eyes >> Resources > Dry Mouth Diagnosis Treatments Patient Information Faces ... Friends Information Sjögren’s FAQs Glossary Sjögren’s Tip > Dry Eye Tips > Dry Mouth Tips > Other Dryness Tips > Diet & ...

  11. Efficacy of a synthetic polymer saliva substitute in reducing oral complaints of patients suffering from irradiation-induced xerostomia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Regelink, G; Vissink, A; Reintsema, H; Nauta, JM

    1998-01-01

    Objective: A saliva substitute based on polyglycerylmethacrylate, lactoperoxidase, and glucose oxidase (Oral Balance) has been developed. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Oral Balance on the dryness-related oral complaints in patients suffering from irradiation-induced xerostomia.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... covered flask and contents are suspended in a thermostated bath and are kept, with continual shaking, at... on a steam bath under a stream of nitrogen to a small volume (approximately 50-60 milliliters). The... quantitatively transferred to a 22-milliliter Parr bomb fusion cup and gently evaporated to dryness. To the...

  13. Gas chromatographic determination of xanthinol in plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roseboom, H.; Wiese, G.

    1979-01-01

    The determination of xanthinol in plasma is described. After extraction of the drug, together with the internal standard (papaverine hydrochloride), the extract is evaporated to dryness and the drug is derivatized with acetic anhydride for chromatography. The method is linear for 2–100μg ml-1 ; the

  14. Salivary gland hypofunction in elderly patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M

    1994-03-01

    Elderly dental patients often complain of mouth dryness. This complaint is most often caused by xerogenic medications or, less often, by systemic diseases. Aging per se has no significant clinical impact on salivary gland output. Salivary gland hypofunction, whether caused by medications or systemic disorders, have a strong negative impact on intraoral tissues, with a significant reduction in the quality of life.

  15. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K P

    2013-06-01

    To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Biochemical and clinical assays. Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = -0.73), rash (-0.56), itch (-0.927), tightness (-0.585), and all eczema (-0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits.

  16. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regan, Jamie; Ananthapadmanabhan, K.P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); and women 18 to 64 years of age (home use). Measurements: Assessments across studies included colorimetric dye exclusion to assess skin damage potential (corneosurfametry), efficacy of cosmetic product removal from skin, change from baseline in visual dryness, change from baseline in Eczema Area and Severity Index, and self-perceived eczema attributes and self-reported product preference. Results: The glycinate-based cleanser demonstrated mildness to skin components when evaluated in a corneosurfametry assay. Short-term use under exaggerated wash conditions in subjects with dryness scores <3 and erythema scores <2 (both on a 0-6 scale) indicated an initial reduction in visual dryness. In subjects with eczema, normal use resulted in significant improvements (p<0.05) at Week 4 compared with baseline in skin dryness (change from baseline = −0.73), rash (−0.56), itch (−0.927), tightness (−0.585), and all eczema (−0.756). The glycinate-based body wash removed 56 percent of a long-lasting cosmetic foundation from skin compared with less than 30 percent removed by two competitive products tested. The glycinate-based body wash was preferred over a competitive mild cleansing product overall. Conclusion: The patented glycinate-containing body wash demonstrated better product mildness and patient-preferred attributes and clinical benefits. PMID:23882306

  17. On the association between building ventilation characteristics, some indoor environmental exposures, some allergic manifestations and subjective symptom reports

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sundell, J. (Karolinska Institute, Institute of Environmental Medicine, Stockholm (Sweden))

    1994-05-01

    The aims of the present thesis are (1) to assess the associations between ventilation characteristics of homes, house dust mite infestation and allergy among children; (2) to assess the association between ventilation characteristics and occurrence of reported SBS-related symptoms among office workers; (3) to analyze associations between reported SBS-related symptoms and the reported sensation of dryness and associations between the reported sensation of dryness and physical air humidity, room characteristics and chemical factors; and (4) to study changes in total volatile organic compounds (TVOC) or formaldehyde concentration from outdoor air to room air and to study the associations between SBS-related symptom reports and concentrations of TVOC and formaldehyde in room air. (au) (256 refs.)

  18. Bilaterally enlarged parotids and sicca symptoms as a presentation of sarcoidosis: Pivotal role of aspiration cytology in diagnosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanya Sharma

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Sarcoidosis is a chronic multisystem inflammatory disease of unknown etiology characterized by widespread noncaseating granulomas in various organs. The diagnosis of sarcoidosis is based on cytological, clinicolaboratory, and radiological findings, and requires careful exclusion of other granulomatous diseases especially tuberculosis. Involvement of parotid glands is uncommon. Presentation of sarcoidosis with sicca symptoms that include dryness of eyes and mouth is an even rarer phenomenon. We present a case of multisystemic sarcoidosis presenting with dryness of eyes and mouth along with bilateral enlargement of parotid glands. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC smears showed epithelioid cell granulomas and multinucleate giant cells. Stain for acid-fast bacilli was negative. Careful cytological examination revealed crystalline structures inside the giant cells, which prompted us to evaluate the patient for sarcoidosis. This case report highlights the cytological features that can be useful in clinching the diagnosis of sarcoidosis in conjunction with clinicoradiological and laboratory findings in a clinically unusual case.

  19. Liquid chromatographic determination of furazolidone in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehly, G R; Plakas, S M; el Said, K R

    1994-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic (LC) method was developed for the quantitation of furazolidone residues in shrimp muscle. The shrimp homogenate (1.0 g) is extracted with acetonitrile, and the extract is taken to dryness. The residue is dissolved in acetonitrile, and the solution is passed through alumina and C18 cleanup columns. The eluate is taken to dryness and reconstituted in a suitable solvent for reversed-phase (C18) LC with UV detection at 365 nm. Recoveries of furazolidone from shrimp homogenates spiked from 5 to 80 ng/g ranged from 74.3 to 79.7%, and relative standard deviations (RSDs) were 5.0-8.9%. RSDs for incurred furazolidone quantitated at 5.9 and 9.2 ng/g were 6.6 and 7.6%, respectively.

  20. PÓ DE FOLHAS SECAS E VERDES DE NIM SOBRE A QUALIDADE DAS SEMENTES DE FEIJÃO CAUPI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Damiana Cleuma de Medeiros

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available With objective to study the effect of the powder of neem (Azadirachta indica L. dryness and green leaves on the quality of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. seeds, was installed an experiment in the technology of seeds laboratory of the ESAM-RN. Was utilized seeds drip-gold cultured originated of Sierra of honey municipality, submitted four doses (0,25; 050; 0,75; 1,0g by fifty seeds of powder of neem dryness and green leaves. The experiment was in completely randomized design with eight replications in a factorial arrangement 2 x 4 + 1. The values were submitted variance analyses and compared through tukey test with 1% probability used SISVAR program. NPDL and NPGL caused no toxic effect to seedlings as evaluated through first count of emergenced seedlings, germination rate and dry matter loss in seedlings.

  1. Daily consumption of the collagen supplement Pure Gold Collagen® reduces visible signs of aging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borum

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Maryam Borumand, Sara Sibilla Minerva Research Labs Ltd., London, UK Abstract: With age, changes in the metabolic processes of structural components of the skin lead to visible signs of aging, such as increased dryness and wrinkle formation. The nutritional supplement, Pure Gold Collagen®, which consists of hydrolyzed collagen, hyaluronic acid, vitamins, and minerals, was developed to counteract these signs. An open-label study was conducted to investigate the effects of this nutritional supplement on skin properties. Supplementation with 50 mL of Pure Gold Collagen on a daily basis for 60 days led to a noticeable reduction in skin dryness, wrinkles, and nasolabial fold depth. In addition, a significant increase in collagen density and skin firmness was observed after 12 weeks. The data from this study suggest that Pure Gold Collagen can counteract signs of natural aging. Keywords: hydrolyzed collagen, antiaging, wrinkles, firmness, skin

  2. The Last Possible Outposts for Life on Mars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davila, Alfonso F; Schulze-Makuch, Dirk

    2016-02-01

    The evolution of habitable conditions on Mars is often tied to the existence of aquatic habitats and largely constrained to the first billion years of the planet. Here, we propose an alternate, lasting evolutionary trajectory that assumes the colonization of land habitats before the end of the Hesperian period (ca. 3 billion years ago) at a pace similar to life on Earth. Based on the ecological adaptations to increasing dryness observed in dryland ecosystems on Earth, we reconstruct the most likely sequence of events leading to a late extinction of land communities on Mars. We propose a trend of ecological change with increasing dryness from widespread edaphic communities to localized lithic communities and finally to communities exclusively found in hygroscopic substrates, reflecting the need for organisms to maximize access to atmospheric sources of water. If our thought process is correct, it implies the possibility of life on Mars until relatively recent times, perhaps even the present.

  3. Suppurative dacroadenitis causing ocular sicca syndrome in classic Wegener′s granulomatosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khanna Dhanita

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Wegener′s granulomatosis (WG is a multisystem vasculitic disorder which can commonly afflict various components of the eye. Here we describe some unusual ocular manifestations of the disease in one patient. A young male with history of upper respiratory tract symptoms including epistaxis, nasal stuffiness and maxillary sinus pain presented with bilateral lacrimal gland abscess and ptosis. Lacrimal gland biopsy revealed granulomatous vasculitis. Lung cavities, positive cytoplasmic-antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and high titers of serine proteinase-3 antibodies confirmed the diagnosis of WG. The patient developed dry eyes after a month of first presentation. There was no dryness of mouth, suggesting the absence of salivary gland involvement, and antinuclear antibodies as well as antibodies against Ro and La antigens classical of primary Sjogren′s syndrome were absent. Granulomatous vasculitis of lacrimal gland leading to abscess formation and dryness of eyes has not been described in WG and reflects the aggressive nature of inflammatory process in this disease.

  4. Psychophysical dimensions of tactile perception of textures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okamoto, Shogo; Nagano, Hikaru; Yamada, Yoji

    2013-01-01

    This paper reviews studies on the tactile dimensionality of physical properties of materials in order to determine a common structure for these dimensions. Based on the commonality found in a number of studies and known mechanisms for the perception of physical properties of textures, we conclude that tactile textures are composed of three prominent psychophysical dimensions that are perceived as roughness/smoothness, hardness/softness, and coldness/warmness. The roughness dimension may be divided into two dimensions: macro and fine roughness. Furthermore, it is reasonable to consider that a friction dimension that is related to the perception of moistness/dryness and stickiness/slipperiness exists. Thus, the five potential dimensions of tactile perception are macro and fine roughness, warmness/coldness, hardness/softness, and friction (moistness/dryness, stickiness/slipperiness). We also summarize methods such as psychological experiments and mathematical approaches for structuring tactile dimensions and their limitations.

  5. How to optimize solids control economics, efficiency. [Waste management planning for oil and gas well cuttings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, L. (International Drilling Consultants, Houston, TX (United States))

    1994-09-01

    Solids control efficiency can be more effectively managed using calculations that include desired removal efficiency, the amount of drilled solids in the mud discard stream, the targeted drilled solids concentration and the barrels of drilling fluid that must be added for each barrel of solids discarded. The following discussion shows: how dilution is necessary; how too much dilution creates problems with excessive drilling fluid volumes and excessive drilling fluid wastes; how removal efficiencies affect the drilling fluid costs; and how the dryness of the drilled solids affects drilling fluid and drilling waste costs. Three primary variables--dryness of discarded solids, targeted drilled solids concentration in the drilling fluid and removal efficiency--are important in evaluating a rig solids management system. They all play a role in minimizing drilling fluid and drilling waste costs.

  6.   Combination treatment of monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna with alarm and desmopressin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamperis, Konstantinos; Hagstrøm, Søren; Rittig, Søren

    2006-01-01

      AIM To retrospectively evaluate the combination treatment with alarm and desmopressin in a population of children with monosymptomatic enuresis nocturna (MNE). MATERIAL AND METHODS 218 children with MNE (age 5-14y) treated in our outpatient clinics were investigated in the present study. All...... children had completed the diagnostic procedures of our center comprising 2-week home recordings, desmopressin titration, uroflowmetry and urinalysis. The latest ICCS standardization was used for characterizations. All children were treated with the enuresis alarm alone or in combination with desmopressin...... complete dryness. We found no differences with regards to age, gender, enuresis frequency, average and maximal voided volumes between children that achieved dryness with alarm or combination of alarm and desmopressin. However, children ending in combination treatment shared significantly higher nocturnal...

  7. Pulmonary rehabilitation after total laryngectomy: a randomized cross-over clinical trial comparing two different heat and moisture exchangers (HMEs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herranz, Jesús; Espiño, María Alvarez; Morado, Carolina Ogen

    2013-09-01

    Post-laryngectomy heat and moisture exchanger (HME) use is known to have a beneficial effect on tracheal climate, pulmonary symptoms and related aspects. This study aims to investigate differences in clinical effects between the first and second generation Provox HMEs. The second generation (Provox XtraHME) has better humidification properties than the first generation (Provox HME), and has been shown to further improve tracheal climate. Forty-five laryngectomized patients, who were already using an HME, participated in a prospective, randomized cross-over clinical study in which each HME was used for 6 weeks. Results showed that for most parameters studied, the second generation HME performed equally well or better than the first generation HME. The improvement in tracheal climate translated into patients reporting significantly less tracheal dryness with the second generation than with the first generation (p = 0.039). Using an HME with better humidification properties is related to a reduction in tracheal dryness in our study population.

  8. Comparative analysis of antioxidant activity and functional components of the ethanol extract of lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) from various growing regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xu; Shen, Jian; Chang, Kyung Ja; Kim, Sung Hoon

    2014-07-01

    The variations in antioxidant activity and concentration of functional components in the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds and rhizomes based on the growing region and dryness were investigated. Free radical scavenging activity, total phenolic and flavonoid content, and concentration of several specific flavonoids and alkaloids in the ethanol extracts of lotus were measured. Antioxidant activity and its correlative total phenolic content varied characteristically depending on the growing region and dryness. High-perfomance liquid chromatography analysis showed that the ethanol extracts of lotus seeds from Vietnam (Ho Chi Minh City), raw rhizomes from Korea (Siheung), and dried rhizomes from Japan (Nigata) had the greatest specific flavonoid content. The ethanol extracts of seeds from China (Hubei), raw rhizomes from Japan (Nigata), and dried rhizomes from Korea (Siheung) had the greatest specific alkaloid content. Astragaline, rutin, isoquercetin, nuciferine, dauricine, isoliensinine, and neferine were identified in lotus rhizomes for the first time in this study.

  9. An unusual case of recurrent chest infections.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dahab, Taqua

    2017-08-01

    This case presentation relates to a 53 year old male, cachectic in appearance, who presented with progressively worsening dyspnoea, cough, intermittent haemoptysis and a history of nasal dryness ongoing over five months. The patient had received multiple courses of oral antibiotics for suspected community acquired pneumonia with no significant improvement. He was referred to our Respiratory Department for further evaluation of his symptoms. His HRCT showed right middle lobe consolidation with central cavitations. Furthermore, the transbronchial biopsy had been performed and the cytological examination revealed lipid laden macrophage with interstitial inflammatory changes. With return to the patient over the counter drug history, he described the frequent use of petroleum jelly to alleviate the symptoms of nasal dryness. This is the first report case of exogenous lipoid pneumonia presented with haemoptysis and cavitations in the HRCT.

  10. Clinical criteria for the diagnosis of salivary gland hypofunction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navazesh, M; Christensen, C; Brightman, V

    1992-07-01

    There is considerable difficulty in the making of initial clinical decisions as to whether a given patient has salivary gland hypofunction, and hence requires additional salivary gland evaluation. This study identified a set of four clinical measures that, together, successfully predicted the presence or absence of salivary gland hypofunction. The four measures were: dryness of lips, dryness of buccal mucosa, absence of saliva produced by gland palpation, and total DMFT; they were derived from discriminant analysis of data collected from 71 individuals with normal and low salivary flow rates. These measures are proposed as criteria for clinical decision-making, as well as for classification of patients in studies of salivary gland dysfunction syndromes. This study also identified unstimulated whole salivary flow rates of 0.12-0.16 mL/min as the critical range separating individuals with salivary gland hypofunction from those with normal gland function.

  11. 視神経炎および末梢神経障害を合併したシェーグレン症候群の1例

    OpenAIRE

    上村, 史朗; 土肥, 和紘; 藤井, 謙裕; 籠島, 忠; 石川, 兵衞

    1992-01-01

    A 68-year-old woman was admitted because of progressive dryness of the mouth. She had suffered from optic neuritis of the right eye 2 years before admission. Physical examination revealed marked dry mouth, keratoconjunctivitis, optic nerve atrophyin the right eye and glove and stocking type paresthesia. Laboratory examination showed positive antinuclear antibody, positive anti SS-A antiboby and mild pleocytosis of cerebrospinal fluid. Sialography and salivary gland biopsy confirmed her Sjögre...

  12. Safety and efficacy of personal care products containing colloidal oatmeal

    OpenAIRE

    Criquet M; Roure R; Dayan L; Nollent V; Bertin C

    2012-01-01

    Maryline Criquet,1 Romain Roure,1 Liliane Dayan,2 Virginie Nollent,1 Christiane Bertin11Johnson & Johnson Santé Beauté France, Issy les Moulineaux, 2Independent consultant dermatologist, Paris, FranceBackground: Colloidal oatmeal is a natural ingredient used in the formulation of a range of personal care products for relief of skin dryness and itchiness. It is also used as an adjunctive product in atopic dermatitis. The safety of personal care products used on vu...

  13. Clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balci O

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Ozlem Balci Ophthalmology Department, Kolan Hospitalium Group, Istanbul, Turkey Purpose: To evaluate the clinical characteristics of patients with conjunctivochalasis (CCh. Methods and materials: This retrospective study enrolled 30 subjects diagnosed with conjunctivochalasis. Complete ophthalmic examination, including visual acuity assessment, slit-lamp examination, applanation tonometry, dilated funduscopy, tear break-up time, Schirmer 1 test, and fluorescein staining were performed in all patients. Age, sex, laterality, ocular history, symptoms, and clinical findings were recorded. Results: The study included 50 eyes from 30 cases. Ages ranged from 45 to 80 years, with a mean age of 65±10 years. CChs grading were as follows: 30 (60% eyes with grade 1 CCh; 15 (30% eyes with grade 2 CCh; and five (10% eyes with grade 3 CCh. CCh was located in the inferior bulbar conjunctiva in 45 (90% eyes, and in the remaining five (10% CCh was located in the superior bulbar conjunctiva. Ten (33.3% patients had no symptoms. Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, tired eye feeling, and epiphora were the symptoms encountered in the remaining twenty (63.6% patients. Altered tear meniscus was noted in all cases. The mean tear break-up time was 7.6 seconds. The mean Schirmer 1 test score was 7 mm. Pinguecula was found in ten patients. Conclusion: Dryness, eye pain, redness, blurry vision, and epiphora were the main symptoms in patients with CCh. Dryness, eye pain, and blurry vision were worsened during downgaze and blinking. So CCh should be taken into consideration in the differential diagnosis of chronic ocular irritation and epiphora. Keywords: ocular irritation, epiphora, dryness, eye pain, blurry vision

  14. Modeling the Marginal Value of Rainforest Losses

    OpenAIRE

    Strand, Jon

    2015-01-01

    A rainforest can be modeled as a dynamic asset subject to various risks, including risk of fire. Any small part of the forest can be in one of two states: either untouched by forest fire, or already damaged by fire, in which case there is both a local forest loss and increased dryness over a broader area. In this paper, two Bellman equations are constructed, one for unharmed forest and a s...

  15. Cultural Resources Survey and Literature Review of Planned Drainage Improvements Along and Adjacent to Ditch 1, Mississippi and Poinsett Counties, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-01-01

    Archaic, however, that the Hypsithermal period of maximum dryness occurs and it may have been that the ecological effect of this clima - tic trend was...organization of labor and the establishment of widespread complex channels of communication primarily through economic exchange and local redistribution...centralized authorities with the power to draft labor for public works, initiate highly developed means of redistribution that involved, for the first time

  16. Propantheline bromide is effective against dog drooling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gyldenløve, Mette; Thyssen, Jacob P

    2015-01-01

    Hyperhidrosis is a common condition characterized by extensive sweat secretion. Systemic treatment with anticholinergics might prove effective, but patients often suffer from side effects, e.g. dryness of the mouth. We present a clinical case of severe polydipsia in a six-month-old puppy who had ...... accidentally consumed 50 tablets of propantheline bromide 15 mg. Afterwards the puppy suffered from severe polydipsia, which cleared without treatment after three days....

  17. Assessment of Potential Long Term Health Effects on Army Human Test Subjects of Relevant Biological and Chemical Agents, Drugs, Medications and Substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-29

    cardiovascular effects disappeared in most subjects after 24 hours. Decreased body temperature , dryness of the mouth and throat, nasal stuffiness, apathy...or ingestion into the human body readily results in its metabolism to malaoxon, which is substan- tially more toxic. In studies of the effects of...from the Pre- cursors of Human Muscle Regeneration." Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 291, no. 6 (2006): R1651-6. 42. Yamasue, H, O. Abe, K

  18. Vaginal Atrophy following Long-Term Depot Medroxyprogesterone Acetate Use: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christie Walker

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (DMPA is a commonly used form of contraception, with noncontraceptive benefits for the user. The mode of action is through the suppression of ovulation. It leads to hypoestrogenism which causes dryness of the vagina and dyspareunia. We present in this paper a patient that was very symptomatic with regard to vaginal atrophic changes determined by vaginal cytology. This side effect may become increasingly more common as we see more long-term use of DMPA.

  19. Impact of Backbone Rigidity on the Photomechanical Response of Glassy, Azobenzene-Functionalized Polyimides (Postprint)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-13

    filter cake was washed with ethyl acetate, and then the filtrate was evaporated to dryness on a rotary evaporator to afford 4.214 g (95%) of off...5−8 Polyimides represent an important class of heat- resistant polymers useful in a variety of applications deriving from their excellent combination...h and filtered. The filtrate was diluted with ethyl acetate (1200 mL), and the organic layer was separated. The organic layer was washed three times

  20. ON RELATION OF SOIL MOISTURE TO DEVELOPMENT OF RICE BLAST DISEASE WITH SPECIAL REFERENCE TO RESULTS OF INOCULATION EXPERIMENTS ON LEAVES AND SPIKE PEDICELS OF PLANTS GROWN IN SOILS DIFFERING IN MOISTURE AND IN AMOUNTS OF SILICA AND FERTILIZER,

    Science.gov (United States)

    moisture content, and fertilizer and silica application. The susceptibility of the rice plant to rice blast disease varied inversely with the moisture...content of the soil irrespective of the amount of fertilizer or silica applied or of the stage of growth of the plant. Dryness of the soil tended to...fertilization were more easily infected than plants grown on irrigated soil with double the amount of fertilizer . This proves that even with double the

  1. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); an...

  2. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANGZhiwei; ZHAIPanmao; ZHANGHongtao

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions disolaved different trends.

  3. Tolerance and acceptability of 14 surgical and hygienic alcohol-based hand rubs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girard, R; Bousquet, E; Carré, E; Bert, C; Coyault, C; Coudrais, S; Regard, A; Garcia, E Laprugne; Valdeyron, M L; Pergay, V

    2006-07-01

    Tests were performed under working practice conditions to measure the tolerance and acceptability of commercially available hand rubs with proven efficacy. The products were compared with those in current use at the Hospices Civils de Lyon for surgical hand disinfection (Sterillium) and hygienic hand disinfection (Purell) to obtain information for public sector purchases. The 12 test products were Alcogel H, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Dermalcool, Manugel Plus, Manugel Plus NPC, Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel, Purell 85, Spitacid, Spitagel and Sterillium Gel. They were tested from mid-November to mid-April over four periods of three weeks, separated by two-week intervals during which the customary product was re-introduced. Participation of hospital wards and theatres was voluntary. Skin dryness and irritation were scored before and after each test period. Acceptability and ease of use were assessed by means of a questionnaire. Among the eight surgical hand rubs, only Manurub Liquid, Manurub Gel and Manugel Plus NPC did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Sterillium. For the 10 hygienic hand rubs, differences were noted depending upon the test period. Overall, Assanis Pro, Clinogel, Purell 85 and Sterillium Gel did not cause significantly more dryness and irritation than Purell. However, over the (colder) first three test periods, Assanis Pro and Sterillium Gel caused more irritation and Purell 85 caused more dryness than Purell. Responses to the questionnaires on acceptability indicated that users preferred their customary hand rubs (Sterillium and Purell). As these field tests involving many participants did not identify any superior products, previous purchase orders were renewed.

  4. Variation of drought over northern China during 1950-2000%1950-2000年中国北方干旱气候变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王志伟; 翟盘茂; 张洪涛

    2003-01-01

    Based on China's monthly precipitation data of 629 stations during 1950-2000, we calculated Z indices and separated them into seven Dryness and Wemess grades. Further, a drought area index was proposed to study changes in drought severity in northern China. The results revealed that the different severity of droughts all showed expanding trends in northern China's main agricultural area. Moreover, the area coverage of droughts in different seasons and different regions displayed different trends.

  5. The Effect of Evening Primrose Oil for the Prevention of Xerotic Cheilitis in Acne Patients Being Treated with Isotretinoin: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Background The most common adverse effects of oral isotretinoin are cheilitis, skin dryness, dry eyes, and conjunctivitis, whereas evening primrose oil (EPO) is known to improve skin moisture and transepidermal water loss (TEWL) in healthy adults and atopic patients. Objective To evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of EPO in preventing xerotic cheilitis in acne patients being treated with oral isotretinoin. Methods Forty Korean volunteers of Fitzpatrick skin types III and IV, having mod...

  6. EXPOSE-R2, the 3rd successful EXPOSE mission – a mission and mission ground reference overview

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    For nearly 2 years the 3rd ESA EXPOSE mission, the 2nd on the Russian Zvezda module of the ISS, exposed a variety of astrobiological samples to space and simulated Mars environmental conditions. Various chemical compounds and organisms like bacteria, archaea, fungi, plant seeds, lychens, mosses and animal eggs and larvae from the international experiments BIOMEX, BOSS, P.S.S. and the IBMP-experiment were exposed to space vacuums dryness, extraterrestrial short wavelength UV, radiation and tem...

  7. A Novel Glycinate-based Body Wash: Clinical Investigation Into Ultra-mildness, Effective Conditioning, and Improved Consumer Benefits

    OpenAIRE

    Regan, Jamie; Mollica, Leonel-Maximo; Ananthapadmanabhan, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To assess the properties of a novel body wash containing the mild surfactant glycinate. Design: Biochemical and clinical assays. Setting: Research laboratories and clinical sites in the United States and Canada. Participants: Women 18 to 65 years of age (cleansing efficacy); male and female subjects 26 to 63 years of age with mild or moderate dryness and erythema (leg-controlled application test); subjects 5 to 65 years of age with mild-to-moderate eczema (eczema compatibility); an...

  8. LEVANTAMENTO DAS PLANTAS MEDICINAIS CULTIVADAS E COMERCIALIZADAS POR HORTICULTORES NO MUNICÍPIO DE ITUVERAVA-SP

    OpenAIRE

    GALDIANO, Lívia Cordaro; CHICONE, Adriano César Vieira; NUNES, Luiz Gustavo; FREITAS, Maristela de Paula Nunes; IAMAGUTI, Priscila Sawasaki

    2007-01-01

    On the survey of the use and the trade of medicinal plants is necessary in first place differentiate many category of the yield. Some plants are traded such as, usually in dryness full kind or pulverized, others come like extracts, others like distils oils or express and finally many of them are traded on the one chemical component defined kind. Then, the present work, has like achievement to rise all the varieties of medicinal plants cultivated and traded by market gardeners of...

  9. Patienters oplevelse af medicinsk brystkraeftbehandling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønvold, Mogens; Jensen, Anders Bonde

    2007-01-01

    Medical treatments including chemotherapy, endocrine therapy, and antibody therapy effectively reduce the risk of recurrence after breast cancer and are also used against metastatic disease. This article reviews patients' experience of these treatments. Common side effects of chemotherapy include...... hair loss, nausea, hot flushes, mucositis, fatigue, and cognitive side effects. Overall quality of life, social relations, and sexuality may also be affected. Endocrine therapies are characterised by hot flushes, vaginal dryness, arthralgias, and reduced libido. Udgivelsesdato: 2007-Sep-10...

  10. Sjogren′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ankur Jethlia

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjogren′s syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disorder. It is characterized by dysfunction and destruction of exocrine glands associated with lymphocytic infiltrates and immunological hyperactivity. Salivary and lacrimal glands are the most affected, thus leading to mouth and eye dryness. The disorder can occur alone (it is then known as primary SS or in association with another autoimmune disease (it is then known as secondary SS. The aim of this article is provide a complete overview of SS.

  11. Efficacy and Tolerability of Fitostimoline (Vaginal Cream, Ovules, and Vaginal Washing) and of Benzydamine Hydrochloride (Tantum Rosa Vaginal Cream and Vaginal Washing) in the Topical Treatment of Symptoms of Bacterial Vaginosis

    OpenAIRE

    Papa, R; Ascione, L.; Rullo, V.; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M.; Petrella, E.; Boselli, F.; Saponati, G.

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0–3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms sc...

  12. Microcapillary sign of flap alignment in femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fawzy, Fathy; Wahba, Sherine S; Fawzy, Nader

    2016-01-01

    We present an observational sign that ensures perfect alignment during femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS LASIK). Alignment is assured when a microsponge is used to dry the flap and the area of dryness exceeds the area of direct touch of the microsponge. The area might even reach the whole circumference of the flap at the first touch. This sign of alignment can be explained by microcapillary action. This sign was not elicited in flaps created by a microkeratome. PMID:27799731

  13. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grivet-Seyve, Mathieu; Santoro, Francine; Lachmann, Nadège

    2017-01-01

    Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF) moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners. This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3-5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability. The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female). At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44) showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days' treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial redness, did not worsen rosacea, and was easily incorporated into their skincare regimen. Half would switch to the product, and 80% of subjects would buy and recommend the product. The product was well tolerated in rosacea-prone subjects, producing objective

  14. Menopausal symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Rymer, Janice; Morris, Edward P.

    2011-01-01

    In the UK, the median age for onset of menopausal symptoms is 45.5 to 47.5 years. Symptoms associated with the menopause include vasomotor symptoms, sleeplessness, mood changes, reduced energy levels, loss of libido, vaginal dryness, and urinary symptoms.Many symptoms, such as hot flushes, are temporary, but those resulting from reduced hormone levels, such as genital atrophy, may be permanent.

  15. Laboratory Evaluation of the Toxicity of Nitrocellulose to Aquatic Organisms

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-09-01

    Microcystis aeruginosa and Anabeana fios- aguae ; the chlcrophyte (green) Selenastrum capricornutum; and the chrysophyte (diatom) Navicula pelliculcsa...pelliculosa and of optical density for A. flos- aguae were performed. Chloro- phyll a analyses were conducted according to the procedures of Strickland...vacuum flask and taken to complete dryness under vacuum. The residue was treated with 4 mi of acetic acid, diluted to 100 mi with 0.5% w/v of

  16. Attitudes to sexuality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-11-29

    Many older people enjoy an active sex life although they are likely to experience problems relating to poor health or lack of understanding from healthcare professionals. Health issues include male sexual dysfunction resulting from medication and conditions such as diabetes, vascular disease or prostatic surgery. Older women may experience urogenital atrophy causing dryness, itching and pain on intercourse. Psychological problems such as depression are also associated with poor sexual function.

  17. Understanding and Preventing Computer Vision Syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    REDDY SC; LOH KY

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syn...

  18. The nuclear safety and the radiation protection in France in 2003; La surete nucleaire et la radioprotection en France en 2003

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2004-03-15

    Nine points are reviewed: the law project relative to the safety and openness in nuclear field, the safety of the European PWR type Reactor, the priorities in radiation protection, inspection of radiation protection, the surveillance of patients exposure to ionizing radiations, the hot days and dryness of summer 2003 and the functioning of nuclear power plant, the national planning of radioactive waste management, the becoming of high level and years living radioactive waste, the European nuclear policy. (N.C.)

  19. High-intensity drying processes -- Impulse drying: Report 15 (final report). Production of linerboard on a pilot paper machine, subsequent commercial converting trials and preliminary economic assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1999-04-01

    In September 1998, 33{number_sign} liner was produced on the {number_sign}4 pilot machine under both single-felted wet pressing and impulse drying conditions. In October 1998, the pilot produced liner and commercial liner were converted to combined board and corrugated boxes at a commercial box plant. In January 1999, linerboard, medium, and combined board and box testing were completed. The pilot trials demonstrated that 33{number_sign} liner could be impulse dried at a reel speed of 380 m/min. Press dryness was improved by as much as 4 points, while CD STFI and CD ring crush were improved by more than 10%. Improvements to the smoothness of heated side of sheet were also realized. Commercial box plant converting trials demonstrated that impulse dried linerboard can be used to increase ECT and box compression strength by as much as 10%. As anticipated, print quality was found to be superior. A preliminary economic analysis was performed in which an impulse dryer would increase press dryness by 4 points and would allow the basis weight to be reduced by 10%. The economic model showed that the 4 points in dryness would translate to a 17% tonnage increase. Applying the 10% basis weight reduction resulted in an increase in productivity, on an area basis, of 30%. The pulp cost savings was found to outweigh any additional electric power costs.

  20. On the use of Standardized Precipitation Index(SPI) for drought intensity assessment

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Monthly rainfall data from June to October for 39 years was used to generate Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI) values based on Gamma distribution for a low rainfall and a high rainfall district of Andhra Pradesh state, India. Comparison of SPI, with actual rainfall and rainfall deviation from the mean indicated that SPI values under-estimate the intensity of dryness/wetness when the rainfall is very low/very high respectively. As a result, the SPI in the worst drought years of 2002 and 2006 in the low rainfall district has indicated only moderate dryness instead of extreme dryness. The range of SPI values of the high rainfall district indicated better stretching, compared to that of the low rainfall district. Further, the SPI values of longer time scale (2-, 3- and 4- months) showed an extended range compared to 1-month, but the sensitivity in drought years has not improved significantly. To ascertain whether non normality of SPI is a possible reason, normality tests were conducted. The Shapiro-Wilk stat...

  1. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yi Chuixiang; Wolbeck, John; Xu Xiyan [School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Queens College, City University of New York, NY 11367 (United States); Ricciuto, Daniel [Environmental Sciences Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Li Runze [Department of Statistics, Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802 (United States); Nilsson, Mats [Department of Forest Ecology, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences, SE-901 83 Umeaa (Sweden); Aires, Luis [CESAM and Department of Environmental Engineering, School of Technology and Management, Polytechnic Institute of Leiria (Portugal); Albertson, John D [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 22708-0287 (United States); Ammann, Christof [Federal Research Station Agroscope Reckenholz-Taenikon, Reckenholzstrasse 191, 8046 Zuerich (Switzerland); Arain, M Altaf [School of Geography and Earth Sciences, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 (Canada); De Araujo, Alessandro C [Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia, Programa LBA, Campus-II, Manaus-Amazonas 69060 (Brazil); Aubinet, Marc [University of Liege, Gembloux Agro-Bio Tech, Unit of Biosystem Physics, 2 Passage des Deportes, 5030 Gembloux (Belgium); Aurela, Mika [Finnish Meteorological Institute, Climate Change Research, FI-00101 Helsinki (Finland); Barcza, Zoltan [Department of Meteorology, Eoetvoes Lorand University, H-1117 Budapest, Pazmany setany 1/A (Hungary); Barr, Alan [Climate Research Division, Environment Canada, Saskatoon, SK, S7N 3H5 (Canada); Berbigier, Paul [INRA, UR1263 EPHYSE, Villenave d' Ornon F-33883 (France); Beringer, Jason [School of Geography and Environmental Science, Monash University, Clayton, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Bernhofer, Christian [Institute of Hydrology and Meteorology, Dresden University of Technology, Pienner Strasse 23, D-01737, Tharandt (Germany)

    2010-07-15

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate-carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO{sub 2} exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 deg. N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at {approx} 16 deg. C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO{sub 2} uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  2. Climate control of terrestrial carbon exchange across biomes and continents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciuto, Daniel M [ORNL; Gu, Lianhong [ORNL

    2010-07-01

    Understanding the relationships between climate and carbon exchange by terrestrial ecosystems is critical to predict future levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide because of the potential accelerating effects of positive climate carbon cycle feedbacks. However, directly observed relationships between climate and terrestrial CO2 exchange with the atmosphere across biomes and continents are lacking. Here we present data describing the relationships between net ecosystem exchange of carbon (NEE) and climate factors as measured using the eddy covariance method at 125 unique sites in various ecosystems over six continents with a total of 559 site-years. We find that NEE observed at eddy covariance sites is (1) a strong function of mean annual temperature at mid- and high-latitudes, (2) a strong function of dryness at mid- and low-latitudes, and (3) a function of both temperature and dryness around the mid-latitudinal belt (45 N). The sensitivity of NEE to mean annual temperature breaks down at ~ 16 C (a threshold value of mean annual temperature), above which no further increase of CO2 uptake with temperature was observed and dryness influence overrules temperature influence.

  3. 信息动态%DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL BY ASE-GPC.SPE PURIFICATION AND HPLC DETECTION

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    A new method using ASE combined with solid-phase extraction and GPC cleanup followed by HPLCtandem UV and fluorescence detection has been established for the quantitative determination of 16 PAHs in soils. In the method, the samples were extracted by ASE with acetone: dichloromethane (V:V, 50:50 )at 120 ℃, and dissolved in 9 mL hexane: ethyl acetate ( V: V, 50:50 ) after taking the extract to dryness with evaporation at 25 ℃. Then the extract was injected into GPC column with hexane:ethyl acetate( V: V,50:50)as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 5 mL·min-1 and GPC vacuum was 130 mbr/140 mbr. The 1340-3380 s fraction was collected for subsequent analysis. The portions collected from GPC were dissolved in 2 mL dichloromethane after taking the extract to dryness with nitrogen gas. Then the 2 mL extractions were purified by SPE using Florisil cartridges, eluted with 5 mL dichloromethane. Finally, the extraction was collected from SPE and dissolved in acetonitrile after taking it to dryness with nitrogen gas. The correlation coefficient of each PAH was r2 >0.99, the recovery fell within 62.9%-118.9%, and the relative standard derivation of PAHs was between 0.6% and 19.9%.

  4. Salivary gland pathology as a new finding in Treacher Collins syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Østerhus, Ingvild N; Skogedal, Nina; Akre, Harriet; Johnsen, Ulf L-H; Nordgarden, Hilde; Åsten, Pamela

    2012-06-01

    In our clinical experience, individuals with Treacher Collins syndrome (TCS) present with more complaints of oral dryness and higher caries activity than seen in the general population. A literature review identified no reports of salivary gland pathology and glandular dysfunction associated with TCS. Twenty-one Norwegian individuals with TCS underwent ultrasound examinations and salivary secretion tests of the submandibular and parotid glands. Intraglandular architecture patterns were analyzed and subsequently classified as either normal, dysplastic, or aplastic. The results were compared with salivary secretion rates and subjective reports of oral dryness. Ultrasound examination revealed pathological appearance of the salivary glands in approximately half (48%) of the individuals, with dysplasia identified in six (29%) participants and aplasia in four (19%). Almost all participants had co-existing low salivary secretion rates. A few individuals had low salivary secretion rates despite normal appearance of the salivary gland tissue on ultrasound examination. Subjective experience of oral dryness did not correlate significantly with low salivary secretion rates. We conclude that mild to severe salivary gland pathology and dysfunction can be associated with TCS. Further investigation is needed to clarify this association.

  5. Treatment for an Adult Patient With Psoriasis with Traditional Korean Medicine, Especially Sa-Am Acupuncture and Herbal Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Yong-Cheol

    2016-04-01

    In this clinical study, the author tried to prove that meridians, each having its own characteristics, exist in humans through which skin diseases can be treated. Three meridians, the hand tai-yin meridian, the hand tai-yang meridian, and the shao-yang meridian, were used to control lung dryness and heat and liver fire. By using the LU9 and SP3 acupoints to tonify the hand tai-yin meridian and the SI3 acupoint to tonify the hand tai-yang meridian, we could sedate lung dryness and heat, and by using the TW2 acupoint to sedate the hand shao-yang meridian, we could sedate liver fire. As psoriasis is known not to respond well to many clinical treatments, this report presents the case of an adult woman with psoriasis who was effectively treated using traditional Korean medicine (TKM). The patient was diagnosed with psoriasis based on lung dryness and heat and liver fire. Acupuncture and herbal medicine based on the theory of Sa-Am acupuncture were given to the patient. With this treatment, her symptoms completely disappeared in ∼14 months. This study gives a preliminary indication that TKM, especially Sa-Am acupuncture, can be effective for treating psoriasis. Thus, further study is warranted.

  6. The application of soy isoflavones for subjective symptoms and objective signs of vaginal atrophy in menopause: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, M; Sadeghi, R; Roudsari, R Latifnejad

    2016-01-01

    Vaginal atrophy is a common complaint among many women in their menopause, presenting with a cluster of symptoms including dryness, itching, burning/soreness, discharge, irritation and painful intercourse. We searched for existing pertinent data in three chief registries. Specified time brackets included 1996-2013 for Medline, 1990-2013 for Scopus and 2013 for Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (issue 1). Of 110 potentially relevant publications, 17 and 9 trials (7 on maturation value and 2 on vaginal dryness) were selected for qualitative and quantitative analysis, respectively. In general, soy isoflavones seem to improve vaginal symptoms as opposed to control arms. Soy isoflavones were also shown to be more efficacious in quantitative analysis, though this was statistically non-significant. Standardised difference in means of maturation value change was 0.072 (95% confidence interval [CI]: - 0.42 to 0.57), p = 0.777; heterogeneity P = 0.00; I(2) = 85.15%. Difference in means of vaginal dryness was - 0.204 (95% CI: - 0.28 to - 0.126), p vaginal symptoms during menopause; nevertheless beneficial effects still remain uncertain due to possible publication bias or vast heterogeneity of the selected studies. Further studies with consistency in design as well as statistics are warranted.

  7. A pilot study of the diagnosis and treatment of impaired skin integrity: dry skin in older persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, M A

    1990-01-01

    A pilot study was conducted to isolate the clinical indicators of dry skin in the elderly, test an instrument used to measure dry skin, analyze the importance of factors thought to contribute to dry skin, test the effectiveness of an intervention for treating dry skin, and determine the feasibility of clinical implementation of the protocol. The sample included 15 elderly long-term care residents with a nursing and medical diagnosis of dry skin. Although the small sample size limits interpretation of findings, there is some evidence that scaling and flaking may be indicators of skin dryness. Subjects received the bathing intervention for 6 weeks and were assessed every 2 weeks during the 6-week periods before, during, and after intervention (nine data collection points). Analysis of the nine repeated measures of skin dryness indicated significantly reduced total dryness (p = .031), redness (p = .001), scaling (p = .007), and flaking (p = .002) over time. Post hoc comparisons, interrater agreement on the Skin Condition Data Form, and categorical variables were analyzed. Findings from this study will be used to generate further hypotheses.

  8. Quantitative changes in skin composition parameters due to chemotherapy in breast cancer patients: a cohort study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Danbee; Kim, Im-Ryung; Im, Young Hyuck; Park, Yeon Hee; Ahn, Jin Seok; Lee, Jeong Eon; Nam, Seok Jin; Park, Hyeokgon; Kim, Eunjoo; Lee, Hae Kwang; Lee, Dong-Youn; Cho, Juhee

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate objective changes in water content, sebum content, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), and melanin due to breast cancer chemotherapy, and their association with subjective symptoms. Prospective cohort study of 61 patients 18 years of age or older with a postoperative diagnosis of stage I-III breast cancer, who received adjuvant chemotherapy between February and September 2012 at an outpatient breast cancer clinic in Korea. Objective skin parameters, measured using a noninvasive bioengineering device, and patient-reported dryness and dullness were assessed before chemotherapy, after two cycles of chemotherapy, and 1, 3, and 6 months after completion of chemotherapy. Water content (-6.5 %), sebum (-75.5 %), and TEWL (-22.4 %) significantly decreased during chemotherapy compared to pre-chemotherapy levels (all p values skin changes were similar in patients with or without hormone therapy. Most of patients reported dryness (57.9 %) and dullness (49.1 %) after chemotherapy, and patient-reported dryness was significantly associated with decreased sebum content. Chemotherapy-induced substantial changes in objective skin composition parameters. These changes persisted after 6 months from completion of chemotherapy and were associated with patient-reported symptoms. Additional research is needed to translate these findings into interventions for improving the dermatologic quality of life of breast cancer patients undergoing chemotherapy.

  9. 干燥综合征的中医病因病机分析%TCM pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾二涛; 马武开

    2010-01-01

    The main pathogenesis of Sjogren's syndrome was Yin Deficiency, dryness caused by blood stasis,dryness caused by dry poisoning, dryness caused by dampness, Qi deficiency, and incoordination of spleen and stomach,which led to damage of body fluid or transport barrier. Usually such factors were mutually intercross and interact, existing in the whole process of the disease. This is the important factor for a long course and intractable disease.%本文重点归纳了干燥综合征的病因病机,即阴虚为本、瘀血致燥、燥毒致燥、痰湿致燥、气虚失运、脾胃不调等引起津液损伤或输布障碍,造成机体津液绝对或相对不足.通常几种病因相互交错,相互影响,并贯穿于疾病整个过程中,这是其病程漫长、缠绵难愈的重要因素.

  10. The farming system sensibility of the Normandy in connection with the Climatic Change (2000-2100)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Gouée, Patrick; Cantat, Olivier; Bensaïd, Abdelkrim; Savouret, Edwige

    2010-05-01

    The French agricultural economy is closely connected with weather-climatic conditions. For example, dryness caused by the heat-wave of 2003 seriously affected the vegetation leading to a significant slowdown of photosynthetic activity. This resulted in logical decrease of agricultural production, in particular for arable lands and fodders. The Global warming that has begun at the end of the 19th century and seems to continue and even intensify during the 21st century (GIEC, 2007) arises a question of farming system sensibility when faced with Climate Change in the future. In France, recent studies (Cloppet and al, 2009) have conducted to the probable climate features spatialization on the national territory according to different scenarios. Whatever the scenario considered, it seems that the present Norman climate type is going to disappear by the end of century to be supplanted by a type of weather influenced by raising evapotranspiration, minimal and maximum temperatures as well as a raising speed of wind and solar radiation. Globally, this could emphasize agriculture soil dryness negative impact on large cereal land and pastures production (Butault, 2009, Ruget & Brisson, 2007). However, this climatic evolution could bring some production gain when the available water content of soils allows preventing or strongly limiting the hydrous stress emergence. For the current period and horizon 2100, according to the scenario A1B of the GIEC, the evaluation and the mapping with fine spatial resolution of this pedo-climatic indicator present a capital stake to appreciate the sensitivity of the agriculture of the Normandy in connection with the climatic evolution announced for the end of the 21st century. This exploratory work has been undertaken for the departmental territory of Calvados (5500 km²). For that purpose, it has been necessary beforehand to work out a precise mapping of soils on the basis of 7514 soil boreholes. The treatment of the soil database has allowed

  11. Changes in Saliva Rheological Properties and Mucin Glycosylation in Dry Mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, N M A; Shirlaw, P; Pramanik, R; Carpenter, G H; Proctor, G B

    2015-12-01

    Saliva is vital for the maintenance of normal oral physiology and mucosal health. The loss of salivary function can have far-reaching consequences, as observed with dry mouth, which is associated with increased orodental disease, speech impairment, dysphagia, and a significant negative effect on quality of life. The timely diagnosis of oral dryness is vital for the management of orodental disease and any associated often-undiagnosed systemic disease (e.g., Sjögren syndrome). Our aim was to investigate differences in mucin glycoproteins and saliva rheological properties between sufferers and nonsufferers of dry mouth in order to understand the relationship between saliva composition, rheological properties, and dryness perception and provide additional potential diagnostic markers. All patients exhibited objective and subjective oral dryness, irrespective of etiology. Over half of the patients (n = 20, 58.8%) had a saliva secretion rate above the gland dysfunction cutoff of 0.1 mL/min. Mucin (MUC5B and MUC7) concentrations were generally similar or higher in patients. Despite the abundance of these moisture-retaining proteins, patients exhibited reduced mucosal hydration (wetness) and significantly lower saliva spinnbarkeit (stringiness), suggesting a loss of the lubricating and retention/adhesion properties of saliva, which, at least partially, are associated with mucin glycoproteins. Over 90% of patients with dry mouth (DMPs) consistently had unstimulated whole mouth saliva (UWMS) spinnbarkeit below the proposed normal cutoff (10 mm). Further analysis of mucins revealed the reduced glycosylation of mucins in DMPs compared to healthy controls. Our data indicate that UWMS mucin concentrations are not reduced in dry mouth but that the mucin structure (glycosylation) is altered. UWMS from DMPs had reduced spinnbarkeit, the assessment of which, in conjunction with sialometry, could improve sensitivity for the diagnosis of dry mouth. Additionally, it may be useful to

  12. The moisturizing effect of a wheat extract food supplement on women's skin: a randomized, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guillou, S; Ghabri, S; Jannot, C; Gaillard, E; Lamour, I; Boisnic, S

    2011-04-01

    Ceramides, specific lipid components of the skin, represent 35-40% of the intercellular cement binding cells together and contributing to skin hydration. A wheat extract rich in ceramides and digalactosyl-diglycerides was developed by Hitex in two forms: wheat extract oil (WEO) and wheat extract powder (WEP). In vitro tests and two clinical studies demonstrated promising efficacy results with WEP on skin hydration. To confirm these early results, a double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study was carried out on 51 women aged 20-63 years with dry to very dry skin who received either 350 mg of WEO or placebo for 3 months. Evaluation of skin hydration on legs, arms and face, assessed at baseline (D0) and at study end (D84) was performed by the dermatologist using dermatological scores (dryness, roughness, erythema), skin hydration measurement (corneometry) and self-assessment scores (Visual Analogue Scale: VAS). Perceived efficacy was noted by participants throughout the study; tolerability and overall acceptability of the study products were evaluated by the dermatologist and the participants at the end of study. Skin hydration was significantly increased between D0 and D84 on the arms (P skin dryness and redness tended to be reduced in the WEO group. Moreover, from D0 to D84, the VAS index had a tendency to increase in favour of WEO for the overall skin hydration (P = 0.084) indicating that participants perceived an improvement. The WEO capsules were perceived by participants as being more effective than placebo on all skin dryness signs. In conclusion, WEO capsules were well tolerated and appreciated. After 3 months' treatment, a significant increase in skin hydration and an improvement in associated clinical signs were observed in women with dry skin.

  13. Self-reported menopausal symptoms, coronary artery calcification, and carotid intima-media thickness in recently menopausal women screened for the Kronos early estrogen prevention study (KEEPS).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolff, Erin Foran; He, Yunxiao; Black, Dennis M; Brinton, Eliot A; Budoff, Mathew J; Cedars, Marcelle I; Hodis, Howard N; Lobo, Rogerio A; Manson, Joann E; Merriam, George R; Miller, Virginia M; Naftolin, Fredrick; Pal, Lubna; Santoro, Nanette; Zhang, Heping; Harman, S Mitchell; Taylor, Hugh S

    2013-04-01

    To determine whether self-reported menopausal symptoms are associated with measures of subclinical atherosclerosis. Cross-sectional analysis. Multicenter, randomized controlled trial. Recently menopausal women (n = 868) screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS). None. Baseline menopausal symptoms (hot flashes, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, night sweats, palpitations, mood swings, depression, insomnia, irritability), serum E2 levels, and measures of atherosclerosis were assessed. Atherosclerosis was quantified using coronary artery calcium (CAC) Agatston scores (n = 771) and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT). Logistic regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CAC. Linear regression model of menopausal symptoms and E2 was used to predict CIMT. Correlation between length of time in menopause with menopausal symptoms, E2, CAC, and CIMT were assessed. In early menopausal women screened for KEEPS, neither E2 nor climacteric symptoms predicted the extent of subclinical atherosclerosis. Palpitations and depression approached significance as predictors of CAC. Other symptoms of insomnia, irritability, dyspareunia, hot flashes, mood swings, night sweats, and vaginal dryness were not associated with CAC. Women with significantly elevated CAC scores were excluded from further participation in KEEPS; in women meeting inclusion criteria, neither baseline menopausal symptoms nor E2 predicted CIMT. Years since menopause onset correlated with CIMT, dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and E2. Self-reported symptoms in recently menopausal women are not strong predictors of subclinical atherosclerosis. Continued follow-up of this population will be performed to determine whether baseline or persistent symptoms in the early menopause are associated with progression of cardiovascular disease. NCT00154180. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  14. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inui, Akinari; Takahashi, Ippei; Kurauchi, Sizuka; Soma, Yuki; Oyama, Toshiaki; Tamura, Yoshihiro; Noguchi, Takao; Murashita, Kouichi; Nakaji, Shigeyuki; Kobayashi, Wataru

    2017-01-01

    Purpose Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females). Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8%) and 76 females (21.9%). To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females) and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males) were found to be significantly related to dysphagia. Conclusion This cross-sectional study demonstrated associations between oral conditions and dysphagia. Factors such as oral dryness and number of teeth may contribute to dysphagia more so than aging, lifestyle and comorbidity in community-dwelling adults over the age of 50. PMID:28352164

  15. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kojiro eYamaguchi

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS, glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP, oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren’s syndrome(SJS, in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines(KM, on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. 1 In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS. There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation.2 BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan(KSS, are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems.3 Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce 4 possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito(HET, Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito(NYT that are frequently

  16. Traditional Japanese herbal medicines for treatment of odontopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamaguchi, Kojiro

    2015-01-01

    This article highlights several refractory oral diseases, such as stomatitis, burning mouth syndrome (BMS), glossalgia, atypical facial pain (AFP), oral cancer, dry mouth, and Sjögren's syndrome (SJS), in which use of Japanese herbal medicines, Kampo medicines (KM), on the basis of Kampo theory could exert the maximum effects on human body. (1) In acute stomatitis, heat because of agitated vital energy may affect the head, chest, and middle abdominal region. Stomatitis is also related to the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). There are many antioxidants in the crude extracts of KM. Thus, we can control environmental factors (cold, heat, dampness, dryness) and vital energy, blood, and fluid of the organ systemically using KM to treat stomatitis and eliminate local ROS accumulation. (2) BMS, glossalgia, and AFP are multifactorial syndromes involving the interaction of biological and psychological factors. Local temperature decrease and edema often occur in chronic pain. These are local circulatory disturbances that can be resolved by improving the flow of blood and fluid. Several KM, such as Tokishakuyakusan and Kamishoyosan (KSS), are effective for enhancing peripheral circulation. Those such as Saikokaryukotuboreito, Yokukansan, KSS, and Saibokutou can reduce stress and associated pain by altering glutamatergic and monoaminergic transmission in the brain. The clinical efficacy of KM for BMS and AFP may depend on the regulation of the mesolimbic dopaminergic and descending glutamatergic pain modulation systems. (3) Regarding oral cancer treatment, I introduce four possible applications of KM, inhibition of the proliferation of cancer cells, complementation of the main cancer therapy, reduction of side effect caused by the main anti-cancer therapy and improvement of quality of life such as the overall status and/or oral discomfort. This review explains in more details Hozai such as Hochuekkito (HET), Juzendaihoto, and Ninjinyoeito (NYT) that are frequently

  17. Survey on radiation-induced xerostomia for head and neck malignancies by Japan radiation survey group

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Kumiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1999-04-01

    We conducted nationwide multi-center survey on radiation induced salivary gland dysfunction. A total of 59 patients with head and neck malignancies were surveyed and analysed. Patients were evaluated for symptom, oral condition, foods intake, body weight and 5 minutes flow of saliva. The patients complained of moderate or more severe symptoms including oral and/or pharyngeal dryness and pain, difficulty in eating, and dysphagia. Body weights were significantly redused. The decrease of saliva flow appeared in the first week of radiation therapy. By the analysis of saliva contents, decrease of amylase was the most important prognostic factor. (author)

  18. Survey on acute oral and/or oropharyngeal reactions induced by radiotherapy for head and neck malignancies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Karasawa, Kumiko; Kokubo, Nahoko; Takemoto, Mitsuhiro; Kaneyasu, Yuko; Fukuhara, Noboru; Okawa, Tomohiko [Tokyo Women`s Medical Coll. (Japan)

    1998-02-01

    Recently, the relationship between radiation induced salivary gland dysfunction and acute radiation mucositis in head and neck malignancies has been discussed. We evaluated this relationship in 8 patients treated with radiotherapy in our institute between June and July 1997. Patients were evaluated for symptom, oral condition, foods intake, body weight and 5 minutes flow of saliva. There was a strong relationship among feeling of oral dryness and oral pain and mucositis. The decrease of saliva flow appeared in the first week of radiation therapy. By the analysis of saliva contents, decrease of amylase was the most important prognostic factor. (author)

  19. Antifouling activity of Indian marine invertebrate against the green mussel Perna viridis L.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Jayasree, V.; Naik, C.G.; Parameswaran, P.S.; Raveendran, T.V.; Kamat, S.Y.

    on man-made surfaces, ship hulls, pipes of cooling systems of power stations, and mariculture facilities (Rich- mond and Seed 1991). The most effective long-term solu- tion (up to five years) to marine fouling—the self-polishing copolymer organotin... to different phyla (Table 1). The specimens were freed of extraneous matter and extracted with 90% methanol. After filtration, methanol was evapo- rated to dryness under reduced pressure. A known weight of the residue was taken in a known volume of filtered...

  20. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons...... dryness can be helped by simple lubricants but the best and most logical treatment for urogenital atrophy is to use local estrogen. This is safe, effective and with few contraindications. It is hoped that these guidelines and recommendations, produced to coincide with World Menopause Day 2010, will help...

  1. 基于遥感温度植被干旱指数的宁夏2000-2010年旱情变化特征

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    杜灵通 候静 胡悦 王新云 王磊

    2015-01-01

    为了探讨近10 a来宁夏的旱情变化特征及演变趋势,利用MODIS的地表昼夜温度数据计算昼夜温差,结合归一化植被指数产品计算温度植被干旱指数(temperature vegetation dryness index,TVDI),对2000-2010年的逐月干旱进行了监测,并分析其与气象干旱和农业受旱灾情况的关系.研究结果...

  2. 压水堆核电厂蒸汽管道内湿蒸汽的流动特性研究%Study on Flow Characteristics of Wet Steam Flowing Through Steam Pipeline in PWR Nuclear Power Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李勇; 许家通

    2015-01-01

    推导了湿蒸汽在等截面直管道稳定流动的动量方程,结合能量方程和连续性方程,给出管道各截面湿蒸汽参数的计算方法。得到管道入口为干饱和蒸汽和湿蒸汽时管道各截面的蒸汽参数,并分析阻力对蒸汽参数的影响。结果表明:由于存在阻力使湿蒸汽的压力降低、温度降低、比容增大、流速增大、焓值降低;干度沿流动方向的变化规律主要与入口干度和入口压力有关。以1000MW核电汽轮机为例,在额定工况下,除主蒸汽干度将逐渐减小外,其它蒸汽管道内湿蒸汽在流动过程中干度都将逐渐增大。%Momentum equation was derived when wet steam flows through a straight pipeline with a constant cross section . Combined with energy equation and the continuity equation , a calculating method of steam parameters varying along the straight pipeline was given .Steam parameters was obtained when the inlet was dry saturated steam and wet saturated steam . The influence of the resistance to the steam parameters was analyzed .The results show that friction pressure loss lead to the decrease of temperature ,the increase of specific volume ,the increase of velocity and the decrease of enthalpy .The change rule of dryness varying along the pipeline mainly related with the inlet dryness and inlet pressure .Taking a 1 000 MW nuclear steam turbine as example,main steam dryness will gradually decrease,while the dryness in other steam pipeline will gradually increase under the rated operating conditions .

  3. Tear Film Break-Up Time: Comparison between Patients using Psychiatric Drugs and Healthy Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parvin Dibajnia

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ocular dryness is a well-recognized adverse side effect of many medications. The purpose of this study was to compare tear film stability between psychiatric patients that use lithium carbonate or carbamazepine and normal cases. Materials and Methods: Tear film break up time test was performed in three groups, 30 patients using lithium carbonate, 30 patients using carbamazepine and 30 normal cases. Values of the TBUTs were compared among groups by the independent t-test. Results: Differences between both of patients and control groups were significant (p<0.0001. Conclusion: The results show that these drugs contribute to decrease of tear film break up time.

  4. Unexpected complication associated with balneotherapy: Skin and soft tissue infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alım, Bülent; Bostancı, Fahrettin; Servi, M. Alperen; Ćetinel, Sinan; Bingöl, M. Ozan

    2017-04-01

    Balneotherapy cure is an ongoing process, but patients can benefit most when cure is complete. For these reason, patients should be closely monitored and necessary precautions should be taken in terms of the complications that may occur in order to prevent the interruption or discontinuation of balneotherapy. Here, we wanted to represent a case that developed left leg soft tissue infection during the application of balneotherapy and because of this reason we stopped the balneotherapy As a result, when balneotherapy is planned for patients with risk factors such as diabetes and obesity, frequent examination of the skin and the application of skin moisturizers will be beneficial to prevent itching and skin dryness.

  5. On bistable phasing of 18.6 year nodal induced flood in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Currie, Robert G.

    1984-01-01

    In agreement with Campbell (1983), Flood Area Indices (FAI) for India are interpreted as being modulated by tidal forcing at the 18.6 yr lunar nodal period. There is evidence maximum flood was approximately out of phase with nodal epoch 1898.9 whereas at epochs 1917.5, 1936,1, 1954.7, and 1973.3 maximum flood was approximately in phase. This interpretation implies that India should be experiencing widespread dryness in an interval ±2 to 3 years centered at mid-epoch 1982.6.

  6. A mild hand cleanser, alkyl ether sulphate supplemented with alkyl ether carboxylic acid and alkyl glucoside, improves eczema on the hand and prevents the growth of Staphylococcus aureus on the skin surface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukui, S; Morikawa, T; Hirahara, M; Terada, Y; Shimizu, M; Takeuchi, K; Takagi, Y

    2016-12-01

    Washing the hands using cleansers with antiseptic materials is the most popular method for hand hygiene and helps maintain health by preventing food poisoning and bacterial infections. However, repeated hand washing tends to induce eczema of the hand, such as dryness, cracking and erythema. Moreover, eczema on the hand leads to increased levels in Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) on the skin surface in contrast to expectations. Thus, mild hand cleansers which induce less eczema even with repeated washings are desired. Here, we evaluated the efficacy of a hand cleanser formulated with alkyl ether sulphate (AES), alkyl ether carboxylic acid (AEC) and alkyl glucoside (AG) that contains isopropyl methylphenol (IPMP) on skin symptoms and S. aureus levels. Eczema of the hand and the presence of S. aureus on the skin surface were analysed prior to and following 4 weeks of usage of the hand cleanser. A soap-based hand cleanser with IPMP was used as a reference cleanser. Eczema and cutaneous conditions were evaluated by visual grading, transepidermal water loss (TEWL), stratum corneum moisture-retention ability (MRA) and skin surface pH. The repeated use of the soap-based hand cleanser significantly worsened the hand dryness, scaling and cracks on the tips of the fingers and significantly increased the TEWL and decreased the MRA. In contrast, usage of the test cleanser only induced a significant increase in skin dryness but did not induce skin scaling or cracking and did not increase TEWL or decrease the MRA. Corresponding to these changes in skin symptoms, the presence of S. aureus increased the following use of the reference cleanser but not the test cleanser. There was no significant difference in skin surface pH between the two cleansers. Moreover, the increase in S. aureus was significantly correlated to the worsening of skin dryness and scaling. These results suggest that not only antimicrobial activity but also the mildness, which minimizes cutaneous effects

  7. Study on NDVI-Ts space by combining LAI and evapotranspiration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Lijuan; WANG Pengxin; YANG Hua; LIU Shaomin; WANG Jindi

    2006-01-01

    This paper focuses on interpreting the different spatial relationships between NDVI and Ts, a triangular or a trapezoid, and on analyzing transformation conditions, the physical and ecological meanings of the vegetation index-surface temperature space as well. Further, we use the Temperature-Vegetation Dryness Index (TVDI) to explain the existent meaning of a triangular space after NDVI reaches its saturated state by employing the relationships between NDVI, LAI and evapotranspiration.The specific relations between NDVI and Ts are useful for describing, validating and updating land surface models.

  8. Oral conditions and dysphagia in Japanese, community-dwelling middle- and older- aged adults, independent in daily living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inui A

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Akinari Inui,1 Ippei Takahashi,2 Sizuka Kurauchi,2 Yuki Soma,2 Toshiaki Oyama,1 Yoshihiro Tamura,1 Takao Noguchi,1 Kouichi Murashita,3 Shigeyuki Nakaji,2 Wataru Kobayashi1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, 2Department of Social Medicine, 3COI Research Initiatives Organization, Hirosaki University Graduate School of Medicine, Hirosaki, Aomori Prefecture, Japan Purpose: Prevention, early detection and effective rehabilitation of dysphagia are important issues to be considered in an aging society. Previous studies have shown conflicting findings regarding the association between dysphagia and its potential risk factors, including age, malnutrition, oral conditions, lifestyle and medical history. Herein, we assessed the prevalence and association of dysphagia with potential risk factors in 50- to 79-year-old adults dwelling in a community in Japan. Patients and methods: In this study, there were 532 participants (185 males and 347 females. Participants who responded positively to the question “Do you sometimes choke on drinks/food such as tea and soup?” or those who presented with abnormal repetitive saliva swallowing test findings were diagnosed with dysphagia. The data collected from these participants included the following: number of teeth, occurrence of oral dryness, age, body mass index, serum albumin concentration, smoking, drinking and exercise habits, presence of diseases, such as diabetes mellitus and hypertension, and questions from the Mini–Mental State Examination. Results: Dysphagia was observed in 33 males (17.8% and 76 females (21.9%. To explore the effect of the potential risk factors on the prevalence of dysphagia, a model was built by multivariate logistic regression analysis. Using the forced entry method, oral dryness (odds ratio [OR] =3.683 and P=0.003 in males; OR =1.797 and P=0.032 in females and the number of teeth (OR =0.946 and P=0.038 in males were found to be significantly related to dysphagia

  9. Consumers' perceptions of African wildlife meat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Radder, Laetitia; Grunert, Klaus G.

    2009-01-01

    African wildlife meat offers South Africans' a healthy and novel red meat alternative, yet consumption is far less than that of beef and lamb. Laddering interviews with 40 respondents were employed to identify the consequences and values associated with the product's perceived attributes. Important...... attributes included low levels of fat, dryness, novelty, and special preparation requirements. Significant values included security, self-esteem, hedonism, tradition, and stimulation. Promoters of the product are advised to capitalize on consumers' interest in health and the health benefits of the meat...

  10. [Electrostimulation for the treatment of a dry mouth feeling].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssen, M J E J; Bots, C P; Brand, H S

    2015-10-01

    A 67-year-old woman suffered from a burning mouth feeling for 1.5 years and was referred by her dentist to a saliva clinic. At the clinic persistent xerostomia was diagnosed, and Sjögren's syndrome was suspected. After 1 year, a new measurement of the saliva secretion was carried out, which revealed a further decline in saliva secretion rate. The patient was consequently treated with an intra-oral electrostimulating device in order to stimulate the saliva secretion rate and reduce the feeling of a dry mouth. After 2 weeks, the patient experienced a considerable improvement of the subjective oral dryness.

  11. LECTURES ON ACUPUNCTURE Part Ⅱ Typical Cases of Cough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; DONG Hongying; XU Junfeng

    2002-01-01

    @@ Case Ⅰ Male, age of 57 years. History of cough:The patient suffered from cough with profuse sputum for 3 years more. His disorder attacked easily when the climate changed suddenly in autumn and winter. The symptoms such as cough with sticky sputum were more serious. Antibiotics did not work well due to repeated oral administration while the disease attacked. In the day time, the patient always had the symptoms of fullness in chest, poor appetite, and body heaviness. In recent two weeks, the patient had symptoms of cough with profuse white and sticky sputum, fullness in chest, dyspnea, dryness in the mouth but without desire for drinking water, and tiredness.

  12. Use of calendula cream balm to medicate the feet of diabetic patients: Case series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.E. Cioinac

    2016-03-01

    Conclusion: As shown in the photographs taken over different periods during the use of the cream balm, the results are excellent; the healing process is easy to see and the progress of the infection process has been blocked, reducing itching, redness, pain, dryness, the disappearance of various scars, regrowth of hair on the legs, no intolerance and great patient satisfaction. Observational studies of RCTs (Random Trial Controls could help clinics in understanding whether or not this cream is suitable for injured limbs to prevent the worsening of the infection which would in turn lead to suffering for the patient and increased healthcare costs.

  13. Emollient for maintenance therapy after topical corticotherapy in mild psoriasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seité, S; Khemis, A; Rougier, A; Ortonne, J P

    2009-12-01

    Emollients or moisturizers can act as an important adjunctive therapy of topical treatment in psoriatic patients. However, the interest of emollients has never been clearly demonstrated; i.e. are they able to improve topical treatment efficacy and/or maintain continuous remission of the disease? The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of an emollient on patients with mild plaque psoriasis during and after standard local corticosteroid therapy. Results showed that the use of an emollient can limit relapses after the end of corticotherapy, and maintain the improvement obtained after 1 month corticotherapy at clinical level (physician global assessment) and skin dryness.

  14. Genetic control of disease in an experimental model for Sjögren's syndrome

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Åsa Inga Maria

    2009-01-01

    Sjögren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease with a complex etiology depending on hereditary and environmental factors. The disease is characterized by lymphocytic infiltration and inflammation in the salivary and lacrimal glands, leading to oral and ocular dryness. To understand the genetic...... susceptibility in Sjögren's syndrome, studies of disease phenotypes have been performed in the non-obese diabetic (NOD) mouse. By the identification of genetic regions controlling development of autoimmune exocrinopathy in the NOD mouse and by reducing one of these regions considerably, Nguyen et al. in a recent...

  15. Irritancy potential of 17 detergents used commonly by the Indian household

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Austoria A

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detergents are used by almost every household in the developed and developing world. Soap and most detergents are anionic surfactants and attack the horny layer of the skin and increase its permeability with little or no inflammatory change and may result in hand eczema, which is very distressing and incapacitating. Aim: To evaluate the irritant potential of common household detergents (laundry and dish wash used by the Indian population using a 24-hour patch test and to convincingly educate the patients on the detergents less likely to cause irritation in the particular individual. Methods: Seventeen commonly used detergents found in Indian market were included in the study, of which, 12 were laundry detergents (powders - seven, bar soap - five and five were dish wash detergents (powder - one, liquid - one, bar soap - three. The irritant potential of the 17 detergents were evaluated in 30 volunteers. Thirty microliters of each of the detergent bar solutions, distilled water (negative control, and 20% SDS (positive control were applied to Finn chambers with a micropipette and occluded for 24 hours. Erythema, scaling, and edema were graded in comparison to the reaction at the negative control site (distilled water for each volunteer separately. The scoring of erythema / dryness and wrinkling on a 0 - 4 point scale and edema on another 0 - 4 point scale was based on the Draize scale. The pH of each of the detergent solutions was determined using litmus papers (Indikrom papers from Qualigens fine chemicals. Results: The difference between detergents (F value was significant for erythema / dryness and wrinkling (F = 3.374; p = 0.000, but not significant for edema (F = 1.297; p = 0.194. [Table 2] lists the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling, and edema. The F value of the totals of the means for erythema / dryness and wrinkling and edema was significant (F = 2.495; p = 0.001. The pH of all the detergents was found to be alkaline

  16. Separation of no-carrier-added Cu-64 from a proton irradiated Ni-64 enriched nickel target

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Xiaolin; Jacobsen, U.; Jørgensen, J.C.

    2002-01-01

    are then absorbed on an anion exchange column. Co and Ni are removed from the column by eluting with 72% ethanol-0.3mol/l HCl. Finally, the Cu-64 is eluted with water. For separating Ni from Co isotopes and recovering the Ni-64 target, the eluate of 72% ethanol-0.3 mol/l HCl is evaporated to dryness, the residue...... a cyclotron. The decontamination of Co in Cu fraction is higher than 99% and recoveries of Cu-64 and Ni-64 are higher than 95%. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  17. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  18. A comparison of impulse drying to double felted pressing on pilot- scale shoe presses and roll presses. Progress report, No. 6

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1992-08-01

    Pilot-scale shoe press and roll press experiments have been conducted to compare impulse drying and double felted pressing. Both ceramic coated and Beloit Type C press rolls have been evaluated. The experiments show that impulse drying can provide significantly higher outgoing solids than double felled pressing at the same impulse. For example, at an impulse of 0.234 MPa seconds (34 psi seconds), sheets at an ingoing solids of 52% were impulse dried (using the Beloit Type C press roll) to 68% solids while optimized double felled pressing could only yield press dryness of, at most, 60%.

  19. Modern Disposable Diaper Construction: Innovations in Performance Help Maintain Healthy Diapered Skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Counts, Jennifer L; Helmes, C Tucker; Kenneally, Dianna; Otts, David R

    2014-08-01

    Disposable diapers today employ dramatically better fitting, less bulky, and more environmentally friendly features that deliver better performance and help provide protection for infant skin. Continuous innovations in technology and materials have resulted in new generations of disposable diapers that provide extended dryness and reduced leakage. Driven by studies on the skin's response to inherent influences, such as overhydration and irritation, the qualities of disposable diapers today present significant enhancements for skin health compared with earlier disposable versions and even cloth diapers. Over the years, these enhancements in disposable diapers have helped lead to a reduction in incidence and severity of diaper dermatitis.

  20. Removal of selected heavy metals from MSW fly ash by the electrodialytic process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferreira, Célia Maria Dias; Jensen, Pernille Erland; Ottosen, Lisbeth M.;

    2005-01-01

    This paper aims to assess the applicability of the electrodialytic remediation technique for the removal of zinc, lead, copper and cadmium from municipal solid waste (MSW) incinerator fly ash. A broad range of experimental conditions were studied including current densities, remediation times, use...... of assisting agents and cell design. Several operational problems were identified during the electrodialytic experiments, among which are formation of precipitates, dryness of sample and partial dissolution of sample creating preferential pathways for the electric current. These problems may explain the low...

  1. Problems of the climate and environment protection complicate the use of hydropower; Klimaproblematik und Umweltschutz erschweren Wasserkraftnutzung. Stromerzeugung in Suedtirol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W. [Orizzonti, Verona (Italy)

    2008-01-07

    Since the year 2000 warming and dryness have led to a strong reduction of electricity production from hydropower in Southern Tyrol. However, due to the attractive ''Green Certificates''-Scheme, there is still a strong interest in further developing hydropower activities. Such pressing must find its limits in nature conservation, particularly important for Southern Tyrol as a tourist area. The design of a detailed Water Use Plan of the Autonomous Province of Bolzano pleads clearly for restriction regarding the construction of new plants. This signals an opportunity for Southern Tyrol to further explore the development of its new renewable energy sources. (orig.)

  2. Evaluation of a novel very high sun-protection-factor moisturizer in adults with rosacea-prone sensitive skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grivet-Seyve M

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Mathieu Grivet-Seyve,1 Francine Santoro,2 Nadège Lachmann2 1Galderma Research and Development, Sophia Antipolis, France; 2Galderma Research and Development, Egerkingen, Switzerland Background/objective: Rosacea-prone sensitive skin requires high sun-protection factor (SPF moisturizers. This study evaluated Daylong Extreme SPF 50+ lotion, a novel cream containing five ultraviolet filters, two emollients, and three skin conditioners.Subjects and methods: This was an open-label, single-center study. On day 1, before treatment, subjects answered a questionnaire on their skin conditions and sunscreen habits, and both subjects and dermatologist evaluated skin status. Subjects applied the product once daily in the morning to the face for 21 days, and after approximately 3–5 minutes they assessed tolerability and short-term cosmetic acceptability in a questionnaire and daily diary. On day 22, the dermatologist and subjects evaluated skin status for long-term tolerance and cosmetic acceptability.Results: The study enrolled 44 individuals (mean age 58.8 years, 91% female. At baseline, most subjects (39 of 44 showed erythema, and ~30% showed dryness and scaling. Dermatologists noted four cases of pustules and one case of papules. After 21 days’ treatment with the product, the dermatologist reported significantly less erythema, dryness and scaling, three cases of pustules and two cases of papules. At baseline, ~75% of subjects noted a feeling of dryness, >50% reported tension, and nearly 25% reported tickling. After using the product for 21 days, subjects reported significantly less tension, dryness, and tickling. Some subjects noted itching and burning before and after using the product. One subject noted papules during treatment. Most subjects said that the product was pleasant, did not irritate the skin or cause stinging/burning, was easy to apply, quickly absorbed, and nongreasy, improved skin moisturization, helped prevent sun-provoked facial

  3. A mission of climatological and human biometeorological studies in high mountain: Jungfraujoch, Switzerland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escourrou, Pierre

    1990-09-01

    Eight days of September 1985 were spent in a Swiss high-altitude meteorological station. The main facts apparent in this study at the end of summer are a great cold, with a long duration of below zero; sometimes, a severe dryness, decreasing to 1% of relstive humidity but also nearing 99%; a very high wind, blowing to 17 m/s at the maximum; and a considerable variability of these parameters in a very short time. A comparison is made with two nearby, lower altitude stations. The consequences for human confort are also considered.

  4. Colostrum in menopause effects on vaginal cytology/symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucci, S; Mancini, R; De Vitis, C; Noto, A; Marra, E; Lukic, A; Giovagnoli, M R; Moscarini, M

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the effects of three weeks of daily colostrum cream on vaginal cytology and local symptoms related to menopause. Genito-urinary symptoms and cell morphology were analyzed at time 0 (T0) and after three weeks (16 +/- days since the end of treatment) at time 1 (T1). Dyspareunia, vaginal dryness, and maturation index (MI) reached a statistically significant difference between T0 and T1. The results proved to be an alternative treatment for vaginal distress caused by lack of hormones in patients in which hormonal treatment is contraindicated.

  5. Wulwodynia – problem interdyscyplinarny dotyczący także kobiet pomenopauzalnych

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Baszak-Radomańska

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Wulwodynia is defined as a discomfort or pain in the entrance to the vagina, urethra, perineum or anuswithout perceptible pathological changes. Postmenopausal women often experience vaginal dryness (45%,and burning (10%, whereas pain during sexual intercourse feels 1/3 of women after menopause (provokedwulwodynia. Differences in the management of patient with post-menopausal wulwodynia is getting a biopsyof the vulva in justified cases, which is obviously not necessary in the vulvar pain patients of childbearing age.Another difference is that the most effective treatment consisting of local estrogenotherapy. The article presentsthe spectrum of therapeutic intervention.

  6. Vulvar and Vaginal Atrophy: Physiology, Clinical Presentation, and Treatment Considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lev-Sagie, Ahinoam

    2015-09-01

    Vulvovaginal atrophy is a common condition associated with decreased estrogenization of the vaginal tissue. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, irritation, itching, soreness, burning, dyspareunia, discharge, urinary frequency, and urgency. It can occur at any time in a woman's life cycle, although more commonly in the postmenopausal phase, during which the prevalence is approximately 50%. Despite the high prevalence and the substantial effect on quality of life, vulvovaginal atrophy often remains underreported and undertreated. This article aims to review the physiology, clinical presentation, assessment, and current recommendations for treatment, including aspects of effectiveness and safety of local vaginal estrogen therapies.

  7. An overview of chronic vaginal atrophy and options for symptom management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Nancy Fugate

    2012-12-01

    During the menopausal transition and after menopause, up to 45 percent of women will develop vaginal atrophy as a consequence of decreased levels of circulating estrogen. Symptoms include vaginal dryness, itching, soreness, bleeding, increased susceptibility to infection and pain with sexual intercourse. Treatments are often underused because of patient and clinician lack of knowledge of available treatments, embarrassment about initiating a discussion of symptoms and reluctance to initiate hormonal therapy. Methods of symptom management include self-care with over-the-counter agents and prescription treatment with various forms of localized estrogen. Clinicians should consider each woman's unique situation and health history before recommending a management strategy.

  8. Microablative fractional CO2 laser for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause: power of 30 or 40 W?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitsouni, Eleni; Grigoriadis, Themos; Falagas, Matthew; Tsiveleka, Angeliki; Salvatore, Stefano; Athanasiou, Stavros

    2017-08-02

    This retrospective case-control study aimed to compare 30 versus 40 W power of CO2 laser for the therapy of genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Postmenopausal women with severe intensity of dyspareunia and dryness were eligible to be included in this study. Primary outcomes were dyspareunia and dryness. Secondary outcomes were itching/burning, dysuria, frequency and urgency, Female Sexual Function Index (FSFI), vaginal maturation value (VMV), and Vaginal Health Index Score (VHIS). One laser therapy was applied every month for 3 months. Outcomes were evaluated at baseline and 1 month following the 3rd therapy. Fifty (25 per group) women were included in this study. In the 30-W group, mean improvement of dyspareunia, dryness, itching/burning, FSFI, VMV, and VHIS was 6.1 ± 1.7, 6.0 ± 1.9, 5.9 ± 2.0, 16.6 ± 6.7, 29.9 ± 13.0, and 11.0 ± 2.9, respectively (within group comparisons all p < 0.001). In the 40-W group, mean improvement of dyspareunia, dryness, itching/burning, FSFI, VMV, and VHIS was 6.1 ± 1.7, 6.5 ± 2.0, 5.2 ± 2.5, 14.8 ± 7.1, 25.0 ± 13.4, and 10.5 ± 4.1, respectively (within-group comparisons, all p ≤ 0.001). Comparison between 30 and 40 W revealed that mean improvement or presence of all GSM symptoms and clinical signs was not statistically significant different. CO2 laser therapy may improve GSM symptoms and clinical signs. This improvement did not seem to associate to power of 30 or 40 W.

  9. Acupuncture Treatment of Obesity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2005-01-01

    @@ Case History A female patient of 38 years old paid her first visit on Mar. 15, 2004. The patient complained that she put on body weight of 20 kg in the past one year,accompanied with fairly good appetite, dryness and tastelessness in mouth, occasional chest distress,loose stool, and a quick temper. She often had a discomfort sensation in the epigastric region after meals, which sometimes even affected her sleep.The above symptoms would go worse when she had emotional disturbance. So the patient came to the clinic for treatment to reduce her body weight.

  10. Determination of desmethyldiazepam in plasma by electron-capture GLC: application to pharmacokinetic studies of clorazepate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, D J

    1978-03-01

    Plasma desmethyldiazepam concentrations were quantitated by a rapid and sensitive technique using electron-capture GLC. Following addition of diazepam as the internal standard, plasma is extracted at physiological pH into benzene-isoamyl alcohol. The extract is evaporated to dryness and reconstituted with toluene-isoamyl alcohol prior to chromatography. Both diazepam and desmethyldiazepam are quantitatively extracted. The variation of identical samples is 5%, and the sensitivity is 5 ng of desmethyldiazepam/ml of original sample. The method is applicable to pharmacokinetic studies of clorazepate, a benzodiazepine derivative transformed to desmethyldiazepam prior to absorption.

  11. Effect of dry and cold environment on the weight and diet of COPD rats%寒燥对慢性阻塞性肺疾病模型大鼠体质量及饮食量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振; 李风森; 荆晶; 徐丹; 哈木拉提·吾甫尔

    2012-01-01

    目的:揭示寒燥对慢性阻塞性肺疾病(COPD)模型大鼠体质量及饮食量的影响,为西北特点COPD防治措施的制定提供参考.方法:利用气管滴注弹性蛋白酶结合熏烟建立COPD模型大鼠36只,在此基础上复合寒燥应激建立COPD寒燥模型18只,并设立对照组13只,每只大鼠的体质量和每组大鼠饮食量结果用SPSS 11.5分析.结果:COPD组及COPD寒燥组体质量指数(BMI)和Lee's指数均小于对照组(P<0.01),且COPD寒燥组此3项指标均小于COPD组(P<0.05,P<0.01).COPD寒燥组每10g体质量每天进食量大于对照组和COPD组.结论:寒燥可以加剧并提前COPD模型体质量减轻和营养不良的症状,并增加进食量,但此状态非仅靠增加一般饮食可以改善.%Objective: To reveal the effect of cold and dry environment on weight and diet of the COPD model, so as to provide reference for treating COPD with local peculiarity of the northwest of China. Methods: COPD model was established by dripping porcine pancreatic elastase (PEE) in trachea combination with cigarette smoking, and model of cold dryness syndrome in northwest China of COPD was also set up by dripping PEE in trachea in combination with cigarette smoking for cold-dry environmental stress. SPSS11.5 were used to analysis rat's weight and diet. Results: the weight of COPD cold and dryness group was less than the COPD group, less than the control group; for Lee's index, and BMI COPD cold and dryness group was more than the COPD group, more than the control group. Conclusion: Cold and dryness can ahead of the weight loss and malnutrition and increase food intake, but this state can't be improved only by increasing the general diet.

  12. Determination of triclosan in foodstuffs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanches-Silva, Ana; Sendón-García, Raquel; López-Hernández, Julia; Paseiro-Losada, Perfecto

    2005-01-01

    A reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatographic (RP-HPLC) method coupled with an ultraviolet detector was developed to determine triclosan which had migrated into foodstuffs from packaging materials. The method includes extraction with hexane, followed by evaporation to dryness and residue re-dissolution in ACN 90%. Chromatographic separation was performed with a Kromasil 100 C18 column (15 cm x 0.4 cm ID, 5 microm particle size) at 30 degrees C and using ACN and water as mobile phases. Regarding recoveries, good results (higher than 83% and lower than 112%) were obtained for the three representative food matrixes selected (orange juice, chicken breast meat, and Gouda cheese).

  13. Endoscopic, assisted, modified turbinoplasty with mucosal flap.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puterman, M M; Segal, N; Joshua, B-Z

    2012-05-01

    A variety of surgical methods have been developed to reduce the volume of the inferior turbinates, in order to create a more patent nasal airway. We describe a technique used in our department since February 2002 for all patients undergoing inferior turbinectomy. We resect with endoscopic assistance the lateral mucosa and bony inferior turbinate. This technique can reduce a large volume of the turbinate while preserving the mucosal continuity and the submucosa by covering the raw surface with a mucosal flap. We believe our method minimises post-operative side effects and complications such as dryness, infection, bleeding and pain.

  14. Determination of nadolol in serum by high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorimetric detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noguchi, H; Yoshida, K; Murano, M; Naruto, S

    1992-01-17

    A sensitive high-performance liquid chromatographic method for a routine assay of nadolol in serum is described. Serum samples spiked with atenolol (internal standard) were extracted with diethyl ether. After centrifugation, the organic layer was evaporated to dryness. The residue was redissolved in the mobile phase and injected onto an octadecyl silica column (150 mm x 4.6 mm I.D.). The mobile phase was 0.05 M ammonium acetate (pH 4.5)-acetonitrile (85:15, v/v). Fluorometric detection (excitation 230 nm, emission 300 nm) was used. The minimum detectable level of nadolol in serum was 1 ng/ml.

  15. Detection of a human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle antigenically related to HIV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garry, R. F.; Fermin, C. D.; Hart, D. J.; Alexander, S. S.; Donehower, L. A.; Luo-Zhang, H.

    1990-01-01

    Sjogren's syndrome is an autoimmune disease that is characterized by dryness of the mouth and eyes. The loss of salivary and lacrimal gland function is accompanied by lymphocytic infiltration. Because similar symptoms and glandular pathology are observed in certain persons infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), a search was initiated for a possible retroviral etiology in this syndrome. A human intracisternal A-type retroviral particle that is antigenically related to HIV was detected in lymphoblastoid cells exposed to homogenates of salivary tissue from patients with Sjogren's syndrome. Comparison of this retroviral particle to HIV indicates that they are distinguishable by several ultrastructural, physical, and enzymatic criteria.

  16. Water shortage and power generation in Italy; Wassermangel und Stromproduktion in Italien. Leistungsabschaltungen und Importerhoehung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berger, W. [Orizzonti, Verona (Italy)

    2007-07-09

    The northern and in part also the central part of Italy have been struck by dryness for months. Meanwhile the state of emergency has been declared. Electricity generation is a field directly and strongly affected by the scarcity of water. Measures to combat the situation have been defined and introduced. The low water has until end of May still continued, however, the level of the reservoirs has risen to a satisfying degree due to the discipline of the operators of the hydroelectric power plants. Thus another means will be available to react against consequences of the heat-waves which may again hit Italy in the summer beckoning already on the horizon. (orig.)

  17. Irritancy potential of 17 detergents used commonly by the Indian household.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Austoria, A J; Lakshmi, Chembolli; Srinivas, C R; Anand, C V; Mathew, A C

    2010-01-01

    Detergents are used by almost every household in the developed and developing world. Soap and most detergents are anionic surfactants and attack the horny layer of the skin and increase its permeability with little or no inflammatory change and may result in hand eczema, which is very distressing and incapacitating. To evaluate the irritant potential of common household detergents (laundry and dish wash) used by the Indian population using a 24-hour patch test and to convincingly educate the patients on the detergents less likely to cause irritation in the particular individual. Seventeen commonly used detergents found in Indian market were included in the study, of which, 12 were laundry detergents (powders--seven, bar soap--five) and five were dish wash detergents (powder--one, liquid--one, bar soap--three). The irritant potential of the 17 detergents were evaluated in 30 volunteers. Thirty microliters of each of the detergent bar solutions, distilled water (negative control), and 20% SDS (positive control) were applied to Finn chambers with a micropipette and occluded for 24 hours. Erythema, scaling, and edema were graded in comparison to the reaction at the negative control site (distilled water) for each volunteer separately. The scoring of erythema/dryness and wrinkling on a 0-4 point scale and edema on another 0-4 point scale was based on the Draize scale. The pH of each of the detergent solutions was determined using litmus papers (Indikrom papers from Qualigens fine chemicals). The difference between detergents (F value) was significant for erythema/dryness and wrinkling (F = 3.374; p = 0.000), but not significant for edema (F = 1.297; p = 0.194). [Table 2] lists the means for erythema/dryness and wrinkling, and edema. The F value of the totals of the means for erythema/dryness and wrinkling and edema was significant (F = 2.495; p = 0.001). The pH of all the detergents was found to be alkaline except Pril utensil cleaner which tested acidic (pH 6). The

  18. Spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage as an initial manifestation of primary Sjögren’s syndrome: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    Background Sjögren’s syndrome can involve the central nervous system; however, spontaneous intracranial hemorrhage has rarely been reported as the initial manifestation. Case presentation We report a 39-year-old woman with primary Sjögren’s syndrome presenting with intracranial hemorrhage. The diagnosis of primary Sjögren’s syndrome was based on the presence of ocular dryness, salivary gland secretory and excretory dysfunction confirmed with dynamic tracer emission CT, and positive anti-Sjögr...

  19. The L-band radiometric measurements of FIFE test site in 1987-1988

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J. R.; Shiue, J. C.; Schmugge, T. J.; Engman, E. T.

    1990-01-01

    Emissivity dependence in the L-band on senescent vegetation is examined with the Push-Broom Microwave Radiometer (PBMR) aboard a NASA C-130 with special attention given to areas near two watersheds. Volumetric soil moisture is examined, and comparisons are given of burned and unburned areas. The factors are examined that contribute to differences between soil-moisture values and the ratio of L-band PBMR brightness temperature and the soil temperature measured at 2.5 cm. The explanations posited include improper calibration, extreme dryness at the time of measurements, and the difference in vegetation covers.

  20. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liqiang Jin; Qinghua Xu; Zonglin Liu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry.The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper,we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  1. Therapeutic effects and side effects in patients with major depression treated with sulpiride once a day.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukamoto, T; Asakura, M; Tsuneizumi, T; Satoh, Y; Shinozuka, T; Hasegawa, K

    1994-05-01

    The effects of once a day dose of sulpiride efficacy and safety was evaluated in patients with major depressive disorder. The patients received sulpiride once a day in the morning or in the evening. There were no significant differences between two groups in the mean measures of efficacy. Side effects were rare and all of a mild degree. The most common side effects were sedation, constipation, and dryness of mouth. Out of regard for the administrative and psychological advantage of the once a day dosage this form should be preferred in the treatment of major depression.

  2. Improved microwave-assisted wet digestion procedures for accurate Se determination in fish and shellfish by flow injection-hydride generation-atomic absorption spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lavilla, I. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Gonzalez-Costas, J.M. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain); Bendicho, C. [Departamento de Quimica Analitica y Alimentaria, Area de Quimica Analitica, Universidad de Vigo, Facultad de Ciencias (Quimica), As Lagoas - Marcosende s/n, 36310 Vigo (Spain)]. E-mail: bendicho@uvigo.es

    2007-05-22

    Accurate determination of Se in biological samples, especially fish and shellfish, by hydride generation techniques has generally proven troublesome owing to the presence of organoselenium that cannot readily converted into inorganic selenium under usual oxidising conditions. Further improvements in the oxidation procedures are needed so as to obtain accurate concentration values when this type of samples is analyzed. Microwave-assisted wet digestion (MAWD) procedures of seafood based on HNO{sub 3} or the mixture HNO{sub 3}/H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and further thermal reduction of the Se(VI) formed to Se(IV) were evaluated. These procedures were as follows: (I) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (II) without H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness; (III) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and without heating to dryness; (IV) with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} and with heating to dryness. In general, low recoveries of selenium are obtained for several marine species (e.g., crustaceans and cephalopods), which may be ascribed to the presence of Se forms mainly associated with nonpolar proteins and lipids. Post-digestion UV irradiation proved very efficient since not only complete organoselenium decomposition was achieved but also the final step required for prereduction of Se(VI) into Se(IV) (i.e. heating at 90 deg. C for 30 min in 6 M HCl) could be avoided. With the MAWD/UV procedure, the use of strong oxidising agents (persuphate, etc.) or acids (e.g. perchloric acid) which are typically applied prior to Se determination by hydride generation techniques is overcome, and as a result, sample pre-treatment is significantly simplified. The method was successfully validated against CRM DOLT-2 (dogfish liver), CRM DORM-2 (dogfish muscle) and CRM TORT-2 (lobster hepatopancreas). Automated ultrasonic slurry sampling with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry was also applied for comparison. Total Se contents in ten seafood samples were established. Se levels ranged from 0

  3. SYNTHESIS OF PLASTIC PIGMENT WITH MULTIHOLLOW STRUCTURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LiqiangJin; QinghuaXu; ZonglinLiu

    2004-01-01

    The polymer particle possessing hollow structure are playing an increasingly important role in industry. The latex particle with hollow structure as plastic pigment has a low density, strong spreading capacity and good glossiness. So it has been utilized for the manufacture of LWC in paper-making. In this paper, we prepared a kind of novel plastic pigment by the soapless seeded emulsion polymerization, this product with polyacrylate as core and with polystyrene as shell (PA/PS) had hollow structure after dryness. The preparation, characterization and properties of the latex were studied in detail by chemistry analysis and apparatus analysis such as TEM,FTIR,DLS.

  4. Evaluation of Xerostomia in Different Psychological Disorders: An Observational Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandrappa, Pramod Redder; Patil, Snehal; Roodmal, Seema Yadav; Kumarswamy, Akshay; Chappi, Mounesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Psychiatric diseases like anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorders are increasing at an alarming rate. These diseases can affect the quantity and quality of saliva leading to multiple oral diseases. Although many researchers have evaluated xerostomia in general population, its prevalence is not been assessed in patients suffering from different psychological disorders. Aim To investigate the prevalence of xerostomia and to assess the correlation between xerostomia and dryness of lip and mucosa in different psychological disorders. Materials and Methods A cross-sectional observational study was conducted over a period of six months in Department of Psychiatry and Department of Oral Medicine. Patients with anxiety, depression, schizophrenia and bipolar disorder, as diagnosed by an experienced psychiatrist, were given a questionnaire to evaluate the xerostomia. Patients with symptoms of xerostomia were subjected to oral examination by a skilled oral diagnostician to check for dryness of lips and mucosa. One hundred patients from each group of psychiatric diseases were included in the study using a consecutive sampling technique. An equal number of healthy individuals reporting to oral medicine department for routine oral screening were included as control group after initial psychiatric evaluation. Results In this study statistically significant increase in the xerostomia in psychiatric patients was recorded when compared to the control group (p<0.01). Xerostomia was significantly higher in anxiety patients (51%) followed by depression (47%), bipolar disorder (41%), schizophrenia (39%) and control group (27%). The majority of the psychiatric patients had ‘moderate’ to ‘severe’ xerostomia whereas the control group had ‘mild’ xerostomia. Xerostomia was significantly higher in younger age group (18–49 years) than in older age group and females patients had higher xerostomia than male patients. Psychiatric patients had

  5. Isotretinoin induced rash, urticaria, and angioedema: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zonunsanga

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Isotretinoin is a vitamin A analogue, which is readily isomerized to tretinoin. It causes normalization of abnormal keratinisation. It also reduces sebum secretion. It also has anti-inflammatory as well as antibacterial properties. It has some adverse effects like teratogenecity, hypertriglyceridemia, pancreatitis, dryness of skin, cheilitis, altered liver functions etc. A 25 years old unmarried lady presented with acne vulgaris, who did not showed improvements with conventional (antibiotics therapy was given isotretinoin. She developed maculopapular rash, urticaria and angioedema Isotretinoin induced urticarial rashes and angioedema is rarely reported as far as our knowledge is concerned.

  6. Atmospheric deposition of {sup 137}Cs between 1994 and 2002 at Cienfuegos, Cuba

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso-Hernandez, C.M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)]. E-mail: carlos@ceac.perla.inf.cu; Cartas-Aguila, H. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Diaz-Asencio, M. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Munoz-Caravaca, A. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Martin-Perez, J. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba); Sibello-Hernandez, R. [Centro de Estudios Ambientales de Cienfuegos, AP 5. Ciudad Nuclear, Cienfuegos (Cuba)

    2006-07-01

    Levels of {sup 137}Cs in total atmospheric deposition have been measured in the Cienfuegos region (Cuba) between 1994 and 2002. Samples were collected every three months, evaporated to dryness to obtain residual samples, and measured by gamma spectrometry. The {sup 137}Cs mean concentration in total deposition was 0.24 Bq m{sup -2} and data ranged between <0.05 and 0.62 Bq m{sup -2}. Precipitation rates and raintime have proved to be the most important factors controlling the concentration and depositional flux of {sup 137}Cs in the atmosphere over Cienfuegos, showing a high correlation coefficient (R = 0.93)

  7. CLINICAL EFFICACY OF CENTPORPAZINE-A NEW ANTIDEPRESSANT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, J.S.; Gupta, P.P.; Asthana, O.P.; Nityanand, S.; Devi, S.; Doongaji, D.R.; Sethi, B.B.; Singh, Gurmeet; Srimal, R.C.; Dhawan, B.N.

    1992-01-01

    Efficacy of centpropazine, a new antidepressant, has been evaluated in forty two patients of endogenous depression. The 4 week open trial was carried out in a dose-range of 40 to 120mg per day. A significant lowering of Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) score was observed in 34 patient. The antidepressant effect could be detected in 9 patients within one week, in 28 cases in two weeks and in all the 34 patients by third week. Giddiness, headache, dryness of mouth and weakness were reported by 11 patients. PMID:21776129

  8. Coefficient of variation as a measure of relative wetness of different stations in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, K. K.

    1991-12-01

    Assessment of relative wetness in different months is a prerequisite for proper planning and utilization of available water resources of an area. Using monthly rainfall data of four different stations in India, the present paper shows that C v, the coefficient of variation, can be used as a measure of relative wetness/dryness. It was further observed that the amount of rainfall for a given probability level can be quickly computed in terms of percentile values. C v is exponentially related to P60, the sixtieth percentile of the amount of rainfall.

  9. A randomized controlled clinical study to evaluate the effectiveness of an active moisturizing lotion with colloidal oatmeal skin protectant versus its vehicle for the relief of xerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaaji, Amer N; Wallo, Warren

    2014-10-01

    Xerosis is a common skin condition, occurring most often in the winter and in low relative humidity, which results in loss of moisture, cracking, and desquamation. Many emollient creams and lotions are available for use as preventive moisturizers. However, few controlled experiments have been published comparing the efficacy of active moisturizing products versus the vehicle used to deliver the products to the skin. Therefore, we conducted this randomized, double-blind, controlled clinical study to objectively compare a commercially available moisturizing product against its own vehicle. The active colloidal oatmeal moisturizer used in this study showed significant benefits versus its vehicle control in several dermatological parameters used to measure skin dryness.

  10. Factors affecting production of compound A from the interaction of sevoflurane with Baralyme and soda lime.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z X; Kandel, L; Laster, M J; Ionescu, P; Eger, E I

    1996-04-01

    Various alkali (e.g., soda lime) convert sevoflurane to CF2=C(CF3)OCH2F, a vinyl ether called "Compound A, " whose toxicity raises concerns regarding the safe administration of sevoflurane via rebreathing circuits. In the present investigation, we measured the sevoflurane degradation and output of Compound A caused by standard (13% water) Baralyme brand absorbent and standard (15% water) soda lime, and Baralyme and soda lime having various water contents (including no water). We used a flow-through system, applying a gas flow rate relative to absorbent volume that roughly equaled the rate/volume found in clinical practice. Both absorbents, at similar water contents, temperatures, and sevoflurane concentrations, produced roughly equal concentrations of Compound A. Dry and nearly dry absorbents produced less Compound A early in exposure to sevoflurane, and more later, than standard absorbents. Increases in temperature and sevoflurane concentration increased output of Compound A. Both absorbents, especially when dry, also destroyed Compound A, the concentration exiting from absorbent resulting from a complex sum of production and destruction. We conclude that the variability of concentrations of Compound A found in clinical practice may be largely explained by the inflow rate used (i.e., by rebreathing), sevoflurane concentration, and absorbent temperature and dryness. The effect of dryness is complex, with fresh dry absorbent destroying Compound A as it is made, and with dry absorbent that has been exposed to sevoflurane for a period of time providing a sometimes unusually high output of Compound A.

  11. Spatiotemporal Analysis of Meteorological Drought Variability in the Indian Region Using Standardized Precipitation Index

    CERN Document Server

    Kumar, M Naresh; Sai, M V R Sesha; Roy, P S

    2015-01-01

    Grid (1{\\deg} latitude x 1{\\deg} longitude) level daily rainfall data over India from June to September for the years 1951 to 2007, generated by India Meteorological Department, was analyzed to build monthly time series of Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). Analysis of SPI was done to study the spatial and temporal patterns of drought occurrence in the country. Geographic spread of SPI derived Area under Dryness (AUD) in different years revealed the uniqueness of 2002 drought with wide spread dryness in July. Mann-Kendal trend analysis and moving average based trends performed on AUD indicated increasing trend in July. The area under moderate drought frequency has increased in the most recent decade. Ranking of years based on Drought Persistency Score (DPS) indicated that the year 1987 was the severe-most drought year in the country. The results of the study have revealed various aspects of drought climatology in India. A similar analysis with the SPI of finer spatial resolution and relating it to crop p...

  12. Prevalence of Menopause Symptoms among Iranian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojgan Asadi

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the symptoms associated with menopause amongwomen referred to menopause clinic of Tehran Women General Hospital.Materials and methods: In this cross sectional study which has been done between January 2011 andJanuary 2012, in menopause clinic of Tehran Women's General Hospital 134 women were studied. Foreach woman a questionnaire was completed. The data gained from each questionnaire were analyzedusing SPSS version 13.Results: The mean age of natural menopause onset was 47.35 (SE=0.11 year. The symptomsassociated with menopause were hot flushes (59.5%, mood swing (42.6%, vaginal dryness (41.1%sleep problems (40.4%, night sweats (38.2%, memory loss (32.3%, urinary symptoms (18.3%,palpitation (6.6%, anxiety (5.8%, Joint and muscle pain (59.9%, depression (4.4%, Irritability (3.6%..Conclusion: This study showed that hot flushes, mood swing and vaginal dryness were the mostcommon symptoms associated with menopause.

  13. Natural advances in eczema care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichenfield, Lawrence F; Fowler, Joseph F; Rigel, Darrell S; Taylor, Susan C

    2007-12-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic relapsing dermatitis characterized by increased transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and subjective symptoms of pruritus, inflammation, skin sensitivity, and dryness. AD is a frequent issue for individuals of color, though it may be underrecognized. Therapy for AD is based on reducing pruritus and inflammation, and normalizing skin surface lipids, particularly ceramides. Topical corticosteroids are the gold-standard treatment for controlling disease flares, but a variety of active natural ingredients can be used adjunctively to help control itch, inflammation, and dryness. Oatmeal, particularly avenanthramides, a newly discovered oat fraction, may be of particular value in restoring the cutaneous barrier and reducing symptoms of AD. Feverfew, licorice, and dexpanthenol also have been shown to be effective in the management of inflammation. Licorice, which has some skin-lightening activity, may be helpful in patients with postinflammatory hyperpigmentation (PIH). The compromised skin barrier in AD is especially vulnerable to UV radiation exposure. Several new long-lasting photostable sunscreen ingredients provide longer durations of protection with improved cosmetic attributes.

  14. Comparison of Two Different Injectable Contraceptive Methods: Depo-medroxy Progesterone Acetate (DMPA and Cyclofem.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firoozeh Veisi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To compare side effects between users of two kinds of injectable contraceptives (Depo-medroxy progesterone acetate and Cyclofem.This cross-sectional descriptive study included 250 women, aged 18-40 years, using Depo-medroxy progesterone acetate (DMPA or Cyclofem. The volunteers were examined six months after using contraceptive, and they were asked about following symptoms: weight changes, irregular bleeding, dysparounia, vaginal dryness, headache, breast pain, bone pain, and discontinuation reason. The data were analyzed by statistical methods.THE IMPORTANT SIDE EFFECTS OF DMPA WERE: irregular bleeding (93.60%, weight gain (48%, bone pain (24% and vaginal dryness (10.40%, while the side effects in the Cyclofem group were: irregular bleeding (65.60%, headache (14.4% and breast sensitivity (20%. Bleeding pattern changes were the most important problem leading to discontinuation of both contraceptive methods in our participants.The results of the study showed that the most important problem in both groups was change in bleeding pattern. Proper consulting by a trained expert reduces the high amount of discontinuation and their failure rates.

  15. Experiment of Flow Regime Map and Local Condensing Heat Transfer Coefficients Inside Three Dimensional Inner Microfin Tubes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YangDu; MingDaoXin

    1999-01-01

    This paper developed a new type of three dimensional inner microfin tube,The experimental results of the flow patterns for the horizontal condensation inside these tubes are reported in the paper,The flow patterns for the hirizontal condensation inside the new made tubes are divided into annular flow stratified flow and intermittent flow within the test conditions.The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients for the different flow patterns have been systematically caried out ,The experiments of the local heat transfer coefficients changing with the vapor dryness fraction have also been carried out.As compared with the heat transfer coefficients of the two dimensional inner microfin tubes,those of the three dimensional inner microfin tubes increase 47-127% for the annular flow region,38-183% for the stratified flow and 15-75%,for the intermittent flow,respectively.The enhancement factor of the local heat transfer coefficients is from 1\\8-6\\9 for the vapor dryness fraction from 0.05 to 1.

  16. Efficacy and cutaneous safety of adapalene in black patients versus white patients with acne vulgaris.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czernielewski, Janusz; Poncet, Michel; Mizzi, Fabienne

    2002-10-01

    Acne vulgaris is the most common dermatologic disorder seen in American black patients (ie, African Americans and African Caribbeans, Fitzgerald skin types IV through VI). Despite its prevalence, there is a lack of data on the effects of treatments, such as the use of topical retinoids and retinoid analogs, in this patient population. Adapalene is a topical retinoid analog that has demonstrated efficacy in the reduction of noninflammatory and inflammatory lesions, along with excellent cutaneous tolerability. Most clinical studies of this agent have involved predominantly white patient populations. This meta-analysis of 5 randomized US and European studies was designed to evaluate the efficacy and safety of adapalene in black versus white patients. The percentage reduction in the number of inflammatory lesions was significantly greater among black patients compared with white patients (P=.012). The percentage reductions in total inflammatory and noninflammatory lesion counts were similar in the 2 groups (P>.3). There were significantly less erythema and scaling in black patients compared with white patients (P<.001 and P=.026 for worst scores for erythema and scaling, respectively). Although the incidence of dryness was similar in both groups, a smaller percentage of black than white patients had moderate or severe scores for dryness (7% vs 18%, respectively). In summary, adapalene appears to be a viable treatment for black patients with acne vulgaris.

  17. Efficacy of HPA Lanolin® in treatment of lip alterations related to chemotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Sergio da Silva Santos

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The side effects of chemotherapy on the lips may cause esthetic and functional impact and increase the risk of infection. HPA Lanolin® is an option for supportive therapy because it has anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and moisturizing properties. Objective: To evaluate the efficacy of this product in the prevention of lip alterations in a population of patients undergoing chemotherapy. Material and Methods: Patients undergoing chemotherapy (n = 57 were examined and distributed into two groups: study (used HPA Lanolin® and control (without supportive therapy on the lips. We evaluated the patients two weeks after chemotherapy, registering oral alterations, symptoms of pain, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening and dehydration, classified according to a visual analogue scale. Results: Patients who used HPA Lanolin® had lower dehydration and experienced improvement of lip dryness (p<0.001. The main symptoms were dehydration, discomfort, limitation of mouth opening, pain. The main clinical signs were dry lips, mucositis, cheilitis, hematoma, swelling and cracking. We found no difference concerning the variables of pain, discomfort, and limitation of mouth opening between the study and control group. Conclusions: We suggest that HPA Lanolin® is effective in reducing the symptoms of dehydration and the signs of lip dryness resulting from toxicity of chemotherapy, proving to be an interesting alternative supportive therapy for cancer patients.

  18. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nery García-Porta

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy contact lens (CL wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK. Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC. Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p<0.05, χ2 was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p<0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test. Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group.

  19. Gallic acid regulates skin photoaging in UVB-exposed fibroblast and hairless mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Eunson; Park, Sang-Yong; Lee, Hyun Ji; Lee, Tae Youp; Sun, Zheng-Wang; Yi, Tae Hoo

    2014-12-01

    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is the primary factor in skin photoaging, which is characterized by wrinkle formation, dryness, and thickening. The mechanisms underlying skin photoaging are closely associated with degradation of collagen via upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity, which is induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Gallic acid (GA), a phenolic compound, possesses a variety of biological activities including antioxidant and antiinflammatory activities. We investigated the protective effects of GA against photoaging caused by UVB irradiation using normal human dermal fibroblasts (NHDFs) in vitro and hairless mice in vivo. The production levels of ROS, interlukin-6, and MMP-1 were significantly suppressed, and type I procollagen expression was stimulated in UVB-irradiated and GA-treated NHDFs. GA treatment inhibited the activity of transcription factor activation protein 1. The effects of GA following topical application and dietary administration were examined by measuring wrinkle formation, histological modification, protein expression, and physiological changes such as stratum corneum hydration, transepidermal water loss, and erythema index. We found that GA decreased dryness, skin thickness, and wrinkle formation via negative modulation of MMP-1 secretion and positive regulation of elastin, type I procollagen, and transforming growth factor-β1. Our data indicate that GA is a potential candidate for the prevention of UVB-induced premature skin aging.

  20. A new drought index that considers the joint effects of climate and land surface change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meixian; Xu, Xianli; Xu, Chaohao; Sun, Alexander Y.; Wang, Kelin; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Zhang, Lu

    2017-04-01

    This study proposes a hydrological drought index, the standardized wetness index (SWI), by combining the structure of the Standardized Precipitation-Evapotranspiration Index and actual-evaporation-based residual water-energy ratio, in which actual evaporation is estimated using the Budyko hypothesis. The SWI requires three parameters—precipitation, potential evaporation, and parameter n of a Budyko-type formula. Based on different types of n (fixed or dynamic), SWI can be used to estimate the dryness/wetness resulting from climate change (variability) solely, and from the joint effects of climate and land surface change (variability). Performance of SWI is evaluated using historical droughts and by comparing to the self-calibrated Palmer Drought Severity Index. Results show that SWI effectively captures global droughts. Furthermore, a case study in two catchments with significant land surface modification indicates that the joint effects of climate and land surface have greater impacts on dryness/wetness in the water-limited Wuding catchment than in the energy-limited Poyang catchment.

  1. Evaluation of transitional behavior of wetness/drought regimes in the Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qiang; Sun, Peng; Singh, Vijay P.; Li, Jianfeng; Tu, Xinjun

    2016-11-01

    Transitional behavior of wetness/dryness regimes is investigated using the standardized precipitation/runoff indices (SPI-SRI) and the Markov chain model, and wetness/drought conditions are predicted. Results indicate that (1) the wetness/drought hazards have large negative impacts during initial conditions in the Xiuhe River Basin and manifest their negative impacts during the development condition of the wetness/droughts in the Fuhe and Xiuhe River Basins; in the Ganjiang and Raohe River Basins, however, droughts have their greatest impacts during the lasting time intervals, (2) the occurrence of meteorological or hydrological droughts/floods individually is subject to very low probability, implying close relations between meteorological and hydrological conditions within the Poyang Lake Basin, and (3) an abrupt shift between hydrometeorological wetness and dryness events is identified, specifically in northwest and northeast parts of the Poyang Lake Basin, which could be due to intensifying precipitation regimes in these regions under the influence of increasing temperature. The prediction of droughts indicates that the transitional probability from the second condition to the hydrological drought is the lowest and the transitional probability from the first (or third) condition to the fourth condition is the largest. Results of this study will be of value for developing measures for mitigation of droughts in a changing environment.

  2. Unilateral Sympathectomy for Primary Palmar Hyperhidrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravari, Hassan; Rajabnejad, Ataollah

    2015-12-01

    Primary palmar hyperhidrosis that arises mostly during puberty and early adolescence has a tremendous impact on the quality of life in patients. This study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of unilateral video-assisted thoracic sympathectomy for dominant hand in these patients. From July 2010 to June 2013, 52 patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis underwent unilateral video-assisted thoracoscopic sympathectomy for dominant hand. We analyzed the outcomes regarding the resolution of symptoms, occurrence of complications, recurrence rate, and compensatory hyperhidrosis, and need of operation for opposite side. All patients were followed up from 6 to 42 months. Palmar hyperhidrosis was completely alleviated and absolute dryness was achieved in all patients at the same hand after the operation. Palmar hyperhidrosis in the opposite hand was cured to a complete dryness in 24 (46.15%) patients. No change happened in the opposite hand in 22 (42.3%) patients, but an increase was seen in 6 (11.53%) patients. Only seven (13.46%) patients needed to undergo contralateral sympathectomy. Compensatory hyperhidrosis occurred in 13 patients (25%) after unilateral sympathectomy. Another five patients (totally 18, 34.6%) were involved with compensatory hyperhidrosis after contralateral sympathectomy. It was mainly on the trunk in all 18 patients. Unilateral dominant side thoracoscopic sympathectomy for patients with primary palmar hyperhidrosis is an effective, safe, and minimally invasive procedure. Only a small number of patients will eventually require a contralateral sympathectomy in nondominant hand. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Dehydroepiandrosterone intra vaginal administration for the management of postmenopausal vulvovaginal atrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Archer, David F

    2015-01-01

    The effects of intravaginal administration of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) for the management of symptomatic vulvovaginal atrophy are reviewed. A literature search related to vulvovaginal atrophy, vaginal atrophy, atrophic vaginitis, estrogen, dehydroepiandrosterone, vulvar itching, burning, dryness, dyspareunia, and libido was performed. Relevant articles addressing the incidence, management, and outcome of DHEA therapy were identified and used for this Expert Opinion. DHEA compared to a placebo is an effective treatment improving symptoms of vaginal atrophy: dyspareunia, burning, itching, and dryness. Objective parameters of vaginal atrophy, specifically pH, vaginal maturation index (VMI), and investigator-evaluated changes in the vagina: moisture, epithelia integrity and color were improved compared to baseline and placebo. There were significant improvements in libido and dyspareunia with the intravaginal use of DHEA that contribute to improved quality of life for postmenopausal women. Dehydroepiandrosterone administered intravaginally on a daily basis is an effective treatment for symptoms, and signs of vulvovaginal atrophy along with libido in postmenopausal women. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled 'Essential role of DHEA'.

  4. An urea, arginine and carnosine based cream (Ureadin Rx Db ISDIN) shows greater efficacy in the treatment of severe xerosis of the feet in Type 2 diabetic patients in comparison with glycerol-based emollient cream. A randomized, assessor-blinded, controlled trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Xerosis is a common skin disorder frequently observed in diabetic patients. An effective hydration of foot skin in diabetics is a relevant preventive strategy in order to maintain a healthy foot. Urea is considered an effective hydrating and emollient topical product. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of topical urea 5% with arginine and carnosine (Ureadin Rx Db, ISDIN Spain) (UC) in comparison with glycerol-based emollient topical product (Dexeryl, Pierre Fabre) (EC), in Type 2 diabetic patients. Methods We assessed the effect of UC on skin hydration in a randomized, evaluator-blinded comparative study in 40 type II diabetic patients, aged 40–75 years, treated with UC or the comparator for 28 days with a twice-daily application. The principal outcomes were the Dryness Area Severity Index (DASI) Score and the Visual Analogue Score (VAS) for skin dryness evaluated at baseline and at the end of study period by an investigator unaware of treatment allocation. Results UC induced significantly greater hydration than EC with an 89% reduction in DASI score (from 1.6 to 0.2; p emollient product. (Dutch Trials Register trial number 3328). PMID:23009311

  5. Sequential Analysis for Comparing the Effect of Keyin Decoction(克银方) with Retinoic Acid in Treating Psoriasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yan-ning(王砚宁); GU Jun(顾军)

    2003-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of Keyin Decoction(克银方)with retinoic acid in treatingpsoriasis. Methods: One hundred and six patients were randomly divided by paired grouping into the KYD group and the all-trans retinoic acid (RA) group, 53 in each group with 19 cases belonging to Wind-Heat Syndrome type and 34 to Wind-Dryness type. The Wind-Heat Syndrome type in the KYD group was trea- ted with KYD Ⅰ (with the action of rearing Heat, removing Dampness, cooling blood and dispelling Wind), and the Wind-Dryness type with KYD Ⅱ (with the action of nourishing blood, moistening skin and dredging Qi-blood circulation, ). The RA group was treated with RA. Sequential analysis was adopted to observe the effect. At the same time, the adverse reaction was observed. Results: When the test got to the 44th pair of patients, the scription of result reached the UA line of sequential chart, suggesting that the efficacy of KYD was superior to that of RA. Skin lesion subsidence rate in the KYD group and the RA group was 39.6% and 20.8% respectively with significant difference (P<0.05). And for the patients of progressive phase in the two groups, skin lesion subsidence rate was 57.8% and 21.1% respectively (P<0.05). No obvious adverse reaction was found in the KYD group. Conclusion: Keyin Decoction had goodeffect in treating psoriasis.

  6. Analytic parallel-polarized light imaging technique using various light-emitting diodes: a comparison with skin conductance values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, D H; Choi, J E; Ryu, H J; Seo, S H; Kye, Y C; Ahn, H H

    2015-05-01

    The quantitative difference of the light reflected from a skin surface can be analyzed using parallel-polarized light (PPL) photography when combined with an analytic technique similar to colorimetric photography. To improve the PPL photography technique as an assessment tool for the evaluation of skin condition using light-emitting diodes (LED) of different colors. Parallel-polarized light images were taken using white and green LED illuminators. The acquired images were transformed to CIELAB coordinates. An in-house skin conductance meter was constructed to assess skin hydration level. A dermatologist evaluated the clinical grading of dryness and glossiness. These clinical severities were also compared statistically with the CIELAB values. As with the green illuminator, the correlation analysis of whole sites showed that the L* value positively correlated with age (r = 0.18677, P light was applied. In addition, coherent relationships between the grade of dryness and skin conductance values showed that visual assessment could be appropriate for the study as with objective measurement. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins: Influence of crossbreeding and rearing system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventanas, Sonia; Ventanas, Jesús; Ruiz, Jorge

    2007-02-01

    The sensory characteristics of Iberian dry-cured loins and the influence of crossbreeding (pure Iberian - IB, Iberian female×Duroc male - IB×D and Duroc female×Iberian male - D×IB) and rearing system (outdoors fed on acorns and pasture - MON, indoors fed on concentrates high in oleic acid sunflower oil and supplemented with 250mg/kg of α-tocopherol acetate -HOVE- and indoors fed on control concentrates - CON) on sensory attributes were studied. Dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE pigs, which showed the highest intramuscular fat (IMF) content (p<0.01), reached higher scores for brightness, marbling traits (intensity, size and shape) and juiciness, and lower for hardness, dryness and fibrousness than loins from crossbred pigs (IB×D-HOVE, IB×D-CON and D×IB-HOVE). In fact, IMF content was positively linked to juiciness and marbling attributes and negatively to dryness, hardness and fibrousness, which was also observed in the principal component analysis (PCA). Neither the crossbreeding nor the rearing system seemed to influence odour, flavour and taste features. The PCA evidenced that dry-cured loins from IB-MON and IB-HOVE batches gathered together and were placed near to marbling attributes, juiciness and IMF content.

  8. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-06-21

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions.

  9. Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment Experience of Eczema by Xiaofeng Powder%消风散加减治疗湿疹经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宝宽; 周探

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To summarize syndrome differentiation and treatment experience of eczema in clinic. Methods : Discuss etiopathogenisis, pathogenesis, pattern of syndrome, method of treatment, formulae and medicinals based on medical records. Results : Etiopathogenisis and pathogenesis of eczema include wind, heat and dampness evil in the exterior, natural endowment deficiency, insufficiency of the spleen resulting in production of dampness, skin damage by blood deficiency and wind dryness. Treatment principles of eczema are eliminating wind, eliminating heat, damp elimination, moisturizing dryness-syndrome, invigorating the spleen, alleviating itching. The formula for eczema is modified Xiaofeng decoction. Conclusions : Syndrome differentiation and treatment shows a better therapeutic effect on eczema.%目的:总结周宝宽主任医师辨治湿疹经验方法:以医案形式阐述湿疹的病因病机、证型、治法、方药.结果:湿疹病因病机,外为风湿热邪,内为禀赋不耐,脾虚生湿,血虚风燥或内外两邪相合致邪浸肌肤.治疗原则为祛风、清热、利湿、润燥、健脾、止痒.常用消风散加减.结论:辨证论治湿疹疗效显著.

  10. YI Xianrong’s experience in treating anorectal diseases%衣先荣教授诊治肛肠病经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马一铭; 张盈

    2015-01-01

    Professor YI Xianrong thinks that the treatment of anorectal diseases should be combining the theory of Em-peror’s Canon of Medicine,the syndrome types are mainly of anorectal dis ease syndrome of intestine - dryness fluid deficiency of Constipation,syndrome of deficiency for spleen and stomach qi of diarrhoea,syndrome of damp heat sta-sis of periappendicular abscess,syndrome of intermingled heat and cold of syncope due to ascariasis. He advocated use nourishing yin and clearing heat,moistening dryness for relaxing bowels,strengthening spleen and nourishing qi and excreting dampness to stop Diarrhea,clearing heat and removing toxicity,eliminating perianal abscess,reducing heat of Shangjiao and dispelling cold of Xiajiao,calming ascaris to relieve pain for diagnosis and treatment of anorectal disease.%衣先荣教授认为,肛肠病诊治时应结合《内经》理论,从肠燥津亏秘结证、脾胃气虚泄泻证、湿热瘀滞肠痈证、寒热错杂蛔厥证加以分型,治疗上采用滋阴清热、润燥通便,健脾益气、渗湿止泻,清热解毒、排脓消痈,清上温下、安蛔止痛等法。

  11. CONSIDERATIONS ON THE DROUGHT PHENOMENON IN CLUJ COUNTY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CORNEL BLAGA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Considerations on the drought phenomenon in Cluj County. Cluj county area is 6674 km², and is located in the northwestern part of Romania. The climate is temperate continental with oceanic influences, relatively humid, but there are also periods of drought and even years with deficient rainfall, as there are periods of excess rainfall. Dryness and drought phenomena are caused by cosmic, climatic, hydrological (groundwater depth, the existence of surface water sources factors, features of the underlying surface, vegetation coverage, soil texture and structure. The relief determines a climate elevation with differences in terms of precipitation and temperatures quantities. To calculate the dryness degree of the climate at weather stations in the Cluj county, the Emmanuel de Martonne aridity index was used. Drought do not induce into the substrate the geomorphologic processes per se, however, they pave the way for starting the deflation process, surface erosion and ravine, by reducing the cohesion between the particles and the formation of deep cracks in the soil and even rock. In these climatic conditions, droughts are less frequent in the county of Cluj, in relation to the extra-Carpathian regions and are distributed unevenly across the county. The number of periods of drought decreases with the increase of the altitude, from an average of 2.6 drought periods a year at Dej (altitude of 232 m to an annual average of 0.3 draught periods at Vlădeasa Peak (altitude of 1836 m.

  12. Generating precipitation with the help of other meteorological variables

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlabing, Dirk; Bárdossy, András

    2014-05-01

    Weather generators traditionally model dry and wet conditions separately. This necessitates not only the existence of a rain occurrence model, but also the double parametrisation of the process generating non-precipitation variables for dry and wet conditions. We propose a method to generate rain together with other meteorological variables within a single stochastic model, thus greatly reducing the number of needed parameters. Drier conditions can, to a certain extend, be seen by the values of non-precipitation variables becoming more distant to their mean values during wet conditions. Hence, this information can be used to estimate a probability of dryness. This probability is derived from values of air temperature, long and short wave radiation, relative humidity and wind speed components at every time step. Then, a continuous time series of precipitation is constructed in the standard-normal domain, comprised of the probability of dryness and transformed precipitation amounts. This time series can then be modelled with a single stochastic model such as a simple vector-autoregressive process. The generated time series is compared with measured data concerning their marginals, auto- and cross correlations as well as low-frequency variability.

  13. A Selection Method for Power Generation Plants Used for Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyong Hu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available As a promising and advanced technology, enhanced geothermal systems (EGS can be used to generate electricity using deep geothermal energy. In order to better utilize the EGS to produce electricity, power cycles’ selection maps are generated for people to choose the best system based on the geofluids’ temperature and dryness conditions. Optimizations on double-flash system (DF, flash-organic Rankine cycle system (FORC, and double-flash-organic Rankine cycle system (DFORC are carried out, and the single-flash (SF system is set as a reference system. The results indicate that each upgraded system (DF, FORC, and DFORC can produce more net power output compared with the SF system and can reach a maximum net power output under a given geofluid condition. For an organic Rankine cycle (ORC using R245fa as working fluid, the generated selection maps indicate that using the FORC system can produce more power than using other power cycles when the heat source temperature is below 170 °C. Either DF or DFORC systems could be an option if the heat source temperature is above 170 °C, but the DF system is more attractive under a relatively lower geofluid’s dryness and a higher temperature condition.

  14. Development of long-acting bioadhesive vaginal gels of oxybutynin: formulation, in vitro and in vivo evaluations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuğcu-Demiröz, Fatmanur; Acartürk, Füsun; Erdoğan, Deniz

    2013-11-30

    Overactive bladder (OAB) and vaginal dryness are common problems after menopause. Oxybutynin (OXY) is an antimuscarinic agent that has been available for more than 30 years in the treatment of OAB patients. The aim of the work reported in this paper was to develop long acting mucoadhesive gel formulations of OXY and to investigate their effects on blood levels compared to those of oral OXY immediate release tablets, in rabbits. Mucoadhesive gels were prepared with chitosan, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC K100M) and Poloxamer 407 (Pluronic F 127). The physicopharmaceutical properties of gels were evaluated. The gel formulation which was prepared with HPMC K100M, exhibited the highest viscosity, the greatest adhesiveness, cohesiveness and mucoadhesion values. The formulation which was prepared from HPMC K100M showed suitable permeation characteristics across the vaginal mucosa. Comparative bioavailability studies were carried out on rabbits with vaginal HPMC gel, vaginal chitosan gel, vaginal OXY solution and commercially available oral Üropan tablets. It was concluded that the highest AUC and relative bioavailability values were obtained for the bioadhesive vaginal gel formulation prepared with HPMC K100M. Therefore, the mucoadhesive vaginal gels of OXY can be a promising and innovative alternative therapeutic system for the treatment of OAB. It can be safely used in cases of overactive bladder and as well as vaginal dryness after menopause.

  15. Sexual function in females after radiotherapy for rectal cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruheim, Kjersti; Tveit, Kjell Magne; Guren, Marianne G. (The Cancer Centre, Oslo Univ. Hospital, Ullevaal, Oslo (Norway)), E-mail: Kjersti.bruheim@medisin.uio.no; Fossaa, Sophie D. (Faculty of Medicine, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)); Skovlund, Eva (School of Pharmacy, Univ. of Oslo, Oslo (Norway)); Balteskard, Lise (Dept. of Oncology, Univ. Hospital of Northern Norway, Tromsoe (Norway)); Carlsen, Erik (Dept. of Clinical Cancer Research, Oslo Univ. Hospital, The Norwegian Radium Hospital, Oslo (Norway))

    2010-08-15

    Background. Knowledge about female sexual problems after pre- or postoperative (chemo-)radiotherapy and radical resection of rectal cancer is limited. The aim of this study was to compare self-rated sexual functioning in women treated with or without radiotherapy (RT+ vs. RT?), at least two years after surgery for rectal cancer. Methods and materials. Female patients diagnosed from 1993 to 2003 were identified from a national database, the Norwegian Rectal Cancer Registry. Eligible patients were without recurrence or metastases at the time of the study. The Sexual function and Vaginal Changes Questionnaire (SVQ) was used to measure sexual functioning. Results. Questionnaires were returned from 172 of 332 invited and eligible women (52%). The mean age was 65 years (range 42-79) and the time since surgery for rectal cancer was 4.5 years (range 2.6-12.4). Sexual interest was not significantly impaired in RT+ (n=62) compared to RT? (n=110) women. RT+ women reported more vaginal problems in terms of vaginal dryness (50% vs. 24%), dyspareunia (35% vs. 11%) and reduced vaginal dimension (35% vs. 6%) compared with RT? patients; however, they did not have significantly more worries about their sex life. Conclusion. An increased risk of dyspareunia and vaginal dryness was observed in women following surgery combined with (chemo-)radiotherapy compared with women treated with surgery alone. Further research is required to determine the effect of adjuvant therapy on female sexual function

  16. Role of androgens, progestins and tibolone in the treatment of menopausal symptoms: a review of the clinical evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Garefalakis

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Maria Garefalakis, Martha HickeySchool of Women’s and Infants’ Health, The University of Western Australia, King Edward Memorial Hospital, Subiaco, Western Australia, AustraliaAbstract: Estrogen-containing hormone therapy (HT is the most widely prescribed and wellestablished treatment for menopausal symptoms. High quality evidence confirms that estrogen effectively treats hot flushes, night sweats and vaginal dryness. Progestins are combined with estrogen to prevent endometrial hyperplasia and are sometimes used alone for hot flushes, but are less effective than estrogen for this purpose. Data are conflicting regarding the role of androgens for improving libido and well-being. The synthetic steroid tibolone is widely used in Europe and Australasia and effectively treats hot flushes and vaginal dryness. Tibolone may improve libido more effectively than estrogen containing HT in some women. We summarize the data from studies addressing the efficacy, benefits, and risks of androgens, progestins and tibolone in the treatment of menopausal symptoms.Keywords: androgens, testosterone, progestins, tibolone, menopause, therapeutic

  17. Vaginal erbium laser: the second-generation thermotherapy for the genitourinary syndrome of menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gambacciani, M; Levancini, M; Cervigni, M

    2015-10-01

    Aim To evaluate the effects of the vaginal erbium laser (VEL) in the treatment of postmenopausal women suffering from genitourinary syndrome of menopause (GSM). Method GSM was assessed in postmenopausal women before and after VEL (one treatment every 30 days, for 3 months; n = 45); the results were compared with the effects of a standard treatment for GSM (1 g of vaginal gel containing 50 μg of estriol, twice weekly for 3 months; n = 25). GSM was evaluated with subjective (visual analog scale, VAS) and objective (Vaginal Health Index Score, VHIS) measures. In addition, in 19 of these postmenopausal women suffering from stress urinary incontinence (SUI), the degree of incontinence was evaluated with the International Consultation on Incontinence Questionnaire-Urinary Incontinence Short Form (ICIQ-UI SF) before and after VEL treatments. Results VEL treatment induced a significant decrease of VAS of both vaginal dryness and dyspareunia (p vaginal dryness, dyspareunia and mild to moderate SUI. Further studies are needed to explore the role of laser treatments in the management of GSM.

  18. Ability of moisturizers to reduce dry skin and irritation and to prevent their return.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simion, F Anthony; Abrutyn, Eric S; Draelos, Zoe D

    2005-01-01

    Assays of moisturizer efficacy have traditionally focused on a moisturizer's ability to alleviate dry skin. More recently, a moisturizer's ability to prevent primary irritation has been recognized. To assess and compare the ability of moisturizers to alleviate skin dryness and primary irritation, as well as prevent their return, four controlled-application clinical (in vivo) studies were carried out: hand-wash test, regression test, reduction in pre-existing irritation study, and prevention-of-irritation studies. Overall conclusions were confirmed in a home-use clinical (validation) study of people suffering from mild eczema. The controlled in vivo studies demonstrate that: (a) a moisturizer can alleviate skin dryness and irritation, and prevent their return; and (b) the efficacy of different moisturizers can be differentiated, based on their composition. The home-use study results demonstrated that the most effective moisturizer identified by the controlled-application studies was highly effective against the signs of eczema. In vivo modeling of moisturizer efficacy enables assessment and optimization of different benefits separately, while predicting the quantitative and perceived (observed) relevance of the benefits the moisturizer delivers to consumers.

  19. Chemical stabilization of metals in mine wastes by transformed red mud and other iron compounds: laboratory tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ardau, C; Lattanzi, P; Peretti, R; Zucca, A

    2014-01-01

    A series of static and kinetic laboratory-scale tests were designed in order to evaluate the efficacy of transformed red mud (TRM) from bauxite refining residues, commercial zero-valent iron, and synthetic iron (III) hydroxides as sorbents/reagents to minimize the generation of acid drainage and the release of toxic elements from multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes. In particular, in some column experiments the percolation of meteoric water through a waste pile, alternated with periods of dryness, was simulated. Wastes were placed in columns together with sorbents/reagents in three different set-ups: as blended amendment (mixing method), as a bed at the bottom of the column (filtration method), or as a combination of the two previous methods. The filtration methods, which simulate the creation of a permeable reactive barrier downstream of a waste pile, are the most effective, while the use of sorbents/reagents as amendments leads to unsatisfactory results, because of the selective removal of only some contaminants. The efficacy of the filtration method is not significantly affected by the periods of dryness, except for a temporary rise of metal contents in the leachates due to dissolution of soluble salts formed upon evaporation in the dry periods. These results offer original information on advantages/limits in the use of TRM for the treatment of multi-contaminant-laden mine wastes, and represent the starting point for experimentation at larger scale.

  20. THE ROLE OF PRESS FABRIC PRESSURE UNIFORMITY AND PORE SIZE ON DEWATERING AND REWET DURING PRESSING

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiaolin Fan; Mary Toney; Jorgen Gullbrand; Fawaad Qamar

    2004-01-01

    New procedures for measuring the pressure uniformity and pore size of press fabrics have been developed to study their role in the dewatering efficiency of a wet paper sheet and fabric system during pressing. The press nip profile of a single nip can be simulated in the laboratory using a custom built Servo-hydraulic Press Nip Simulator (SPNS) and is used to evaluate the final dryness and rewet of a handsheet with press fabric(s). Pressure uniformity can be measured with a flexible high-resolution transducer and pore size; both tests measured using water as the fluid are performed on compressed press fabric samples. A strong correlation is found between pressure uniformity parameters, mean flow pore size and final dryness for different sheets. Rewet is measured "directly" using a tracer fluid in the press fabric in our SPNS tester. Preliminary results indicate a significant reduction in rewet for some sheets with the use of an anti-rewet layer in combination withcertain press fabric designs.

  1. Exopolysaccharides Isolated from Milk Fermented with Lactic Acid Bacteria Prevent Ultraviolet-Induced Skin Damage in Hairless Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morifuji, Masashi; Kitade, Masami; Fukasawa, Tomoyuki; Yamaji, Taketo; Ichihashi, Masamitsu

    2017-01-13

    We studied the mechanism by which fermented milk ameliorates UV-B-induced skin damage and determined the active components in milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria by evaluating erythema formation, dryness, epidermal proliferation, DNA damage and cytokine mRNA levels in hairless mice exposed to acute UV-B irradiation. Nine week-old hairless mice were given fermented milk (1.3 g/kg BW/day) or exopolysaccharide (EPS) concentrate (70 mg/kg BW/day) orally for ten days. Seven days after fermented milk or EPS administration began, the dorsal skin of the mice was exposed to a single dose of UV-B (20 mJ/cm²). Ingestion of either fermented milk or EPS significantly attenuated UV-B-induced erythema formation, dryness and epidermal proliferation in mouse skin. Both fermented milk and EPS were associated with a significant decrease in cyclobutane pyrimidine dimers and upregulated mRNA levels of xeroderma pigmentosum complementation group A (XPA), which is involved in DNA repair. Furthermore, administration of either fermented milk or EPS significantly suppressed increases in the ratio of interleukin (IL)-10/IL-12a and IL-10/interferon-gamma mRNA levels. Together, these results indicate that EPS isolated from milk fermented with lactic acid bacteria enhanced DNA repair mechanisms and modulated skin immunity to protect skin against UV damage.

  2. Cushions of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) do not facilitate other plants under extreme altitude and dry conditions in the north-west Himalayas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Bello, Francesco; Doležal, Jiří; Dvorský, Miroslav; Chlumská, Zuzana; Řeháková, Klára; Klimešová, Jitka; Klimeš, Leoš

    2011-09-01

    Cushion plants are commonly considered as keystone nurse species that ameliorate the harsh conditions they inhabit in alpine ecosystems, thus facilitating other species and increasing alpine plant biodiversity. A literature search resulted in 25 key studies showing overwhelming facilitative effects of different cushion plants and hypothesizing greater facilitation with increased environmental severity (i.e. higher altitude and/or lower rainfall). At the same time, emerging ecological theory alongside the cushion-specific literature suggests that facilitation might not always occur under extreme environmental conditions, and especially under high altitude and dryness. To assess these hypotheses, possible nursing effects of Thylacospermum caespitosum (Caryophyllaceae) were examined at extremely high altitude (5900 m a.s.l.) and in dry conditions (precipitation plants were detected. The number and abundance of species were greater outside cushions than within and on the edge of cushions. None of the 13 species detected was positively associated with cushions, while nine of them were negatively associated. Plant diversity increased with the size of the area sampled outside cushions, but no species-area relationship was found within cushions. The results support the emerging theoretical prediction of restricted facilitative effects under extreme combinations of cold and dryness, integrating these ideas in the context of the ecology of cushion plants. This evidence suggests that cases of missing strong facilitation are likely to be found in other extreme alpine conditions.

  3. Characterization of atopic skin and the effect of a hyperforin-rich cream by laser scanning microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meinke, Martina C.; Richter, Heike; Kleemann, Anke; Lademann, Juergen; Tscherch, Kathrin; Rohn, Sascha; Schempp, Christoph M.

    2015-05-01

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a multifactorial inflammatory skin disease that affects both children and adults in an increasing manner. The treatment of AD often reduces subjective skin parameters, such as itching, dryness, and tension, but the inflammation cannot be cured. Laser scanning microscopy was used to investigate the skin surface, epidermal, and dermal characteristics of dry and atopic skin before and after treatment with an ointment rich in hyperforin, which is known for its anti-inflammatory effects. The results were compared to subjective parameters and transepidermal water loss, stratum corneum moisture, and stratum corneum lipids. Using biophysical methods, in particular laser scanning microscopy, it was found that atopic skin has distinct features compared to healthy skin. Treatment with a hyperforin-rich ointment resulted in an improvement of the stratum corneum moisture, skin surface dryness, skin lipids, and the subjective skin parameters, indicating that the barrier is stabilized and improved by the ointment. But in contrast to the improved skin surface, the inflammation in the deeper epidermis/dermis often continues to exist. This could be clearly shown by the reflectance confocal microscopy (RCM) measurements. Therefore, RCM measurements could be used to investigate the progress in treatment of atopic dermatitis.

  4. Discussion on Conductivity of Heat of Groove DSG Solar Thermal Power Generation Thermal Collectors%槽式 DSG 太阳能热发电集热管传热特性探讨

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李晶; 朱天宇; 肖磊

    2013-01-01

    A one-dimensi nal model was built according to the principle of conservation of energy.Heat-coll ct ng efficiency of solar collector tubes under different working conditions was analyzed.An approach to computational methods of outlet temperature and outlet dryness of solar collector tubes was provided based on a two-dimensional model.Outlet temperature and outlet dryness of 24-meter-long solar collector tubes under different working conditions were analyzed.The essay could be reference for future construction of DSG trough type solar energy collection hot power station.%  本文运用能量守恒的方法建立了集热管一维模型,分析了集热管在不同工况下的集热效率,同时建立二维模型给出了集热管出口温度和出口干度的计算方法,分析了24米长集热管在不同工况下的出口温度和干度,为今后建立槽式 DSG 太阳能热集热发电站提供参考意见。

  5. Differences in Dry Eye Questionnaire Symptoms in Two Different Modalities of Contact Lens Wear: Silicone-Hydrogel in Daily Wear Basis and Overnight Orthokeratology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rico-del-Viejo, Laura; Martin-Gil, Alba

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To compare the ocular surface symptoms and signs in an adult population of silicone-hydrogel (Si-Hy) contact lens (CL) wearers with another modality of CL wear, overnight orthokeratology (OK). Materials and Methods. This was a prospective and comparative study in which 31 myopic subjects were fitted with the same Si-Hy CL and 23 underwent OK treatment for 3 months. Dry eye questionnaire (DEQ) was filled in at the beginning of the study and then after 15 days, 1 month, and 3 months using each CL modality. The tear quality was evaluated with noninvasive tear break-up time. Tear production was measured with Schirmer test. Tear samples were collected with Schirmer strips being frozen to analyze the dinucleotide diadenosine tetraphosphate (Ap4A) concentration with High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Results. After refitting with ortho-k, a reduction in discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day (p < 0.05, χ2) was observed. No significant changes were observed in Ap4A concentration in any group. Bulbar redness, limbal redness, and conjunctival staining increased significantly in the Si-Hy group (p < 0.05, Kruskal–Wallis test). Conclusion. Discomfort and dryness symptoms at the end of the day are lower in the OK CL group than in the Si-Hy CL group. PMID:27689073

  6. Effect of Nasal Continuous Positive Pressure on the Nostrils of Patients with Sleep Apnea Syndrome and no Previous Nasal Pathology. Predictive Factors for Compliance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilar, Francina; Cisternas, Ariel; Montserrat, Josep Maria; Àvila, Manuel; Torres-López, Marta; Iranzo, Alex; Berenguer, Joan; Vilaseca, Isabel

    2016-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) on the nostrils of patients with sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome and its impact on quality of life, and to identify predictive factors for compliance. Longitudinal prospective study. Thirty-six consecutive patients evaluated before and 2 months after CPAP using the following variables: clinical (eye, nose and throat [ENT] symptoms, Epworth test, anxiety/depression scales, general and rhinoconjunctivitis-specific quality of life); anatomical (ENT examination, computed tomography); functional (auditive and Eustachian tube function, nasal flow, mucociliary transport); biological (nasal cytology); and polisomnographics. The sample was divided into compliers (≥4h/d) and non-compliers (<4h/d). A significant improvement was observed in daytime sleepiness (p=0.000), anxiety (P=.006), and depression (P=.023). Nasal dryness (P=.000), increased neutrophils in nasal cytology (P=.000), and deteriorating ciliary function were evidenced, particularly in compliers. No significant differences were observed in the other variables. Baseline sleepiness was the only factor predictive of compliance. CPAP in patients without previous nasal pathology leads to an improvement in a series of clinical parameters and causes rhinitis and airway dryness. Some ENT variables worsened in compliers. Sleepiness was the only prognostic factor for poor tolerance. Copyright © 2016 SEPAR. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  7. Nonlinear effect of climate on plague during the third pandemic in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lei; Liu, Qiyong; Stige, Leif Chr.; Ben Ari, Tamara; Fang, Xiye; Chan, Kung-Sik; Wang, Shuchun; Stenseth, Nils Chr.; Zhang, Zhibin

    2011-01-01

    Over the years, plague has caused a large number of deaths worldwide and subsequently changed history, not the least during the period of the Black Death. Of the three plague pandemics, the third is believed to have originated in China. Using the spatial and temporal human plague records in China from 1850 to 1964, we investigated the association of human plague intensity (plague cases per year) with proxy data on climate condition (specifically an index for dryness/wetness). Our modeling analysis demonstrates that the responses of plague intensity to dry/wet conditions were different in northern and southern China. In northern China, plague intensity generally increased when wetness increased, for both the current and the previous year, except for low intensity during extremely wet conditions in the current year (reflecting a dome-shaped response to current-year dryness/wetness). In southern China, plague intensity generally decreased when wetness increased, except for high intensity during extremely wet conditions of the current year. These opposite effects are likely related to the different climates and rodent communities in the two parts of China: In northern China (arid climate), rodents are expected to respond positively to high precipitation, whereas in southern China (humid climate), high precipitation is likely to have a negative effect. Our results suggest that associations between human plague intensity and precipitation are nonlinear: positive in dry conditions, but negative in wet conditions. PMID:21646523

  8. Effect of Aspergillus niger xylanase on dough characteristics and bread quality attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Zulfiqar; Butt, Masood Sadiq; Ahmed, Anwaar; Riaz, Muhammad; Sabir, Syed Mubashar; Farooq, Umar; Rehman, Fazal Ur

    2014-10-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the impact of various treatments of xylanase produced by Aspergillus niger applied in bread making processes like during tempering of wheat kernels and dough mixing on the dough quality characteristics i.e. dryness, stiffness, elasticity, extensibility, coherency and bread quality parameters i.e. volume, specific volume, density, moisture retention and sensory attributes. Different doses (200, 400, 600, 800 and 1,000 IU) of purified enzyme were applied to 1 kg of wheat grains during tempering and 1 kg of flour (straight grade flour) during mixing of dough in parallel. The samples of wheat kernels were agitated at different intervals for uniformity in tempering. After milling and dough making of both types of flour (having enzyme treatment during tempering and flour mixing) showed improved dough characteristics but the improvement was more prominent in the samples receiving enzyme treatment during tempering. Moreover, xylanase decreased dryness and stiffness of the dough whereas, resulted in increased elasticity, extensibility and coherency and increase in volume & decrease in bread density. Xylanase treatments also resulted in higher moisture retention and improvement of sensory attributes of bread. From the results, it is concluded that dough characteristics and bread quality improved significantly in response to enzyme treatments during tempering as compared to application during mixing.

  9. In vitro monitoring of natural thorium in urine using fluorimeter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalaiselvan, S; Lakshmanan, A R; Meenakshisundaram, V

    2011-12-15

    A relatively less expensive and less time consuming radio analytical technique for quantitative determination of Th(nat) in urine at mBq level is developed and reported in this paper. Th in urine is co-precipitated with Ca(3)(PO(4))(2) from wet oxidized urine matrix and the precipitate is dissolved in HNO(3) and evaporated to dryness. The residue is dissolved in 3M HCl and 200mg of Na-EDTA is added to mask Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and Fe(3+) ions. Th(4+) is extracted into 0.01M PC-88A (2-ethyl hexyl phosphonic acid mono-2-ethylhexyl ester), dissolved in toluene from the experimentally optimized pH 2.5 ± 0.3 in aqueous phase. Th(4+) is stripped into 8.0M HCl and evaporated to dryness. The content of the beaker is dissolved in pH 1.8 HCl and complexed with 3-hydroxy flavone. The sample is excited at 397 nm and fluorescence intensity is measured at 462 nm. The detailed study of the method is presented in this paper. Interference study on elements that are normally present in urine and other actinides (if present) is also given. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Comparison of the moisturization efficacy of two vaginal moisturizers: Pectin versus polycarbophil technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caswell, Michael; Kane, Michael

    2002-01-01

    This study was designed to compare the vaginal deposition and moisturization of two vaginal moisturizers, Summer's Eve (SE), based on pectin, and Replens (Rp), based on polycarbophil, in a double-blind crossover study design. Fifty-one female patients were each randomly assigned to one of two treatment groups. After a one-week washout period, the products were used for two weeks. After another one-week washout period, product assignments were switched. Colposcopy examinations were performed at the beginning and at the end of each product use. Of the forty-seven patients completing the study, 41 (87%) were found to have no vaginal residue after SE vaginal moisturizer, while only 25 (53%) were found to have no vaginal residue after using Rp vaginal moisturizer. No difference in relief of vaginal dryness or in product acceptance was found between the two products. This study shows that the use of SE vaginal moisturizer, based on pectin, resulted in significantly less vaginal residue compared to Rp vaginal moisturizer, based on polycarbophil, and in comparable relief of vaginal dryness. These results strongly suggest that bioadhesion is not important in vaginal moisturizers.

  11. RECONSTRUCTION OF PRECIPITATION SERIES AND ANALYSIS OF CLIMATE CHANGE OVER PAST 500 YEARS IN NORTHERN CHINA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RONG Yan-shu; TU Qi-pu

    2005-01-01

    It is important and necessary to get a much longer precipitation series in order to research features of drought/flood and climate change.Based on dryness and wetness grades series of 18 stations in Northern China of 533 years from 1470 to 2002, the Moving Cumulative Frequency Method (MCFM) was developed, moving average precipitation series from 1499 to 2002 were reconstructed by testing three kinds of average precipitation, and the features of climate change and dry and wet periods were researched by using reconstructed precipitation series in the present paper.The results showed that there were good relationship between the reconstructed precipitation series and the observation precipitation series since 1954 and their relative root-mean-square error were below 1.89%, that the relation between reconstructed series and the dryness and wetness grades series were nonlinear and this nonlinear relation implied that reconstructed series were reliable and could became foundation data for researching evolution of the drought and flood.Analysis of climate change upon reconstructed precipitation series revealed that although drought intensity of recent dry period from middle 1970s of 20th century until early 21st century was not the strongest in historical climate of Northern China, intensity and duration of wet period was a great deal decreasing and shortening respectively, climate evolve to aridification situation in Northern China.

  12. Forcing variables in simulation of transpiration of water stressed plants determined by principal component analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durigon, Angelica; Lier, Quirijn de Jong van; Metselaar, Klaas

    2016-10-01

    To date, measuring plant transpiration at canopy scale is laborious and its estimation by numerical modelling can be used to assess high time frequency data. When using the model by Jacobs (1994) to simulate transpiration of water stressed plants it needs to be reparametrized. We compare the importance of model variables affecting simulated transpiration of water stressed plants. A systematic literature review was performed to recover existing parameterizations to be tested in the model. Data from a field experiment with common bean under full and deficit irrigation were used to correlate estimations to forcing variables applying principal component analysis. New parameterizations resulted in a moderate reduction of prediction errors and in an increase in model performance. Ags model was sensitive to changes in the mesophyll conductance and leaf angle distribution parameterizations, allowing model improvement. Simulated transpiration could be separated in temporal components. Daily, afternoon depression and long-term components for the fully irrigated treatment were more related to atmospheric forcing variables (specific humidity deficit between stomata and air, relative air humidity and canopy temperature). Daily and afternoon depression components for the deficit-irrigated treatment were related to both atmospheric and soil dryness, and long-term component was related to soil dryness.

  13. DRY-WET EVOLUTION IN GUANGDONG PROVINCE DURING LAST 500 YEARS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Based on the historical records in Guangdong Province during the last 500a, the moist index sequence was reconstructed and analyzed by the correlation analysis, wavelet analysis and the power spectrum analysis. The results indicate that: 1) The El Nino events have evident correlations with the droughts happened in the west and north of Guangdong Province, which intensified the dryness and wetness distribution patterns in these areas in a certain degree. 2) Good correspondence relations exist among the moist index sequence, Greenland ice core oxygen isotope record and the winter-half-year temperature sequence in the eastern China, which showed an apparent monsoonal disposal pattern of moisture and temperature. 3) By applying the wavelet analysis to deal with the data, several apparent periodicities are revealed, among which some can be attributed to the solar activities. At the same time, the ENSO event,monsoon (especially the East Asian monsoon) activity and the human activity may also have some influences on the periodicities of the climatic changes in Guangdong Province. 4) Guangdong will persist in dry period before 2040(+5 years) though some little waterlogged period will also exist in this interval, and after that great floods maybe take place in Guangdong. We think that the variety range of the dryness and wetness has increasing tendency in Guangdong Province in future several even hundred years.

  14. Hyperkeratosis of the heels: treatment with salicylic acid in a novel delivery system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bikowski, Joseph

    2004-01-01

    A 43-year-old woman presented with dryness and scaling of the lateral and posterior aspects of both heels, which was diagnosed as hyperkeratotic xerosis (Figure 1). Pertinent medical history included dry skin with winter exacerbation and painful hyperkeratosis of the heels present for many years. The patient applied a topical multivesicular cream formulation of 6% salicylic add (Salex, Healthpoint Ltd., Fort Worth, TX) to one foot b.i.d. The physician was blinded as to which foot was treated. After 2 weeks of treatment, it was apparent that the patient was applying the cream to the right foot, as evidenced by reduced dryness, scaling, and hyperkeratosis (Figure2). The patient continued treatment of the same foot for an additional 2 weeks, revealing a dramatic improvement of the right heel,which appeared smooth and soft and devoid of pain. No irritation was associated with treatment; the patient commented that this was the best her heel had been "in years." Subsequently, the patient treated both heels with salicylic acid 60%, multivesicular cream. A second patient, a 25-year-old woman, was treated for ichthyosis vulgaris and hyperkeratosis of both heels. She presented w ith multiple painful fissures and hyperkeratosis of the posterior heels bilaterally (Figure 3). After I week of topical treatment with salicylic add 6%, multivesicular cream applied b.i.d. to the left heel only, there was rapid resolution of both hyperkeratosis and pain (Figure 4).

  15. Zhang Huadong's Experiences in the Treatment of Sjogren Syndrome Based on the Theory of Liver and Lung Qi Activity%张华东从肝肺气机论治干燥综合征经验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    桑永兵; 刘颖; 鲁构峰; 赵瑞英; 邓俊花; 张华东

    2016-01-01

    Sjogren syndrome( SS)results from the dysfunction of body fluids transformation and dis-tribution and is classified into the categories of“dryness syndrome”,“dryness toxin”and“dryness Bi syn-drome”in traditional Chinese medicine. Prof. Zhang Huadong accumulated rich clinical experiences in the treatment of SS and the treating theory of liver and lung qi activity is one of the characteristics. Prof. Zhang believed that the treatment of SS should focus on regulating liver and lung qi activity. Dysfunction of liver and lung qi in ascending and descending leads to deficiency of qi,blood and body fluids and distribution impair-ment,which is one of the key causative factors of the disease. Hence,the principles of treatment are regulating liver and lung qi ascending and descending and normalizing the distribution of qi,blood and body fluids. Based on the pattern/syndrome differentiation in clinic,the disease is differentiated as the mental hyperactivi-ty restricting the wood,the wood fire restricting the mental,the failure of metal to restrict the wood,the mental dryness burning up the wood,the wood dryness disturbing the mental,the steaming up of the mental and wood,etc. The treatment methods are modified in accordance with the symptoms. This therapy is widely used in clinical practice and has achieved the significant efficacy.%干燥综合征在中医看来,是津液化生与运行敷布失常,根据其临床表现当属“燥证”“燥毒”“燥痹”等范畴。张华东教授在治疗干燥综合征多年临床经验中,从肝肺气机论治是其特色之一,认为论治干燥综合征可从调理肝肺气机入手,肝肺气机升降失调引起气血津液盈亏、输布失常是本病发病的关键之一,治疗上应调理肝肺气机升降,平和气血津液输布。具体在临床辨证的分型中,有金亢制木、木火刑金、金不制木、金涸燎木、木枯扰金、金蒸木焖等等,实际中随证而治,广泛应用,疗效卓著。

  16. Flow and heat transfer regulation of multi-thermal fluids injection in wellbore%多元热流体在井筒中的流动与传热规律

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李兆敏; 张丁涌; 衣怀峰; 杜文军; 薛兴昌; 麻涛

    2012-01-01

    建立高温烟气与水的热交换模型以及多元热流体在井筒内流动传热的温度场、压力场计算模型,计算含过热蒸汽和两相流状态的多元热流体在不同井深时的温度、压力以及其他参数.结果表明:随着井筒深度的增加,多元热流体的温度、压力均有所降低,并在某一深度多元热流体中水蒸气开始凝结,进入两相流状态,与纯蒸汽注入相比,其热损失量小,干度下降慢,在井底干度较大;井口注入温度越高、压力越小、流量越大,多元热流体的压降、温降幅度越大,热损失量越小;随着注入温度的降低,环空介质导热系数和注汽流量的增大,多元热流体干度的变化越早或过热度降幅越大,而注入压力对干度的影响有一个最优点,此时蒸汽在井底干度最大.%A heat transfer model between high temperature gas and water was established, and the wellbore temperature and pressure models calculating the temperature field, pressure field and other parameters of multi-thermal fluids single phase flow and two phase flow were developed. The results show that the temperature and pressure of multi-thermal fluids reduce with the increase of the wellbore depth. And at a certain depth, the water vapor of multi-thermal fluids condenses into two phase flow state, and compared with the pure steam injection, the heat loss is small, dryness descends slowly and the bottom-hole dryness is high. The influence of annulus media on the decrease of temperature and pressure is small. The higher inject temperature, the smaller pressure and greater flow rate lead to the faster temperature and pressure declining, and the smaller heat loss. At the same time, the dryness of multi-thermal fluids changes earlier or degree of superheat drops greatly with the diminution of injection temperature, the increase of the annulus media heat conductivity and injection flow, but the influence of pressure on dryness has a best point, and the

  17. Satellite-based Monotoring of mitiple natural disasters in Mongolian socio-ecological system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Sinkyu

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation, a conceptual mechanisms how multiple natural hazards (i.e. drought, dust storm, land degradation, and Dzud) in Mongolia are linked with each other and how satellite earth observation (EO) data can be utilized to analyze cause-and results relations and to predict the natural hazards. Massive loss of livestock and wildlife animal during winter seasons (dzud) is an endemic climatic disaster in the Central Asia grasslands but the mechanisms are not well understood yet. Recent national-wide sever Dzud occurred during 2009-2010 winter in Mongolia. Whereas, high stocking rate of livestock may give negative effects on sustainable use of pastureland. Dzud is a natural mechanism reducing grazing pressure when stocking rate is high enough to cause the negative effect. Both Dzud and land degradation were directly linked with drought phenomena, which is associated with dust storm occurrence because those conditions can cause sparse vegetation and increase of sensible heat generating strong vertical wind. At a lower level of administration (i.e., soum), stepwise multiple regression analysis was conducted to find significant factors of inter-annual livestock change. For a period from 2003 to 2010, various datasets were prepared from national census and satellite data (summer and winter temperature and precipitation, and summer dryness and vegetation index, NDVI). As results, linear regression models were successfully produced at 70% of soums studied. Summer and winter variables appeared equally important in controlling livestock dynamics. Single-factor models were predominant. The primary factor of each soum showed certain regional patterns incident well with climate severity and foraging resource availability (e.g. temperature in north, dryness in south, and NDVI in middle). Our results indicate that Mongolian pastoral livelihood is highly vulnerable to extreme variability of endemic regional climate factors and hence, there are still rooms for enhancing

  18. Have precipitation extremes and annual totals been increasing in the world's dry regions over the last 60 years?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sippel, Sebastian; Zscheischler, Jakob; Heimann, Martin; Lange, Holger; Mahecha, Miguel D.; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan; Otto, Friederike E. L.; Reichstein, Markus

    2017-01-01

    Daily precipitation extremes and annual totals have increased in large parts of the global land area over the past decades. These observations are consistent with theoretical considerations of a warming climate. However, until recently these trends have not been shown to consistently affect dry regions over land. A recent study, published by Donat et al. (2016), now identified significant increases in annual-maximum daily extreme precipitation (Rx1d) and annual precipitation totals (PRCPTOT) in dry regions. Here, we revisit the applied methods and explore the sensitivity of changes in precipitation extremes and annual totals to alternative choices of defining a dry region (i.e. in terms of aridity as opposed to precipitation characteristics alone). We find that (a) statistical artifacts introduced by data pre-processing based on a time-invariant reference period lead to an overestimation of the reported trends by up to 40 %, and that (b) the reported trends of globally aggregated extremes and annual totals are highly sensitive to the definition of a dry region of the globe. For example, using the same observational dataset, accounting for the statistical artifacts, and based on different aridity-based dryness definitions, we find a reduction in the positive trend of Rx1d from the originally reported +1.6 % decade-1 to +0.2 to +0.9 % decade-1 (period changes for 1981-2010 averages relative to 1951-1980 are reduced to -1.32 to +0.97 % as opposed to +4.85 % in the original study). If we include additional but less homogenized data to cover larger regions, the global trend increases slightly (Rx1d: +0.4 to +1.1 % decade-1), and in this case we can indeed confirm (partly) significant increases in Rx1d. However, these globally aggregated estimates remain uncertain as considerable gaps in long-term observations in the Earth's arid and semi-arid regions remain. In summary, adequate data pre-processing and accounting for uncertainties regarding the definition of dryness are

  19. A PROSPECTIVE OBSERVATIONAL STUDY REGARDING PREVALENCE OF DRY EYE DISEASE IN POST-OPERATIVE CATARACT SURGERY PATIENTS OF 140 CASES.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Srinivasan

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Dry eye disease is one of the most common ocular surface disorder with large number of studies carried out in various countries estimate the prevalence of dry eye disease to be between 5-34%. The prevalence of dry eye increases with age. As per Breaver Dam study regarding dry eye the prevalence of DED 13.3%. Dry eye was apparently higher in women than men. Studies have shown that cataract surgery worsen dry eye symptoms in patients with preexisting dry eye symptoms as well as without preexisting DES, mostly dry eye symptoms last for two months of post cataract surgery period. MATERIALS AND METHODS The prospective observational study was conducted in Department of Ophthalmology, Government Vellore Medical College and Hospital, Vellore. The total number of cataract surgery performed cases were 140 in number. The study period was four months, conducted in tertiary eye center. The Cataract patients were preoperatively at normal tear secretions. Post cataract surgery period from first POD, one week POD, four weeks, six weeks, two months and three months POD examined by slit lamp, Schirmer's test I, TBUT and corneal sensitivity test were performed. RESULTS Our study revealed that increased prevalence in female sex with increased age group range from 51-70 years showed post cataract surgery period dryness of eye. The ratio of Post cataract surgery DED in male and female is 13:29. This shows increased female sex prevalence of postoperative DED. In our study, the prevalence of post cataract surgery dry eye disease was 30%. CONCLUSION 73% cataract surgeries is now clear corneal cataract surgery and this procedure cuts a large part of corneal nerves. The nerve essential for tear production gets disturbed leading to dryness and hence decreased visual function. The corneal nerves are important in self-regulation of tears since they provide the sensation in the feedback loop that signals tear production. When the functions of the nerves get blocked

  20. Intensity-area-duration analysis of droughts in China 1960-2013

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhai, Jianqing; Huang, Jinlong; Su, Buda; Cao, Lige; Wang, Yanjun; Jiang, Tong; Fischer, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    In this study, the intensity, area, and duration of droughts in China are analyzed using the Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI). The SPI was calculated on monthly data for 530 meteorological stations in China for the period 1960-2013. The time series were analyzed for ten major hydrological regions of China, respectively. The relationships between the intensity and the area of droughts for a specific duration were analyzed by the intensity-area-duration method. The results show that areas with a significant trend in dryness can be found in a band reaching from the southwest to the northeast of China, while areas with significant trends in wetness are especially detected in the northern river basins in recent decades. In addition, for recent years (2000-2013), most of the ten major hydrological regions show opposite trends in the SPI when compared to the whole study period (1960-2013) except for the central and southwestern parts of China. This dryness/wetness trends are related to the intensity and duration of drought events, which have been stronger and lasted longer in the detected dryness band except for some northern river basins. A regional shift of drought centers is found from the northwest to the southeast within Central China. Moreover, a decreasing trend in drought area is observed, which might be related to the regional changes in precipitation pattern associated with the atmosphere-ocean interaction. Changes in the SST of the Tropical Pacific and the Tropical Indian Ocean may have resulted in frequent severe drought events of small areal extent in the central and southwestern parts of China. For the study period, the most severe droughts that covered large areas mainly occurred in the north and west of China during the mid-to-late twentieth century. However, in the early twenty-first century, the most severe droughts were located in the southwest of China covering areas less than 0.7 million km2. Conclusively, drought areas show a decreasing

  1. DETERMINATION OF POLYCYCLIC AROMATIC HYDROCARBONS IN SOIL BY ASE-GPC-SPE PURIFICATION AND HPLC DETECTION%快速溶剂(ASE)提取、凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)联合固相萃取(SPE)净化,高效液相色谱法测定土壤中的多环芳烃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张茜; 刘潇威; 罗铭; 王璐; 李红; 王迪; 徐亚平

    2011-01-01

    A new method using ASE combined with solid-phase extraction and GPC cleanup followed by HPLCtandem UV and fluorescence detection has been established for the quantitative determination of 16 PAHs in soils. In the method, the samples were extracted by ASE with acetone: dichloromethane (V:V, 50:50 )at 120 ℃, and dissolved in 9 mL hexane: ethyl acetate ( V: V, 50:50 ) after taking the extract to dryness with evaporation at 25 ℃. Then the extract was injected into GPC column with hexane:ethyl acetate( V: V,50:50)as the mobile phase at a flow rate of 5 mL·min-1 and GPC vacuum was 130 mbr/140 mbr. The 1340-3380 s fraction was collected for subsequent analysis. The portions collected from GPC were dissolved in 2 mL dichloromethane after taking the extract to dryness with nitrogen gas. Then the 2 mL extractions were purified by SPE using Florisil cartridges, eluted with 5 mL dichloromethane. Finally, the extraction was collected from SPE and dissolved in acetonitrile after taking it to dryness with nitrogen gas. The correlation coefficient of each PAH was r2 >0.99, the recovery fell within 62.9%-118.9%, and the relative standard derivation of PAHs was between 0.6% and 19.9%.%建立了采用快速溶剂提取(ASE),固相萃取(SPE)与凝胶渗透色谱(GPC)协同净化方法,使用高效液相色谱-紫外-荧光检测器(HPLC-UV-FLD)串联检测土壤中多环芳烃类化合物多残留的检测方法.通过对加速溶剂提取仪提取条件,凝胶渗透色谱和固相萃取净化条件的优化,确定土壤中多环芳烃类化合物多残留的前处理方法:提取溶剂为丙酮:二氯甲烷(V:V,50:50),提取温度120℃,GPC在线浓缩系统真空腔真空度为130mbr/140mbr,弗罗里硅土固相萃取柱净化,5mL二氯甲烷作为洗脱剂.方法回收率在62.9%-118.9%之间,RSD为0.6%-19.9%.

  2. What caused the spring intensification and winter demise of the 2011 drought over Texas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, D. Nelun; Mo, Kingtse C.; Fu, Rong; Pu, Bing; Bowerman, Adam; Scanlon, Bridget R.; Solis, Ruben S.; Yin, Lei; Mace, Robert E.; Mioduszewski, John R.; Ren, Tong; Zhang, Kai

    2016-11-01

    The 2011 Texas drought, the worst 1-year drought on record, was characterized by spring intensification of rainfall deficit and surface dryness. Such spring intensification was led by an unusually strong increase of convective inhibition (CIN), which suppressed convection at the time critical for the onset of the April-June rainfall season. The CIN increase appeared to be caused by strong sub-seasonal anomalously westerly winds at 850 hPa (U850) in April, in addition to surface dryness due to cumulative rainfall deficit since fall of 2010. The anomalous U850 advected warm dry air from the Mexican Plateau to Texas, enhancing cap inversion, and exacerbating static stability initially elevated by an anomalously high surface Bowen ratio due to rainfall deficits from winter through spring over Texas. Strengthened westerly U850 in April, in addition to the persistent rainfall deficits from winter through spring, are common characteristics in other strong drought events experienced over Texas. Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project-type simulations with prescribed La Niña SSTAs in the tropical Pacific do not show a strengthening of westerly U850 in April, suggesting that internal atmospheric variability at intraseasonal scale, instead of La Niña, may initiate the spring drought intensification over Texas. Soil moisture deficits in late spring are significantly correlated with positive 500 hPa geopotential height anomalies over the south central U.S. 2-3 weeks later, suggesting that intensified surface dryness in late-spring could reinforce the drought-inducing anomalous mid-tropospheric high. The drought diminished in the winter of 2011/2012 despite a second La Niña event. Our analysis suggests an important role for strong westerly wind anomalies, the resultant increase of CIN in spring, and subsequent positive feedback between dry surface anomalies and the anomalous large-scale circulation pattern in drought intensification. Clarification of the mechanisms behind

  3. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  4. Species Diversity Distribution Patterns of Chinese Endemic Seed Plants Based on Geographical Regions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jihong; Ma, Keping; Huang, Jianhua

    2017-01-01

    Based on a great number of literatures, we established the database about the Chinese endemic seed plants and analyzed the compositions, growth form, distribution and angiosperm original families of them within three big natural areas and seven natural regions. The results indicate that the above characters of Chinese endemic plants take on relative rule at the different geographical scales. Among the three big natural areas, Eastern Monsoon area has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas Northwest Dryness area is the lowest. For life forms, herbs dominate. In contrast, the proportion of herbs of Eastern Monsoon area is remarkable under other two areas. Correspondingly the proportions of trees and shrubs are substantially higher than other two. For angiosperm original families, the number is the highest in Eastern Monsoon area, and lowest in Northwest Dryness area. On the other hand, among the seven natural regions, the humid and subtropical zone in Central and Southern China has the highest endemic plants richness, whereas the humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China has the lowest. For life forms, the proportion of herbs tends to decrease from humid, hemi-humid region and temperate zone in Northeast China to humid and tropical zone in Southern China. Comparably, trees, shrubs and vines or lianas increase with the same directions. This fully represents these characters of Chinese endemic plants vary with latitudinal gradients. Furthermore, as to the number of endemic plants belonging to angiosperm original families, the number is the most in humid and subtropical zone in Center and Southern China, and tropical zone in Southern China in the next place. In contrast, the endemic plant of these two regions relatively is richer than that of The Qinghai-Tibet alpine and cold region. All above results sufficiently reflect that the Chinese endemic plants mainly distribute in Eastern Monsoon area, especially humid and subtropical zone in Center

  5. Drought variability over Thessaly plain, Greece. Present and future changes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nastos, Panagiotis T.; Kapsomenakis, John; Dalezios, Nicolas R.; Kotsopoulos, Spyridon; Poulos, Serafim

    2015-04-01

    The diachronic variability of precipitation is of major scientific concern, because it is linked to water availability or deficiency on regional scale. The latter, resulted from a prolonged period of abnormally low precipitation or permanent absence of precipitation, is associated with dryness, having on one hand, a substantial impact on agricultural production and thus the society itself, and on the other hand, the redistribution of flora and fauna. In some cases, dryness drive climate refugees, and this is a great challenge - threat - that must be faced - mitigated - by stake holders in international organizations and fora. The Aridity Index (AI) measures the degree of dryness of the climate at a given region, and according to the United Nations Environmental Programme (UNEP) it is defined as the ratio of precipitation to the potential evapotranspiration. In this study, we investigate the climate change impacts on AI over Thessaly plain, Greece. Thessaly, the largest plain and granary of Greece, includes a total area of 14,036 km2, which represents almost 11% of the Greek territory. Regarding the geomorphology, the ground is 50% mountainous-hilly and 50% flat, irrigated by Peneus, the third largest river in the country, which flows through the axis east-west. The assessment of AI was conducted utilizing daily evapotranspiration losses, based on the modified FAO-56 Penman-Monteith formula, and daily precipitation totals from a number of Regional Climate Models (RCMs), within the ENSEMBLE European Project. Further, the projected changes of AI between the period 1961-1990 (reference period) and the periods 2021-2050 (near future) and 2071-2100 (far future) along with the inter-model standard deviations are presented, under SRES A1B. The findings of the analysis revealed significant spatiotemporal changes of AI over Thessaly plain, focusing on their societal aspects. Acknowlegdements. This work is supported by the project AGROCLIMA (11SYN_3_1913), which is funded by

  6. Why do team-sport athletes drink fluid in excess when exercising in cool conditions?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bargh, Melissa J; King, Roderick F G J; Gray, Michael P; Jones, Ben

    2017-03-01

    This study assessed the potential physiological and perceptual drivers of fluid intake and thirst sensation during intermittent exercise. Ten male rugby players (17 ± 1 years, stature: 179.1 ± 4.2 cm, body mass (BM): 81.9 ± 8.1 kg) participated in six 6-min small-sided games, interspersed with 2 min rest, where fluid intake was ad libitum during rest periods. Pre- and postmeasurements of BM, subjective ratings (thirst, thermal comfort, thermal sensation, mouth dryness), plasma osmolality (POsm), serum sodium concentration (S[Na(+)]), haematocrit and haemoglobin (to calculate plasma volume change; PV) were taken. Fluid intake was measured during rest periods. BM change was -0.17 ± 0.59% and fluid intake was 0.88 ± 0.38 L. Pre- to post-POsm decreased (-3.1 ± 2.3 mOsm·kg(-1); p = 0.002) and S[Na(+)] remained similar (-0.3 ± 0.7 mmol·L(-1), p = 0.193). ΔPV was 5.84 ± 3.65%. Fluid intake displayed a relationship with pre-POsm (r = -0.640, p = 0.046), prethermal comfort (r = 0.651; p = -0.041), ΔS[Na(+)] (r = 0.816, p = 0.004), and ΔPV (r = 0.740; p = 0.014). ΔThirst sensation displayed a relationship with premouth dryness (r = 0.861, p = 0.006) and Δmouth dryness (r = 0.878, p = 0.004). Yet a weak positive relationship between Δthirst sensation and fluid intake was observed (r = 0.085, p = 0.841). These data observed in an ambient temperature of 13.6 ± 0.9 °C, suggest team-sport athletes drink in excess of fluid homeostasis requirements and thirst sensation in cool conditions; however, this was not influenced by thermal discomfort.

  7. Seksuel dysfunktion i menopausen. Status over forekomst, farmakologiske behandlingsmuligheder og risici

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nina; Hilmand, Christina Bjerre; Jensen, Pernille Tine;

    2006-01-01

    , and there is evidence suggesting that systemic hormone therapy, such as estrogen, estrogen/progesterone, estrogen/testosterone and tibolone, has a positive impact on sexual dysfunction in the menopause. There is evidence that local estrogen relieves vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. The recent discoveries of the side...... effects of hormone therapy necessitate careful evaluation of the indication for hormone therapy, and the duration of treatment is recommended to be as short as possible. The long-term side effects of testosterone in women have not yet been fully investigated. Sildenafil has shown a positive effect......The frequency of female sexual dysfunction increases with age, and the menopause has a negative influence on sexual life. Pharmacological treatment options of female sexual dysfunctions in the menopause include hormone therapy and sildenafil. Few randomised controlled studies have been done...

  8. Sexual dysfunction in the peri- and postmenopause. Status of incidence, pharmacological treatment and possible risks. A secondary publication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gregersen, Nina; Jensen, Pernille Tine; Giraldi, Annamaria Elena

    2006-01-01

    of randomized, controlled trials have been conducted and evidence suggests that systemic hormone therapy with estrogen, estrogen/progesterone, estrogen/testosterone and tibolone have a positive impact on sexual dysfunction during the peri- and postmenopause. Further, there is evidence that treatment with local...... estrogen relieves vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. Recent knowledge on side effects related to hormone therapy necessitates careful evaluation of the indication for hormone therapy and the duration of postmenopausal hormone therapy should be as short as possible. Long-term side effects of testosterone have...... in the postmenopause. For the time being the effect of testosterone therapy and tibolone on female sexual dysfunction is being investigated. Sexual dysfunction in women (Female Sexual Dysfunction, FSD) is multi-factorial and influenced by physiological, psychological, social and emotional factors. FSD is defined...

  9. A Survey of Treatment of Diabetic Complications with Chinese Drugs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhao Fan

    2005-01-01

    @@ According to the TCM theory, diabetes is characterized in the initial stage by deficiency and consumption of qi and yin fluid and excessive dryness-heat; in the middle stage by deficiency of both qi and yin, and obstruction of channels and collaterals; while in the late stage, by various complications due to consumption and loss of qi and yin, imbalance of yin and yang and stagnation of both phlegm and blood stasis, which may result in failure of the kidney and serious injury of the channels and collaterals and zang-fu organs. In recent years, there are lots of reports concerning Chinese-drug treatment of diabetes with satisfactory therapeutic results. The following is a survey of treatment of diabetic complications with Chinese drugs.

  10. Rapid ion-pair liquid chromatographic method for the determination of fenbendazole marker residue in fermented dairy products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vousdouka, Venetia I; Papapanagiotou, Elias P; Angelidis, Apostolos S; Fletouris, Dimitrios J

    2017-04-15

    A simple, rapid and sensitive liquid chromatographic method that allows for the quantitative determination of fenbendazole residues in fermented dairy products is described. Samples were extracted with a mixture of acetonitrile-phosphoric acid and the extracts were defatted with hexane to be further partitioned into ethyl acetate. The organic layer was evaporated to dryness and the residue was reconstituted in mobile phase. Separation of fenbendazole and its sulphoxide, sulphone, and p-hydroxylated metabolites was carried out isocratically with a mobile phase containing both positively and negatively charged pairing ions. Overall recoveries ranged from 79.8 to 88.8%, while precision data, based on within and between days variations, suggested an overall relative standard deviation of 6.3-11.0%. The detection and quantification limits were lower than 9 and 21μg/kg, respectively. The method has been successfully applied to quantitate fenbendazole residues in Feta cheese and yoghurt made from spiked and incurred ovine milk.

  11. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K; Mills, Zachary G; Hu, David L

    2012-12-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M(-0.22), which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M(-0.19) based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue.

  12. Influence of sensory characteristics on the acceptability of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; García, C; Muriel, E; Andrés, A I; Ventanas, J

    2002-08-01

    The influence of different sensory attributes on the acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham was studied. Partial least squares regression analysis showed that juiciness and several flavour traits were the major attributes positively influencing acceptability of dry-cured Iberian ham, whereas yellowness of the fat, dryness and fibrousness showed a negative influence. Using stepwise multivariate regression, juiciness and flavour intensity were the two traits that better explained the acceptability of dry-cured ham, the linear model obtained showing a regression coefficient of 0.526. The regression coefficient of acceptability with juiciness and flavour intensity was higher using a piecewise linear regression model (R(2)=0.759) showing, therefore, a discontinuous relationship between these variables. However, results on product acceptability have been obtained using trained panellists and it might be possible that the use of a consumer panel would change these conclusions.

  13. [Anticholinergic syndrome after intoxication by lupine seeds (Tourmos)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awada, Adnan; Atallah, David; Zoghbi, Antoine

    2011-01-01

    Yellow lupine seeds (Tourmos) are frequently used as snack in Lebanon but their potential toxicity is extremely rare (five published cases) and often undiagnosed. Two patients presented with anticholinergic syndrome (mydriasis, mouth dryness, palpitations, general malaise) after ingestion of 200-500 g of bitter lupine seeds (not soaked enough in water). No other cause of intoxication was found, and symptoms disappeared spontaneously in 24-36h. Yellow lupine seeds need a long preparation (boiling then soaking with several changes of water) to debitter before consumption. The spontaneous bitter taste is mainly due to the presence of a toxic substance with anticholinergic properties, lupanine. An insufficient preparation or a preference for bitter lupin can result in intoxication.

  14. Mutagenic activity of drinking water in Wroclaw, Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasiorowski, K; Szyba, K; Sawicka, J; Gulanowski, B

    1993-01-01

    The Salmonella mutagenicity test was applied to the evaluation of mutagenic activity of Wroclaw drinking water. Contaminants of water samples were concentrated by adsorption on XAD-2 resin. After while they were eluted sequentially with acetone, dichloromethane/methanol (1:1, v/v) and methanol, and then obtained organic extracts were evaporated to dryness. The extracts were then dissolved in DMSO and examined by using the Ames test. The results proved significant contamination of drinking water with mutagenic substances. Hydroxyapatite column chromatography performed after direct incubation of standard DNA probes with tested water extracts showed that drinking water was contaminated with DNA interstrand cross-linking substances. Filtration of tap water through carbon filters markedly reduced mutagenic activity of tested water extracts, whereas ceramic filters were more efficient in depleting of DNA interstrand cross-linking contaminants.

  15. Zinc Borohydride-Ionic Liquid: Stable and Efficient System for Reductive Reaction of Aldehydes with Primary Amines to Corresponding Secondary Amines

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ 1 Introduction Ionic liquids(ILs) are attracting much attention in various fields of chemical synthesis, electrochemical applications, liquid-liquid extractions, as well as biotransformations. Among those fields, the application of ILs as the potential green solvent for a wide variety of synthetic processes is an area of intense researches.High yield, high selectivity, and good catalytic charac-teristics have usually been achieved. After the isolation of products, ILs can usually be recovered and recycled many times by simple treating procedures,such as, filtration, extraction, and dryness. Because of their superiorities mentioned earlier, together with their unique physicochemical characters of negligible vapor pressure, thermal stability, and favorable solubility of various chemicals, ILs have received extensive attention by organic researchers recently[1].

  16. Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity and performance: a comparison of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Lagercrantz, Love Per; Witterseh, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    , intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms and performance of office work. Removing the pollution source improved the perceived air quality, decreased the perceived dryness of air and the severity of headaches, and increased typing performance. These effects were observed separately in each experiment......The present paper shows that introducing or removing the same pollution source in an office in two independent investigations, one in Denmark and one in Sweden, using similar experimental methodology, resulted in similar and repeatable effects on subjective assessments of perceived air quality...... and were all significant (P less than/equal to 0.05) after combining the data from both studies, indicating the advantages of pollution source strength control for health, comfort, and productivity....

  17. Thermal asymmetry model of single slope single basin solar still with sponge liner

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shanmugan Sengottain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available An attempt has been made to propose a thermal asymmetry model for single slope basin type solar still with sponge liner of different thickness (3cm, 5cm, and 10cm in the basin. Two different color sponge liners have been used i.e., yellow and black. In the proposed design, a suitable dripping arrangement has been designed and used to pour water drop by drop over the sponge liner instead of sponge liner in stagnant saline water in the basin. The special arrangement overcomes the dryness of the sponge during peak sunny hours. The performance of the system with black color sponge of 3cm thickness shows better result with an output of 5.3 kg/m2 day and the proposed model have used to find the thermal asymmetries during the working hours of the still.

  18. Performance of ductless personalized ventilation in conjunction with displacement ventilation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dalewski, Mariusz; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Vesely, Michal

    2014-01-01

    movement decreased with DPV compared to corresponding conditions with displacement ventilation alone and reached the same level as mixing or displacement ventilation at 23 °C. Subjects were able to control the volume and speed of the personalized air flow in order to avoid eye irritation. However......, increased eye dryness sensation was reported by 30% of subjects. The personalized air flow selected by nearly 80% of the subjects at 26 °C was between 10 and 20 l/s corresponding to the target air velocity of 1.2–1.7 m/s. At 29 °C almost 90% of subjects chose a personalized air flow between 15 and 20 l/s (1...

  19. Primary Sjögren′s syndrome without ocular involvement: A rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tushar Phulambrikar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren′s Syndrome (SS is a chronic systemic autoimmune disorder, characterized by the lymphocytic infiltration of lacrimal and salivary glands, giving rise to dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca and dry mouth (xerostomia. Primary Sjögren′s Syndrome commonly presents only with sicca manifestations; whereas, secondary Sjögren′s syndrome occurs in connection with other autoimmune rheumatic diseases. Primary Sjögren′s syndrome without ocular manifestation is rarely reported in the literature. Here we report a case of a 45-year-old female, who presented to us with complaints of dryness of mouth and dysphagia, without any ocular and systemic manifestations. On further evaluation she was diagnosed as a case of Primary Sjögren′s syndrome. With this case report, we intend to emphasize the importance of an early diagnosis of this disorder, along with a brief review of various diagnostic criteria.

  20. Aqueous dispersions of silver nanoparticles in polyelectrolyte solutions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Dan Donescu; Raluca Somoghi; Marius Ghiurea; Raluca Ianchis; Cristian Petcu; Stefania Gavriliu; Magdalena Lungu; Claudia Groza; Carmen R Ionescu; Carmen Panzaru

    2013-03-01

    In this report, we present the versatile and effective technique, using environmental friendly reductant glucose, to prepare stable silver nanodispersions by reduction of Ag+ ions. Alternant copolymers of maleic anhydride with vinyl acetate and styrene sulphonate sodium acid salt polyelectrolytes were synthesized in aqueous solution and used as stabilizers. The formation of nano silver particles was confirmed by UV-Vis spectrophotometry and TEM measurements. Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS) measurements were needed to study how the reagents and their concentrations influence particle size. SEM images show the nanostructure of the hybrid films and indicate a strong interaction between the polyelectrolyte and the silver NPs. Moreover, the silver NPs could be stored for one year without observation of aggregates or sedimentation. The final solid products obtained after evaporating to dryness can be used to produce stable dispersions upon mixing with water. Few of the final products were found to exhibit a high antibacterial and antifungal activity.

  1. Health-related quality of life in early breast cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groenvold, Mogens

    2010-01-01

    populations reporting their symptoms more completely, e.g., general population samples. In contrast, this mechanism has little importance when results from different sub-groups of cancer patients are compared. In this study multiple variables were assessed at multiple points in time and we did not have......, but some persisted: anticipatory nausea, weight gain, endocrine effects (e.g., hot flushes/sweats, irregular bleedings/amenorrhea, vaginal dryness), disturbed sleep, and sexual dysfunction. These findings are in agreement with the literature. The staff study showed that experienced physicians and nurses...... variables. In multivariate Cox regression analyses patients who were more fatigued or had poorer emotional function had a worse prognosis. These results are consistent with one small study, but are inconsistent with five similar studies in patients with primary breast cancer, which found...

  2. Evolution characteristics of the precipitation in the Yangtze River delta based on the probability density

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zeng Hong-Ling; Gao Xin-Quan; Zhang Wen

    2005-01-01

    In this paper the dryness/wetness (DW) grade data of the Yangtze River delta is transformed into the temporal evolution of precipitation probability (PP), and its hierarchically distributive characters are revealed. Research results show that the precipitation of the Yangtze River delta displays the interannual, interdecadal, as well as longer quasiperiodic changes than a century, and all the periods have a confidence level of more than 0.05. In the DW grade series of 530 years, although the frequency of the small probability events (SPEs) of drought/flood in each area of the Yangtze River delta is different, the frequency of the SPEs triggered by the climatic background state is yet the same. This research result fully shows the significant impact of the climatic evolution as a background state upon the occurrence of SPEs, which will be instructive in climatic prediction theory and in raising the accuracy of the climatic prediction.

  3. Distress During the Menopause Transition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcianna Nosek

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available In 2010, nearly 400 million women worldwide were of menopause age (45-54. Although many women transition through menopause with ease, some experience distress and a subsequent decrease in quality of life. The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the experiences of distress in women during the menopause transition. A narrative analysis methodology was used maintaining participants’ complete narratives when possible. In-person interviews of 15 midlife women were digitally audio recorded and transcribed verbatim. Women shared narratives of distress related to menstrual changes, emotional instability, vaginal dryness, and decreased libido affected by their relationships with self, partners, work, and family. Some experiences were presented against a backdrop of the past and influenced by concerns for the future. Detailed stories illuminated the effect that distressful symptoms had on quality of life and captured how intricately woven symptoms were with the women’s interpersonal and social lives.

  4. A sweeter way of teaching health and safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Claire; Bates, Joanna; McLaughlin, Kerry; Mason, Steve; Dean, Julian S.

    2016-09-01

    The underpinning educational theory for practical work is that of experimental learning or ‘learning by and through doing’. Hands-on practical work promotes learning as it provides students with an opportunity to put theory into practice. There are many hazards with practical work, each with an associated risk that students will encounter while they are working in the laboratory and, therefore, adequate instruction should be given before students carry out any practical work. Getting students to engage with this in the past has been difficult due to the dryness of the material. Here we show how every students sweet tooth can be used to teach them risk assessment, experimental design and embedding health and safety as part of their scientific culture.

  5. Simultaneous determination of florfenicol and florfenicol amine in fish, shrimp, and swine muscle by gas chromatography with a microcell electron capture detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Suxia; Sun, Fengyun; Li, Jiancheng; Cheng, Linli; Shen, Jianzhong

    2006-01-01

    A rapid and sensitive gas chromatography method was developed for the simultaneous determination of florfenicol (FF) and its metabolite florfenicol amine (FFA) in fish, shrimp, and swine muscle. The extracted samples were defatted with hexane and cleaned up by solid-phase extraction using Oasis MCX cartridges. The eluate was evaporated to dryness, and residues were derivatized and determined by gas chromatography with a microcell electron capture detector. Overall average recoveries ranged from 81.7 to 109.7% for fish, 94.1 to 103.4% for shrimp, and 71.5 to 91.4% for swine muscle. The detection limit was 0.5 ng/g for FF and 1 ng/g for FFA, respectively. The method was validated for the determination of incurred swine muscle samples in an actual residue study.

  6. 煤制油项目饱和蒸汽余热利用研究%Study on Saturated Steam Waste Heat Utilization of CTL Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周翔

    2016-01-01

    Take a CTL project as an example, the paper mainly introduces the installed capacity and type of saturated steam turbogenerator by calculating plantwide steam balance, and presents the issues needing attention in type selection of saturated steam turbogenerator by analyzing variables like exhaust pressure, exhaust dryness, relative internal efficiency and so on of saturated steam turbogenerator.%以某干粉气化间接合成油项目为例,通过全厂蒸汽平衡的计算,确定了饱和余热发电机组的装机容量和形式;分析了饱和余热发电汽轮机的排汽压力、排汽干度、相对内效率等变量,提出了饱和余热汽轮机选型中应注意的问题。

  7. Preserved to preservative free prostaglandin analogues in primary open angle glaucoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asha S. Morge

    2013-12-01

    POAG develops gradually and take long time to get detected and require long term treatment with topical prostaglandin analogues (PGF2 which is the most common as well as most widely used drugs. These PGF2 analogues need to be taken for longer time and more prone to develop adverse drug reactions. Common ADR seen with PG analogues are irritation on instillation, foreign body sensation, dryness of eyes, pain in eye, increased pigmentation of iris, increased eyelash growth, changes in periorbital sulcus and fat. Some ADRs (Adverse Drug Reaction are explained by the inherent properties of Prostaglandins and those are not explained are because of preservative used in medication and these ADRs can be minimised by using preservative free drug like Tafluprost which are having same efficacy in decreasing IOP. [Int J Basic Clin Pharmacol 2013; 2(6.000: 696-704

  8. The Use of Ozone in High Frequency Device to Treat Hand Ulcers in Leprosy: a Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reis, Felipe J J; Correia, Helia; Nagen, Roberto; Gomes, Maria Kátia

    2015-09-01

    Leprosy leads to chronic granulomatous inflammation in skin and peripheral nerves that can lead to sensory, motor and autonomic impairments. Autonomic dysfunctions may result in dryness and cracking of the skin. In this study, we present the use of ozone provided by a high-frequency device to treat hand ulcers (wounds) in an 80-year-old man who was diagnosed as multibacillary in 2007. In the first visit, the patient was evaluated and received verbal and written instructions about self-care. Treatment consisted of five sessions, once per week. The ozone provided by a high-frequency device seemed to be useful in the treatment of ulcers, thus, contributing to the healing process. Research that investigates the use of high frequencies in the treatment of ulcers associated or not with other interventions (self-care strategies, protective clothing, adapted tools and footwear adaptation) is strongly recommended.

  9. A comprehensive approach to assess Arabidopsis survival phenotype in water-limited condition using a non-invasive high-throughput phenomics platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio eVello

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid rise in global population and the challenges caused by climate changes, the maximization of plant productivity and the development of sustainable agriculture strategies are vital for food security. One of the resources more affected in this new environment will be the limitation of water.In this study, we describe the use of non-invasive technologies exploiting sensors for visible, fluorescent and near-infrared lights to accurately screen survival phenotypes in Arabidopsis thaliana exposed to water-limited conditions. We implemented two drought protocols and a robust analysis methodology that enabled us to clearly assess the wilting or dryness status of the plants at different time points using a phenomics platform. In conclusion, our approach has shown to be very accurate and suitable for experiments where hundred of samples have to be screened making a manual evaluation unthinkable. This approach can be used not only in functional genomics studies but also in agricultural applications.

  10. Understanding and preventing computer vision syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loh, Ky; Redd, Sc

    2008-01-01

    The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  11. A short review on sources and health benefits of GLA, The GOOD omega-6

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van Hoorn René

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available GLA rich oils are used mainly for their antiinflammatory effects. As inflammation plays a role in a large number of diseases, GLA can also affect a large number of diseases/conditions. Clinical studies have shown that GLA regulates transepidermal water loss (TEWL, whereby, it prevents dryness and also helps heal eczema and xeroderma. GLA also is shown to stimulate apoptosis of cancer cells without affecting healthy cells. It increases the efficacy of anticancer agents (e.g. tamoxifen and reduces their side effects by regulating apoptotic gene expression and estrogen receptors. GLA rich oils also reduce the pain and inflammation in rheumatoid arthritis. Recent clinical trial has indicated that GLA can prevent weight regain after weight loss, which is a big concern for people undergoing weight loss. Several human and animal studies have confirmed safety of GLA. The presentation will discuss the various sources for GLA and the actions of GLA in various conditions.

  12. Accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids in rat brains during post-decapitative ischemia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moesgaard, B.; Hansen, Harald S.; Jaroszewski, J.W.

    1999-01-01

    ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA). The lower organic phases were isolated and evaporated to dryness under a stream of nitrogen and the lipids were redissolved in CDCl-CHOH-HO 100.0:29.9:5.2 (v/v/v) for NMR analysis. Increasing the period of post-decapitative ischemia resulted in an accumulation of two signals......-phospho(N-acyl)-ethanolamine (NAPE(PLAS)), respectively, by spiking with authentic materials. Additionally, the identification was verified by thin-layer chromatography, which also showed the accumulation of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids. The use of K-EDTA instead of the commonly used Cs-EDTA...... in the preparation of the NMR samples allowed the separation of the chemical shifts of N-acyl-ethanolamine phospholipids from those of the ethanolamine phospholipids. Moreover, the chemical shift of cardiolipin was moved from 0.15 ppm observed with Cs-EDTA to about 0.31 ppm with K-EDTA. The present study...

  13. Spatial distribution of wind erosion and its driving factors in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Based on remote sensing and geographic information system, the spatial distribution of nation-wide wind erosion is studied, and the 1:100 000 national map of soil erosion by wind in China is made. Wind speed, soil dryness, NDVI, soil texture and the slope of land surface are the key factors to wind erosion. The relations between wind erosion and each factor are discussed. The method of principal component is used to pick up the information included in the five factors, and the wind erosion dynamic index (WEDI) is established. Its comparison with the RS/GIS derived data shows that WEDI can reflect the potential capacity of soil erosion by wind. The dynamic process of the wind erosion is studied to reveal the distribution of the most intense wind erosion regions and the dominant factors in these regions. All these studies may greatly help the mitigation of wind erosion of soil.

  14. Laser-light backscattering response to water content and proteolysis in dry-cured ham

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fulladosa, E.; Rubio-Celorio, M.; Skytte, Jacob Lercke

    2017-01-01

    Laser backscattering imaging (LBI) is a low-cost technology proposed to determine non-invasively composition and microstructural characteristics of agro food and dairy products. The aim of this work was to define the effect of different acquisition conditions (wavelength, object distance and angle...... of laser incidence) and to analyse the laser-light backscattering changes caused by additional hot air drying and proteolysis of dry-cured ham slices. The feasibility of the technology to determine water content and proteolysis (which is related to textural characteristics) of commercial sliced dry......-cured ham was also evaluated. Results showed that a red laser (635 nm) is more convenient than a green laser (532 nm) to analyse dry-cured ham but no preferable angle or object distance to evaluate dryness or proteolysis was found. Nevertheless, light scattering parameters were modified depending...

  15. Ectopic pituitary adenoma presenting as midline nasopharyngeal mass.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ali, R

    2012-02-01

    INTRODUCTION: Ectopic pituitary adenomas are extremely rare. We report a case of ectopic pituitary adenoma in the midline of the nasopharynx. This adenoma probably arose from the pharyngeal remnant of Rathke\\'s pouch. METHODS: We discuss a case of a lady who presented to our unit with 2 months history of dryness and sensation of lump in her throat and a long standing history of hypothyroidism. Examination of nasopharynx revealed a smooth and fluctuant midline mass. CT scan of nose and paranasal sinuses confirmed the midline mass with small defect communicating with the sphenoid sinus. An initial diagnosis of Thornwaldt\\'s cyst was made and she underwent upper aerodigestive tract endoscopy and marsupialization of the mass. Histopathological examination revealed ectopic pituitary adenoma. CONCLUSION: Ectopic pituitary adenoma is an important differential diagnosis for a midline nasopharyngeal mass. It is recommended that prior to surgical resection of midline nasopharyngeal mass biopsy is taken and MRI is performed.

  16. Analytical determination of virginiamycin drug residues in edible porcine tissues by LC-MS with confirmation by LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boison, Joe; Lee, Stephen; Gedir, Ron

    2009-01-01

    A liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric (LC-MS) method was developed and validated for the determination and confirmation of virginiamycin (VMY) M1 residues in porcine liver, kidney, and muscle tissues at concentrations > or =2 ng/g. Porcine liver, kidney, or muscle tissue is homogenized with methanol-acetonitrile. After centrifugation, the supernatant is diluted with phosphate buffer and cleaned up on a C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge. VMY in the eluate is partitioned into chloroform and the aqueous upper layer is removed by aspiration. After evaporating the chloroform in the residual mixture to dryness, the dried extract is reconstituted in mobile phase and VMY is quantified by LC-MS. Any samples eliciting quantifiable levels of VMY M1 (i.e., at concentrations > or =2 ng/g) are subjected to confirmatory analysis by LC-MSIMS. VMY S1, a minor component of the VMY complex, is monitored but not quantified or confirmed.

  17. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAI QiuFang; LIU Yu; SONG HuiMing; SUN JunYan

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002.The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  18. The role of classroom acoustics on vocal intensity regulation and speakers’ comfort

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pelegrin Garcia, David

    Teachers are one of the professional groups with the highest risk of suffering from voice disorders. Teachers point out classroom acoustics among the potential hazards affecting their vocal health, together with air dryness, background noise, and other environmental factors. The present project has...... investigated the relationships between the classroom acoustic condition and teachers’ voice, focusing on their vocal intensity, and between the classroom acoustic condition and the sensation of acoustic comfort for a speaker. In the presence of low background noise levels, teachers were found to adjust...... their vocal intensity according to the room gain or voice support of the classroom, which are equivalent objective measures that quantify the amplification of one’s own voice in a room due to the reflections at the room boundaries. Most of the vocal intensity variation among classrooms was due to differences...

  19. Bilateral ectropion in a 3 months old baby with lamellar ichthyosis: a rare case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sweta S. Kumar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Ichthyosiform dermatoses are a group of hereditary disorders characterized by dryness and roughness of the skin with excessive accumulation of epidermal scales. Four main types of Ichthyosis are Ichthyosis vulgaris, x-linked recessive, lamellar ichthyosis and epidermolytic hyperkeratosis. Lamellar ichthyosis is the rarest form with an incidence of 1 in 3, 00,000. It has autosomal recessive inheritance. Ocular manifestations include exposure keratitis secondary to ectropion, unilateral megalocornea, and enlarged corneal nerve, and blepharitis, absence of the meibomian gland, trichiasis, madarosis and absence of lacrimal puncta. Ectropion of both upper and lower lids have been documented. We are reporting a rare case of lamellar ichthyosis with bilateral upper eyelid ectropion in a child. [Int J Res Med Sci 2015; 3(9.000: 2443-2445

  20. Adaptive and plastic responses of Quercus petraea populations to climate across Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sáenz-Romero, Cuauhtémoc; Lamy, Jean-Baptiste; Ducousso, Alexis

    2017-01-01

    of differential population responses to climate (genetic differentiation due to past divergent climatic selection vs. plastic responses to ongoing climate change) and (ii) to explore which climatic variables (temperature or precipitation) trigger the population responses. Tree growth and survival were modeled...... for contemporary climate and then projected using data from four regional climate models for years 2071–2100, using two greenhouse gas concentration trajectory scenarios each. Overall, results indicated a moderate response of tree height and survival to climate variation, with changes in dryness (either annual.......5) predicted minor decreases in height and survival, while the most extreme model (CCLM4-GEM2-ES; rcp8.5) predicted large decreases in survival and growth for southern and southeastern edge populations (Hungary and Turkey). Other nonmarginal populations with continental climates were predicted to be severely...

  1. Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity and performance: a comparison of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wargocki, Pawel; Lagercrantz, Love Per; Witterseh, Thomas

    2002-01-01

    The present paper shows that introducing or removing the same pollution source in an office in two independent investigations, one in Denmark and one in Sweden, using similar experimental methodology, resulted in similar and repeatable effects on subjective assessments of perceived air quality......, intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms and performance of office work. Removing the pollution source improved the perceived air quality, decreased the perceived dryness of air and the severity of headaches, and increased typing performance. These effects were observed separately in each experiment...... and were all significant (P less than/equal to 0.05) after combining the data from both studies, indicating the advantages of pollution source strength control for health, comfort, and productivity....

  2. Optical Turbulence above the Internal Antarctic Plateau

    CERN Document Server

    Masciadri, E; Hagelin, S; Moigne, P Le; Noilhan, J

    2010-01-01

    The internal antarctic plateau revealed in the last years to be a site with interesting potentialities for the astronomical applications due to the extreme dryness and low temperatures, the typical high altitude of the plateau, the weak level of turbulence in the free atmosphere down to a just few tens of meters from the ground and the thin optical turbulence layer developed at the ground. The main goal of a site testing assessment above the internal antarctic plateau is to characterize the site (optical turbulence and classical meteorological parameters) and to quantify which is the gain we might obtain with respect to equivalent astronomical observations done above mid-latitude sites to support plans for future astronomical facilities. Our group is involved, since a few years, in studies related to the assessment of this site for astronomical applications that include the characterization of the meteorological parameters and optical turbulence provided by general circulation models as well as mesoscale atmo...

  3. Oral Complications in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Recipients: The Role of Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. M. Haverman

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT is widely used as a potentially curative treatment for patients with various hematological malignancies, bone marrow failure syndromes, and congenital immune deficiencies. The prevalence of oral complications in both autologous and allogeneic HSCT recipients remains high, despite advances in transplant medicine and in supportive care. Frequently encountered oral complications include mucositis, infections, oral dryness, taste changes, and graft versus host disease in allogeneic HSCT. Oral complications are associated with substantial morbidity and in some cases with increased mortality and may significantly affect quality of life, even many years after HSCT. Inflammatory processes are key in the pathobiology of most oral complications in HSCT recipients. This review article will discuss frequently encountered oral complications associated with HSCT focusing on the inflammatory pathways and inflammatory mediators involved in their pathogenesis.

  4. Small angle neutron scattering study on short and long chain phosphatidylcholine mixture in trehalose solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, Hiroshi [Department of Physics, Gunma University, Maebashi, Gunma (Japan)

    2001-03-01

    Trehalose protects cells and proteins against various stresses due to low temperatures or dryness. In order to clarify the molecular mechanism of cryoprotective function of trehalose, we have studied the interaction between trehalose and phosphatidylcholine (PC) which is a main lipid component of cell membranes. In this study, the structural change of a binary PC mixture by the presence of trehalose was investigated by means of small angle neutron scattering. The PC binary mixture studied contains dihexanoyl-PC (diC{sub 6}PC) and dihexadecy-PC (DHPC). The former has short hydrocarbon chains and the latter has long hydrocarbon chains. The scattering profiles from the DHPC/diC{sub 6}PC mixture were changed, depending on trehalose concentrations. This change can be interpreted as suggesting that the presence of trehalose reduces the interfacial area between water and PCs. (author)

  5. [Conservative therapy of female urinary incontinence--potential and effect].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horcicka, L; Chmel, R; Novácková, M

    2005-01-01

    Non-surgical treatment of female stress urinary incontinence is not as effective as surgical methods but it is very successful in indicated cases. Rehabilitation of the pelvic floor muscles (Kegel exercises, vaginal cones, and electrostimulation of the pelvic floor muscles), drug treatment (alfa-mimetics, tricyclic antidepressives, estrogens, duloxetin), pessarotherapy and uretral obturator devices represent possibilities of conservative therapy of the stress incontinence. Conservative therapy is the method of choice in the treatment of urge incontinence. The most successful are anticholinergic drugs but they have very frequent serious side effects (dryness of the mucous membranes, accommodation disorders, constipation). Spasmolytics, estrogens and tricyclic antidepressives are the other popular used drugs. Life style modification, bladder training and electrostimulation represent very important parts of the conservative treatment. Effectiveness of the non-surgical treatment of both urge and stress urinary incontinence can not reach 100 percent but it helps very much in the quality of life improvement of incontinent women.

  6. 咳嗽从瘀血论治经验%The experiences of the treatment on cough from blood stasis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马献中; 王世彪; 王保平

    2014-01-01

    Cough lung disease is one of the most common syndromes caused by many reasons, cough, a cough and internal cough points, most doctors more responsibility in the lung, spleen, liver, kidney damage, or due to feel the wind, cold, heat, dryness, fire evil and hair, or phlegm due to spleen deficiency, liver fire attacking lung, deficiency of kidney qi and other causes. In recent years, the study found, blood stasis caused one of the main causes of chronic cough, especially in chronic cough patients. Our clinical treatment of chronic bronchitis, cough asthma, pulmonary heart disease, bronchiectasis patients, each with blood stasis of TCM, often obtain good effect. The blood stasis cough experience summarized as follows.

  7. [Evidence of pesticide exposure by hair analysis].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cirimele, V; Kintz, P; Ludes, B

    1999-01-01

    The current report summarizes the development of an analytical method for the identification and the quantification of pesticides in hair by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry and its application to 75 real samples. Hair strands [table: see text] were obtained from wine workers exposed to one or more pesticides. After decontamination, hair were cut into small pieces and incubated overnight at 45 degrees C in methanol. The solvent was evaporated to dryness, the dry extract was redissolved in methanol and injected in a gas chromatography/mass spectrometry system. The detector was operated in electronic impact and in negative chemical ionization mode of detection (reactant gas: methane). In the first series of 75 hair specimens, obtained before the period of pesticide use, none of the 15 target compounds was detected. In the second series of 75 specimens, obtained from the same subjects but after the use of pesticides, 14 tested positive for 9 different pesticides.

  8. Northern Rocky Mountain streamflow records: Global warming trends, human impacts or natural variability?

    Science.gov (United States)

    St. Jacques, Jeannine-Marie; Sauchyn, David J.; Zhao, Yang

    2010-03-01

    The ˜60 year Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) is a major factor controlling streamflow in the northern Rocky Mountains, causing dryness during its positive phase, and wetness during its negative phase. If the PDO’s influence is not incorporated into a trend analysis of streamflows, it can produce detected declines that are actually artifacts of this low-frequency variability. Further difficulties arise from the short length and discontinuity of most gauge records, human impacts, and residual autocorrelation. We analyze southern Alberta and environs instrumental streamflow data, using void-filled datasets from unregulated and regulated gauges and naturalized records, and Generalized Least Squares regression to explicitly model the impacts of the PDO and other climate oscillations. We conclude that streamflows are declining at most gauges due to hydroclimatic changes (probably from global warming) and severe human impacts, which are of the same order of magnitude as the hydroclimate changes, if not greater.

  9. Biotechnological advances in neuro-electro-stimulation for the treatment of hyposalivation and xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafaurie, Gloria; Fedele, Stefano; López, Rafael Martín-Granizo; Wolff, Andy; Strietzel, Frank; Porter, Stephen R; Konttinen, Yrjö T

    2009-02-01

    Treatment of xerostomia is a common clinical challenge in the oral medicine practice. Although some treatments have been used to improve the symptoms of xerostomia, none is completely satisfactory for the patients who suffer of this alteration. In the last years non-pharmacological treatments based on electro-stimulation for the treatment of xerostomia have been developed. This review is aimed at presenting new developments for the treatment of xerostomia, applying neuro-electro-stimulation by miniaturized intra-oral electro-stimulators. These devices increase salivary secretion and improve symptoms of oral dryness. Their effect is obtained by means of stimulation of the lingual nerve, in whose proximity the electrodes of the apparatus are placed. The objective of this mechanism is both to directly stimulate the salivary glands controlled by that nerve and to enhance the salivary reflex. Clinical studies have been carried out that have demonstrated the wetting effect of the method described in this article.

  10. Hypoallergenic and non-toxic emollient therapies for children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, Gerd; Höger, Peter H

    2009-01-01

    There are many anatomical and functional differences between the skin of young children and adult skin. As a consequence, the skin is more easily irritated by topical agents. There is also increased transcutaneous absorption; the latter effect is amplified by underlying conditions such as ichthyoses and atopic dermatitis with defects of the epidermal barrier. Common topical agents such as salicylic acid and lactic acid can cause life-threatening intoxications. The relevance of transcutaneous absorption of "hidden" ingredients such as polyethylene glycol and preservatives is unknown at present. By emulsifying endogenous barrier lipids, emulsifiers can promote skin dryness. We review the effects of common emollients and their suitability for skin care in children, particularly with the aim to reduce exposure to potential contact allergens and inadvertent emollient activity.

  11. Is there room for improvement in the emollients for adjuvant therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trapp, M

    2007-09-01

    Emollients play an important part in the management of patients with dry skin disorders, such as atopy, allergy, eczema, psoriasis or dryness following chemotherapy or radiotherapy. Their use in the treatment of diseased and sensitive skin requires not only an efficient hydrating and lipid-replenishing effect on the skin, but minimal risk for skin irritation or sensitization. This will be influenced by their formulation and number and type of ingredients and, due to the nature of their application, requires clinical testing to ensure their appropriateness for dermatological rather than cosmetic use. A new generation of emollients has been developed for the care of dry, or very dry, and sensitive skin. Among these, Dardia Lipo Line (Intendis GmbH, Berlin, Germany) has been formulated specifically for use in post-therapy preventive skin care. The current clinical evidence for this line of emollients is reviewed here.

  12. [Botulism caused by consumption of smoked salmon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dressler, D

    2005-06-01

    Fresh fish products are exquisitely prone to be the source for food botulism because of primary contamination with Clostridium botulinum spores, lack of heat inactivation of C. botulinum spores, frequently used air-tight packaging, lack of preservatives, lack of heat inactivation of already produced botulinum toxin and because of substantial low temperature resistance of C. botulinum type E typically found in fish botulism. We can reporting a 25-year-old patient with food botulism presenting with an anticholinergic syndrome with mydriasis, accommodation difficulties, dryness of mouth, reduced sweating, constipation and reduced heart rate variance and only discrete involvement of striate muscles with ptosis, diplopia and generalised fatigue, all of which developed 12 h after the consumption of airtight sealed smoked salmon. The salmon was consumed 3 days after the 'use by' date had expired.

  13. Anaesthetic Consideration in Macroglossia Due to Lymphangioma of Tongue: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anurag Tewari

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Successful airway management of an infant or child with macroglossia prerequisites recognition of a potential airway problem. We describe our experience with a debilitated 13-year-old girl who presented with severe macroglo-ssia, secondary to lymphangioma of the tongue. Along with the social discomfort she had inability to speak, eat or drink properly and exposure-induced dryness. Such patients are a challenge for the anaesthesiologists due to the anticipated difficult intubation associated with the oral mucosa occupying lesion. It also becomes pertinent to rule out any of the associated congenital anomalies. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation and attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway is emphasized. We endeavor to review the available literature regard-ing patient′s perioperative management of such patients.

  14. Anaesthetic Consideration in Macroglossia Due to Lymphangioma of Tongue: A Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewari, Anurag; Munjal, Munish; Kamakshi; Garg, Shuchita; Sood, Dinesh; Katyal, Sunil

    2009-01-01

    Summary Successful airway management of an infant or child with macroglossia prerequisites recognition of a potential airway problem. We describe our experience with a debilitated 13-year-old girl who presented with severe macroglossia, secondary to lymphangioma of the tongue. Along with the social discomfort she had inability to speak, eat or drink properly and exposure-induced dryness. Such patients are a challenge for the anaesthesiologists due to the anticipated difficult intubation associated with the oral mucosa occupying lesion. It also becomes pertinent to rule out any of the associated congenital anomalies. The importance of a thorough preoperative evaluation and attention to difficult intubation and maintenance of airway is emphasized. We endeavor to review the available literature regarding patient's perioperative management of such patients. PMID:20640084

  15. Clinical Observation on Treatment of Eczema by Acupuncture plus Collateral-pricking and Cupping: A Report of 54 Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Qin; IIKO Atanassov; ZHAO Hui-xin

    2004-01-01

    以清泄湿热,养血润燥为治则,取曲池、百虫窝、合谷、三阴交、行间和内庭为主穴,针刺配合刺络拔罐治疗湿疹患者54例.治愈23例,显效24例,无效7例,总有效率87.0%.%Patients with eczema were treated by acupuncture and collateral-pricking and cupping,according to the principle of clearing away heat and eliminating dampness, enriching the blood and moistening dryness. Main acupoints were Quchi (LI 11), Baichongwo (Ex-LE), Hegu (LI 4), Sanyinjiao (SP 6), Xinjian (LR 2) and Neiting (ST 44). Among 54 patients, 23 cases recovered, 24 cases got effectiveness and 7 case had no change after the treatment. The curative effect rate was 87.0%.

  16. Climate disturbance and water resources; Dereglement climatique et ressources en eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nguyen, Tien-Duc

    2012-01-01

    The worldwide multiplication of extreme climatic events (heat waves, dryness, floods, storms..) and their impact on the precious water resources raises the question of climate change: is it a reality, are the consequences already visible, should we urgently take care of it, and if so who actually takes care of it and how? This books makes a comprehensive overview of our knowledge about these questions, in a relevant and pedagogical way. Solutions to contain the climate boom risk exist and are based on the shared solidarity and responsibility. They require a strong involvement of the entire international community and their implementation has to run counter to the traditional opposition between developed and developing countries. However, the present day economic crisis is often used as a pretext for not doing anything. (J.S.)

  17. Eye Irritation Test of Bovis Calculus Pharmacopuncture Solutions for Eye Drop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyeong-sik Seo

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective : This study was done to investigate the safety of Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution manufactured with freezing dryness method to use eye drop. Methods : The eye irritation test of this material was performed according to the Regulation of Korea Food & Drug Administration (2005. 10. 21, KFDA 2005-60. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, the auther observed eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Results : 1. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution was medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t physical problem at 9 rabbits. 2. After Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solutionwas medicated in the left eye of the rabbits, there wasn’t eye irritation of the cornea, iris, conjunctiva at 1, 2, 3, 4 & 7day. Conclusions : I suggested that Bovis Calculus pharmacopuncture solution didn’t induced eye irritation in rabbits.

  18. Prospects for the use of entomopathogenic fungi for control of stored-product pests%利用昆虫病原真菌防治贮粮害虫展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杰夫· 劳尔德

    2007-01-01

    Only two fungus species,Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium anisopliae,have been given serious attention as possible microbial controls for stored-product pests.Their host ranges are broad, but their potency for the various target insects varies greatly,and some of the most important pests such as the red flour beetle are very tolerant of fungi.Accordingly, strategies are needed to improve the fungal performance.One such strategy is combination with other environmentally benign treatments such as controlled desiccant dusts and controlled atmospheres. Ironically the relatively dryness of stored-product environments favors fungal efficacy.Desiccation stress renders some insects more vulnerable to fungi.The longevity of fungus spores is also best under dry conditions.The prospects of fungi for control of stored-product pests can be improved by taking advantage of these phenomena and judicious selection of use venues and application strategies.

  19. Characteristics of diabetic foot lesions and its complications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Luiza da Silva

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus is a group of metabolic diseases, and the third leading cause of morbidity and mortality, involving some complications, leaving the patient vulnerable. The aim of this work was to determine the prevalence of lower limb amputations due to diabetic ulcers of patients with infection at a Family Health Unit and analyze the physiological changes detected during the assessment of the patients. This is a retrospective approach to quantitative research, conducted from May to October 2010 with a sample of 40 people involved in the activities. As a result it was found out that the patients have some deformity or bony prominence (30.8% and relative insensitivity and the dryness of the feet, 46.2% had such complications. It is concluded that health professionals, especially nurses should perform care for these patients, thus delivering knowledge-focused in the care and prevention, through educational activities aimed at the social well-being.

  20. The study of filaggrin gene mutations and copy number variation in atopic dermatitis patients from Volga-Ural region of Russia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gimalova, Galiya F; Karunas, Alexandra S; Fedorova, Yuliya Y; Khusnutdinova, Elza K

    2016-10-10

    Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a chronic inflammatory skin disease characterized by age-specific localization, dryness, itch and hypersensitivity to allergens. In our study, we investigated FLG gene mutations and CNVs in AD patients and control subjects of different ethnic origin from Volga-Ural region. AD group included 303 patients (177 Russians, 126 Tatars). Control group consisted of 261 healthy individuals (152 Russians, 109 Tatars). The study revealed 66 FLG mutation carriers and demonstrated an association between c.2282del4 deletion and AD development in Russians and Tatars of Volga-Ural region of Russia. In the analysis of the FLG gene CNVs, the most common was 10-repeat allele in both Russian and Tatar patients and controls. We were unable to find any significant difference in CNV repeats count between AD patients and control individuals. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Artificial neural network modelling of the antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds of bananas submitted to different drying treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guiné, Raquel P F; Barroca, Maria João; Gonçalves, Fernando J; Alves, Mariana; Oliveira, Solange; Mendes, Mateus

    2015-02-01

    Bananas (cv. Musa nana and Musa cavendishii) fresh and dried by hot air at 50 and 70°C and lyophilisation were analysed for phenolic contents and antioxidant activity. All samples were subject to six extractions (three with methanol followed by three with acetone/water solution). The experimental data served to train a neural network adequate to describe the experimental observations for both output variables studied: total phenols and antioxidant activity. The results show that both bananas are similar and air drying decreased total phenols and antioxidant activity for both temperatures, whereas lyophilisation decreased the phenolic content in a lesser extent. Neural network experiments showed that antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds can be predicted accurately from the input variables: banana variety, dryness state and type and order of extract. Drying state and extract order were found to have larger impact in the values of antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds.

  2. 微波干燥在乌梅人丹生产中的应用研究%Study on the application of microwave-drying in the production of Wumei Rendan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜子荣; 张正滢; 邹敏

    2014-01-01

    目的:比较乌梅人丹用烘箱干燥和微波干燥的效果。方法:以溶散时限、水分、薄荷脑含量、甘草酸含量为指标,比较其效果。结果与结论:微波干燥可提高产品质量、提高生产能力、降低能耗,优于烘箱干燥。。%Objective: To compare the effects of two different methods (oven drying vs microwave drying ) on the dryness of Wumei Rendan. Methods:Their efifcacy was compared by taking the time limit of dissolution, moisture, and the contents of menthol and glycyrrhizic acid as indicators. Results&Conclusion:Microwave-drying can improve product quality, increase production capacity and reduce energy consumption and is superior to oven drying.

  3. [Contraception in perimenopause].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merki-Feld, G S

    2000-10-01

    Perimenopausal women are still potentially fertile and pregnancy is attended with increased maternal and perinatal mortality. Several contraceptive methods can be used therapeutic for the treatment of climacteric symptoms like menstrual irregularities, flushes and vaginal dryness. Low-dose oral contraceptives (OC) prevent climacteric symptoms and additionally protect from perimenopausal bone loss. However, the individual cardiovascular risk increases with age and is even higher in perimenopausal women using OCs. Therefore for women with cardiovascular risk factors sterilization, barrier methods, progestin-only methods and intrauterine devices (IUD) are the better choice. Prolonged and heavy menses can be treated with the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD or injectable progestogens. If estrogen replacement is necessary, a low-dose treatment with natural estrogens can be combined with barrier methods, the levonorgestrel-releasing IUD and injectable progestogens. The variety of contraceptive options available to perimenopausal women allows individual counseling and thus may enhance compliance.

  4. The Application of Moist Mask Development in Comfortable Nursing%湿化面罩的研制及在舒适护理中的应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄女玲

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To explore the preventive effects of moist mask for patients with through mouth breathing , mouth and upper respiratory tract dryness, so as to achieve the purpose of comfortable nursing.Method: 206 cases with all causes nasal passage clogged and need to mouth breathing were divided into observation group and control group in random. Those in observation group were treated with moist mask for 2 hours besides regular nursing; others in control group were nursed regularly without moist mask. The nursing effects were evaluated. Saturation blood oxygen in two group.s was monitored, observing whether the moist mask produced obstacles for patients breathe. Result: 103 patients in observation group were treated with moist mask, 8 cases (7.77%) had mouth and upper respiratory tract symptoms of dryness, 95 cases (92. 23% ) asymptomatic. 103 cases patients in control group didn't use moist mask, 98 cases (95.15%) had mouth and upper respiratory tract symptoms of dryness, 5 patients (4.85%) asymptomatic. Conclusion:Moist mask can effectively prevent and alleviate mouth breathing for patients with mouth and upper respiratory tract dryness, relieve the discomfort, achieve comfortable nursing effect. Moist mask will not reduce blood oxygen saturation and bring breathing obstacles.%目的:探讨应用研制的湿化面罩对预防经口呼吸患者的口腔及上呼吸道粘膜干燥的效果,从而达到舒适护理的目的.方法:对206例因各种原因导致鼻腔通道阻塞,经鼻道呼吸受阻,需经口呼吸的患者随机分成观察组和对照组,观察组的除常规治疗护理外,予使用湿化面罩2h;对照组的常规治疗护理,不予使用湿化面罩,时间2h,然后评价湿化面罩的应用效果;同时通过对血氧饱和度的监测,观察湿化面罩是否对患者呼吸产生阻碍.结果:观察组103例患者使用湿化面罩后,有口腔及上呼吸道粘膜干燥症状的8例(7.77%),无症状95例(92.23%).没有

  5. The urogenital system and the menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calleja-Agius, J; Brincat, M P

    2015-01-01

    The major cause of urogenital atrophy in menopausal women is estrogen loss. The symptoms are usually progressive in nature and deteriorate with time from the menopausal transition. The most prevalent urogenital symptoms are vaginal dryness, vaginal irritation and itching. The genitourinary syndrome of menopause includes vulvovaginal atrophy and the postmenopausal modifications of the lower urinary tract. Dyspareunia and vaginal bleeding from fragile atrophic skin are common problems. Other urogenital complaints include frequency, nocturia, urgency, stress urinary incontinence and urinary tract infections. Atrophic changes of the vulva, vagina and lower urinary tract can have a large impact on the quality of life of the menopausal woman. However, hormonal and non-hormonal treatments can provide patients with the solution to regain the previous level of function. Therefore, clinicians should sensitively question and examine menopausal women, in order to correctly identify the pattern of changes in urogenital atrophy and manage them appropriately.

  6. Barriers to effective treatment of vaginal atrophy with local estrogen therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reiter S

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Suzanne ReiterMid-County Health Center, Largo, FL, USAAbstract: Vaginal atrophy is a common condition among postmenopausal women, among whom many exhibit both vulvovaginal symptoms (eg, dryness, irritation, itching, and pain with intercourse and urinary symptoms (eg, increased frequency, urgency, incontinence, urinary tract infections, and dysuria. Unfortunately, few women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy report seeking treatment from a health care provider. The goal of this article is to examine reasons why patients and health care providers do not engage in discourse regarding this important topic. It is important to initiate conversations with postmenopausal women and counsel them on both why the changes occur and potential treatment options.Keywords: local estrogen therapy, vaginal atrophy, barriers, postmenopausal women

  7. Menopausal hormone therapy and, vaginal diseases and vulvar issues%绝经后激素治疗与阴道疾病

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王秀霞; 王义贤

    2011-01-01

    The endocrine function of ovaries decreased in women after menopause, also had low estrogen level, shriveled in lower genital tract, and caused related symptoms progressively, such as vaginal dryness, irritation and itching of vulva and vagina, dyspareunia. Therefore, hormone therapy is necessary to improve the symptoms and the life quality in women after menopause.%绝经后妇女卵巢内分泌功能减退,体内雌激素水平降低,下生殖道出现萎缩,并引起相关症状,即阴道干涩,外阴阴道刺激和瘙痒以及性交困难等,通常是进行性的.因此,需采用激素治疗以改善妇女绝经后症状,提高生活质量.

  8. Topical administration of isoflavones for treatment of vaginal symptoms in postmenopausal women: A systematic review of randomised controlled trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghazanfarpour, M; Latifnejad Roudsari, R; Treglia, G; Sadeghi, R

    2015-01-01

    Current systematic review evaluated the efficacy of topical isoflavones to relieve vaginal symptoms in menopausal women. MEDLINE (1966 to January 2014), Scopus (1990 to January 2014), and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (The Cochrane Library issue 1, 2013) were searched using keywords 'isoflavone and vagina'. Relevant studies were reviewed by two independent reviewers. Only randomised controlled trials (RCTs) were included in the systematic review. Out of 115 potentially relevant publications, four studies met the inclusion criteria. Topical isoflavones showed beneficial effects on dyspareunia, vaginal dryness and maturation value. Based on only one trial, the result of conjugated equine oestrogen cream (0.3 mg/day) was similar to use of isoflavone vaginal gel and superior to that of placebo gel. However, drawing any definite conclusion was difficult because of the limited number of RCTs, the small sample sizes, weak methodology and considerable heterogeneity of the included studies.

  9. Perceptions of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women with vulvar and vaginal atrophy: findings from the REVIVE survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freedman, Murray A

    2014-07-01

    Symptoms of vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA), including dyspareunia and vaginal dryness, have a distinct negative impact on a woman's quality of life. The REVIVE survey highlighted the lack of awareness of VVA symptoms among postmenopausal women with vaginal symptoms, with many women reluctant to initiate discussions with their healthcare professionals despite the presence of vaginal symptoms. The REVIVE survey also provided insights into women's views of VVA treatments. Women reported displeasure with the vaginal administration route, lack of symptom relief with over-the-counter products, and concerns about the safety of estrogen therapies. With the high prevalence of VVA, obstetricians/gynecologists should become vigilant in identifying women with VVA by implementing screening and discussion of symptoms during routine office visits - providing patients with information about appropriate therapies based on the severity and impact of symptoms, keeping in mind individual preferences and perceptions.

  10. Mapping Live Fuel Moisture and the relation to drought and post fire events for Southern California region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatzopoulos, N.; Kim, S. H.; Kafatos, M.; Nghiem, S. V.; Myoung, B.

    2016-12-01

    Live Fuel Moisture is a dryness measure used by the fire departments to determine how dry is the current situation of the fuels from the forest areas. In order to map Live Fuel Moisture we conducted an analysis with a standardized regressional approach from various vegetation indices derived from remote sensing data of MODIS. After analyzing the results we concluded mapping Live Fuel Moisture using a standardized NDVI product. From the mapped remote sensed product we observed the appearance of extremely high dry fuels to be highly correlated with very dry years based on the overall yearly precipitation. The appearances of the extremely dry mapped fuels tend to have a direct association with fire events and observed to be a post fire indicator. In addition we studied the appearance of extreme dry fuels during critical months when season changes from spring to summer as well as the relation to fire events.

  11. Extremophiles: Link between earth and astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojanović Dejan B.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Astrobiology studies the origin, evolution, distribution and future of life in the universe. The most promising worlds in Solar system, beyond Earth, which may harbor life are Mars and Jovian moon Europa. Extremophiles are organisms that thrive on the edge of temperature, hypersalinity, pH extremes, pressure, dryness and so on. In this paper, some extremophile cyanobacteria have been discussed as possible life forms in a scale of astrobiology. Samples were taken from solenetz and solonchak types of soil from the Vojvodina region. The main idea in this paper lies in the fact that high percentage of salt found in solonchak and solonetz gives the possibility of comparison these types of soil with 'soil' on Mars, which is also rich in salt.

  12. Nasal packing and stenting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weber, Rainer K.

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Nasal packs are indispensable in ENT practice. This study reviews current indications, effectiveness and risks of nasal packs and stents. In endoscopic surgery, nasal packs should always have smooth surfaces to minimize mucosal damage, improve wound healing and increase patient comfort. Functional endoscopic endonasal sinus surgery allows the use of modern nasal packs, since pressure is no longer required. So called hemostatic/resorbable materials are a first step in this direction. However, they may lead to adhesions and foreign body reactions in mucosal membranes. Simple occlusion is an effective method for creating a moist milieu for improved wound healing and avoiding dryness. Stenting of the frontal sinus is recommended if surgery fails to produce a wide, physiologically shaped drainage path that is sufficiently covered by intact tissue.

  13. Clinical aspects of the use of dental adhesive materials in patients with chronic xerostomia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bogucki, Zdzislaw Artur

    2013-06-01

    Adhesives are commonly used by denture wearers to increase the retention and stability of the complete denture, to improve the chewing and masticatory abilities and to psychologically support the patient to make the complete denture more acceptable. Denture fixatives can be especially recommended for use and to aid retention for patients with dryness of the mouth, poor secretion of saliva and xerostomia (e.g. diabetes mellitus). Dental adhesives may be contaminated with bacteria, yeast and fungi during the manufacturing process, and they have been shown to initiate and promote microbial growth. Some products have been shown to release formaldehyde, which is cytotoxic to cell culture and fibroblasts and is a potent allergen. Patients with chronic xerostomia may use denture adhesives during the course of the treatment and disease. These patients are often immunocompromised, and microorganisms they are exposed to must be considered potential pathogens. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S and The Gerodontology Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Electron-capture GLC determination of clobazam and desmethylclobazam in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenblatt, D J

    1980-11-01

    Electron-capture GLC was utilized for simultaneous quantitation of clobazam, a 1,5-benzodiazepine derivative, and its active metabolite, desmethylclobazam, in human plasma and serum. After addition of diazepam as the internal standard, samples were extracted into benzene--isopentanol. The organic extracts were evaporated to dryness, reconstituted, and subjected to chromatographic analysis without derivatization or cleanup. All three compounds were resolved completely and had favorable chromatographic properties using an OV-101 liquid phase. The limits of detection are 3--5 ng/ml for clobazam and 5--10 ng/ml for desmethylclobazam. Relative standard deviations for identical samples do not exceed 6%. The application of the method to a clinical pharmacokinetic study is demonstrated.

  15. Sensory basis of refreshing perception: role of psychophysiological factors and food experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Labbe, D; Almiron-Roig, E; Hudry, J; Leathwood, P; Schifferstein, H N J; Martin, N

    2009-08-04

    Refreshing is a term often used to characterize certain types of foods and beverages. This review first explores what is known from sensory and consumer studies on refreshing perception in relation to food and beverage consumption. It then presents and discusses the similarities between sensory characteristics perceived as refreshing with those perceived during and after drinking water. In general, refreshing drinks and beverages seem to help alleviate symptoms experienced during water deprivation, including thirst, mouth dryness and mental fatigue. The role that learning may have in the construction of refreshing perception during each food experience is also discussed. The review showed that a refreshing value (perceived or expected) tends to be associated with foods sharing some characteristics with water in terms of their sensory profile (clear, cold, liquid); and that food experiences may induce associative learning about perceptions of existing or new products marketed as refreshing.

  16. Some considerations concerning the alchemy of the De anima in arte alchemiae of pseudo-Avicenna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moureau, Sébastien

    2009-03-01

    This article explains some essential features of the alchemical doctrine of the De anima in arte alchemiae, a treatise written in Spain during the twelfth century (in Arabic, but only the Latin translation remains), and wrongly attributed to Avicenna. It shows that pseudo-Avicenna uses alchemical principles and elixir theory directly inspired by Jabirian texts, and classification of materials influenced by al-Razi. The alchemy of pseudo-Avicenna is entirely based on operations on the four elements: the alchemist has to reduce hair, blood or eggs to their elements, and isolate one of their essential properties (warmth, coldness, moisture and dryness), so that he can change the proportion of essential properties of the body he wants to transmute into gold or silver. The preparation made from hair, blood or eggs (the isolated property) is what he calls the elixir.

  17. Contact lenses, migraine, and allodynia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozgur Bulent Timucin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinical trials and electrophysiologic studies demonstrated increased perceptual sensitivity in patients suffering from migraines. At least, one triggering factor is described in 85% of migraine patients. The aim of this report was to investigate the relationship between contact lens (CL usage and migraine attacks in two cases. Two patients who were diagnosed with migraine reported that the frequency of migraine attacks increased after they switched to using CL with different base curves (BCs. These two patients, who began using CL with different BCs experienced discomfort and dryness of the eye. The ocular complaints were followed by migraine attacks. CL intolerance was also developed during migraine attack in one of the cases. The frequency of migraine attacks decreased and allodynia relieved significantly when flatter BCs were selected. CL related stimulus could have triggered the migraine attack. CLs should be well fitted in migraine patients with allodynia.

  18. Metabolomics and Trace Element Analysis of Camel Tear by GC-MS and ICP-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahamad, Syed Rizwan; Raish, Mohammad; Yaqoob, Syed Hilal; Khan, Altaf; Shakeel, Faiyaz

    2017-06-01

    Camel tear metabolomics and elemental analysis are useful in getting the information regarding the components responsible for maintaining the protective system that allows living in the desert and dry regions. The aim of this study was to correlate that the camel tears can be used as artificial tears for the evaluation of dryness in the eye. Eye biomarkers of camel tears were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS) and inductively coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). The major compounds detected in camel tears by GC-MS were alanine, valine, leucine, norvaline, glycine, cadaverine, urea, ribitol, sugars, and higher fatty acids like octadecanoic acid and hexadecanoic acid. GC-MS analysis of camel tears also finds several products of metabolites and its associated metabolic participants. ICP-MS analysis showed the presence of different concentration of elemental composition in the camel tears.

  19. Effect of one-month treatment with vaginal promestriene on serum estrone sulfate levels in cancer patients: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Pup, L; Postruznik, D; Corona, G

    2012-05-01

    Vaginal promestriene was tested in gynecological cancer patients who suffered from severe vaginal dryness and dyspareunia. This form of estrogen has a low level of vaginal absorption and proved to be effective for vaginal atrophy. 17 patients were treated with a 10mg soft vaginal suppository daily for one month. Plasma levels of estrone sulfate (E1S), used as the marker of overall estrogenicity, were measured by liquid chromatography in combination with mass spectrometry. Mean E1S levels changed from 533 (22-2920) to 374 (81-856) pg/ml (p=0.39). In highly symptomatic gynecological cancer patients the level of circulating estrone sulfate was not significantly affected by vaginal promestriene treatment overall, but a wide range of levels was noted pre and post treatment in individual patients. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Recommendations for the management of postmenopausal vaginal atrophy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sturdee, D W; Panay, N; Ulrich, Lian

    2010-01-01

    for hormone replacement therapy (HRT) over recent years that has suggested an increased risk of breast cancer, heart disease and stroke. But, regardless of whether these scares are justified, local treatment of vaginal atrophy is not associated with these possible risks of systemic HRT. Other reasons......Unlike hot flushes and night sweats which resolve spontaneously in time, atrophic symptoms affecting the vagina and lower urinary tract are often progressive and frequently require treatment. The prevalence of vaginal dryness increases as a woman advances through the postmenopausal years, causing...... for the continued suffering in silence may be cultural and an understandable reluctance to discuss such matters, particularly with a male doctor, but the medical profession must also take much of the blame for failing to enquire of all postmenopausal women about the possibility of vaginal atrophic symptoms. Vaginal...

  1. تفسير الصحافة الشيوعية وصحافة الحركة الوطنية لدور المجاعة ضمن أسباب انتفاضة 08 ماي 1945

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    عبد السلام عكاش

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available During the Second World War Algeria experienced very difficult circumstances generated, essentially, by the lack of food due to many years of dryness and waves of locust as well as the drawbacks of the disastrous colonialist food supplies administration. In this regard, the issue of famine drew the attention of both communist and nationalist newspapers despite their few numbers and the fact that they were under a rigorous control. Communist press stressed the lack of food during 1944 and 1945 and held accountable the colonialist authority for the hunger revolution. On the opposite side, this thesis was denied by the nationalist press, which considered the insurrection of the 8th of May 1945 as a colonialist plot and a revolution that went to failure.

  2. Monsoonal precipitation variation in the East Asia since A.D. 1840--Tree-ring evidences from China and Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU; Yu(刘禹); Won-Kyu; Park; CAI; Qiufang(蔡秋芳); Jung-Wook; Seo; Hyun-Sook; Jung

    2003-01-01

    Three tree-ring rainfall reconstructions from China and Korea are used in this paper to investigate the East Asian summer monsoon-related precipitation variation over the past 160 years. Statistically, there is no linear correlation on a year-by-year basis between Chinese and Korean monsoon rainfall, but region-wide synchronous variation on a decadal-scale was observed. More rainfall intervals were 1860-1890, 1910-1925, and 1940-1960, and dry or even drought periods were 1890-1910, 1925-1940, and 1960-present. Reconstructions also display that the East Asian summer monsoon precipitation suddenly changed from more into less around mid-1920. These tree-ring precipitation records were also confirmed by Chinese historical dryness/wetness index and Korean historical rain gauge data.

  3. Tree-ring-based reconstruction of the April to September mean temperature since 1826 AD for north-central Shaanxi Province,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Long-time series of high-resolution temperature record from Chinese Loess Plateau is rare. An April-September mean temperature reconstruction (1826-2004) has been developed for the north-central Shaanxi Province, China, based on tree-ring width analysis. The reconstruction captures 39.3% (p<0.001) of the variance in the instrumental data over the calibration period from 1951 to 2002. The reconstruction shows a high temperature period of 1928-1933, which coincides with the timing of the extreme drought event in 1920s in the entire northern China. The two low temperature periods in reconstruction are 1883-1888 and 1938-1942. With the global warming, the April-September mean temperature in study area has also increased since the 1970s, but has not exceeded the temperature in 1928-1933. Besides the statistical analysis, the reconstruction is also verified by the local dryness/wetness index and other dendroclimatological results.

  4. Distal renal tubular acidosis and quadriparaesis in Sjögren′s syndrome: A cunning congregate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arundhati G Diwan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren′s syndrome (SS is a chronic autoimmune disease, chiefly affecting the exocrine glandular function of salivary glands and lacrimal glands. Rarely, it involves the kidneys, central and peripheral nervous system, muscloskeletal apparatus and lungs. We report a rare constellation of SS with distal renal tubular acidosis and quadriparaesis in a young female. History of quadriparaesis was acute, with rapid progression. Supplementary treatment for severe hypokalemia was instituted at the earliest, lest the patient develop respiratory muscle weakness. Concomitantly, metabolic acidosis with alkaline urine was suspected and subsequently investigated. Eventually, this was attributed to impaired renal acidification of urine in the distal tubules. History of dryness of eyes and mouth since 6 months justified salivary gland biopsy. The results yielded a lymphocytic infiltrative pathology strongly favoring SS. The patient benefited from prompt potassium replacement therapy and had complete resolution over the next week. Supportive treatment for predictable manifestations was continued along with potassium supplements.

  5. Efficacy and tolerability of fitostimoline (vaginal cream, ovules, and vaginal washing) and of benzydamine hydrochloride (tantum rosa vaginal cream and vaginal washing) in the topical treatment of symptoms of bacterial vaginosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boselli, F; Petrella, E; Campedelli, A; Muzi, M; Rullo, V; Ascione, L; Papa, R; Saponati, G

    2012-01-01

    Two hundred and 91 patients showing signs and symptoms of bacterial vaginosis (BV) were randomized to receive topical treatment with Fitostimoline (vaginal cream and vaginal ovules + vaginal washing) or benzydamine hydrochloride (vaginal cream + vaginal washing) for 7 days. Signs (leucorrhoea, erythema, oedema, and erosion) and symptoms (burning, pain, itching, vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, and dysuria) (scored 0-3) were evaluated at baseline and at the end of treatment; the total symptoms score (TSS) was also calculated. In 125 patients, a bacterial vaginosis was confirmed by vaginal swab test. The primary efficacy variable analysis, that is, the percentage of patients with therapeutic success (almost complete disappearance of signs and symptoms), demonstrated that Fitostimoline ovules and vaginal cream were therapeutically equivalent and that pooled Fitostimoline treatment was not inferior to benzydamine hydrochloride. All the treatments were well tolerated, with only minor local adverse events infrequently reported. The results of this study confirmed that gynaecological Fitostimoline is a safe and effective topical treatment for BV.

  6. Lanthanide-halide based humidity indicators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beitz, James V.; Williams, Clayton W.

    2008-01-01

    The present invention discloses a lanthanide-halide based humidity indicator and method of producing such indicator. The color of the present invention indicates the humidity of an atmosphere to which it is exposed. For example, impregnating an adsorbent support such as silica gel with an aqueous solution of the europium-containing reagent solution described herein, and dehydrating the support to dryness forms a substance with a yellow color. When this substance is exposed to a humid atmosphere the water vapor from the air is adsorbed into the coating on the pore surface of the silica gel. As the water content of the coating increases, the visual color of the coated silica gel changes from yellow to white. The color change is due to the water combining with the lanthanide-halide complex on the pores of the gel.

  7. Acute myeloneuropathy: An uncommon presentation of Sjögren′s syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajesh Verma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Sjögren′s syndrome is associated with central and peripheral nervous system involvement. The peripheral neuropathy is usually a sensory predominant neuropathy or a cranial neuropathy. Myelopathy is usually of focal, subacute, chronic or relapsing type. Acute myeloneuropathy as the predominant manifestation has not been described in the literature. We describe a middle aged woman who presented with an acute onset motor quadriparesis and bladder dysfunction. She had dryness of eyes and mouth for 8 months. Nerve conduction studies revealed motor axonal neuropathy and magnetic resonance imaging of spinal cord showed T2 hyperintensities involving entire cord. Mild perineural fibrosis, focal foamy changes in endoneurium and lymphocytic infiltration were seen in sural nerve biopsy specimen. Patient improved clinically after intravenous methylprednisolone therapy.

  8. A hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boer, Matthias

    2015-04-01

    Satellite-based earth observation is providing an increasingly accurate picture of global fire patterns. The highest fire activity is observed in seasonally dry (sub-)tropical environments of South America, Africa and Australia, but fires occur with varying frequency, intensity and seasonality in almost all biomes on Earth. The particular combination of these fire characteristics, or fire regime, is known to emerge from the combined influences of climate, vegetation, terrain and land use, but has so far proven difficult to reproduce by global models. Uncertainty about the biophysical drivers and constraints that underlie current global fire patterns is propagated in model predictions of how ecosystems, fire regimes and biogeochemical cycles may respond to projected future climates. Here, I present a hydroclimatic model of global fire patterns that predicts the mean annual burned area fraction (F) of 0.25° x 0.25° grid cells as a function of the climatic water balance. Following Bradstock's four-switch model, long-term fire activity levels were assumed to be controlled by fuel productivity rates and the likelihood that the extant fuel is dry enough to burn. The frequency of ignitions and favourable fire weather were assumed to be non-limiting at long time scales. Fundamentally, fuel productivity and fuel dryness are a function of the local water and energy budgets available for the production and desiccation of plant biomass. The climatic water balance summarizes the simultaneous availability of biologically usable energy and water at a site, and may therefore be expected to explain a significant proportion of global variation in F. To capture the effect of the climatic water balance on fire activity I focused on the upper quantiles of F, i.e. the maximum level of fire activity for a given climatic water balance. Analysing GFED4 data for annual burned area together with gridded climate data, I found that nearly 80% of the global variation in the 0.99 quantile of F

  9. Microcapillary sign of flap alignment in femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fawzy F

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Fathy Fawzy,1,2 Sherine S Wahba,1,3 Nader Fawzy1,4 1Al Watany Eye Hospital, 2Ophthalmology Department, Military Medical Academy, 3Ophthalmology Department, Ain Shams University, Cairo, Egypt; 4Sehkraft Augenzentrum, Cologne, Germany Abstract: We present an observational sign that ensures perfect alignment during femtosecond laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (FS LASIK. Alignment is assured when a microsponge is used to dry the flap and the area of dryness exceeds the area of direct touch of the microsponge. The area might even reach the whole circumference of the flap at the first touch. This sign of alignment can be explained by microcapillary action. This sign was not elicited in flaps created by a microkeratome. Keywords: capillarity, femtosecond LASIK flap, corneal flap alignment

  10. Optimised deconjugation of androgenic steroid conjugates in bovine urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Mikael; Frandsen, Henrik L; Andersen, Jens H

    2017-04-01

    After administration of steroids to animals the steroids are partially metabolised in the liver and kidney to phase 2 metabolites, i.e., glucuronic acid or sulphate conjugates. During analysis these conjugated metabolites are normally deconjugated enzymatically with aryl sulphatase and glucuronidase resulting in free steroids in the extract. It is well known that some sulphates are not deconjugated using aryl sulphatase; instead, for example, solvolysis can be used for deconjugation of these aliphatic sulphates. The effectiveness of solvolysis on androgenic steroid sulphates was tested with selected aliphatic steroid sulphates (boldenone sulphate, nortestosteron sulphate and testosterone sulphate), and the method was validated for analysis of androgenic steroids in bovine urine using free steroids, steroid sulphates and steroid glucuronides as standards. Glucuronidase and sulphuric acid in ethyl acetate were used for deconjugation and the extract was purified by solid-phase extraction. The final extract was evaporated to dryness, re-dissolved and analysed by LC-MS/MS.

  11. Evaporation-based Ge/.sup.68 Ga Separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirzadeh, Saed; Whipple, Richard E.; Grant, Patrick M.; O'Brien, Jr., Harold A.

    1981-01-01

    Micro concentrations of .sup.68 Ga in secular equilibrium with .sup.68 Ge in strong aqueous HCl solution may readily be separated in ionic form from the .sup.68 Ge for biomedical use by evaporating the solution to dryness and then leaching the .sup.68 Ga from the container walls with dilute aqueous solutions of HCl or NaCl. The chloro-germanide produced during the evaporation may be quantitatively recovered to be used again as a source of .sup.68 Ga. If the solution is distilled to remove any oxidizing agents which may be present as impurities, the separation factor may easily exceed 10.sup.5. The separation is easily completed and the .sup.68 Ga made available in ionic form in 30 minutes or less.

  12. The Network for Astronomy in Education in Southwest New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neely, B.

    1998-12-01

    The Network for Astronomy in Education was organized to use astronomy as a motivational tool to teach science methods and principles in the public schools. NFO is a small private research observatory, associated with the local University, Western New Mexico. We started our program in 1996 with an IDEA grant by introducing local teachers to the Internet, funding a portable planetarium (Starlab) for the students, and upgrading our local radio linked computer network. Grant County is a rural mining and ranching county in Southwest New Mexico. It is ethnically diverse and has a large portion of the population below the poverty line. It's dryness and 6000' foot elevation, along with dark skies, suite it to the appreciation of astronomy. We now have 8 local schools involved in astronomy at some level. Our main programs are the Starlab and Project Astro, and we will soon install a Sidewalk Solar System in the center of Silver City.

  13. Swelling soils monitoring through PSI and DINSAR interferometry : Applications on eastern Paris surroundings (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, F.; Deffontaines, B.; Fruneau, B.; Cojean, R.; Audiguier, M.; Arnaud, A.; Duro, J.

    2009-04-01

    Swelling soils may induce small surface displacements under various climatic conditions, that may affect individual buildings. The aim of this work, funded by MAIF foundation (Insurance foundation), is to monitor those small seasonal-dependant displacements through DINSAR and persistent scatterer interferometric methods. The eastern paris basin is locally composed of outcropping Marne de Pantin and Argiles Vertes particularily sensible to swelling phenomena observed during for instance the last dryness event of 2003. Radar differential interferometry (DINSAR) method which enables one to map surface displacements from two radar images acquired on a specific area gives rather poor results and is not that efficient in the eastern Paris Basin highly due to the temporal decorrelation. On the contrary, interesting results are obtained with Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) which reveal precisely the surface displacements, continuous in time. This new application of interferometry presents high potential to better understand the swelling soil natural hazards and the induced geologic processes.

  14. [Dry eye syndrome. Occupational risk factors, valuation and prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vicente-Herrero, M T; Ramírez-Iñiguez de la Torre, M V; Terradillos-García, M J; López González, Á A

    2014-03-01

    Dry eye syndrome in the workplace is associated with new ways of working, with increasing use of screens and electronic devices and environmental conditions encountered in modern office designs and other environments. Also affect occupational exposure to ionizing radiation, chemicals or atmospheric dust with increased ocular dryness. The study of pathophysiological aspects and laboral causality of the dry eye, must be to develop joint task in Occupational Health, Public Health in coordination with and responsible for the national health system, which would involve primary and secondary preventive measures more effective and proper diagnosis, control and monitoring of the disease, A better knowledge of occupational hazards and actions agreed and coordinated between occupational physicians, preventers, primary care physicians and specialist physicians, such as ophthalmology, will get results much more effective when earlier and optimize available resources.

  15. Chinese Medicine Treatment of Sjogren's Syndrome%干燥综合征中医药治疗进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    洪梦婕

    2013-01-01

    对中医药治疗干燥综合征的近5年来文献作回顾、整理.结果认为:本虚标实及燥毒致病是本病的病因病机,通过辨证用药或成药、针灸等治疗,能显著缓解症状,提高患者生活质量.%It reviewed TCM treatment of Sjogren's syndrome in recent 5 years.The results showed deficiency and dryness toxin pathogenicity was the etiology and pathogenesis of the disease.The dialectical medication or medicine,acupuncture and moxibustion therapy,can significantly alleviate the symptoms and improve patients' quality of life.

  16. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  17. Associations between Parents' Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    Full Text Available The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children's allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1-8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents' perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P < 0.05. Both perceived dry and humid air were found to be positively associated with dampness indices, and we present evidence that the sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents' perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children's allergic diseases.

  18. Associations between Parents’ Perceived Air Quality in Homes and Health among Children in Nanjing, China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Hua; Zheng, Xiaohong; Zhang, Min; Weschler, Louise; Sundell, Jan

    2016-01-01

    The increasing prevalence of respiratory diseases in Chinese children has focused attention on indoor environmental quality. We investigated associations between perceived air quality in domestic environments and children’s allergic diseases with a questionnaire survey study. A total of 4017 children aged 1–8 years old from 23 kindergartens in urban, suburban and industrial areas in Nanjing were randomly recruited for this study. Parents’ perceived odors, including stuffy odor, unpleasant odor, pungent odor, moldy odor, humid air and dry air were found to be associated with asthma, wheeze, dry cough and rhinitis (P sensation of dryness may not be due to the actual indoor relative humidity, but rather to indoor air irritants. Parents’ perception of odors and relative humidity may be indicators of environment pollutants, which are likely the real factors associated with children’s allergic diseases. PMID:27191186

  19. Subjective perceptions, symptom intensity and performance: a comparison of two independent studies, both changing similarly the pollution load in an office.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wargocki, P; Lagercrantz, L; Witterseh, T; Sundell, J; Wyon, D P; Fanger, P O

    2002-06-01

    The present paper shows that introducing or removing the same pollution source in an office in two independent investigations, one in Denmark and one in Sweden, using similar experimental methodology, resulted in similar and repeatable effects on subjective assessments of perceived air quality, intensity of sick building syndrome symptoms and performance of office work. Removing the pollution source improved the perceived air quality, decreased the perceived dryness of air and the severity of headaches, and increased typing performance. These effects were observed separately in each experiment and were all significant (P < or = 0.05) after combining the data from both studies, indicating the advantages of pollution source strength control for health, comfort, and productivity.

  20. Dermatological diseases in patients with chronic kidney disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gagnon1, Amy L; Desai, Tejas

    2013-04-01

    There are a variety of dermatological diseases that are more commonly seen in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and renal transplants than the general population. Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ), Google Scholar, Pubmed (NLM), LISTA (EBSCO) and Web of Science has been searched. Some cutaneous diseases are clearly unique to this population. Of them, Lindsay's Nails, xerosis cutis, dryness of the skin, nephrogenic systemic fibrosis and acquired perforating dermatosis have been described in chronic kidney disease patients. The most common malignancy found in all transplant recipients is non-melanoma skin cancer. It is important for patients and physicians to recognize the manifestations of skin disease in patients suffering from chronic kidney disease to mitigate the morbidity associated with these conditions.

  1. The role of diaspore banks for the restoration of floodplain meadows. Results of a long term monitoring on the Northern Upper Rhine (Germany

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Schneider-Binder Erika

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The reconnection of the inner area of the island Kühkopf/Northern Upper Rhine to the hydrological dynamic of the river was the beginning of a large scale restoration programme for turning back to the previous vegetation – floodplain meadows. From the various aspects of the restoration are presented the succession phases; species with their different type of dispersal are analysed as well. A special attention is given to the role of diaspores of the soil, which play an important role in the redevelopment of floodplain meadows. Species of the diaspore bank can recur after many years, if favourable conditions are available. These are related to floods, dryness and rooting up by wild boar with the development of micro-succession stages.

  2. Stratum corneum lipid removal by surfactants: relation to in vivo irritation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Froebe, C L; Simion, F A; Rhein, L D; Cagan, R H; Kligman, A

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the in vivo irritation potential of sodium lauryl sulfate (SLS) and linear alkyl benzene sulfonate (LAS) and the ability of these two surfactants to remove lipid from the stratum corneum (SC) in vitro were investigated. Either surfactant removes detectable levels of lipids only above its critical micelle concentration (CMC). At high concentrations the surfactants removed only very small amounts of cholesterol, free fatty acid, the esters of those materials, and possibly squalene. SLS and LAS have been shown, below the CMC, to bind to and irritate the SC. Thus, clinical irritation provoked by SLS or LAS is unlikely to be directly linked with extraction of SC lipid. The milder forms of irritation--dryness, tightness, roughness--may involve both surfactant binding to and denaturation of keratin as well as disruption of lipid. Our findings challenge earlier assumptions that surfactants' degreasing of the SC is involved in the induction of erythema.

  3. ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY AND TOTAL PHENOL CONTENT OF HYPTIS SPP., P. HEPTAPHYLLUM, T. PANAMENSIS, T. RHOIFOLIA, AND OCOTEA SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geovanna Tafurt García

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the possible correlation between the antioxidant activities and the Total Phenolic Content (TPC and chemical composition of Lamiaceae (H. conferta, H. dilatata, H. mutabilis, H. suaveolens, Burseraceae (P. heptaphyllum, T. rhoifoila, T. panamensis, and Lauraceae (Ocotea sp. were evaluated. The Trolox Equivalent Antioxidant Capacity or the Total Antioxidant Activity (TAA was determined by using a colorimetric assay with the ABTS radical cation, Effective Concentration (EC50 was evaluated with the DPPH radical, and the TPC was established by the Folin-Ciocalteu method, for ethanolic extracts obtained by cold maceration and evaporation to dryness. Both the TAA and the EC50 were highly correlated with the TPC. The barks of T. rhoifolia and T. panamensis demonstrated the highest antioxidant capacities. The Burseraceae spp. exhibited the highest TPC, and the Lamiaceae (Hyptis spp. demonstrated the lowest TPC.

  4. The association of carotid cavernous fistula with Graves′ ophthalmopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ozlem Celik

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Graves′ ophthalmopathy (GO is one of the frequent manifestations of the disorder which is an inflammatory process due to fibroblast infiltration, fibroblast proliferation and accumulation of glycosaminoglycans. Eye irritation, dryness, excessive tearing, visual blurring, diplopia, pain, visual loss, retroorbital discomfort are the symptoms and they can mimic carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas are abnormal communications between the carotid arterial system and the cavernous sinus. The clinical manifestations of GO can mimic the signs of carotid cavernous fistulas. Carotid cavernous fistulas should be considered in the differential diagnosis of the GO patients especially who are not responding to the standard treatment and when there is a unilateral or asymmetric eye involvement. Here we report the second case report with concurrent occurrence of GO and carotid cavernous fistula in the literature.

  5. Simultaneous liquid chromatographic determination of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid, and 5-hydroxy-3-indoleacetic acid in urine, using isocratic elution and electrochemical detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, D A; Titheradge, A C

    1987-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous measurement of vanillylmandelic acid, homovanillic acid and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid in urine is described. Based on reversed-phase liquid chromatography with electrochemical detection, the procedure employs isocratic elution, thus making it suitable for use in the less well-equipped clinical or research laboratory. A simple extraction of the acids from acidified urine into ethyl acetate, is followed by evaporating to dryness a portion of the organic layer, and redissolving the residue in chromatographic mobile phase. Up to 20 samples can be analysed in a single working day. The method is validated and the results obtained are compared with reference methods. The cause of contamination of the glassy carbon surface of the working electrode is investigated, and a simple electrochemical pretreatment is described that overcomes this problem. Finally, the extra clinical information that can be derived from multi-metabolite assays is considered.

  6. UNDERSTANDING AND PREVENTING COMPUTER VISION SYNDROME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REDDY SC

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The invention of computer and advancement in information technology has revolutionized and benefited the society but at the same time has caused symptoms related to its usage such as ocular sprain, irritation, redness, dryness, blurred vision and double vision. This cluster of symptoms is known as computer vision syndrome which is characterized by the visual symptoms which result from interaction with computer display or its environment. Three major mechanisms that lead to computer vision syndrome are extraocular mechanism, accommodative mechanism and ocular surface mechanism. The visual effects of the computer such as brightness, resolution, glare and quality all are known factors that contribute to computer vision syndrome. Prevention is the most important strategy in managing computer vision syndrome. Modification in the ergonomics of the working environment, patient education and proper eye care are crucial in managing computer vision syndrome.

  7. Delineating mid- and low-level water vapor patterns in pre-convective environments using VAS moisture channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, R. A.; Uccellini, L. W.; Mostek, A.; Keyser, D. A.

    1984-01-01

    Infrared and visible imagery from VAS are used to delineate mid- and lower-tropospheric moisture fields for a variety of severe storm cases in the southern and central United States. The ability of sequences of images to isolate areas of large negative vertical moisture gradients and apparent convective instability prior to the onset of convective storms is assessed. A variety of image combination procedures are used to deduce the stability fields which are then compared with the available radiosonde data. The results for several severe storm cases indicate that VAS can detect mid- and low-level mesoscale water vapor fields as distinct radiometric signals. The VAS imagery shows a strong tendency for thunderstorms to develop along the edges of bands of midlevel dryness as they overtake either preexisting or developing low-level moisture maxima. Image sequences depict the speed with which deep moist and dry layers can develop and move.

  8. An efficient new formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (fucicort lipid cream) for treatment of clinically infected atopic dermatitis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn Schultz; Simonsen, Lene; Melgaard, Anita

    2007-01-01

    To relieve the dryness of atopic dermatitis skin, a lipid formulation of fusidic acid and betamethasone 17-valerate (Fucicort Lipid cream) was developed as an additional treatment option to the established Fucicort cream. The two formulations were compared in patients with clinically infected...... bacteriological response was 89.7%, 89.6% and 25.0%, respectively. Thus, the clinical and anti-bacterial effect of the lipid cream was found to be similar to that of the established cream formulation, and significantly better than that of the vehicle. The new lipid formulation, therefore, offers an efficient...... atopic dermatitis. A total of 629 patients were randomized to twice daily double-blind treatment for 2 weeks with either Fucicort Lipid cream, Fucicort cream, or the new lipid cream vehicle. Clinical assessment was based on a Total Severity Score of the eczematous lesions. Bacteriological samples were...

  9. World Workshop on Oral Medicine VI

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Villa, Alessandro; Wolff, Andy; Narayana, Nagamani

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To perform a systematic review of the pathogenesis of medication-induced salivary gland dysfunction (MISGD). MATERIALS AND METHODS: Review of the identified papers was based on the standards regarding the methodology for systematic reviews set forth by the World Workshop on Oral Medicine...... was generally reported as xerostomia (the sensation of oral dryness) without measurements of salivary secretion rate. Medications may act on the central nervous system (CNS) and/or at the neuroglandular junction on muscarinic, α-and β-adrenergic receptors and certain peptidergic receptors. The types...... of medications that were most commonly implicated for inducing salivary gland dysfunction were those acting on the nervous, cardiovascular, genitourinary, musculo-skeletal, respiratory, and alimentary systems. CONCLUSIONS: Although many medications may affect the salivary flow rate and composition, most...

  10. Modelling climate change impacts on viticultural yield, phenology and stress conditions in Europe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Helder; García de Cortázar Atauri, Iñaki; Malheiro, Aureliano C; Santos, João A

    2016-11-01

    Viticulture is a key socio-economic sector in Europe. Owing to the strong sensitivity of grapevines to atmospheric factors, climate change may represent an important challenge for this sector. This study analyses viticultural suitability, yield, phenology, and water and nitrogen stress indices in Europe, for present climates (1980-2005) and future (2041-2070) climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and 8.5). The STICS crop model is coupled with climate, soil and terrain databases, also taking into account CO2 physiological effects, and simulations are validated against observational data sets. A clear agreement between simulated and observed phenology, leaf area index, yield and water and nitrogen stress indices, including the spatial differences throughout Europe, is shown. The projected changes highlight an extension of the climatic suitability for grapevines up to 55°N, which may represent the emergence of new winemaking regions. Despite strong regional heterogeneity, mean phenological timings (budburst, flowering, veraison and harvest) are projected to undergo significant advancements (e.g. budburst/harvest can be >1 month earlier), with implications also in the corresponding phenophase intervals. Enhanced dryness throughout Europe is also projected, with severe water stress over several regions in southern regions (e.g. southern Iberia and Italy), locally reducing yield and leaf area. Increased atmospheric CO2 partially offsets dryness effects, promoting yield and leaf area index increases in central/northern Europe. Future biomass changes may lead to modifications in nitrogen demands, with higher stress in northern/central Europe and weaker stress in southern Europe. These findings are critical decision support systems for stakeholders from the European winemaking sector.

  11. Treatment complications among long-term survivors of cervical cancer: treated by surgery or radiotherapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamal A. Elghamrawi

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available This study assesses the morbidity and complications of treatment among long-term survivors of cervical cancer. Ninety-eight female patients who were diagnosed and treated from invasive carcinoma of the cervix uteri 5 years or more are included in this study. All the cases were free of disease and had survived up to December 2010. Forty-one cases were treated with radical hysterectomy with removal of the lymph nodes (Wertheim’s surgery (42%. Radical radiation therapy was given to 57 cases (58% according to our treatment protocol; weekly cisplatin was given concomitantly with radiation. Although urinary adverse effects were more prevalent among the radiation group, the difference was not statistically significant. Bowel dysfunction was more prevalent and statistically significant (p\\0.001 among the radiotherapy arm. Dysfunctions recorded included change in bowel habit, diarrhea, constipation, tenesmus, soiling of clothes and or flatulence. However, their severity was grade 1–2 only. The frequency of small intestinal obstruction was comparable in both arms. Pelvic vein thromboses had a tendency to occur among the surgical group especially in obese females (p value 0.005. The frequency of sexual dysfunction was comparable in both groups with no statistical difference. It was age related. The younger the patients’ ages, the more was the sexual complaint irrespective to the treatment modality. Sexual problems included dyspareunia from vaginal stenosis shortening or dryness, vulval soreness from itching and dryness. Bearing in mind that many patients had more than one health complaint. The remaining cases denied the presence of any complications and stated that they had a normal life style.

  12. Open-Label Treatment of Moderate or Marked Melasma with a 4% Hydroquinone Skin Care System Plus 0.05% Tretinoin Cream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rendon, Marta; Dibernardo, Barry; Bruce, Suzanne; Lucas-Anthony, Chere; Watson, Joanne

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate treating epidermal melasma using a 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus tretinoin 0.05% cream. Design: Multicenter open-label study with all patients receiving above-mentioned treatment for up to 24 weeks. Setting: Private dermatology and plastic surgery clinics and clinical research facilities. Participants: Thirty-seven adult females with moderate or marked epidermal melasma, melasma pigmentation of mild-to-marked intensity and Fitzpatrick skin type III to VI. Measurements: Melasma severity melasma pigmentation intensity melasma improvement, patient satisfaction, quality-of-life measures, erythema, dryness, peeling, burning/stinging. Results: No patient discontinued due to lack of efficacy or treatment-related adverse events. Treatment was associated with a significant reduction from baseline in melasma severity and melasma pigmentation intensity from Week 4 onward (P≤0.001), and 100 percent of patients showed improvement from Week 8 onward. At Week 24, 100 percent of patients were “satisfied” or “very satisfied” with the overall effectiveness of their treatment. Patients’ quality of life also improved (e.g., the proportion of patients feeling embarrassed or self-conscious about their skin “a lot” or “very much” declined from 78 percent at baseline to four percent at Week 24). Mean and median scores for erythema, dryness, peeling, and burning/stinging did not exceed trace levels. Conclusion: Treating moderate-to-severe melasma using the 4% hydroquinone skin care system plus 0.05% tretinoin can significantly reduce the severity of melasma and the intensity of melasma pigmentation within four weeks. Treatment was generally well tolerated and associated with an improved quality of life and high levels of patient satisfaction. PMID:24307923

  13. Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment Experience of Psoriasis%辨证论治银屑病验案

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周宝宽

    2012-01-01

    目的:总结周宝宽主任医师辨治银屑病经验.方法:以医案的形式阐述银屑病的病因病机、证型、治法、方药.结果:银屑病的病因病机复杂,主要为血热、血虚、风燥、气滞、血瘀、湿毒、火毒及脏腑功能失调导致肌肤失养.治疗原则为凉血消斑,养血润燥,化瘀通络,清热利湿,泻火解毒.自拟清热解毒汤,养血润燥汤,化瘀通络汤,化湿解毒汤,泻火解毒汤.结论:辨证论治银屑病有较好疗效.%Objective:To summarize syndrome differentiation and treatment experience of psoriasis in clinic. Methods: Discuss etiopathogenisis,pathogenesis,pattern of syndrome, method of treatment, formulae and medicinals based on medical records. Results :The etiopathogenisis and pathogenesis are complicated, causes of psoriasis include blood heat, blood deficiency, wind-dry-ness, qi stagnation,blood stasis,dampness toxin,fire toxin,and disharmony of Zang Fu function,and result in nutritional disorder of skin, treatment principles of psoriasis are cooling blood to clear macula, nourishing blood to moisten dryness, dispensing blood stasis and dredge collateral,clearing away heat evil and promoting diuresis,purging fire for removing toxin. Formulae for psoriasis are decoction of heat-clearing and detoxicating,decoction of moisturize dryness by nourishing blood,decoction of disperse blood stasis and dredge collateral, decoction of dissipating dampness for removing toxin, decoction of purging fire for removing toxin. Conclusion : Syndrome differentiation and treatment show a better therapeutic effect for psoriasis.

  14. Environmental exposure to di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate is associated with low interest in sexual activity in premenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Emily S; Parlett, Lauren E; Wang, Christina; Drobnis, Erma Z; Redmon, J Bruce; Swan, Shanna H

    2014-11-01

    Phthalates, a ubiquitous class of environmental chemicals, may interfere with typical reproductive hormone production both in utero and in adulthood. Although they are best known as anti-androgens, increasingly, evidence suggests that phthalates, particularly di-2-ethylhexyl phthalate (DEHP), may also suppress estrogen production. Given that both androgens and estrogens are essential for sexual function, particularly sexual interest, it is plausible that adult exposure to phthalates alters sexual function. To this end, we used data from 360 women participating in a pregnancy cohort study (the Study for Future Families) to examine whether urinary phthalate metabolite concentrations were associated with two dimensions of self-reported sexual dysfunction in the months prior to conception: lack of sexual interest and vaginal dryness. Women in the highest quartile of urinary concentrations of mono-2-ethyl-5-hydroxyhexyl phthalate, a DEHP metabolite, had 2.58 (95% CI 1.33, 5.00) times the adjusted odds of reporting that they almost always or often lacked interest in sexual activity, and results were similar for mono-2-ethyl-5-oxohexyl phthalate (aOR: 2.56, 95% CI 1.32, 4.95), another DEHP metabolite. Self-reported vaginal dryness was not associated with any phthalate metabolite concentration. This study is novel in its focus on sexual function in relation to environmentally relevant (rather than occupational) exposure to phthalates in adult women and these preliminary findings merit replication in a large, prospective study. Better understanding how adult exposure to phthalates may affect reproductive health, including sexual function, is of public health interest given that virtually all Westerners are exposed to phthalates.

  15. Estimation of rice yield affected by drought and relation between rice yield and TVDI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hongo, C.; Tamura, E.; Sigit, G.

    2016-12-01

    Impact of climate change is not only seen on food production but also on food security and sustainable development of society. Adaptation to climate change is a pressing issue throughout the world to reduce the risks along with the plans and strategies for food security and sustainable development. As a key adaptation to the climate change, agricultural insurance is expected to play an important role in stabilizing agricultural production through compensating the losses caused by the climate change. As the adaptation, the Government of Indonesia has launched agricultural insurance program for damage of rice by drought, flood and pest and disease. The Government started a pilot project in 2013 and this year the pilot project has been extended to 22 provinces. Having the above as background, we conducted research on development of new damage assessment method for rice using remote sensing data which could be used for evaluation of damage ratio caused by drought in West Java, Indonesia. For assessment of the damage ratio, estimation of rice yield is a key. As the result of our study, rice yield affected by drought in dry season could be estimated at level of 1 % significance using SPOT 7 data taken in 2015, and the validation result was 0.8t/ha. Then, the decrease ratio in rice yield about each individual paddy field was calculated using data of the estimated result and the average yield of the past 10 years. In addition, TVDI (Temperature Vegetation Dryness Index) which was calculated from Landsat8 data in heading season indicated the dryness in low yield area. The result suggests that rice yield was affected by irrigation water shortage around heading season as a result of the decreased precipitation by El Nino. Through our study, it becomes clear that the utilization of remote sensing data can be promising for assessment of the damage ratio of rice production precisely, quickly and quantitatively, and also it can be incorporated into the insurance procedures.

  16. Dry skin and pressure ulcer risk: A multi-center cross-sectional prevalence study in German hospitals and nursing homes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechner, Anna; Lahmann, Nils; Neumann, Konrad; Blume-Peytavi, Ulrike; Kottner, Jan

    2017-05-18

    Pressure ulcers are a serious health problem in medical and nursing care. Therefore, effective prevention is crucial. Major pressure ulcer risk factors have been identified but the particular role of dry skin (xerosis cutis) is unclear. To investigate possible associations between dry skin and pressure ulcers focusing on the sacrum/trochanter and at heel/ankle skin areas. Two multicenter cross-sectional studies. In 2014 and 2015 thirty nursing homes and thirteen hospitals in Germany participated. In total 3837 participants were included. Mean age was 76.1 (SD 15.5) years. Skin assessments and data collection were performed by trained nurses based on a standardized data collection form. Descriptive comparisons and multilevel logistic regressions predicting pressure ulcers at sacrum/trochanter and ankle/heel were conducted. The prevalence of skin dryness at the trunk was significantly higher for subjects with pressure ulcers category 2+ at the sacral area compared to without (39.0% vs. 24.4%, p=0.010). Adjusted to demographic variables, mobility and type of institution dry skin at the trunk was no longer associated with pressure ulceration (OR 1.11 (95% CI 0.62-2.00)). 71.9% of patients with heel/ankle pressure ulcers category 2+ were affected by dry skin at legs or feet, compared to 42.8% of subjects without pressure ulcers (ppressure ulcer development. Skin dryness may be less important for sacral pressure ulcers. Therefore, the variable skin status should be better defined in future studies and pressure ulcer risk models. Results further support differences in pressure ulcer aetiologies between anatomical locations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Efficacy of ethanol-based hand foams using clinically relevant amounts: a cross-over controlled study among healthy volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marschall Sigunde

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Foams containing 62% ethanol are used for hand decontamination in many countries. A long drying time may reduce the compliance of healthcare workers in applying the recommended amount of foam. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation between the applied amount and drying time, and the bactericidal efficacy of ethanol foams. Methods In a first part of tests, four foams (Alcare plus, Avagard Foam, Bode test foam, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer containing 62% ethanol, which is commonly used in U.S. hospitals, were applied to 14 volunteers in a total of seven variations, to measure drying times. In a second part of tests, the efficacy of the established amount of foam for a 30 s application time of two foams (Alcare plus, Purell Instant Hand Sanitizer and water was compared to the EN 1500 standard of 2 × 3 mL applications of 2-propanol 60% (v/v, on hands artificially contaminated with Escherichia coli. Each application used a cross-over design against the reference alcohol with 15 volunteers. Results The mean weight of the applied foam varied between 1.78 and 3.09 g, and the mean duration to dryness was between 37 s and 103 s. The correlation between the amount of foam applied and time until hands felt dry was highly significant (p 10-reduction: 3.05 ± 0.45 and Alcare plus (3.58 ± 0.71 was significantly less effective than the reference disinfection (4.83 ± 0.89 and 4.60 ± 0.59, respectively; p 10-reduction of 2.39 ± 0.57. Conclusions When using 62% ethanol foams, the time required for dryness often exceeds the recommended 30 s. Therefore, only a small volume is likely to be applied in clinical practice. Small amounts, however, failed to meet the efficacy requirements of EN 1500 and were only somewhat more effective than water.

  18. 微通道内非共沸混合制冷剂的流动沸腾特性%Investigation on flow boiling heat transfer of non-azeotropic refrigerant mixture in microchannel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕凤勇; 马虎根; 何红萍; 齐鲁山

    2012-01-01

    采用了3种不同组分比例的R32/R134a工质在0.86 mm的微通道中进行了传热特性和阻力特性的实验研究,考察了非共沸工质不同组分比例对微通道换热特性的影响。实验结果表明:在组分质量分数比为35%/65%时,核态沸腾在小干度下换热效果最好;干度较大时,组分比例对换热的影响效果降低。在大质量流量下传热阻力效应的影响不再明显。在压降方面,组分比为15%/85%的相对压降最大,其它两种组分的压降较小。%The heat transfer characteristics in microchannel 0.86 mm in diameter for refrigerant mixture R32/R134a with three different mass proportions were studied and the effect of non-azeotropic working media with different mass proportions on heart transfer in the microchannel was investigated.The experiment result showed that when mass proportion was 35%/65%,flow boiling heat transfer was the best at low dryness fraction,while the effect of mass proportion on heat transfer was not obvious at high dryness fraction.Heat transfer resistance effect was not obvious at a high mass flux.Pressure drop was the largest when mass proportion was 15%/85%,and for the other two mass proportions,25%/75% and 35%/65%,pressure drop was relatively smaller.

  19. Aridity under conditions of increased CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greve, Peter; Roderick, Micheal L.; Seneviratne, Sonia I.

    2016-04-01

    A string of recent of studies led to the wide-held assumption that aridity will increase under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and associated global warming. Such results generally build upon analyses of changes in the 'aridity index' (the ratio of potential evaporation to precipitation) and can be described as a direct thermodynamic effect on atmospheric water demand due to increasing temperatures. However, there is widespread evidence that contradicts the 'warmer is more arid' interpretation, leading to the 'global aridity paradox' (Roderick et al. 2015, WRR). Here we provide a comprehensive assessment of modeled changes in a broad set of dryness metrics (primarily based on a range of measures of water availability) over a large range of realistic atmospheric CO2 concentrations. We use an ensemble of simulations from of state-of-the-art climate models to analyse both equilibrium climate experiments and transient historical simulations and future projections. Our results show that dryness is, under conditions of increasing atmospheric CO2 concentrations and related global warming, generally decreasing at global scales. At regional scales we do, however, identify areas that undergo changes towards drier conditions, located primarily in subtropical climate regions and the Amazon Basin. Nonetheless, the majority of regions, especially in tropical and mid- to northern high latitudes areas, display wetting conditions in a warming world. Our results contradict previous findings and highlight the need to comprehensively assess all aspects of changes in hydroclimatological conditions at the land surface. Roderick, M. L., P. Greve, and G. D. Farquhar (2015), On the assessment of aridity with changes in atmospheric CO2, Water Resour. Res., 51, 5450-5463

  20. Nicotinamide attenuates aquaporin 3 overexpression induced by retinoic acid through inhibition of EGFR/ERK in cultured human skin keratinocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiuzu; Xu, Aie; Pan, Wei; Wallin, Brittany; Kivlin, Rebecca; Lu, Shan; Cao, Cong; Bi, Zhigang; Wan, Yinsheng

    2008-08-01

    The most common adverse effects that are related to all-trans retinoic acid (atRA) treatment are irritation and dryness of the skin. atRA therapy is reported to impair barrier function as achieved by trans-epidermal water loss (TEWL). Treatment with nicotinamide prior to initiation of atRA therapy provides additional barrier protection and thus reduces susceptibility of retinoic acid. Our previous studies showed that atRA upregulates aquaporin 3 (AQP3) in cultured human skin keratinocytes and fibroblasts. Others have demonstrated that in atopic dermatitis, overexpression of AQP3 is linked to elevated TEWL and that nicotinamide treatment reduces skin TEWL. In this study, we observed that while atRA upregulates AQP3 expression in cultured human skin keratinocytes (HaCaT cells), nicotinamide attenuates the effect of atRA in a concentration-dependent manner. atRA treatment induces EGFR and ERK activation. PD153035, an EGFR inhibitor, and U0126, an ERK inhibitor, inhibit atRA-induced upregulation of AQP3. Nicotinamide also inhibits atRA-induced activation of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and decreases water permeability by downregulating AQP3 expression. Collectively, our results indicate that the effect of atRA on AQP3 expression is at least partly mediated by EGFR/ERK signaling in cultured human skin keratinocytes. Nicotinamide attenuates atRA-induced AQP3 expression through inhibition of EGFR/ERK signal transduction and eventually decreases water permeability and water loss. Our study provides insights into the molecular mechanism through which nicotinamide reverses the side effects of dryness in human skin after treatment with atRA.

  1. A randomized trial of preoperative oral carbohydrates in abdominal surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sada, Fatos; Krasniqi, Avdyl; Hamza, Astrit; Gecaj-Gashi, Agreta; Bicaj, Besnik; Kavaja, Floren

    2014-01-01

    Carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) have been recommended to attenuate insulin resistance by shortening the preoperative fasting interval. The aim of our study the effect of preoperative oral administration of CRLDs on the well-being and clinical status of patients. A randomized, double blind, prospective study of patients undergoing open colorectal operations (CR) and open cholecyctectomy (CH) was conducted. Patients were divided into three groups: study, placebo, and control. Visual analogue scale (VAS) scores for seven parameters (thirst, hunger, anxiety, mouth dryness, nausea, weakness and sleep quality) were recorded and compared for two different time periods (up to 24 h postoperatively and from 36 to 48 h postoperatively). The Simplified Acute Physiology Score changes (SAPS)-II between the three groups were also studied. There were 142 patients American Society of Anesthesiology (ASA) I or II enrolled in the study (CR = 71 and CH = 71). There were no significant differences in postoperative SAPS-II scores or lengths of hospital stay (LOS) between the groups. However, in CR patients, the degree of thirst was partially improved by drinking CRLDs (P = 0.027). In CH patients, on the other hand, feelings of thirst, hunger, mouth dryness, nausea and weakness showed significant improvement (P carbohydrate-rich liquid drinks (CRLDs) improves the well-being in patients undergoing CH, but the effect is less evident in patients undergoing CR. No significant improvements were seen in clinical status or in length of hospital stay in either group. ANZCTR.org.au: ACTRN12614000995673 (registered on 16/09/2014).

  2. Geochemistry of drill core headspace gases and its significance in gas hydrate drilling in Qilian Mountain permafrost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Zhengquan; Rao, Zhu; He, Jiaxiong; Zhu, Youhai; Zhang, Yongqin; Liu, Hui; Wang, Ting; Xue, Xiaohua

    2015-02-01

    Headspace gases from cores are sampled in the gas hydrate drilling well DK-8 in the Qilian Mountain permafrost. Gas components and carbon isotopes of methane from headspace gas samples are analyzed. The geochemical features of the headspace gases along the well profile are compared with occurrences of gas hydrate, and with the distribution of faults or fractures. Their geochemical significance is finally pointed out in gas hydrate occurrences and hydrocarbon migration. Results show high levels of hydrocarbon concentrations in the headspace gases at depths of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m and 360-380 m. Visible gas hydrate and its associated anomalies occur at 149-167 m and 228-299 m; the occurrence of high gas concentrations in core headspace gases was correlated to gas hydrate occurrences and their associated anomalies, especially in the shallow layers. Gas compositions, gas ratios of C1/ΣC1-5, C1/(C2 + C3), iC4/nC4, and iC5/nC5, and carbon isotopic compositions of methane (δ13C1, PDB‰) indicate that the headspace gases are mainly thermogenic, partly mixed with biodegraded thermogenic sources with small amounts derived from microbial sources. Faults or fracture zones are identified at intervals of 149-167 m, 228-299 m, 321-337 m, and near 360-380 m; significantly higher gas concentrations and lower dryness ratio were found in the headspace gases within the fault or fracture zones compared with areas above these zones. In the shallow zones, low dryness ratios were observed in headspace gases in zones where gas hydrate and faults or fracture zones were found, suggesting that faults or fracture zones serve as migration paths for gases in the deep layers and provide accumulation space for gas hydrate in the shallow layers of the Qilian Mountain permafrost.

  3. Human skin image analysis using coherent focused beam scattering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zimnyakov, Dmitry A.; Tuchin, Valery V.; Utz, Sergei R.; Mishin, Alexey A.

    1995-02-01

    The analysis of statistical and correlation properties of speckle patterns formed during different skin tissue scanning by the sharply focused probing laser beam has been carried out. The influences of the biotissues' structural features on the speckle patterns formation under Gaussian beam illumination have been investigated. The relationships between the structural characteristics of the sample under study, Rayleigh range of the probing beam and normalized statistical moments of the speckle intensity (contrast and asymmetry coefficient) are discussed for the different scatterer models. A phenomenological model of speckle pattern formation for the large-scale scatterers allows us to explain the dependence of speckle contrast and the coefficient of asymmetry on the generalized structure parameters and illumination conditions for the samples under study. The experimental investigations of the human skin structure features have been carried out using two types of the tissue samples by means of coherent scanning microscopy (CSM). Firstly, D-SQUAME discs (CuDerm Corporation, Texas, USA) have been used for the evaluation of skin dryness level. Secondly, the samples under study were the thin layers of normal and psoriatic epidermis (skin strippings). The dependencies of contrast and coefficient of asymmetry on the beam defocusing parameter and 2D correlation functions of speckle pattern intensity have been analyzed for different zones on the biotissue's surface. Particularly, promising results in skin dryness studies (using D-SQUAME discs) have been obtained. Our results and conventional 5-pattern kit scale are in good agreement. So, the presented method is accurate and objective and may be useful in novel cosmetic research and development.

  4. Patient-reported symptoms of radiation dermatitis during breast cancer radiotherapy: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jieun; Park, Won; Choi, Doo Ho; Huh, Seung Jae; Kim, Im-Ryung; Kang, Danbee; Cho, Juhee

    2017-07-01

    To find out which symptoms most frequently and severely affect breast cancer patients during radiotherapy and how patients manage the symptoms and unmet needs. A cross-sectional survey was conducted with 111 patients who receive radiotherapy for breast cancer from January to April 2015 at Samsung Medical Center in Seoul, South Korea. Participants were asked about symptoms and discomfort due to radiotherapy, management methods for radiation dermatitis, unmet needs for radiation dermatitis care, and clinical and socio-demographic information. Of total, 108 out of 111 patients (97.3%) reported symptoms related to radiation dermatitis. Hyperpigmentation was the most commonly reported uncomfortable symptom followed by erythema. On average, patients reported 8.6 radiotherapy-induced skin problems (range, 0-11). Of total, 59 (53.2%) patients stated that they wanted care for radiation dermatitis, and 80.0, 59.4, and 51% of patients searched for information, used products, and visited the hospital to manage radiotherapy-related skin problems. Patients who experienced dryness, burning feelings, irritation, roughness, and hyperpigmentation were 11.73, 7.02, 5.10, 4.27, and 2.80 times more likely to have management needs than patients without those symptoms, respectively, adjusting age, current cycle of radiation therapy, chemotherapy, and type of surgery. Most of the breast cancer patients experience multiple symptoms associated with radiation dermatitis. Hyperpigmentation was the most common and uncomfortable symptom followed by erythema. Majority of patients wanted management for radiation dermatitis and patients who experienced dryness, burning feelings, irritation, roughness, and hyperpigmentation had higher needs for radiation dermatitis management.

  5. Distribution and Development of the TCM Syndromes in Psoriasis Vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Guang-zhong; WANG Ju-sheng; WANG Ping; JIANG Chun-yan; DENG Bing-xu; LI Ping; ZHAO Yi-ming; LIU Wa-li; Qu Xing; CHEN Wei-wen; ZENG Lin; ZHOU Dong-mei; SUN Li-yun; LI Ruo-yu

    2009-01-01

    Objective:To study the distribution and development rules of the TCM syndromes in psoriasis vulgaris.Methods:Based on the clinical epidemiologic mass survey, the study was carried out by means of a status survey, multi-center and large-sample research.The data base was set up by EPIINFO6.0.The SPSS was used to do the statistical analyses in 2651 cases of psoriasis vulgaris to study the correlations among the distribution and development of the TCM syndromes, the stages of the disease, nationality, psoriasis history,family history, smoking history, alcohol drinking history, and severity of the disease.Results:The TCM syndromes in psoriasis vulgaris mainly include the blood-heat syndrome (53.8%), blood-dryness syndrome (27.4%), and blood-stasis syndrome (18.1%).Other syndromes were rarely seen, covering 0.6%.The concurrent syndromes mainly involve dampness, heat, blood stasis and toxin.The distribution differences of the main syndromes at different stages of the disease had statistical significance (P<0.01).The syndrome distribution is not related with nationality and family history (P>0.05), but it was closely related with the psoriasis history, smoking history, alcohol drinking history, and severity of the disease (P<0.01).Conclusion:At the initial stage, psoriasis vulgaris usually manifests itself as the blood-heat syndrome, and later it may be improved or turn into the blood-dryness or blood-stasis syndrome.Smoking, alcohol consumption, and severity of the disease may play a role in the syndrome's transformation.

  6. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF CLINICAL EFFECTS OF INTRATHECAL 0.5% BUPIVACAINE WITH CLONIDINE VERSUS 0.5% BUPIVACAINE IN PATI ENTS UNDERGOING MAJOR GYNAECOLO GICAL SURGERIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Penchalaiah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Spinal anaesthesia requires a small volume of drug to produce profound sensory analgesia and motor blockade but has limited duration of action. So a properly chosen adjuvant to local anaesthetic agent produces the best way to achieve a better quality regional block. Hence the present study was undertaken to compare the effects of intrathecal clonidine (30μg and pla cebo, when administered together with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% for major gynaecological surgeries like Total Abdominal hysterectomy, vaginal hysterectomy, and Manchester repair.100 patients posted for elective major gynaecological surgeries were selecte d and allocated randomly into two groups. Each group of 50 patients. Group I : - 0.5% of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine (17.5mg + placebo Group II: - 0.5% of Hyperbaric Bupivacaine (17.5mg + clonidine(30μg. Onset of sensory block, motor block, quality of analgesi a, duration of analgesia and duration motor blockade between two groups were compared and contrasted. Patient vitals like Pulse rate, Blood pressure, Respiratory rate, SPO 2 and ECG were monitored during the study. During the study observed for the side eff ects like Nausea, Vomiting, Hypotension, Bradycardia, and dryness of mouth. CONCLUSIONS : A re Quality of analgesia is excellent in patients receiving clonidine when compared to placebo group. Total duration of analgesia and motor blockade was significantly prolong in clonidine group compared to placebo group. Minimal side effects like mild hypotension, mild sedation, and dryness of mouth were seen in clonidine group which does not require any active intervention.

  7. Determination of metals in coal fly ashes using ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, Fernanda V M; Mendes, Bruna A de O; de Souza, Evelyn M F; Ferreira, Fernanda N; da Silva, Lílian I D; Carneiro, Manuel C; Monteiro, Maria I C; de Almeida, Marcelo D; Neto, Arnaldo A; Vaitsman, Delmo S

    2010-02-05

    A method for determination of Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn in coal fly ash samples using ultrasound-assisted digestion followed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES) is proposed. The digestion procedure consisted in the sonication of the previously dried sample with hydrofluoric acid and aqua regia at 80 degrees C for 30 min, elimination of fluorides by heating until dryness for about 1h and dissolution of the residue with nitric acid solution. A classical digestion method, used as comparative method, consisted in the addition of HCl, HNO(3) and HF to 1 g of sample, and heating on a hot plate until dryness for about 6h. The proposed method presents several advantages: it requires lower amounts of sample and reagents, and it is faster. It is also advantageous when compared to the published methods, which also use ultrasound-assisted digestion procedure: lower detection limits for Co, Cu, Ni, V and Zn, and it does not require shaking during the digestion. The detection limits (microg g(-1)) for Co, Cr, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Ti, V and Zn were 0.06, 0.37, 1.0, 25, 0.93, 0.45, 4.0, 1.7 and 4.3, respectively. The results were in good agreement with those obtained by the classical method and reference values. The exception was Cr, which presented low recoveries in classical and proposed methods (83 and 87%, respectively). Also, the concentration for Cu obtained by the proposed method was significantly different from the reference value, in spite of the good recovery (91+/-1%).

  8. Powered air-purifying respirator use in healthcare: effects on thermal sensations and comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Powell, Jeffrey B; Kim, Jung-Hyun; Roberge, Raymond J

    2017-08-01

    Twelve subjects wore an N95 filtering facepiece respirator (N95 FFR), one tight-fitting full facepiece powered air-purifying respirator (PAPR), two loose-fitting PAPRs, and one elastomeric/PAPR hybrid for 1 hr each during treadmill walking at 5.6 km/h while undergoing physiological and subjective response monitoring. No significant interaction (p≥.05) was noted between the five respirators in heart rate, respiratory rate, oxygen saturation, transcutaneous carbon dioxide, and perceptions of breathing effort or discomfort, exertion, facial heat, and overall body heat. Respirator deadspace heat/humidity were significantly greater for the N95 FFR, whereas tympanic forehead skin temperatures were significantly greater for the hybrid PAPR. Temperature of the facial skin covered by the respirator was equivalent for the N95 FFR and hybrid PAPR, and both were significantly higher than for the other three PAPRs. Perception of eye dryness was significantly greater for a tight-fitting full facepiece PAPR than the N95 FFR and hybrid PAPR. At a low-moderate work rate over 1 hr, effects on cardiopulmonary variables, breathing perceptions, and facial and overall body heat perceptions did not differ significantly between the four PAPRs and a N95 FFR, but the tight-fitting, full facepiece PAPR increased perceptions of eye dryness. The two loose-fitting PAPRs and the full facepiece tight-fitting PAPR ameliorated exercise-induced increases in facial temperature, but this did not translate to improved perception of facial heat and overall body heat.

  9. A comparative study of Chinese cosmology cum-humorology with eight elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdihassan, S

    1990-01-01

    As agriculturist, man recognized Earth, Heat and Water as essential to plant life and projected them as cosmic elements. Pastoral man observed animals multiply due to reproduction. He realized that reproduction resulted from the union of opposites as male and female. Projecting reproduction, he conceived creation, which then resulted as the union of the cosmic pair of opposites. Heaven and Earth. The Chinese conceived of creation as starting with creative energy in its latent form, as Thai-Chi, meaning the absolute existence. Later, it assumed its dynamic form called Chhi. It was dual-natured with the opposites called Yang (light) and Yin (darkness). The reproductive power was projected as creative energy called Chhi and male and female opposites were projected as the universal pair of opposites as Yang and Yin. Creative energy produced the cosmic elements which in turn produced all creation. The cosmic elements of Chinese cosmology were Wood, Fire, Water, Earth and Metal. They also included the factors of humorology when the following elements had, as contents, items belonging to humorology, Wood-contained Air, Earth.....Moisture; Metal.......Dryness. By assigning dual-sense to three cosmic elements, Chinese humorology came into existence but has incorporated it in its cosmology. It is easy to equate Air = Vayu of Tridosha doctrine of India, Moisture = Kapha, Dryness = Pitta. Then with five elements of cosmology including three with dual-sense, as belonging to humorology, we have eight elements in all as cosmology-cum-humorology. It is obvious that Air, so important in the cosmologies of India and Greece, is no where explicit in Chinese cosmology.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  10. Tolerance of skin care regimen in healthy, full-term neonates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iarkowski, Laura Ellen; Tierney, Neena K; Horowitz, Paul

    2013-01-01

    To assess the tolerance of a baby cleanser and lotion (both lightly fragranced) on healthy, full-term neonates. Twenty-six infant-mother pairs were enrolled in a 6-week, nonrandomized, controlled-use study that took place in the routine setting of a pediatric clinic and mothers' homes. During study weeks 1 to 6, neonates were bathed by their mother with water and a test cleanser (JOHNSON'S® HEAD-TO-TOE® Baby Wash). During study weeks 1 to 3, mothers also applied test lotion (JOHNSON'S® Baby Lotion) to the babies' skin immediately after bathing and one to three times/day on bathing and non-bathing days. During study weeks 4 to 6, no lotion was applied. At baseline and weeks 3 and 6, the infants' pediatrician or mother or both performed visual skin assessments. Twenty-three infant-mother pairs completed the study. The mean age of neonates at enrolment was 17.4 days (range, 13-28 days). Pediatrician observations found no clinical signs of irritation, erythema, or dryness with any significant difference in scores of these parameters compared with baseline throughout the study. Assessment of skin softness, smoothness, dryness, and overall skin condition was very good at baseline and remained so with minimal changes throughout the study. Mothers reported improvements versus baseline (P ≤ 0.05) in overall skin appearance, moisturization, softness, and smoothness on the arms and legs at weeks 3 and 6. A total of four (15.4%) subjects experienced adverse events. For three of the subjects, the investigator suspected that the adverse events were unrelated to either of the test products. In one participant, the cause of the adverse event could not be determined. The use of a lightly fragranced nonstinging baby cleanser, with or without a lightly fragranced baby lotion, was well tolerated by newborns and resulted in observable skin benefits per the pediatricians' and mothers' assessment.

  11. Comparison of the Hyaluronic Acid Vaginal Cream and Conjugated Estrogen Used in Treatment of Vaginal Atrophy of Menopause Women: A Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azam Jokar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Vaginal atrophy is a common complication in menopause which does not improve with time and, if untreated, can affect the quality of life for women. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of the vaginal cream of hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen (Premarin in treatment of vaginal atrophy. Methods: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial on 56 menopausal women with symptoms of vaginal atrophy; they were randomly allocated to two groups (recipient conjugated estrogen and hyaluronic acid. The severity of each sign of atrophy was evaluated by visual analog signals (VAS and on the basis of a four point scale. Also to recognize the cellular maturation with pap smear and the maturation degree were calculated according to the formula and scores 0-100. As to the vaginal PH, we used PH marker band, the rate of which was divided into 4 degrees. Data were analyzed using SPSS, version 20, and P≤0.05 was considered as significant. Results: The results of this study showed that the symptoms of vaginal atrophy compared with the baseline level were relieved significantly in both groups. Dryness, itching, maturation index, PH and composite score of the vaginal symptoms were relieved significantly in both groups (P<0.001. Dyspareunia in Premarin (P<0.05 and hyaluronic acid (P<0.001 decreased compared with pre-treatment. Urinary incontinence only showed improvement in the hyaluronic acid group (P<0.05. Improvement in urinary incontinence, dryness, maturation index (P<0.05 and composite score of vaginal symptoms (P<0.001 in the hyaluronic acid group was better than those in the Premarin group. Conclusion: According to the results of the present study, hyaluronic acid and conjugated estrogen improved the symptoms of vaginal atrophy. But hyaluronic acid was more effective and this drug is suggested for those who do not want to or cannot take local hormone treatment.

  12. Determinants of Menopausal Symptoms among Ghanaian Women

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacob Setorglo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The onset of menopause is unique to every woman with varying symptoms which have implications on health and well-being. This study evaluated the perception, knowledge and beliefs about menopause and the prevalence of climacteric symptoms. The study was a cross-sectional survey of 280 menopausal women aged 45 years and older in the Accra Metropolis of the Greater Accra Region of Ghana. Data on socio-demographic characteristics, knowledge, beliefs and experience of menopausal symptoms were collected using a semi-structured questionnaire. Anthropometric data on weight, height, % body fat and MUAC were also taken. All data were analyzed using SPSS version 16.0 and presented as means and frequencies. Predictors of menopausal symptoms were determined by logistic regression. The mean age of onset of menopause was (48±2.9 years with 98.2% having some knowledge of the signs and symptoms of menopause. The most frequently reported menopausal symptoms by the women were: night sweats (83.2%, hot flashes (76.4%, mood swings (72.5% and vaginal dryness (71.4%. The significant predictors for the occurrence of the most common symptoms reported were: age at onset of menstruation, age of start of menopause, body weight and % body fat. There was a decreased risk of experiencing symptoms such as night sweats, mood swings and vaginal dryness as age at menopause increased. Menopausal transition was determined by both vasomotor and urogenital symptoms. Counseling and support are needed to enable women manage the symptoms better. Most women have heard of and know what menopause is.

  13. Comparison of Sensitivity of FSH Levels and Vaginal pH in Diagnosis of Menopause, Estradiol Levels and Menopausal Signs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Zafarqandi

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: As immunoassay and Eliza are used nowadays for checking levels of FSH and estradiol, the role of vaginal acidity as a sign of responding vaginal cells to estrogen has been forgotten, although its role in this field is known. The purpose of this study was to assess the sensitivity of vaginal pH in diagnosis of menopause, estradiol levels, hot flashes and vaginal dryness that are frequent problems. Methods: This descriptive – cross sectional study included 250 women aged 45- 60 years. Population sampling was nonrandom and inclusion factors included absence of hormonal therapy, absence of vaginal douche or coitus during the past three days. Vaginal pH, FSH and estradiol levels were determined. The analysis was carried out using SPSS. For comparing two variables, Spearman, Pearson and chi-square tests were used. Results: The mean age of the population sample was 50.4 years(SD ± 4.4 of which 45.7% were menopause and 54.3% were in menopausal transition. Mean vaginal pH was 5.57±0.66. The association between vaginal pH, FSH and estradiol was significant (P=0.047, P=0.000. In this study, the cut off point of FSH for diagnosing menopause was ≥20 mu/ml. The sensitivity of vaginal pH>5 with this level of FSH was determined to be 60%. Sensitivity of vaginal pH>5 in diagnosing estradiol ≤40pg/ml was determined to be 55%. The association between hot flashes and vaginal dryness with vaginal acidity was significant. Conclusion: Vaginal pH is an easy, noninvasive, alternative and cheap assay for diagnosing menopause, estradiol levels and menopausal signs.

  14. Safety and efficacy of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with vulvar and vaginal atrophy due to menopause.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wurz, Gregory T; Kao, Chiao-Jung; DeGregorio, Michael W

    2014-01-01

    During the menopausal transition, women experience a number of symptoms due to declining estrogen levels, including vasomotor symptoms and vulvar and vaginal atrophy (VVA). Unlike vasomotor symptoms, vaginal dryness and dyspareunia, the main symptoms of VVA, typically worsen without treatment and can significantly impact the quality of life. Up to 60% of postmenopausal women may be affected by VVA, but many women unfortunately do not seek treatment due to embarrassment or other factors. After 20+ years in development, ospemifene (Osphena™) was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration in 2013 for treatment of moderate-to-severe dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause. As the first non-hormonal alternative to estrogen-based products for this indication, the approval of ospemifene represents a significant milestone in postmenopausal women's health. Ospemifene is a non-steroidal estrogen receptor agonist/antagonist, also known as a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), from the same chemical class as the breast cancer drugs tamoxifen and toremifene. Unlike other selective estrogen receptor modulators, ospemifene exerts a strong, nearly full estrogen agonist effect in the vaginal epithelium, making it well suited for the treatment of dyspareunia in postmenopausal women. Results of Phase III clinical trials showed that ospemifene significantly improved the vaginal maturation index (decreased parabasal cells and increased superficial cells), decreased vaginal pH, and decreased severity of the self-identified most bothersome symptom (dyspareunia or vaginal dryness) compared to placebo. Long-term safety studies revealed that 60 mg ospemifene given daily for 52 weeks was well tolerated and was not associated with any endometrium or breast-related safety concerns. This review discusses the preclinical and clinical data supporting the use of ospemifene for the treatment of dyspareunia associated with VVA due to menopause and provides an overview of

  15. Maintaining skin integrity in the aged: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottner, J; Lichterfeld, A; Blume-Peytavi, U

    2013-09-01

    Ageing is associated with structural and functional changes of the skin that result in increased vulnerability. The aim of this systematic review is to synthesize empirical evidence about the efficacy and effectiveness of basic skin care interventions for maintaining skin integrity in the aged. The databases Medline, EMBASE, CINAHL (1990-2012), Scopus, SCI (February 2013) and reference lists were searched. Inclusion criteria were primary intervention studies using skin care products in physiologically aged skin (lower age limit 50 years). Study and sample characteristics, interventions and outcomes were extracted. The methodological quality was assessed and a level of evidence was assigned. From 1535 screened articles 188 were read in full text. From these, 33 articles were included reporting results on treating dry skin conditions, and preventing incontinence-associated dermatitis and superficial ulcerations. Most studies had lower levels of evidence of 3 or 4. Skin-cleansing products containing syndets or amphoteric surfactants compared with standard soap and water washing improved skin dryness and demonstrated skin-protecting effects. Moisturizers containing humectants consistently showed statistically significant improvements in skin dryness. Skin barrier products containing occlusives reduced the occurrence of skin injuries compared with standard or no treatment. Owing to methodological limitations the current evidence base for basic skin care in the aged is weak. Using low-irritating cleansing products and humectant- or occlusive-containing moisturizers seems to be the best strategy for maintaining the skin barrier function and integrity. We know little about the effects of cleansing regimens and about the benefits of moisturizers when compared with each other.

  16. Menopausal complaints in Slovak midlife women and the impact of CYP1B1 polymorphism on their incidence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luptáková, Lenka; Sivtáková, Daniela; Cernanová, Veronika; Cvicelová, Marta

    2012-01-01

    A wide variety of symptoms have been attributed to menopause, negatively influencing women's physical and psychological health. In addition to lifestyle parameters and personal history, genetic factors are considered to be the main source of this variation. This study aims to investigate the incidence of menopausal symptoms among midlife women according to their menopausal status, and to evaluate the contribution to their manifestation from CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism as a predisposing factor for menopausal symptoms. The studied cohort consisted of 299 women ranging from 39 to 59 years of age. Women were recruited from the western and middle parts of Slovakia, and all participants completed a menopause-specific questionnaire and provided blood or saliva samples for genotyping. Our results indicated that all women are at risk of typical menopausal symptoms, but there is a higher number of postmenopausal women affected than premenopausal ones. Regression analysis showed that the CYP1B1 Leu/Leu genotype can increase the experience of bloated stomach and facial hair increase in all the sampled women, while the Leu/Leu genotype may increase experience of palpitations and involuntary urination in the premenopausal women. The Leu/Leu genotype may increase the experience of nausea, bloated stomach, and vaginal dryness in peri- and postmenopausal women. We determined that women with the Leu/Leu, or Leu/Val genotypes were approximately five times more likely to suffer from vaginal dryness than the Val/Val women (OR = 4.948; 95% CI, 1.259-19.447). We therefore suggest that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism could be involved in individual susceptibility to menopausal symptoms in Slovak midlife women.

  17. 中医辨治糖尿病肾病%Traditional Chinese Medicine Syndrome Differentiation and Treatment of Diabetic Nephropathy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲波

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To briefly analyze TCM understandings and therapies of diabetic nephropathy. Methods:Diagnosis standards and clinical stages of diabetic nephropathy, TCM understandings of pathogenesis and syndrome differentiation and treatment methods on diabetic nephropathy were summarized. Results: Pathogenesis of diabetic nephropathy could not be summarized as down-consumption and consumption of kidney simply based on the theory of "the root of yin deficiency,the superficiality of hot and dryness" ,and it should be comprehensively studied on the basis of diabetes, edema and consumptive disease. Phlegm, dampness, blood stasis, hot and dryness all could become the superficial pathogenesis;deficiency of yang.yin and qi could all be the root. Conclusion:TCM syndrome differentiation and treatment can treat diabetic nephropathy with great curative effects.%目的:浅析中医对糖尿病肾病的认识和治疗方法.方法:总结糖尿病肾病诊断标准、临床分期,以及中医对糖尿病肾病病因病机的认识和辨证论治方法.结果:对于糖尿病肾病的病因病机认识不能简单地以“阴虚为本,燥热为标”为论,将其归结为下消、肾消,应该将其置于消渴、水肿、虚劳等几个疾病中综合考虑.痰湿、瘀血、燥热皆可为标,阳虚、阴虚、气虚皆可为本.结论:中医辨证论治糖尿病肾病效果显著.

  18. Optimisation of two-stage screw expanders for waste heat recovery applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Read, M. G.; Smith, I. K.; Stosic, N.

    2015-08-01

    It has previously been shown that the use of two-phase screw expanders in power generation cycles can achieve an increase in the utilisation of available energy from a low temperature heat source when compared with more conventional single-phase turbines. However, screw expander efficiencies are more sensitive to expansion volume ratio than turbines, and this increases as the expander inlet vapour dryness fraction decreases. For singlestage screw machines with low inlet dryness, this can lead to under expansion of the working fluid and low isentropic efficiency for the expansion process. The performance of the cycle can potentially be improved by using a two-stage expander, consisting of a low pressure machine and a smaller high pressure machine connected in series. By expanding the working fluid over two stages, the built-in volume ratios of the two machines can be selected to provide a better match with the overall expansion process, thereby increasing efficiency for particular inlet and discharge conditions. The mass flow rate though both stages must however be matched, and the compromise between increasing efficiency and maximising power output must also be considered. This research uses a rigorous thermodynamic screw machine model to compare the performance of single and two-stage expanders over a range of operating conditions. The model allows optimisation of the required intermediate pressure in the two- stage expander, along with the rotational speed and built-in volume ratio of both screw machine stages. The results allow the two-stage machine to be fully specified in order to achieve maximum efficiency for a required power output.

  19. Vaginal pH-balanced gel for the control of atrophic vaginitis among breast cancer survivors: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoo-Kyung; Chung, Hyun Hoon; Kim, Jae Weon; Park, Noh-Hyun; Song, Yong-Sang; Kang, Soon-Beom

    2011-04-01

    To estimate the effects of vaginal pH-balanced gel on vaginal symptoms and atrophy in breast cancer survivors treated with chemotherapy or endocrine therapy. This was a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Breast cancer survivors who experienced menopause after chemotherapy or endocrine therapy were voluntarily enrolled and randomly administered vaginal topical pH-balanced gel or placebo three times per week for 12 weeks. Vaginal dryness and dyspareunia were measured by visual analog scale, vaginal health index, and vaginal pH. The endometrium and ovary were evaluated by transvaginal ultrasonography. Among 98 enrolled women, 86 completed the treatment (n=44 and n=42 for the pH-balanced gel group and placebo group, respectively). Vaginal dryness and dyspareunia improved more in the pH-balanced gel group than in the placebo group (baseline mean 8.20 compared with end-point mean 4.23 [P=.001] and 8.23 compared with 5.48 [P=.040], respectively). Vaginal pH-balanced gel reduced the vaginal pH (gel: baseline mean 6.49 compared with end-point mean 5.00; placebo: 6.22 compared with 5.69 [Pvaginal maturation index (gel: 45.5 compared with 51.2; placebo: 46.4 compared with 47.9 [Pvaginal health index (gel: 15.8 compared with 21.1; placebo 14.3 compared with 16.98 [P=.002]). There was no significant difference in adverse effects between the two groups except for mild irritation at the early time of pH-balanced gel administration. Vaginal pH-balanced gel could relieve vaginal symptoms and improve vaginal health in breast cancer survivors who have experienced menopause after cancer treatment. ClinicalTrials.gov, www.clinicaltrials.gov, NCT00607295. I.

  20. Efficacy and safety of vaginal estriol and progesterone in postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chollet, Janet A; Carter, Gloria; Meyn, Leslie A; Mermelstein, Fred; Balk, Judith L

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy and safety of intravaginal estriol and progesterone on atrophic vaginitis in postmenopausal women. Under a physician-sponsored Investigational New Drug application, 19 healthy postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis received vaginal suppositories containing estriol (1 mg) and progesterone (30 mg). The participants were instructed to insert one suppository intravaginally once daily for 2 weeks and thrice weekly for a total of 6 months. Vaginal pH, Vaginal Maturation Index, urinalysis, self-reported vaginal dryness, menopausal quality of life, and serum estriol and progesterone levels were measured at enrollment and after 3 and 6 months of suppository use. Endometrial biopsies were obtained at enrollment and at 6 months. After 2 weeks of therapy, six participants had serum estriol and progesterone measured. The Vaginal Maturation Index, vaginal pH, and vaginal dryness rating improved significantly at 3 and 6 months compared with baseline. Menopausal quality of life scores improved significantly in all domains, with the sexual subscale showing the most improvement. There were no cases of endometrial hyperplasia after 6 months of suppository use. Serum preinsertion estriol at week 2 and months 3 and 6 were similar to baseline levels. Serum preinsertion progesterone increased but returned to baseline preinsertion levels at month 6, and preinsertion levels were significantly less at month 6 compared with month 3. Intravaginal administration of a combination estriol and progesterone agent to women with atrophic vaginitis may represent a safe and effective alternative to systemic hormone replacement, although this study was not adequate to provide proof of efficacy given that it was uncontrolled.