WorldWideScience

Sample records for drying processes

  1. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  2. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  3. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  4. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipoor, Ahad; Baseri, Hamid; Shabgard, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  5. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipoor, Ahad [Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baseri, Hamid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabgard, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  6. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.(A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  7. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  8. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  9. Drying process strongly affects probiotics viability and functionalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iaconelli, Cyril; Lemetais, Guillaume; Kechaou, Noura; Chain, Florian; Bermúdez-Humarán, Luis G; Langella, Philippe; Gervais, Patrick; Beney, Laurent

    2015-11-20

    Probiotic formulations are widely used and are proposed to have a variety of beneficial effects, depending on the probiotic strains present in the product. The impact of drying processes on the viability of probiotics is well documented. However, the impact of these processes on probiotics functionality remains unclear. In this work, we investigated variations in seven different bacterial markers after various desiccation processes. Markers were composed of four different viability evaluation (combining two growth abilities and two cytometric measurements) and in three in vitro functionalities: stimulation of IL-10 and IL-12 production by PBMCs (immunomodulation) and bacterial adhesion to hexadecane. We measured the impact of three drying processes (air-drying, freeze-drying and spray-drying), without the use of protective agents, on three types of probiotic bacteria: Bifidobacterium bifidum, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus zeae. Our results show that the bacteria respond differently to the three different drying processes, in terms of viability and functionality. Drying methods produce important variations in bacterial immunomodulation and hydrophobicity, which are correlated. We also show that adherence can be stimulated (air-drying) or inhibited (spray-drying) by drying processes. Results of a multivariate analysis show no direct correlation between bacterial survival and functionality, but do show a correlation between probiotic responses to desiccation-rewetting and the process used to dry the bacteria. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  11. Infrared pre-drying and dry-dehulling of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and product quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    The walnut industry is faced with an urgent need to improve post-harvest processing efficiency, particularly drying and dehulling operations. This research investigated the feasibility of dry-dehulling and infrared (IR) pre-drying of walnuts for improved processing efficiency and dried product quali...

  12. 9 CFR 590.542 - Spray process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying operations. 590..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.542 Spray process drying operations. (a) The drying room shall be... interrupted. (1) Spray nozzles, orifices, cores, or whizzers shall be cleaned immediately after cessation of...

  13. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...

  14. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-15

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near-infrared spectroscopy in combination with multivariate analysis and further, results were verified with X-ray powder diffraction. It was seen that the prevalence of the mannitol polymorphic form shifted from β-mannitol to δ-mannitol with increasing protein concentration in freeze-dried formulations. In spray-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from β-mannitol to α-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying process in itself, rather than the temperature, that leads to the observed solid state changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  16. Development and demonstration of calculation tool for industrial drying processes ''DryPack''; Udvikling og demonstration af beregningsvaerktoej til industrielle toerreprocesser ''DryPack''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, P.; Weinkauff Kristoffersen, J.; Blazniak Andreasen, M. [Teknologisk Institut, Aarhus (Denmark); Elmegaard, B.; Kaern, M. [Danmarks Tekniske Univ.. DTU Mekanik, Kgs. Lyngby (Denmark); Monrad Andersen, C. [Lokal Energi, Viby J. (Denmark); Grony, K. [SE Big Blue, Kolding (Denmark); Stihoej, A. [Enervision, Kolding (Denmark)

    2013-03-15

    In this project we have developed a calculation tool for calculating energy consumption in different drying processes - primarily drying processes with air. The program can be used to determine the energy consumption of a current drying process, after which it can be calculated how much energy can be saved by various measures. There is also developed a tool for the simulation of a batch drier, which calculates the drying of a batch depending on the time. The programs have demonstrated their usefulness in connection with three cases that are reviewed in the report. In the project measurements on four different dryers have been carried out, and energy consumption is calculated using ''DryPack''. With ''DryPack'' it is possible to find potential savings by optimizing the drying processes. The program package includes utilities for the calculation of moist air: 1) Calculation of the thermodynamic properties of moist air; 2) Device operation with moist air (mixing, heating, cooling and humidification); 3) Calculation of the relative change of the drying time by changing the process parameters; 4) IX-diagram at a temperature above 100 deg. C. (LN)

  17. 9 CFR 590.540 - Spray process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Spray process drying facilities. 590.540 Section 590.540 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF..., Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.540 Spray process drying facilities. (a) Driers shall be of a...

  18. Development of the vacuum drying process for the PWR spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baeg, Chagn Yeal; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    This paper describes the development of a dry operation process for PWR spent nuclear fuel, which is currently stored in the domestic NPP's storage pool, using a dual purpose metal cask. Domestic NNPs have had experience with wet type transportation of PWR spent nuclear fuel between neighboring NPPs since the early 1990s, but no experience with dry type operation. For this reason, we developed a specific operation process and also confirmed the safety of the major cask components and its spent nuclear fuel during the dual purpose metal cask operation process. We also describe the short term operation process that was established to be completed within 21 hours and propose the allowable working time for each step (15 hours for wet process, 3 hours for drain process and 3 hours for vacuum drying process)

  19. Characterisation of Aronia powders obtained by different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horszwald, Anna; Julien, Heritier; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2013-12-01

    Nowadays, food industry is facing challenges connected with the preservation of the highest possible quality of fruit products obtained after processing. Attention has been drawn to Aronia fruits due to numerous health promoting properties of their products. However, processing of Aronia, like other berries, leads to difficulties that stem from the preparation process, as well as changes in the composition of bioactive compounds. Consequently, in this study, Aronia commercial juice was subjected to different drying techniques: spray drying, freeze drying and vacuum drying with the temperature range of 40-80 °C. All powders obtained had a high content of total polyphenols. Powders gained by spray drying had the highest values which corresponded to a high content of total flavonoids, total monomeric anthocyanins, cyaniding-3-glucoside and total proanthocyanidins. Analysis of the results exhibited a correlation between selected bioactive compounds and their antioxidant capacity. In conclusion, drying techniques have an impact on selected quality parameters, and different drying techniques cause changes in the content of bioactives analysed. Spray drying can be recommended for preservation of bioactives in Aronia products. Powder quality depends mainly on the process applied and parameters chosen. Therefore, Aronia powders production should be adapted to the requirements and design of the final product. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Usage of Heat Pump Dryer in Food Drying Process and Apple Drying Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gürlek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, drying is achieved natural method by spreading out the material on the ground. In this way, there are many disadvantages like low quality and hygienic problems. The resulting loss of food quality in the dried products may have effect negatively trade potential and economical worth. For preventing the deterioration of the materials different types of drying methods have been developed. Low energy consumption applications are important for drying industry besides high product quality. For this purpose, heat pump dryer is gaining importance day by day in drying applications. In this study, the working principle of the heat pump dryer, heat pump types in the drying process and the heat pump dryer performance criteria will be considered. An example of application will be described using obtained results from apple drying operation that is conducted in the heat pump dryer.

  1. Application of pulse combustion technology in spray drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Zbicinski

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents development of valved pulse combustor designed for application in drying process and drying tests performed in a specially built installation. Laser technique was applied to investigate the flow field and structure of dispersed phase during pulse combustion spray drying process. PDA technique was used to determine initial atomization parameters as well as particle size distribution, velocity of the particles, mass concentration of liquid phase in the cross section of spray stream, etc., in the drying chamber during drying tests. Water was used to estimate the level of evaporation and 5 and 10% solutions of sodium chloride to carry out drying tests. The Computational Fluid Dynamics technique was used to perform theoretical predictions of time-dependent velocity, temperature distribution and particle trajectories in the drying chamber. Satisfactory agreement between calculations and experimental results was found in certain regions of the drying chamber.

  2. [Freeze drying process optimization of ginger juice-adjuvant for Chinese materia medica processing and stability of freeze-dried ginger juice powder].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Chun-Yu; Guo, Feng-Qian; Zang, Chen; Cao, Hui; Zhang, Bao-Xian

    2018-02-01

    Ginger juice, a commonly used adjuvant for Chinese materia medica, is applied in processing of multiple Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Because of the raw materials and preparation process of ginger juice, it is difficult to be preserved for a long time, and the dosage of ginger juice in the processing can not be determined base on its content of main compositions. Ginger juice from different sources is hard to achieve consistent effect during the processing of traditional Chinese herbal decoction pieces. Based on the previous studies, the freeze drying of ginger juice under different shelf temperatures and vacuum degrees were studied, and the optimized freeze drying condition of ginger juice was determined. The content determination method for 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol and 6-shagaol in ginger juice and redissolved ginger juice was established. The content changes of 6-gingerol, 8-gingerol, 10-gingerol, 6-gingerol, 6-shagaol, volatile oil and total phenol were studied through the drying process and 30 days preservation period. The results showed that the freeze drying time of ginger juice was shortened after process optimization; the compositions basically remained unchanged after freeze drying, and there was no significant changes in the total phenol content and gingerol content, but the volatile oil content was significantly decreased( P <0.05). Within 30 days, the contents of gingerol, total phenol, and volatile oil were on the decline as a whole. This study has preliminarily proved the feasibility of freeze-drying process of ginger juice as an adjuvant for Chinese medicine processing. Copyright© by the Chinese Pharmaceutical Association.

  3. Scalable organic solvent free supercritical fluid spray drying process for producing dry protein formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuchuchua, O; Every, H A; Hofland, G W; Jiskoot, W

    2014-11-01

    In this study, we evaluated the influence of supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) spray drying conditions, in the absence of organic solvent, on the ability to produce dry protein/trehalose formulations at 1:10 and 1:4 (w/w) ratios. When using a 4L drying vessel, we found that decreasing the solution flow rate and solution volume, or increasing the scCO2 flow rate resulted in a significant reduction in the residual water content in dried products (Karl Fischer titration). The best conditions were then used to evaluate the ability to scale the scCO2 spray drying process from 4L to 10L chamber. The ratio of scCO2 and solution flow rate was kept constant. The products on both scales exhibited similar residual moisture contents, particle morphologies (SEM), and glass transition temperatures (DSC). After reconstitution, the lysozyme activity (enzymatic assay) and structure (circular dichroism, HP-SEC) were fully preserved, but the sub-visible particle content was slightly increased (flow imaging microscopy, nanoparticle tracking analysis). Furthermore, the drying condition was applicable to other proteins resulting in products of similar quality as the lysozyme formulations. In conclusion, we established scCO2 spray drying processing conditions for protein formulations without an organic solvent that holds promise for the industrial production of dry protein formulations. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. 9 CFR 590.546 - Albumen flake process drying facilities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying facilities. 590.546 Section 590.546 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... INSPECTION ACT) Sanitary, Processing, and Facility Requirements § 590.546 Albumen flake process drying...

  5. Analysis on energy consumption of drying process for dried Chinese noodles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, Zhenhua; Zhang, Yingquan; Zhang, Bo; Yang, Fuguang; Yu, Xiaolei; Zhao, Bo; Wei, Yimin

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Energy analysis of a tunnel dryer for dried Chinese noodles is completed. • Energy saving performance of dryers with different inlet air was compared. • MND was developed and evaluated, and the efficiency and throughput was improved. - Abstract: Drying is an important operation during the production of dried Chinese noodles, and the energy consumption from drying accounts for approximately 60% of the total energy consumption during the manufacturing process. To investigate the energy consumption and throughput of dryers for dried Chinese noodles, experiments were conducted using a new 130-m long tunnel dryer with two lines of noodles (ND) and an old 60-m long tunnel dryer with five lines of noodles (OD). The energy saving effects of a modified new 130-m long tunnel dryer (MND), which was only modified through the inclusion of automatic control for temperature and humidity without any modifications to the oil heater or ND dryer structure, were also compared. The energy saving effect was determined from the enthalpy difference between the inlet and outlet humid air of the ND and MND. Finally, the MND was found to be better than ND in terms of energy efficiency and throughput, and trends for the future of noodle drying were discussed.

  6. Persistence and survival of pathogens in dry foods and dry food processing environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beuchat, L.; Komitopoulou, E.; Betts, R.; Beckers, H.; Bourdichon, F.; Joosten, H.; Fanning, S.; ter Kuile, B.

    2011-01-01

    Low-moisture foods and food ingredients, i.e., those appearing to be dry or that have been subjected to a drying process, represent important nutritional constituents of human diets. Some of these foods are naturally low in moisture, such as cereals, honey and nuts, whereas others are produced from

  7. Experimental research of solid waste drying in the process of thermal processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bukhmirov, V. V.; Kolibaba, O. B.; Gabitov, R. N.

    2015-10-01

    The convective drying process of municipal solid waste layer as a polydispersed multicomponent porous structure is studied. On the base of the experimental data criterial equations for calculating heat transfer and mass transfer processes in the layer, depending on the humidity of the material, the speed of the drying agent and the layer height are obtained. These solutions are used in the thermal design of reactors for the thermal processing of multicomponent organic waste.

  8. Graphene oxide for acid catalyzed-reactions: Effect of drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, H. P.; Hua, W. M.; Yue, Y. H.; Gao, Z.

    2017-03-01

    Graphene oxides (GOs) were prepared by Hummers method through various drying processes, and characterized by XRD, SEM, FTIR, XPS and N2 adsorption. Their acidities were measured using potentiometric titration and acid-base titration. The catalytic properties were investigated in the alkylation of anisole with benzyl alcohol and transesterification of triacetin with methanol. GOs are active catalysts for both reaction, whose activity is greatly affected by their drying processes. Vacuum drying GO exhibits the best performance in transesterification while freezing drying GO is most active for alkylation. The excellent catalytic behavior comes from abundant surface acid sites as well as proper surface functional groups, which can be obtained by selecting appropriate drying process.

  9. Evaluation of alternative drying techniques for the earthworm flour processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Suárez Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of earthworm flour includes several steps, among which the most critical is the drying process due to factors such as time and energ y requirements. In addition, the information available about this process is relquite limited. Thus, this work evaluated four drying techniques likely to be implemented by lombricultores: sun drying, oven drying, drying tunnel and microwave assisted drying. Drying kinetics values were obtained for all drying techniques, and specific parameters as the following were evaluated: drying tray material (stainless and ceramic steel for sun drying, microwave power (30 %, 50 % and 80 % and amount of material to be dried (72 and 100 g for microwave assisted drying, temperature (50, 65, 90 and 100 °C for oven drying, and temperature (50 and 63 °C and air speed (2.9 to 3.6 m/s for tunnel drying. It was determined that the most efficient technique is the drying tunnel, because this allows the combination of heat transfer by conduction and convection, and enables controlling the operating parameters. Finally, nutritional analyzes were performed in samples obtained by each drying technique evaluated. The crude protein content for sun drying, microwave assisted drying, oven drying and tunnel drying were 66.36 %, 67.91 %, 60.35 % and 62.33 % respectively, indicating that the drying method and operating parameters do not significantly affect the crude protein content.

  10. Description of saturation curves and boiling process of dry air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vestfálová Magda

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Air is a mixture of gases forming the gas wrap of Earth. It is formed by dry air, moisture and other pollutants. Dry air is a substance whose thermodynamic properties in gaseous state, as well as the thermodynamic properties of its main constituents in gaseous state, are generally known and described in detail in the literature. The liquid air is a bluish liquid and is industrially used to produce oxygen, nitrogen, argon and helium by distillation. The transition between the gaseous and liquid state (the condensation process, resp. boiling process, is usually displayed in the basic thermodynamic diagrams using the saturation curves. The saturation curves of all pure substances are of a similar shape. However, since the dry air is a mixture, the shapes of its saturation curves are modified relative to the shapes corresponding to the pure substances. This paper deals with the description of the dry air saturation curves as a mixture, i.e. with a description of the process of phase change of dry air (boiling process. The dry air saturation curves are constructed in the basic thermodynamic charts based on the values obtained from the literature. On the basis of diagrams, data appearing in various publications are interpreted and put into context with boiling process of dry air.

  11. Investigation of influence of drying agent movement on the drying process effectiveness in the gravitational shelf dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. O. Artyukhova

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The article stands for a research of the drying process efficiency of various approaches of reciprocal movement organization of drying agent and disperse material. It focuses on the results of shelf dryer investigation. The test condition was as follows: backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement; backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement with the drying agent recirculation; backflow of the drying agent and disperse material movement with the bypassing of drying agent and it’s putting on separate stage of gravitational shelf dryer. The influence of the drying agent movement organization on the characteristics of disperse material and drying agent, energy costs for this process and its efficiency is shown. The recommendations of usage of represented approaches of flows movement organization depending on the desired final moisture of the material as well as its physical and chemical properties are given. The proposed ways of reciprocal flows movement organization allow to reduce the costs of drying agent heating or to increase the efficiency of moisture removal at constant energy consumption.

  12. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  13. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    For this Vehicle Technologies Incubator/Energy Storage R&D topic, Lambda Technologies teamed with Navitas Systems and proposed a new advanced drying process that promised a 5X reduction in electrode drying time and significant reduction in the cost of large format lithium batteries used in PEV's. The operating principle of the proposed process was to use penetrating radiant energy source Variable Frequency Microwaves (VFM), that are selectively absorbed by the polar water or solvent molecules instantly in the entire volume of the electrode. The solvent molecules are thus driven out of the electrode thickness making the process more efficient and much faster than convective drying method. To evaluate the Advanced Drying Process (ADP) a hybrid prototype system utilizing VFM and hot air flow was designed and fabricated. While VFM drives the solvent out of the electrode thickness, the hot air flow exhausts the solvent vapors out of the chamber. The drying results from this prototype were very encouraging. For water based anodes there is a 5X drying advantage (time & length of oven) in using ADP over standard drying system and for the NMP based cathodes the reduction in drying time has 3X benefit. For energy savings the power consumption measurements were performed to ADP prototype and compared with the convection standard drying oven. The data collected demonstrated over 40% saving in power consumption with ADP as compared to the convection drying systems. The energy savings are one of the operational cost benefits possible with ADP. To further speed up the drying process, the ADP prototype was explored as a booster module before the convection oven and for the electrode material being evaluated it was possible to increase the drying speed by a factor of 4, which could not be accomplished with the standard dryer without surface defects and cracks. The instantaneous penetration of microwave in the entire slurry thickness showed a major advantage in rapid drying of

  14. Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, J. J.; Hung, I. H.; Kim, K. K. (and others)

    2007-06-15

    The project 'Radioactive Dry Process Material Treatment Technology Development' aims to be normal operation for the experiments at DUPIC fuel development facility (DFDF) and safe operation of the facility through the technology developments such as remote operation, maintenance and pair of the facility, treatment of various high level process wastes and trapping of volatile process gases. DUPIC Fuel Development Facility (DFDF) can accommodate highly active nuclear materials, and now it is for fabrication of the oxide fuel by dry process characterizing the proliferation resistance. During the second stage from march 2005 to February 2007, we carried out technology development of the remote maintenance and the DFDF's safe operation, development of treatment technology for process off-gas, and development of treatment technology for PWR cladding hull and the results was described in this report.

  15. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardimci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  16. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  17. OPTIMIZATION OF THE PROCESS OF DRYING THE FILTRATE DISTILLERY DREGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The interactions of various factors affecting the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs are investigated. Rational conditions for the process of drying the filtrate distillery dregs in a spray dryer are obtained.

  18. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  19. Effect of drying parameters on physiochemical and sensory properties of fruit powders processed by PGSS-, Vacuum- and Spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feguš, Urban; Žigon, Uroš; Petermann, Marcus; Knez, Željko

    2015-01-01

    Aim of this experimental work was to investigate the possibility of producing fruit powders without employing drying aid and to investigate the effect of drying temperatures on the final powder characteristics. Raw fruit materials (banana puree, strawberry puree and blueberry concentrate) were processed using three different drying techniques each operating at a different temperature conditions: vacuum-drying (-27-17 °C), Spray-drying (130-160 °C) and PGSS-drying (112-152 °C). Moisture content, total colour difference, antioxidant activity and sensory characteristics of the processed fruit powders were analysed. The results obtained from the experimental work indicate that investigated fruit powders without or with minimal addition of maltodextrin can be produced. Additionally, it was observed that an increase in process temperature results in a higher loss of colour, antioxidant activity and intensity of the flavour profile.

  20. MEASUREMENT OF INDOOR AIR EMISSIONS FROM DRY-PROCESS PHOTOCOPY MACHINES

    Science.gov (United States)

    The article provides background information on indoor air emissions from office equipment, with emphasis on dry-process photocopy machines. The test method is described in detail along with results of a study to evaluate the test method using four dry-process photocopy machines. ...

  1. Advanced computational modelling for drying processes – A review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraeye, Thijs

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Understanding the product dehydration process is a key aspect in drying technology. • Advanced modelling thereof plays an increasingly important role for developing next-generation drying technology. • Dehydration modelling should be more energy-oriented. • An integrated “nexus” modelling approach is needed to produce more energy-smart products. • Multi-objective process optimisation requires development of more complete multiphysics models. - Abstract: Drying is one of the most complex and energy-consuming chemical unit operations. R and D efforts in drying technology have skyrocketed in the past decades, as new drivers emerged in this industry next to procuring prime product quality and high throughput, namely reduction of energy consumption and carbon footprint as well as improving food safety and security. Solutions are sought in optimising existing technologies or developing new ones which increase energy and resource efficiency, use renewable energy, recuperate waste heat and reduce product loss, thus also the embodied energy therein. Novel tools are required to push such technological innovations and their subsequent implementation. Particularly computer-aided drying process engineering has a large potential to develop next-generation drying technology, including more energy-smart and environmentally-friendly products and dryers systems. This review paper deals with rapidly emerging advanced computational methods for modelling dehydration of porous materials, particularly for foods. Drying is approached as a combined multiphysics, multiscale and multiphase problem. These advanced methods include computational fluid dynamics, several multiphysics modelling methods (e.g. conjugate modelling), multiscale modelling and modelling of material properties and the associated propagation of material property variability. Apart from the current challenges for each of these, future perspectives should be directed towards material property

  2. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat carrier water content of 7 to 15 g/kg, and layer thickness of 2 to 20 mm. The betanіn content was determined via absorption spectra, using the optical density value at 540 nm wavelength. A differential microcalorimeter was used for measuring evaporation heat consumption. Results and discussion.The effect of raw product pre-drying preparation was studied. With no preliminary preparation, the loss of betanin after drying reaches 66 %. The preliminary preparation technology we have developed includes boiling whole root crops with optimal selection of acid medium and allows us to reduce the betanin loss down to 6 %. Regretfully, the process requires large energy consumption. Low energy consumption pre-drying preparation method was developed for antioxidant raw products with thermal processing replaced by blending. The betanin loss, in this case, does not exceed 5 %. Optimal drying temperature of betanin-containing raw stock, after its preliminary processing, is 60 °С. It allows to keep up to 95 % of betanіn. Specific heat consumption for water evaporation out of the developed table beet based antioxidant plant compositions, with addition of rhubarb and lemon, is less by 4 to 5 % as compared to the initial components. Conclusions. Dependence of betanin loss in plant raw stock on the material temperature and composition components, in the course of their pre-drying preparation, was found. It was also found that water evaporation heat, for some antioxidant plant compositions developed, is less

  3. Criticality safety for deactivation of the Rover dry headend process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Henrikson, D.J.

    1995-01-01

    The Rover dry headend process combusted Rover graphite fuels in preparation for dissolution and solvent extraction for the recovery of 235 U. At the end of the Rover processing campaign, significant quantities of 235 U were left in the dry system. The Rover Dry Headend Process Deactivation Project goal is to remove the remaining uranium bearing material (UBM) from the dry system and then decontaminate the cells. Criticality safety issues associated with the Rover Deactivation Project have been influenced by project design refinement and schedule acceleration initiatives. The uranium ash composition used for calculations must envelope a wide range of material compositions, and yet result in cost effective final packaging and storage. Innovative thinking must be used to provide a timely safety authorization basis while the project design continues to be refined

  4. Spray-drying nanocapsules in presence of colloidal silica as drying auxiliary agent: formulation and process variables optimization using experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewa-Tagne, Patrice; Degobert, Ghania; Briançon, Stéphanie; Bordes, Claire; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Lanteri, Pierre; Fessi, Hatem

    2007-04-01

    Spray-drying process was used for the development of dried polymeric nanocapsules. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the resulting powder characteristics in order to optimize them. Experimental designs were used in order to estimate the influence of formulation parameters (nanocapsules and silica concentrations) and process variables (inlet temperature, spray-flow air, feed flow rate and drying air flow rate) on spray-dried nanocapsules when using silica as drying auxiliary agent. The interactions among the formulation parameters and process variables were also studied. Responses analyzed for computing these effects and interactions were outlet temperature, moisture content, operation yield, particles size, and particulate density. Additional qualitative responses (particles morphology, powder behavior) were also considered. Nanocapsules and silica concentrations were the main factors influencing the yield, particulate density and particle size. In addition, they were concerned for the only significant interactions occurring among two different variables. None of the studied variables had major effect on the moisture content while the interaction between nanocapsules and silica in the feed was of first interest and determinant for both the qualitative and quantitative responses. The particles morphology depended on the feed formulation but was unaffected by the process conditions. This study demonstrated that drying nanocapsules using silica as auxiliary agent by spray drying process enables the obtaining of dried micronic particle size. The optimization of the process and the formulation variables resulted in a considerable improvement of product yield while minimizing the moisture content.

  5. Drying of water based foundry coatings: Innovative test, process design and optimization methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Di Muoio, Giovanni Luca; Johansen, Bjørn Budolph

    on real industrial cases. These tools have been developed in order to simulate and optimize the drying process and reduce drying time and power consumption as well as production process design time and cost of expensive drying equipment. Results show that test methods from other industries can be used...... capacity goals there is a need to understand how to design, control and optimize drying processes. The main focus of this project was on the critical parameters and properties to be controlled in production in order to achieve a stable and predictable drying process. We propose for each of these parameters...... of Denmark with the overall aim to optimize the drying process of water based foundry coatings. Drying of foundry coatings is a relatively new process in the foundry industry that followed the introduction of water as a solvent. In order to avoid moisture related quality problems and reach production...

  6. Quality by Design approach to spray drying processing of crystalline nanosuspensions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sumit; Gokhale, Rajeev; Burgess, Diane J

    2014-04-10

    Quality by Design (QbD) principles were explored to understand spray drying process for the conversion of liquid nanosuspensions into solid nano-crystalline dry powders using indomethacin as a model drug. The effects of critical process variables: inlet temperature, flow and aspiration rates on critical quality attributes (CQAs): particle size, moisture content, percent yield and crystallinity were investigated employing a full factorial design. A central cubic design was employed to generate the response surface for particle size and percent yield. Multiple linear regression analysis and ANOVA were employed to identify and estimate the effect of critical parameters, establish their relationship with CQAs, create design space and model the spray drying process. Inlet temperature was identified as the only significant factor (p value dried nano-crystalline powders. Aspiration and flow rates were identified as significant factors affecting yield (p value dried at higher inlet temperatures had lower moisture compared to those dried at lower inlet temperatures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  7. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Computed tomographic analysis of vegetable during far infrared radiation drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maneechot, P.; Tojo, S.; Watanabe, K.

    2006-01-01

    Far Infrared Radiation (FIR) technology is widely used in the automotive industry to cure painted finishes during manufacturing. FIR drying is used not only in manufacturing but also in agricultural processing such as rice drying. At the present time, FIR drying technology has rarely been used for fruits and vegetables except in research laboratories. In this study, FIR drying and hot air convection drying were compared with respect to energy consumption and time requirement. The internal changes of the agricultural product were also observed during the FIR drying process. A Computed Tomographic (CT) scanner was employed for the observation of the tested material, carrot, and was used to analyze the structural deformation and the internal moisture distribution of the test material. CT data and the hardness of the sample were recorded at regular intervals during the drying experiment. For 200, 400 and 600W FIR drying, the maximum drying rates were 173, 459 and 724%d.b./hr respectively, and the required drying times were 26, 12 and 4.5 hours, respectively. The structure of the carrot sample shrank in accordance with the reduction of moisture content in 200W FIR drying as well as in hot air drying, whereas in 400W and 600W FIR drying the sample was dried without so much deformation

  9. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  10. Parameters Online Detection and Model Predictive Control during the Grain Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lihui Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to improve the grain drying quality and automation level, combined with the structural characteristics of the cross-flow circulation grain dryer designed and developed by us, the temperature, moisture, and other parameters measuring sensors were placed on the dryer, to achieve online automatic detection of process parameters during the grain drying process. A drying model predictive control system was set up. A grain dry predictive control model at constant velocity and variable temperature was established, in which the entire process was dried at constant velocity (i.e., precipitation rate per hour is a constant and variable temperature. Combining PC with PLC, and based on LabVIEW, a system control platform was designed.

  11. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Midilli, A.; Kucuk, H.

    2003-01-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60 deg. C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s -1 of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg -1

  12. The process research of drying UF4 by microwave

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wen Guo; Wang Yunbo; Liu Long

    2010-01-01

    This paper make use of microwave to dry UF 4 filter cake, the aim is desorbed adsorption water. The research focus on such process conditions, boat material, thickness of filter cake, drying time, setting temperature, heating power and so on. the research of desorption crystal water of UF 4 that dried by microwave in fixed bed .When UF 4 drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the qualified UF 4 powder is prepared. The research is shown that microwave can desorbs adsorption water which contain in UF 4 filter cake. There is a stable water contents in UF 4 after drying, and the sum of two members is less. After drying by microwave and claiming by fixed bed, the contents of water, UO 2 and UO 2 F 2 are all according to the quality standard. (authors)

  13. Energy and exergy analyses of solar drying process of pistachio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, A [University of Nigde (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Kucuk, H [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Trabzon (Turkey). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2003-05-01

    This paper is concerned with the energy and exergy analyses of the drying process of shelled and unshelled pistachios using a solar drying cabinet. Using the first law of thermodynamics, energy analysis was carried to estimate the amounts of energy gained from solar air collectors and the ratios of energy utilization. However, exergy analysis was accomplished to determine the location, type, and magnitude of exergy losses during the solar drying process by applying the second law of thermodynamics. It was deduced that the exergy losses took place mostly in the 15th shelf where the available energy was less utilized. Moreover, the shelled and unshelled pistachios are sufficiently dried in the ranges between 40 and 60{sup o}C and 37 and 62% of relative humidity at 1.23 m s{sup -1} of drying air velocity in 6 h despite the exergy losses of 0.15-3.08 kJ kg{sup -1}. (Author)

  14. Key composition optimization of meat processed protein source by vacuum freeze-drying technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Ma

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development. The freeze-drying process of Chinese style ham and western Germany fruit tree tenderloin is studied in this paper, their eutectic point, melting point and collapse temperature, freeze-drying curve and its heat and mass transfer characteristics are got, then the precool temperature and the highest limiting temperature of sublimation interface are determined. The effect of system pressure on freeze-dried rate in freeze-drying process is discussed, and the method of regulating pressure circularly is determined. Keywords: Ham, Tenderloin, Vacuum freeze-dry, Processing, Optimization

  15. 9 CFR 590.547 - Albumen flake process drying operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Albumen flake process drying operations. 590.547 Section 590.547 Animals and Animal Products FOOD SAFETY AND INSPECTION SERVICE... free of flies, insects, and rodents. (b) Drying units, racks, and trucks shall be kept in a clean and...

  16. Current problems of raw fish material processing while manufacturing dried products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yashonkov A. A.

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The substantiation for using techniques of fish raw material canning has been presented, raw fish being caught or farmed in aquaculture. The main problems in raw fish canning have been reviewed, including significant reduction in thermolabile vitamins in the ultimate product as compared with the raw material due to the thermal processing. Promising canning technique – vacuum drying – has been proposed. This technique makes possible to reduce the temperature of thermal processing down to 50…55 °С and significantly enlarge preservation of thermolabile vitamins from the raw fish. Sampling of raw materials, semi-finished products, finished products, including preparation for analysis has been conducted by standard methods. Disadvantages of this way have been found, it is low energy efficiency of the process. The way to intensify the vacuum drying of aquatic organisms has been proposed based on the method of preliminary pore-forming due to augmenting the area of moisture evaporation. The design of the pilot plant has been proposed in order to research the process of pore forming and vacuum drying. Target species for processing have been suggested. They are as follows: Azov goby (fillet for food products and Black Sea sprat for feeds. The recipes of the feed mixture for granulated floating food for trout have been developed. The results of the first series of the pilot research have been provided. The experiments have proved that preliminary pore forming immediately before vacuum drying makes possible to enlarge the surface area of moisture evaporation by 15…25 %. By processing photomicrographs of sections by means of a special software the authors have got the results demonstrating that when manufacturing dried products by pore forming and drying under pressure 10 kPa the pore take 35...38 % of the inner volume of the product and with drying under pressure 10 kPa – only 18...21 %, and when drying under the atmospheric pressure – 11...13 %.

  17. Utilization of geothermal heat in tropical fruit-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, B.H.; Lopez, L.P.; King, R.; Fujii, J.; Tanaka, M.

    1982-10-01

    The power plant utilizes only the steam portion of the HGP-A well production. There are approximately 50,000 pounds per hour of 360/sup 0/F water produced (approximately 10 million Btu per hour) and the water is currently not used and is considered a waste. This tremendous resource could very well be used in applications such as food processing, food dehydration and other industrial processing that requires low-grade heat. One of the applications is examined, namely the drying of tropical fruits particularly the papaya. The papaya was chosen for the obvious reason that it is the biggest crop of all fruits produced on the Big Island. A conceptual design of a pilot plant facility capable of processing 1000 pounds of raw papaya per day is included. This facility is designed to provide a geothermally heated dryer to dehydrate papayas or other tropical fruits available on an experimental basis to obtain data such as drying time, optimum drying temperature, etc.

  18. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  19. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets; El proceso de secado por atomizacion: formacion de granulos y cinetica de secado de gotas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  20. Physical quality of grains subjected to moistening and drying processes for marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo C. Coradi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim was to evaluate the physical quality of conventional and transgenic corn grains, through drying and wetting processes for marketing. The experimental design was completely randomized in a factorial scheme (7 x 3 x 2, corresponding to seven drying times (0, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 min, three temperatures of the drying air (80, 100 and 120 °C and two hybrids of corn (conventional AG 1051 and transgenic Herculex@ 30S31H. Grain drying was held in convection oven with forced air ventilation while the wetting was done in a B.O.D chamber. The water movement in the grain, the volume and the electrical conductivity were evaluated periodically. The results showed that the transgenic corn grain reduced the negative effects of drying and moistening on the physical quality. The increase in drying air temperature accelerated the physical deterioration of conventional and transgenic corn grains. The increase in water content by the moistening process caused losses in grain physical quality, similar to the drying process, for both the conventional and transgenic corn grains.

  1. Exergoeconomic analyses of a gas engine driven heat pump drier and food drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gungor, Aysegul; Erbay, Zafer; Hepbasli, Arif

    2011-01-01

    Exergoeconomic analysis of a pilot scale gas engine driven heat pump (GEHP) drying system is performed based on the experimental values using Exergy, Cost, Energy and Mass (EXCEM) analysis method in this study. The performance of the drying system components is discussed, while the important system components are determined to improve the system efficiency. The performance of the drying process is also analyzed for three different medicinal and aromatic plants from the exergoeconomic point of view. A comprehensive parametric study is conducted to investigate the effect of varying dead (reference) state temperatures on exergoeconomic performance parameters for both drying system components and drying process. The correlations between the performance parameters and dead state temperatures are developed. The results have indicated that the dead state temperature affects the performance parameters, particularly the drying process parameters. Rising the dead state temperature leads to an increase in the exergy efficiencies of the drying process and a decrease in the ratio of the thermodynamic loss rate to the capital cost (R . ex ) values in a polynomial form. R . ex values of the drying process are obtained to be very higher compared to those of the drying system components.

  2. The potato chips and dry mashed as products of potato rational processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mazur

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The percentage of potato processing for food products in the former Soviet Union decreased to 1%, at the same time in some countries of Europe and the USA the share of potato processing is 60-80%. Numerous works have shown the economic feasibility of potato processing for food products. Materials and methods. In laboratory and industrial conditions of the open stock company «Mashpishcheprod» (Maryina Gorka, Minsk region, Belarus researches have been conducted on increase of efficiency of technological processes potato processing. Sampling, preparation and conducting of tests were performed by standard and special methods of analysis. Results and discussion. Potato varieties suitable for the production of dry mashed potatoes and potatocrisps have been determined, acclimatization before processing ensures minimumthe content of the reducing sugars, which provide high quality of the finished product. Studies have shown that the process of kneading potato at temperatures close to cooking temperature is optimal, in which the process of destruction cells is hardly taking place. Pneumatic dryers for drying boiled potato provide high product quality due to the low temperature of heating and short contact of a powdered product with a drying agent. However, the contents of damaged cells in the finished product do not exceed 1.3-2.6%. The optimum modes and parameters of potato crisps production have been defined, the processes of cutting, blanching, treatment with salt, drying and roasting have been scientifically grounded, that provide a finished product with fat content not more than 27.7%. Conclusion. Economic expediency of processing the following varieties of potato Desire, Temp, Synthesis for dry mashed potato and potato crisps has been proved. The processes of kneading and drying potato are decisive stages of the processing, because they determine the number of destroyedcells in the finished product. Optimal parameters of production

  3. Dry processing versus dense medium processing for preparing thermal coal

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    De Korte, GJ

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available of the final product. The separation efficiency of dry processes is, however, not nearly as good as that of dense medium and, as a result, it is difficult to effectively beneficiate coals with a high near-dense content. The product yield obtained from some raw...

  4. Fabrication of Li2TiO3 pebbles by a freeze drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Sang-Jin; Park, Yi-Hyun; Yu, Min-Woo

    2013-01-01

    Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles were successfully fabricated by using a freeze drying process. The Li 2 TiO 3 slurry was prepared using a commercial powder of particle size 0.5–1.5 μm and the pebble pre-form was prepared by dropping the slurry into liquid nitrogen through a syringe needle. The droplets were rapidly frozen, changing their morphology to spherical pebbles. The frozen pebbles were dried at −10 °C in vacuum. To make crack-free pebbles, some glycerin was employed in the slurry, and long drying time and a low vacuum condition were applied in the freeze drying process. In the process, the solid content in the slurry influenced the spheroidicity of the pebble green body. The dried pebbles were sintered at 1200 °C in an air atmosphere. The sintered pebbles showed almost 40% shrinkage. The sintered pebbles revealed a porous microstructure with a uniform pore distribution and the sintered pebbles were crushed under an average load of 50 N in a compressive strength test. In the present study, a freeze drying process for fabrication of spherical Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles is introduced. The processing parameters, such as solid content in the slurry and the conditions of freeze drying and sintering, are also examined

  5. Digital holographic inspection for drying processes of paint films and ink dots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yokota, M.; Aoyama, F.

    2017-06-01

    Digital holographic techniques to investigate drying processes of both paint films and ink dot is presented. The proposed technique based on digital holographic interferometry can achieve both visualization of variations and analysis of dryness of paint films in the drying process by using phase changes between two subsequent reconstructed complex amplitudes of the reflected light from the film. To follow the drying processes, holograms are recorded at a constant time interval. Phase-shifting digital holography has been applied to analyze the dryness of commercial paints applied on the metal plate. For analysis of an ink dot having diameter of a few hundred micrometers, digital holographic microscopy is applied to evaluating the time history of dryness of ink dot in the drying process. This paper describes these holographic techniques applied to the commercially available paint and ink and presents some experimental results.

  6. Drying characteristics of zucchini and empirical modeling of its drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Kutlu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to dry zucchini (Cucurbita pepo by two different methods (convective hot-air (CHD and microwave-assisted drying (MWD. The effect of air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C, microwave (MW power (180, 360, 540 W and sample thickness (5 and 10 mm on some drying characteristics of zucchini were investigated. Thirteen mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. The coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. It was determined that the model that fits the moisture ratio data the best varies at different drying conditions. Increasing drying temperature and MW power and reducing sample thickness improved the drying rate and drying time. Drying in microwave has reduced the drying time by 52-64% for zucchini. It was found that the effective moisture diffusivities increased with increasing temperature and MW power. MWD samples had better rehydration ratios compared to ones dried only in tray drier for 5 mm thickness.  

  7. Effects of different drying processes on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in plant materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anawar, H.M.; Canha, N.; Freitas, M.C; Santa Regina, I.; Garcia-Sanchez, A.

    2011-01-01

    The drying process of fresh plant materials may affect the porous structure, dehydration and a number of quality characteristics of these materials. Therefore, this study has investigated the effect of different drying processes on the variation of metal and metalloid concentrations in the dried plant materials. Seven varieties of native plant species collected from Sao Domingos mine were analyzed by instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) to investigate the effects of freeze-drying (FD), ambient air-drying (AAD) and oven-drying (OD) process on the concentrations of metals and metalloids in the plant biomass. Comparison of ambient air-dried, oven-dried and freeze-dried preparations allows a phenomenological description of the dehydration artefacts. In the quantitative analysis of metals and metalloids, FD and OD plant samples show the higher concentrations of metals and metalloids when compared to those in the AAD plant biomass. The freeze-drying process is comparatively reliable for determination of metals and metalloids concentrations in plant materials. (author)

  8. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  9. Preparation of polymer-organo clay nano composites through the spray drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardo, Paulo R.A.; Pessan, Luiz A.; Carvalho, Antonio J.F. de; Vidotti, Suel E.

    2011-01-01

    The objective of the work was the study and preparation of polymer nano composites with montmorillonite organo clays (MMT) through the spray drying process. A new technique was proposed and tested to obtaining polymer nano composites, based on the use of the spray drying process to produce a nano composite with high clay content. The process consisted of the following stages: clay intercalation in water solution, with after addition of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH) and a hydro soluble polyester ionomer (GEROLPS20) as exfoliation agents; spray drying the mixture obtained; incorporation powder in EVOH, PET e PP matrix. The effects of exfoliation agent on morphological and thermal properties of the nano composites were studied by XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and TGA. The results demonstrate that the process of spray drying is an innovative way to obtain a nano composite with high clay content. (author)

  10. Key composition optimization of meat processed protein source by vacuum freeze-drying technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yan; Wu, Xingzhuang; Zhang, Qi; Giovanni, Vigna; Meng, Xianjun

    2018-05-01

    Vacuum freeze-drying technology is a high technology content, a wide range of knowledge of technology in the field of drying technology is involved, it is also a method of the most complex drying equipment, the largest energy consumption, the highest cost of drying method, but due to the particularity of its dry goods: the freeze-drying food has the advantages of complex water performance is good, cooler and luster of freezing and drying food to maintain good products, less nutrient loss, light weight, easy to carry transportation, easy to long-term preservation, and on the quality is far superior to the obvious advantages of other dried food, making it become the forefront of drying technology research and development. The freeze-drying process of Chinese style ham and western Germany fruit tree tenderloin is studied in this paper, their eutectic point, melting point and collapse temperature, freeze-drying curve and its heat and mass transfer characteristics are got, then the precool temperature and the highest limiting temperature of sublimation interface are determined. The effect of system pressure on freeze-dried rate in freeze-drying process is discussed, and the method of regulating pressure circularly is determined.

  11. A comprehensive sensitivity and uncertainty analysis of a milk drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutiérrez, S.; Sin, G.

    2015-01-01

    A simple steady state model of a milk drying process was built to help process understanding. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a statistical analysis for quality assurance using sensitivity analysis (SA) of inputs/parameters, identifiab......A simple steady state model of a milk drying process was built to help process understanding. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a statistical analysis for quality assurance using sensitivity analysis (SA) of inputs...... technique. SA results provide evidence towards over-parameterization in the model, and the chamber inlet dry bulb air temperature was the variable (input) with the highest sensitivity. IA results indicated that at most 4 parameters are identifiable: two from spray chamber and one from each fluid bed dryer...

  12. Modeling of an industrial drying process by artificial neural networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Assidjo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available A suitable method is needed to solve the nonquality problem in the grated coconut industry due to the poor control of product humidity during the process. In this study the possibility of using an artificial neural network (ANN, precisely a Multilayer Perceptron, for modeling the drying step of the production of grated coconut process is highlighted. Drying must confer to the product a final moisture of 3%. Unfortunately, under industrial conditions, this moisture varies from 1.9 to 4.8 %. In order to control this parameter and consequently reduce the proportion of the product that does not meet the humidity specification, a 9-4-1 neural network architecture was established using data gathered from an industrial plant. This Multilayer Perceptron can satisfactorily model the process with less bias, ranging from -0.35 to 0.34%, and can reduce the rate of rejected products from 92% to 3% during the first cycle of drying.

  13. The drying process of concrete: a neutron radiography study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beer, F.C. de; Strydom, W.J.; Griesel, E.J.

    2004-01-01

    The natural drying process of concrete, which has a significant effect on its characteristics, for example durability, was studied at the neutron radiography facility at SAFARI-1 nuclear research reactor, operated by Necsa. Monitoring of the movement of the water in concrete samples, which were wet cured for one day and covered on all the sides but one, was done by means of a CCD camera system. In this paper the methodology in observing the drying process will be described together with results obtained from this investigation. The measured water content and porosity results were quantified and compared reasonably well with conventional gravimetrical measurements

  14. Development of a freeze-drying process of waste-solution, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Isao; Kawasaki, Takeshi

    1988-01-01

    The waste solution treatment process in Plutonium Conversion Development Facility (PCDF) consists of Evaporation-Condensation and Neutrazation-Agglometation-Precipitation process, which produces the distillate as recovered acid at first step and separates Pu-U element from condenced solution at second step. This process needs many stages to get high decontamination efficiency and then the Evaporator is in very corrosive state because the nitric acid solution is heated over 100 degrees C to be evaporated. So, in PCDF, it was started the development of Freeze-Drying process to waste solution treatment. This process is suitable for a little quantity of the solution including nitric acid as produced in the Microwave Heating method. Moreover the process has high decontamination efficiency and has good performance of equipment. The result of the cold test of Freeze-Drying process with nitric acid is discribed in this paper. (author)

  15. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  16. Application of exopolysaccharides to optimize the performance of ceramic bodies in the unidirectional dry pressing process

    OpenAIRE

    Caneira I.; Machado-Moreira, B.; Dionísio, A.; Godinho, V.; Neves, O.; Dias, Diamantino; Sáiz-Jiménez, Cesáreo; Miller, A. Z.

    2015-01-01

    Ceramic industry represents an important sector of economic activity in the European countries and involves complex and numerous manufacturing processes. The unidirectional dry pressing process includes milling and stirring of raw materials (mainly clay and talc minerals) in aqueous suspensions, followed by spray drying to remove excess water obtaining spray-dried powders further subjected to dry pressing process (conformation). However, spray-dried ceramic powders exhibit an important variab...

  17. Measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bowers, D. L.; Hong, J.-S.; Kim, H.-D.; Persiani, P. J.; Wolf, S. F.

    1999-01-01

    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) detection, α-spectrometry (α-S), and γ-spectrometry (γ-S) were used for the determination of nuclide content in five samples excised from a high-burnup fuel rod taken from a pressurized water reactor (PWR). The samples were prepared for analysis by dissolution of dry-powdered samples. The measurement techniques required no separation of the plutonium, uranium, and fission products. The sample preparation and analysis techniques showed promise for in-line analysis of highly-irradiated spent fuels in a dry-powdered process. The analytical results allowed the determination of fuel burnup based on 148 Nd, Pu, and U content. A goal of this effort is to develop the HPLC-ICPMS method for direct fissile material accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent nuclear fuel

  18. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse. Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality

  19. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger after therma1 drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Purwadaria

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been carried out to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS. POS was fermented aerobically for four days in a fermentor chambers (28°C, RH 80%, with 60% moisture content Some of the product was further incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 28°C. Both products from aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes were dried by various methods, i.e. sunlight, oven at 60°C, oven with blower at 40°C, at the moisture content less than 11%. Results of the drying methods were also compared with the fresh fermented product. Statistic analysis using factorial design (2 x 4 showed that there was no interaction between kind of fermentation processes (aerobic and anaerobic and drying methods (fresh, sunlight, oven 60°C, and blower 40°C for almost all parameters except total a-amino acid content Significant results (p<0.05 were obtained on the drying methods for parameters of crude protein, true protein, in vitro dry matter and protein digestibilities, and mannanase and cellulase activities. There were no significant results between treatments in the crude fiber analysis and soluble nitrogen content Significant results also did not occur between treatment of aerob and anaerob fermentation processes for almost all parameters except for dry matter digestibilities. Results from true protein and in vitro digestibilities show that the fresh fermented product has the best nutritive value, while product dried by sunlight was best among other drying processes. Results from in vivo of protein and energy digestibilities show that there were better metabolizable energy and protein for product with aerobic process and dried with oven and blower treatments, while sunlight drying was best for product processed in anaerobic condition. Although fresh fermented product gave better result from in vitro digestibilities and enzyme activity analyses, for some reasons (easy handling and preservation sunlight

  20. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  1. Mathematical modeling for the annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The pigment extraction process using annatto (Bixa orellana L. seed produces a large amount of seed waste. Although most of these seeds are discarded, a number of studies report promising results with their use in animal feed. The good fiber content also suggests human nutrition applications, with possible incorporation in dietary foods. In the present study, annatto seeds derived from color extraction were dried, with and without the layer of oil left over from the process. Seeds were dried at 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Drying data were fitted to the Diffusion Approximation, Two Term, Midilli, Page and Thompson models. Drying was carried out up to a moisture content of approximately 5% wet basis. All the models studied exhibited adequate fit to the drying kinetics data of the annatto seeds, with coefficients of determination above 0.98 and root mean squared error (RMSE below 1.0. Seeds with oil had longer drying times at 40 and 50 °C and shorter times at 60 and 70 °C. The coefficients of diffusion showed values between 2.67 x 10-11 and 9.50 x 10-11 m² s-1 and between 2.7 x 10-11 and 6.21 x 10-11 m² s-1, while activation energies for liquid diffusions were 38.04 and 23.52 kJ mol-1, for residual seed drying with and without oil, respectively.

  2. Novel hybridized drying methods for processing of apple fruit: Energy conservation approach

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazervazifeh, Amin; Nikbakht, Ali M.; Moghaddam, Parviz A.

    2016-01-01

    Strategic outlook of apple cultivation and its significant post-processing challenges have been the leading factors for energy and time saving research approaches in apple processing. In this research, apple slices were subjected to hot air flow, microwave radiation and combined microwave-hot air flow drying. Drying time, energy consumption and thermal efficiency at different microwave power levels (500 W, 1000 W, 1500 W and 2000 W), hot air temperatures (40 °C, 50 °C, 60 °C and 70 °C) and inlet air velocities (0.5 ms"−"1, 1 ms"−"1, 1.5 ms"−"1 and 2 ms"−"1) were studied and compared. The minimum time of processing was 17 min when integrated hot air flow and microwave radiation was applied with 2000 W power at the temperature of 70 °C and air velocity of 2 ms"−"1. Furthermore, the minimum value of total energy consumption during entire process of apple slices drying was 2684 kJ which belonged to microwave drying with 2000 W power. - Highlights: • Microwave radiation is implemented to reduce the energy demand for drying. • Simultaneous impact of microwave and hot air on energy and time consumption was analyzed. • Minimum drying time occurs with combined utilization of microwave and hot air. • Thermal efficiency was desirable in low air velocities and high temperatures. • Thermal efficiency of microwave radiation increased by 200% compared to single hot air method.

  3. Influence of Ripeness and Drying Process on the Polyphenols and Tocopherols of Pistacia vera L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriele Ballistreri

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper highlights, for the first time, the changes in the phenolics fraction (anthocyanins, flavonoids and stilbenes and tocopherols of unpeeled Pistacia vera L. var. bianca with ripening, and the effect of the sun-drying process. The total polyphenol levels in pistachios, measured as mg of Gallic Acid Equivalent (GAE, were: 201 ± 10.1, 349 ± 18.3 and 184.7 ± 6.2 mg GAE/100 g DM in unripe, ripe and dried ripe samples, respectively. Most phenolics in ripe pistachios were found to be anthocyanins. They increased with ripening, while the sun drying process caused a susbtantial loss. Flavonoids found in all pistachio samples were daidzein, genistein, daidzin, quercetin, eriodictyol, luteolin, genistin and naringenin, which decreased both with ripening and drying. Before the drying process both unripe and ripe pistachios showed a higher content of trans-resveratrol than dried ripe samples. γ-Tocopherol was the major vitamin E isomer found in pistachios. The total content (of α- and γ-tocopherols decreased, both during ripening and during the drying process. These results suggested that unpeeled pistachios can be considered an important source of phenolics, particularly of anthocyanins. Moreover, in order to preserve these healthy characteristics, new and more efficient drying processes should be adopted.

  4. Textile Dry Cleaning Using Carbon Dioxide : Process, Apparatus and Mechanical Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sutanto, S.

    2014-01-01

    Fabrics that are sensitive to water, may wrinkle or shrink when washed in regular washing machines and are usually cleaned by professional dry cleaners. Dry cleaning is a process of removing soils from substrate, in this case textile, using a non-aqueous solvent. The most common solvent in

  5. Microstructural and bulk property changes in hardened cement paste during the first drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruyama, Ippei, E-mail: ippei@dali.nuac.nagoya-u.ac.jp [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 546, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Nishioka, Yukiko; Igarashi, Go [Graduate School of Environmental Studies, Nagoya University, ES Building, No. 539, Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya 464–8603 (Japan); Matsui, Kunio [Products and Marketing Development Dept. Asahi-KASEI Construction Materials Corporation, 106 Someya, Sakai-machi, Sashima-gun, Ibaraki, 306–0493 (Japan)

    2014-04-01

    This paper reports the microstructural changes and resultant bulk physical property changes in hardened cement paste (hcp) during the first desorption process. The microstructural changes and solid-phase changes were evaluated by water vapor sorption, nitrogen sorption, ultrasonic velocity, and {sup 29}Si and {sup 27}Al nuclear magnetic resonance. Strength, Young's modulus, and drying shrinkage were also examined. The first drying process increased the volume of macropores and decreased the volume of mesopores and interlayer spaces. Furthermore, in the first drying process globule clusters were interconnected. During the first desorption, the strength increased for samples cured at 100% to 90% RH, decreased for 90% to 40% RH, and increased again for 40% to 11% RH. This behavior is explained by both microstructural changes in hcp and C–S–H globule densification. The drying shrinkage strains during rapid drying and slow drying were compared and the effects of the microstructural changes and evaporation were separated.

  6. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farkas, J.

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future. (author)

  7. Radiation processing of dry food ingredients - a review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1985-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives, does not leave residues and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3 to 10 kGy proved to be sufficient to reduce the viable cell counts to a satisfactory level. Ionizing radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature and the flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for a satisfactory decontamination. The microflora surviving the cell-count reduction by irradiation is more sensitive to subsequent food processing treatments than the microflora of untreated ingredients. Recontamination can be prevented since the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation can be carried out in commercial containers and it results in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of dry ingredients is an emerging technology in several countries and more and more clearances on irradiated foods are issued or expected to be granted in the near future.

  8. 7 CFR 319.56-11 - Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... QUARANTINE NOTICES Fruits and Vegetables § 319.56-11 Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits, vegetables, nuts, and legumes. (a) Dried, cured, or processed fruits and vegetables (except frozen fruits and... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Importation of dried, cured, or processed fruits...

  9. Optimization and application of spray-drying process on oyster cooking soup byproduct

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huibin CHEN

    Full Text Available Abstract Oyster drying processes have produced a large amount of cooking soup byproducts. In this study, oyster cooking soup byproduct was concentrated and spray-dried after enzymatic hydrolysis to produce seasoning powder. Response surface methodology (RSM was performed on the basis of single-factor studies to optimize the feeding temperature, hot air temperature, atomization pressure, and total solid content of oyster drying. Results revealed the following optimized parameters of this process: feeding temperature of 60 °C, total solid content of 30%, hot air temperature of 197 °C, and atomization pressure of 92 MPa. Under these conditions, the oyster powder yield was 63.7% ± 0.7% and the moisture content was 4.1% ± 0.1%. Our pilot trial also obtained 63.1% yield and 4.0% moisture content. The enzyme hydrolysis of cooking soup byproduct further enhanced the antioxidant activity of the produced oyster seasoning powder to some extent. Spray drying process optimized by RSM can provide a reference for high-valued applications of oyster cooking soup byproducts.

  10. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  11. Sensory profiles for dried fig (Ficus carica L.) cultivars commercially grown and processed in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, Megan T; King, Ellena S; Heymann, Hildegarde; Crisosto, Carlos H

    2013-08-01

    A trained sensory panel evaluated the 6 fig cultivars currently sold in the California dried fig market. The main flavor and aroma attributes determined by the sensory panel were "caramel," "honey," "raisin," and "fig," with additional aroma attributes: "common date," "dried plum," and "molasses." Sensory differences were observed between dried fig cultivars. All figs were processed by 2 commercial handlers. Processing included potassium sorbate as a preservative and SO2 application as an antibrowning agent for white cultivars. As a consequence of SO2 use during processing, high sulfite residues affected the sensory profiles of the white dried fig cultivars. Significant differences between dried fig cultivars and sources demonstrate perceived differences between processing and storage methods. The panel-determined sensory lexicon can help with California fig marketing. © 2013 The Regents of California, Davis Campus Department of Plant Sciences.

  12. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed.

  13. Assessment of the dry process fuel sodium-cooled fast reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-04-01

    The feasibility of using dry-processed oxide fuel in a Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (SFR) was analyzed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two reference cores: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with a enlarged lattice pitch and modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study based on the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed

  14. Effects of drying process on the physicochemical properties of nopal cladodes at different maturity stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Contreras-Padilla, Margarita; Gutiérrez-Cortez, Elsa; Valderrama-Bravo, María Del Carmen; Rojas-Molina, Isela; Espinosa-Arbeláez, Diego Germán; Suárez-Vargas, Raúl; Rodríguez-García, Mario Enrique

    2012-03-01

    Chemical proximate analysis was done in order to determine the changes of nutritional characteristics of nopal powders from three different maturity stages 50, 100, and 150 days and obtained by three different drying processes: freeze dried, forced air oven, and tunnel. Results indicate that nopal powder obtained by the process of freeze dried retains higher contents of protein, soluble fiber, and fat than the other two processes. Also, freeze dried process had less effect on color hue variable. No changes were observed in insoluble fiber content, chroma and lightness with the three different drying processes. Furthermore, the soluble fibers decreased with the age of nopal while insoluble fibers and ash content shows an opposite trend. In addition, the luminosity and hue values did not show differences among the maturity stages studied. The high content of dietary fibers of nopal pad powder could to be an interesting source of these important components for human diets and also could be used in food, cosmetics and pharmaceutical industry.

  15. Design of Temperature Measurement System on the Drying Process of Madura Tobacco Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Wardana, Humadillah Kurniadi; Endarko, Endarko

    2015-01-01

    The quality of dried chopped leaves of tobacco is an important factor. The present work developed an oven for drying process to measure and evalute on drying shrinkage characteristic of choped leaves Madura tobacco. The oven has three racks for analyzing and monitoring the rate of drying shrinkage of Madura tobacco. Every rack has a different amount of chopped leaves as follows: 120 g on top rack, 100 g for middle rack and 80 g for bottom rack. Rate of drying shrinkage was analyzed for 20 min...

  16. Quality by design approach in the optimization of the spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldinger, Arnaud; Clerdent, Lucas; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to illustrate the influence of the processing parameters, inlet temperature, atomization air flow rate and feed flow rate, on critical quality attributes of spray-dried powders using design of experiments (DoE). Spray-dried powders were characterized by laser diffraction, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIR). Multivariate analysis of two different experimental designs was performed to elucidate the optimal process conditions. XRPD revealed that the spray-dried powders consisted of crystalline β-mannitol and amorphous trehalose. Non-invasive NIR measurement was successfully used for correlating the critical quality attribute particle size with size determined by laser diffraction. The full factorial design proved to be unsuitable due to the non-linear influence of factors. The composite face-centered design improved the quality of the models and showed both linear and non-linear influence of the parameters on the outcomes. A model explaining the influence of the factors on all quality attributes showed similar results as the models optimized for a single response. This study showed the applicability of DoE for the investigation of spray-dried powders. The knowledge of the interplay between process parameters and quality attributes will enable rational process design to achieve a desired outcome.

  17. Fabrication of Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles by a freeze drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sang-Jin, E-mail: lee@mokpo.ac.kr [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan 534-729 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Yi-Hyun [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon 305-806 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Min-Woo [Department of Advanced Materials Science and Engineering, Mokpo National University, Muan 534-729 (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-11-15

    Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles were successfully fabricated by using a freeze drying process. The Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} slurry was prepared using a commercial powder of particle size 0.5–1.5 μm and the pebble pre-form was prepared by dropping the slurry into liquid nitrogen through a syringe needle. The droplets were rapidly frozen, changing their morphology to spherical pebbles. The frozen pebbles were dried at −10 °C in vacuum. To make crack-free pebbles, some glycerin was employed in the slurry, and long drying time and a low vacuum condition were applied in the freeze drying process. In the process, the solid content in the slurry influenced the spheroidicity of the pebble green body. The dried pebbles were sintered at 1200 °C in an air atmosphere. The sintered pebbles showed almost 40% shrinkage. The sintered pebbles revealed a porous microstructure with a uniform pore distribution and the sintered pebbles were crushed under an average load of 50 N in a compressive strength test. In the present study, a freeze drying process for fabrication of spherical Li{sub 2}TiO{sub 3} pebbles is introduced. The processing parameters, such as solid content in the slurry and the conditions of freeze drying and sintering, are also examined.

  18. Kinetics of varnish long-term drying process monitored by a heterogeneous optical sensor system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saccon, F A M; De Oliveira, F M D R; Ribas, M O; Zambianchi, P Jr; Muller, M; Fabris, J L

    2013-01-01

    The drying process of an acrylic varnish film was monitored over 24 h by a heterogeneous optical sensor system. The system employs a fibre optic transducer based on Bragg gratings and optical coherence tomography, operating respectively around 1.55 and 1.3 µm. The sensor is able to provide information about the temporal evolution of temperature, mechanical deformation, thickness and average refractive index of the coating during the drying process. Resolutions for these optically measured parameters are 0.05 °C (temperature), 0.5 µε (strain), 1.5 µm (thickness) and 0.004 (refractive index). Besides, the sensor can detect the growth of a surface dry skin and supply information about the film bulk uniformity. A model for the mass loss of solvent as the drying process evolves is also discussed. (paper)

  19. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2018-02-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data ( R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy ( Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity ( Deff), thermal diffusivity ( α) and the rate constant of the best model ( k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  20. Mechanistic modelling of fluidized bed drying processes of wet porous granules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; De Beer, Thomas; Gernaey, Krist

    2011-01-01

    depending on the geometry of the gas inlet, the gas velocity, characteristics of the particles, the dryer design, etc. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) allows to model this behaviour. Moreover, turbulence can be modelled using several approaches: Reynolds-averaged Navier–Stokes Equations (RANS) or Large...... are powerful tools to gain process insight and eventually develop well-controlled processes. The level of detail embedded in such a model depends on the goal of the model. Several models have therefore been proposed in the literature and are reviewed here. The drying behaviour of one single granule, a porous...... particle, can be described using the continuum approach, the pore network modelling method and the shrinkage of the diameter of the wet core approach. As several granules dry at a drying rate dependent on the gas temperature, gas velocity, porosity, etc., the moisture content of a batch of granules...

  1. Innovative application of the moisture analyzer for determination of dry mass content of processed cheese

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalska, Małgorzata; Janas, Sławomir; Woźniak, Magdalena

    2018-04-01

    The aim of this work was the presentation of an alternative method of determination of the total dry mass content in processed cheese. The authors claim that the presented method can be used in industry's quality control laboratories for routine testing and for quick in-process control. For the test purposes both reference method of determination of dry mass in processed cheese and moisture analyzer method were used. The tests were carried out for three different kinds of processed cheese. In accordance with the reference method, the sample was placed on a layer of silica sand and dried at the temperature of 102 °C for about 4 h. The moisture analyzer test required method validation, with regard to drying temperature range and mass of the analyzed sample. Optimum drying temperature of 110 °C was determined experimentally. For Hochland cream processed cheese sample, the total dry mass content, obtained using the reference method, was 38.92%, whereas using the moisture analyzer method, it was 38.74%. An average analysis time in case of the moisture analyzer method was 9 min. For the sample of processed cheese with tomatoes, the reference method result was 40.37%, and the alternative method result was 40.67%. For the sample of cream processed cheese with garlic the reference method gave value of 36.88%, and the alternative method, of 37.02%. An average time of those determinations was 16 min. Obtained results confirmed that use of moisture analyzer is effective. Compliant values of dry mass content were obtained for both of the used methods. According to the authors, the fact that the measurement took incomparably less time for moisture analyzer method, is a key criterion of in-process control and final quality control method selection.

  2. CHARACTERISTICS OF THE WOOD DRYING PROCESS COMPLETED IN THE SAWMILLS IN THE CITY OF SINOP, MATO GROSSO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinícius de Almeida dos Anjos

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the first and most important step in the process of wood industrialization and it aims to provide material with suitable characteristics for use. This operation must be planned and conducted the right way, because it determines the final product quality. This study aimed to characterize the drying process of wood made in sawmills in the city of Sinop, Mato Grosso, through qualitative and quantitative parameters, and identify common aspects and possible failures in the process. For this, data were collected through interviews in twelve sawmills in order to obtain information on the major species submitted to the drying process, drying methods, methods of stacking, consumer markets, methods of control of moisture content, major errors found in the drying yard or in the form of stacking, among others. The results show that Erisma uncinatum (cedrinho and Vochysia sp. (cambará are the main species subject to drying and marketed, especially in southern and southeastern Brazil. There were several flaws in the process as absence drying methods employing conventional chambers, lack of precise methods of controlling the final moisture content, improper stacking unaligned battens and drying patios with poor distribution of primary and secondary accesses.

  3. Optimization of a pharmaceutical freeze-dried product and its process using an experimental design approach and innovative process analyzers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Beer, T R M; Wiggenhorn, M; Hawe, A; Kasper, J C; Almeida, A; Quinten, T; Friess, W; Winter, G; Vervaet, C; Remon, J P

    2011-02-15

    The aim of the present study was to examine the possibilities/advantages of using recently introduced in-line spectroscopic process analyzers (Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy), within well-designed experiments, for the optimization of a pharmaceutical formulation and its freeze-drying process. The formulation under investigation was a mannitol (crystalline bulking agent)-sucrose (lyo- and cryoprotector) excipient system. The effects of two formulation variables (mannitol/sucrose ratio and amount of NaCl) and three process variables (freezing rate, annealing temperature and secondary drying temperature) upon several critical process and product responses (onset and duration of ice crystallization, onset and duration of mannitol crystallization, duration of primary drying, residual moisture content and amount of mannitol hemi-hydrate in end product) were examined using a design of experiments (DOE) methodology. A 2-level fractional factorial design (2(5-1)=16 experiments+3 center points=19 experiments) was employed. All experiments were monitored in-line using Raman, NIR and plasma emission spectroscopy, which supply continuous process and product information during freeze-drying. Off-line X-ray powder diffraction analysis and Karl-Fisher titration were performed to determine the morphology and residual moisture content of the end product, respectively. In first instance, the results showed that - besides the previous described findings in De Beer et al., Anal. Chem. 81 (2009) 7639-7649 - Raman and NIR spectroscopy are able to monitor the product behavior throughout the complete annealing step during freeze-drying. The DOE approach allowed predicting the optimum combination of process and formulation parameters leading to the desired responses. Applying a mannitol/sucrose ratio of 4, without adding NaCl and processing the formulation without an annealing step, using a freezing rate of 0.9°C/min and a secondary drying temperature of 40°C resulted in

  4. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-01-01

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns

  5. Simulation of the process kinetics and analysis of physicochemical properties in the freeze drying of kale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dziki, Dariusz; Polak, Renata; Rudy, Stanisław; Krzykowski, Andrzej; Gawlik-Dziki, Urszula; Różyło, Renata; Miś, Antoni; Combrzyński, Maciej

    2018-01-01

    Investigations were performed to study the freeze-drying process of kale (Brassica oleracea L. var acephala). The process of freeze-drying was performed at temperatures of 20, 40, and 60°C for whole pieces of leaves and for pulped leaves. The kinetics of the freeze-drying of both kale leaves and kale pulp were best described by the Page model. The increasing freeze-drying temperature from 20 to 60°C induced an approximately two-fold decrease in the drying time. Freeze-drying significantly increased the value of the lightness, delta Chroma, and browning index of kale, and had little influence on the hue angle. The highest increase in the lightness and delta Chroma was observed for whole leaves freeze-dried at 20°C. An increase in the drying temperature brought about a slight decrease in the lightness, delta Chroma and the total colour difference. Pulping decreased the lightness and hue angle, and increased browning index. Freeze-drying engendered a slight decrease in the total phenolics content and antioxidant activity, in comparison to fresh leaves. The temperature of the process and pulping had little influence on the total phenolics content and antioxidant activity of dried kale, but significantly decreased the contents of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b.

  6. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  7. Automatic humidification system to support the assessment of food drying processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz Hernández, B. D.; Carreño Olejua, A. R.; Castellanos Olarte, J. M.

    2016-07-01

    This work shows the main features of an automatic humidification system to provide drying air that match environmental conditions of different climate zones. This conditioned air is then used to assess the drying process of different agro-industrial products at the Automation and Control for Agro-industrial Processes Laboratory of the Pontifical Bolivarian University of Bucaramanga, Colombia. The automatic system allows creating and improving control strategies to supply drying air under specified conditions of temperature and humidity. The development of automatic routines to control and acquire real time data was made possible by the use of robust control systems and suitable instrumentation. The signals are read and directed to a controller memory where they are scaled and transferred to a memory unit. Using the IP address is possible to access data to perform supervision tasks. One important characteristic of this automatic system is the Dynamic Data Exchange Server (DDE) to allow direct communication between the control unit and the computer used to build experimental curves.

  8. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  9. Research advances in dry anaerobic digestion process of solid ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry anaerobic digestion process is an innovative waste-recycling method to treat high-solidcontent bio-wastes. This can be done without dilution with water by microbial consortia in an oxygenfree environment to recover potential renewable energy and nutrient-rich fertilizer for sustainable solid waste management.

  10. Rapid formation of phase-clean 110 K (Bi-2223) powders derived via freeze-drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balachandran, U.

    1996-06-04

    A process for the preparation of amorphous precursor powders for Pb-doped Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2} Ca{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub x} (2223) includes a freeze-drying process incorporating a splat-freezing step. The process generally includes splat freezing a nitrate solution of Bi, Pb, Sr, Ca, and Cu to form flakes of the solution without any phase separation; grinding the frozen flakes to form a powder; freeze-drying the frozen powder; heating the dried powder to form a dry green precursor powders; denitrating the green-powders; heating the denitrated powders to form phase-clean Bi-2223 powders. The grain boundaries of the 2223 grains appear to be clean, leading to good intergrain contact between 2223 grains. 11 figs.

  11. Effect of Intermittent Drying Conditions on Fissuring Percentage and Process Duration of Long and Medium Rough Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors which affect the quality of rice during milling is internal fissures created during and after drying operation. In many industrial countries intermittent drying method is hired to reduce the moisture content of rough rice in order to reduce the drying time and maintain the quality of the final product. A high percentage of rice breakage during milling process, at least in Iran, necessitates performing the intermittent drying process and optimize it for Iranian varieties. In this study, the effect of this method (drying-tempering and continuous drying method (no tempering on fissuring percentage of Hashemi (long grain and Koohsar (medium grain varieties was investigated. The experiments were carried out at constant drying and tempering temperature of 60 °C, drying durations of 20, 40 and 60 min, and tempering durations of 0 (continuous drying, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 min. The results revealed that the tempering process significantly reduced the drying time and fissured kernels percentage. Moreover, for both varieties it was observed that the rice fissuring decreased significantly by continuing the tempering process until certain durations. Overall, for optimization of intermittent drying process in terms of the considered qualitative parameters, i.e. reducing energy consumption and losses, conducting 160 and 200 min tempering process after 40 min drying was found appropriate for Hashemi and Koohsar varieties, respectively. In addition, according to the higher fissuring for Koohsar (medium grain compared to Hashemi (long grain, it can be concluded that physical properties such as kernel slenderness ratio is effective on its fissuring.

  12. Application of exopolysaccharides to improve the performance of ceramic bodies in the unidirectional dry pressing process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneira, Inês; Machado-Moreira, Bernardino; Dionísio, Amélia; Godinho, Vasco; Neves, Orquídia; Dias, Diamantino; Saiz-Jimenez, Cesareo; Miller, Ana Z.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramic industry represents an important sector of economic activity in the European countries and involves complex and numerous manufacturing processes. The unidirectional dry pressing process includes milling and stirring of raw materials (mainly clay and talc minerals) in aqueous suspensions, followed by spray drying to remove excess water obtaining spray-dried powders further subjected to dry pressing process (conformation). However, spray-dried ceramic powders exhibit an important variability in their performance when subjected to the dry pressing process, particularly in the adhesion to the mold and mechanical strength, affecting the quality of the final conformed ceramic products. Therefore, several synthetic additives (deflocculants, antifoams, binders, lubricants and plasticizers) are introduced in the ceramic slips to achieve uniform and homogeneous pastes, conditioning their rheological properties. However, an important variability associated with the performance of the conformed products is still reported. Exopolysaccharides or Extracellular Polymeric Substances (EPS) are polymers excreted by living organisms, such as bacteria, fungi and algae, which may confer unique and potentially interesting properties with potential industrial uses, such as viscosity control, gelation, and flocculation. Polysaccharides, such as pullulan, gellan, carrageenan and xanthan have found a wide range of applications in food, pharmaceutical, petroleum, and in other industries. The aim of this study was the assessment of exopolysaccharides as natural additives to optimize the performance of spray-dried ceramic powders during the unidirectional dry pressing process, replacing the synthetic additives used in the ceramic production process. Six exopolysaccharides, namely pullulan, gellan, xanthan gum, κappa- and iota-carrageenan, and guar gum were tested in steatite-based spray-dried ceramic powders at different concentrations. Subsequently, these ceramic powders were

  13. Effects of annealing on the physical properties of therapeutic proteins during freeze drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Jun Yeul; Lim, Dae Gon; Kim, Ki Hyun; Park, Sang-Koo; Jeong, Seong Hoon

    2018-02-01

    Effects of annealing steps during the freeze drying process on etanercept, model protein, were evaluated using various analytical methods. The annealing was introduced in three different ways depending on time and temperature. Residual water contents of dried cakes varied from 2.91% to 6.39% and decreased when the annealing step was adopted, suggesting that they are directly affected by the freeze drying methods Moreover, the samples were more homogenous when annealing was adopted. Transition temperatures of the excipients (sucrose, mannitol, and glycine) were dependent on the freeze drying steps. Size exclusion chromatography showed that monomer contents were high when annealing was adopted and also they decreased less after thermal storage at 60°C. Dynamic light scattering results exhibited that annealing can be helpful in inhibiting aggregation and that thermal storage of freeze-dried samples preferably induced fragmentation over aggregation. Shift of circular dichroism spectrum and of the contents of etanercept secondary structure was observed with different freeze drying steps and thermal storage conditions. All analytical results suggest that the physicochemical properties of etanercept formulation can differ in response to different freeze drying steps and that annealing is beneficial for maintaining stability of protein and reducing the time of freeze drying process. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Global Sensitivity Analysis as Good Modelling Practices tool for the identification of the most influential process parameters of the primary drying step during freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Corver, Jos

    2018-01-01

    Pharmaceutical batch freeze-drying is commonly used to improve the stability of biological therapeutics. The primary drying step is regulated by the dynamic settings of the adaptable process variables, shelf temperature Ts and chamber pressure Pc. Mechanistic modelling of the primary drying step...

  15. Optimization of Agave tequilana Weber var. Azul Juice Spray Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Chávez-Rodríguez

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the response surface methodology was employed to optimize the microencapsulation of Agave tequilana Weber var. azul juice with whey protein isolated using a spray drying technique. A Box-Behnken design was used to establish optimum spray drying conditions for Agave tequilana juice. The process was optimized to obtain maximum powder yield with the best solubility time, hygroscopicity, bulk density, water activity, and reducing sugars. The independent parameters for the spray drying process were outlet temperature of 70–80°C, atomizer speed of 20000–30000 rpm, and airflow of 0.20–0.23 m3 s−1. The best spray drying condition was at outlet temperature of 80°C, atomizer speed of 20000 rpm, and air flow rate of 0.23 m3 s−1 to obtain maximum powder yield (14.65%bm, minimum solubility time (352.8 s, maximum bulk density (560 kg m−3, minimum hygroscopicity (1.9×10-7 kgwater s−1, and minimum aw (0.39. The Agave tequilana powder may be considered as an interesting source of dietary fiber used as food additive in food and nutraceutical industries.

  16. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  17. A Design of Experiment approach to predict product and process parameters for a spray dried influenza vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Willems, Geert-Jan; Frijlink, Henderik W; Kersten, Gideon F A; Soema, Peter C; Amorij, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-25

    Spray dried vaccine formulations might be an alternative to traditional lyophilized vaccines. Compared to lyophilization, spray drying is a fast and cheap process extensively used for drying biologicals. The current study provides an approach that utilizes Design of Experiments for spray drying process to stabilize whole inactivated influenza virus (WIV) vaccine. The approach included systematically screening and optimizing the spray drying process variables, determining the desired process parameters and predicting product quality parameters. The process parameters inlet air temperature, nozzle gas flow rate and feed flow rate and their effect on WIV vaccine powder characteristics such as particle size, residual moisture content (RMC) and powder yield were investigated. Vaccine powders with a broad range of physical characteristics (RMC 1.2-4.9%, particle size 2.4-8.5μm and powder yield 42-82%) were obtained. WIV showed no significant loss in antigenicity as revealed by hemagglutination test. Furthermore, descriptive models generated by DoE software could be used to determine and select (set) spray drying process parameter. This was used to generate a dried WIV powder with predefined (predicted) characteristics. Moreover, the spray dried vaccine powders retained their antigenic stability even after storage for 3 months at 60°C. The approach used here enabled the generation of a thermostable, antigenic WIV vaccine powder with desired physical characteristics that could be potentially used for pulmonary administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Combined osmotic dehydration and drying process of pirarucu (Arapaima gigas) fillets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Mayara Galvão; da Silva Pena, Rosinelson

    2017-09-01

    The osmotic dehydration (OD) and complementary drying of pirarucu ( Arapaima gigas ) fillets were studied. Pieces of the dorsal portion of pirarucu (60 mm × 20 mm × 10 mm) underwent OD in a binary solution (NaCl-water) with the application of vacuum pulse following a central rotatable composite design. The effect of the following process variables was assessed: temperature (20-40 °C), osmotic solution concentration (15-25% NaCl), and vacuum pulse pressure (7-101 kPa) on water loss (WL), solid gain (SG), and water activity (a w ). OD kinetics was obtained and the Peleg model was fitted to WL and SG data. The osmotically dehydrated pirarucu was dried (40-70 °C) in a fixed-bed dryer and mathematical models were fitted to the drying data. The optimal operational condition for the OD process was 35 °C, solution with 25% NaCl, and atmospheric pressure, which yielded WL of 14.87 ± 1.46%, SG of 8.56 ± 0.45%, and a w of 0.87 ± 0.02. The Peleg model efficiently predicted the WL and SG kinetics. The increase in the water loss in drying was more evident at low temperatures (40-50 °C) with effective diffusivity ranging from 10.85 × 10 -9 to 12.30 × 10 -9 m 2 /s. The Midilli and Page models efficiently predicted the drying kinetics.

  19. Correlations of Mean Process Parameters for Agricultural Products Drying in Thin Bed in Solar Direct Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MSc. Ciro César Bergues-Ricardo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available A group of correlations is given between mean parameters of drying process drying velocity, energy losses, useful energy, and thermal efficiency. Those are suitable for conditions of thin bed drying, in direct solar dryers, and may help for developing of an integral approach of solar drying in those conditions. Correlations are reliable for drying processes of diverse crop products specified, suchas roots, seeds, vegetables, fruits, wood, etc, with natural or forced convection. Correlations were validated in Cuba for usual ranges of efficiency and products in solar dryers of cover, cabinet and house types, in tropical conditions. These correlations are useful for design and exploitation ofdryers and for theoretical and practical comprehension of solar drying like a system.

  20. Fiber Bragg Grating Sensor to Monitor Stress Kinetics in Drying Process of Commercial Latex Paints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivo de Lourenço

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we report a study about the application of packaged fiber Bragg gratings used as strain sensors to monitor the stress kinetics during the drying process of commercial latex paints. Three stages of drying with distinct mechanical deformation and temporal behaviors were identified for the samples, with mechanical deformation from 15 μm to 21 μm in the longitudinal film dimension on time intervals from 370 to 600 minutes. Drying time tests based on human sense technique described by the Brazilian Technical Standards NBR 9558 were also done. The results obtained shows that human sense technique has a limited perception of the drying process and that the optical measurement system proposed can be used to characterize correctly the dry-through stage of paint. The influence of solvent (water addition in the drying process was also investigated. The paint was diluted with four parts paint and one part water (80% paint, and one part paint and one part water (50% paint. It was observed that the increase of the water ratio mixed into the paint decreases both the mechanical deformation magnitude and the paint dry-through time. Contraction of 5.2 μm and 10.4 μm were measured for concentrations of 50% and 80% of paint in the mixture, respectively. For both diluted paints the dry-through time was approximately 170 minutes less than undiluted paint. The optical technique proposed in this work can contribute to the development of new standards to specify the drying time of paint coatings.

  1. Method of drying passivated micromachines by dewetting from a liquid-based process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houston, Michael R.; Howe, Roger T.; Maboudian, Roya; Srinivasan, Uthara

    2000-01-01

    A method of fabricating a micromachine includes the step of constructing a low surface energy film on the micromachine. The micromachine is then rinsed with a rinse liquid that has a high surface energy, relative to the low surface energy film, to produce a contact angle of greater than 90.degree. between the low surface energy film and the rinse liquid. This relatively large contact angle causes any rinse liquid on the micromachine to be displaced from the micromachine when the micromachine is removed from the rinse liquid. In other words, the micromachine is dried by dewetting from a liquid-based process. Thus, a separate evaporative drying step is not required, as the micromachine is removed from the liquid-based process in a dry state. The relatively large contact angle also operates to prevent attractive capillary forces between micromachine components, thereby preventing contact and adhesion between adjacent microstructure surfaces. The low surface energy film may be constructed with a fluorinated self-assembled monolayer film. The processing of the invention avoids the use of environmentally harmful, health-hazardous chemicals.

  2. MODEL OF A PROCESS FOR DRYING Eucalyptus spp AT HIGH TEMPERATURES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. C. C. PINHEIRO

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model of a process for drying of Eucalyptus spp is presented. This model was based on fundamental heat and mass transfer equations and it was numerically solved using a segregated finite volume method. Software in the FORTRAN language was developed to solve the mathematical model. The kinetic parameters of drying for Eucalyptus spp were experimentally obtained by isothermal thermogravimetry (TG. The theoretical results generated using the mathematical model were validated by experimental data.

  3. Characteristics and functionality of appetite-reducing thylakoid powders produced by three different drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Östbring, Karolina; Sjöholm, Ingegerd; Sörenson, Henrietta; Ekholm, Andrej; Erlanson-Albertsson, Charlotte; Rayner, Marilyn

    2018-03-01

    Thylakoids, a chloroplast membrane extracted from green leaves, are a promising functional ingredient with appetite-reducing properties via their lipase-inhibiting effect. Thylakoids in powder form have been evaluated in animal and human models, but no comprehensive study has been conducted on powder characteristics. The aim was to investigate the effects of different isolation methods and drying techniques (drum-drying, spray-drying, freeze-drying) on thylakoids' physicochemical and functional properties. Freeze-drying yielded thylakoid powders with the highest lipase-inhibiting capacity. We hypothesize that the specific macromolecular structures involved in lipase inhibition were degraded to different degrees by exposure to heat during spray-drying and drum-drying. We identified lightness (Hunter's L-value), greenness (Hunter's a-value), chlorophyll content and emulsifying capacity to be correlated to lipase-inhibiting capacity. Thus, to optimize the thylakoids functional properties, the internal membrane structure indicated by retained green colour should be preserved. This opens possibilities to use chlorophyll content as a marker for thylakoid functionality in screening processes during process optimization. Thylakoids are heat sensitive, and a mild drying technique should be used in industrial production. Strong links between physicochemical parameters and lipase inhibition capacity were found that can be used to predict functionality. The approach from this study can be applied towards production of standardized high-quality functional food ingredients. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Modelling of drying processes of pharmaceutical granules. Pharmaceutical Sciences for the Future of Medicines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, S.T.F.C.; Vedantam, S.; De Beer, T.

    Tablets are conventionally produced via consecutive batch process steps. Recent introduction of continuous process equipment is gaining industrial importance in pharmaceutics. Transition to continuous production requires improved understanding of all operations, necessitating the development...... of mechanistic models of multi‐phase systems which in the end allow process control. This contribution focuses on continuous fluidized bed drying of pharmaceutical wet granules. A stepwise approach is used in model development, starting with the drying behaviour of single granules. Experiments to determine...

  5. Encapsulation of lycopene using spray-drying and molecular inclusion processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Itaciara Larroza Nunes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to obtain encapsulated lycopene in a powder form, using either spray-drying or molecular inclusion with beta -cyclodextrin ( beta -CD followed by freeze-drying. The encapsulation efficiency using spray-drying ranged from 94 to 96%, with an average yield of 51%, with microcapsules showing superficial indentations and lack of cracks and breakages. Lycopene- beta -CD complexes were only formed at a molar ratio of 1:4, and irregular structures of different sizes that eventually formed aggregates, similar to those of beta -CD, were observed after freeze-drying. About 50% of the initial lycopene did not form complexes with beta -CD. Lycopene purity increased from 96.4 to 98.1% after spray-drying, whereas lycopene purity decreased from 97.7 to 91.3% after complex formation and freeze-drying. Both the drying processes yielded pale-pink, dry, free-flowing powders.Técnicas de encapsulamento, como "spray-drying" e formação de complexos por inclusão com ciclodextrinas, vêm sendo avaliadas para viabilizar a adição de carotenóides em sistemas hidrofílicos e aumentar a sua estabilidade durante o processamento e estocagem. Portanto, o objetivo do presente trabalho foi obter licopeno encapsulado na forma de pó, utilizando processos de "spray-drying" ou de inclusão molecular com beta -ciclodextrina (CD seguido de liofilização. A eficiência do encapsulamento utilizando "spray-drying" variou de 94 a 96% e o rendimento médio foi de 51%, com as microcápsulas apresentando indentações superficiais, porém sem falhas ou aberturas na superfície. A formação de complexo licopeno- beta -CD ocorreu apenas quando utilizada razão molar de 1:4, e estruturas irregulares de diferentes tamanhos que eventualmente formaram agregados, similares às da beta -CD, foram observadas após liofilização. O licopeno não complexado neste processo ficou em torno de 50%. A pureza do licopeno (% área do all-trans-licopeno aumentou de 96,4 para 98,1% ap

  6. Review of the literature for dry reprocessing oxide, metal, and carbide fuel: The AIROX, RAHYD, and CARBOX pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoyt, R.C.; Rhee, B.W. [Rockwell International Corp., Canoga Park, CA (United States). Energy Systems Group

    1979-09-30

    The state of the art of dry processing oxide, carbide, and metal fuel has been determined through an extensive literature review. Dry processing in one of the most proliferation resistant fuel reprocessing technologies available to date, and is one of the few which can be exported to other countries. Feasibility has been established for oxide, carbide, and metal fuel on a laboratory scale, and large-scale experiments on oxide and carbide fuel have shown viability of the dry processing concept. A complete dry processing cycle has been demonstrated by multicycle processing-refabrication-reirradiation experiments on oxide fuel. Additional experimental work is necessary to: (1) demonstrate the complete fuel cycle for carbide and metal fuel, (2) optimize dry processing conditions, and (3) establish fission product behavior. Dry process waste management is easier than for an aqueous processing facility since wastes are primarily solids and gases. Waste treatment can be accomplished by techniques which have been, or are being, developed for aqueous plants.

  7. Biogenic amine profile in unripe Arabica coffee beans processed according to dry and wet methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias, Eduardo C; Pereira, Rosemary G F A; Borém, Flávio M; Mendes, Eulália; de Lima, Renato R; Fernandes, José O; Casal, Susana

    2012-04-25

    Immature coffee fruit processing contributes to a high amount of defective beans, which determines a significant amount of low-quality coffee sold in the Brazilian internal market. Unripe bean processing was tested, taking the levels of bioactive amines as criteria for evaluating the extent of fermentation and establishing the differences between processing methods. The beans were processed by the dry method after being mechanically depulped immediately after harvest or after a 12 h resting period in a dry pile or immersed in water. Seven bioactive amines were quantified: putrescine, spermine, spermidine, serotonin, cadaverine, histamine, and tyramine, with global amounts ranging from 71.8 to 80.3 mg/kg. The levels of spermine and spermidine were lower in the unripe depulped coffee than in the natural coffee. The specific conditions of dry and wet processing also influenced cadaverine levels, and histamine was reduced in unripe depulped coffee. A resting period of 12 h does not induce significant alteration on the beans and can be improved if performed in water. These results confirm that peeling immature coffee can decrease fermentation processes while providing more uniform drying, thus reducing the number of defects and potentially increasing beverage quality.

  8. Core characteristics of fast reactor cycle with simple dry pyrochemical processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikegami, Tetsuo

    2008-01-01

    Fast reactor core concept and core nuclear characteristics are studied for the application of the simple dry pyrochemical processing for fast reactor mixed oxide spent fuels, that is, the Compound Process Fuel Cycle, large FR core with of loaded fuels are recycled by the simple dry pyrochemical processing. Results of the core nuclear analyses show that it is possible to recycle FR spent fuel once and to have 1.01 of breeding ratio without radial blanket region. The comparison is made among three kinds of recycle fuels, LWR UO 2 spent fuel, LWR MOX spent fuel, and FR spent fuel. The recycle fuels reach an equilibrium state after recycles regardless of their starting heavy metal compositions, and the recycled FR fuel has the lowest radio-activity and the same level of heat generation among the recycle fuels. Therefore, the compound process fuel cycle has flexibility to recycle both LWR spent fuel and FR spent fuel. The concept has a possibility of enhancement of nuclear non-proliferation and process simplification of fuel cycle. (author)

  9. Development of a modified dry curing process for beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayes, J E; Kenny, T A; Ward, P; Kerry, J P

    2007-11-01

    The development of a dry curing process using physical treatments to promote the diffusion of the cure ingredients was studied. Vacuum pulsing with and without tumbling, continuous vacuum, and tumbling only treatments were compared with a conventional static dry cure control method on beef M. supraspinatus. Vacuum tumble and tumble only treatments gave highest core salt content after 7 days conditioning (3.3% and 3.1%, respectively). All test treatments resulted in higher colour uniformity and lower % cook loss in comparison to control (PCured beef slices were stored in modified atmosphere packs (MAP) (80%N(2):20%CO(2)) for up to 28 day at 4°C. Redness (a(∗), Pcured beef products with enhanced organoleptic quality and increased yields.

  10. Radiation decontamination of dry food ingredients and processing aids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farkas, J

    1984-01-01

    Radiation decontamination of dry ingredients, herbs and enzyme preparations is a technically feasible, economically viable and safe physical process. The procedure is direct, simple, requires no additives and is highly efficient. Its dose requirement is moderate. Radiation doses of 3-10 kGy (0.3-1 mrad) have proved sufficient to reduce the viable counts to a satisfactory level. Ionising radiations do not cause any significant rise in temperature. The flavour, texture or other important technological or sensory properties of most ingredients are not influenced at radiation doses necessary for satisfactory decontamination, and radiation obviates the chemical residue problem. The microflora surviving radiation decontamination of dry ingredients are more susceptible to subsequent antimicrobial treatments. Recontamination can be prevented as the product can be irradiated in its final packaging. Irradiation could be carried out in commercial containers and would result in considerable savings of energy and labour as compared to alternative decontamination techniques. Radiation processing of these commodities is an established technology in several countries and more clearances on irradiated foods are expected to be granted in the near future.

  11. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  12. The choice of rational parameters of beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Drannikov

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Beet pulp is the main sugar industry by-product obtained with traditional production technology. It has high nutritional qualities, but in its raw form it turns sour quickly so it must be preserved. One of the most common methods is drying. Drying of the beet pulp with superheated vapor of reduced pressure in the pulsating vibro-boiling layer allows to improve the quality of the finished product by lowering of the drying agent temperature, thereby retaining a significant amount of nutrients in the initial product. To study the kinetic and hydrodynamic dependencies of the drying process, an experimental apparatus was developed that makes it possible to obtain the most accurate and reproducible results. In the course of the work, a lot of experiments were carried out. Drying curves, drying rate curves and heating curves were made based on these experiments results. According to the nature of the changes the corresponding conclusions were drawn. To study the interaction of various factors affecting the beet pulp drying process, the mathematical methods of experiment planning are applied. A mathematical description of this process can be obtained empirically. At the same time, its mathematical model has the form of a regression equation, determined by statistical methods on the basis of experiments. As a result of statistical processing of experimental data, regression equations were obtained that adequately describe the beet pulp drying process in a pulsed low-pressure vibro-boiling layer in the experimental apparatus. With reference to this drying apparatus, such technological modes of its operation were determined that ensure a minimum specific energy consumption of the drying process per kilogram of evaporated moisture and the maximum drying chamber moisture stress.

  13. Study of the flash drying of the residue from soymilk processing - "okara"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research project was to study the drying of soymilk residue in a pneumatic flash dryer, using response Surface Methodology (RSM, and to evaluate the quality of the dried residue. Soymilk residue, also known as okara, was provided by a Brazilian soymilk factory. RSM showed that for a 120 second drying cycle, the lower the residue moisture contents (y obtained, the higher the recirculation rates (x1, regardless of the air drying temperature (x2, and it could be expressed by the equation y = 7.072 - 7.92x1, with R² = 92,92%. It is possible to obtain okara with 10% of moisture (dwb under the condition x1=1.25, equivalent to RR = 61%, with air drying temperatures ranging from 252 °C to 308 °C. The dried okara obtained through Central Compound Rotational Design (CCRD presented a centesimal composition similar to the okara dried in a tray dryer, known as the original okara. There were significant variations (p < 0.05 in the Emulsifying Capacity (EC, Emulsion Stability (ES and Protein Solubility (PS between the dehydrated residues obtained. It was concluded that the flash drying of okara is technically feasible and that the physicochemical composition of the residue was not altered; on the contrary, the process promoted a positive effect on the technological functional properties.

  14. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  15. Monitoring and Optimization of the Process of Drying Fruits and Vegetables Using Computer Vision: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio Raponi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available An overview is given regarding the most recent use of non-destructive techniques during drying used to monitor quality changes in fruits and vegetables. Quality changes were commonly investigated in order to improve the sensory properties (i.e., appearance, texture, flavor and aroma, nutritive values, chemical constituents and mechanical properties of drying products. The application of single-point spectroscopy coupled with drying was discussed by virtue of its potentiality to improve the overall efficiency of the process. With a similar purpose, the implementation of a machine vision (MV system used to inspect foods during drying was investigated; MV, indeed, can easily monitor physical changes (e.g., color, size, texture and shape in fruits and vegetables during the drying process. Hyperspectral imaging spectroscopy is a sophisticated technology since it is able to combine the advantages of spectroscopy and machine vision. As a consequence, its application to drying of fruits and vegetables was reviewed. Finally, attention was focused on the implementation of sensors in an on-line process based on the technologies mentioned above. This is a necessary step in order to turn the conventional dryer into a smart dryer, which is a more sustainable way to produce high quality dried fruits and vegetables.

  16. Global Sensitivity Analysis as Good Modelling Practices tool for the identification of the most influential process parameters of the primary drying step during freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Corver, Jos; Nopens, Ingmar; Gernaey, Krist V; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-02-01

    Pharmaceutical batch freeze-drying is commonly used to improve the stability of biological therapeutics. The primary drying step is regulated by the dynamic settings of the adaptable process variables, shelf temperature T s and chamber pressure P c . Mechanistic modelling of the primary drying step leads to the optimal dynamic combination of these adaptable process variables in function of time. According to Good Modelling Practices, a Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) is essential for appropriate model building. In this study, both a regression-based and variance-based GSA were conducted on a validated mechanistic primary drying model to estimate the impact of several model input parameters on two output variables, the product temperature at the sublimation front T i and the sublimation rate ṁ sub . T s was identified as most influential parameter on both T i and ṁ sub , followed by P c and the dried product mass transfer resistance α Rp for T i and ṁ sub , respectively. The GSA findings were experimentally validated for ṁ sub via a Design of Experiments (DoE) approach. The results indicated that GSA is a very useful tool for the evaluation of the impact of different process variables on the model outcome, leading to essential process knowledge, without the need for time-consuming experiments (e.g., DoE). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Polymer degradation in reactive ion etching and its possible application to all dry processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiraoka, H.; Welsh, L.W. Jr.

    1981-01-01

    Dry etching processes involving CF 4 -plasma and reactive ion etching become increasingly important for microcircuit fabrication techniques. In these techniques polymer degradation and etch resistance against reactive species like F atoms and CF 3 + ions are the key factors in the processes. It is well-known that classical electron beam resists like poly(methyl methacrylate) and poly(1-butene sulfone) are not suitable for dry etching processes because they degrade rapidly under these etching conditions. In order to find a correlation of etching rate and polymer structures the thickness loss of polymer films have been measured for a variety of polymer films in reactive ion etching conditions, where CF 3 + ions are the major reactive species with an accelerating potential of 500 volts. Because of its high CF 4 -plasma and reactive ion etch resistance, and because of its high electron beam sensitivity, poly(methacrylonitrile) provides a positive working electron beam resist uniquely suited for all dry processes. (author)

  18. Developing a framework to model the primary drying step of a continuous freeze-drying process based on infrared radiation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos; Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.

    2018-01-01

    . These results assist in the selection of proper materials which could serve as IR window in the continuous freeze-drying prototype. The modelling framework presented in this paper fits the model-based design approach used for the development of this prototype and shows the potential benefits of this design...... requires the fundamental mechanistic modelling of each individual process step. Therefore, a framework is presented for the modelling and control of the continuous primary drying step based on non-contact IR radiation. The IR radiation emitted by the radiator filaments passes through various materials...

  19. High-pressure treatment of wood - combination of mechanical and thermal drying in the ''I/D process''

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stahl, M. [Bundesforschungsanstalt fuer Ernaehrung, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Haid-und-Neu-Str. 9, D-76131 Karlsruhe (Germany); Bentz, M. [Institut fuer Mechanische Verfahrenstechnik und Mechanik, Universitaet Karlsruhe (T.H.), D-76128 Karlsruhe (Germany)

    2004-11-01

    Thermal drying of materials with internal pores is always a time-consuming and energy-intensive step within a production process. For chemical and pharmaceutical mass products and, in particular, for wood as an important raw material it is desirable to reduce the water content before thermal treatment by mechanical operations. The wood-processing industry, facing a rising stress of competition, is forced more than ever to offer high-quality products at lowest prices. Today, drying of timber is mostly done by air drying or by technical drying in kiln dryers. In any case, drying is necessary to prevent deterioration in quality by shrinkage, formation of cracks, discoloration or infestation. A new process of dewatering wood by combining mechanical and thermal means has been developed at the University of Karlsruhe. Compared to conventional drying processes, short drying times and a low residual moisture content can be achieved and, thus, energy consumption and costs can be reduced. In industrial wood drying only thermal processes (e.g., convective kiln drying, vacuum drying, etc.) have been established because so far no method has been known for removing liquid by mechanical force without significant change in wood structure. With the new I/D process chances for alternatives to conventional thermal drying or for mechanothermal applications are offered. (Abstract Copyright [2004], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Sewage sludge drying process integration with a waste-to-energy power plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, A; Bonfiglioli, L; Pellegrini, M; Saccani, C

    2015-08-01

    Dewatered sewage sludge from Waste Water Treatment Plants (WWTPs) is encountering increasing problems associated with its disposal. Several solutions have been proposed in the last years regarding energy and materials recovery from sewage sludge. Current technological solutions have relevant limits as dewatered sewage sludge is characterized by a high water content (70-75% by weight), even if mechanically treated. A Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF) with good thermal characteristics in terms of Lower Heating Value (LHV) can be obtained if dewatered sludge is further processed, for example by a thermal drying stage. Sewage sludge thermal drying is not sustainable if the power is fed by primary energy sources, but can be appealing if waste heat, recovered from other processes, is used. A suitable integration can be realized between a WWTP and a waste-to-energy (WTE) power plant through the recovery of WTE waste heat as energy source for sewage sludge drying. In this paper, the properties of sewage sludge from three different WWTPs are studied. On the basis of the results obtained, a facility for the integration of sewage sludge drying within a WTE power plant is developed. Furthermore, energy and mass balances are set up in order to evaluate the benefits brought by the described integration. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves� propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves� propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves� propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves� propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  2. Evaluation of Internal Cracks and Collapse in Poplar Wood (Populus nigra during a Conventional Drying Process with Ultrasonic Inspection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeid ESHAGHI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research, internal cracks and collapse of wood, formed during drying process, were measured using ultrasonic inspection. For this purpose, seven poplar (Populus nigra small blocks were dried, according to a time-based schedule. Ultrasonic waves propagation velocity was measured at both parallel and perpendicular to grain directions, using Sylvatest ultrasound device, during kiln drying process. Results showed that in all dried blocks, waves propagation velocity in the parallel direction was higher than in the perpendicular direction to grain. Ultrasonic waves propagation test for non-destructive identification of internal cracks, which occurs in wood during drying process in the parallel direction, was more successful compared to the perpendicular direction. Using ultrasonic waves propagation test for detection of collapse that occurs in wood during drying process was not useful.

  3. Aeolian process of the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor, China: a wind tunnel experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Caixia; Wang, Xunming; Dong, Zhibao; Hua, Ting

    2017-08-01

    Wind tunnel studies, which remain limited, are an important tool to understand the aeolian processes of dried-up riverbeds. The particle size, chemical composition, and the mineral contents of sediments arising from the dried river beds are poorly understood. Dried-up riverbeds cover a wide area in the Hexi Corridor, China, and comprise a complex synthesis of different land surfaces, including aeolian deposits, pavement surfaces, and Takyr crust. The results of the present wind tunnel experiment suggest that aeolian transport from the dried-up riverbeds of the Hexi Corridor ranges from 0 to 177.04 g/m 2 /min and that dry riverbeds could be one of the main sources of dust emissions in this region. As soon as the wind velocity reaches 16 m/s and assuming that there are abundant source materials available, aeolian transport intensity increases rapidly. The dried-up riverbed sediment and the associated aeolian transported material were composed mainly of fine and medium sands. However, the transported samples were coarser than the bed samples, because of the sorting effect of the aeolian processes on the sediment. The aeolian processes also led to regional elemental migration and mineral composition variations.

  4. Thin layer modelling of Gelidium sesquipedale solar drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ait Mohamed, L.; Ethmane Kane, C.S.; Kouhila, M.; Jamali, A.; Mahrouz, M.; Kechaou, N.

    2008-01-01

    The effect of air temperature and air flow rate on the drying kinetics of Gelidium sesquipedale was investigated in convective solar drying. Drying was conducted at 40, 50 and 60 deg. C. The relative humidity was varied from 50% to 57%, and the drying air flow rate was varied from 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s. The expression for the drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Thirteen mathematical models of thin layer drying are selected in order to estimate the suitable model for describing the drying curves. The two term model gives the best prediction of the drying curves and satisfactorily describes the drying characteristics of G. sesquipedale with a correlation coefficient R of 0.9999 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 3.381 x 10 -6

  5. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-15

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was {approx}50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology.

  6. Assessment of the Dry Processed Oxide Fuel in Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roh, Gyu Hong; Choi, Hang Bok

    2005-09-01

    The neutronic feasibility of the dry process oxide fuel was assessed for the sodium-cooled and lead-cooled fast reactors (SFR and LFR, respectively), which were recommended as Generation-IV (Gen-IV) reactor systems by the Gen-IV international forum. The reactor analysis was performed for the equilibrium fuel cycle of two core configurations: Hybrid BN-600 benchmark core with an enlarged lattice pitch and a modified BN-600 core. The dry process technology assumed in this study is the molten-salt process, which was developed by Russian scientists for recycling oxide fuels. The core calculation was performed by the REBUS-3 code and the reactor characteristics such as the transuranic (TRU) enrichment, breeding ratio, peak linear power, burnup reactivity swing, etc. were calculated for the equilibrium core under a fixed fuel management scheme. The results showed that a fissile self-sustainable breakeven core was achievable without blanket fuels when the fuel volume fraction was ∼50% and most of the fission products were removed. If the design criteria used in this study is proved to be acceptable through a detailed physics design and thermal hydraulic analysis in the future, it is practically possible to construct an equilibrium fuel cycle of the SFR and LFR systems based on the oxide fuel by utilizing the dry process technology

  7. Thin layer modelling of Gelidium sesquipedale solar drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ait Mohamed, L. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales, Ecole Normale Superieure, BP 2400, Marrakech (Morocco); Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Ethmane Kane, C.S. [Faculte des Sciences de Tetouan, BP 2121, Tetouan (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Jamali, A. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire et des Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales, Ecole Normale Superieure, BP 2400, Marrakech (Morocco); Mahrouz, M. [Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, BP 2390, Marrakech (Morocco); Kechaou, N. [Ecole Nationale d' Ingenieurs de Sfax, BPW 3038 (Tunisia)

    2008-05-15

    The effect of air temperature and air flow rate on the drying kinetics of Gelidium sesquipedale was investigated in convective solar drying. Drying was conducted at 40, 50 and 60 C. The relative humidity was varied from 50% to 57%, and the drying air flow rate was varied from 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s. The expression for the drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Thirteen mathematical models of thin layer drying are selected in order to estimate the suitable model for describing the drying curves. The two term model gives the best prediction of the drying curves and satisfactorily describes the drying characteristics of G. sesquipedale with a correlation coefficient R of 0.9999 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 3.381 x 10{sup -6}. (author)

  8. Evaluation of Heat Flux Measurement as a New Process Analytical Technology Monitoring Tool in Freeze Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vollrath, Ilona; Pauli, Victoria; Friess, Wolfgang; Freitag, Angelika; Hawe, Andrea; Winter, Gerhard

    2017-05-01

    This study investigates the suitability of heat flux measurement as a new technique for monitoring product temperature and critical end points during freeze drying. The heat flux sensor is tightly mounted on the shelf and measures non-invasively (no contact with the product) the heat transferred from shelf to vial. Heat flux data were compared to comparative pressure measurement, thermocouple readings, and Karl Fischer titration as current state of the art monitoring techniques. The whole freeze drying process including freezing (both by ramp freezing and controlled nucleation) and primary and secondary drying was considered. We found that direct measurement of the transferred heat enables more insights into thermodynamics of the freezing process. Furthermore, a vial heat transfer coefficient can be calculated from heat flux data, which ultimately provides a non-invasive method to monitor product temperature throughout primary drying. The end point of primary drying determined by heat flux measurements was in accordance with the one defined by thermocouples. During secondary drying, heat flux measurements could not indicate the progress of drying as monitoring the residual moisture content. In conclusion, heat flux measurements are a promising new non-invasive tool for lyophilization process monitoring and development using energy transfer as a control parameter. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Effect of drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation on protein quality and digestibility in red abalone (Haliotis rufescens).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cepero-Betancourt, Yamira; Oliva-Moresco, Patricio; Pasten-Contreras, Alexis; Tabilo-Munizaga, Gipsy; Pérez-Won, Mario; Moreno-Osorio, Luis; Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto

    2017-10-01

    Abalone (Haliotis spp.) is an exotic seafood product recognized as a protein source of high biological value. Traditional methods used to preserve foods such as drying technology can affect their nutritional quality (protein quality and digestibility). A 28-day rat feeding study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the drying process assisted by high-pressure impregnation (HPI) (350, 450, and 500 MPa × 5 min) on chemical proximate and amino acid compositions and nutritional parameters, such as protein efficiency ratio (PER), true digestibility (TD), net protein ratio, and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score (PDCAAS) of dried abalone. The HPI-assisted drying process ensured excellent protein quality based on PER values, regardless of the pressure level. At 350 and 500 MPa, the HPI-assisted drying process had no negative effect on TD and PDCAAS then, based on nutritional parameters analysed, we recommend HPI-assisted drying process at 350 MPa × 5 min as the best process condition to dry abalone. Variations in nutritional parameters compared to casein protein were observed; nevertheless, the high protein quality and digestibility of HPI-assisted dried abalones were maintained to satisfy the metabolic demands of human beings.

  10. Mathematical modeling and determination of thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel during the drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian F. Costa

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Jabuticaba is a fruit native of Brazil and, besides containing many nutritional qualities, it also has a good field for use in products such as flour for cakes and biscuits, juice, liqueur, jelly and others. This study aimed to model the drying kinetics and determine the thermodynamic properties of jabuticaba peel at different drying air temperatures. Ripe fruits of jabuticaba (Myrciaria jaboticaba were collected and pulped manually. Drying was carried out in a forced-air circulation oven with a flow of 5.6 m s-1 at temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C. Six mathematical models commonly used to represent the drying process of agricultural products were fitted to the experimental data. The Arrhenius model was used to represent the drying constant as a function of temperature. The Midilli model showed the best fit to the experimental data of drying. The drying constant increased with the increment in drying temperature and promoted an activation energy of 37.29 kJ mol-1. Enthalpy and Gibbs free energy decreased with the increase in drying temperature, while entropy decreased and was negative.

  11. Temperature and humidity response in the curing and drying process for Burley tobacco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edilson Daniel Gomez-Herrera

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper present the methodology development used for characterization and implementation of a control and automation of a camera for curing and drying of Burley tobacco, done with the purpose of analyzing its three stages: yellowing, color fixing and drying.As first step, the paper gives to know the process that is important for air curing of Burley tobacco. As second step, analysis of heating and humidification of system is presented, for determinate the most adequate control system for maintenance the ideal conditions for curing and drying of Burley. Results are presented through figures and tables.

  12. Pharmaceutical spray drying: solid-dose process technology platform for the 21st century.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snyder, Herman E

    2012-07-01

    Requirement for precise control of solid-dosage particle properties created with a scalable process technology are continuing to expand in the pharmaceutical industry. Alternate methods of drug delivery, limited active drug substance solubility and the need to improve drug product stability under room-temperature conditions are some of the pharmaceutical applications that can benefit from spray-drying technology. Used widely for decades in other industries with production rates up to several tons per hour, pharmaceutical uses for spray drying are expanding beyond excipient production and solvent removal from crystalline material. Creation of active pharmaceutical-ingredient particles with combinations of unique target properties are now more common. This review of spray-drying technology fundamentals provides a brief perspective on the internal process 'mechanics', which combine with both the liquid and solid properties of a formulation to enable high-throughput, continuous manufacturing of precision powder properties.

  13. Application of residual polysaccharide-degrading enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms as an enzyme preparation in food processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatsumi, E; Konishi, Y; Tsujiyama, S

    2016-11-01

    To examine the activities of residual enzymes in dried shiitake mushrooms, which are a traditional foodstuff in Japanese cuisine, for possible applications in food processing. Polysaccharide-degrading enzymes remained intact in dried shiitake mushrooms and the activities of amylase, β-glucosidase and pectinase were high. A potato digestion was tested using dried shiitake powder. The enzymes reacted with potato tuber specimens to solubilize sugars even under a heterogeneous solid-state condition and that their reaction modes were different at 38 and 50 °C. Dried shiitake mushrooms have a potential use in food processing as an enzyme preparation.

  14. System Model of Heat and Mass Transfer Process for Mobile Solvent Vapor Phase Drying Equipment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiwei Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The solvent vapor phase drying process is one of the most important processes during the production and maintenance for large oil-immersed power transformer. In this paper, the working principle, system composition, and technological process of mobile solvent vapor phase drying (MVPD equipment for transformer are introduced in detail. On the basis of necessary simplification and assumption for MVPD equipment and process, a heat and mass transfer mathematical model including 40 mathematical equations is established, which represents completely thermodynamics laws of phase change and transport process of solvent, water, and air in MVPD technological processes and describes in detail the quantitative relationship among important physical quantities such as temperature, pressure, and flux in key equipment units and process. Taking a practical field drying process of 500 KV/750 MVA power transformer as an example, the simulation calculation of a complete technological process is carried out by programming with MATLAB software and some relation curves of key process parameters changing with time are obtained such as body temperature, tank pressure, and water yield. The change trend of theoretical simulation results is very consistent with the actual production record data which verifies the correctness of mathematical model established.

  15. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  16. Effects of physical parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics in freeze-drying processes of fruits and vegetables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Yuming; Liu, Lijuan; Liang, Li [Shanxi Agricultural Univ. (China). Coll. of Engineering and Technology], E-mail: guoyuming99@sina.com

    2008-07-01

    Studying the effects mechanism of material physical parameters on the heat and mass transfer characteristics, the process parameters and energy consumption during freeze-drying process is of importance in improving the vacuum freeze-drying process with low energy consumption. In this paper, the sliced and mashed carrots of one variety were selected to perform the vacuum freeze-drying experiments. First, the variation laws of surface temperatures and sublimation front temperatures of the two shapes samples during the freeze-drying processes were analyzed, and it was verified that the process of sliced carrots is controlled by mass transfer, while that of the mashed ones is heat-transfer control. Second, the variations of water loss rate, energy consumption and temperature of the two shapes samples under the appropriate heating plate temperature and the different drying chamber pressure were analyzed. In addition, the effects of thermal conductivity and thermal diffusivity on freeze-drying time and process parameters were discussed by utilizing the theory of heat and mass transfer. In conclusion, under the heat transfer condition, the temperature of the heating plate should be as high as possible within the permitted range, and the drying chamber pressure should be set at optimal level. While under the mass transport-limited condition, the pressure level need to be altered in short time. (author)

  17. Crispy banana obtained by the combination of a high temperature and short time drying stage and a drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Hofsetz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the high temperature and short time (HTST drying stage was combined with an air drying process to produce crispness in bananas. The fruit was dehydrated in an air drier for five minutes at 70°C and then immediately set at a HTST stage (130, 140, 150°C and 9, 12, 15 minutes and then at 70°C until water activity (a w was around 0.300. Crispness was evaluated as a function of water activity, using sensory and texture analyses. Drying kinetics was evaluated using the empirical Lewis model. Crispy banana was obtained at 140°C-12min and 150°C-15min in the HTST stage, with a w = 0.345 and a w = 0.363, respectively. Analysis of the k parameter (Lewis model suggests that the initial moisture content of the samples effects this parameter, overcoming the HTST effect. Results showed a relationship between sensory crispness, instrumental texture and the HTST stage.

  18. Effects of drying temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Masayu, I.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots were investigated to determine the optimum temperature for drying of this herb. The roots were subjected to drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying kinetics data indicated that the drying rate increased with increase in temperature but decreased with time. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. Three established thin layer drying models include Page, Midili and Logarithmic were employed to describe the drying process. The Midili model was found as the best fitting model in representing the process. The quality of the products was evaluated by comparing the content of its active compound, eurycomanone, quantified using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The fastest drying process was achieved at 70°C, but UPLC results showed that the product suffered at 18% reduction in eurycomanone content as compared to the control. Based on the findings of this work, the optimum drying temperature for E. longifolia roots is 60°C.

  19. Modeling of the process of moisture loss during the storage of dried apricots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, G; Berna, A; Bon, J; Mulet, A

    2011-10-01

    Moisture content is a reference parameter for dried food because the growth of most microorganisms is inhibited below certain water activity levels. In addition, it has a determining influence on the evolution of important parameters, such as color and flavor, and on other properties and deterioration reactions, such as texture, oxidation processes and nutritional value. During the storage of some dried fruits, moisture is produced due to Maillard reactions and exchanged with the surrounding environment through the packaging. The evolution of dried foods during their shelf life depends on the storage conditions. The aim of this study is to analyze the evolution of the moisture content in dried apricots packaged in different types of containers, namely glass and thermosealed polypropylene trays. The samples were stored at constant temperatures: 5, 15, 25 and 35 °C and were analyzed periodically over a period of 12 months. The sorption isotherms of apricots used in this study were also determined. In order to model how the moisture evolved, an empirical kinetic model was tested. This model considers both water transfer from the fruit and also water production as a result of the Maillard processes. The explained variance was higher than 95% in the samples stored in trays, which were thermosealed with film.

  20. Change of the structure and the digestibility of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Xiaojing; Sun, Yangying; Pan, Daodong; Wang, Ying; Ou, Changrong; Cao, Jinxuan

    2018-06-01

    To investigate the change of bioavailability and structure of myofibrillar proteins during Nanjing dry-cured duck processing, carbonyl content, sulfhydryl (SH) group, disulfide (SS) group, sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, surface hydrophobicity, secondary structures and in vitro digestibility were determined. During processing, carbonyl content and surface hydrophobicity increased; SH turned into SS group; α-helix turned into β-sheet and random coil fractions. Protein degradation occurred during dry-curing and drying-ripening stages. The in vitro digestibility of pepsin and pancreatic proteases increased during the salt curing stage and decreased during the drying-ripening stage. The increase of digestibility could be attributed to the mild oxidation, degradation and unfolding of proteins while the decrease of digestibility was related to the intensive oxidation and aggregation of proteins. Protein degradation was not a main factor of digestibility during the drying-ripening stage. Results demonstrated that the bioavailability loss of myofibrillar proteins in Nanjing dry-cured duck occurred during the stage of drying-ripening instead of curing. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Preliminary comparison of three processes of AlN oxidation: dry, wet and mixed ones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korbutowicz R.

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Three methods of AlN layers oxidation: dry, wet and mixed (wet with oxygen were compared. Some physical parameters of oxidized thin films of aluminum nitride (AlN layers grown on silicon Si(1 1 1 were investigated by means Energy-Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDS and Spectroscopic Ellipsometry (SE. Three series of the thermal oxidations processes were carried out at 1012 °C in pure nitrogen as carrying gas and various gas ambients: (a dry oxidation with oxygen, (b wet oxidation with water steam and (c mixed atmosphere with various process times. All the research methods have shown that along with the rising of the oxidation time, AlN layer across the aluminum oxide nitride transforms to aluminum oxide. The mixed oxidation was a faster method than the dry or wet ones.

  2. Selected chemical compounds in firm and mellow persimmon fruit before and after the drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senica, Mateja; Veberic, Robert; Grabnar, Jana Jurhar; Stampar, Franci; Jakopic, Jerneja

    2016-07-01

    Persimmon is a seasonal fruit and only available in fresh form for a short period of each year. In addition to freezing, drying is the simplest substitute for the fresh fruit and accessible throughout the year. The effect of mellowing and drying was evaluated in 'Tipo' persimmon, an astringent cultivar. 'Tipo' firm fruit contained high levels of tannins (1.1 mg g(-1) DW), which were naturally decreased to 0.2 mg g(-1) DW after mellowing. The drying process greatly impacted the contents of carotenoids, total phenols, individual phenolics, tannins, organic acids, sugars and colour parameters in firm and mellow fruit. The reduction of tannins, phenolic compounds and organic acids were accompanied by the increase of sugars and carotenoids, improving the colour of the analysed samples. These results showed that the drying process improved the quality of persimmon products and extended their shelf life. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s...

  4. Modeling a production scale milk drying process: parameter estimation, uncertainty and sensitivity analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, A.; Gutierrez, S.; Sin, Gürkan

    2016-01-01

    A steady state model for a production scale milk drying process was built to help process understanding and optimization studies. It involves a spray chamber and also internal/external fluid beds. The model was subjected to a comprehensive statistical analysis for quality assurance using...

  5. CFD Analysis to Calculate the Optimal Air Velocity in Drying Green Tea Process Using Fluidized Bed Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yohana, Eflita; Nugraha, Afif Prasetya; Diana, Ade Eva; Mahawan, Ilham; Nugroho, Sri

    2018-02-01

    Tea processing is basically distinguished into three types which black tea, green tea, and oolong tea. Green tea is processed by heating and drying the leaves. Green tea factories in Indonesia are generally using the process of drying by panning the leaves. It is more recommended to use the fluidization process to speed up the drying process as the quality of the tea can be maintained. Bubbling fluidization is expected to occur in this research. It is a process of bubbles are formed in the fluidization. The effectiveness of the drying process in a fluidized bed dryer machine needs to be improved by using a CFD simulation method to proof that umf < u < ut, where the average velocity value is limited by the minimum and the maximum velocity of the calculation the experimental data. The minimum and the maximum velocity value of the fluidization is 0.96 m/s and 8.2 m/s. The result of the simulation obtained that the average velocity of the upper bed part is 1.81 m/s. From the results obtained, it can be concluded that the calculation and the simulation data is in accordance with the condition of bubbling fluidization in fluidized bed dryer.

  6. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin

    2018-01-01

    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R 2 ), varience (S 2 ) and root mean square deviation (D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  7. Temperature Control of Heating Zone for Drying Process: Effect of Air Velocity Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wutthithanyawat Chananchai

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes a temperature control technique to adjust air temperature in a heating zone for drying process. The controller design is achieved by using an internal model control (IMC approach. When the IMC controller parameters were designed by calculating from an actual process transfer function estimated through an open-loop step response with input step change from 50% to 60% at a reference condition at air velocity of 1.20 m/s, the performance of temperature controller was experimentally tested by varying an air velocity between 1.32 m/s and 1.57 m/s, respectively. The experimental results showed that IMC controller had a high competency for controlling the drying temperature.

  8. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  9. Application of Optical Coherence Tomography Freeze-Drying Microscopy for Designing Lyophilization Process and Its Impact on Process Efficiency and Product Quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korang-Yeboah, Maxwell; Srinivasan, Charudharshini; Siddiqui, Akhtar; Awotwe-Otoo, David; Cruz, Celia N; Muhammad, Ashraf

    2018-01-01

    Optical coherence tomography freeze-drying microscopy (OCT-FDM) is a novel technique that allows the three-dimensional imaging of a drug product during the entire lyophilization process. OCT-FDM consists of a single-vial freeze dryer (SVFD) affixed with an optical coherence tomography (OCT) imaging system. Unlike the conventional techniques, such as modulated differential scanning calorimetry (mDSC) and light transmission freeze-drying microscopy, used for predicting the product collapse temperature (Tc), the OCT-FDM approach seeks to mimic the actual product and process conditions during the lyophilization process. However, there is limited understanding on the application of this emerging technique to the design of the lyophilization process. In this study, we investigated the suitability of OCT-FDM technique in designing a lyophilization process. Moreover, we compared the product quality attributes of the resulting lyophilized product manufactured using Tc, a critical process control parameter, as determined by OCT-FDM versus as estimated by mDSC. OCT-FDM analysis revealed the absence of collapse even for the low protein concentration (5 mg/ml) and low solid content formulation (1%w/v) studied. This was confirmed by lab scale lyophilization. In addition, lyophilization cycles designed using Tc values obtained from OCT-FDM were more efficient with higher sublimation rate and mass flux than the conventional cycles, since drying was conducted at higher shelf temperature. Finally, the quality attributes of the products lyophilized using Tc determined by OCT-FDM and mDSC were similar, and product shrinkage and cracks were observed in all the batches of freeze-dried products irrespective of the technique employed in predicting Tc.

  10. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  11. MODEL REPRESENTATION OF THE SPRAY DRYING PROCESS OF THE DISTILLERY STILLAGE FILTRATE BASED ON NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying of solutions and suspensions is among the most common methods of producing a wide range of powdered products in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. For the drying of heat-sensitive materials, which is fully applicable to the distillery stillage filtrate continuous-flow type of contact of drying agent and the solution droplets is examined. Two-phase simulation method of computational hydrodynamics in a stationary state for studying the process of drying of the distillery stillage filtrate in the pilot spray dryer under the following assumptions was used. The components form an ideal mixture, the properties of which are calculated directly from the properties of the components and their proportions. The droplets were presented in spherical form. The density and specific heat of the solution and the coefficient of vapors diffusion in the gas phase remained unchanged. To solve the heat exchange equations between the drying agent and the drops by the finite volume method the software package ANSYS CFX was used. The bind between the two phases was established by Navier-Stokes equations. The continuous phase (droplets of the distillery stillage filtrate was described by the k-ε turbulence model. The results obtained showed that the interaction of "drop-wall" causes a significant change of velocity, temperature and humidity both of a drying agent and the product particles. The behavior of the particles by spraying, collision with walls and deposition of the finished product allowed to determine the dependence of physical parameters of the drying process, of the geometric dimensions of the dryer. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed satisfactory convergence of the results: for the temperature of the powder 10% its humidity of 12% and temperature of the spent drying agent at the outlet from the drier of 13%. The possibility of using the model in the spray dryers designing, and control of the drying process

  12. Formulation and process considerations for the design of sildenafil-loaded polymeric microparticles by vibrational spray-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beck-Broichsitter, Moritz; Bohr, Adam; Aragão-Santiago, Leticia

    2017-01-01

    CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence on the pr......CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The current study reports the preparation and characterization of sildenafil-loaded poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA)-based microparticles (MPs) by means of vibrational spray-drying. Emphasis was placed on relevant formulation and process parameters with influence......), respectively. Furthermore, interactions between sildenafil and the PLGA matrix were observed for the spray-dried MPs. Optimization of spray-drying conditions allowed for a fabrication of defined MPs (size range of ∼4-8 μm) displaying a high sildenafil encapsulation efficiency (>90%) and sustained sildenafil...... properties of the prepared powders. CONCLUSION: Identification of relevant formulation and spray-drying parameters enabled the fabrication of tailored sildenafil-loaded PLGA-based MPs, which meet the needs of the individual application (e.g. controlled drug delivery to the lungs)....

  13. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  14. Drying process of fermented inulin fiber concentrate by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a dietary fiber source for cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.

  15. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  16. Calculation of the process of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container with spent nuclear fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karyakin, Yu. E.; Lavrent'ev, S. A.; Pavlyukevich, N. V.; Pletnev, A. A.; Fedorovich, E. D.

    2012-01-01

    An algorithm and results of calculation of the process of vacuum drying of a metal-concrete container intended for long-term "dry" storage of spent nuclear fuel are presented. A calculated substantiation of the initial amount of moisture in the container is given.

  17. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  18. TG-DSC method applied to drying characteristics of areca inflorescence during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yulin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    In this study, suitability of eight drying models available in literature on defining drying characteristics of areca inflorescence has been examined by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistic Computer Program. The coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and the reduced chi-square (χ2) are used as indicators to evaluate the best suitable model. According to the results, the Verma et al. model gave the best results for explaining the drying characteristics of areca inflorescence. The drying process could be divided into three periods: rising rate, constant rate and the falling rate period. Fick's second law can describe the moisture transport during the food drying process that takes place in the falling rate period. The values of effective diffusivity during the drying of areca inflorescence ranged from 2.756 × 10-7 to 6.257 × 10-7 m2/s and the activation energy was tested for 35.535 kJ/mol. The heat requirement of areca inflorescence at 40-60 °C was calculated from 50.57 to 60.50 kJ/kg during the drying process.

  19. Stevia rebaudiana Leaves: Effect of Drying Process Temperature on Bioactive Components, Antioxidant Capacity and Natural Sweeteners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto; Ah-Hen, Kong; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Honores, Carolina; Moraga, Nelson O

    2016-03-01

    Stevia leaves are usually used in dried state and undergo the inevitable effect of drying process that changes the quality characteristics of the final product. The aim of this study was to assess temperature effect on Stevia leaves through analysis of relevant bioactive components, antioxidant capacity and content of natural sweeteners and minerals. The drying process was performed in a convective dryer at constant temperatures ranging from 30 to 80 °C. Vitamin C was determined in the leaves and as expected showed a decrease during drying proportional to temperature. Phenolics and flavonoids were also determined and were found to increase during drying below 50 °C. Antioxidant activity was determined by DPPH and ORAC assays, and the latter showed the highest value at 40 °C, with a better correlation with the phenolics and flavonoids content. The content of eight natural sweeteners found in Stevia leaves was also determined and an increase in the content of seven of the sweeteners, excluding steviol bioside, was found at drying temperature up to 50 °C. At temperatures between 60 and 80 °C the increase in sweeteners content was not significant. Stevia leaves proved to be an excellent source of antioxidants and natural sweeteners.

  20. Increase in the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd by a heat-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Lu; Shaoyun, Wang; Shutao, Liu; Jianwu, Zhou; Lijing, Ke; Pingfan, Rao

    2013-12-01

    Bitter gourd (Momordica charantia Linn.) is widely regarded as one of the best remedy foods for diabetes. The positive effect of bitter gourd on diabetes has been attributed in part to the remarkable free radical scavenging activity of its boiled water extract from sun-dried fruits. It is well known that a heat process significantly influences the antioxidant activity of fresh fruits. However, the heat drying processes of bitter gourd have not been studied so far. Here, we show that the free radical scavenging capability of bitter gourd extract significantly increases after the heat drying process, while the content of flavonoids and phenols, which are generally regarded as the main antioxidant components in bitter gourd, remain unaffected. Furthermore, the content of free amino acids and the total reducing sugar were found to decrease with increasing browning index, indicating the progression of the Maillard reaction, products of which are known to possess significant antioxidant activity. Therefore, it suggests that Maillard reaction products may be the main contributors to the increase in antioxidant capability. Finally, the bitter gourd extract with the higher antioxidant activity, was shown to manifest a corresponding higher proliferation activity on NIT-1 beta-cells. These results suggest that controllable conditions in the heat-drying processing of fresh bitter gourd fruit is of significance for enhancing the total free radical scavenging capacity, beta-cell proliferation activity and possibly the anti-diabetic activity of this fruit.

  1. Nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs using a novel spray-drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schafroth, Nina; Arpagaus, Cordin; Jadhav, Umesh Y; Makne, Sushil; Douroumis, Dennis

    2012-02-01

    In the current study nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble drugs was conducted using a novel piezoelectric spray-drying approach. Cyclosporin A (CyA) and dexamethasone (DEX) were encapsulated in biodegradable poly(D,L-lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) grades of different molecular weights. Spray-drying studies carried out with the Nano Spray Dryer B-90 employed with piezoelectric driven actuator. The processing parameters including inlet temperature, spray mesh diameter, sample flow rate, spray rate, applied pressure and sample concentration were examined in order to optimize the particle size and the obtained yield. The process parameters and the solute concentration showed a profound effect on the particle engineering and the obtained product yield. The produced powder presented consistent and reproducible spherical particles with narrow particle size distribution. Cyclosporin was found to be molecularly dispersed while dexamethasone was in crystalline state within the PLGA nanoparticles. Further evaluation revealed excellent drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and production yield. In vitro studies demonstrated sustained release patterns for the active substances. This novel spray-drying process proved to be efficient for nano and microparticle engineering of water insoluble active substances. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  3. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles.

  4. Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods Program. A selected bibliography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDuffie, H.F.; Smith, D.H.; Owen, P.T.

    1979-03-01

    This selected bibliography with abstracts was compiled to provide information support to the Pyrochemical and Dry Processing Methods (PDPM) Program sponsored by DOE and administered by the Argonne National Laboratory. Objectives of the PDPM Program are to evaluate nonaqueous methods of reprocessing spent fuel as a route to the development of proliferation-resistant and diversion-resistant methods for widespread use in the nuclear industry. Emphasis was placed on the literature indexed in the ERDA--DOE Energy Data Base (EDB). The bibliography includes indexes to authors, subject descriptors, EDB subject categories, and titles

  5. Continuous Process for the Etching, Rinsing and Drying of MEMS Using Supercritical Carbon Dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Min, Seon Ki; Han, Gap Su; You, Seong-sik [Korea University of Technology and Education, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    The previous etching, rinsing and drying processes of wafers for MEMS (microelectromechanical system) using SC-CO{sub 2} (supercritical-CO{sub 2}) consists of two steps. Firstly, MEMS-wafers are etched by organic solvent in a separate etching equipment from the high pressure dryer and then moved to the high pressure dryer to rinse and dry them using SC-CO{sub 2}. We found that the previous two step process could be applied to etch and dry wafers for MEMS but could not confirm the reproducibility through several experiments. We thought the cause of that was the stiction of structures occurring due to vaporization of the etching solvent during moving MEMS wafer to high pressure dryer after etching it outside. In order to improve the structure stiction problem, we designed a continuous process for etching, rinsing and drying MEMS-wafers using SC-CO{sub 2} without moving them. And we also wanted to know relations of states of carbon dioxide (gas, liquid, supercritical fluid) to the structure stiction problem. In the case of using gas carbon dioxide (3 MPa, 25 .deg. C) as an etching solvent, we could obtain well-treated MEMS-wafers without stiction and confirm the reproducibility of experimental results. The quantity of rinsing solvent used could be also reduced compared with the previous technology. In the case of using liquid carbon dioxide (3 MPa, 5 .deg. C), we could not obtain well-treated MEMS-wafers without stiction due to the phase separation of between liquid carbon dioxide and etching co-solvent(acetone). In the case of using SC-CO{sub 2} (7.5 Mpa, 40 .deg. C), we had as good results as those of the case using gas-CO{sub 2}. Besides the processing time was shortened compared with that of the case of using gas-CO{sub 2}.

  6. The spray-drying process is sufficient to inactivate infectious porcine epidemic diarrhea virus in plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerber, Priscilla F; Xiao, Chao-Ting; Chen, Qi; Zhang, Jianqiang; Halbur, Patrick G; Opriessnig, Tanja

    2014-11-07

    Porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) is considered an emergent pathogen associated with high economic losses in many pig rearing areas. Recently it has been suggested that PEDV could be transmitted to naïve pig populations through inclusion of spray-dried porcine plasma (SDPP) into the nursery diet which led to a ban of SDPP in several areas in North America and Europe. To determine the effect of spray-drying on PEDV infectivity, 3-week-old pigs were intragastrically inoculated with (1) raw porcine plasma spiked with PEDV (RAW-PEDV-CONTROL), (2) porcine plasma spiked with PEDV and then spray dried (SD-PEDV-CONTROL), (3) raw plasma from PEDV infected pigs (RAW-SICK), (4) spray-dried plasma from PEDV infected pigs (SD-SICK), or (5) spray-dried plasma from PEDV negative pigs (SD-NEG-CONTROL). For the spray-drying process, a tabletop spray-dryer with industry-like settings for inlet and outlet temperatures was used. In the RAW-PEDV-CONTROL group, PEDV RNA was present in feces at day post infection (dpi) 3 and the pigs seroconverted by dpi 14. In contrast, PEDV RNA in feces was not detected in any of the pigs in the other groups including the SD-PEDV-CONTROL group and none of the pigs had seroconverted by termination of the project at dpi 28. This work provides direct evidence that the experimental spray-drying process used in this study was effective in inactivating infectious PEDV in the plasma. Additionally, plasma collected from PEDV infected pigs at peak disease did not contain infectious PEDV. These findings suggest that the risk for PEDV transmission through commercially produced SDPP is minimal. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  8. Modification of Cell Wall Polysaccharides during Drying Process Affects Texture Properties of Apple Chips

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Xiao

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The influences of hot air drying (AD, medium- and short-wave infrared drying (IR, instant controlled pressure drop drying (DIC, and vacuum freeze drying (FD on cell wall polysaccharide modification were studied, and the relationship between the modifications and texture properties was analyzed. The results showed that the DIC treated apple chips exhibited the highest crispness (92 and excellent honeycomb-like structure among all the dried samples, whereas the FD dried apple chips had low crispness (10, the minimum hardness (17.4 N, and the highest volume ratio (0.76 and rehydration ratio (7.55. Remarkable decreases in the contents of total galacturonic acid and the amounts of water extractable pectin (WEP were found in all the dried apple chips as compared with the fresh materials. The highest retention of WEP fraction (102.7 mg/g AIR was observed in the FD dried apple chips, which may lead to a low structural rigidity and may be partially responsible for the lower hardness of the FD apple chips. In addition, the crispness of the apple chips obtained by DIC treatment, as well as AD and IR at 90°C, was higher than that of the samples obtained from the other drying processes, which might be due to the severe degradation of pectic polysaccharides, considering the results of the amounts of pectic fractions, the molar mass distribution, and concentrations of the WEP fractions. Overall, the data suggested that the modifications of pectic polysaccharides of apple chips, including the amount of the pectic fractions and their structural characteristics and the extent of degradation, significantly affect the texture of apple chips.

  9. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  10. Hydroclimatological Processes in the Central American Dry Corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidalgo, H. G.; Duran-Quesada, A. M.; Amador, J. A.; Alfaro, E. J.; Mora, G.

    2015-12-01

    This work studies the hydroclimatological variability and the climatic precursors of drought in the Central American Dry Corridor (CADC), a subregion located in the Pacific coast of Southern Mexico and Central America. Droughts are frequent in the CADC, which is featured by a higher climatological aridity compared to the highlands and Caribbean coast of Central America. The CADC region presents large social vulnerability to hydroclimatological impacts originated from dry conditions, as there is a large part of population that depends on subsistance agriculture. The influence of large-scale climatic precursors such as ENSO, the Caribbean Low-Level Jet (CLLJ), low frequency signals from the Pacific and Caribbean and some intra-seasonal signals such as the MJO are evaluated. Previous work by the authors identified a connection between the CLLJ and CADC precipitation. This connection is more complex than a simple rain-shadow effect, and instead it was suggested that convection at the exit of the jet in the Costa-Rica and Nicaragua Caribbean coasts and consequent subsidence in the Pacific could be playing a role in this connection. During summer, when the CLLJ is stronger than normal, the Inter-Tropical Convergence Zone (located mainly in the Pacific) displaces to a more southern position, and vice-versa, suggesting a connection between these two processes that has not been fully explained yet. The role of the Western Hemisphere Warm Pool also needs more research. All this is important, as it suggest a working hypothesis that during summer, the effect of the Caribbean wind strength may be responsible for the dry climate of the CADC. Another previous analysis by the authors was based on downscaled precipitation and temperature from GCMs and the NCEP/NCAR reanalysis. The data was later used in a hydrological model. Results showed a negative trend in reanalysis' runoff for 1980-2012 in San José (Costa Rica) and Tegucigalpa (Honduras). This highly significant drying trend

  11. Production of ethanol from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurantz M

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background US legislation requires the use of advanced biofuels to be made from non-food feedstocks. However, commercialization of lignocellulosic ethanol technology is more complex than expected and is therefore running behind schedule. This is creating a demand for non-food, but more easily converted, starch-based feedstocks other than corn that can fill the gap until the second generation technologies are commercially viable. Winter barley is such a feedstock but its mash has very high viscosity due to its high content of β-glucans. This fact, along with a lower starch content than corn, makes ethanol production at the commercial scale a real challenge. Results A new fermentation process for ethanol production from Thoroughbred, a winter barley variety with a high starch content, was developed. The new process was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic process. In this process, in addition to the normal starch-converting enzymes, two accessory enzymes were used to solve the β-glucan problem. First, β-glucanases were used to hydrolyze the β-glucans to oligomeric fractions, thus significantly reducing the viscosity to allow good mixing for the distribution of the yeast and nutrients. Next, β-glucosidase was used to complete the β-glucan hydrolysis and to generate glucose, which was subsequently fermented in order to produce additional ethanol. While β-glucanases have been previously used to improve barley ethanol production by lowering viscosity, this is the first full report on the benefits of adding β-glucosidases to increase the ethanol yield. Conclusions In the EDGE process, 30% of total dry solids could be used to produce 15% v/v ethanol. Under optimum conditions an ethanol yield of 402 L/MT (dry basis or 2.17 gallons/53 lb bushel of barley with 15% moisture was achieved. The distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS co-product had extremely low β-glucan (below 0.2% making it suitable for use in both ruminant

  12. Optimization of frozen wild blueberry vacuum drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šumić Zdravko M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to optimize the vacuum drying of frozen blueberries in order to preserve health benefits phytochemicals using response surface methodology. The drying was performed in a new design of vacuum dryer equipment. Investigated range of temperature was 46-74°C and of pressure 38-464 mbar. Total solids, total phenolics, vitamin C, anthocyanin content and total color change were used as quality indicators of dried blueberries. Within the experimental range of studied variables, the optimum conditions of 60 °C and 100 mbar were established for vacuum drying of blueberries. Separate validation experiments were conducted at optimum conditions to verify predictions and adequacy of the second-order polynomial models. Under these optimal conditions, the predicted amount of total phenolics was 3.70 mgCAE/100dw, vitamin C 59.79 mg/100gdw, anthocyanin content 2746.33 mg/100gdw, total solids 89.50% and total color change 88.83. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31044

  13. Investigating the Plasma-Assisted and Thermal Catalytic Dry Methane Reforming for Syngas Production: Process Design, Simulation and Evaluation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evangelos Delikonstantis

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The growing surplus of green electricity generated by renewable energy technologies has fueled research towards chemical industry electrification. By adapting power-to-chemical concepts, such as plasma-assisted processes, cheap resources could be converted into fuels and base chemicals. However, the feasibility of those electrified processes at large scale has not been investigated yet. Thus, the current work strives to compare, for first time in the literature, plasma-assisted production of syngas, from CH4 and CO2 (dry methane reforming, with thermal catalytic dry methane reforming. Specifically, both processes are conceptually designed to deliver syngas suitable for methanol synthesis (H2/CO ≥ 2 in mole. The processes are simulated in the Aspen Plus process simulator where different process steps are investigated. Heat integration and equipment cost estimation are performed for the most promising process flow diagrams. Collectively, plasma-assisted dry methane reforming integrated with combined steam/CO2 methane reforming is an effective way to deliver syngas for methanol production. It is more sustainable than combined thermal catalytic dry methane reforming with steam methane reforming, which has also been proposed for syngas production of H2/CO ≥ 2; in the former process, 40% more CO2 is captured, while 38% less H2O is consumed per mol of syngas. Furthermore, the plasma-assisted process is less complex than the thermal catalytic one; it requires higher amount of utilities, but comparable capital investment.

  14. [Optimization of vacuum belt drying process of Gardeniae Fructus in Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Dao-sheng; Shi, Wei; Han, Lei; Sun, Ke; Chen, Guang-bo; Wu Jian-xiong; Xu, Gui-hong; Bi, Yu-an; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Xiao, Wei

    2015-06-01

    To optimize the belt drying process conditions optimization of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection by Box-Behnken design-response surface methodology, on the basis of single factor experiment, a three-factor and three-level Box-Behnken experimental design was employed to optimize the drying technology of Gardeniae Fructus extract from Reduning injection. With drying temperature, drying time, feeding speed as independent variables and the content of geniposide as dependent variable, the experimental data were fitted to a second order polynomial equation, establishing the mathematical relationship between the content of geniposide and respective variables. With the experimental data analyzed by Design-Expert 8. 0. 6, the optimal drying parameter was as follows: the drying temperature was 98.5 degrees C , the drying time was 89 min, the feeding speed was 99.8 r x min(-1). Three verification experiments were taked under this technology and the measured average content of geniposide was 564. 108 mg x g(-1), which was close to the model prediction: 563. 307 mg x g(-1). According to the verification test, the Gardeniae Fructus belt drying process is steady and feasible. So single factor experiments combined with response surface method (RSM) could be used to optimize the drying technology of Reduning injection Gardenia extract.

  15. Zeolite Formation and Weathering Processes in Dry Valleys of Antartica: Martian Analogs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, E. K., Jr.; Wentworth, S. J.; McKay, D. S.; Socki, R. A.

    2004-01-01

    Terrestrial weathering processes in cold-desert climates such as the Dry Valleys of Antarctica may provide an excellent analog to chemical weathering and diagenesis of soils on Mars. Detailed studies of soil development and the chemical and mineralogical alterations occurring within soil columns in Wright Valley, Antarctica show incredible complexity in the upper meter of soil. Previous workers noted the ice-free Dry Valleys are the best terrestrial approximations to contemporary Mars. Images returned from the Pathfinder and Spirit landers show similarities to surfaces observed within the Dry Valleys. Similarities to Mars that exist in these valleys are: mean temperatures always below freezing (-20 C), no rainfall, sparse snowfall-rapidly removed by sublimation, desiccating winds, diurnal freeze-thaw cycles (even during daylight hours), low humidity, oxidative environment, relatively high solar radiation and low magnetic fields . The Dry Valley soils contain irregular distributions and low abundances of soil microorganisms that are somewhat unusual on Earth. Physical processes-such as sand abrasion-are dominant mechanisms of rock weathering in Antarctica. However, chemical weathering is also an important process even in such extreme climates. For example, ionic migration occurs even in frozen soils along liquid films on individual soil particles. It has also been shown that water with liquid-like properties is present in soils at temperatures on the order of approx.-80 C and it has been observed that the percentage of oxidized iron increases with increasing soil age and enrichments in oxidized iron occurs toward the surface. The presence of evaporates is evident and appear similar to "evaporite sites" within the Pathfinder and Spirit sites. Evaporites indicate ionic migration and chemical activity even in the permanently frozen zone. The presence of evaporates indicates that chemical weathering of rocks and possibly soils has been active. Authogenic zeolites have

  16. SOME STUDIES ABOUT CEREALS BEHAVIOR DURING FREEZE DRYING PROCESS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-VICTORIA MNERIE

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents some special method and equipment and the principal advantages of freeze-dried food. The freeze drying is a good method of freeze-drying for make some experiments with many kind of cereals, for the improvement that in food production. It is necessary and is possible to study the corn oil extract, wheat flour, the maltodextrin from corn, modified cornstarch, spice extracts, soy sauce, hydrolyzed wheat gluten, partially hydrogenated soybean and cottonseed oil etc. That is very porous, since it occupies the same volume as the original and so rehydrates rapidly. There is less loss of flavour and texture than with most other methods of drying.

  17. Laser cutting eliminates nucleic acid cross-contamination in dried-blood-spot processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Sean C; Daza, Glenda; Chang, Ming; Coombs, Robert

    2012-12-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) are useful for molecular assays but are prone to false positives from cross-contamination. In our malaria DBS assay, cross-contamination was encountered despite cleaning techniques suitable for HIV-1. We therefore developed a contact-free laser cutting system that effectively eliminated cross-contamination during DBS processing.

  18. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  19. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet....../particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...

  20. True density and apparent density during the drying process for vegetables and fruits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez-Lagunas, L; López-Ortiz, A; Torres, S Sandoval

    2012-12-01

    This review presents the concepts involved in determining the density of foodstuffs, and summarizes the volumetric determination techniques used to calculate true density and apparent density in foodstuffs exposed to the drying process. The behavior of density with respect to moisture content (X) and drying temperature (T) is presented and explained with a basis in changes in structure, conformation, chemical composition, and second-order phase changes that occur in the processes of mass and heat transport, as reported to date in the literature. A review of the empirical and theoretical equations that represent density is presented, and their application in foodstuffs is discussed. This review also addresses cases with nonideal density behavior, including variations in ρ(s) and ρ(w) as a function of the inside temperature of the material, depending on drying conditions (X, T). A compilation of studies regarding the density of dehydrated foodstuffs is also presented. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. The study of some physical properties and energy aspects of potatoes drying process by the infrared-vacuum method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Hafezi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Potato (Solanumtuberosum L. is one of the unique and most potential crops having high productivity, supplementing major food requirement in the world. Drying is generally carried out for two main reasons, one to reduce the water activity which eventually increases the shelf life of food and second to reduce the weight and bulk of food for cheaper transport and storage. The quality evaluation of the dried product was carried out on the basis of response variables such as rehydration ratio, shrinkage percentage, color and the overall acceptability. Drying is the most energy intensive process in food industry. Therefore, new drying techniques and dryers must be designed and studied to minimize the energy cost in drying process. Considering the fact that the highest energy consumption in agriculture is associated with drying operations, different drying methods can be evaluated to determine and compare the energy requirements for drying a particular product. Thermal drying operations are found in almost all industrial sectors and are known, according to various estimates, to consume 10-25% of the national industrial energy in the developed world. Infrared radiation drying has the unique characteristics of energy transfer mechanism. Kantrong et al. (2012 were studied the drying characteristics and quality of shiitake mushroom undergoing microwave-vacuum combined with infrared drying. Motevali et al. (2011 were evaluated energy consumption for drying of mushroom slices using various drying methods including hot air, microwave, vacuum, infrared, microwave-vacuum and hot air-infrared. The objectives of this research were to experimental study of drying kinetics considering quality characteristics including the rehydration and color distribution of potato slices in a vacuum- infrared dryer and also assessment of specific energy consumption and thermal utilization efficiency of potato slices during drying process. Materials and Methods A

  2. Potential of Near-Infrared Chemical Imaging as Process Analytical Technology Tool for Continuous Freeze-Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brouckaert, Davinia; De Meyer, Laurens; Vanbillemont, Brecht; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Lammens, Joris; Mortier, Séverine; Corver, Jos; Vervaet, Chris; Nopens, Ingmar; De Beer, Thomas

    2018-04-03

    Near-infrared chemical imaging (NIR-CI) is an emerging tool for process monitoring because it combines the chemical selectivity of vibrational spectroscopy with spatial information. Whereas traditional near-infrared spectroscopy is an attractive technique for water content determination and solid-state investigation of lyophilized products, chemical imaging opens up possibilities for assessing the homogeneity of these critical quality attributes (CQAs) throughout the entire product. In this contribution, we aim to evaluate NIR-CI as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for at-line inspection of continuously freeze-dried pharmaceutical unit doses based on spin freezing. The chemical images of freeze-dried mannitol samples were resolved via multivariate curve resolution, allowing us to visualize the distribution of mannitol solid forms throughout the entire cake. Second, a mannitol-sucrose formulation was lyophilized with variable drying times for inducing changes in water content. Analyzing the corresponding chemical images via principal component analysis, vial-to-vial variations as well as within-vial inhomogeneity in water content could be detected. Furthermore, a partial least-squares regression model was constructed for quantifying the water content in each pixel of the chemical images. It was hence concluded that NIR-CI is inherently a most promising PAT tool for continuously monitoring freeze-dried samples. Although some practicalities are still to be solved, this analytical technique could be applied in-line for CQA evaluation and for detecting the drying end point.

  3. Study of Energy Consumption of Potato Slices During Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hafezi Negar

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available One of the new methods of food drying using infrared heating under vacuum is to increase the drying rate and maintain the quality of dried product. In this study, potato slices were dried using vacuum-infrared drying. Experiments were performed with the infrared lamp power levels 100, 150 and 200 W, absolute pressure levels 20, 80, 140 and 760 mmHg, and with three thicknesses of slices 1, 2 and 3 mm, in three repetitions. The results showed that the infrared lamp power, absolute pressure and slice thickness have important effects on the drying of potato. With increasing the radiation power, reducing the absolute pressure (acts of vacuum in the dryer chamber and also reducing the thickness of potato slices, drying time and the amount of energy consumed is reduced. In relation to thermal utilization efficiency, results indicated that with increasing the infrared radiation power and decreasing the absolute pressure, thermal efficiency increased.

  4. Development of a Population Balance Model of a pharmaceutical drying process and testing of solution methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F.C.; Gernaey, Krist; De Beer, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Drying is frequently used in the production of pharmaceutical tablets. Simulation-based control strategy development for such a drying process requires a detailed model. First, the drying of wet granules is modelled using a Population Balance Model. A growth term based on a reduced model was used......, which describes the decrease of the moisture content, to follow the moisture content distribution for a batch of granules. Secondly, different solution methods for solving the PBM are compared. The effect of grid size (discretization methods) is analyzed in terms of accuracy and calculation time. All...

  5. Dry coating of solid dosage forms: an overview of processes and applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foppoli, Anastasia Anna; Maroni, Alessandra; Cerea, Matteo; Zema, Lucia; Gazzaniga, Andrea

    2017-12-01

    Dry coating techniques enable manufacturing of coated solid dosage forms with no, or very limited, use of solvents. As a result, major drawbacks associated with both organic solvents and aqueous coating systems can be overcome, such as toxicological, environmental, and safety-related issues on the one hand as well as costly drying phases and impaired product stability on the other. The considerable advantages related to solventless coating has been prompting a strong research interest in this field of pharmaceutics. In the article, processes and applications relevant to techniques intended for dry coating are analyzed and reviewed. Based on the physical state of the coat-forming agents, liquid- and solid-based techniques are distinguished. The former include hot-melt coating and coating by photocuring, while the latter encompass press coating and powder coating. Moreover, solventless techniques, such as injection molding and three-dimensional printing by fused deposition modeling, which are not purposely conceived for coating, are also discussed in that they would open new perspectives in the manufacturing of coated-like dosage forms.

  6. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  7. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.

  8. Incineration of dry burnable waste from reprocessing plants with the Juelich incineration process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dietrich, H.; Gomoll, H.; Lins, H.

    1987-01-01

    The Juelich incineration process is a two stage controlled air incineration process which has been developed for efficient volume reduction of dry burnable waste of various kinds arising at nuclear facilities. It has also been applied to non nuclear industrial and hospital waste incineration and has recently been selected for the new German Fuel Reprocessing Plant under construction in Wackersdorf, Bavaria, in a modified design

  9. Economical analysis of the spray drying process by pre-dehumidification of the inlet air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madeira, A.N.; Camargo, J.R. [University of Taubate (UNITAU), SP (Brazil). Mechanical Engineering Dept.

    2009-07-01

    Spray drying is a dehumidification process by atomization in a closed chamber that aims to remove moisture of a product by heat and mass transfer from the product's contained water to the air that, in this process is previously heated. This paper presents a case study for an industry that produces food ingredients. The current process applied in the product to heat the air can uses one of these two systems: a direct heating process that burns liquid petroleum gas in contact with the inlet air or indirect heating that uses a heat exchanger which heat the air. This heating system consumes 90% of the total process energy. However, this inlet air can reach the dehumidifier with high moisture from the atmosphere condition requesting, in this case, more energy consumption according to the year's seasons. This paper promotes a utilization study of the current process through the installation of a pre-dehumidification device of the inlet air and shows a study to three different dehumidification systems that means by refrigeration, adsorption and actual comparing their performance in an energetic and economical point of view. The goals of this study are to analyze the capacity of moisture removing of each removing device, the influence of moisture variation of the inlet air in the process as well as the economic impact of each device in the global system. It concludes that the utilization of dehumidification devices can eliminate the heating system reducing this way the energy consumption. Moreover it promotes the increasing of moisture gradient between the inlet air and the product optimizing the drying process and increasing the global energy efficiency in the global system. Choosing the most appropriate system for the pre-dehumidification device depends on the desired initial and final moisture content of the product, but applying pre-dehumidifiers at the inlet air promotes an energetic optimization in the spray drying process. (author)

  10. Criticality safety evaluation report for the cold vacuum drying facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NELSON, J.V.

    1999-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  11. Hybrid response surface methodology-artificial neural network optimization of drying process of banana slices in a forced convective dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taheri-Garavand, Amin; Karimi, Fatemeh; Karimi, Mahmoud; Lotfi, Valiullah; Khoobbakht, Golmohammad

    2018-06-01

    The aim of the study is to fit models for predicting surfaces using the response surface methodology and the artificial neural network to optimize for obtaining the maximum acceptability using desirability functions methodology in a hot air drying process of banana slices. The drying air temperature, air velocity, and drying time were chosen as independent factors and moisture content, drying rate, energy efficiency, and exergy efficiency were dependent variables or responses in the mentioned drying process. A rotatable central composite design as an adequate method was used to develop models for the responses in the response surface methodology. Moreover, isoresponse contour plots were useful to predict the results by performing only a limited set of experiments. The optimum operating conditions obtained from the artificial neural network models were moisture content 0.14 g/g, drying rate 1.03 g water/g h, energy efficiency 0.61, and exergy efficiency 0.91, when the air temperature, air velocity, and drying time values were equal to -0.42 (74.2 ℃), 1.00 (1.50 m/s), and -0.17 (2.50 h) in the coded units, respectively.

  12. Melt extrusion vs. spray drying: The effect of processing methods on crystalline content of naproxen-povidone formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haser, Abbe; Cao, Tu; Lubach, Joe; Listro, Tony; Acquarulo, Larry; Zhang, Feng

    2017-05-01

    Our hypothesis is that melt extrusion is a more suitable processing method than spray drying to prepare amorphous solid dispersions of drugs with a high crystallization tendency. Naproxen-povidone K25 was used as the model system in this study. Naproxen-povidone K25 solid dispersions at 30% and 60% drug loadings were characterized by modulated DSC, powder X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, and solid-state 13 C NMR to identify phase separation and drug recrystallization during processing and storage. At 30% drug loading, hydrogen bond (H-bond) sites of povidone K25 were not saturated and the glass transition (T g ) temperature of the formulation was higher. As a result, both melt-extruded and spray-dried materials were amorphous initially and remained so after storage at 40°C. At 60% drug loading, H-bond sites were saturated, and T g was low. We were not able to prepare amorphous materials. The initial crystallinity of the formulations was 0.4%±0.2% and 5.6%±0.6%, and increased to 2.7%±0.3% and 21.6%±1.0% for melt-extruded and spray-dried materials, respectively. Spray-dried material was more susceptible to re-crystallization during processing, due to the high diffusivity of naproxen molecules in the formulation matrix and lack of kinetic stabilization from polymer solution. A larger number of crystalline nucleation sites and high surface area made the spray-dried material more susceptible to recrystallization during storage. This study demonstrated the unique advantages of melt extrusion over spray drying for the preparation of amorphous solid dispersions of naproxen at high drug level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Effects of steam-microwave blanching and different drying processes on drying characteristics and quality attributes of Thunbergia laurifolia Linn. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phahom, Traiphop; Phoungchandang, Singhanat; Kerr, William L

    2017-08-01

    Dried Thunbergia laurifolia leaves are usually prepared using tray drying, resulting in products that have lost substantial amounts of bioactive compounds and antioxidant activity. The maturity of the raw material, blanching techniques and drying methods were investigated in order to select the best condition to produce high qualities of dried T. laurifolia leaves. The 1st stage of maturity was selected and steam-microwave blanching (SMB) for 4 min was adequate for blanching leading to the maximum recovery of bioactive compounds. The modified Halsey model was the best desorption isotherm model. A new drying model proposed in this study was the best to fit the drying curves as compared to five common drying models. Moisture diffusivities were increased with the increase of drying temperature when combining SMB and heat pump-dehumidified drying. Microwave heat pump-dehumidified drying (MHPD) provided the shortest drying time, high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and could reduce drying time by 67.5% and increase caffeic acid and quercetin by 51.24% and 60.89%, respectively. MHPD was found to be the best drying method and provided the highest antioxidant activity and bioactive compounds content, high SMER and short drying time. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Physically based modelling and optimal operation for product drying during post-harvest processing.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Lukasse, L.; Farkas, I.; Rendik, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The development of new procedures for crop production and post-harvest processing requires models. Models based on physical backgrounds are most useful for this purpose because of their extrapolation potential. An optimal procedure is developed for alfalfa drying using a physical model. The model

  15. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  16. Two-dimensional mathematical model for simulation of the drying process of thick layers of natural materials in a conveyor-belt dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salemović Duško R.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model and numerical analysis of the convective drying process of thick slices of colloidal capillary-porous materials slowly moving through conveyor-belt dryer. A flow of hot moist air was used as drying agent. The drying process has been analyzed in the form of a 2-D mathematical model, in two directions: along the conveyor and perpendicular on it. The mathematical model consists of two non-linear differential equations and one equation with a transcendent character and it is based on the mathematical model developed for drying process in a form of a 1-D thin layer. The appropriate boundary conditions were introduced. The presented model is suitable for the automated control of conveyor-belt dryers. The obtained results with analysis could be useful in predicting the drying kinetics of potato slices and similar natural products.

  17. Engineering of an inhalable DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant: a quality-by-design approach towards optimization of the spray drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Yang, Mingshi; Mulvad, Helle; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Rantanen, Jukka; Foged, Camilla

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify and optimize spray drying parameters of importance for the design of an inhalable powder formulation of a cationic liposomal adjuvant composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose-6,6'-dibehenate (TDB). A quality by design (QbD) approach was applied to identify and link critical process parameters (CPPs) of the spray drying process to critical quality attributes (CQAs) using risk assessment and design of experiments (DoE), followed by identification of an optimal operating space (OOS). A central composite face-centered design was carried out followed by multiple linear regression analysis. Four CQAs were identified; the mass median aerodynamic diameter (MMAD), the liposome stability (size) during processing, the moisture content and the yield. Five CPPs (drying airflow, feed flow rate, feedstock concentration, atomizing airflow and outlet temperature) were identified and tested in a systematic way. The MMAD and the yield were successfully modeled. For the liposome size stability, the ratio between the size after and before spray drying was modeled successfully. The model for the residual moisture content was poor, although, the moisture content was below 3% in the entire design space. Finally, the OOS was drafted from the constructed models for the spray drying of trehalose stabilized DDA/TDB liposomes. The QbD approach for the spray drying process should include a careful consideration of the quality target product profile. This approach implementing risk assessment and DoE was successfully applied to optimize the spray drying of an inhalable DDA/TDB liposomal adjuvant designed for pulmonary vaccination.

  18. Optimization of the Büchi B-90 spray drying process using central composite design for preparation of solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Bing; Linehan, Brian; Tseng, Yin-Chao

    2015-08-01

    A central composite design approach was applied to study the effect of polymer concentration, inlet temperature and air flow rate on the spray drying process of the Büchi B-90 nano spray dryer (B-90). Hypromellose acetate succinate-LF was used for the Design of Experiment (DoE) study. Statistically significant models to predict the yield, spray rate, and drying efficiency were generated from the study. The spray drying conditions were optimized according to the models to maximize the yield and efficiency of the process. The models were further validated using a poorly water-soluble investigational compound (BI064) from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals. The polymer/drug ratio ranged from 1/1 to 3/1w/w. The spray dried formulations were amorphous determined by differential scanning calorimetry and X-ray powder diffraction. The particle size of the spray dried formulations was 2-10 μm under polarized light microscopy. All the formulations were physically stable for at least 3h when suspended in an aqueous vehicle composed of 1% methyl cellulose. This study demonstrates that DoE is a useful tool to optimize the spray drying process, and the B-90 can be used to efficiently produce amorphous solid dispersions with a limited quantity of drug substance available during drug discovery stages. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  20. Development of Improved Process with Treatment of Cellulase for Isolation of Ampelopsin from Dried Fruits of Ampelopsis grossedentata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wa Gao

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The commercial method for isolation of ampelopsin, one of the most common flavonoids isolated from the plant species Ampelopsis grossedentata, is a simple hydrothermal extraction at high temperature. To develop an improved process to isolate ampelopsin, the effects of treatment of cellulase on hydrolysis of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata were investigated. The treatment of cellulase was found to decrease the temperature and time for hydrolysis of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata. The conditions of the filter press and continuous flow centrifuge for removal of insoluble materials from the hydrolysate of the dried fruit of A. grossedentata were optimized. The recovery yield of ampelopsin from the dried fruits of A. grossedentata was 39.4%, as determined by HPLC chromatographic analysis. A safe and economical process at low temperature with treatment of cellulase for the isolation of ampelopsin was developed in this study.

  1. Research of rheological characteristics and determination of rational parameters of drying process of activated ferment for bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Borodulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at investigating the rheological properties of the ferment in the process of maturation and storage with subsequent determination of the rational parameters of its drying in various drying plants with the analysing of microflora of dried samples. We studied the rheological properties of the ferment using the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A (activator and without it, which showed that the ferment for the production of special purpose bakery products to non-Newtonian or anomalously viscous liquids described by the Osthald-de-Vale rheological equation. We found that the introduction the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A helps to reduce the viscosity during maturation by almost 3 times, and when storing the samples – in 2 times, this is indicated by the value of the consistency coefficient. The activator reduces the influence of temperature, so the structure of the ferment becomes more stable. It is easier to further process in this state. Consequently, the energy consumption for production is significantly reduced and the increases expiration date after the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A is added to the starter for the production of special purpose bakery products. We detected kinetic patterns of drying of the activated ferment in thermoradiation, convective and sublimation dryers under different temperature operating conditions. We have determined the rational parameters of drying the ferment for the production of bakery products of specialized purpose. We analyzed the useful microflora of the dried samples. It has been revealed that microorganisms undergoing convective and sublimation (freeze drying are subjected to the smallest destructive effect. We found that microorganisms are less destroyed by convective and freeze drying. The microbial titer in these samples is at least 1(105CFU/g. While drying by the method of infrared irradiation, this titer is lower by a factor of ten

  2. DEVELOPMENT OF MATHEMATICAL MODEL OF PROCESS OF BLACK CURRANT BERRIES DRYING IN VACUUMDEVICE WITH THE MICROWAVE POWER SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. The mathematical model allowed to reproduce and study at qualitative level the change of berries form and the structure of the berries layer in the course of drying. The separate berry in the course of drying loses gradually its elasticity, decreases in volume, the peel gathers in folds, there appear internal emptiness. In the course of drying the berries layer decreases in thickness, contacting berries stick strongly with each other due to the coordinated folds of peel appearing, the layer is condensed due to penetration of the berries which have lost elasticity into emptiness between them. The model with high specification describes black currant drying process and therefore has a large number of the parameters available to change. Among them three most important technological parameters, influencing productivity and the drying quality are chosen: the power of microwave radiation P, thickness of the berries layer h, environmental pressure p. From output indicators of the model the most important are three functions from time: dependence of average humidity of the layer on time Wcp (t, dependence of the speed of change of average humidity on time dWcp (t/dt, dependence of the layer average temperature on time Tср (t. On the standard models classification the offered model is algorithmic, but not analytical. It means that output characteristics of model are calculated with the entrance ones, not by analytical transformations (it is impossible principally for the modeled process, but by means of spatial and temporary sampling and the corresponding calculation algorithm. Detailed research of the microwave drying process by means of the model allows to allocate the following stages: fast heating, the fast dehydration, the slowed-down dehydration, consolidation of a layer of a product, final drying, heating after dehydration.

  3. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  4. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  5. Effect of Fluidized Bed Stirring on Drying Process of Adhesive Particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Hoffman

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an attempt to optimize fluidized bed drying of wet and adhesive particles (with an initial diameter of about 580 mm with the use of stirring, and discusses the influence of stirring on the total drying time. The goal was to demonstrate the positive effect of stirring a fluidized bed to the drying time, to find the optimal parameters (stirrer design, speed, and size. Experiments were conducted on a drying chamber in batch operation. The objective was to evaluate the effect of stirring on the total drying time. The drying chambers were 85 mm, 100 mm, and 140 mm in diameter. An optimal stirrer shape and speed were specified. Our arrangement of the fluidized bed resulted in a decrease in drying time by up to 40 %.

  6. Effect of Sol Concentration, Aging and Drying Process on Cerium Stabilization Zirconium Gel Produced by External Gelation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sukarsono, R.; Rachmawati, M.; Susilowati, S. R.; Husnurrofiq, D.; Nurwidyaningrum, K.; Dewi, A. K.

    2018-02-01

    Cerium Stabilized Zirconium gel has been prepared using external gelation process. As the raw materials was used ZrO(NO3)2 and Ce(NO3)4 nitrate salt which was dissolved with water into Zr-Ce nitrate mixture. The concentration of the nitrate salt mixture in the sol solution was varied by varying the concentration of zirconium and cerium nitrate in the sol solution and the addition of PVA and THFA to produce a sol with a viscosity of 40-60 cP. The viscosity range of 40-60cP is the viscosity of the sol solution that was easy to produce a good gel in the gelation apparatus. Sol solution was casted in a gelation column equipped with following tools: a 1 mm diameter drip nozzle which was vibrated to adjust the best frequency and amplitude of vibration, a flow meter to measure the flow rate of sol, flowing of NH3 gas to presolidification process. Gelation column was contained NH4OH solution as gelation medium and gel container to collect gel product. Gel obtained from the gelation process than processed with ageing, washing, drying and calcinations to get round gel and not broken at calcinations up to 500°C. The parameters observed in this research are variation of Zr nitrate concentration, Ce nitrate concentration, ratio of Zr and Ce in the sol and ageing and drying process method which was appropriate to get a good gel. From the gelation processes that has been done, it can be seen that with the presolidification process can be obtained a round gel and without presolidification process, produce not round gel. In the process of ageing to get not broken gel, ageing was done on the rotary flask so that during the ageing, gels rotate in gelation media. Gels, then be washed by dilute ammonium nitrate, demireralized water and iso prophyl alcohol. The washed gel was then dried by vacuum drying to form pores on the gel which become the path for the gases resulting from decomposition of the gel to exit the gel. Vacuum drying can prevent cracking because the pores allow the gel

  7. Changes in the carotenoid metabolism of capsicum fruits during application of modelized slow drying process for paprika production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio; Hornero-Méndez, Dámaso; Mínguez-Mosquera, María Isabel

    2004-02-11

    A temperature profile simulating the traditional slow drying process of red pepper fruits, which is conducted in La Vera region (Spain) for paprika production, was developed. Carotenoid and ascorbic acid content, as well as moisture of fruits, were monitored during the slow drying process designed. Data obtained suggested that the evolution of carotenoid concentration, the main quality trait for paprika, directly depend on the physical conditions imposed. During the drying process, three different stages could be observed in relation to the carotenoids. The first stage corresponds to a physiological adaptation to the new imposed conditions that implied a decrease (ca. 20%) in the carotenoid content during the first 24 h. After that short period and during 5 days, a second stage was noticed, recovering the biosynthetic (carotenogenic) capability of the fruits, which denotes an accommodation of the fruits to the new environmental conditions. During the following 48 h (third stage) a sharp increase in the carotenoid content was observed. This last phenomenon seems to be related with an oxidative-thermal stress, which took place during the first stage, inducing a carotenogenesis similar to that occurring in over-ripening fruits. Results demonstrate that a fine control of the temperature and moisture content would help to positively modulate carotenogenesis and minimize catabolism, making it possible to adjust the drying process to the ripeness stage of fruits with the aim of improving carotenoid retention and therefore quality of the resulting product. In the case of ascorbic acid, data demonstrated that this compound is very sensitive to the drying process, with a decrease of about 76% during the first 24 h and remaining only at trace levels during the rest of the process. Therefore, no antioxidant role should be expected from ascorbic acid during the whole process and in the corresponding final product (paprika), despite that red pepper fruit is well-known to be rich

  8. OPTIMUM DRYING PROCESS. Best drying conditions to grind fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Laguna, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    World’s population is increasing annually, thereby increasing world’s food demand. Considering current trends, changes in food production must be done in order to meet the estimated future demand. This problem and its possible solutions such as drying or pulverizing the foods, in which this thesis is focused on, are described in detail below.

  9. A Dynamic Design Space for Primary Drying During Batch Freeze-Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Séverine Thérèse F C; Van Bockstal, Pieter Jan; Nopens, Ingmar

    2016-01-01

    Biopharmaceutical products are emerging within the pharmaceutical industry. However, biopharmaceuticals are often unstable in aqueous solution. Freeze-drying (lyophilisation) is the preferred method to achieve a stable product with an increased shelf-life. During batch freeze-drying, there are only...... two adaptable process variables, i.e. the shelf temperature and the pressure in the drying chamber. The value of both should be optimized, preferably in a dynamic way, to minimise the primary drying time while respecting process and equipment constraints and ensuring end product quality. A mechanistic...... model is used to determine the optimal values for the adaptable variables, hereby accounting for the uncertainty in all involved model parameters. A dynamic Design Space was constructed with a risk of failure acceptance level of 0.01%, i.e. a 'zero-failure' situation. Even for a risk of failure of 0...

  10. Laboratory-scale dry/wet-milling process for the extraction of starch and gluten from wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneken, P.A.M.; Helmens, H.J.

    2009-01-01

    A laboratory-scale process is presented for the manufacture of starch and gluten from wheat. Main feature of this process is that whole wheat kernels are crushed dry between smooth rolls prior to wet disintegration in excess water in such way that gluten formation is prevented and fibres can be

  11. Freeze-dried processing of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.D.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1989-06-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy powders were produced from freeze-dried aqueous solutions of ammonium metatungstate and, principally, sulfates of Ni and Fe. The freeze-dried salts were calcined and hydrogen reduced to form very fine, homogeneous, low-density, W heavy alloy powders having a coral-like structure with elements of approximately 0.1 μm in diameter. The powders yield high green strength and sinterability. Tungsten heavy alloy powders of 70%, 90%, and 96% W were prepared by freeze drying, compacted, and solid-state (SS) sintered to fully density at temperatures as low as 1200 degree C and also at conventional liquid-phase (LP) sintering temperatures. Solid-state sintered microstructures contained polygonal W grains with high contiguity; the matrix did not coat and separate the W grains to form low-contiguity, high-ductility structures. Liquid-phase sintered microstructures were very conventional in appearance, having W spheroids of low contiguity. All these materials were found to be brittle. High levels of residual S accompanied by segregation of the S to all the microstructural interfaces are principally responsible for the brittleness; problems with S could be eliminated by using Fe and Ni nitrates rather than the sulfates. 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  12. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  13. NIR spectroscopy for the in-line monitoring of a multicomponent formulation during the entire freeze-drying process

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosas, Juan G; de Waard, Hans; De Beer, Thomas; Vervaet, Chris; Remon, Jean Paul; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Frijlink, Henderik W; Blanco, Marcel

    2014-01-01

    Freeze drying is a complex, time consuming and thus expensive process, hence creating a need for understanding the material behaviour in the process environment and for process optimization. Near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy offers the opportunity to monitor physicochemical changes of the formulation

  14. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  15. Método acelerado de processamento de presunto cru Accelerated method of dry-cured ham processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Walter Bergamin Filho

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Nos métodos tradicionais de elaboração de presunto cru usa-se o pernil suíno inteiro, diferentemente da metodologia proposta neste trabalho, que combinou desossa, adição de transglutaminase, massageamento e moldagem das peças previamente à secagem e maturação, objetivando reduzir o tempo de processamento do produto. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de dois teores de NaCl adicionados (T1 - 3,5% e T2 - 5%, sobre características físico-químicas e microbiológicas dos presuntos crus ao longo do processo, além da avaliação sensorial dos produtos finais. Os presuntos crus obtidos atenderam aos padrões físico-químicos e microbiológicos determinados na legislação brasileira e não foram encontradas diferenças significativas (p The traditional methodologies of dry-cured ham production use the entire ham, differently from the one proposed in this study that combined boning, addition of transglutaminase, and tumbling and moulding before the drying and ageing stages. The effects of two levels of added NaCl (T1 - 3.5% and T2 - 5% on the physicochemical and microbiological characteristics of dry-cured hams during the process and the sensory analyses of the final products were evaluated. The dry-cured hams met the physicochemical and microbiological standards of the Brazilian legislation, and no significant differences (p < 0.05 were found between the two treatments in the parameters evaluated during the process and in the final products, except for the weight loss, which was higher in T1 (39.74 ± 4.02% than in T2 (37.22 ± 2.96%. The shape and thickness of the dry-cured hams prepared in this research were adequate to slicing, and they had excellent appearance, typical aroma, and flavor similar to traditional dry-cured hams usually found in the Brazilian market receiving about 80% of acceptance by consumers.

  16. Criticality Safety Evaluation Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility's Process Water Handling System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    KESSLER, S.F.

    2000-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified

  17. Enhanced high energy efficient steam drying of algae

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Oda, Takuya; Kashiwagi, Takao

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology (HC) were proposed. • HC was developed on exergy recovery through exergy elevation and heat pairing. • The energy efficiency of the proposed drying processes was evaluated. • Significant reduction of energy input and CO 2 emission in drying is readily achieved. - Abstract: State-of-the-art brown algae drying processes based on heat circulation technology were proposed, and their performance with respect to energy consumption was evaluated. Heat circulation technology was developed using the principle of exergy recovery performed through exergy elevation and effective heat pairing for both sensible and latent heat. Two steam drying processes based on heat circulation technology for algae drying were proposed, involving heat circulation with or without steam recirculation. The proposed processes were compared with the conventional heat recovery system employing heat cascade technology. Brown algae Laminaria japonica was selected as the test sample. From the results, it is very clear that both proposed drying processes can reduce the required drying energy significantly by up to 90% of that required in conventional heat recovery drying. Furthermore, the temperature–enthalpy diagram for each process shows that in heat circulation technology based drying, the curves of both hot and cold streams are almost parallel, resulting in the minimization of exergy losses

  18. Headspace Moisture Mapping and the Information That Can Be Gained about Freeze-Dried Materials and Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Isobel A; Ward, Kevin R

    2011-01-01

    Regulatory authorities require proof that lyophilization (freeze drying) cycles have been developed logically and demonstrate uniformity. One measure of uniformity can be consistency of residual water content throughout a batch. In primary drying, heat transfer is effected by gaseous convection and conduction as well as the degree of shelf contact and evenness of heat applied; therefore residual water can be affected by container location, degree of container/tray/shelf contact, radiative heating, packing density, product formulation, and the cycle conditions themselves. In this study we have used frequency modulation spectroscopy (FMS) to create a map of headspace moisture (HSM) for 100% of vials within a number of freeze-dried batches. Karl Fischer (KF)/HSM correlations were investigated in parallel with the moisture mapping studies. A clear, linear relationship was observed between HSM and KF values for vials containing freeze-dried sucrose, implying a relatively straightforward interaction between water and the lyophilized cake for this material. Mannitol demonstrated a more complex correlation, with the interaction of different crystalline forms giving important information on the uniformity of the material produced. It was observed that annealing had a significant impact on the importance of heat transfer by conduction for vials in direct and non-direct contact with the shelf. Moisture mapping of all vials within the freeze dryer enabled further information to be obtained on the relationship of the formulation, process conditions, and equipment geometry on the intra-batch variability in HSM level. The ability of FMS to allow 100% inspection could mean that this method could play an important part in process validation and quality assurance. Lyophilization, also known as freeze drying, is a relatively old technique that has been used in its most basic form for thousands of years (e.g., preservation of fish and meat products). In its more advanced form it is

  19. Dry uranium tetrafluoride process preparation using the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process effluents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva Neto, Joao Batista da

    2008-01-01

    It is a well known fact that the use of uranium tetrafluoride allows flexibility in the production of uranium suicide and uranium oxide fuel. To its obtention there are two conventional routes, the one which reduces uranium from the UF 6 hydrolysis solution with stannous chloride, and the hydro fluorination of a solid uranium dioxide. In this work we are introducing a third and a dry way route, mainly utilized to the recovery of uranium from the liquid effluents generated in the uranium hexafluoride reconversion process, at IPEN/CNEN-SP. Working in the liquid phase, this route comprises the recuperation of ammonium fluoride by NH 4 HF 2 precipitation. Working with the solid residues, the crystallized bifluoride is added to the solid UO 2 , which comes from the U mini plates recovery, also to its conversion in a solid state reaction, to obtain UF 4 . That returns to the process of metallic uranium production unity to the U 3 Si 2 obtention. This fuel is considered in IPEN CNEN/SP as the high density fuel phase for IEA-R1m reactor, which will replace the former low density U 3 Si 2 -Al fuel. (author)

  20. Monitoring of multiple solvent induced form changes during high shear wet granulation and drying processes using online Raman spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Jay Poorna; Jones, John W; Wray, Patrick S; Dennis, Andrew B; Brown, Jonathan; Timmins, Peter

    2018-04-25

    Form changes during drug product processing can be a risk to the final product quality in terms of chemical stability and bioavailability. In this study, online Raman spectroscopy was used to monitor the form changes in real time during high shear wet granulation of Compound A, a highly soluble drug present at a high drug load in an extended release formulation. The effect of water content, temperature, wet massing time and drying technique on the degree of drug transformation were examined. A designed set of calibration standards were employed to develop quantitative partial least square regression models to predict the concentration of each drug form during both wet granulation and the drying process. Throughout all our experiments we observed complex changes of the drug form during granulation, manifest as conversions between the initial non-solvated form of Compound A, the hemi-hydrate form and the "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug). The online Raman data demonstrate that the non-solvated form converts to an "apparent" amorphous form (dissolved drug) due to drug dissolution with no appearance of the hemi-hydrate form during water addition stage. The extent of conversion of the non-solvated form was governed by the amount of water added and the rate of conversion was accelerated at higher temperatures. Interestingly, in the wet massing zone, the formation of the hemi-hydrate form was observed at a rate equivalent to the rate of depletion of the non-solvated form with no change in the level of the "apparent amorphous" form generated. The level of hemi-hydrate increased with an increase in wet massing time. The drying process had a significant effect on the proportion of each form. During tray drying, changes in drug form continued for hours. In contrast fluid bed drying appeared to lock the final proportions of drug form product attained during granulation, with comparatively small changes observed during drying. In conclusion, it was possible to

  1. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian

    The drying of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of dry-grind corn processing to ethanol utilizes about 30% of the total energy required for the production of a liter of fuel ethanol. Therefore, improving DDGS drying energy efficiency could have significant impact on the economics of the dry-grind corn-to-ethanol process. Drying process improvements must take account into the effects of various drying strategies on the final quality of DDGS which is primarily utilized as a feed ingredient. Previous studies in the literature have shown that physical and chemical properties of DDGS vary according to the ratio of the two primarily feed streams, wet distillers grains (WDG) and condensed distillers solubles (CDS) which make up DDGS. Extensive research using plant-scale and bench-scale experiments have been conducted on the effect of process variables (ratios of WDG, CDS and DDGS add-back) during drying on the physical and chemical properties of DDGS. However, these investigations did not correlate the product characteristics data to drying efficiency. Additionally, it cannot be clearly determined from the literature on DDGS drying that processes used in the industry are optimized for both product quality and energy efficiency. A bench-scale rotary drum dryer heated by an electrically powered heat gun was used to investigate the effects of WDG, CDS and add-back ratios on both energy efficiency, drying performance and DDGS physical and chemical properties. A two stage drying process with the bench-scale rotary dryer was used to simulate the drying of DDGS using ICM (ICM, Inc., Colwich, KS) dry-grind process technology for DDGS drying which uses two rotary drum dryers in series. Effects of drying process variables, CDS content (0, 10, 20 and 40% by mass) and percent DDGS add-back (0, 20, 40 and 60% by mass) on energy performance and product quality were determined. Sixteen different drying strategies based on drying process variable ratios were

  2. Simulation and energy efficiency analysis of desiccant wheel systems for drying processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Antonellis, Stefano; Joppolo, Cesare Maria; Molinaroli, Luca; Pasini, Alberto

    2012-01-01

    In drying processes it is necessary to appropriately control air humidity and temperature in order to enhance water evaporation from product surface. The aim of this work is to investigate several HVAC configurations for product drying based on desiccant wheels, in order to find systems which reach high primary energy savings through the appropriate integration of refrigerating machines, adsorption wheels and cogenerative engines. Simulations are carried out for different values of sensible to latent ambient load ratio and the effect of ambient and outside air conditions is evaluated for each configuration. It is shown that primary energy savings can reach 70–80% compared to the reference technology based on a cooling coil. With respect to works available in literature, the results of this study keep a general approach and they can be used as a simple tool for preliminary assessment in a wide range of applications. -- Highlights: ► Several HVAC systems for product drying based on desiccant wheels are investigated. ► The sensible to latent ambient load ratio influences the choice of the best system. ► Energy savings can reach 80% compared to the technology based on a cooling coil. ► Simulation results can be used for preliminary assessment in many applications.

  3. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  4. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol...... parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray...... drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome...

  5. Evaluation of the impact of food matrix change on the in vitro bioaccessibility of carotenoids in pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) slices during two drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhongyuan; Wang, Xiaoyan; Li, Yixiang; Wei, Qiuyu; Liu, Chunju; Nie, Meimei; Li, Dajing; Xiao, Yadong; Liu, Chunquan; Xu, Lang; Zhang, Min; Jiang, Ning

    2017-12-13

    The food matrix is a limiting factor in determining the bioaccessibility of carotenoids. The impact of food matrix change on the bioaccessibility of carotenoids during drying processes is still unknown. The effect of intermittent microwave vacuum-assisted drying (IMVD) and hot air drying (HAD) on the in vitro liberation and micellization of carotenoids in pumpkin slices was studied. This variable depended on the changes of the matrix driven by the drying process. Different changes in the cell morphology and carotenoid distribution of pumpkin slices during the two processing methods were observed. For IMVD, cell wall degradation and complete chromoplast organelle disruption contributed to the improvement in the liberation and micellization of carotenoids. In the HAD-dried sample, large pigment aggregates hindered the liberation of carotenoids. The carotenoid level in the micellar fraction appeared to be lower than that in the aqueous supernatant during the two processes, suggesting that the new obstacles formed during processing and/or digestion hindered the incorporation of carotenoids in mixed micelles.

  6. Better lumber drying process with a non-greenhouse type solar kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K C

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary study of using solar energy for lumber drying in NW Ontario is proven applicable and practical by the evidence of data collected. It was found that lumber seasoning using solar energy in the region is more favorable in the summer than in the winter. The most significant advantages of lumber drying with a solar kiln are: (1) low percentage of drying defect lumber produced; (2) higher strength properties of lumber produced; (3) unlimited sources of heat energy from the sun are available. The longer drying periods with a solar kiln as compared to a conventional steam kiln can be overcome by utilizing a supplemental heat system, e.g., wood residue burner to shorten the drying period. However, some improvements and modification of the existing kiln should be done in order to increase the efficiency of the lumber drying system.

  7. The secondary drying and the fate of organic solvents for spray dried dispersion drug product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsieh, Daniel S; Yue, Hongfei; Nicholson, Sarah J; Roberts, Daniel; Schild, Richard; Gamble, John F; Lindrud, Mark

    2015-05-01

    To understand the mechanisms of secondary drying of spray-dried dispersion (SDD) drug product and establish a model to describe the fate of organic solvents in such a product. The experimental approach includes characterization of the SDD particles, drying studies of SDD using an integrated weighing balance and mass spectrometer, and the subsequent generation of the drying curve. The theoretical approach includes the establishment of a Fickian diffusion model. The kinetics of solvent removal during secondary drying from the lab scale to a bench scale follows Fickian diffusion model. Excellent agreement is obtained between the experimental data and the prediction from the modeling. The diffusion process is dependent upon temperature. The key to a successful scale up of the secondary drying is to control the drying temperature. The fate of primary solvents including methanol and acetone, and their potential impurity such as benzene can be described by the Fickian diffusion model. A mathematical relationship based upon the ratio of diffusion coefficient was established to predict the benzene concentration from the fate of the primary solvent during the secondary drying process.

  8. Viability of G4 after Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephenie Wong

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Bifidobacterium pseudocatenulatum G4 following spray-drying and freeze-drying in skim milk was evaluated. After spray-drying, the strain experienced over 99% loss in viability regardless of the air outlet temperature (75 and 85 °C and the heat-adaptation temperature (45 and 65 °C, 30 min. The use of heat-adaptation treatment to improve the thermotolerance of this strain was ineffective. On the other hand, the strain showed a superior survival at 71.65%–82.07% after freeze-drying. Viable populations of 9.319–9.487 log 10 cfu/g were obtained when different combinations of skim milk and sugar were used as cryoprotectant. However, the addition of sugars did not result in increased survival during the freeze-drying process. Hence, 10% (w/v skim milk alone is recommended as a suitable protectant and drying medium for this strain. The residual moisture content obtained was 4.41% ± 0.44%.

  9. Robustness testing in pharmaceutical freeze-drying: inter-relation of process conditions and product quality attributes studied for a vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.

  10. A full-wafer fabrication process for glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes by direct bonding of dry film resist

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vulto, Paul; Urban, G A; Huesgen, Till; Albrecht, Björn

    2009-01-01

    A full-wafer process is presented for fast and simple fabrication of glass microfluidic chips with integrated electroplated electrodes. The process employs the permanent dry film resist (DFR) Ordyl SY300 to create microfluidic channels, followed by electroplating of silver and subsequent chlorination. The dry film resist is bonded directly to a second substrate, without intermediate gluing layers, only by applying pressure and moderate heating. The process of microfluidic channel fabrication, electroplating and wafer bonding can be completed within 1 day, thus making it one of the fastest and simplest full-wafer fabrication processes. (note)

  11. Process development for spray drying of sticky pharmaceuticals; case study of bioadhesive nicotine microparticles for compressed medicated chewing gum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sander, Camilla; Nielsen, Henrik Stillhof; Søgaard, Susanne Roslev

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying of pharmaceutical compounds with sticky properties is a challenging task and may require substantial time and resources. By including small-scale studies of single droplet drying kinetics a relatively high number of experiments with less material is allowed. This means one can constr...... chewing gum. By illustration of initial studies on single droplet drying kinetics, subsequent characterization of microparticles, and final characterization of compressed chewing gum this paper summarizes the entire development process....

  12. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adam Figiel

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  13. Overall Quality of Fruits and Vegetables Products Affected by the Drying Processes with the Assistance of Vacuum-Microwaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Figiel, Adam; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-30

    The seasonality of fruits and vegetables makes it impossible to consume and use them throughout the year, thus numerous processing efforts have been made to offer an alternative to their fresh consumption and application. To prolong their availability on the market, drying has received special attention as currently this method is considered one of the most common ways for obtaining food and pharmaceutical products from natural sources. This paper demonstrates the weakness of common drying methods applied for fruits and vegetables and the possible ways to improve the quality using different drying techniques or their combination with an emphasis on the microwave energy. Particular attention has been drawn to the combined drying with the assistance of vacuum-microwaves. The quality of the dried products was ascribed by chemical properties including the content of polyphenols, antioxidant capacity and volatiles as well as physical parameters such as color, shrinkage, porosity and texture. Both these fields of quality classification were considered taking into account sensory attributes and energy aspects in the perspective of possible industrial applications. In conclusion, the most promising way for improving the quality of dried fruit and vegetable products is hybrid drying consisting of osmotic dehydration in concentrated fruit juices followed by heat pump drying and vacuum-microwave finish drying.

  14. Nanocrystallite characterization of milled simulated dry process fuel powders by neutron diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryu, Ho Jin; Kang, Kwon Ho; Moon, Je Sun; Song, Kee Chan; Choi, Yong Nam

    2003-01-01

    The nano-scale crystallite sizes of simulated spent fuel powders were measured by the neutron diffraction line broadening method in order to analyze the sintering behavior of the dry process fuel. The mixed U0 2 and fission product oxide powders were dry-milled in an attritor for 30, 60, and 120 min. The diffraction patterns of the powders were obtained by using the high resolution powder diffractometer in the HANARO research reactor. Diffraction line broadening due to crystallite size was measured using various techniques such as the Stokes' deconvolution, profile fitting methods using Cauchy function, Gaussian function, and Voigt function, and the Warren-Averbach method. The r.m.s. strain, stacking fault, twin and dislocation density were measured using the information from the diffraction pattern. The realistic crystallite size can be obtained after separation of the contribution from the non-uniform strain, stacking fault and twin

  15. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF6. Milestone U361

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF 6 production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF 6 Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF 6 production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF 4 , (3) fluorination of UF 4 to UF 6 , (4) cold trap collection of the UF 6 product, (5) UF 6 purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF 6 in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF 6 production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF 6 production

  16. Continuous and scalable fabrication of bioinspired dry adhesives via a roll-to-roll process with modulated ultraviolet-curable resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Hoon; Hwang, Insol; Lee, Jeong Hyeon; Lee, Dael; Lim, Haneol; Tahk, Dongha; Sung, Minho; Bae, Won-Gyu; Choi, Se-Jin; Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon Eui

    2014-08-27

    A simple yet scalable strategy for fabricating dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped micropillars is achieved by a combination of the roll-to-roll process and modulated UV-curable elastic poly(urethane acrylate) (e-PUA) resin. The e-PUA combines the major benefits of commercial PUA and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS). It not only can be cured within a few seconds like commercial PUA but also possesses good mechanical properties comparable to those of PDMS. A roll-type fabrication system equipped with a rollable mold and a UV exposure unit is also developed for the continuous process. By integrating the roll-to-roll process with the e-PUA, dry adhesives with spatulate tips in the form of a thin flexible film can be generated in a highly continuous and scalable manner. The fabricated dry adhesives with mushroom-shaped microstructures exhibit a strong pull-off strength of up to ∼38.7 N cm(-2) on the glass surface as well as high durability without any noticeable degradation. Furthermore, an automated substrate transportation system equipped with the dry adhesives can transport a 300 mm Si wafer over 10,000 repeating cycles with high accuracy.

  17. Mathematical modeling of a convective textile drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Johann

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to develop a model that accurately represents the convective drying process of textile materials. The mathematical modeling was developed from energy and mass balances and, for the solution of the mathematical model, the technique of finite differences, in Cartesian coordinates, was used. It transforms the system of partial differential equations into a system of ordinary equations, with the unknowns, the temperature and humidity of both the air and the textile material. The simulation results were compared with experimental data obtained from the literature. In the statistical analysis the Shapiro-Wilk test was used to validate the model and, in all cases simulated, the results were p-values greater than 5 %, indicating normality of the data. The R-squared values were above 0.997 and the ratios Fcalculated/Fsimulated, at the 95 % confidence level, higher than five, indicating that the modeling was predictive in all simulations.

  18. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  19. Yeast diversity and dynamics in the production processes of Norwegian dry-cured meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asefa, Dereje T; Møretrø, Trond; Gjerde, Ragnhild O; Langsrud, Solveig; Kure, Cathrine F; Sidhu, Maan S; Nesbakken, Truls; Skaar, Ida

    2009-07-31

    This study investigate the diversity and dynamics of yeasts in the production processes of one unsmoked and two smoked dry-cured meat products of a Norwegian dry-cured meat production facility. A longitudinal observational study was performed to collect 642 samples from the meat, production materials, room installations and indoor and outdoor air of the production facility. Nutrient rich agar media were used to isolate the yeasts. Morphologically different isolates were re-cultivated in their pure culture forms. Both classical and molecular methods were employed for species identification. Totally, 401 yeast isolates belonging to 10 species of the following six genera were identified: Debaryomyces, Candida, Rhodotorula, Rhodosporidium, Cryptococcus and Sporidiobolus. Debaryomyces hansenii and Candida zeylanoides were dominant and contributed by 63.0% and 26.4% respectively to the total isolates recovered from both smoked and unsmoked products. The yeast diversity was higher at the pre-salting production processes with C. zeylanoides being the dominant. Later at the post-salting stages, D. hansenii occurred frequently. Laboratory studies showed that D. hansenii was more tolerant to sodium chloride and nitrite than C. zeylanoides. Smoking seems to have a killing or a temporary growth inhibiting effect on yeasts that extend to the start of the drying process. Yeasts were isolated only from 31.1% of the environmental samples. They belonged to six different species of which five of them were isolated from the meat samples too. Debaryomyces hansenii and Rhodotorula glutinis were dominant with a 62.6% and 22.0% contribution respectively. As none of the air samples contained D. hansenii, the production materials and room installations used in the production processes were believed to be the sources of contamination. The dominance of D. hansenii late in the production process replacing C. zeylanoides should be considered as a positive change both for the quality and safety

  20. Carbon behavior in the cyclic operation of dry desulfurization process for oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Akiho, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O_2–CO_2 coal gasifier was studied. • Dry gas sulfur removal sorbent was improved for durability to carbon deposition. • The improved sorbent showed very low amount of deposited carbon during operation. • The sorbent is regenerable to be used repeatedly in the cyclic operation. • The sorbent exhibited high sulfur-removal performance in the cyclic operation. - Abstract: The dry sulfur-removal process is essential to provide suitable syngas treatment for the oxy-fuel integrated gasification combined cycle power generation plant. It is required that the dry sulfur-removal process to be durable to the carbon deposition due to syngas containing high concentration of carbon monoxide in addition to achieve sufficient performance for sulfur removal. Zinc ferrite sorbent is the most promising candidate for the dry sulfur-removal process. The sorbent was improved to enhance durability to the carbon deposition by modifying preparation. The improved sorbent was prepared from sulfates as the raw materials of zinc ferrite, while the former sorbent was using nitrates as the raw materials. The improved sorbent as well as the former sorbent were evaluated on the performance and carbon deposition tendency in oxy-fuel syngas condition in a fixed bed reactor at elevated pressure and temperature. The results expressed that the improved sorbent has higher desulfurization performance and durability to carbon deposition in the condition expected for cyclic operation of the sulfur-removal process in comparison with the former sorbent. The improved sorbent possessed the superior desulfurization performance as well as the capability for inhibit carbon deposition in the oxy-fuel syngas conditions. The results confirmed the enhanced feasibility of the dry sulfur-removal process by utilizing the improved sorbent.

  1. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla

    2013-05-10

    Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) via spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol. Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Rewetting of semi-dried ink patterns by vapour annealing for developing a reflow process in reverse offset printing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kusaka, Yasuyuki; Ushijima, Hirobumi; Sugihara, Kazuyoshi; Koutake, Masayoshi

    2017-01-01

    A process for reflowing patterned materials for reverse offset printing was developed, with the aim of mitigating the step-coverage problem in multilayered devices. The proposed reflow process involves a single step of vapour annealing at moderate temperatures ranging from 60 to 70 °C. This step successfully changes the height profile of semi-dried ink patterns formed on a silicone blanket, from an initially rectangular shape to a rounded shape. A systematic investigation on the effects of various vapour species and vapour temperatures on the reflow process revealed that the miscibility between the vapour and the ink, and a low boiling point of the respective solvent (high vapour pressure) are the prerequisites for successful reflows of semi-dried ink layers patterned on a silicone blanket. The results suggested that the rewetting of previously semi-dried patterns is the main mechanism in the reflow process, which led to a change in the height profile. Furthermore, the reflowed patterns demonstrated almost identical peak-height thicknesses, irrespective of the width of the patterns. This is a unique property that is unattainable by other printing methods, including gravure offset printing and microcontact printing, wherein printed patterns have rounded shapes without a reflow process, but their thickness inevitably depends on the pattern sizes. (technical note)

  3. Effect of Dietary Processed Sulfur Supplementation on Texture Quality, Color and Mineral Status of Dry-cured Ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Ju, Min-Gu; Yeon, Su-Jung; Hong, Go-Eun; Park, WooJoon; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2015-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the chemical composition, mineral status, oxidative stability, and texture attributes of dry-cured ham from pigs fed processed sulfur (S, 1 g/kg feed), and from those fed a basal diet (CON), during the period from weaning to slaughter (174 d). Total collagen content and soluble collagen of the S group was significantly higher than that of the control group (pham (pham from the control group, that from the S group exhibited lower springiness and gumminess; these results suggest that feeding processed sulfur to pigs can improve the quality of the texture and enhance the oxidative stability of dry-cured ham.

  4. Combined electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yucai; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Yaxiang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the drying qualities of shrimp, a combination of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying (FD) is examined. The drying rate, the shrinkage, the rehydration ratio, and the sensory properties including the color and trimness of the dried products under different drying methods (including combination drying of EHD and FD, EHD drying and FD drying) are measured. Compared with FD and EHD drying alone, the combined process consumes less drying time, and the product processed by combined drying displays lower shrinkage, higher rehydration rate and better sensory qualities.

  5. Analysis of process factors of dry fermented salami to control Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12 commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016. The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g. The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth.

  6. Analysis of Process Factors of Dry Fermented Salami to Control Listeria Monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Enrico; Dal Santo, Lucia; Balzan, Stefania; Cardazzo, Barbara; Spolaor, Dino; Lombardi, Angiolella; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12) commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016). The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ) of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C) was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g). The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth. PMID:28462203

  7. Experimental verification of the energetic model of the dry mechanical reclamation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available The experimental results of the dry mechanical reclamation process, which constituted the bases for the verification of the energetic model of this process, developed by the author on the grounds of the Rittinger’s deterministic hypothesis of the crushing process, are presented in the paper. Used foundry sands with bentonite, with water-glass from the floster technology and used sands with furan FL 105 resin were used in the reclamation tests. In the mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation a wide range of time variations and reclamation conditions influencing intensity of the reclamation process – covering all possible parameters used in industrial devices - were applied. The developed theoretical model constitutes a new tool allowing selecting optimal times for the reclamation treatment of the given spent foundry sand at the assumed process intensity realized in rotor reclaimers - with leaves or rods as grinding elements mounted horizontally on the rotor axis.

  8. Preparation of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrid using a spray-drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, B. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Passador, F. R., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br; Pessan, L. A., E-mail: bru-rms@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: fabiopassador@gmail.com, E-mail: pessan@ufscar.br [Dep. de Engenharia de Materiais, Federal University of São Carlos (Brazil)

    2014-05-15

    Nowadays, hydrogen is highly interesting as an energy source, in particular in the automotive field. In fact, hydrogen is attractive as a fuel because it prevents air pollution and greenhouse emissions. One of the main problems with the utilization of hydrogen as a fuel is its on-board storage. The purpouse of this work was to develop a new hybrid material consisting of a polyaniline matrix with sodium alanate (NaAlH{sub 4}) using a spray-drying process. The polyaniline used for this experiment was synthesized by following a well-established method for the synthesis of the emeraldine base form of polyaniline using dodecylbenzenesulfonic acid as dopant. Micro particles of polyaniline/sodium alanate hybrids with 30 and 50 wt% of sodium alanate were prepared by using a spray-drying technique. Dilute solutions of polyaniline/sodium alanate were first prepared, 10g of the solid materials were mixed with 350 ml of toluene under stirring at room temperature for 24h and the solutions were dried using spray-dryer (Büchi, Switzerland) with 115°C of an inlet temperature. The hybrids were analyzed by differential scanning calorimetry, FT-IR and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The addition of sodium alanate decreased the glass transition temperature of the hybrids when compared to neat polyaniline. FT-IR spectrum analysis was performed to identify the bonding environment of the synthesized material and was observed that simply physically mixture occurred between polyaniline and sodium alanate. The SEM images of the hybrids showed the formation of microspheres with sodium alanate dispersed in the polymer matrix.

  9. Uncertainty analysis as essential step in the establishment of the dynamic Design Space of primary drying during freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mortier, Severine Therese F. C.; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Corver, Jos

    2016-01-01

    Large molecules, such as biopharmaceuticals, are considered the key driver of growth for the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-drying is the preferred way to stabilise these products when needed. However, it is an expensive, inefficient, time- and energy-consuming process. During freeze-drying, the......Large molecules, such as biopharmaceuticals, are considered the key driver of growth for the pharmaceutical industry. Freeze-drying is the preferred way to stabilise these products when needed. However, it is an expensive, inefficient, time- and energy-consuming process. During freeze...... for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Traditionally, the chamber pressure and shelf temperature are kept constant during primary drying, leading to less optimal process conditions. In this paper it is demonstrated how a mechanistic model of the primary drying step gives the opportunity to determine the optimal dynamic...

  10. THE CONTROL ALGORITHM OF THE DRYING PROCESS PARTICULATE MATERIALS IN THE APPARATUS WITH THE SWIRLING FLOW OF COOLANT AND MICROWAVE ENERGY SUPPLY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The technical task of the process is to improve the drying quality of the final product, increasing the precision and reliability of control, the reduction of specific energy consumption. One of the ways to improve the process is complex and i ts local automation. This paper deals with the problems of development and creation of a new control algorithm drying process of the particulate material. Identified a number of shortcomings of the existing methods of automatic control of the process. As a result, the authors proposed a method for drying particulate materials in the device with swirling flow and the microwave energy supply and its automatic control algorithm. The description of the operating principle of the drying apparatus consists in that the particulate material is wet by using a tangential flow of coolant supplied to the cylinder-drying apparatus which also serves the axial coolant flow, whereby the heat transfer fluid with the particulate material begins to undergo a complex circular movement along the circumference apparatus, thereby increasing its speed and its operation control algorithm. The work of this scheme is carried out at three levels of regulation on the basis of determining the coefficient of efficiency of the dryer, which makes it possible to determine the optimal value of the power equipment and to forecast the cost of electricity. All of the above allows you to get ready for a high quality product while minimizing thermal energy and material costs by optimizing the operating parameters of the drying of the particulate material in the dryer with a combined microwave energy supply and ensure the rational use of heat energy by varying their quantity depending on the characteristics to be dried particulate material and the course of the process.

  11. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  12. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  13. Improvement in dry active waste segregation and processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hillmer, T.P.; Anderson, K.D.; Dahlen, D.E.

    1989-01-01

    At the Palo Verde Nuclear Generating Station (PVNGS) the majority of dry active waste (DAW) volume reduction activities are performed in the site's new DAW processing and storage facility. This facility houses an interim storage area for a five year volume of compacted DAW, a shredder/compactor, and a DAW segregation area. The DAW segregation program locates and separates non-radioactive and reusable materials from DAW generated at the three unit PVNGS site. This program has saved more than 24,000 cubic feet of burial space and has reclaimed more than $1,000,000 worth of materials. Palo Verde has made numerous changes to the DAW segregation program since its inception. To ensure that the DAW segregation program remained cost effective and in compliance with applicable regulatory guidance, segregation techniques were revised and new equipment was evaluated and procured. This paper details that effort and summarizes the operational data that has been collected

  14. Rapid formation of the 110 K phase in Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O through freeze-drying powder processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Song, K.H.; Liu, H.K.; Dou, S.X.; Sorrell, C.C.

    1990-01-01

    This paper reports three techniques for processing Bi-Pb-Sr-Ca-Cu-O (BPSCCO) powders investigated: dry-mixing, sol-gel formation, and freeze-drying. It was found that sintering for 120 h at 850 degrees C is required to form nearly single-phase (Bi,Pb) 2 Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10-y by dry-mixing, whereas sintering for 30 h at 840 degrees C was sufficient to form the 110 K (2223) phase when freeze-drying was used. The sol-gel route was found to be intermediate in efficiency between these two techniques. Freeze-drying provided highly reactive, intimately mixed, and carbon-free precursors. The presence of carbonates in the uncalcined powders was the major cause of phase segregation and sluggishness of the 110 K phase formation

  15. The effect of acoustic and solar energy on drying process of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this research, accelerated drying of pistachios under open sun by applying power ultrasound was investigated. ► No constant falling rate period of drying was observed. ► By applying the 20 kHz ultrasound about 17 W/kg, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h. - Abstract: A new approach of ultrasound-assisted sun drying was tested in this study using a flat bed as product support and two extensional piezoelectric Bolt-clamped 20 kHz transducer elements. The mono layer of moist unshelled pistachios was dried under open sun by applying 500 and 1000 W power ultrasound. The results showed that the Page model was found to be the most suitable for describing drying curve of pistachios. But, the Logarithmic model was described to satisfactorily drying curve of pistachios for open sun method when the ultrasound power was turned off. By applying the ultrasound about 17 W/kg moist pistachios in thin layer, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h

  16. All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark W.; Maxwell, Brian E.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Hibbs, Michael S.; Eriksen, Lynn M.; Palmateer, Susan C.; Forte, Anthony R.

    1995-06-01

    We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all-dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225-micrometers and 0.200-micrometers line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-micrometers features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

  17. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  18. Effect of Hot-Water Blanching Pretreatment on Drying Characteristics and Product Qualities for the Novel Integrated Freeze-Drying of Apple Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hai-ou Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of hot-water blanching (HWB on drying characteristics and product qualities of dried apple slices with the novel integrated freeze-drying (NIFD process was investigated by comparing with 3 different FD methods. Compared with the NIFD process without HWB pretreatment (VF-FD, the NIFD process with HWB pretreatment (HWB-VF-FD resulted in a significantly higher mass loss and more sufficient freezing in vacuum-frozen samples, significantly higher rehydration ratio (RR, higher shrinkage ratio (SR, smaller Vitamin C (VC content and lower hardness and better apparent shape in freeze-dried samples, and fewer change to the color of the dried or rehydrated samples (p<0.05. Compared with the conventional FD process with HWB pretreatment (HWB-PF-FD, HWB-VF-FD cost significantly less processing time and FD time and obtained significantly higher RR (p<0.05, almost the equivalent SR, VC content, and hardness, and similar appearance in dried samples. The microstructure of apple cell tissues was analyzed by transmission electron microscopy and scanning electron microscopy to interpret the above differences in drying characteristics and product qualities. The results suggested that the NIFD process of apple slices with HWB pretreatment was a promising alternative method to decrease drying time, achieve similar product quality, and simplify the process steps of the conventional FD technology.

  19. Design of experiments-based monitoring of critical quality attributes for the spray-drying process of insulin by NIR spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maltesen, Morten Jonas; van de Weert, Marco; Grohganz, Holger

    2012-01-01

    Moisture content and aerodynamic particle size are critical quality attributes for spray-dried protein formulations. In this study, spray-dried insulin powders intended for pulmonary delivery were produced applying design of experiments methodology. Near infrared spectroscopy (NIR) in combination...... on the chemical information of the water molecules in the NIR spectrum. Models yielded prediction errors (RMSEP) between 0.39% and 0.48% with thermal gravimetric analysis used as reference method. The PLS models predicting the aerodynamic particle size were based on baseline offset in the NIR spectra and yielded...... less robust models with a Q (2) of 0.69. Based on the results in this study, NIR is a suitable tool for process analysis of the spray-drying process and for control of moisture content and particle size, in particular for smooth and spherical particles....

  20. New Ultrasonic Controller and Characterization System for Low Temperature Drying Process Intensification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrés, R. R.; Blanco, A.; Acosta, V. M.; Riera, E.; Martínez, I.; Pinto, A.

    Process intensification constitutes a high interesting and promising industrial area. It aims to modify conventional processes or develop new technologies in order to reduce energy needs, increase yields and improve product quality. It has been demonstrated by this research group (CSIC) that power ultrasound have a great potential in food drying processes. The effects associated with the application of power ultrasound can enhance heat and mass transfer and may constitute a way for process intensification. The objective of this work has been the design and development of a new ultrasonic system for the power characterization of piezoelectric plate-transducers, as excitation, monitoring, analysis, control and characterization of their nonlinear response. For this purpose, the system proposes a new, efficient and economic approach that separates the effect of different parameters of the process like excitation, medium and transducer parameters and variables (voltage, current, frequency, impedance, vibration velocity, acoustic pressure and temperature) by observing the electrical, mechanical, acoustical and thermal behavior, and controlling the vibrational state.

  1. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  2. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT IN OPERATING DRY PORTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an approach for recognizing and defining correct and operable performance will be presented with the purpose of evaluating the effectiveness and efficiency of processes in dry ports (inland intermodal hubs. The challenge in evaluating the possible improvements of the underlying processes lies in the special nature and the complex structure of dry ports. It is important to consider that all the processes are highly interconnected and that changes in parameters in one process also have an impact on parameters in other processes. Furthermore, the performance of dry ports, seen as the backbone of the system, has a significant impact on the overall performance of the whole transportation network.

  3. Vacuum drying of apples (cv. Golden Delicious): drying characteristics, thermodynamic properties, and mass transfer parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nadi, Fatemeh; Tzempelikos, Dimitrios

    2018-01-01

    In this work, apples of cv. Golden Delicious were cut into slices that were 5 and 7 mm thick and then vacuum dried at 50, 60 and 70 °C and pressure of 0.02 bar. The thin layer model drying kinetics was studied, and mass transfer properties, specifically effective moisture diffusivity and convective mass transfer coefficient, were evaluated using the Fick's equation of diffusion. Also, thermodynamic parameters of the process, i.e. enthalpy (ΔH), entropy (ΔS) and Gibbs free energy (ΔG), were determined. Colour properties were evaluated as one of the important indicators of food quality and marketability. Determination of mass transfer parameters and thermodynamic properties of vacuum dried apple slices has not been discussed much in the literature. In conclusion, the Nadi's model fitted best the observed data that represent the drying process. Thermodynamic properties were determined based on the dependence of the drying constant of the Henderson and Pabis model on temperature, and it was concluded that the variation in drying kinetics depends on the energy contribution of the surrounding environment. The enthalpy and entropy diminished, while the Gibbs free energy increased with the increase of the temperature of drying; therefore, it was possible to verify that variation in the diffusion process in the apple during drying depends on energetic contributions of the environment. The obtained results showed that diffusivity increased for 69%, while the mass transfer coefficient increase was even higher, 75%, at the variation of temperature of 20 °C. The increase in the dimensionless Biot number was 20%.

  4. Tools for studying dry-cured ham processing by using computed tomography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos-Garcés, Eva; Muñoz, Israel; Gou, Pere; Sala, Xavier; Fulladosa, Elena

    2012-01-11

    An accurate knowledge and optimization of dry-cured ham elaboration processes could help to reduce operating costs and maximize product quality. The development of nondestructive tools to characterize chemical parameters such as salt and water contents and a(w) during processing is of special interest. In this paper, predictive models for salt content (R(2) = 0.960 and RMSECV = 0.393), water content (R(2) = 0.912 and RMSECV = 1.751), and a(w) (R(2) = 0.906 and RMSECV = 0.008), which comprise the whole elaboration process, were developed. These predictive models were used to develop analytical tools such as distribution diagrams, line profiles, and regions of interest (ROIs) from the acquired computed tomography (CT) scans. These CT analytical tools provided quantitative information on salt, water, and a(w) in terms of content but also distribution throughout the process. The information obtained was applied to two industrial case studies. The main drawback of the predictive models and CT analytical tools is the disturbance that fat produces in water content and a(w) predictions.

  5. Single droplet drying step characterization in microsphere preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Zaitone, Belal; Lamprecht, Alf

    2013-05-01

    Spray drying processes are difficult to characterize since process parameters are not directly accessible. Acoustic levitation was used to investigate microencapsulation by spray drying on one single droplet facilitating the analyses of droplet behavior upon drying. Process parameters were simulated on a poly(lactide-co-glycolide)/ethyl acetate combination for microencapsulation. The results allowed quantifying the influence of process parameters such as temperature (0-40°C), polymer concentration (5-400 mg/ml), and droplet size (0.5-1.37 μl) on the drying time and drying kinetics as well as the particle morphology. The drying of polymer solutions at temperature of 21°C and concentration of 5 mg/ml, shows that the dimensionless particle diameter (Dp/D0) approaches 0.25 and the particle needs 350 s to dry. At 400 mg/ml, Dp/D0=0.8 and the drying time increases to one order of magnitude and a hollow particle is formed. The study demonstrates the benefit of using the acoustic levitator as a lab scale method to characterize and study the microparticle formation. This method can be considered as a helpful tool to mimic the full scale spray drying process by providing identical operational parameters such as air velocity, temperature, and variable droplet sizes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Synthesis, processing behavior, and characterization of bismuth superconductors using freeze dried nitrate precursors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Hults, W.L.; Smith, J.L.; Brynestad, J.

    1994-01-01

    The synthesis of Bi 2-x Pb x Sr 2 Ca 2 Cu 3 O 10 (Bi2223) powders from a freeze dried nitrate precursor is reported here. We examine the composition and morphology of the precursor material, describe the chemistry and kinetics of product formation, and evaluate the phase composition and superconducting properties of the products. A nitrate solution containing the appropriate ratio of cations was rapidly frozen and then freeze dried at low temperatures to form an atomic mixture of the component salts. The thermal processing of the freeze dried material consisted of three steps: (i) dehydration, (ii) denitration, and (iii) solid state reaction to form the Bi2223 superconducting product. Calcium substituted bismuthates and strontium-substituted calcium cuprate, not Bi2201, are the intermediates between the nitrates and the superconducting products. These highly disordered phases rapidly transform into Bi2212 or Bi2223 at higher temperatures (>790 degree C). The kinetics of product formation was studied using XRD analysis and magnetic susceptibility. The kinetics were shown to follow the nucleation and growth mechanism. Bi2223 formed after only 30 min at a few degrees below the melting point, and after 37 h Bi2223 products exhibited excellent phase composition and magnetic susceptibility characteristics

  8. Effect of steam thermal treatment on the drying process of Eucalyptus dunnii variables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elias Taylor Durgante Severo

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of steam treatment prior to drying on the initial moisture content, moisture gradient, and drying rate in Eucalyptus dunnii Maiden wood. Boards were steamed at 100ºC for 3 h after 1 h of heating-up. Part of these boards was dried in a drying electric oven at 50ºC, and part was dried at kiln. The results showed that the steaming prior to drying of wood: (1 significantly reduced by 9.2% the initial moisture content; (2 significantly increased by 6.2% the drying rate; (3 significantly decreased by 15.6 and 14.8% the moisture gradient between the outer layer and the center of boards and between the outer and intermediate layers of boards, respectively. Steamed boards when dried in an oven showed drying rate of 0.007065 whereas in kiln were 0.008200 and 0.034300 from green to 17 and 17 to 12% moisture content, respectively. It was demonstrated that the steaming prior to drying can be suitable for reduces the drying times of this kind of wood.

  9. Preparation of dry ports for a competitive environment in the container seaport system: A process benchmarking approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Jeevan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The significant exodus of containers inland due to the container revolution has increased the salience of inland terminals for efficient freight distribution. Further, the migration of containers gradually inland has forced seaports to depend on these inland terminals to determine their competitiveness and offer a mechanism for competitive freight price to the consumer. The performance of dry ports need to be improved along with the dynamic nature of maritime business, to efficiently fulfil the demand all the key players in the container seaport system, provide economies of scale and scope to their respective clients and enhances the importance of inland networks to improve and consistently elongate the competitiveness of container seaports. Predicated to these importance, this paper aims to enhance dry port performance by adapting a process benchmarking strategy among the Malaysian dry ports. Prior to the adaptation of the process benchmarking approach, a grounded theory had been conducted as a method of analysis among the key players of the Malaysian container seaport system in order to provide essential inputs for the benchmarking. Through this paper, the outcome shows all four Malaysian dry ports need to improve their transportation infrastructure and operation facilities, container planning strategy, competition, location and externalities in order to assist all the key players in the container seaport system efficiently and effectively.

  10. Parametrication of numerical simulation of drying process in atypicall condenzation lumber kiln

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiří Zejda

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deal with modelling of the process of drying, air flow, temperature and moisture distribution in a condensation lumber kiln. This model was made and solved in the computing system ANSYS with the use of the finite element method. There are comparationes of the 2D and 3D models, shape of wood stacks and variability of their parameters (height, width, length, cross section in the work. The flow velocity and orientation, pressure and temperature field were observed.

  11. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  12. Energy savings by optimization of drying processes through use of models and effective control; Energibesparelser ved optimering af toerreprocesser gennem anvendelse af modeller og effektiv regulering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Didriksen, H.; Sandvig Nielsen, J.; Weel Hansen, M.

    2001-06-01

    The aim of the project is to present a procedure to optimize existing drying processes. The optimization deals with energy consumption, capacity utilization and product quality. Other factors can also be included in the optimization, e.g. minimization of volume of discharged air. The optimization of existing drying processes will use calculation tool based on a mathematical simulation model for the process to calculate the most optimum operation situation on the basis of given conditions. In the project mathematical models have been developed precisely with this aim. The calculation tools have been developed with a user interface so that the tools can be used by technical staff in industrial companies and by consultants. The project also illustrates control of drying processes. Based on the developed models, the effect of using different types of control strategies by means of model simulations is illustrated. Three types of drying processes are treated: drum dryers, disc dryers and drying chambers. The work with the development of the simulation models has been very central in the project, as these have to be the basis for the optimization of the processes. The work is based on a large amount of information from academical literature and knowledge and experience about modelling thermal processes at dk-TEKNIK. The models constitute the core in the simulation programmes. The models describe the most important physical effects in connection with mass and energy transfer and transport under the drying for the three treated drying technologies. (EHS)

  13. Role of Biotic and Abiotic Processes on Soil CO2 Dynamics in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risk, D. A.; Macintyre, C. M.; Lee, C.; Cary, C.; Shanhun, F.; Almond, P. C.

    2016-12-01

    In the harsh conditions of the Antarctic Dry Valleys, microbial activity has been recorded via measurements of soil carbon dioxide (CO2) concentration and surface efflux. However, high temporal resolution studies in the Dry Valleys have also shown that abiotic solubility-driven processes can strongly influence (and perhaps even dominate) the CO2 dynamics in these low flux environments and suggests that biological activity may be lower than previously thought. In this study, we aim to improve our understanding of CO2 dynamics (biotic and abiotic) in Antarctic Dry Valley soils using long-term automated measurements of soil CO2 surface flux and soil profile concentration at several sites, often at sub-diel frequency. We hypothesize that soil CO2 variations are driven primarily by environmental factors affecting CO2 solubility in soil solution, mainly temperature, and that these processes may even overprint biologic production in representative Dry Valley soils. Monitoring of all sites revealed only one likely biotic CO2 production event, lasting three weeks during the Austral summer and reaching fluxes of 0.4 µmol/m2/s. Under more typical low flux conditions (sampling campaigns. Subsurface CO2 monitoring and a lab-controlled Antarctic soil simulation experiment confirmed that abiotic processes are capable of dominating soil CO2 variability. Diel temperature cycles crossing the freezing boundary revealed a dual abiotic cycle of solubility cycling and gas exclusion from ice formation observed only by high temporal frequency measurements (30 min). This work demonstrates a need for a numerical model to partition the dynamic abiotic processes underlying any biotic CO2 production in order to understand potential climate-change induced increases in microbial productivity in terrestrial Antarctica.

  14. Evaluation of drying methods with respect to drying parameters, some nutritional and colour characteristics of peppermint (Mentha x piperita L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arslan, Derya; Ozcan, M. Musa; Menges, Hakan Okyay

    2010-01-01

    Peppermint leaves (Mentha x piperita L.) were dried by using sun, oven (50 deg. C) and microwave oven (700 W) drying methods. Page, Modified page, Midilli and Kuecuek models adequately described the oven, sun and microwave oven drying behaviours of peppermint leaves. The drying process was explicated through the diffusional model in order to obtain effective diffusivity values, which were determined as 3.10 x 10 -12 , 2.68 x 10 -12 and 4.09 x 10 -10 for the sun, oven and microwave oven drying process, respectively. Fresh and dried herbs had high amounts of K, Ca, P, Mg, Fe and Al minerals. Microwave oven drying method leaded to the lowest increase in Ag, Al, B, Na, Mn, Mg and Zn values than the other drying methods. Microwave oven drying shortened the drying time, revealed the highest phenolic content and optimum colour values.

  15. Drying of plasterboard - some quality aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesman, L. (University of Lund (Sweden)); Wimmerstedt, R. (University of Lund (Sweden))

    1993-06-01

    The manufacture process, especially the drying operation, of plasterboard was studied. The purpose was to measure physical properties, which can be used for the optimization of the process with respect to energy and quality. The cardboard was found to be hygroscopic whereas the gypsum was not. It was determined that the chloride content in the gypsum raw material should not exceed 75 ppm. The starch was found to migrate towards the surface of the gypsum core during the drying process (air temperture 140 C, dew-point of air 30 C and air velocity 10 m/s). The drying of different qualitites of plasterboard was also investigated. It was found that the cardboard is a very important parameter whereas the gypsum core has little effect on the drying rate and core temperature. (orig.)

  16. Particle dry deposition to water surfaces: Processes and consequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pryor, S.C.; Barthelmie, R.J.

    2000-01-01

    flux to coastal waters, atmosphere-surface exchange represents a significant component of the total flux and may be particularly critical during the summertime when both the riverine input and ambient nutrient concentrations are often at a minimum. In this chapter, we present an overview...... of the physical and chemical processes which dictate the quantity (and direction) of atmosphere-surface fluxes of trace chemicals to (and above) water surfaces with particular emphasis on the role of particles. Dry deposition (transfer to the surface in the absence of precipitation) of particles is determined...... efforts to simulate and measure fluxes close to the coastline. These arise in part from the complexity of atmospheric flow in this region where energy and chemical fluxes are highly inhomogeneous in space and time and thermally generated atmospheric circulations are commonplace. (C) 2000 Elsevier Science...

  17. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, D.C.; Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. → Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. → HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. → Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  18. Feasibility analysis of heat pump dryer to dry hawthorn cake

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, D.C., E-mail: wdechang@163.com [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China); Zhang, G.; Han, Y.P.; Zhang, J.P.; Tian, X.L. [College of Electromechanical Engineering, Qingdao University, Qingdao 266071 (China)

    2011-08-15

    Highlights: {yields} A heat pump dryer (HPD) is effectively proposed to dry hawthorn cake-likely materials. {yields} Low drying temperature and high COP of heat pump are obtained in drying beginning. {yields} HPD is more effective, economic than a traditional hot air dryer. {yields} Feasibility of the HPD is also validated by the operation economy estimation. - Abstract: A heat pump dryer (HPD) would be an economic, environmentally friendly, hygienic drying machine used to dry some food, such as hawthorn cakes. Based on the production process of the hawthorn cake, a HPD is proposed and its basic principle is introduced. The experimental drying curves of the hawthorn cake using the heat pump drying method and the traditional hot air drying method are compared and analyzed. The drying process of hawthorn cakes is similar to that of the other drying materials. The higher drying temperature causes a faster drying process. But in the initial stage of the heat pump drying process, the water content of the hawthorn cake is not sensitive to the drying temperature, so a lower drying air temperature can be available in order to get a higher coefficient of performance (COP) of the heat pump (HP). The experimental results and the economic analysis indicate that the HPD is feasibly used to dry hawthorn cakes.

  19. Criticality safety evaluation report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility's process water handling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roblyer, S.D.

    1998-01-01

    This report addresses the criticality concerns associated with process water handling in the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). The controls and limitations on equipment design and operations to control potential criticality occurrences are identified. The effectiveness of equipment design and operation controls in preventing criticality occurrences during normal and abnormal conditions is evaluated and documented in this report. Spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is removed from existing canisters in both the K East and K West Basins and loaded into a multicanister overpack (MCO) in the K Basin pool. The MCO is housed in a shipping cask surrounded by clean water in the annulus between the exterior of the MCO and the interior of the shipping cask. The fuel consists of spent N Reactor and some single pass reactor fuel. The MCO is transported to the CVDF near the K Basins to remove process water from the MCO interior and from the shipping cask annulus. After the bulk water is removed from the MCO, any remaining free liquid is removed by drawing a vacuum on the MCO's interior. After cold vacuum drying is completed, the MCO is filled with an inert cover gas, the lid is replaced on the shipping cask, and the MCO is transported to the Canister Storage Building. The process water removed from the MCO contains fissionable materials from metallic uranium corrosion. The process water from the MCO is first collected in a geometrically safe process water conditioning receiver tank. The process water in the process water conditioning receiver tank is tested, then filtered, demineralized, and collected in the storage tank. The process water is finally removed from the storage tank and transported from the CVDF by truck

  20. Physical quality characteristics of the microwave-dried breadfruit powders due to different processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna, I.; Hakim, A. L.; Sutarsi

    2018-03-01

    Production of breadfruit powder has been an option to make easy its uses in various food processing. Accordingly, there is a need recently to apply advanced drying method, i.e. microwave drying, for improving quality since conventional methods produced highly variable product quality and required longer process. The present work was aimed to study the effect of microwave power and grinding time on physical quality of breadfruit powders. The experiment was done initially by drying breadfruit slices in a microwave dryer at power level of 420, 540, and 720 W and then grinding for 3, 5, and 7 min to get powdery product of less than 80 mesh. The physical quality of breadfruit powders were measured in terms of fineness modulus (FM), average particle size (D), whiteness (WI), total color difference (ΔE), water absorption (Wa), oil absorption (La), bulk density (ρb) and consistency gel (Gc). The results showed that physical quality of powders and its ranged-values included the FM (2.08-2.62), D (0.44-0.68 mm), WI (75.2-77.9), ΔE (7.4-10.5), Wa (5.5-6.2 ml/g), La (0.7-0.9 ml/g), ρb (0.62-0.70 g/cm3) and Gc (41.3-46.8 mm). The experiment revealed that variation of microwave power and grinding time affected significantly the quality of the breadfruit powders. However, microwave power was more dominant factor to affect quality of breadfruit powder in comparison to the grinding time.

  1. Development of automated control system for wood drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sereda, T. G.; Kostarev, S. N.

    2018-05-01

    The article considers the parameters of convective wood drying which allows changing the characteristics of the air that performs drying at different stages: humidity, temperature, speed and direction of air movement. Despite the prevalence of this type of drying equipment, the main drawbacks of it are: the high temperature and humidity, negatively affecting the working conditions of maintenance personnel when they enter the drying chambers. It makes the automation of wood drying process necessary. The synthesis of a finite state of a machine control of wood drying process is implemented on a programmable logic device Omron.

  2. Real-time particle size analysis using focused beam reflectance measurement as a process analytical technology tool for a continuous granulation-drying-milling process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Taylor, Michael K; Mehrotra, Amit; Stagner, William C

    2013-06-01

    Focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) was used as a process analytical technology tool to perform inline real-time particle size analysis of a proprietary granulation manufactured using a continuous twin-screw granulation-drying-milling process. A significant relationship between D20, D50, and D80 length-weighted chord length and sieve particle size was observed with a p value of 0.05).

  3. Wet and dry deposition and resuspension of AFCT/TFCT fuel processing radionuclides. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Slinn, W.G.N.; Katen, P.C.; Wolf, M.A.; Loveland, W.D.; Radke, L.F.; Miller, E.L.; Ghannam, L.J.; Reynolds, B.W.; Vickers, D.

    1979-09-01

    After short summary and introductory chapters, Chapter IV contains a critical analysis of available parameterizations for resuspension and for wet and dry removal processes and recommends interim parameterizations for use in radiation dose calculations. Chapter V describes methods and experimental results from field studies of in-cloud vs below-cloud scavenging, precipitation efficiency, and modifications of aerosols by clouds. In Chapter VI are contained descriptions of methods and results from four different approaches to the problem of measuring the dry deposition velocities of submicron aerosol particles depositing on vegetation. Chapter VII describes experimental results from a study of resuspension and weathering of tracer aerosol particles deposited on soil, grass and gravel; typical resuspension rates were found to be of the order of 10 -8 s -1 and it is recommended that the concept of weathering be reassessed. In Chapter VIII, National Weather Service data are used to obtain Lagrangian statistics for use in a regional-scale study of wet and dry removal. Chapter IX develops new concepts in reservoir models for application at regional to global scales. In the final chapter are some comments about the results found in this study and recommendations for future research

  4. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  5. Experimental investigation on influence of porous material properties on drying process by a hot air jet

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Marco, P; Filippeschi, S

    2012-01-01

    The drying process of porous media is a subject of scientific interest, and different mathematical approaches can be found in the literature. A previous paper by the same authors showed that the celebrated Martin correlation for hot air jet heat and mass transfer yields different degrees of accuracy (from 15% to 65%, increasing at high values of input power) if tested on different fabrics, the remaining conditions being the same. In this paper the fabric drying has been experimentally investigated more in depth. A dedicated experimental apparatus for hot jet drying was assembled and operated, in which a hot jet impinges perpendicularly onto a wet fabric. A calibrated orifice was adopted to measure the jet flow rate, with an accuracy better than 3%. The drying power was determined by continuously weighing with a precision scale a moistened patch exposed to the drying jet. The effect of the time of the exposure and the initial amount of water has been evaluated for each sample. During the hot jet exposure, the temperature distribution over the wet patch has been observed by an infrared thermo-camera. A mathematical model of water transport inside and outside the fabric was developed, in order to evidence the governing transport resistances. The theoretical predictions have been compared with the experimental results, and showed the necessity to modify correlations and models accounting for fabric properties.

  6. Effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the drying process of pellets for japanese abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to study the effect of air-temperature and diet composition on the mass transfer kinetics during the drying process of pellets used for Japanese Abalone (Haliotis discus hannai feeding. In the experimental design, three temperatures were used for convective drying, as well as three different diet compositions (Diets A, B and C, in which the amount of fishmeal, spirulin, algae, fish oil and cornstarch varied. The water diffusion coefficient of the pellets was determined using the equation of Fick's second law, which resulted in values between 0.84-1.94×10-10 m²/s. The drying kinetics was modeled using Page, Modified Page, Root of time, Exponential, Logarithmic, Two-Terms, Modified Henderson-Pabis and Weibull models. In addition, two new models, referred to as 'Proposed' models 1 and 2, were used to simulate this process. According to the statistical tests applied, the models that best fitted the experimental data were Modified Henderson-Pabis, Weibull and Proposed model 2, respectively. Bifactorial analysis of variance ANOVA showed that Diet A (fishmeal 44%, spirulin 9%, fish oil 1% and cornstarch 36% presented the highest diffusion coefficient values, which were favored by the temperature increase in the drying process.

  7. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  8. Quality characteristic of spray-drying egg white powders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Shuang; Zhao, Songning; Zhang, Yan; Yu, Yiding; Liu, Jingbo; Xu, Menglei

    2013-10-01

    Spray drying is a useful method for developing egg process and utilization. The objective of this study was to evaluate effects on spray drying condition of egg white. The optimized conditions were spraying flow 22 mL/min, feeding temperature 39.8 °C and inlet-air temperature 178.2 °C. Results of sulfydryl (SH) groups measurement indicated conformation structure have changed resulting in protein molecule occur S-S crosslinking phenomenon when heating. It led to free SH content decreased during spray drying process. There was almost no change of differential scanning calorimetry between fresh egg white and spray-drying egg white powder (EWP). For a given protein, the apparent SH reactivity is in turn influenced by the physico-chemical characteristics of the reactant. The phenomenon illustrated the thermal denaturation of these proteins was unrelated to their free SH contents. Color measurement was used to study browning level. EWP in optimized conditions revealed insignificant brown stain. Swelling capacity and scanning electron micrograph both proved well quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP. Results suggested spray drying under the optimized conditions present suitable and alternative method for egg processing industrial implementation. Egg food industrialization needs new drying method to extend shelf-life. The purpose of the study was to provide optimal process of healthy and nutritional instant spray-drying EWP and study quality characteristic of spray-drying EWP.

  9. Management type affects composition and facilitative processes in altoandine dry grassland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catorci, Andrea; Cesaretti, Sabrina; Velasquez, Jose Luis; Burrascano, Sabina; Zeballos, Horacio

    2013-10-01

    We performed our study in the Dry Puna of the southern Peruvian Andes. Through a comparative approach we aimed to assess the effects of the two management systems, low grazing pressure by wild camelids vs. high grazing pressure by domestic livestock and periodic burning. Our general hypothesis was that the traditional high disturbance regime affects the dry Puna species diversity and composition through modifications of the magnitude of plant-plant-interactions and changes of the community structure due to shifts in species dominance. In 40 plots of 10 × 10 m, the cover value of each species was recorded and the species richness, floristic diversity, and community similarity of each treatment were compared. For each disturbance regime, differences of soil features (organic matter, carbon/nitrogen ratio, and potassium content) were tested. To evaluate plant-plant interactions, 4 linear transect divided into 500 plots of 10 × 10 cm were laid out and co-occurrence analysis was performed. We found that different disturbance regimes were associated with differences in the floristic composition, and that the high disturbance condition had lower species diversity and evenness. A decrease of tall species such as Festuca orthophylla and increase of dwarf and spiny Tetraglochin cristatum shrubs was observed as well. In addition, different disturbance intensities caused differences in the functional composition of the plant communities, since species with avoidance strategies are selected by high grazing pressure. High disturbance intensity was also associated to differences of soil features and to different clumped spatial structure of the dry Puna. Our results indicate also that: positive interactions are often species-specific mainly depending on the features of nurse and beneficiary species; the importance of positive interaction is higher at low grazing pressure than at high disturbance intensity; the magnitude and direction of the herbivory-mediated facilitation

  10. Utilization of geothermal energy for drying fish products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arason, S.; Arnason, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper is about industrial uses of geothermal energy for drying of fish products. Drying is an ancient method for preservation of foods, the main purpose of which is to increase the preservation time. For drying, an external source of energy is needed to extract water. In this paper an emphasis is placed on drying fish and associated processes, and how geothermal energy can be used to substitute oil or electricity. The Icelandic Fisheries Laboratories have been experimenting with different methods of drying, and several drying stations have been designed for indoor drying of fish products. Today there are more than a dozen companies in this country which are drying fish indoors using for that purpose electricity and/or geothermal energy. Further possibilities are available when fish processing plants are located in geothermal areas

  11. Breakage and drying behaviour of granules in a continuous fluid bed dryer: Influence of process parameters and wet granule transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Leersnyder, F; Vanhoorne, V; Bekaert, H; Vercruysse, J; Ghijs, M; Bostijn, N; Verstraeten, M; Cappuyns, P; Van Assche, I; Vander Heyden, Y; Ziemons, E; Remon, J P; Nopens, I; Vervaet, C; De Beer, T

    2018-03-30

    Although twin screw granulation has already been widely studied in recent years, only few studies addressed the subsequent continuous drying which is required after wet granulation and still suffers from a lack of detailed understanding. The latter is important for optimisation and control and, hence, a cost-effective practical implementation. Therefore, the aim of the current study is to increase understanding of the drying kinetics and the breakage and attrition phenomena during fluid bed drying after continuous twin screw granulation. Experiments were performed on a continuous manufacturing line consisting of a twin-screw granulator, a six-segmented fluid bed dryer, a mill, a lubricant blender and a tablet press. Granulation parameters were fixed in order to only examine the effect of drying parameters (filling time, drying time, air flow, drying air temperature) on the size distribution and moisture content of granules (both of the entire granulate and of size fractions). The wet granules were transferred either gravimetrically or pneumatically from the granulator exit to the fluid bed dryer. After a certain drying time, the moisture content reached an equilibrium. This drying time was found to depend on the applied airflow, drying air temperature and filling time. The moisture content of the granules decreased with an increasing drying time, airflow and drying temperature. Although smaller granules dried faster, the multimodal particle size distribution of the granules did not compromise uniform drying of the granules when the target moisture content was achieved. Extensive breakage of granules was observed during drying. Especially wet granules were prone to breakage and attrition during pneumatic transport, either in the wet transfer line or in the dry transfer line. Breakage and attrition of granules during transport and drying should be anticipated early on during process and formulation development by performing integrated experiments on the granulator

  12. CFD modelling of condensers for freeze-drying processes

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Freeze-drying; condenser; CFD simulation; mathematical modelling; ... it is used for the stabilization and storage of delicate, heat-sensitive materials .... The effect of the surface mass transfer has been included in the continuity equation and.

  13. Evaluation of a dry process for conversion of U-AVLIS product to UF{sub 6}. Milestone U361

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1992-05-01

    A technical and engineering evaluation has been completed for a dry UF{sub 6} production system to convert the product of an initial two-line U-AVLIS plant. The objective of the study has been to develop a better understanding of process design requirements, capital and operating costs, and demonstration requirements for this alternate process. This report summarizes the results of the study and presents various comparisons between the baseline and alternate processes, building on the information contained in UF{sub 6} Product Alternatives Review Committee -- Final Report. It also provides additional information on flowsheet variations for the dry route which may warrant further consideration. The information developed by this study and conceptual design information for the baseline process will be combined with information to be developed by the U-AVLIS program and by industrial participants over the next twelve months to permit a further comparison of the baseline and alternate processes in terms of cost, risk, and compatibility with U-AVLIS deployment schedules and strategies. This comparative information will be used to make a final process flowsheet selection for the initial U-AVLIS plant by March 1993. The process studied is the alternate UF{sub 6} production flowsheet. Process steps are (1) electron-beam distillation to reduce enriched product iron content from about 10 wt % or less, (2) hydrofluorination of the metal to UF{sub 4}, (3) fluorination of UF{sub 4} to UF{sub 6}, (4) cold trap collection of the UF{sub 6} product, (5) UF{sub 6} purification by distillation, and (6) final blending and packaging of the purified UF{sub 6} in cylinders. A preliminary system design has been prepared for the dry UF{sub 6} production process based on currently available technical information. For some process steps, such information is quite limited. Comparisons have been made between this alternate process and the baseline plant process for UF{sub 6} production.

  14. Influence of chemical, physical and texture characteristics in the dry milled clays micro granulation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bernardes, L.B.; Moreno, M.M.T.

    2012-01-01

    We studied the effects of the granulation in ceramic dry process classified as BIIb. For this we used a high intensity granulator to obtain information on the technical and economic viability in the production line and the possible contributions to the improvement of the process. Industrial compositions of clays were used. These materials were processed under different conditions and subsequently processed for obtaining the ceramic bodies pressed. The results indicate that the use of high intensity granulator, with or without modifications to the particle size distribution of mass, can decrease the firing cycle and / or sintering temperature of the ceramic, causing economic gain (author)

  15. Use of a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system during formulation development and process optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vercruysse, J; Peeters, E; Fonteyne, M; Cappuyns, P; Delaet, U; Van Assche, I; De Beer, T; Remon, J P; Vervaet, C

    2015-01-01

    Since small scale is key for successful introduction of continuous techniques in the pharmaceutical industry to allow its use during formulation development and process optimization, it is essential to determine whether the product quality is similar when small quantities of materials are processed compared to the continuous processing of larger quantities. Therefore, the aim of this study was to investigate whether material processed in a single cell of the six-segmented fluid bed dryer of the ConsiGma™-25 system (a continuous twin screw granulation and drying system introduced by GEA Pharma Systems, Collette™, Wommelgem, Belgium) is predictive of granule and tablet quality during full-scale manufacturing when all drying cells are filled. Furthermore, the performance of the ConsiGma™-1 system (a mobile laboratory unit) was evaluated and compared to the ConsiGma™-25 system. A premix of two active ingredients, powdered cellulose, maize starch, pregelatinized starch and sodium starch glycolate was granulated with distilled water. After drying and milling (1000 μm, 800 rpm), granules were blended with magnesium stearate and compressed using a Modul™ P tablet press (tablet weight: 430 mg, main compression force: 12 kN). Single cell experiments using the ConsiGma™-25 system and ConsiGma™-1 system were performed in triplicate. Additionally, a 1h continuous run using the ConsiGma™-25 system was executed. Process outcomes (torque, barrel wall temperature, product temperature during drying) and granule (residual moisture content, particle size distribution, bulk and tapped density, hausner ratio, friability) as well as tablet (hardness, friability, disintegration time and dissolution) quality attributes were evaluated. By performing a 1h continuous run, it was detected that a stabilization period was needed for torque and barrel wall temperature due to initial layering of the screws and the screw chamber walls with material. Consequently, slightly deviating

  16. Advantages and Challenges of Dried Blood Spot Analysis by Mass Spectrometry Across the Total Testing Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Rosita; Allen, Katrina J.; Koplin, Jennifer J.; Roche, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Through the introduction of advanced analytical techniques and improved throughput, the scope of dried blood spot testing utilising mass spectrometric methods, has broadly expanded. Clinicians and researchers have become very enthusiastic about the potential applications of dried blood spot based mass spectrometric applications. Analysts on the other hand face challenges of sensitivity, reproducibility and overall accuracy of dried blood spot quantification. In this review, we aim to bring together these two facets to discuss the advantages and current challenges of non-newborn screening applications of dried blood spot quantification by mass spectrometry. Methods To address these aims we performed a key word search of the PubMed and MEDLINE online databases in conjunction with individual manual searches to gather information. Keywords for the initial search included; “blood spot” and “mass spectrometry”; while excluding “newborn”; and “neonate”. In addition, databases were restricted to English language and human specific. There was no time period limit applied. Results As a result of these selection criteria, 194 references were identified for review. For presentation, this information is divided into: 1) clinical applications; and 2) analytical considerations across the total testing process; being pre-analytical, analytical and post-analytical considerations. Conclusions DBS analysis using MS applications is now broadly applied, with drug monitoring for both therapeutic and toxicological analysis being the most extensively reported. Several parameters can affect the accuracy of DBS measurement and further bridge experiments are required to develop adjustment rules for comparability between dried blood spot measures and the equivalent serum/plasma values. Likewise, the establishment of independent reference intervals for dried blood spot sample matrix is required. PMID:28149263

  17. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  18. Effect of deposition temperature and thermal annealing on the dry etch rate of a-C: H films for the dry etch hard process of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Moo; Won, Jaihyung; Yim, Soyoung; Park, Se Jun; Choi, Jongsik; Kim, Jeongtae; Lee, Hyeondeok; Byun, Dongjin

    2012-01-01

    thermal annealing of the high density, as-deposited a-C:H films. Furthermore, not only the density itself but also the variation of density with thermal annealing need to be elucidated in order to understand the dry etch properties of annealed a-C:H films. - Highlights: ► A-C:H(amorphous carbon) films are grown for using hard mask in dry etch process by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition and annealed. ► Physical, chemical and mechanical properties of grown amorphous carbon films are changed by hydrogen and hydrocarbon contents, be determined by deposition and annealing temperature. ► Dry etch rate of a-C:H films is decreased and the film density increased through thermal annealing with high density, low hydrogen content, as-deposited film.

  19. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  20. Biodegradability of poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate) (PBSA) controlled by temperature during the dried-gel process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamazaki, Hana; Maeda, Tomoki; Hotta, Atsushi

    Currently there is a growing interest in biodegradable plastics that can be readily degraded into H2O and CO2. Among them, poly(butylene succinate-co-butylene adipate)(PBSA) is one of the mechanically attractive materials that can be biodegraded by surrounding water molecules and microorganisms after the disposal of the plastics. In order to expand the use of PBSA, the proper and effective control of the biodegradability of PBSA should be realized. In this work, the dried-gel process of the PBSA was carefully studied considering the temperature of the process. Three different types of dried PBSA gels were prepared at three different gel-process temperatures. From the biodegradability testing by immersing the PBSA samples in NaOH aq., it was found that the percentage of the weight loss of the PBSA was increased, indicating that the biodegradability was enhanced as the gel preparation temperature became lower. In fact, smaller spherocrystals were observed in PBSA dried at cooler temperature, studied by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). It was therefore concluded that the microstructures of PBSA could be well controlled by changing the gel preparation temperatures for the precise control of the biodegradability of PBSA. This work was supported by a Grant-in-Aid for Scientific Research (A) (No. 15H02298 to A.H.) and a Grant-in-Aid for Research Activity Start-up (No.15H06586 to T.M.) from JSPS: KAKENHI\\x9D.

  1. Explore the influence of agglomeration on electrochemical performance of an amorphous MnO2/C composite by controlling drying process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Mangwei; Kang, Litao; Shi, Mingjie; Xie, Lingli; Wang, Xiaomin; Zhao, Zhe; Yun, Shan; Liang, Wei

    2017-09-01

    Amorphous MnO2/C composite is prepared by a facile redox reaction between potassium permanganate (KMnO4) and commercial black pen ink. Afterwards, two different drying processes, air drying or freeze drying, are employed to adjust the agglomeration state of particles in samples and explore its influence on capacitive performance. Experimental results indicate that the air-dried sample demonstrates much better cycling stability than the freeze-dried one (capacity retention at 5000 cycles: 70.9 vs. 60.7%), probably because of the relatively strong agglomeration between particles in this sample. Nevertheless, strong agglomeration seems to deteriorate the specific capacitance (from 492 down to 440.5 F/g at 1 A/g) due to the decrease of porosity and specific surface area. This study suggests that agglomeration of primary particles plays an important role to balance the specific capacitance and cycling stability for electrode materials.

  2. State of polyphenols in the drying process of fruits and vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McSweeney, M; Seetharaman, K

    2015-01-01

    This review presents an overview of drying technologies and its impact on the polyphenol content of vegetables and fruits. Polyphenols contribute to many health benefits and can act as antioxidants. Specifically an increased intake of polyphenols has been shown to decrease the incidence of cardiovascular disease; furthermore, it has been shown to help reduce the risk of neurodegenerative diseases in humans. Many researchers have reported on the effect of different drying techniques on the polyphenol content in fruits and vegetables. Polyphenol degradation mechanisms proposed in literature and pretreatments that potentially lead to higher retention of polyphenols during drying are also discussed.

  3. Synthesis and electrochemical characteristics of spinel LiMn2O4 via a precipitation spray-drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wu, H.M.; Tu, J.P.; Yuan, Y.F.; Li, Y.; Zhao, X.B.; Cao, G.S.

    2005-01-01

    Spinel LiMn 2 O 4 has been successfully synthesized using a precipitation spray-drying process. After the precursor was annealed at 750 deg. C for 10 h, the synthesized material was well-crystallized spinel particle, and exhibited uniform particle size distribution. From cyclic voltammetry results, there is an anomalous redox peaks (3.75/3.26 V). In the charge/discharge potential (versus Li) ranging from 3.2 to 4.5 V, it delivered a high initial discharge capacity of 123 mAh/g at a discharge rate of 60 μA/cm 2 (1/4 C rate). At a high discharge rate of 2.4 mA/cm 2 (10 C rate), the obtainable reversible capacity was 79 mAh/g. The simple procedure of precipitation spray-drying process is time and energy saving, and thus is promising for commercial application

  4. The Influence of Log Felling Season on the Extent of Discoloration in Rubberwood Sawn Timber during the Kiln Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jegatheswaran Ratnasingam

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of felling season on the discoloration of rubberwood sawn timber during conventional kiln drying. The samples were collected throughout the year 2015 to monitor the variation of free sugars and starch content in the rubberwood logs. Two batches of logs, one from the rainy season and the other from the dry season, were felled and sawn for experimentation. The findings showed that discoloration was more prominent in sawn timber obtained from logs felled during the dry season. The amount of free sugars and starch in the logs had a strong influence on the extent of discoloration in the rubberwood sawn timber during the kiln drying process. A higher amount of free sugars and starch in the logs felled during the dry season increased the incidence of blue stain on these logs. The results of this study conclusively showed that discoloration in rubberwood can be minimized by the choice of log felling season and the use of an appropriate drying technique, which will inevitably improve the aesthetic appeal of the wood.

  5. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacatalina, J V; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V; Mulet, A; Simal, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms −1 ), temperature (−10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm −3 ,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  6. Moisture and drug solid-state monitoring during a continuous drying process using empirical and mass balance models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fonteyne, Margot; Gildemyn, Delphine; Peeters, Elisabeth

    2014-01-01

    of Process Analytical Technology (PAT) tools (Raman and NIR spectroscopy) and a mass balance approach. The six-segmented fluid bed drying system being part of a fully continuous from-powder-to-tablet production line (ConsiGma™-25) was used for this study. A theophylline:lactose:PVP (30:67.5:2.5) blend......, the different size fractions of the dried granules obtained during different experiments (fines, yield and oversized granules) were compared separately, revealing differences in both solid state of theophylline and moisture content between the different granule size fractions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights...... reserved...

  7. Preliminary Design Report Shippingport Spent Fuel Drying and Inerting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    JEPPSON, D.W.

    2000-01-01

    A process description and system flow sheets have been prepared to support the design/build package for the Shippingport Spent Fuel Canister drying and inerting process skid. A process flow diagram was prepared to show the general steps to dry and inert the Shippingport fuel loaded into SSFCs for transport and dry storage. Flow sheets have been prepared to show the flows and conditions for the various steps of the drying and inerting process. Calculations and data supporting the development of the flow sheets are included

  8. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  9. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  10. Differences in fundamental and functional properties of HPMC co-processed fillers prepared by fluid-bed coating and spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, QianQian; Zhou, MiaoMiao; Lin, Xiao; Shen, Lan; Feng, Yi

    2018-07-01

    This study aimed to develop novel co-processed tablet fillers based on the principle of particle engineering for direct compaction and to compare the characteristics of co-processed products obtained by fluid-bed coating and co-spray drying, respectively. Water-soluble mannitol and water-insoluble calcium carbonate were selected as representative fillers for this study. Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), serving as a surface property modifier, was distributed on the surface of primary filler particles via the two co-processing methods. Both fundamental and functional properties of the products were comparatively investigated. The results showed that functional properties of the fillers, like flowability, compactibility, and drug-loading capacity, were effectively improved by both co-processing methods. However, fluid-bed coating showed greater advantages over co-spray drying in some aspects, which was mainly attributed to the remarkable differences in some fundamental properties of co-processed powders, like particle size, surface topology, and particle structure. For example, the more irregular surface and porous structure induced by fluid-bed coating could contribute to better compaction properties and lower lubricant sensitivity due to the increasing contact area and mechanical interlocking between particles under pressure. More effective surface distribution of HPMC during fluid-bed coating was also a contributor. In addition, such a porous agglomerate structure could also reduce the separation of drug and excipients after mixing, resulting in the improvement in drug loading capacity and tablet uniformity. In summary, fluid-bed coating appears to be more promising for co-processing than spray drying in some aspects, and co-processed excipients produced by it have a great prospect for further investigations and development. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  12. [Investigation on Spray Drying Technology of Auricularia auricular Extract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Rong; Chen, Hui; Xie, Yuan; Chen, Peng; Wang, Luo-lin

    2015-07-01

    To investigate the feasibility of spray drying technology of Auricularia auricular extract and its optimum process. On the basis of single factor test, with the yield of dry extract and the content of polysaccharide as indexes, orthogonal test method was used to optimize the spray drying technology on the inlet air temperature, injection speed and crude drug content. Using ultraviolet spectrophotometry, thin layer chromatography(TLC) and pharmacodynamics as indicators, extracts prepared by traditional alcohol precipitation drying process and spray drying process were compared. Compared with the traditional preparation method, the extract prepared by spray drying had little differences from the polysaccharide content, TLC and the function of reducing TG and TC, and its optimum technology condition were as follows: The inlet air temperature was 180 °C, injection speed was 10 ml/min and crude drugs content was 0. 4 g/mL. Auricularia auricular extract by spray drying technology is stable and feasible with high economic benefit.

  13. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  14. Effects of drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment on the composting process of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Gui-Hong; Yu, Yan-Ling; Zhou, Xiang-Tong; Lu, Bin-Yu; Li, Zi-Mu; Feng, Yu-Jie

    2017-05-01

    The main characteristic of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves is their high nicotine content. Aerobic composting is an effective method to decrease the nicotine level in tobacco leaves and stabilize tobacco wastes. However, high levels of nicotine in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves complicate tobacco waste composting. This work proposes a drying pretreatment process to reduce the nicotine content in discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves and thus enhance its carbon-to-nitrogen ratio to a suitable level for composting. The effect of another pretreatment method, particle size adjustment, on composting efficiency was also tested in this work. The results indicated that the air-dried (nicotine content: 1.35%) and relatively long discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (25 mm) had a higher composting efficiency than damp (nicotine content: 1.57%) and short discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves (15 mm). When dry/25 mm discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves mixed with tobacco stems in an 8:2 ratio was composted at a temperature above 55 °C for 9 days, the nicotine content dropped from 1.29% to 0.28%. Since the discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves was successfully composted to a fertile and harmless material, the germination index values increased to 85.2%. The drying pretreatment and particle size adjustment offered ideal physical and chemical conditions to support microbial growth and bioactivity during the composting process, resulting in efficient conversion of discarded flue-cured tobacco leaves into a high quality and mature compost.

  15. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  16. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  17. Powder stickiness in milk drying: uncertainty and sensitivity analysis for process understanding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ferrari, Adrián; Gutiérrez, Soledad; Sin, Gürkan

    2017-01-01

    A powder stickiness model based in the glass transition temperature (Gordon – Taylor equations) was built for a production scale milk drying process (including a spray chamber, and internal/external fluid beds). To help process understanding, the model was subjected to sensitivity analysis (SA...... for nonlinear error propagation was selected as the main UA approach. SA results show an important local sensitivity on the spray dryer, but at the end of the internal fluid bed (critical point for stickiness) minor local sensitivities were observed. Feed concentrate moisture was found as the input with major...... global sensitivity on the glass transition temperature at the critical point, so it could represent a key variable for helping on stickiness control. UA results show the major model predictions uncertainty on the spray dryer, but it does not represent a stickiness issue since the product...

  18. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  19. Microcapsules loaded with the probiotic Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate/shellac as wall material: Characterization and evaluation of drying processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Marluci P; Tulini, Fabricio L; Ribas, Marcela M; Penning, Manfred; Fávaro-Trindade, Carmen S; Poncelet, Denis

    2016-11-01

    Microcapsules containing Lactobacillus paracasei BGP-1 were produced by co-extrusion technology using alginate and alginate-shellac blend as wall materials. Sunflower oil and coconut fat were used as vehicles to incorporate BGP-1 into the microcapsules. The microcapsules were evaluated with regard the particle size, morphology, water activity and survival of probiotics after 60days of storage at room temperature. Fluidized bed and lyophilization were used to dry the microcapsules and the effect of these processes on probiotic viability was also evaluated. Next, dried microcapsules were exposed to simulated gastrointestinal fluids to verify the survival of BGP-1. Microcapsules dried by fluidized bed had spherical shape and robust structures, whereas lyophilized microcapsules had porous and fragile structures. Dried microcapsules presented a medium size of 0.71-0.86mm and a w ranging from 0.14 to 0.36, depending on the drying process. When comparing the effects of drying processes on BGP-1 viability, the fluidized bed was less aggressive than lyophilization. The alginate-shellac blend combined with coconut fat as core effectively protected the encapsulated probiotic under simulated gastrointestinal conditions. Thus, the production of microcapsules by co-extrusion followed by drying using the fluidized bed is a promising strategy for protection of probiotic cells. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Montmorillonite based artificial nacre prepared via a drying process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennadji-Gridi, Fayza; Smith, Agnes; Bonnet, Jean-Pierre

    2006-01-01

    Taking advantage of the specific behaviour of Na/Ca montmorillonite in aqueous dispersion, textured films were prepared by progressive evaporation of dispersions with low concentrations of delaminated platelets. The increase of the concentration of ions during evaporation changes the nature of the clay mineral platelet face interactions from repulsive to attractive. After complete drying, a dense brick-like structure is obtained when a sodium salt is used as deflocculant. The bending strength of the textured film is strongly affected by cracks formation during drying, specially when the sample thickness increases. After optimisation, crack-free textured samples with a 140 μm thickness, 20 cm x 25 cm area and 120 MPa bending strength were obtained

  1. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  2. Influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet processes during an accidental release of radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Jeong, Hyo Joon; Han, Moon Hee; Lee, Chang Woo

    2003-01-01

    The influence of predictive contamination to agricultural products due to the wet processes as well as dry processes from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency is comprehensively analyzed. The previous dynamic food chain model DYNACON considering Korean agricultural and environmental conditions, in which the initial input parameter was radionuclide concentrations on the ground, is improved so as to evaluate radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radioactive air concentrations or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As for the results, wet deposition is a more dominant mechanism than dry deposition in contamination on the ground. While, the contamination levels of agricultural products are strongly dependent on radionuclide and precipitation when the deposition of radionuclides occurs. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is the more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception to agricultural plants

  3. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  4. Critical solvent properties affecting the particle formation process and characteristics of celecoxib-loaded plga microparticles via spray-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Feng; Bohr, Adam; Maltesen, Morten Jonas; Bjerregaard, Simon; Foged, Camilla; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2013-04-01

    It is imperative to understand the particle formation mechanisms when designing advanced nano/microparticulate drug delivery systems. We investigated how the solvent power and volatility influence the texture and surface chemistry of celecoxib-loaded poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles prepared by spray-drying. Binary mixtures of acetone and methanol at different molar ratios were applied to dissolve celecoxib and PLGA prior to spray-drying. The resulting microparticles were characterized with respect to morphology, texture, surface chemistry, solid state properties and drug release profile. The evaporation profiles of the feed solutions were investigated using thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Spherical PLGA microparticles were obtained, irrespectively of the solvent composition. The particle size and surface chemistry were highly dependent on the solvent power of the feed solution. An obvious burst release was observed for the microparticles prepared by the feed solutions with the highest amount of poor solvent for PLGA. TGA analysis revealed distinct drying kinetics for the binary mixtures. The particle formation process is mainly governed by the PLGA precipitation rate, which is solvent-dependent, and the migration rate of celecoxib molecules during drying. The texture and surface chemistry of the spray-dried PLGA microparticles can therefore be tailored by adjusting the solvent composition.

  5. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  6. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barbosa, Caroline M.; Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T.; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de

    2013-01-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I rel ). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  7. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. Study of caprine bones after moist and dry heat processes by X-ray diffraction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barbosa, Caroline M., E-mail: carolmattosb@yahoo.com.br [Instituto de Arqueologia Brasileira (IAB), Belford Roxo, RJ (Brazil); Azeredo, Soraia R.; Lopes, Ricardo T., E-mail: soraia@lin.ufrj.br [Coordenacao dos Programas de Pos-Graduacao em Engenharia (COPPE/LIN/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Laboratorio de Instrumentacao Nuclear; Souza, Sheila M.F.M de, E-mail: sferraz@ensp.fiocruz.br [Fundacao Oswaldo Cruz (ENSP/FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Escola Nacional de Saude Publica Sergio Arouca

    2013-07-01

    Bone tissue is a biological material composed of hydroxyapatite (HAp) and collagen matrix. The bone X-ray diffraction (XRD) pattern presents characteristics of the hydroxyapatite crystallography planes. This paper presents the characterization by X-ray diffraction of caprine bone powder pattern and the comparison of this pattern with moist or dry heat cooked bone patterns. The parameters chosen to characterize the X-ray diffraction peaks were: angular position (2θ), full width at half maximumt (FWHM), and relative intensity (I{sub rel}). The X-ray diffraction patterns were obtained with a Shimadzu XRD-6000 diffractometer. The caprine bone XRD pattern revealed a significant correlation of several crystallographic parameters (lattice data) with hydroxyapatite. The profiles of the three bone types analyzed presented differences. The study showed as small angular displacement (decrease of the 2θ angle) of some peaks was observed after moist and dry heat cooking processes. The characterization of bone tissue aimed to contribute to future analysis in the field of archeology. (author)

  9. Crust formation in drying colloidal suspensions

    KAUST Repository

    Style, R. W.

    2010-06-30

    During the drying of colloidal suspensions, the desiccation process causes the suspension near the air interface to consolidate into a connected porous matrix or crust. Fluid transport in the porous medium is governed by Darcy\\'s law and the equations of poroelasticity, while the equations of colloid physics govern processes in the suspension. We derive new equations describing this process, including unique boundary conditions coupling the two regions, yielding a moving-boundary model of the concentration and stress profiles during drying. A solution is found for the steady-state growth of a nedimensional crust during constant evaporation rate from the surface. The solution is used to demonstrate the importance of the system boundary conditions on stress profiles and diffusivity in a drying crust. © 2011 The Royal Society.

  10. Drying process in the formation of sol-gel derived TiO2 ceramic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.N.P.; Kumar, K.N.P.; Zaspalis, V.T.; Zaspalis, V.T.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate drying data for thin titania gel layers dried at 40°C and 20% relative humidity (RH) are given. The drying rate versus free moisture content diagram should show three regions as predicted by the classical drying theory. They are the constant rate period, the first falling rate period and

  11. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  12. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Use of a soft sensor for the fast estimation of dried cake resistance during a freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosca, Serena; Barresi, Antonello A; Fissore, Davide

    2013-07-15

    This paper deals with the determination of dried cake resistance in a freeze-drying process using the Smart Soft Sensor, a process analytical technology recently proposed by the authors to monitor the primary drying stage of a freeze-drying process. This sensor uses the measurement of product temperature, a mathematical model of the process, and the Kalman filter algorithm to estimate the residual amount of ice in the vial as a function of time, as well as the coefficient of heat transfer between the shelf and the product and the resistance of the dried cake to vapor flow. It does not require expensive (additional) hardware in a freeze-dryer, provided that thermocouples are available. At first, the effect of the insertion of the thermocouple in a vial on the structure of the product is investigated by means of experimental tests, comparing both sublimation rate and cake structure in vials with and without thermocouple. This is required to assess that the temperature measured by the thermocouple is the same of the product in the non-monitored vials, at least in a non-GMP environment, or when controlled nucleation methods are used. Then, results about cake resistance obtained in an extended experimental campaign with aqueous solutions containing different excipients (sucrose, mannitol and polyvinylpyrrolidone), processed in various operating conditions, are presented, with the goal to point out the accuracy of the proposed methodology. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. [Research about effect of spray drying conditions on hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of gubi compound's water extract and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jie; Shao, Qi; Zhang, Hong-Qing; Pan, Yong-Lan; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei

    2014-02-01

    To investigate moisture content and hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of Gubi compound's water extract obtained at different spray drying conditions and laying a foundation for spray drying process of Chinese herbal compound preparation. In the paper, on the basis of single-factor experiments, the author choose inlet temperature, liquid density, feed rate, air flow rate as investigated factors. The experimental absorption rate-time curve and scanning electron microscopy results showed that under different spray drying conditions the spray-dried powders have different morphology and different adsorption process. At different spray-dried conditions, the morphology and water content of the powder is different, these differences lead to differences in the adsorption process, at the appropriate inlet temperature and feed rate with a higher sample density and lower air flow rate, in the experimental system the optimum conditions is inlet temperature of 150 degrees C, feed density of 1.05 g x mL(-1), feed rate of 20 mL x min(-1) air flow rate of 30 m3 x h(-1).

  15. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  16. Spray Freeze-drying - The Process of Choice for Low Water Soluble Drugs?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuenberger, H.

    2002-01-01

    Most of the novel highly potent drugs, developed on the basis of modern molecular medicine, taking into account cell surface recognition techniques, show poor water solubility. A chemical modification of the drug substance enhancing the solubility often decreases the pharmacological activity. Thus, as an alternative an increase of the solubility can be obtained by the reduction of the size of the drug particles. Unfortunately, it is often difficult to obtain micro or nanosized drug particles by classical or more advanced crystallization using supercritical gases or by milling techniques. In addition, nanosized particles are often not physically stable and need to be stabilized in an appropriate matrix. Thus, it may be of interest to manufacture directly nanosized drug particles stabilized in an inert hydrophilic matrix, i.e. nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. Solid solutions and solid dispersions represent nanostructured and nanocomposite systems. In this context, the use of the vacuum-fluidized-bed technique for the spray-drying of a low water soluble drug cosolubilized with a hydrophilic excipient in a polar organic solvent is discussed. In order to avoid the use of organic solvents, a special spray-freeze-drying technique working at atmospheric pressure is presented. This process is very suitable for temperature and otherwise sensitive drugs such as pharmaproteins

  17. Carotenoid content of the varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicumannuum L.) and response during the industrial slow drying and grinding steps in paprika processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mínguez-Mosquera, M I; Pérez-Gálvez, A; Garrido-Fernández, J

    2000-07-01

    Fruits of the pepper varieties Jaranda and Jariza (Capsicum annuum L. ) ripen as a group, enabling a single harvesting, showed a uniform carotenoid content that is high enough (7.9 g/kg) for the production of paprika. The drying system at mild temperature showed that fruits with moisture content of 85-88% generated a dry product with carotenoid content equal to or higher than the initial one. Those high moisture levels allowed the fruits to have a longer period of metabolic activity, increasing the yellow fraction, the red fraction, or both as a function of what biosynthetic process was predominant. This fact indicates under-ripeness of the fruits in the drying step. The results obtained allow us to establish that both varieties, Jaranda and Jariza, fit the dehydration process employed, yielding a dry fruit with carotenoid concentration similar to that the initial one. During the grinding step of the dry fruit, the heat generated by the hammers of the mill caused degradation of the yellow fraction, while the red fraction is maintained. The ripeness state of the harvested fruits and the appropriateness or severity of the processing steps are indicated by the ratio of red to yellow (R/Y) and/or red to total (R/T) pigments, since fluctuations in both fractions and in total pigments are reflected in and monitored by these parameters.

  18. Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ... with regard to the optimal retention of the crude protein and fat levels of the dried dagaa. ... are accessible to most of the households involved in dried fish processing.

  19. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO 2 capture potential plus CO 2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO 2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO 2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i.e. both possible CO 2 capture and CO 2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  20. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  1. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  2. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guenther, R.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Lund, A.L.; Gilbert, E.R.

    1994-11-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl x , UAl x -Al and U 3 O 8 -Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH x , UErZrH, UO 2 -stainless steel cermet, and U 3 O 8 -stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified

  3. Changes in non-volatile taste components of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus) during different stages of freeze drying and freeze drying combined with microwave vacuum drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pei, Fei; Shi, Ying; Gao, Xingyang; Wu, Fangning; Mariga, Alfred Mugambi; Yang, Wenjian; Zhao, Liyan; An, Xinxin; Xin, Zhihong; Yang, Fangmei; Hu, Qiuhui

    2014-12-15

    Button mushroom slices were dehydrated using freeze drying (FD) or FD combined with microwave vacuum drying (FMVD), and the non-volatile component profiles were studied. The results showed that the level of non-volatile components in button mushroom firstly increased during sublimation of FD/FMVD process and then fell during desorption in FD process and MVD in FMVD process. Compared to FD products, the contents of soluble sugars and polyols in FMVD products were relatively low, whereas the contents of total free amino acids were significantly higher, close to the level of fresh mushroom. However, there was no significant difference in the contents of 5'-nucleotides and organic acids between FD and FMVD products. The equivalent umami concentration (EUC) values for FD and FMVD products did not differ from fresh, indicating that both drying methods could effectively preserve MSG (monosodium glutamate)-like components in button mushroom. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Analysis of maizena drying system using temperature control based fuzzy logic method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arief, Ulfah Mediaty; Nugroho, Fajar; Purbawanto, Sugeng; Setyaningsih, Dyah Nurani; Suryono

    2018-03-01

    Corn is one of the rice subtitution food that has good potential. Corn can be processed to be a maizena, and it can be used to make type of food that has been made from maizena, viz. Brownies cake, egg roll, and other cookies. Generally, maizena obtained by drying process carried out 2-3 days under the sun. However, drying process not possible during the rainy season. This drying process can be done using an automatic drying tool. This study was to analyze the design result and manufacture of maizena drying system with temperature control based fuzzylogic method. The result show that temperature of drying system with set point 40°C - 60°C work in suitable condition. The level of water content in 15% (BSN) and temperatureat 50°C included in good drying process. Time required to reach the set point of temperature in 50°C is 7.05 minutes. Drying time for 500 gr samples with temperature 50°C and power capacity 127.6 watt was 1 hour. Based on the result, drying process using temperature control based fuzzy logic method can improve energy efficiency than the conventional method of drying using a direct sunlight source with a temperature that cannot be directly controlled by human being causing the quality of drying result of flour is erratic.

  5. Effect of processing history on the surface interfacial properties of budesonide in carrier-based dry-powder inhalers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shur, Jagdeep; Pitchayajittipong, Chonladda; Rogueda, Philippe; Price, Robert

    2013-08-01

    Influence of air-jet micronization, post-micronization conditioning and storage on the surface properties of budesonide in dry-powder inhaler formulations was investigated. Crystalline budesonide was air jet-micronized and conditioned using organic vapor. Particle engineering was also used to fabricate respirable particles of budesonide. Surface imaging by atomic force microscopy suggested that micronized material possessed process-induced surface disorder, which relaxed upon conditioning with organic vapor. Particle engineered material was devoid of such surface disorder. Surface interfacial properties of all batches were different and correlated to in vitro fine particle delivery. The surface properties and in vitro performance of the conditioned material changed upon storage of the budesonide at 44% relative humidity and 25°C, while the micronized and particle-engineered material remained stable. These data suggest that processing conditions of budesonide affected the surface properties of the material, which was demonstrated to have direct affect on dry-powder inhaler formulation performance.

  6. Antibacterial effect of citrus press-cakes dried by high speed and far-infrared radiation drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samarakoon, Kalpa; Senevirathne, Mahinda; Lee, Won-Woo; Kim, Young-Tae; Kim, Jae-Il; Oh, Myung-Cheol

    2012-01-01

    In this study, the antibacterial effect was evaluated to determine the benefits of high speed drying (HSD) and far-infrared radiation drying (FIR) compared to the freeze drying (FD) method. Citrus press-cakes (CPCs) are released as a by-product in the citrus processing industry. Previous studies have shown that the HSD and FIR drying methods are much more economical for drying time and mass drying than those of FD, even though FD is the most qualified drying method. The disk diffusion assay was conducted, and the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were determined with methanol extracts of the dried CPCs against 11 fish and five food-related pathogenic bacteria. The disk diffusion results indicated that the CPCs dried by HSD, FIR, and FD prevented growth of all tested bacteria almost identically. The MIC and MBC results showed a range from 0.5-8.0 mg/mL and 1.0-16.0 mg/mL respectively. Scanning electron microscopy indicated that the extracts changed the morphology of the bacteria cell wall, leading to destruction. These results suggest that CPCs dried by HSD and FIR showed strong antibacterial activity against pathogenic bacteria and are more useful drying methods than that of the classic FD method in CPCs utilization. PMID:22808341

  7. Tribological investigations of the applicability of surface functionalization for dry extrusion processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teller, Marco; Prünte, Stephan; Ross, Ingo; Temmler, André; Schneider, Jochen M.; Hirt, Gerhard

    2017-10-01

    Cold extrusion processes are characterized by large relative contact stresses combined with a severe surface enlargement of the workpiece. Under these process conditions a high risk for galling of workpiece material to the tool steel occurs especially in processing of aluminum and aluminum alloys. In order to reduce adhesive wear lubricants for separation of workpiece and tool surfaces are used. As a consequence additional process steps (e.g. preparation and cleaning of workpieces) are necessary. Thus, the realization of a dry forming process is aspired from an environmental and economic perspective. In this paper a surface functionalization with self-assembled-monolayers (SAM) of the tool steels AISI D2 (DIN 1.2379) and AISI H11 (DIN 1.2343) is evaluated by a process-oriented tribological test. The tribological experiment is able to resemble and scale the process conditions of cold extrusion related to relative contact stress and surface enlargement for the forming of pure aluminum (Al99.5). The effect of reduced relative contact stress, surface enlargement and relative velocity on adhesive wear and tool lifetime is evaluated. Similar process conditions are achievable by different die designs with decreased extrusion ratios and adjusted die angles. The effect of surface functionalization critically depends on the substrate material. The different microstructure and the resulting differences in surface chemistry of the two tested tool steels appear to affect the performance of the tool surface functionalization with SAM.

  8. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  9. PROPOSAL FOR THE IMPLEMENTATION OF SPRAY DRYING IN THE ACTIVATION PROCESS OF BENTONITE WITH SULFURIC ACID

    OpenAIRE

    Romero, P.; Otiniano, M.

    2014-01-01

    The present work propose the replacement of the three stages of the activation process of bentonite with sulfuric acid by the only stage spray drying. El presente trabajo propone reemplazar tres etapas del proceso de activación de la bentonita con ácido sulfúrico por una sola etapa, la del secado por atomización.

  10. Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation: influence of the type of reticulation and the drying process on the release of the core material

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Izabela Dutra Alvim

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Microparticles obtained by complex coacervation were crosslinked with glutaraldehyde or with transglutaminase and dried using freeze drying or spray drying. Moist samples presented Encapsulation Efficiency (%EE higher than 96%. The mean diameters ranged from 43.7 ± 3.4 to 96.4 ± 10.3 µm for moist samples, from 38.1 ± 5.36 to 65.2 ± 16.1 µm for dried samples, and from 62.5 ± 7.5 to 106.9 ± 26.1 µm for rehydrated microparticles. The integrity of the particles without crosslinking was maintained when freeze drying was used. After spray drying, only crosslinked samples were able to maintain the wall integrity. Microparticles had a round shape and in the case of dried samples rugged walls apparently without cracks were observed. Core distribution inside the particles was multinuclear and homogeneous and core release was evaluated using anhydrous ethanol. Moist particles crosslinked with glutaraldehyde at the concentration of 1.0 mM.g-1 protein (ptn, were more efficient with respect to the core retention compared to 0.1 mM.g-1 ptn or those crosslinked with transglutaminase (10 U.g-1 ptn. The drying processes had a strong influence on the core release profile reducing the amount released to all dry samples

  11. Novel route for rapid sol-gel synthesis of hydroxyapatite, avoiding ageing and using fast drying with a 50-fold to 200-fold reduction in process time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ben-Arfa, Basam A.E.; Salvado, Isabel M. Miranda, E-mail: isabelmsalvado@ua.pt; Ferreira, José M.F.; Pullar, Robert C., E-mail: rpullar@ua.pt

    2017-01-01

    We have developed an innovative, rapid sol-gel method of producing hydroxyapatite nanopowders that avoids the conventional lengthy ageing and drying processes (over a week), being 200 times quicker in comparison to conventional aqueous sol-gel preparation, and 50 times quicker than ethanol based sol-gel synthesis. Two different sets of experimental conditions, in terms of pH value (5.5 and 7.5), synthesis temperature (45 and 90 °C), drying temperature (60 and 80 °C) and calcination temperature (400 and 700 °C) were explored. The products were characterised by X-ray diffraction (XRD) Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and specific surface area (SSA) measurements. Pure hydroxyapatite (Ca{sub 10}(PO{sub 4}){sub 6}(OH){sub 2}, HAp) was obtained for the powders synthesised at pH 7.5 and calcined at 400 °C, while biphasic mixtures of HAp/β-tricalcium phosphate (β-Ca{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2}, TCP) were produced at pH 5.5 and (pH 7.5 at elevated temperature). The novel rapid drying was up to 200 times faster than conventional drying, only needing 1 h with no prior ageing step, and favoured the formation of smaller/finer nanopowders, while producing pure HAp or phase mixtures virtually identical to those obtained from the slow conventional drying method, despite the absence of a slow ageing process. The products of this novel rapid process were actually shown to have smaller crystallite sizes and larger SSA, which should result in increased bioactivity. - Highlights: • Fast, novel sol-gel synthesis of HAp nanopowders, requiring just 1 h for drying • A much shortened process, 200 times faster than the usual slow drying/ageing times • Compares rapidly produced HAp with that from a typical 216 h drying/ageing process • Both methods produce very similar products, but rapid HAp had a larger surface area. • Both methods produced pure HAp at 400 °C, and a HAp/TCP mix at 700 °C.

  12. Technique of solar drying the linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Andión Torres, Ronald; Espinosa Borges, Ruberlando; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Fuentes lombá, Osmay

    2017-01-01

    In Santiago of Cuba exists interest in the utilization of medicinal plants for the manufacture of flowed abstract and Tinturas, and this requires the dry product. At the present time this process is done in houses roofed. This product will be dried at 10 or 12 days. Having in account than in the Center of investigation of Solar Energy was developed a prototype of solar drier, which enables the drying of the anamu with the required quality, in this work is done a study, for the utilization of the aforementioned drier, for the drying of others medicinal plants. It is determine and evaluated experimentally a Procedure of drying of linden in this solar drier. The dry plants were sent to the UBPC La Rosita of medicinal plants, which manifested conformity with the obtained results, showing contentment with the quality of the dry product. (author)

  13. Suitability of microwave drying for mealworms (Tenebrio molitor) as alternative to freeze drying: Impact on nutritional quality and colour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenaerts, S; Van Der Borght, M; Callens, A; Van Campenhout, L

    2018-07-15

    Freeze drying represents the current practice to stabilize mealworms, even though it is an energy demanding technique. Therefore, it was examined in the present study whether microwave drying could be a proper alternative. To this end, the impact of both drying techniques on the proximate composition, vitamin B 12 content, fatty acid profile, oxidation status and colour parameters of mealworms was investigated. Furthermore, the influence of the application of vacuum during microwave drying was studied. The different drying technologies resulted in small differences in the proximate composition, while the vitamin B 12 content was only reduced by microwave drying. The fat fraction of freeze dried mealworms showed a higher oxidation status than the fat of microwave dried mealworms. Application of a vacuum during the microwave drying process did not appear to offer advantages. This research shows that for mealworms microwave drying can be a proper alternative to freeze drying. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  15. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  16. [Analysis of dynamic changes of flavonoids and alkaloids during different drying process of Morus alba leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Yong-liang; Duan, Jin-ao; Su, Shu-lan; Qian, Ye-fei; Qian, Da-wei; Ouyang, Zhen

    2014-07-01

    To find out dynamic changes of flavonoids and alkaloids in Morus alba leaves by analyzing influence of different drying method and drying degrees, in order to provide evidence for quality evaluation of Morus alba leaves. Different drying methods, programmed temperature methods and constant temperature methods were adopted to dry Morus alba leaves samples respectively. Contents of flavonoids and alkaloids were analyzed by HPLC-PDA and LC-TQ/MS respectively. It's shown obviously that the content of flavonoids were influenced heavily by different drying methods. Methods that suitable for flavonoids were freezing-dried > shade-dried > dried > sun-dried > microwave-dried > infrared-dried; Methods that suitable for alkaloids were freezing-dried > shade-dried > dried > sun-dried > infrared-dried > microwave-dried. The 55 -65 degrees C group was shown to be the lowest in both flavonoids and DNJ while the 85 - 95 degrees C group was shown to be the best for DNJ. For fagomine, the 45 degrees C group was shown to be the lowest concentrations while the 95 - 105 degrees C group was shown to be the highest. Samples with different moisture were shown to be different in content of flavonoids and alkaloids. And samples with 10% moisture contain highest flavonoids while those with 30% - 50% moisture contain lowest flavonoids. Content of DNJ and fagomine raised as moisture decreasing. In addition, the 55 - 65 degrees C group was better than the 95 -105 degrees C one in alkaloids content. The results provide optimal drying methods and condition for drying Morus alba leaves, and foundations for uncovering biochemical transform of Morus alba leaves.

  17. Storage method, drying processes and extraction procedures strongly affect the phenolic fraction of rosemary leaves: an HPLC/DAD/MS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulinacci, N; Innocenti, M; Bellumori, M; Giaccherini, C; Martini, V; Michelozzi, M

    2011-07-15

    The Rosmarinus officinalis L. is widely known for its numerous applications in the food field but also for the increasing interest in its pharmaceutical properties. Two groups of compounds are mainly responsible for the biological activities of the plant: the volatile fraction and the phenolic constituents. The latter group is mainly constituted by rosmarinic acid, by a flavonoidic fraction and by some diterpenoid compounds structurally derived from the carnosic acid. The aim of our work was to optimize the extractive and analytical procedure for the determination of all the phenolic constituents. Moreover the chemical stability of the main phenols, depending on the storage condition, the different drying procedures and the extraction solvent, have been evaluated. This method allowed to detect up to 29 different constituents at the same time in a relatively short time. The described procedure has the advantage to being able to detect and quantify several classes of compounds, among them numerous minor flavonoids, thus contributing to improving knowledge of the plant. The findings from this study have demonstrated that storing the raw fresh material in the freezer is not appropriate for rosemary, mainly due to the rapid disappearing of the rosmarinic acid during the freezing/thawing process. Regarding the flavonoidic fraction, consistent decrements, were highlighted in the dried samples at room temperature if compared with the fresh leaf. Rosmarinic acid, appeared very sensitive also to mild drying processes. The total diterpenoidic content undergoes to little changes when the leaves are freeze dried or frozen and limited losses are observed working on dried leaves at room temperature. Nevertheless it can be taken in account that this fraction is very sensitive to the water presence during the extraction that favors the conversion of carnosic acid toward it oxidized form carnosol. From our findings, it appear evident that when evaluating the phenolic content in

  18. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dry well storage of spent LWBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Fielding, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, 50 dry wells were constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to temporarily store the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel. Over 400 dry wells of the same design are projected to be constructed in the next 5 yr at the ICPP to store unreprocessible fuels until a permanent repository becomes available. This summary describes the LWBR fuel storage dry wells and the enhancements made over the Peach Bottom fuel and Fermi blanket dry wells that have been in use for up to 4 yr. Dry well storage at the ICPP has historically been found to be a safe and efficient method of temporary fuel storage. The LWBR dry wells should be more reliable than the original dry wells and provide data not previously available

  20. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  1. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  2. Hypoglycemic activity of dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata Link.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Cunha, A M; Menon, S; Menon, R; Couto, A G; Bürger, C; Biavatti, M W

    2010-01-01

    Leaves of the pantropical genus Bauhinia (Fabaceae) are known popularly as cow's foot, due to their unique characteristic bilobed aspect. The species Bauhinia forficata (Brazilian Orchid-tree) is widely used in folk medicine as an antidiabetic. The present work investigates the hypoglycemic activity of the dried extracts of Bauhinia forficata leaves in vivo, as well as the influence of the drying and granulation processes on this activity. The fluid extract was dried to generate oven-dried (ODE), spray-dried (SDE) and wet granulation (WGE) extracts, with the aid of colloidal silicon dioxide and/or cellulose:lactose mixture. The dried extracts were characterized by spectrophotometric, chromatographic and photo microscopy image analysis. 200 mg/kg body wt., p.o. of each dried product were administered orally to male Wistar rats over 7 days old, for biomonitoring of the hypoglycemic activity profile. The effect of the extracts was studied in STZ-induced diabetic rats. After 7 days of treatment, fasting glucose was determined, and the livers were removed, dried on tissue paper, weighed, and stored at -20 degrees C to estimate hepatic glycogen. Our results show that spray-drying or oven-drying processes applied to B. forficata extracts did not significantly alter its flavonoid profile or its hypoglycemic activity. Indeed, the dried extracts of B. forficata act differently from glibenclamide. Despite the lower active content in WGE, because of the higher concentration of adjuvants, the use of the granulation process improved the manufacturing properties of the ODE, making this material more appropriate for use in tablets or capsules.

  3. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products due to dry and wet deposition processes during a nuclear emergency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hwang, Won Tae; Kim, Eun Han; Suh, Kyung Suk; Han, Moon Hee; Choi, Yong Ho; Lee, Chang Woo

    2002-01-01

    Combined with deposition model onto the ground of radionuclides, the influence of radioactive contamination to agricultural products was analyzed due to wet deposition as well as dry deposition from radioactive air concentration during a nuclear emergency. The previous dynamic food chain model, in which initial input parameter is only radionuclide concentrations on the ground, was improved for the evaluating of radioactive contamination to agricultural products from either radionuclide concentrations in air or radionuclide concentrations on the ground. As the results, in case of deposition onto the ground, wet deposition was more dominant process than dry deposition. While the contamination levels of agricultural products were dependent on the a variety of factors such as radionuclides and rainfall rate. It means that the contamination levels of agricultural products are determined from which is more dominant process between deposition on the ground and interception onto agricultural plants

  5. Convective drying of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.): Effect of experimental parameters on drying kinetics, color, shrinkage, and rehydration capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Serdar; Beşe, Ayşe Vildan

    2016-11-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics and physicochemical properties of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) were investigated using a convective dryer at air temperatures 50, 60 and 70°C and air velocities of 0.5, 0.9 and 1.3m/s. The drying process of hawthorn took place in the falling rate period, and the drying time decreased with increasing air temperature and velocity. The experimental data obtained during the drying process were fitted to eleven different mathematical models. The Midilli et al.'s model was found to be the best appropriate model for explaining the drying behavior of hawthorn fruit. Effective moisture diffusion coefficients (Deff) were calculated by Fick's diffusion model and their values varied from 2.34×10(-10)m(2)/s to 2.09×10(-9)m(2)/s. An Arrhenius-type equation was applied to determine the activation energies. While the shrinkage decreased, the rehydration ratio increased with increasing air temperature and air velocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  7. Implementation of a dry process fuel cycle model into the DYMOND code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Joo Hwan; Jeong, Chang Joon; Choi, Hang Bok

    2004-01-01

    For the analysis of a dry process fuel cycle, new modules were implemented into the fuel cycle analysis code DYMOND, which was developed by the Argonne National Laboratory. The modifications were made to the energy demand prediction model, a Canada Deuterium Uranium (CANDU) reactor, direct use of spent Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) fuel in CANDU reactors (DUPIC) fuel cycle model, the fuel cycle calculation module, and the input/output modules. The performance of the modified DYMOND code was assessed for the postulated once-through fuel cycle models including both the PWR and CANDU reactor. This paper presents modifications of the DYMOND code and the results of sample calculations for the PWR once-through and DUPIC fuel cycles

  8. Degradation Dynamics and Dietary Risk Assessments of Two Neonicotinoid Insecticides during Lonicera japonica Planting, Drying, and Tea Brewing Processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Qingkui; Shi, Yanhong; Cao, Haiqun; Tong, Zhou; Xiao, Jinjing; Liao, Min; Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao

    2017-03-01

    The degradation dynamics and dietary risk assessments of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid during Lonicera japonica planting, drying, and tea brewing processes were systematically investigated using high-performance liquid chromatography. The half-lives of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 1.0-4.1 d in the honeysuckle flowers and leaves, with degradation rate constants k ranging from -0.169 to -0.696. The safety interval time was 7 d. The sun- and oven-drying (70 °C) percent digestions were 59.4-81.0% for the residues, which were higher than the shade- and oven-drying percentages at lower temperatures (30, 40, 50, and 60 °C, which ranged from 37.7% to 57.0%). The percent transfers of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid were 0-48.4% and 0-25.2%, respectively, for the different tea brewing conditions. On the basis of the results of this study, abiding by the safety interval time is important, and using reasonable drying methods and tea brewing conditions can reduce the transfer of thiamethoxam and thiacloprid to humans.

  9. WASTE-FREE PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY OF DRY MASHED POTATOES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Kalashnikov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. According to data on norms of consumption of vegetable production of scientific research institute of Food of the Russian Academy of Medical Science, potatoes win first place with norm of 120 kg a year on the person. In this regard much attention is paid to processing of potatoes that allows to prolong the term of its validity, and also to reduce the capacity of storages and to reduce transport transportations as 1 kg of a dry potatoes produсt is equivalent 7-8 kg of fresh potatoes. Thus industrial processing of potatoes on dry mashed potatoes allows to reduce losses of potatoes at storage and transportation, there is a possibility of enrichment of products vitamins and other useful components, its nutrition value remains better, conditions for complex processing of raw materials with full recycling and creations of stocks of products from potatoes on a crop failure case are created. Dry mashed potatoes are a product of long storage. On the basis of studying of the production technology of mashed potatoes the analysis of technological processes as sources of creation of waste, and the directions of recovery of secondary raw materials for complex waste-free technology of processing of potatoes are defined is provided. The waste-free technological scheme of processing of potatoes and production of dry instant mashed potatoes on the basis of dehydration and moisture thermal treatment a component providing recovery of secondary carbohydrate content raw materials in the form of waste of the main production is developed. The main stages of production of dry instant mashed potatoes are described. It is offered the technological scheme of a production line of mashed potatoes on the basis of waste-free technology. Advantages of the offered waste-free production technology of dry instant mashed potatoes with processing of secondary starch-containing raw materials are given.

  10. Procedure for drying humidity-containing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a decontamination process for extracting impurities, in particular humidity and gases, from nuclear fuel rods before they are sealed and inserted into the reactor. The fuel rod, which has a small drilling hole, is placed in a low pressure container. The container is filled with a liquid drying agent which washes out the impurities. A dry inert gas (nitrogen, noble gases) is used for rinsing. Alcohols, ketones, methanol, acetone are named as drying agents. (UWI) [de

  11. Spent Fuel Drying System Test Results (Dry-Run in Preparation for Run 8)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oliver, B.M.; Klinger, G.S.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1999-01-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL)(a)on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of a test ''dry-run'' conducted prior to the eighth and last of those tests, which was conducted on an N-Reactor outer fuel element removed from K-West canister6513U. The system used for the dry-run test was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodologies are given in Section 3.0. The experimental results are provided in Section 4.0 and discussed Section 5.0

  12. Effects of freezing, freeze drying and convective drying on in vitro gastric digestion of apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalmau, Maria Esperanza; Bornhorst, Gail M; Eim, Valeria; Rosselló, Carmen; Simal, Susana

    2017-01-15

    The influence of processing (freezing at -196°C in liquid N2, FN sample; freeze-drying at -50°C and 30Pa, FD sample; and convective drying at 60°C and 2m/s, CD sample) on apple (var. Granny Smith) behavior during in vitro gastric digestion was investigated. Dried apples (FD and CD samples) were rehydrated prior to digestion. Changes in carbohydrate composition, moisture, soluble solids, acidity, total polyphenol content (TPC), and antioxidant activity (AA) of apple samples were measured at different times during digestion. Processing resulted in disruption of the cellular structure during digestion, as observed by scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and changes in carbohydrate composition. Moisture content increased (6-11% dmo), while soluble solids (55-78% dmo), acidity (44-72% dmo), total polyphenol content (30-61% dmo), and antioxidant activity (41-87%) decreased in all samples after digestion. Mathematical models (Weibull and exponential models) were used to better evaluate the influence of processing on apple behavior during gastric digestion. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Contents Changes of Triterpenic Acids, Nucleosides, Nucleobases, and Saccharides in Jujube (Ziziphus jujuba) Fruit During the Drying and Steaming Process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Sheng; Duan, Jin-Ao; Zhang, Ying; Qian, Dawei; Tang, Yuping; Zhu, Zhenhua; Wang, Hanqing

    2015-12-12

    Chinese jujube (Ziziphus jujuba), a medicinal and edible plant, is widely consumed in Asian countries owing to the remarkable health activities of its fruits. To facilitate selection of the suitable processing method for jujube fruits, in this study their contents of triterpenic acids, nucleosides, nucleobases and saccharides after drying and steaming treatment were determined using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with evaporative light scattering detector methods. The results showed that except for sucrose, the content levels of most analytes were increasing in the jujube fruits during drying treatment at 45 °C. The levels of cyclic nucleotides such as adenosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate and guanosine 3',5'-cyclic monophosphate, were significantly decreased after the fruits were steamed. Therefore, owing to the bioactivities of these components for human health, the dried fruits would be the better choice as medicinal material or functional food, and dried jujube fruit should not be further steamed.

  14. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  15. Effects of superheated steam on the drying of rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Buaphud

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood drying is the most time and energy consuming step in the processing of wood product. This research studied the effect of superheated steam drying on the drying time required and the physical and mechanical properties of rubberwood after drying. In this study, a cylindrical drying chamber with a length of 1.2 m and a diameter of 0.5 m was constructed and injected with superheated steam. The dimensions of the wood lumber were 1 m × 7.62 cm × 2.54 cm. The wood samples were impinged with alternating cycles of superheated steam and hot air at ratios of 6:1, 4:1 and 1:6 hours until the moisture content was less than 15% dry basis. The conditions inside the chamber were 110ºC and ambient pressure. Continuous superheated steam and continuous hot air were also used for comparisons. The drying rate and the temperature profile for each process were determined.Initial acceptability of the dried wood was conducted using the prong test and visual inspection. Results showed that if the drying rate was too fast, the dried wood did not pass the prong test due to stress buildup. Therefore, an optimum drying condition was developed based on minimizing defects and reducing the drying time. For the optimum condition, the following schedule was carried out: (1 saturated steam at 100ºC was used during the first 4 hours of drying to prevent the wood surface from drying too quickly which would minimize the moisture gradient between the center and wood surface, (2 superheated steam at 105ºC and 110ºC was used in alternating cycle with hot air (80ºC during the main drying stages to rapidly remove the free water and majority of the bound water inside the wood, and (3 hot air was used continuously during the final stages of drying to reduce the relative humidity inside the chamber making it possible for the removal of the residual bound water. This process successfully reduced the drying time to less than 2 days without causing any defects which compared

  16. GaN MOSFET with Boron Trichloride-Based Dry Recess Process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jiang, Y; Wang, Q P; Tamai, K; Ao, J P; Ohno, Y; Miyashita, T; Motoyama, S; Wang, D J

    2013-01-01

    The dry recessed-gate GaN metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFETs) on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure using boron trichloride (BCl 3 ) as etching gas were fabricated and characterized. Etching with different etching power was conducted. Devices with silicon tetrachloride (SiCl 4 ) etching gas were also prepared for comparison. Field-effect mobility and interface state density were extracted from current-voltage (I-V) characteristics. GaN MOSFETs on AlGaN/GaN heterostructure with BCl 3 based dry recess achieved a high maximum electron mobility of 141.5 cm 2 V −1 s −1 and a low interface state density.

  17. Vacuum Drying Tests for Storage of Aluminum Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, K.F.; Large, W.S.; Sindelar, R.L.

    1998-05-01

    A total inventory of up to approximately 32,000 aluminum-based spent nuclear fuel (Al SNF) assemblies are expected to be shipped to Savannah River Site (SRS) from domestic and foreign research reactors over the next several decades. Treatment technologies are being developed as alternatives to processing for the ultimate disposition of Al SNF in the geologic repository. One technology, called Direct/Co-disposal of Al SNF, would place the SNF into a canister ready for disposal in a waste package, with or without canisters containing high-level radioactive waste glass logs, in the repository. The Al SNF would be transferred from wet storage and would need to be dried in the Al SNF canister. The moisture content inside the Al SNF canister is limited to avoid excessive Al SNF corrosion and hydrogen buildup during interim storage before disposal. A vacuum drying process was proposed to dry the Al SNF in a canister. There are two major concerns for the vacuum drying process. One is water inside the canister could become frozen during the vacuum drying process and the other one is the detection of dryness inside the canister. To vacuum dry an irradiated fuel in a heavily shielded canister, it would be very difficult to open the lid to inspect the dryness during the vacuum drying operation. A vacuum drying test program using a mock SNF assembly was conducted to demonstrate feasibility of drying the Al SNF in a canister. These tests also served as a check-out of the drying apparatus for future tests in which irradiated fuel would be loaded into a canister under water followed by drying for storage

  18. Self-protection in dry recycle technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hannum, W.H.; Wade, D.; Stanford, G.

    1995-01-01

    In response to the INFCE conclusions, the U.S. undertook development of a new dry fuel cycle. Dry recycle processes have been demonstrated to be feasible. Safeguarding such fuel cycles will be dramatically simpler than the PUREX fuel cycle. At every step of the processes, the materials meet the open-quotes spent-fuel standard.close quotes The scale is compatible with collocation of power reactors and their recycle facility, eliminating off-site transportation and storage of plutonium-bearing materials. Material diverted either covertly or overtly would be difficult (relative to material available by other means) to process into weapons feedstock

  19. Scale-up of ethanol production from winter barley by the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process in fermentors up to 300 liters

    Science.gov (United States)

    A fermentation process, which was designated the EDGE (enhanced dry grind enzymatic) process, has recently been developed for barley ethanol production. In the EDGE process, in addition to the enzymes normally required for starch hydrolysis, commercial Beta-glucanases were used to hydrolyze (1,3)(1,...

  20. Implementation of hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) in dried anchovy production process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citraresmi, A. D. P.; Wahyuni, E. E.

    2018-03-01

    The aim of this study was to inspect the implementation of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point (HACCP) for identification and prevention of potential hazards in the production process of dried anchovy at PT. Kelola Mina Laut (KML), Lobuk unit, Sumenep. Cold storage process is needed in each anchovy processing step in order to maintain its physical and chemical condition. In addition, the implementation of quality assurance system should be undertaken to maintain product quality. The research was conducted using a survey method, by following the whole process of making anchovy from the receiving raw materials to the packaging of final product. The method of data analysis used was descriptive analysis method. Implementation of HACCP at PT. KML, Lobuk unit, Sumenep was conducted by applying Pre Requisite Programs (PRP) and preparation stage consisting of 5 initial stages and 7 principles of HACCP. The results showed that CCP was found in boiling process flow with significant hazard of Listeria monocytogenesis bacteria and final sorting process with significant hazard of foreign material contamination in the product. Actions taken were controlling boiling temperature of 100 – 105°C for 3 - 5 minutes and training for sorting process employees.

  1. Thin Layer Drying Kinetics of Pineapple: Effect of Blanching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Four thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental drying data. The .... MATLAB software package (version 6.5). The correlation ... to evaluate the goodness of fit of the simulation ... during the oven-drying process of pineapple slices.

  2. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  3. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  4. Metabolomic Profiling as a Possible Reverse Engineering Tool for Estimating Processing Conditions of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2017-01-18

    Dry-cured hams are popular among consumers. To increase the attractiveness of the product, objective analytical methods and algorithms to evaluate the relationship between observable properties and consumer acceptability are required. In this study, metabolomics, which is used for quantitative profiling of hundreds of small molecules, was applied to 12 kinds of dry-cured hams from Japan and Europe. In total, 203 charged metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides, and peptides, were successfully identified and quantified. Metabolite profiles were compared for the samples with different countries of origin and processing methods (e.g., smoking or use of a starter culture). Principal component analysis of the metabolite profiles with sensory properties revealed significant correlations for redness, homogeneity, and fat whiteness. This approach could be used to design new ham products by objective evaluation of various features.

  5. Dry Refabrication Technology Development of Spent Nuclear Fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jung Won; Park, G. I.; Park, C. J.

    2010-04-01

    Key technical data on advanced nuclear fuel cycle technology development for the spent fuel recycling have been produced in this study. In the frame work of DUPIC, dry process oxide products fabrication, hot cell experimental data for decladding, powdering and oxide product fabrication from low and high burnup spent fuel have been produced, basic technology for fabrication of spent fuel standard material has been developed, and remote modulated welding equipment has been designed and fabricated. In the area of advanced pre-treatment process development, a rotary-type oxidizer and spherical particle fabrication process were developed by using SIMFUEL and off-gas treatment technology and zircalloy tube treatment technology were studied. In the area of the property characteristics of dry process products, fabrication technology of simulated dry process products was established and property models were developed based on reproducible property measurement data

  6. Determination of the dried product resistance variability and its influence on the product temperature in pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scutellà, Bernadette; Trelea, Ioan Cristian; Bourlès, Erwan; Fonseca, Fernanda; Passot, Stephanie

    2018-07-01

    During the primary drying step of the freeze-drying process, mass transfer resistance strongly affects the product temperature, and consequently the final product quality. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the variability of the mass transfer resistance resulting from the dried product layer (R p ) in a manufacturing batch of vials, and its potential effect on the product temperature, from data obtained in a pilot scale freeze-dryer. Sublimation experiments were run at -25 °C and 10 Pa using two different freezing protocols: with spontaneous or controlled ice nucleation. Five repetitions of each condition were performed. Global (pressure rise test) and local (gravimetric) methods were applied as complementary approaches to estimate R p . The global method allowed to assess variability of the evolution of R p with the dried layer thickness between different experiments whereas the local method informed about R p variability at a fixed time within the vial batch. A product temperature variability of approximately ±4.4 °C was defined for a product dried layer thickness of 5 mm. The present approach can be used to estimate the risk of failure of the process due to mass transfer variability when designing freeze-drying cycle. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Predictive modeling of infrared radiative heating in tomato dry-peeling process: Part II. Model validation and sensitivity analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    A predictive mathematical model was developed to simulate heat transfer in a tomato undergoing double sided infrared (IR) heating in a dry-peeling process. The aims of this study were to validate the developed model using experimental data and to investigate different engineering parameters that mos...

  8. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  9. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  10. Evaluation of Drying Process on the Composition of Black Pepper Ethanolic Extract by High Performance Liquid Chromatography With Diode Array Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Namjoyan, Foroogh; Hejazi, Hoda; Ramezani, Zahra

    2012-01-01

    Background Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is one of the well-known spices extensively used worldwide especially in India, and Southeast Asia. The presence of alkaloids in the pepper, namely, piperine and its three stereoisomers, isopiperine, chavicine and isochavicine are well noticed. Objectives The current study evaluated the effect of lyophilization and oven drying on the stability and decomposition of constituents of black pepper ethanolic extract. Materials and Methods In the current study ethanolic extract of black pepper obtained by maceration method was dried using two methods. The effect of freeze and oven drying on the chemical composition of the extract especially piperine and its three isomers were evaluated by HPLC analysis of the ethanolic extract before and after drying processes using diode array detector. The UV Vis spectra of the peaks at piperine retention time before and after each drying methods indicated maximum absorbance at 341.2 nm corresponding to standard piperine. Results The results indicated a decrease in intensity of the chromatogram peaks at approximately all retention times after freeze drying, indicating a few percent loss of piperine and its isomers upon lyophilization. Two impurity peaks were completely removed from the extract. Conclusions In oven dried samples two of the piperine stereoisomers were completely removed from the extract and the intensity of piperine peak was increased. PMID:24624176

  11. A field survey on coffee beans drying methods of Indonesian small holder farmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siagian, Parulian; Setyawan, Eko Y.; Gultom, Tumiur; Napitupulu, Farel H.; Ambarita, Himsar

    2017-09-01

    Drying agricultural product is a post-harvest process that consumes significant energy. It can affect the quality of the product. This paper deals with literature review and field survey of drying methods of coffee beans of Indonesia farmers. The objective is to supply the necessary information on developing continuous solar drier. The results show that intermittent characteristic of sun drying results in a better quality of coffee beans in comparison with constant convective drying. In order to use energy efficiently, the drying process should be divided into several stages. In the first stage when the moist content is high, higher drying air temperature is more effective. After this step, where the moist content is low, lower drying air temperature is better. The field survey of drying coffee beans in Sumatera Utara province reveals that the used drying process is very traditional. It can be divided into two modes and depend on the coffee beans type. The Arabica coffee is firstly fermented and dried to moisture content of 80% using sun drying method, then followed by Green House model of drying up to moisture content about 12%. The latter typically spends 3 days of drying time. On the other hand, The Robusta coffee is dried by exposing to the sun directly without any treatment. After the coffee beans dried follow by peeled process. These findings can be considered to develop a continuous solar drying that suitable for coffee beans drying.

  12. Effect of process parameters on energy performance of spray drying with exhaust air heat recovery for production of high value particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Julklang, Wittaya; Golman, Boris

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • We study heat recovery from spray dryer using air-to-air heat exchanger. • We examine dryer energy performance using advanced mathematical model. • We use the response surface methodology to study the effect of process parameters. • Energy efficiency up to 43.3% is obtained at high flow rate of dilute slurry. • Energy saving up to 52.4% is obtained at high drying air temperature. - Abstract: Spray drying process has been widely used in various industries for many decades for production of numerous materials. This paper explores the energy performance of an industrial scale spray dryer equipped with an exhaust air heat recovery system for production of high value particles. Energy efficiency and energy saving were calculated using a comprehensive mathematical model of spray drying. The response surface methodology (RSM) was utilized to study the effect of process parameters on energy performance using a space-filling design. The meta model equations were formulated employing the well-fitted response surface equations with adjusted R 2 larger than 0.995. The energy efficiency as high as 43.3% was obtained at high flow rate of dilute slurry, while the highest energy saving of 52.4% was found by combination of positive effect of drying air temperature and negative effect of slurry mass flow rate. The utilization of efficient air-to-air heat exchanger leads to an increase in energy efficiency and energy savings. The detailed temperature and vapor concentration profiles obtained with the model are also valuable in determining final product quality when spray dryer is operated at energy efficient conditions

  13. Tropical dry forest recovery : processes and causes of change

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lebrija Trejos, E.E.

    2009-01-01

    Seasonally dry areas are one of the preferred zones for human inhabitance in the tropics. Large forest areas are converted to other land uses and many are covered by secondary forests that grow naturally after cessation of disturbance. Surprisingly, secondary succession in these strongly seasonal

  14. Overview Of Dry-Etch Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salzer, John M.

    1986-08-01

    With pattern dimensions shrinking, dry methods of etching providing controllable degrees of anisotropy become a necessity. A number of different configurations of equipment - inline, hex, planar, barrel - have been offered, and within each type, there are numerous significant variations. Further, each specific type of machine must be perfected over a complex, interactive parameter space to achieve suitable removal of various materials. Among the most critical system parameters are the choice of cathode or anode to hold the wafers, the chamber pressure, the plasma excitation frequency, and the electrode and magnetron structures. Recent trends include the use of vacuum load locks, multiple chambers, multiple electrodes, downstream etching or stripping, and multistep processes. A major percentage of etches in production handle the three materials: polysilicon, oxide and aluminum. Recent process developments have targeted refractory metals, their silicides, and with increasing emphasis, silicon trenching. Indeed, with new VLSI structures, silicon trenching has become the process of greatest interest. For stripping, dry processes provide advantages other than anisotropy. Here, too, new configurations and methods have been introduced recently. While wet processes are less than desirable from a number of viewpoints (handling, safety, disposal, venting, classes of clean room, automatability), dry methods are still being perfected as a direct, universal replacement. The paper will give an overview of these machine structures and process solutions, together with examples of interest. These findings and the trends discussed are based on semiannual survey of manufacturers and users of the various types of equipment.

  15. A comparison between spray drying and spray freeze drying to produce an influenza subunit vaccine powder for inhalation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Saluja, V.; Amorij, J-P.; Kapteyn, J. C.; de Boer, A. H.; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate two different processes to produce a stable influenza subunit vaccine powder for pulmonary immunization i.e. spray drying (SD) and spray freeze drying (SFD). The formulations were analyzed by proteolytic assay, single radial immunodiffusion assay (SRID),

  16. Dry formulations of the biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 using fluidised bed drying to control the main postharvest diseases on fruits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbó, Anna; Torres, Rosario; Usall, Josep; Fons, Estanislau; Teixidó, Neus

    2017-08-01

    The biocontrol agent Candida sake CPA-1 is effective against several diseases. Consequently, the optimisation of a dry formulation of C. sake to improve its shelf life and manipulability is essential for increasing its potential with respect to future commercial applications. The present study aimed to optimise the conditions for making a dry formulation of C. sake using a fluidised bed drying system and then to determine the shelf life of the optimised formulation and its efficacy against Penicillium expansum on apples. The optimal conditions for the drying process were found to be 40 °C for 45 min and the use of potato starch as the carrier significantly enhanced the viability. However, none of the protective compounds tested increased the viability of the dried cells. A temperature of 25 °C for 10 min in phosphate buffer was considered as the optimum condition to recover the dried formulations. The dried formulations should be stored at 4 °C and air-packaged; moreover, shelf life assays indicated good results after 12 months of storage. The formulated products maintained their biocontrol efficacy. A fluidised bed drying system is a suitable process for dehydrating C. sake cells; moreover, the C. sake formulation is easy to pack, store and transport, and is a cost-effective process. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Non-isothermal processes during the drying of bare soil: Model Development and Validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleep, B.; Talebi, A.; O'Carrol, D. M.

    2017-12-01

    Several coupled liquid water, water vapor, and heat transfer models have been developed either to study non-isothermal processes in the subsurface immediately below the ground surface, or to predict the evaporative flux from the ground surface. Equilibrium phase change between water and gas phases is typically assumed in these models. Recently, a few studies have questioned this assumption and proposed a coupled model considering kinetic phase change. However, none of these models were validated against real field data. In this study, a non-isothermal coupled model incorporating kinetic phase change was developed and examined against the measured data from a green roof test module. The model also incorporated a new surface boundary condition for water vapor transport at the ground surface. The measured field data included soil moisture content and temperature at different depths up to the depth of 15 cm below the ground surface. Lysimeter data were collected to determine the evaporation rates. Short and long wave radiation, wind velocity, air ambient temperature and relative humidity were measured and used as model input. Field data were collected for a period of three months during the warm seasons in south eastern Canada. The model was calibrated using one drying period and then several other drying periods were simulated. In general, the model underestimated the evaporation rates in the early stage of the drying period, however, the cumulative evaporation was in good agreement with the field data. The model predicted the trends in temperature and moisture content at the different depths in the green roof module. The simulated temperature was lower than the measured temperature for most of the simulation time with the maximum difference of 5 ° C. The simulated moisture content changes had the same temporal trend as the lysimeter data for the events simulated.

  18. INVESTIGATION OF THE POSSIBILITY OF OBTAINING DRY BASES FROM PROCESSED FISH PRODUCTS OF LITTLE VALUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. Competitive advantages of this direction of researches are in justification of actions and offers on a technical provision of production of a dry fish basis from meat- and bone residue of pond fishes that will allow to produce fast foods of high quality and biological value (broths, soups, sauces, to expand the assortment taking into account market demand, to introduce the new forms of food convenient in storage and use at home and outside as well as for special food. The first courses on dry fish broth are easily digestible, with the high contents of micro and macro elements in the quantity of them they surpass meat broths. Their other advantage is the content of the polynonsaturated fatty acids neutralizing negative impact of substances, destroying tendons, ligaments and cartilage in the human body, thereby eliminating joint pains that is especially important for the determined groups of the population, for example, the military personnel, sportsmen, etc. In addition, this technology includes sparing modes of processing of raw materials, keeping thereby native properties of useful substances (protein, fat as much as possible. Researches on selection of an optimum ratio of the heads and the bones providing high organoleptic rates of broths on their basis were carried out to produce dry fish bases. Conditions and parameters of convective drying of little value products of cutting of silver carp and cod are determined. The results allow to draw a preliminary conclusion on the possibility of creation a new technology of powdery products for broths fast preparation. The developed technology is of great importance in the creation of waste-free and low-waste production at the enterprises of fishery industry of the Russian Federation.

  19. The drying of sewage sludge by immersion frying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Silva

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to dry sewage sludge using a fry-drying process. The frying experiments were carried out in commercial fryers modified by adding thermocouples to the setup. During frying, typical drying curves were obtained and it was verified that, in relation to the parameters: oil temperature, oil type and shape of the sample, the shape factor the most effect on the drying rate, at least within the range chosen for the variables studied. Oil uptake and calorific value were also analyzed. The calorific value of the samples increased with frying time, reaching values around 24MJ/kg after 600s of frying (comparable to biocombustibles such as wood and sugarcane bagasse. The process of immersion frying showed great potential for drying materials, especially sewage sludge, obtaining a product with a high energy content, thereby increasing its value as a combustible.

  20. Determination of the most economical drying schedule and air velocity in softwood drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salin, J.G.

    2001-12-01

    Simulation models for conventional softwood drying have been available and have also been used by kiln operators for many years. For instance models for Scots pine and Norway spruce, dried at temperatures below about 80 deg C, are in use in Sweden, Finland and Norway. These models predict drying rates as a function of climate (schedule) and air velocity. The models thus give a direct basis for calculation of instantaneous energy demand for moisture evaporation and ventilation. There is further a direct relationship between the air velocity in the space between the board layers in the kiln stack and the electrical power demand by the circulation fans. Finally, the smaller energy consumption associated with heat losses through kiln walls and the accumulated heat in timber etc. can be estimated with sufficient accuracy. Instantaneous energy costs can thus be calculated for each part of a drying schedule. Capital costs associated with kiln investment and maintenance, personnel, insurance etc can be accounted for as an hourly cost, which is basically independent of whether timber is dried fast or slowly. A slow drying process thus accumulates more capital costs per m 3 timber. In this way it is possible to calculate the total instantaneous drying cost (Euro/m{sup 3}/h or Euro/m3/MC%) and the overall total cost (Euro or Euro/m{sup 3}). Some results obtained with a simulation model equipped with such a cost calculation are presented in the paper. A rapidly increasing drying cost is seen when the final MC is lowered. By minimising the instantaneous cost, an optimal drying schedule can be determined for a given fixed air velocity. Finally an optimal air velocity - constant or varying - can be found in the same way.

  1. Emissions of Sesquiterpenes from Spruce Sawdust During Drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Granstroem, K.M.

    2006-01-01

    Large amounts of sawdust are dried for production of particleboard and Pellets. During processing of wood (i.e. drying, densification), volatile organic compounds are emitted. These contribute in the presence of nitrogen oxides and sunlight to the formation of ground level ozone and other harmful photo-oxidants. In this study sesquiterpene emissions from the drying of fresh Norway Spruce (Picea abies) sawdust in a continuous spouted bed steam dryer at 140-200 deg C have been investigated, and patterns of covariation between sesquiterpene emissions and drying parameters elucidated. Sesquiterpene emissions was about 20% of the monoterpene emissions. Drying in 200 deg C caused markedly larger sesquiterpene emissions than in 140 deg C or 170 deg C. Whereas a change in moisture content had no notable effect on the amount of sesquiterpenes emitted at high wood moisture contents (25-40%), the sesquiterpene emissions increased considerably as drying proceeded at low wood moisture contents (5-15%). While it has long been known that monoterpenes are a dominant VOC emitted during processing of wood, this study shows that sesquiterpenes are of considerable importance

  2. Rehydration ratio of fluid bed-dried vegetables

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R. Narasimhan (Krishtel eMaging) 1461 1996 Oct 15 13:05:22

    In the food processing industry the heat treatment of vegetables is a very important ... preparation is very important for the best drying results, while the drying times are more or ... C for 3 minutes, cooked for 15 minutes in water and then.

  3. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  4. Integration of energy-efficient empty fruit bunch drying with gasification/combined cycle systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aziz, Muhammad; Prawisudha, Pandji; Prabowo, Bayu; Budiman, Bentang Arief

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Novel integrated drying, gasification and combined cycle for empty fruit bunch. • Application of enhanced process integration to achieve high total energy efficiency. • The technology covers exergy recovery and process integration. • High overall energy efficiency can be achieved (about 44% including drying). - Abstract: A high-energy-efficient process for empty fruit bunch drying with integration to gasification and combined cycle processes is proposed. The enhancement is due to greater exergy recovery and more efficient process integration. Basically, the energy/heat involved in a single process is recovered as much as possible, leading to minimization of exergy destruction. In addition, the unrecoverable energy/heat is utilized for other processes through process integration. During drying, a fluidized bed dryer with superheated steam is used as the main evaporator. Exergy recovery is performed through exergy elevation via compression and effective heat coupling in a dryer and heat exchangers. The dried empty fruit bunches are gasified in a fluidized bed gasifier using air as the fluidizing gas. Furthermore, the produced syngas is utilized as fuel in the combined cycle module. From process analysis, the proposed integrated processes can achieve a relatively high energy efficiency. Compared to a standalone drying process employing exergy recovery, the proposed integrated drying can reduce consumed energy by about 1/3. In addition, the overall integrated processes can reach a total power generation efficiency of about 44%

  5. Factors affecting dry-cured ham consumer acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, R; Guerrero, L; Aguiar, A P S; Guàrdia, M D; Gou, P

    2013-11-01

    The objectives of the present study were (1) to compare the relative importance of price, processing time, texture and intramuscular fat in purchase intention of dry-cured ham through conjoint analysis, (2) to evaluate the effect of dry-cured ham appearance on consumer expectations, and (3) to describe the consumer sensory preferences of dry-cured ham using external preference mapping. Texture and processing time influenced the consumer preferences in conjoint analysis. Red colour intensity, colour uniformity, external fat and white film presence/absence influenced consumer expectations. The consumer disliked hams with bitter and metallic flavour and with excessive saltiness and piquantness. Differences between expected and experienced acceptability were found, which indicates that the visual preference of consumers does not allow them to select a dry-cured ham that satisfies their sensory preferences of flavour and texture. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. When to stop drying fruit: Insights from hygrothermal modelling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Defraeye, Thijs

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Partial dehydration reduces energy consumption and processing time and improves product quality. • This study gives a quantitative insight in when fruit drying should be stopped. • Decrease in dryer residence time of 2%, 24% and 70% are found for different stopping criteria. - Abstract: Stopping the drying process prior to complete dehydration reduces energy consumption and processing time but can also improve product quality. Using hygrothermal simulations, different stopping criteria are evaluated, which are based on the final water activity and residual moisture content in the fruit. Their impact on drying time and moisture redistribution kinetics inside fruit is quantified. One of the variants leads to a significant reduction in residence time in the dryer (24%), compared to full dehydration. For this variant, drying is stopped when the average moisture content in the sample reaches the value corresponding to an equilibrium water activity of 60% in the sample, as determined from the sorption isotherm. At the same time, this variant does not induce problems with fruit spoilage, as a sufficiently low water activity is reached after moisture redistribution during relaxation in the ambient environment. In addition, the relation of the drying time to the drying air temperature was quantified for all stopping criteria, as well as the impact of the humidity of the ambient environment in which the dried fruits are placed afterwards. This study gives a better quantitative insight in when fruit drying should be stopped, given specific drying conditions, without having to compromise food safety.

  7. Influence of partial replacement of NaCl with KCl on profiles of volatile compounds in dry-cured bacon during processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Haizhou; Zhuang, Hong; Zhang, Yingyang; Tang, Jing; Yu, Xiang; Long, Men; Wang, Jiamei; Zhang, Jianhao

    2015-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of partial substitution of NaCl with KCl on the formation of volatile compounds in bacons during processing using a purge and trap dynamic headspace GC/MS system. Three substitutions were 0% KCl (I), 40% KCl (II), and 70% KCl (III). The profiles of the volatile compounds significantly changed during processing, particularly during the drying/ripening. At the end of process, the bacons from substitution III formed significantly higher levels of lipid-derived volatiles, such as straight chain aldehydes, hydrocarbons than bacons from substitution I and II, whereas the latter formed higher levels of volatiles from amino acid degradation such as 3-methylbutanal. There were very few differences in volatile formation between 0% and 40% KCl application. These results suggest that K(+) substitution of Na(+) by more than 40% may significantly change profiles of volatiles in finished dry-cured bacons and therefore would result in changes in the product aroma and/or flavour. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  9. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  10. Application of a novel 3-fluid nozzle spray drying process for the microencapsulation of therapeutic agents using incompatible drug-polymer solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunderland, Tara; Kelly, John G; Ramtoola, Zebunnissa

    2015-04-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a novel 3-fluid concentric nozzle (3-N) spray drying process for the microencapsulation of omeprazole sodium (OME) using Eudragit L100 (EL100). Feed solutions containing OME and/or EL100 in ethanol were assessed visually for OME stability. Addition of OME solution to EL100 solution resulted in precipitation of OME followed by degradation of OME reflected by a colour change from colourless to purple and brown. This was related to the low pH of 2.8 of the EL100 solution at which OME is unstable. Precipitation and progressive discoloration of the 2-fluid nozzle (2-N) feed solution was observed over the spray drying time course. In contrast, 3-N solutions of EL100 or OME in ethanol were stable over the spray drying period. Microparticles prepared using either nozzle showed similar characteristics and outer morphology however the internal morphology was different. DSC showed a homogenous matrix of drug and polymer for 2-N microparticles while 3-N microparticles had defined drug and polymer regions distributed as core and coat. The results of this study demonstrate that the novel 3-N spray drying process can allow the microencapsulation of a drug using an incompatible polymer and maintain the drug and polymer in separate regions of the microparticles.

  11. Dehydration of Traditional Dried Instant Noodle (Mee Siput) Using Controlled Temperature & Humidity Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mamat, K. A.; Yusof, M. S.; Yusoff, Wan Fauziah Wan; Zulafif Rahim, M.; Hassan, S.; Rahman, M. Qusyairi. A.; Karim, M. A. Abd

    2017-05-01

    Drying process is an essential step to produce instant noodles. Yet, the industries especially Small and Medium Enterprises (SMEs), is seeking for an efficient method to dry the noodles. This paper discusses the performance of an invented drying system which employed heating and humidifying process. The drying system was tested using 30 kilogram of the raw noodle known as “Mee Siput”. Temperature controlled system were used in the study to control the temperature of the drying process and prevent the dried noodles from damage by maintaining the temperature of lower than 80°C. The analysis shows that the system was drastically decreased the humidity from 80% to 40% just after 200 minutes of the drying process. The complete dehydration time of noodle has also decreased to only 4 hours from 16 hours when using traditional drying system without sacrificed the good quality of the dried noodle. In overall, the invented system believed to increase the production capacity of the noodle, reduce cost of production which would highly beneficial for Small Medium Industries (SMEs) in Malaysia.

  12. EFFECT OF THE STEAMING ON THE DRYING OF Eucalyptus grandis BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphael Nogueira Rezende

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of the steaming on the drying rate and drying quality of Eucalyptus grandis boards. For this purpose, wood from an experimental plantation of the Federal University of Lavras, Minas Gerais State, Brazil, with 24 years of age was used. Trees were felled and sectioned in logs and the logs were sawn by a tangential system. Half of the boards volume were steamed during 3 hours at 90ºC of temperature and 100% of relative humidity after the heating of the drying process. The other half was not steamed (control. The boards were dried in the dry-kiln and the resulting defects from the drying process and drying rate were determined. The results indicated that the steaming was effective in increase of the drying rate in 15% and decrease of the drying defects of 20 to 52%.

  13. Dry-cleaning with high-pressure carbon dioxide

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Roosmalen, M.J.E.

    2003-01-01

    Dry-cleaning is a process for removing soils and stains from fabrics and garments which uses a non-aqueous solvent with detergent added. The currently most used dry-cleaning solvent is perchloroethylene (PER), which is toxic, environmentally harmful and suspected to be carcinogenic. Carbon dioxide

  14. Gelcasting compositions having improved drying characteristics and machinability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janney, Mark A.; Walls, Claudia A. H.

    2001-01-01

    A gelcasting composition has improved drying behavior, machinability and shelf life in the dried and unfired state. The composition includes an inorganic powder, solvent, monomer system soluble in the solvent, an initiator system for polymerizing the monomer system, and a plasticizer soluble in the solvent. Dispersants and other processing aides to control slurry properties can be added. The plasticizer imparts an ability to dry thick section parts, to store samples in the dried state without cracking under conditions of varying relative humidity, and to machine dry gelcast parts without cracking or chipping. A method of making gelcast parts is also disclosed.

  15. Random-walk diffusion and drying of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrafarin, M.; Faghihi, M.

    2001-12-01

    Based on random-walk diffusion, a microscopic model for drying is proposed to explain the characteristic features of the drying-rate curve of porous materials. The constant drying-rate period is considered as a normal diffusion process. The transition to the falling-rate regime is attributed to the fractal nature of porous materials which results in crossover to anomalous diffusion.

  16. Thermodynamic properties and drying kinetics of Bauhinia forficata Link leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda P. da Silva

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to determine the effective diffusion coefficient and the thermodynamic properties of Bauhinia forficata Link leaves, considering two forms of thickness measurements and to describe the process by fitting mathematical models. The leaves were collected, taken to the laboratory and prepared to start the drying process in which four temperatures (40, 50, 60 and 70 °C were applied. After the drying process, the effective diffusion coefficient was determined through the theory of diffusion in liquid, allowing to obtain the values of the activation energy, enthalpy, entropy and Gibbs free energy. The description of the drying process was performed by setting the thirteen mathematical models used to represent constant drying of agricultural products. The Valcam model was selected to represent the drying kinetics B. forficata Link. Increased temperature promotes: decreasing enthalpy and entropy; increasing Gibbs free energy and effective diffusion coefficient. The effective diffusion coefficient is higher when the rib thickness is considered; thus, it is recommended to standardize and/or specify the points of measurement of leaf thickness.

  17. The mathematical description of the process of drying the grain of millet in the device with active hydromechanical mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. T. Antipov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The basis for the creation of new designs dryers laid the mathematical description of the test process, taking into account the method of loading and handling of the product in the machine, how to supply coolant or other type of energy supply, the theoretical performance, and structural (geometric component of the apparatus. To simulate the process of our work was considered of cylindrical dryers with active hydrodynamic regime and microwave energy supply, one feature of which is the loading of the product in a stream tangential coolant flow. The object of the study was chosen millet grain, because of the high biological value and high prevalence in the southern regions of the Russian Federation. On the basis of theoretical analysis, it was decided to divide the mathematical model into two conditional components: the study of heat and mass transfer study of aerodynamic component of the drying process. In this paper, we have been disclosed in detail is the second part of the process. The basis of this model were the equations of motion of millet grains by Newton's second law. The coolant in the framework of the proposed model is considered to be a continuous medium, highly compressible and has an internal viscosity, described by the Navier-Stokes equations. The initial conditions of the mathematical model were the following assumptions: the speed of the mechanical motion elements are equal to zero, the initial density of the air environment in all nodes is the equilibrium density of the air, the initial velocity of the air quality in all nodes is zero. The boundary conditions can be described as the constancy of the flow temperature and humidity, and its displacement is directly design constraints of the drying chamber. This model will be useful for professionals engaged in the problems of calculation and design of drying equipment.

  18. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Ondřej Bučko; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, f...

  19. Integration of Succinic Acid Production in a Dry Mill Ethanol Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2006-08-01

    This project seeks to address both issues for a dry mill ethanol biorefinery by lowering the cost of sugars with the development of an advanced pretreatment process, improving the economics of succinic acid (SA), and developing a model of an ethanol dry mill to evaluate the impact of adding different products and processes to a dry mill.

  20. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s. As a result, its environmental features have been deteriorated, which have negatively affected the kind of water contained in it and which require a series of procedures and solutions to be done in this regard. Among these there are the following: encouraging the dialogue and negotiations with the countries in which the high basins of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates are located (Turkey, Syria and Iran, controlling the random spread of the marshes and concentrating on the constant and deep marshes, developing and rehabilitating the deep marshes by means of establishing natural protected areas, enlivening the constant marshes by means of connecting them to one another, supporting and encouraging studies and research, controlling the pollution of the marshes, developing the general services of the marsh areas and the neighboring ones, and stronger involving of the ministries which should pay their serious and actual attention to the environment and the population of the marshes.

  1. Drying of a plasmid containing formulation: chitosan as a protecting agent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohajel Nasir

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of the study. Along with research on development of more efficient gene delivery systems, it is necessary to search on stabilization processes to extend their active life span. Chitosan is a nontoxic, biocompatible and available gene delivery carrier. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of this polymer to preserve transfection efficiency during spray-drying and a modified freeze-drying process in the presence of commonly used excipients. Method Molecular weight of chitosan was reduced by a chemical reaction and achieved low molecular weight chitosan (LMWC was complexed with pDNA. Obtained nanocomplex suspensions were diluted by solutions of lactose and leucine, and these formulations were spray dried or freeze dried using a modified technique. Size, polydispersity index, zeta potential, intensity of supercoiled DNA band on gel electrophoresis, and transfection efficiency of reconstituted nanocomplexes were compared with freshly prepared ones. Results and major conclusion Size distribution profiles of both freeze dried, and 13 out of 16 spray-dried nanocomplexes remained identical to freshly prepared ones. LMWC protected up to 100% of supercoiled structure of pDNA in both processes, although DNA degradation was higher in spray-drying of the nanocomplexes prepared with low N/P ratios. Both techniques preserved transfection efficiency similarly even in lower N/P ratios, where supercoiled DNA content of spray dried formulations was lower than freeze-dried ones. Leucine did not show a significant effect on properties of the processed nanocomplexes. It can be concluded that LMWC can protect DNA structure and transfection efficiency in both processes even in the presence of leucine.

  2. Mathematical modeling and effective diffusion of Schinus terebinthifolius leaves during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    André Luís Duarte Goneli

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The drying process of agricultural products is extensively used worldwide for controlling and maintaining their quality. For medicinal and aromatic plants, this importance increases even more. Thus, this study aimed at evaluating the drying kinetics of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi leaves, as well as adjusting different mathematical models to the experimental values of moisture ratio. The leaves were harvested with initial moisture content of approximately 65% (w.b. and submitted to the drying process under controlled conditions of temperature (40ºC, 50ºC, 60ºC and 70ºC, up to the approximate moisture content of 10% (w.b.. Six mathematical models were adjusted to the experimental data cited at the specific literature and used to predict the drying process of agricultural products. According to the results obtained, it was concluded that the modified Henderson & Pabis and Midilli models were the ones that best represented the drying kinetics of S. terebinthifolius leaves. The temperature increase of the drying air promoted a higher rate of water removal from the product. The effective diffusion coefficient increased with the temperature elevation, and its relation to the drying temperature fitted the Arrhenius equation, which presented activation energy for the liquid diffusion, during the drying process, of 74.96 kJ mol-1, for S. terebinthifolius leaves.

  3. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  4. Mathematical experimental modeling for muffle furnace drying process of municipal sewage sludge in Beijing and Osaka

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Xinyi; Takaoka, Masaki; Zhu, Fenfen; Oshita, Kazuyuki; Mizuno, Tadao; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-01-01

    Over the past two decades, China has experienced rapid urbanization, which also leads to a lot of environmental problems including those of sewage sludge. As the amount of sewage sludge increases, conventional methods of treatment, such as compost and landfill, are facing the problems of limitations in demands or land. Considering that the demand of constructive materials in China keeps increasing, reusing municipal sewage sludge (MSS) in cement manufactory plant as fuels and raw materials is another practicable way to deal with it. The aim of this study is to describe the process of the heating of sewage sludge under different atmospheres of nitrogen and oxygen, and to find out some relation between the moisture of MSS and the heating time under different surrounding temperature by means of a mathematical model. In this study, we compared 4 kinds of MSS sampled in Beijing and Osaka. First of all, we defined the differences in those fundamental physical properties, such as concentration of various elements, calorific values and so on. Then the macroscopical thermal properties of the sludges were observed by means of thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. Both pyrolysis and combustion of 4 samples of MSS were studied by TG dynamic runs carried out at 10K/m. Visual observation of the heating profiles shows three stages in the heating process, which have been characterized. At last, we focused on batch processing drying tests using muffle furnace under temperature of 200, 250 and 300 degrees Celsius. The volatile matters loss besides moisture during heating process was evaluated and the experimental drying curves were matched with a mathematical model. (author)

  5. Equipment and obtention process of 131I by dry distillation starting from TeO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alanis M, J.

    2000-08-01

    The present invention refers to an equipment and process for the obtaining of 131 I by dry distillation starting from TeO 2 that has three interconnected systems, the manipulation system, the electric system and the distillation system, the combination of these systems, allows to improve the yield and the separation of the 131 I during the distillation process, since inside the electric system it is an oven that has a special design based on a temperature gradient. The more relevant aspects of the equipment its are the design of each one of its components that give as result the effectiveness of the production of 131 I in routinary form (industrial) whose final product can end up reaching a radiochemical purity up to 99% and a radionuclide purity of approximately 100%. The object of this invention is to provide a distillation equipment different to those that at the moment exist, thanks to its novel internal construction whose main characteristics already gather advantages on those existent. The reaction of obtaining of the TeO 2 , the development of the technique and studies of TeO 2 sintering and the irradiation experiments, its contributed to characterize with more precision the 'new process of obtaining of 131 I by dry via starting from the Te' developed in the ININ, and in this way it was achieved a more pure product, more economic, with less risks, from a point of view of Radiological Safety and mainly that it avoids the import to the country and it makes to self-sufficient Mexico in the production of 131 I. (Author)

  6. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  7. The effect of slicing type on drying kinetics and quality of dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour zadeh mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most common vegetables used for human nutrition because of its high vitamin and fiber contents. Drying improves the product shelf life without addition of any chemical preservative and reduces both the size of package and the transport cost. Drying also aidsto reduce postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables especially, which can be as high as 70%. Dried carrots are used in dehydrated soups and in the form of powder in pastries and sauces. The main aim of drying agricultural products is decrease the moisture content to a level which allows safe storage over an extended period. Many fruits and vegetables can be sliced before drying.because of different tissue of a fruit or vegetable, cutting them in different direction and shape created different tissue slices. Due to drying is the exiting process of the moisture from internal tissue so different tissue slices caused different drying kinetics. Therefore, the study on effect of cutting parameters on drying is necessary. Materials and Methods: Carrots (Daucus carota L. were purchased from the local market (Kerman, Iran and stored in a refrigerator at 5°C. The initial moisture contents of the Carrot samples were determined by the oven drying method. The sample was dried in an oven at 105±2°C about 24 hours. The carrots cut by 3 models blade at 3 directions. The samples were dried in an oven at 70°C. Moisture content of the carrot slices were determined by weighting of samples during drying. Volume changes because of sample shrinkage were measured by a water displacement method. Rehydration experiment was performed by immersing a weighted amount of dried samples into hot water 50 °C for 30 min. In this study the effect of some cutting parameters was considered on carrot drying and the quality of final drying product. The tests were performed as a completely random design. The effects of carrot thickness at two levels (3 and 6 mm, blade in 3 models (flat blade

  8. Prediction of porosity of food materials during drying: Current challenges and directions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joardder, Mohammad U H; Kumar, C; Karim, M A

    2017-07-18

    Pore formation in food samples is a common physical phenomenon observed during dehydration processes. The pore evolution during drying significantly affects the physical properties and quality of dried foods. Therefore, it should be taken into consideration when predicting transport processes in the drying sample. Characteristics of pore formation depend on the drying process parameters, product properties and processing time. Understanding the physics of pore formation and evolution during drying will assist in accurately predicting the drying kinetics and quality of food materials. Researchers have been trying to develop mathematical models to describe the pore formation and evolution during drying. In this study, existing porosity models are critically analysed and limitations are identified. Better insight into the factors affecting porosity is provided, and suggestions are proposed to overcome the limitations. These include considerations of process parameters such as glass transition temperature, sample temperature, and variable material properties in the porosity models. Several researchers have proposed models for porosity prediction of food materials during drying. However, these models are either very simplistic or empirical in nature and failed to consider relevant significant factors that influence porosity. In-depth understanding of characteristics of the pore is required for developing a generic model of porosity. A micro-level analysis of pore formation is presented for better understanding, which will help in developing an accurate and generic porosity model.

  9. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko Ten; Soema, Peter C; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-10-03

    Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery.

  10. Developments in the formulation and delivery of spray dried vaccines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanojia, Gaurav; Have, Rimko ten; Soema, Peter C.; Frijlink, Henderik; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Kersten, Gideon

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT Spray drying is a promising method for the stabilization of vaccines, which are usually formulated as liquids. Usually, vaccine stability is improved by spray drying in the presence of a range of excipients. Unlike freeze drying, there is no freezing step involved, thus the damage related to this step is avoided. The edge of spray drying resides in its ability for particles to be engineered to desired requirements, which can be used in various vaccine delivery methods and routes. Although several spray dried vaccines have shown encouraging preclinical results, the number of vaccines that have been tested in clinical trials is limited, indicating a relatively new area of vaccine stabilization and delivery. This article reviews the current status of spray dried vaccine formulations and delivery methods. In particular it discusses the impact of process stresses on vaccine integrity, the application of excipients in spray drying of vaccines, process and formulation optimization strategies based on Design of Experiment approaches as well as opportunities for future application of spray dried vaccine powders for vaccine delivery. PMID:28925794

  11. Investigation of the process of vacuum freeze drying of bacterial concentrates for the meat industry with cryogenic freezing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Poymanov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research results of the nutritional value of the products manufactured are presented in the article. The main directions of bacterial concentrates application in the meat industry were determined. The analysis of starter cultures was given. The range of products manu-factured with bacterial concentrates was analyzed. It was shown that the introduction of innovative technologies will enable dynamic development of both large and small enterprises, which will create prerequisites for the growth of the Russian market of meat products. Economic efficiency of the studied substances treatment methods was proved. The relevance of the development of technology of pro-duction of dry bacterial concentrates with cryogenic freezing was proved. An integrated approach to the development of competitive domestic technologies and equipment for cryofreezing and sublimation dehydration by the use of granulation for the intensification of the internal heat and mass transfer, reducing specific energy consumption through the use of a combined cold supply system was pro-posed. Results of the study of the kinetics of the freezing process with the traditional method and cryofreezing are given in the paper. Rational parameters of the cryofreezing process were proposed. The optimum composition of cryoprotective medium was recommended. The research of the process of bacterial concentrate vacuum sublimation dehydration in the layer and granular form were conducted. The research confirmed that the use of the cryofreezing and granulation can increase the number of viable microorganisms in the bacterial concentrate and reduce the drying time. Rational vacuum sublimation dehydration modes were proposed. Methods of reduc-ing the defects of the processed products and improvement of the efficiency of production facilities were specified. Quality indicators of dried bacterial concentrates were given. The results obtained allow to carry out engineering calculations

  12. Freeze-drying-induced changes in the properties of graphene oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ham, Heon; Van Khai, Tran; Gil Na, Han; Jung Kwon, Yong; Yeon Cho, Hong; Woo Kim, Hyoun; Park, No-Hyung; So, Dae Sup; Lee, Joon-Woo

    2014-01-01

    We have characterized and evaluated changes in graphene oxide (GO) induced by means of freeze-drying. In order to evaluate these changes, we investigated the effects of freeze-drying and chemical reduction processes on the structure, morphology, chemical composition, and Raman properties of GO and reduced GO. The freeze-dried GO had a pore structure, maintaining a pored morphology even after thermal annealing. The freeze-dried samples were composed of a single folded nanosheet or a few nanosheets stacked and folded. The oxygen-containing functional groups were removed not only during the freeze-drying but also during the reduction processes, with an accompanying decrease in the average size of the sp 2 carbon domain (i.e. an increase in the I D /I G value). (papers)

  13. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  14. Spray drying for preservation of erythrocytes: effect of atomization on hemolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, Mary; Han, Xiao-Yue; Higgins, Adam Z

    2013-04-01

    Spray drying has the potential to enable storage of erythrocytes at room temperature in the dry state. The spray drying process involves atomization of a liquid into small droplets and drying of the droplets in a gas stream. In this short report, we focus on the atomization process. To decouple atomization from drying, erythrocyte suspensions were sprayed with a two-fluid atomizer nozzle using humid nitrogen as the atomizing gas. The median droplet size was less than 100 μm for all of the spray conditions investigated, indicating that the suspensions were successfully atomized. Hemolysis was significantly affected by the hematocrit of the erythrocyte suspension, the suspension flow rate, and the atomizing gas flow rate (pspray drying may be a feasible option for erythrocyte biopreservation.

  15. Freeze-drying of filamentous fungi and yeasts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tan, C.S.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis was to optimize the freeze-drying protocol for fungi in general and for those genera that do not survive this preservation method, in particular. To this end, the influence of the cooling rate, the lyoprotectant and the drying process itself was examined. Since most fungi

  16. Investigation of optimal manufacturing process for freeze-dried formulations: Observation of frozen solutions by low temperature X-ray diffraction measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Egawa, Hiroaki; Yonemochi, Etsuo; Terada, Katsuhide

    2005-01-01

    Freeze-drying is used for the production of sterile injections in the pharmaceutical industry. However, most pharmaceutical compounds are obtained as less stable amorphous form. Freeze crystallization by annealing is an effective method for pharmaceutical compounds that fail to crystallize in the freeze-drying process. Crystallization occurs in the frozen solution during the thermal treatment. In order to establish suitable annealing conditions efficiently, it is important to observe the crystallization process directly in the frozen solution. Recently, low temperature X-ray diffraction has been used to observe frozen solutions. In order to investigate the crystallization process kinetically, the temperature of the low temperature X-ray diffraction instrument must be accurately controlled. We calibrated the temperature of X-ray diffraction instrument by measuring eutectic temperatures of solutions for a series of compounds. Each eutectic crystal was observed in frozen solution with ice crystal below the eutectic temperature. Eutectic temperatures were detected by the decrease in diffraction intensity associated with heating from below the eutectic temperature. Good correlation was obtained between values in the literature and experimental values

  17. Processing of surrogate nuclear fuel pellets for better dimensional control with dry bag isostatic pressing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoggan, Rita E., E-mail: Rita.hoggan@inl.gov; Zuck, Larry D., E-mail: Larry.zuck@inl.gov; Cannon, W. Roger, E-mail: cannon@rutgers.edu; Lessing, Paul A., E-mail: p.a.l.2@hotmail.com

    2016-12-15

    A study of improved methods of processing fuel pellets was undertaken using ceria and zirconia/yttria/alumina as surrogates. Through proper granulation, elimination of fines and vertical vibration (tapping) of the parts bag prior to dry bag isostatic pressing (DBIP), reproducibility of diameter profiles among multiple pellets of ceria was improved by almost an order of magnitude. Reproducibility of sintered pellets in these studies was sufficient to allow pellets to be introduced into the cladding with a gap between the pellet and cladding on the order of 50 μm to 100 μm but not a uniform gap with tolerance of ±12 μm as is currently required. Deviation from the mean diameter along the length of multiple pellets, and deviation from roundness, decreased after sintering. This is not generally observed with dry pressed pellets. Sintered shrinkage was uniform to ±0.05% and thus, as an alternative, pellets may be machined to tolerance before sintering, thus avoiding the waste associated with post-sinter grinding. - Highlights: • Three methods of granule preparation for two different powder sources were outlined and compared using tap density curves. • A dry bag isostatic press was used to fabricate pellets and longer rods. Thus longer pellets could be fabricated by this technique. • Vertical vibrations to pack granules decreased variation in dimensions from pellet to pellet by a factor of nine. • Sintering shrinkage varied by only 0.1% along the length of a rod. Thus green machining prior to sintering could result in tight tolerances.

  18. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  19. Simulation of energetic- and exergetic performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Zare, D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans was simulated (using a previously validated mathematical model) and analyzed based on the first- and second law of thermodynamics. The energy and exergy analysis were carried out for several drying conditions. The effects of inlet air temperature, microwave power density, bed thickness and inlet air velocity on the efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process have been simulated and discussed. Generally, application of microwave energy during fluidized bed drying enhanced the exergy efficiency of drying process. However, the results showed that it was more efficient not to apply microwave energy at the first stage of fluidized bed drying process. The application of higher levels of drying air temperature led in higher exergy efficiencies. The values of mean relative deviations for the predictions of efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process were less than 14%, compared with those calculated using experimental data. - Highlights: • Introducing a mathematical model to predict the efficiency of microwave-assisted fluidized bed dryers. • Energy and exergy analysis in microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of grains. • Providing practical recommendations for efficient use of microwave power during drying

  20. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  1. Estimating the Energy Content of Wastewater Using Combustion Calorimetry and Different Drying Processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korth, Benjamin; Maskow, Thomas; Günther, Susanne; Harnisch, Falk, E-mail: falk.harnisch@ufz.de [Department of Environmental Microbiology, Helmholtz-Centre for Environmental Research, Leipzig (Germany)

    2017-09-19

    The energy content of wastewater is routinely assessed by chemical oxygen demand (COD) measurements that only provide an incomplete picture and the data fundament of other energy parameters remains scarce. The volumetric heat of combustion (Δ{sub C}H) of raw wastewater from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) was assessed using oven drying method (Δ{sub C}H{sub vol} = −6.8 ± 4.3 kJ L{sup −1}, n = 20) and freeze drying method (Δ{sub C}H{sub vol} = −20.2 ± 9.7 kJ L{sup −1}, n = 6) illustrating the substantial loss during the oven drying approach. Normalizing Δ{sub C}H to COD of raw wastewater yielded −6.2 ± 3.5 kJ gCOD{sup −1} for oven-dried samples (n = 14) and −13.0 ± 1.6 kJ gCOD{sup −1} for freeze-dried samples (n = 3). A subsequent correlation analysis with further chemical wastewater parameters revealed a dependency of Δ{sub C}H{sub vol} on COD, total organic carbon (TOC), C:N ratio, and total sulfur content. To verify these correlations, wastewater of a second WWTP was sampled and analyzed. Only COD and TOC were in accordance with the data set from the first WWTP representing potential predictors for the chemical energy stored in wastewater for comparable WWTPs. Unfortunately, during the most practical method (oven drying), a certain loss of volatile compounds is inevitable so that the derived Δ{sub C}H{sub vol} systematically underestimates the total energetic potential of wastewater. Nevertheless, this work expands the, so far, little data fundament on the energy resource wastewater and implies the requirement for further long-term studies on different sites and different wastewater types with a highly standardized sample treatment protocol.

  2. Design of experiment characterization of microneedle fabrication processes based on dry silicon etching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Held, J.; Gaspar, J.; Ruther, P.; Hagner, M.; Cismak, A.; Heilmann, A.; Paul, O.

    2010-02-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of dry etching-based processes for the fabrication of silicon microneedles using a design of experiment (DoE) approach. The possibility of using such microneedles as protruding microelectrodes able to electroporate adherently growing cells and record intracellular potentials motivates the systematic analysis of the influence of etching parameters on the needle shape. Two processes are characterized: a fully isotropic etch process and a three-step etching approach. In the first case, the shape of the microneedles is defined by a single etch step. For the stepped method, the structures are realized using the following sequence: a first, isotropic step defines the tip; this is followed by anisotropic etching that increases the height of the needle; a final isotropic procedure thins the microneedle and sharpens its tip. From the various process parameters tested, it is concluded that the isotropic fabrication is influenced mostly by four process parameters, whereas six parameters dominantly govern the outcome of the stepped etching technique. The dependence of the needle shape on the etch mask diameter is also investigated. Microneedles with diameters down to the sub-micrometer range and heights below 10 µm are obtained. The experimental design is performed using the D-optimal method. The resulting geometry, i.e. heights, diameters and radii of curvature measured at different positions, is extracted from scanning electron micrographs of needle cross-sections obtained from cuts by focused ion beam. The process parameters are used as inputs and the geometry features of the microneedles as outputs for the analysis of the process.

  3. Design of experiment characterization of microneedle fabrication processes based on dry silicon etching

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Held, J; Gaspar, J; Ruther, P; Paul, O; Hagner, M; Cismak, A; Heilmann, A

    2010-01-01

    This paper reports on the characterization of dry etching-based processes for the fabrication of silicon microneedles using a design of experiment (DoE) approach. The possibility of using such microneedles as protruding microelectrodes able to electroporate adherently growing cells and record intracellular potentials motivates the systematic analysis of the influence of etching parameters on the needle shape. Two processes are characterized: a fully isotropic etch process and a three-step etching approach. In the first case, the shape of the microneedles is defined by a single etch step. For the stepped method, the structures are realized using the following sequence: a first, isotropic step defines the tip; this is followed by anisotropic etching that increases the height of the needle; a final isotropic procedure thins the microneedle and sharpens its tip. From the various process parameters tested, it is concluded that the isotropic fabrication is influenced mostly by four process parameters, whereas six parameters dominantly govern the outcome of the stepped etching technique. The dependence of the needle shape on the etch mask diameter is also investigated. Microneedles with diameters down to the sub-micrometer range and heights below 10 µm are obtained. The experimental design is performed using the D-optimal method. The resulting geometry, i.e. heights, diameters and radii of curvature measured at different positions, is extracted from scanning electron micrographs of needle cross-sections obtained from cuts by focused ion beam. The process parameters are used as inputs and the geometry features of the microneedles as outputs for the analysis of the process.

  4. Mineralogy of Antarctica Dry Valley Soils: Implications for Pedogenic Processes on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinn, J. E.; Ming, D. W.; Morris, R. V.; Douglas, S.; Kounaves, S. P.; McKay, C. P.; Tamppari, L, K.; Smith, P. H.; Zent, A. P.; Archer, P. D., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    The Antarctic Dry Valleys (ADVs) located in the Transantarctic Mountains are the coldest and driest locations on Earth. The mean annual air temperature is -20 C or less and the ADVs receive 100mm or less of precipitation annually in the form of snow. The cold and dry climate in the ADVs is one of the best terrestrial analogs for the climatic conditions on Mars [2]. The soils in the ADVs have been categorized into three soil moisture zones: subxerous, xerous and ultraxerous. The subxerous zone is a coastal region in which soils have ice-cemented permafrost relatively close to the surface. Moisture is available in relatively large amounts and soil temperatures are above freezing throughout the soil profile (above ice permafrost) in summer months. The xerous zone, the most widespread of the three zones, is an inland region with a climate midway between the subxerous and ultraxerous. The soils from this zone have dry permafrost at moderate depths (30-75cm) but have sufficient water in the upper soil horizons to allow leaching of soluble materials. The ultraxerous zone is a high elevation zone, where both temperature and precipitation amounts are very low resulting in dry permafrost throughout the soil profile. The three moisture regime regions are similar to the three microclimatic zones (coastal thaw, inland mixed, stable upland) defined by Marchant and Head.

  5. Dry ice blasting as a substitution for the conventional electroplating pre-treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhlmann Eckart

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available For high quality electroplated products, surfaces must be thoroughly pre-treated. For this purpose electroplating currently needs a variety of chemical baths. The used chemicals are injurious to health and harmful to the environment. In addition, the conventional pre-treatment has a long process time which results in high costs. Dry ice blasting alone or in combination with other processes has the potential to completely substitute these conventional pre-treatment processes. Three process sequences as pre-treatment methods prior to electroplating were investigated on the aluminium alloys AlSi12 and AlMg3. The used processes are dry ice blasting, tempering during dry ice blasting and glass bead blasting followed by dry ice blasting. The influence of the parameters on the surface roughness, surface topography and surface tension of the workpieces was examined. A model to describe the correlation between the dry ice blasting parameters and surface parameters was developed. Finally, an adhesion test of electroplated specimen was conducted in order to determine the suitability of these alternative pre-treatment processes.

  6. Evaluation of beetroot changes during drying with hot air by digital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Foods drying are an important operation in processing and increasing foodstuffs shelf life and many factors effected on products efficiency and quality during drying. Deterioration of texture structure and products color changes depends on drying method and air temperature and air rate. Drying or removing maximum water ...

  7. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L. with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis. The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min.

  8. Solar thermal drum drying performance of prune and tomato pomaces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruit and vegetable pomaces are co-products of the food processing industry; they are underutilized in part because their high water activity (aw) renders them unstable. Drum drying is one method that can dry/stabilize pomaces, but current drum drying methods utilize conventional, high-environmental...

  9. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  10. Exhaust circulation into dry gas desulfurization process to prevent carbon deposition in an Oxy-fuel IGCC power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kobayashi, Makoto; Nakao, Yoshinobu; Oki, Yuso

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Power plant with semi-closed gas turbine and O 2 –CO 2 coal gasifier was studied. • We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system. • The exhaust gas circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition. • Efficiency loss for exhaust gas circulation is quite small. • Appropriate operating condition of sulfur removal process is revealed. - Abstract: Semi-closed cycle operation of gas turbine fueled by oxygen–CO 2 blown coal gasification provides efficient power generation with CO 2 separation feature by excluding pre-combustion type CO 2 capture that usually brings large efficiency loss. The plant efficiency at transmission end is estimated as 44% at lower heating value (LHV) providing compressed CO 2 with concentration of 93 vol%. This power generation system will solve the contradiction between economical resource utilization and reduction of CO 2 emission from coal-fired power plant. The system requires appropriate sulfur reduction process to protect gas turbine from corrosion and environment from sulfur emission. We adopt dry gas sulfur removal process to establish the system where apprehension about the detrimental carbon deposition from coal gas. The effect of circulation of a portion of exhaust gas to the process on the retardation of carbon deposition was examined at various gas compositions. The circulation remarkably prevented carbon deposition in the sulfur removal sorbent. The impact of the circulation on the thermal efficiency is smaller than the other auxiliary power consumption. Thus, the circulation is appropriate operation for the power generation

  11. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  12. Effect of sun drying on microbes in non-conventional agricultural by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, dried beetroot contained significantly more yeast and moulds. ... The sun drying process is thus an efficient processing method for resource poor ... to reduce the microbial load in these animal feed sources and improve their shelf life.

  13. Thermohydraulic modeling of the dry air passive containment cooling system process in the Westinghouse AP-600 ALWR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harari, R; Weis, Y; Barnea, Y [Israel Atomic Energy Commission, Beersheba (Israel). Nuclear Research Center-Negev

    1996-12-01

    Following postulated events of a LOCA, the passive Containment Cooling System (PCCS) uses dry air to transfer the residual heat by natural circulation. The air flow path, designed between the steel reactor containment hot shell and the concrete shield building, creates an open thermosyphon. The purpose of this inherently safe process is to assure the long term steady-state cooling of the nuclear core after an emergency shutdown (authors).

  14. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Temperature processes at two sliding surfaces subjected to dry friction

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Cibulka, Jan; Bula, Vítězslav

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 63, 5/6 (2012), s. 277-292 ISSN 0039-2472 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA101/09/1166 Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : dry friction * vibration damping * experimental set * increase of temperature * lost energy Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  16. Drying and wetting of building materials and components

    CERN Document Server

    2014-01-01

    This book, Drying and Wetting of Building Materials and Components, provides a collection of recent contributions in the field of drying and wetting in porous building materials. The main benefit of the book is that it discusses some of the most important topics related to the drying and wetting processes, namely, innovations and trends in drying science and technology, drying mechanism and theory, equipment, advanced modelling, complex simulation and experimentation. At the same time, these topics will be going to the encounter of a variety of scientific and engineering disciplines. The book is divided in several chapters that intend to be a resume of the current state of knowledge for benefit of professional colleagues.

  17. Development of Solar Drying Model for Selected Cambodian Fish Species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubackova, Anna; Kucerova, Iva; Chrun, Rithy; Chaloupkova, Petra; Banout, Jan

    2014-01-01

    A solar drying was investigated as one of perspective techniques for fish processing in Cambodia. The solar drying was compared to conventional drying in electric oven. Five typical Cambodian fish species were selected for this study. Mean solar drying temperature and drying air relative humidity were 55.6°C and 19.9%, respectively. The overall solar dryer efficiency was 12.37%, which is typical for natural convection solar dryers. An average evaporative capacity of solar dryer was 0.049 kg·h−1. Based on coefficient of determination (R 2), chi-square (χ 2) test, and root-mean-square error (RMSE), the most suitable models describing natural convection solar drying kinetics were Logarithmic model, Diffusion approximate model, and Two-term model for climbing perch and Nile tilapia, swamp eel and walking catfish and Channa fish, respectively. In case of electric oven drying, the Modified Page 1 model shows the best results for all investigated fish species except Channa fish where the two-term model is the best one. Sensory evaluation shows that most preferable fish is climbing perch, followed by Nile tilapia and walking catfish. This study brings new knowledge about drying kinetics of fresh water fish species in Cambodia and confirms the solar drying as acceptable technology for fish processing. PMID:25250381

  18. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  19. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  20. Freeze-drying wet digital prints: An option for salvage?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juergens, M C; Schempp, N

    2010-01-01

    On the occasion of the collapse of the Historical Archive of the City of Cologne in March 2009 and the ensuing salvage effort, questions were raised about the use of freeze-drying for soaked digital prints, a technique that has not yet been evaluated for these materials. This study examines the effects of immersion, air-drying, drying in a blotter stack, freezing and freeze-drying on 35 samples of major digital printing processes. The samples were examined visually before, during and after testing; evaluation of the results was qualitative. Results show that some prints were already damaged by immersion alone (e.g. bleeding inks and soluble coatings) to the extent that the subsequent choice of drying method made no significant difference any more. For those samples that did survive immersion, air-drying proved to be crucial for water-sensitive prints, since any contact with the wet surface caused serious damage. Less water-sensitive prints showed no damage throughout the entire procedure, regardless of drying method. Some prints on coated media suffered from minor surface disruption up to total delamination of the surface coating due to the formation of ice crystals during shock-freezing. With few exceptions, freeze-drying did not cause additional damage to any of the prints that hadn't already been damaged by freezing. It became clear that an understanding of the process and materials is important for choosing an appropriate drying method.

  1. Microalgal drying and cell disruption--recent advances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Show, Kuan-Yeow; Lee, Duu-Jong; Tay, Joo-Hwa; Lee, Tse-Min; Chang, Jo-Shu

    2015-05-01

    Production of intracellular metabolites or biofuels from algae involves various processing steps, and extensive work on laboratory- and pilot-scale algae cultivation, harvesting and processing has been reported. As algal drying and cell disruption are integral processes of the unit operations, this review examines recent advances in algal drying and disruption for nutrition or biofuel production. Challenges and prospects of the processing are also outlined. Engineering improvements in addressing the challenges of energy efficiency and cost-effective and rigorous techno-economic analyses for a clearer prospect comparison between different processing methods are highlighted. Holistic life cycle assessments need to be conducted in assessing the energy balance and the potential environmental impacts of algal processing. The review aims to provide useful information for future development of efficient and commercially viable algal food products and biofuels production. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. PENINGKATAN ADDED VALUE KOPRA PUTIH DENGAN METODA INDIRECT DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Imron Mustajib

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, drying of copra is carried out by sundrying or fumigation on a tomang (clay furnace. However, using these methods, the quality of copra resulted cannot be guaranteed and the prices is low, and thus the process is unprofitable. Another problem is that it is difficult to do the process during rainy season. We facilitated a copra home industry with a dryer with indirect drying system to replace the old copra processing drying