WorldWideScience

Sample records for dryers, clothes

  1. Clothes Dryer Automatic Termination Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E.

    2014-10-01

    Volume 2: Improved Sensor and Control Designs Many residential clothes dryers on the market today provide automatic cycles that are intended to stop when the clothes are dry, as determined by the final remaining moisture content (RMC). However, testing of automatic termination cycles has shown that many dryers are susceptible to over-drying of loads, leading to excess energy consumption. In particular, tests performed using the DOE Test Procedure in Appendix D2 of 10 CFR 430 subpart B have shown that as much as 62% of the energy used in a cycle may be from over-drying. Volume 1 of this report shows an average of 20% excess energy from over-drying when running automatic cycles with various load compositions and dryer settings. Consequently, improving automatic termination sensors and algorithms has the potential for substantial energy savings in the U.S.

  2. ENERGY STAR Certified Residential Clothes Dryers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 1.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Dryers that are effective as of January...

  3. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  4. High Efficiency, High Performance Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peter Pescatore; Phil Carbone

    2005-03-31

    This program covered the development of two separate products; an electric heat pump clothes dryer and a modulating gas dryer. These development efforts were independent of one another and are presented in this report in two separate volumes. Volume 1 details the Heat Pump Dryer Development while Volume 2 details the Modulating Gas Dryer Development. In both product development efforts, the intent was to develop high efficiency, high performance designs that would be attractive to US consumers. Working with Whirlpool Corporation as our commercial partner, TIAX applied this approach of satisfying consumer needs throughout the Product Development Process for both dryer designs. Heat pump clothes dryers have been in existence for years, especially in Europe, but have not been able to penetrate the market. This has been especially true in the US market where no volume production heat pump dryers are available. The issue has typically been around two key areas: cost and performance. Cost is a given in that a heat pump clothes dryer has numerous additional components associated with it. While heat pump dryers have been able to achieve significant energy savings compared to standard electric resistance dryers (over 50% in some cases), designs to date have been hampered by excessively long dry times, a major market driver in the US. The development work done on the heat pump dryer over the course of this program led to a demonstration dryer that delivered the following performance characteristics: (1) 40-50% energy savings on large loads with 35 F lower fabric temperatures and similar dry times; (2) 10-30 F reduction in fabric temperature for delicate loads with up to 50% energy savings and 30-40% time savings; (3) Improved fabric temperature uniformity; and (4) Robust performance across a range of vent restrictions. For the gas dryer development, the concept developed was one of modulating the gas flow to the dryer throughout the dry cycle. Through heat modulation in a

  5. Affordable Hybrid Heat Pump Clothes Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Butterfield, Andrew [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States); Caldwell, Dustin D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crook, Alexander [Jabil, St. Petersburg, FL (United States)

    2016-06-30

    This project was successful in demonstrating the feasibility of a step change in residential clothes dryer energy efficiency by demonstrating heat pump technology capable of 50% energy savings over conventional standard-size electric dryers with comparable drying times. A prototype system was designed from off-the-shelf components that can meet the project’s efficiency goals and are affordable. An experimental prototype system was built based on the design that reached 50% energy savings. Improvements have been identified that will reduce drying times of over 60 minutes to reach the goal of 40 minutes. Nevertheless, the prototype represents a step change in efficiency over heat pump dryers recently introduced to the U.S. market, with 30% improvement in energy efficiency at comparable drying times.

  6. Heat Pump Clothes Dryer Model Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shen, Bo [ORNL

    2016-01-01

    A heat pump clothes dryer (HPCD) is an innovative appliance that uses a vapor compression system to dry clothes. Air circulates in a closed loop through the drum, so no vent is required. The condenser heats air to evaporate moisture out of the clothes, and the evaporator condenses water out of the air stream. As a result, the HPCD can achieve 50% energy savings compared to a conventional electric resistance dryer. We developed a physics-based, quasi-steady-state HPCD system model with detailed heat exchanger and compressor models. In a novel approach, we applied a heat and mass transfer effectiveness model to simulate the drying process of the clothes load in the drum. The system model is able to simulate the inherently transient HPCD drying process, to size components, and to reveal trends in key variables (e.g. compressor discharge temperature, power consumption, required drying time, etc.) The system model was calibrated using experimental data on a prototype HPCD. In the paper, the modeling method is introduced, and the model predictions are compared with experimental data measured on a prototype HPCD.

  7. 78 FR 49607 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-14

    ... continuously or intermittently tumbles the clothes dryer drum after the clothes dryer indicates to the user..., ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78, No. 157 /...

  8. 76 FR 50145 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-12

    ... (AHAM) clothes dryer test standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) test standard 61121, ``Tumble dryers for household use--Methods... Residential Clothes Dryers AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy, Department of...

  9. 78 FR 42389 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and Room Air.... SUMMARY: This final rule corrects the energy conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers...

  10. 78 FR 151 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-02

    ... clothes dryer to mean a cabinet-like appliance designed to dry fabrics in a tumble- type drum with forced... standard HLD-1-2009, ``Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers,'' and the IEC test standard 61121, ``Tumble... Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 1 /...

  11. Design and Construction of a Passive Solar Power Clothing Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Alahmer

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This manuscript presents the design and construction of the energy efficient, time saving, cost effective of passive solar powered clothes dryer. This manuscript begins with a derivation of mathematical model represents of solar dryer followed with an analysis of the elements necessary for successfully designing the various components of a solar dryer. The solar drying performance achieved an average drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a typical day, even under local low ambient humidity of around 35% and at moderate outdoor wind speed. Also, the computational fluid dynamic CFD of transient thermal behavior based on Navier-Stokes equations was used to demonstrate the prevailing temperature rises in the solar natural-ventilation system associated with the internal heat flux due to solar radiation and moisture removal. The efficiency of solar dryer was improved using Nano coating technology. The result showed good agreement between the computational solid simulation and the experimental measurements obtained from this system.

  12. Configuration and Development of a Solar Cloth Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kirar Dheeraj Singh

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This unique duplicate shows effective blueprint and headway of effective imperativeness profitable, effective, useful of disconnected sun arranged energized pieces of clothing dryer. This unique duplicate begins with an incitement of numerical model addresses of sun arranged dryer brought after with an examination of effective segments basic as long as viably arranging effective distinctive parts of daylight based dryer. Effective sun arranged drying execution achieved an ordinary drying rate of 0.35 kg/h and drying time of 3 h in a regular day, even under neighborhood low incorporating clamminess of around 35% and at moderate outside wind speed. Fur effective more, effective computational fluid component CFD of transient warm direct in light of Navies-Stokes numerical articulations was used to demonstrate effective overall temperature rises in effective sun based typical ventilation system associated with effective inside warmth flux on account of sun fueled radiation and moistness clearing. Effective viability of sun situated dryer was upgraded using Nano covering development. Effective result showed incredible assertion between effective computational solid multiplication and effective test estimations procured from this system.

  13. 75 FR 37593 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-29

    ... procedure additional language based upon provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble dryers for... Dryers and Room Air Conditioners; Proposed Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 75 , No. 124 / Tuesday... Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room Air Conditioners...

  14. 76 FR 971 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Test Procedures for Clothes Dryers and Room...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-06

    ...) Standard HLD-1-1974, ``AHAM Performance Evaluation Procedure for Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers... Consumption of Household Tumble Type Clothes Dryers'' December 1975 (AHAM Standard HLD-2EC). The test... test procedure additional language based on provisions from European Standard EN 61121, ``Tumble...

  15. 78 FR 8992 - Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-07

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC63 Energy Conservation Program: Test Procedures for Residential Clothes Dryers... procedures for residential clothes dryers established under the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The... Background Title III of the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (42 U.S.C. 6291, et seq.; ``EPCA'' or...

  16. Temperature and energy consumption for clothing dryer; Temperatura e consumo de energia em secadora de vestuario

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribeiro, Jefferson Almeida; Magalhaes Filho, Paulo [UNESP, Guaratingueta, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Engenharia. Dept. de Energia]. E-mail: pfilho@feg.unesp.br

    2000-07-01

    The cloth dehumidification is done by hot air circulation through it in dryers. The air circulation is done by a fan, run by an electrical motor, and the air temperature raise, which goes through the cloths aiming their moisture dragging, is gotten by the heat dissipation from electrical resistance. This work shows the results of an experimental modeling, examining the behavior of several kinds of cloth in a vertical suspense-type dryer, such as: polyester, cotton-spandex, flannel, blue-jeans and viscose rayon. It was analyzed the behavior of the moisture content in these cloths related to controlled-temperature-air flows, determining the needed heat to reach the required drying standards. The drying device fans were tested for the determination of their flow rate and energy consumption, establishing a flow rate versus consumption relationship. Comparative results among the various kinds of cloths are presented. (author)

  17. 10 CFR Appendix D to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Clothes Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Tumble Type Clothes Dryers”, June 1974, and designated as HLD-1. 1.8“HLD-2EC” means the test standard... of Clothes Dryers D Appendix D to Subpart B of Part 430 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY... Dryers 1. Definitions 1.1“AHAM” means the Association of Home Appliance Manufacturers. 1.2“Bone...

  18. 76 FR 52852 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential....S. Department of Energy (DOE) adopted amended energy conservation standards for residential clothes dryers and room air conditioners. As required by the Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA), DOE...

  19. Modeling and design of a high efficiency hybrid heat pump clothes dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TeGrotenhuis, Ward; Butterfield, Andrew; Caldwell, Dustin; Crook, Alexander; Winkelman, Austin

    2017-09-01

    Computational modeling is used to design a hybrid heat pump clothes dryer capable of saving 50% of the energy used by residential clothes dryers with comparable drying times. The model represents the various stages of a drying cycle from warm-up through constant drying rate and falling drying rate phases and finishing with a cooldown phase. The model is fit to data acquired from a U.S. commercial standard vented electric dryer, and when a hybrid heat pump system is added, the energy factor increases from 3.0 lbs/kWh to 5.7-6.0 lbs/kWh, depending on the increase in blower motor power. The hybrid heat pump system is designed from off-the-shelf components and includes a recuperative heat exchanger, an electric element, and an R-134a vapor compression heat pump. Parametric studies of element power and heating element use show a trade-off between energy savings and cycle time. Results show a step-change in energy savings from heat pump dryers currently marketed in the U.S. based on performance represented by Enery Star from standardized DOE testing.

  20. Injuries sustained by children inside clothes dryers: a report of a fatality and review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saunders, Sarah; Coombes, Anthony; Rutty, Guy

    2012-05-01

    We report a case of a 4-year-old child found dead at his home inside a domestic clothes (tumble) dryer. The child had been reported missing in the morning by his mother and found a short time later inside the dryer with the door shut. The child was pronounced dead at the scene. A pre-autopsy computed tomography scan identified findings associated with aggressive resuscitation attempts. Post-mortem examination showed generalised blunt trauma to his head and limbs, a thin film subdural haemorrhage and burns from contact with hot components and hot air whilst being trapped alive inside the active dryer. A forensic examination of the dryer revealed that it was possible for the child to become trapped in the dryer by his own action and that the dryer could operate for sufficient time to allow for the causation of the injuries to the child. A review of the medical literature and media reports of deaths related to clothes dryer, injuries sustained to survivors and use of dryers as a body disposal site is presented.

  1. Technical support document: Energy conservation standards for consumer products: Dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers including: Environmental impacts; regulatory impact analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-12-01

    The Energy Policy and Conservation Act as amended (P.L. 94-163), establishes energy conservation standards for 12 of the 13 types of consumer products specifically covered by the Act. The legislation requires the Department of Energy (DOE) to consider new or amended standards for these and other types of products at specified times. This Technical Support Document presents the methodology, data and results from the analysis of the energy and economic impacts of standards on dishwashers, clothes washers, and clothes dryers. The economic impact analysis is performed in five major areas: An Engineering Analysis, which establishes technical feasibility and product attributes including costs of design options to improve appliance efficiency. A Consumer Analysis at two levels: national aggregate impacts, and impacts on individuals. The national aggregate impacts include forecasts of appliance sales, efficiencies, energy use, and consumer expenditures. The individual impacts are analyzed by Life-Cycle Cost (LCC), Payback Periods, and Cost of Conserved Energy (CCE), which evaluate the savings in operating expenses relative to increases in purchase price; A Manufacturer Analysis, which provides an estimate of manufacturers' response to the proposed standards. Their response is quantified by changes in several measures of financial performance for a firm. An Industry Impact Analysis shows financial and competitive impacts on the appliance industry. A Utility Analysis that measures the impacts of the altered energy-consumption patterns on electric utilities. A Environmental Effects analysis, which estimates changes in emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur oxides, and nitrogen oxides, due to reduced energy consumption in the home and at the power plant. A Regulatory Impact Analysis collects the results of all the analyses into the net benefits and costs from a national perspective. 47 figs., 171 tabs. (JF)

  2. Polybrominated Diphenyl Ethers in Dryer Lint: An Advanced Analysis Laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Robert Q.

    2008-01-01

    An advanced analytical chemistry laboratory experiment is described that involves environmental analysis and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Students analyze lint from clothes dryers for traces of flame retardant chemicals, polybrominated diphenylethers (PBDEs), compounds receiving much attention recently. In a typical experiment, ng/g…

  3. Fabric-drying process in domestic dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.; Moon, C.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2008-02-15

    A theoretical analysis of the drying process occurring inside the household electric tumbler clothes-dryer is performed to determine various thermo-physical parameters affecting the energy consumption and for the development of a simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a test set-up, based on a compact tumble-dryer, to measure the values of the parameters necessary for evaluating the performance. Widely-accepted economy standards are considered for comparison of simulation and experimental results. The simulation results are in reasonable agreement with experimental data. An empirical correlation for the specific moisture-extraction rate (SMER) is developed to translate energy-consumption information from one standard to the other. (author)

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvements of Tumble Dryers : -Technical Development, Laundry Habits and Energy Labelling

    OpenAIRE

    Stawreberg, Lena

    2011-01-01

    Tumble dryers are becoming more and more common in ordinary households as a complement to the washing machine. Tumble dryers offer a fast drying cycle independent on weather conditions and require small space. They do, however, considering the large number of units use a large amount of electricity. The main objective in this thesis is to identify possibilities in order to reach a reduced electricity use for domestic tumble-drying of clothes. This involves an investigation of the condensing t...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix J to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., agitation or tumble cycle time, number of rinse cycles, and spin speed. The characteristics of the clothes... cloth which has been dried in a dryer at maximum temperature for a minimum of 10 minutes, removed and... tumbling it through the water. 1.7Front-loader clothes washer means a clothes washer which...

  6. Hair dryer burns in children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, P R

    1990-11-01

    Three children with burn injuries caused by home hair dryers are described. In one patient the injury was believed to be accidental, and in the other two cases the injuries were deliberately caused by a caretaker. The lack of prior experience with hair dryer burns initially led to suspicion of other causes. The characteristics of each case aided in the final determination of accidental vs nonaccidental injury. These cases prompted testing of home hair dryers to determine their heat output. At the highest heat settings, the dryers rapidly generated temperatures in excess of 110 degrees C. After the dryers were turned off, the protective grills maintained sufficient temperatures to cause full-thickness burns for up to 2 minutes. These cases and the results of testing demonstrate that hair dryers must be added to the list of known causes of accidental and nonaccidental burns in children.

  7. "Dissection" of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-01-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can…

  8. Modelling and experimentation for the fabric-drying process in domestic dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yadav, V.; Moon, C.G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, The University of Auckland, Auckland 1142 (New Zealand)

    2008-05-15

    Theoretical analysis of the physical drying process occurring inside the household electric tumbler cloth-dryer is performed to determine various thermo-physical parameters affecting the energy consumption and for the development of a simulation model. Experiments are conducted on a test set-up based on a compact tumble-dryer to measure the values of parameters necessary for evaluating the performance. Three widely-accepted economy standards are considered for comparison of simulation and experimental results. Simulation results are in fair agreement with experimental data. An empirical correlation for the specific moisture-extraction rate (SMER) is developed to translate energy consumption information from one standard to the other. (author)

  9. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2000-01-01

    The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel......The paper investigates cloth in the Bronze Age cult in Greece and disusses its function. There is a seperation between cloth for offerings and cloth for cult personnel...

  10. Cloth in the Cult

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nosch, Marie-Louise Bech; Perna, Massimo

    2001-01-01

    analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel......analysis of the use and function of cloth in the Mycenaean cult. It is demonstrated that there is a division between cloth for offerings and cloth for culk personnel...

  11. ``Dissection'' of a Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisenstein, Stan; Simpson, Jeff

    2008-12-01

    The electrical design of the common hair dryer is based almost entirely on relatively simple principles learned in introductory physics classes. Just as biology students dissect a frog to see the principles of anatomy in action, physics students can "dissect" a hair dryer to see how principles of electricity are used in a real system. They can discover how engineers solve problems such as how to vary between low and high heat and fan speed by simply moving the position of a single switch. Principles of alternating versus direct current, series and parallel circuits, electrical safety, voltage dividing, ac rectification, power, and measurement of resistance and continuity all come in to play.

  12. BWR Steam Dryer Alternating Stress Assessment Procedures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morante, R. J. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Hambric, S. A. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States); Ziada, S. [Brookhaven National Lab. (BNL), Upton, NY (United States)

    2016-12-01

    This report presents an overview of Boiling Water Reactor (BWR) steam dryer design; the fatigue cracking failures that occurred at the Quad Cities (QC) plants and their root causes; a history of BWR Extended Power Uprates (EPUs) in the USA; and a discussion of steam dryer modifications/replacements, alternating stress mechanisms on steam dryers, and structural integrity evaluations (static and alternating stress).

  13. The modelling of a domestic tumble dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deans, J. [University of Auckland (New Zealand). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2001-06-01

    The characteristics of a small domestic tumbler dryer have been investigated using performance tests and a computer model of the dryer. This model, which was partially developed using the tests results, encompasses all of the energy and mass transfer routes within the complete dryer. The tests demonstrated that the mass and energy transport mechanisms within the dryer drum are not well defined, and a key feature of the model is the simplified equations used to represent these flows. There is a strong correlation between the results from the performance tests and the results predicted by the computer model. The performance test results show that the dryer examined in this study operates at much higher efficiencies than those previously reported. The dryers in the earlier studies were slightly larger and operated with larger air flow rates and higher energy inputs. The drying process generates lint, and the model has been used to demonstrate the effects which the localised accumulation of lint in a trap has on the dryer's performance. Other operational effects investigated using the model include the influence of fabric type on the performance of the dryer, the sensitivity of the dryer performance to operating conditions and the possibility of energy recovery from the exhaust stream by recirculating part of the stream through the dryer. (author)

  14. 10 CFR Appendix J1 to Subpart B of... - Uniform Test Method for Measuring the Energy Consumption of Automatic and Semi-Automatic Clothes...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ..., or control of any of the following: wash water temperature, agitation or tumble cycle time, number of... intervention or actions. 1.3Bone-dry means a condition of a load of test cloth which has been dried in a dryer... with water to a selected level and the clothes load is rinsed by agitating it or tumbling it...

  15. PERFORMANCE EVALUATION OF A DRYER FOR PROCESSED ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    thinkexploitsint'l

    Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering.University of ... The dryer consists of drying chamber, trays, chimney, electric heater, blower with centrifugal fan and prime ... The working principle of the dryer followed the steps described below. .... Agricultural Engineering International the CIGRE journal. 6(1091).

  16. Automatic Endpoint Determination for Batch Tea Dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    Agricultural Engineering and Physics, Wageningen University, Bomenweg 4, Wageningen, 6703 HD, The Netherlands Abstract: A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the p

  17. Automatic endpoint determination for batch tea dryers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2001-01-01

    A laboratory batch fluid-bed dryer was developed for handling small samples of tea for experimental batch manufacture, and this dryer required a means of stopping drying when the process was complete. A control system was devised which requires only the initial weight of the sample to be entered

  18. Survey of industrial dryers for solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richardson, A.S.; Jensen, W.P.

    1976-07-01

    A study was directed toward obtaining data for an estimate of the current and anticipated energy demand for industrial drying operations for solid materials. Twenty-seven dryer types, including those utilizing both direct and indirect heat sources, were identified and are described. Results of an analysis made on 17 dryer types and based on data obtained from several of the largest solids dryer manufacturers indicate that industrial dryers for solids currently consume about 1.3 x 10/sup 18/ J (1.2 quads) of energy. This represents nearly 4 percent of the total United States industrial energy use. Several examples of steps being taken by industry to reduce energy requirements for solids drying are included. Still further action to reduce energy consumption of dryers is possible; implementation will depend upon the extent to which incentives are provided by fuel scarcity, fuel costs, and the perfection of new technology by industry alone and in programs with the Federal Government.

  19. Performance of indirect solar cabinet dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sreekumar, A.; Manikantan, P.E.; Vijayakumar, K.P. [Solar Thermal Energy Laboratory, Department of Physics, Cochin University of Science and Technology, Kochi 682 022 (India)

    2008-06-15

    In this paper, the development and testing of a new type of efficient solar dryer, particularly meant for drying vegetables and fruit, is described. The dryer has two compartments: one for collecting solar radiation and producing thermal energy and the other for spreading the product to be dried. This arrangement was made to absorb maximum solar radiation by the absorber plate. In this dryer, the product was loaded beneath the absorber plate, which prevented the problem of discoloration due to irradiation by direct sunlight. Two axial flow fans, provided in the air inlet, can accelerate the drying rate. The dryer had six perforated trays for loading the material. The absorber plate of the dryer attained a temperature of 97.2 C when it was studied under no load conditions. The maximum air temperature in the dryer, under this condition was 78.1 C. The dryer was loaded with 4 kg of bitter gourd having an initial moisture content of 95%, and the final desired moisture content of 5% was achieved within 6 h without losing the product colour, while it was 11 h for open sun drying. The collector glazing was inclined at a particular angle, suitable to the location, for absorption of maximum solar radiation. A detailed performance analysis was done by three methods, namely 'annualized cost method', 'present worth of annual savings' and 'present worth of cumulative savings'. The drying cost for 1 kg of bitter gourd was calculated as Rs. 17.52, and it was Rs. 41.35, in the case of an electric dryer. The life span of the solar dryer was assumed to be 20 years. The cumulative present worth of annual savings over the life of the solar dryer was calculated for bitter gourd drying, and it turned out be Rs. 31659.26, which was much higher than the capital cost of the dryer (Rs. 6500). The payback period was calculated as 3.26 years, which was also very small considering the life of the system (20 years). So, the dryer would dry products free of cost

  20. Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Halley, G.D.; Thwaites, C.M.M.; Talbott, M.

    1994-06-29

    An apparatus is provided for drying materials, such as natural products including crops, cereals, vegetables, timber etc., which includes a sealed chamber into which the materials are placed which retains a volume of gas. Water-vapour exchange means are provided either in the wall of the chamber unit or in a separate unit, which comprise a selectively permeable membrane which is permeable to water-vapour but impermeable to gas. A heater heats the gas inside the chamber, which absorbs water vapour from the material. The water vapour is then selectively transported through the membrane, whilst the heated gas is retained in the chamber. The drying process is energy-efficient. (author)

  1. Why We Wear Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowles, Jib

    1974-01-01

    Discusses the importance of clothing as a means of communicating nonverbally in social situations and urges that a "semantics of clothing communication" be compiled to increase understanding of human life. (RB)

  2. Clothing and Textiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Texas Education Agency, Austin. Dept. of Occupational Education and Technology.

    The purpose of the subject area guide is to present clothing and textiles in the perspective of family living and to relate clothing and textiles to a variety of life styles. Initial emphasis is placed on curriculum planning and the taxonomy of educational objectives. Skills in clothing construction are developed throughout the four homemaking…

  3. Studies on Ultrasonic Spray Dryer (1)

    OpenAIRE

    井上, 昌夫

    1981-01-01

    Author has initiated research and development activities for a epochal ultrasonic spray dryer in order to obtain large quantities of droplets in uniform diameters, from which a practically applicable ultrasonic spray dryer would possibly be developed. Since the time Wood, Loomis et al. reported their experiments on atomization of liquids by ultrasonic power, research in this field is now widely attempted in many countries. In Japan, this field is being investigated by Ohno et al. Chiba, and M...

  4. Multirack foldable solar dryer for Mango flakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. H. Sengar

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Foldable solar dryer developed and evaluated for Mango flakes drying. Mango fruits were selected as drying material. Time required for reducing the moisture content up to 10 per cent as a safe storage for solar dryer was observed for Mango flakes. Overall collection efficiency was found to be 0.97 %, whereas where pickup efficiency was found to be 15 per cent. Evaluation parameters were collection efficiency, system drying efficiency, pick-up efficiency, moisture ratio and drying rate.

  5. Performance and Characteristics of Heat Pump Clothes Drier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambarita, H.; Nasution, D. M.; Gunawan, S.; Nasution, A. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this paper, a study of clothes drying using a heat pump drier has been carried out. The objective is to examine the performance and drying characteristics of the heat pump clothes dryer. The result of performances and drying characteristics were compared with waste heat drying system of split-type residential air conditioner (RAC). A drying chamber with volume 1 m3 integrated with heat pump component had been designed and fabricated. The heat pump operated by vapor compression cycle with power input of 800W and refrigerant R22 as a working fluid. The clothes dried made of pure cotton with initial weight varied from 3.00 kg, 5.25 kg, and 6.38 kg, respectively. The results shown that the drying time and drying rate of heat pump drier are faster than waste heat drying system. The average total performance of heat pump clothes drier is 6.56. On the other hand, SMER which is obtained 1.492 kg/kWh. These values are lower than the SMER of waste heat drying system which shown the average value of 2.492 kg/kWh. In the case of drying clothes, waste heat drying of RAC shows a better performance in comparison with heat pump drying system.

  6. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability

  7. Determination of Loading Capacity of a Direct Solar Boiler Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; D. Osim-Asu; O.E. Nyong; S.A. Takim

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of solar boiler natural convection dryer used for drying agricultural products was employed to dry restaurant wastes. Practical steps were taken to determine the loading capacity of the dryer. Replicas of the dryer (dimensions and materials) were selected and employed but with varying loads. This dryer is made up of glass flat-plate collector which serves as the drying chamber cover. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points...

  8. Experimental testing of a new solar dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiris, Cigdem; Ozbalta, Necdet (Ege Univ., Izmir (Turkey). Solar Energy Inst.); Tiris, Mustafa; Dincer, Ibrahim (TUBITAK, Kocaeli (Turkey). Marmara Research Center)

    1994-06-01

    Drying of agricultural products is an energy-intensive operation. High prices and shortages in fossil fuels increase the emphasis on using solar energy as an alternative energy source, especially in developing countries. In this respect, a new solar dryer, which consisted of a solar air heater and a drying chamber, was developed and used for drying various fruits and vegetables, i.e. sultana grapes, green beans, sweet peppers and chili peppers and was successfully tested. In order to make a comparison, the traditional sun-drying experiments were employed. Results showed that the solar dryer reduced the drying time significantly and prevented mass losses, and essentially provided better product quality. (author)

  9. 40 CFR 60.252 - Standards for thermal dryers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...)(i) through (iii) of this section, as applicable to the affected facility. (i) For each thermal dryer...)(i) or (b)(3)(ii) of this section, as applicable to the affected facility. (i) For each thermal dryer... limits of this section. (c) Thermal dryers receiving all of their thermal input from an affected...

  10. Investigation of the drying airflow at a newly developed dryer geometry for mixed flow grain dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger Scaar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The mixed-flow dryer has been a matter of investigation many times regarding drying efficiency, dryer control, and performance enhancement over the past years. However, there is still considerable demand for optimization in terms of energy efficiency and homogeneity of drying. In order to analyze the specific energy consumption and the homogeneity of the drying process, different thermodynamic process conditions have been investigated for the conventional MFD design using numerical and experimental methods. Based on the results obtained, a novel dryer design has been developed. With this, a considerable increase of efficiency is expected. As the fluid dynamic analysis of the first design draft revealed, further development is required until scaling-up and transfer into practice will be possible. While homogeneous airflow conditions could be demonstrated in the core flow region in the center of the dryer, the configuration must be optimized in the near wall regions.

  11. Study of a control system for a layered fuel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ul' shin, V.A.; Bardamid, V.I.; Menyailenko, A.S.

    1987-02-01

    Operation of coal dryers used in coal preparation plants and methods for more efficient operation control are evaluated. Mathematical model of a coal-fired dryer was developed. Factors which influence dryer operation and efficiency are discussed. A mathematical model of a coal-fired furnace for a coal dryer was also developed. Using the mathematical model a control system for a coal-fired furnace was designed. The control system, types of measuring instruments and their performance are evaluated. Recommendations for a control system for coal-fired coal dryers are made. The system permits furnace efficiency to be increased by 5-6%. 11 refs.

  12. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Mixed-Mode Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.A. Ikem

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic analysis of a mixed-mode solar dryer used for restaurant wastes is presented. This dryer is made up of up of flat-plat collector and a drying chamber. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points. Energy and exergy balance equations at the various segments of the dryer were formulated based on the balances in the solar grains dryer. The results show that energy and exergy efficiency are approximately in direct relation to the energy loss and exergy destruction. The dried product was tested suitable for animal consumption. These results are useful for design of solar grain dryer.

  13. Drying radioactive wastewater salts using a thin film dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scully, D.E.

    1998-03-19

    This paper describes the operational experience in drying brines generated at a radioactive wastewater treatment facility. The brines are composed of aqueous ammonium sulfate/sodium sulfate and aqueous sodium nitrate/sodium sulfate, The brine feeds receive pretreatment to preclude dryer bridging and fouling. The dryer products are a distillate and a powder. The dryer is a vertical thin film type consisting of a steam heated cylinder with rotor. Maintenance on the dryer has been minimal. Although many operability problems have had to be overcome, dryer performance can now be said to be highly reliable.

  14. Design of starch coated seed cotton dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    A model was developed for the design and analysis of a high temperature tunnel dryer, primarily used with a new cotton ginning product, EASIflo ® cottonseed (starch-coated cottonseed). This form of cottonseed has emerged as a viable, value-added product for the cotton ginning industry. Currently, li...

  15. Breather cloth for vacuum curing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, M. W.

    1979-01-01

    Finely-woven nylon cloth that has been treated with Teflon improves vacuum adhesive bonding of coatings to substrates. Cloth is placed over coating; entire assembly, including substrate, coating, and cloth, is placed in plastic vacuum bag for curing. Cloth allows coating to "breathe" when bag is evacuated. Applications include bonding film coatings to solar concentrators and collectors.

  16. Clothing Systems Design Lab

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Clothing Systems Design Lab houses facilities for the design and rapid prototyping of military protective apparel.Other focuses include: creation of patterns and...

  17. Nonflammable Clothing Development Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, Richard; Radnofsky, Matthew I.

    1968-01-01

    Protective clothing is of major importance in our space program. The authors discuss the requirements, selection, and testing of materials considered for use in the program. The various types of garments worn by astronauts and support personnel are briefly described.

  18. Exercise clothing and shoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... wear form-fitting, stretchy clothing for activities like: Running Biking Advanced yoga/Pilates Swimming You may be ... Make sure your shoes fit your activity. For running, buy running shoes. They are light, flexible, and ...

  19. Burns and military clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A D

    2001-02-01

    Burn injury is a ubiquitous threat in the military environment. The risks during combat are well recognised, but the handling of fuel, oil, munitions and other hot or flammable materials during peacetime deployment and training also imposes an inherent risk of accidental burn injury. Over the last hundred years, the burn threat in combat has ranged from nuclear weapons to small shoulder-launched missiles. Materials such as napalm and white phosphorus plainly present a risk of burn, but the threat extends to encompass personnel in vehicles attacked by anti-armour weapons, large missiles, fuel-air explosives and detonations/conflagrations on weapons platforms such as ships. Large numbers of burn casualties were caused at Pearl Harbor, in Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Vietnam, during the Arab/Israeli Wars and in the Falkland Islands conflict. The threat from burns is unlikely to diminish, indeed new developments in weapons seek to exploit the vulnerability of the serviceman and servicewoman to burns. Clothing can be a barrier to some types of burn--both inherently in the properties of the material, but also by trapping air between clothing layers. Conversely, ignition of the clothing may exacerbate a burn. There is hearsay that burnt clothing products within a wound may complicate the clinical management, or that materials that melt (thermoplastic materials) should not be worn if there is a burn threat. This paper explores the incidence of burn injury, the mechanisms of heat transfer to bare skin and skin covered by materials, and the published evidence for the complication of wound management by materials. Even light-weight combat clothing can offer significant protection to skin from short duration flash burns; the most vulnerable areas are the parts of the body not covered--face and hands. Multilayered combat clothing can offer significant protection for short periods from engulfment by flames; lightweight tropical wear with few layers offers little protection. Under

  20. Environmental benefits from reusing clothes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Farrant, Laura; Olsen, Stig Irving; Wangel, Arne

    2010-01-01

    clothes actually results in a decrease of the environmental burden of the life cycle of clothing. The environmental burden of clothing has been studied in several studies. However, most of these studies focus solely on the energy consumption aspects and pay little attention to the potential benefits...... of diverting used clothing from the waste stream. The aim of the study was to assess the net environmental benefits brought by the disposal of used clothing through charities who return them for second-hand sales assuming that second hand clothes (SHC) to some extent replace the purchase of new clothes...... and reliability of the results obtained in the current study. Such a further work could include the possible difference in the lifetime of second-hand clothes compared to new clothes....

  1. Failure behaviour of a tumble dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Droessaert, Stijn; De Waele, Wim; De Groote, W; Delorge, E

    2011-01-01

    A tumble dryer is a rotating heated vessel used to fulfil a poly-condensation process of PETgranules. This step is very crucial in the entire production process of polymer fibres. System failure, causing production loss, cannot be afforded. Unfortunately, since a couple of years, the reactors suffer from severe cracking at weld details. To find the root cause(s) of this problem a detailed study of the vessel construction, the loads induced during the production process and the cracking has be...

  2. Performance evaluation of heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, U S; Khan, M K

    2010-03-01

    A batch type heat pump assisted dehumidified air dryer was developed successfully with a medium range of temperatures (30-41°C) for safe drying of heat sensitive crops. Dehumidification system of the developed heat pump dryer (HPD) maintained the relative humidity (RH) of air entering the drying chamber below 40%. The inlet drying air temperature decreased during early hours of drying followed by rapid rise between the 2nd and 10th h, after which the temperature was almost stable. The RH of inlet and exhaust drying air increased initially and decreased subsequently with drying time as product became drier. The HPD was found to have a specific moisture extraction rate between 0.55 and 1.10 kg/kWh. Energy consumption for HPD for 24 h of operation was found less (4.48-5.05 kWh) than the hot air dryer (5.65-9.6 kWh) while operating under different drying conditions. Better quality dried sweet pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) was obtained in HPD owing to lower drying air temperature.

  3. The Annular Microwave Dryer Design and Study on Honeysuckle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geng Yuefeng

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to dry fresh honeysuckle, microwave drying process were studied on fresh honeysuckle; and microwave drying apparatus on fresh honeysuckle is designed according to the drying process. The designed microwave dryer contains microwave generator, microwave dryer, dehumidifying systems, control system, transmission systems, microwave leakage inhibited mechanism and other components. The drying experiment is carried by the designed dryer, from the setting-to-work test, the design was success.

  4. Thermodynamic Analysis of a Mixed-Mode Solar Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    I.A. Ikem; I.H. Iondover; O.E. Nyong; A.J. Adie

    2016-01-01

    Thermodynamic analysis of a mixed-mode solar dryer used for restaurant wastes is presented. This dryer is made up of up of flat-plat collector and a drying chamber. Thermodynamic properties of the working fluid were measured at input and exit points. Energy and exergy balance equations at the various segments of the dryer were formulated based on the balances in the solar grains dryer. The results show that energy and exergy efficiency are approximately in direct relation to the energy loss ...

  5. Critical Point Dryer: Tousimis 916B Series C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description: CORAL Name: Critical Point Dryer This system utilizes CO 2to dry fragile suspended and floating structures Specifications / Capabilities: Wafer size up...

  6. Hmong story cloths

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Arkenberg, Rebecca

    2007-01-01

      The Hmong, a nomadic and agrarian people, may date back 5,000 years. Today there are about 150,000 Hmong in the United States, where their story cloths and embroidered items often appear in craft shows and exhibitions...

  7. Clothes make the man

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kregting, A.

    2014-01-01

    When it is winter you will wear a warm jumper, a heavy coat and gloves, during summertime a pair of shorts and a shirt are enough. You adapt your clothes to the climate conditions you live in. However, if you are working under extreme weather circumstances it is a different story, because how do you

  8. Painting Cloth with Crayons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asch, Rosalie L.

    1979-01-01

    Painting cloth with crayons is suggested as a challenging art project, especially for students who have difficulty with the complex tools and processes typical of more advanced textile work. Instructions are given for creating decorative banners with this technique. One of seven articles in this issue on fiber arts. (Author/SJL)

  9. Men's Clothing Practices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margerum, B. Jean; And Others

    1977-01-01

    An informal consumer interview study, using 187 men, was conducted to highlight directions that clothing and textiles education and research might take. Mentioned most often were problems of fabric durability and garment construction as well as size and fit. Suggestions for curbing economic waste in the male fashion industry and implications for…

  10. ESD - FUNCTIONAL CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SCARLAT Razvan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The functional clothing represents a sustainable development direction of in the field of technical textiles, a bridge between various activity domains, a solution to user’s complex requirements. The research and development potential in the field is supported by the new fibers/ yarns generation, the new technologies and the market niches, as well. Protective clothing is now a major part of textile classified under technical textile. Protective clothing refers to the garment and other fabric related items designed to protect the wearer from harsh environmental effects that results in injuries or death. The innovation, as a result of convergence processing technologies, consumer demands and what is viable on the market, defines the personal protective equipment field. In this article, we present the work of an ESD protective clothing development. Therefore, it has been applied a modern knitting technology, on 7E and 12E STOLL machines, using cotton and wool yarns as base yarn and conductive yarns for plaiting structures. Also, the optimal parameters establishment and the functional requirements are aspects of the research activity performed. The experimental models have been conducted in order to demonstrate the design concept used and choosing the optimal variant. The characterization of the developed experimental variants took into account the evaluation of physico-mechanical and electrical characteristics. From the electrical point of view, the variants have been mainly evaluated through “point to point” method in terms of electrical isolation efficiency dimensional changes analysis.

  11. The Cloth Is Not Enough

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘健

    2000-01-01

    One day,Mr Green went into a tailor's shop(裁缝店) with a piece of cloth. He wanted to have the tailor make some clothes for him. He handed the cloth to the tailor, and said, “You should have brought more cloth, this is not enough. ”Mr Green had to go out, disappointed(失望地). He soon found another tailor's shop and went in. This tailor didn't think the cloth was not enough.

  12. A Comparison of Dryer Types used for Tea Drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Temple, S.J.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2000-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine how various types of tea dryer would perform with different levels of inputs. Three dryer types were commonly found in practice, two others are not generally used and one type is unknown in practice. Simulation models for each type were constructed from a

  13. Improving dryer energy efficiency and controllability simultaneously by process modification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, van G.; Deventer, van H.C.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2013-01-01

    This work establishes a relationship between dryer energy performance and controllability using energy balances and process resiliency analysis. It is shown that using the process gain matrix, the dryer energy efficiency can be reliably calculated with conditions for simultaneous controllability imp

  14. 76 FR 52854 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-24

    ... Equipment Price Forecasting in Energy Conservation Standards Analysis (76 FR 9696, Feb. 22, 2011), has not... innovations for production of gas from tight shales. AGA recommended that DOE conduct its analysis using the.... Equipment Price Forecasting AHAM expressed concern regarding the use of experience curves in equipment...

  15. 76 FR 26656 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-09

    ... U.S.C. 6295(o) or other applicable law. If the Secretary makes such a determination, DOE must..., Arcelik, Fisher & Paykel, Scotsman Ice, Indesit, Kuppersbusch, Kelon, and DeLonghi); energy and... Water Efficiency (AWE), Northwest Power and Conservation Council (NPCC), and Northeast Energy...

  16. 76 FR 22324 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards... Renewable Energy, Department of Energy. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act (EPCA) prescribes energy conservation standards for various consumer products and......

  17. 76 FR 22453 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-04-21

    ... April 21, 2011 Part II Department of Energy 10 CFR Part 430 Energy Conservation Program: Energy... 10 CFR Part 430 RIN 1904-AA89 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for..., Department of Energy. ACTION: Direct final rule. SUMMARY: The Energy Policy and Conservation Act...

  18. 78 FR 20842 - Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential Clothes Dryers and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-04-08

    ... Part 430 RIN 1904-AC98 Energy Conservation Program: Energy Conservation Standards for Residential... conservation standards for room air conditioners. In the direct final rule establishing amended energy... May 8, 2013. ADDRESSES: Any comments submitted must identify the proposed rule for Energy...

  19. Cost analysis in support of minimum energy standards for clothes washers and dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-02

    The results of the cost analysis of energy conservation design options for laundry products are presented. The analysis was conducted using two approaches. The first, is directed toward the development of industrial engineering cost estimates of each energy conservation option. This approach results in the estimation of manufacturers costs. The second approach is directed toward determining the market price differential of energy conservation features. The results of this approach are shown. The market cost represents the cost to the consumer. It is the final cost, and therefore includes distribution costs as well as manufacturing costs.

  20. Engineering analysis of a rotary dryer: drying of wood particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamke, F.A.

    1984-01-01

    Rotary dryers are the most commonly used wood drying system in the particleboard industry. These dryers also play an increasingly important role in drying wood residues for fuel. A rotary dryer simulation model was developed, in the form of a computer program, for the purpose of analyzing the drying behavior of wood particles. The approach used in the model development analyzed the rotary drying process in a sequential manner. Beginning with a study of particle residence time in a rotary drum, the process of heat transfer, and then mass transfer, were incorporated to yield a complete rotary dryer simulation model. The resultant computer program does not require empirical constants or equations developed for a particular rotary dryer system. Experiments on a commercially manufactured rotary dryer were performed to check the performance of the simulation model as a predictor of overall residence time and drying behavior. Comparison between the predictions and the measured results were good, indicating a percent root mean square error of 22.2 in the prediction of the outlet particle moisture content. The rotary dryer simulation model developed in this study should prove useful for optimizing process parameters in the drying of wood particles.

  1. Rayon from Dryer Lint: A Demonstration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knopp, Michael A.

    1997-04-01

    In this demonstration, ordinary household dryer lint from the laundering of cotton items is stirred into the traditional Schweizer reagent mixture, a saturated solution of copper (II) carbonate in concentrated ammonium hydroxide. Any insoluble material (i.e. hair) is removed with a glass rod. The resulting deep blue viscous solution is taken up in an eye dropper and extruded into a 190 x 100 mm glass recrystallizing dish, which contains a dilute (3M) solution of sulfuric acid. Threads of rayon several cm in length can be thus formed. These threads are best viewed by the audience on an overhead projector. The sulfuric acid solution and threads are disposed of in compliance with local environmental regulations.

  2. Heat transfer and energy efficiency in infrared paper dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Magnus

    1999-11-01

    Infrared (IR) dryers are widely used in the paper industry, mainly in the production of coated paper grades. The thesis deals with various aspects of heat transfer and energy use in infrared heaters and dryers as employed in the paper industry. Both gas-fired and electric IR dryers are considered and compared. The thesis also provides an introduction to infrared heaters and infrared drying, including a review of recent literature in the field. The transport of thermal radiation inside a paper sheet was investigated and different IR dryers were compared in terms of their ability to transfer energy to the internal parts of a paper sheet. Although there were evident differences in the absorption of radiation between gas-fired and electric IR dryers, the distinction was found not to be as important as has generally been believed. The main differences appeared to be due to the choice of a one- or a two-sided dryer solution, rather than the spectral distributions emitted by the dryers. A method for evaluating the radiation efficiency of IR heaters was proposed. An electric IR heater was evaluated in the laboratory. The radiation efficiency of the heater was shown to be strongly dependent on the power level. The maximum efficiency, found at high power level, was close to 60 %. A procedure for evaluation of the total energy transfer efficiency of an infrared paper dryer was proposed and used in the evaluation of an electric IR dryer operating in an industrial coating machine. The efficiency of the dryer was roughly 40 %. A model for an electric IR heater was developed. The model includes non-grey radiative heat transfer between the different parts of the heater, as well as conduction in reflector material and convective cooling of the surfaces. Using IR module voltage as the only input, model predictions of temperatures and heat flux were found to agree well with experimental data both at steady state and under transient conditions. The model was also extended to include

  3. [Burn wounds caused by a hair-dryer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulsen, Ida Felbo; Alsbjørn, Bjarne

    2014-06-01

    Burn wounds (ambustio) in children are frequent and occur in about 5% of all children and in about half of these before the age of three. The majority of the burn wounds in children occur at home, most frequently in the kitchen or the bathroom. This case describes an accidental ambustio caused by a hair dryer in a 3-month-old baby. Hair-dryers have become widely used in drying soar baby buttoms. Therefore, professionals as well as parents should be better informed about the potential risks of using hair-dryers for this purpose.

  4. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 1; Mathematical model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    A mathematical model for an integrated heat-pump-assisted dryer has been developed. The dryer has been modelled considering the heat transfer and simultaneous heat and mass transfer zones. The heat-pump heat exchangers have been modelled by writing the enthalpy balance for differential lengths considering the various zones on the air and working-fluid sides. The compressor has been described by the polytropic compression equation. The model has been used for simulating an existing system using R11 to study the effect of approach velocity of air to the evaporator and of the suction superheat on the specific energy consumption of the heat pump assisted dryer. (author).

  5. Review:Resuspension of wall deposits in spray dryers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Wall deposition occurs in spray dryers when dried or partially dried particles contact and adhere to the walls during operation, thus reducing the yield of product collected. Wall deposits also present a product contamination risk and a fire or explosion risk when spray drying products that oxidize exothermically, such as milk powder. Re-entrainment is the resuspension of spray dryer wall deposits into the main gas stream for collection as product. Literature suggests that the process for re-entrainment of particles from spray dryer wall deposits is strongly dependent on particle size and gas velocity.

  6. Advanced Clothing Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that add an unprecedented burden on longduration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For these missions with limited cleaning resources, a new wardrobe must be developed to reduce this logistical burden by reducing clothing mass and extending clothing wear. The present studies have been undertaken, for the first time, to measure length of wear and to assess the acceptance of such extended wear. Garments in these studies are commercially available exercise T-shirts and shorts, routine-wear T-shirts, and longsleeved pullover shirts. Fabric composition (cotton, polyester, light-weight, superfine Merino wool, modacrylic, cotton/rayon, polyester/Cocona, modacrylic/Xstatic, modacrylic/rayon, modacrylic/lyocell/aramid), construction (open knit, tight knit, open weave, tight weave), and finishing treatment (none, quaternary ammonium salt) are the independent variables. Eleven studies are reported here: five studies of exercise T-shirts, three of exercise shorts, two of routine wear Tshirts, and one of shirts used as sleep-wear. All studies are conducted in a climate-controlled environment, similar to a space vehicle's. For exercise clothing, study participants wear the garments during aerobic exercise. For routine wear clothing, study participants wear the T-shirts daily in an office or laboratory. Daily questionnaires collected data on ordinal preferences of nine sensory elements and on reason for retiring a used garment. Study 1 compares knitted cotton, polyester, and Merino exercise T-shirts (61 participants), study 2, knitted polyester, modacrylic, and polyester/Cocona exercise T-shirts (40 participants), study 3, cotton and polyester exercise shorts, knitted and woven (70 participants), all three using factorial experimental designs with and without a finishing treatment, conducted at the Johnson Space Center, sharing study participants. Study 4 compares knitted polyester and ZQ Merino exercise T

  7. Mestizaje and clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wilson, Fiona

    2007-01-01

    The focus of the chapter is on the early determinant of movement (1910s-1940s) between western-central Mexico and the US, seen not through the standard lens of labour migration but as producing a new, transnational, social space. In this social space, migrants could work with and negotiate greater...... self-consciousness as mestizos and Mexicans. The determinants and implications of movement are traced through clothing, in relation to when, why and how men and women in small town Mexico adopted 'modern' styles of dress. Migration to the US opened up possibilities of dressing to cross social as well...

  8. Critical Point Dryer: Tousimis 916B Series C

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:CORAL Name: Critical Point DryerThis system utilizes CO 2to dry fragile suspended and floating structures Specifications / Capabilities:Wafer size up to...

  9. Modeling and simulation of milk emulsion drying in spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. S. Birchal

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available This work aims at modeling and simulating the drying of whole milk emulsion in spray dryers. Drops and particles make up the discrete phase and are distributed into temporal compartments following their residence time in the dryer. Air is the continuous and well-mixed phase. Mass and energy balances are developed for each phase, taking into account their interactions. Constitutive equations for describing the drop swelling and drying mechanisms as well as the heat and mass transfer between particles and hot air are proposed and analyzed. A set of algebraic-differential equations is obtained and solved by specific numerical codes. Results from experiments carried out in a pilot spray dryer are used to validate the model developed and the numerical algorithm. Comparing the simulated and experimental data, it is shown that the model predicts well the individual drop-particle history inside the dryer as well as the overall outlet air-particle temperature and humidity.

  10. Analysis of Slurry Drying in a Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wittaya Julklang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying has recently been exploited to prepare a large variety of high-value particles. The aim of the present paper is to analyze the drying mechanism of slurry droplets consist of nanosized particles in an industrial-scale spray dryer. For this purpose, a mathematical model is developed comprising a comprehensive model for the heat and mass transfer for a single droplet and a model for the flow of droplets and gas, and the heat and mass transfer in the dryer. Using the developed model, the drying behaviour of slurry droplets in the spray dryer is investigated in the initial heating-up, constant rate and falling rate periods by analyzing the profiles of air temperature and humidity, and the droplet velocity, average temperature and moisture content in the dryer axial direction as well as the distributions of temperature and water vapor concentration in the droplet.

  11. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Sp...

  12. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and at specific times, as follows: For Meyrin site: in Bldg. 2/ R-402 Each second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: in Bldg. 933/ R-007. Each second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  13. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8.00 a.m. and 9.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10.00 a.m. and 11.30 a.m. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  14. Cleaning of work clothing

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As of March 2007, the laundry service (TS/FM) will introduce a new procedure for the collection of work clothing and its redistribution when returned to CERN from the laundry. Clothes will no longer be collected from and distributed to the usual points, but will have to be deposited and exchanged at a pre-defined location and specific time, as specified below: For Meyrin site: Bldg. 2/ R-402 Every second Thursday between 8-00 and 9-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. For Prévessin site and SM18: Bldg. 933/ R-007. Every second Thursday between 10-00 and 11-30. Starting on Thursday, March 22, 2007. Notices explaining the procedure to be followed will be posted at the collection points used until now. No change in present practice is foreseen, however, for LHC Points 2 and 5. If you require any further information please call the laundry service on 16 2056 or 16 0053.

  15. New Clothing for Handheld Devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2013-01-01

    Clothing is influenced by many factors, trends, and social happenings. Much of what is worn today had utilitarian roots in the past. In the activitiy presented in this article, students will have the opportunity to redesign clothing for new trends, in this case, the explosion of handheld electronic devices.

  16. Evaluation of hybrid solar – biomass dryer with no load

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassen Tadahmun Ahmed

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental study was carried out to investigate the performance of designed and fabricated hybrid solar-biomass dryer without load. The solar side was a natural convection mixed mode, while the biomass side was a hot air produced from a burner/gas to gas heat exchanger. The experiments have been conducted to test the dryer temperature, inlet and outlet relative humidity, outlet velocity, and biomass feeding rate. In the solar mode the maximum dryer temperature was 63°C. Behaviours of the velocity in the dryer was found to follow solar radiation available to the dryer. The velocity was in the range of 0.6 – 1.35 m/s through the 0.0176 m2 area of the outlet when the solar radiation was in the range of 150 – 880 W/m2. Two feeding rates of wood were used to investigate the dryer performance through the night. The results showed that at feeding rate 278 g/hr, the drying air mean temperature was 62 ºC. This temperature was more suitable than the measured drying air temperature at feeding rate 490 g/hr. Also the 62 °C drying environment is more stable and feasible for drying almost all types of products.

  17. Tritium protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuller, T. P.; Easterly, C. E.

    1979-06-01

    Occupational exposures to radiation from tritium received at present nuclear facilities and potential exposures at future fusion reactor facilities demonstrate the need for improved protective clothing. Important areas relating to increased protection factors of tritium protective ventilation suits are discussed. These areas include permeation processes of tritium through materials, various tests of film permeability, selection and availability of suit materials, suit designs, and administrative procedures. The phenomenological nature of film permeability calls for more standardized and universal test methods, which would increase the amount of directly useful information on impermeable materials. Improvements in suit designs could be expedited and better communicated to the health physics community by centralizing devlopmental equipment, manpower, and expertise in the field of tritium protection to one or two authoritative institutions.

  18. Bed mixing dryer for high moisture content fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulkkonen, S.; Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1997-12-31

    Bed mixing dryer is a new type of fuel drying technology for fluidized bed combustion. The idea is to extract hot bed material from the fluidized bed and use it as a heat source for drying the fuel. Drying occurs at steam atmosphere which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation to process. This improves the thermal efficiency of the power plant process considerably, especially in combined heat and power applications. Imatran Voima Oy (IVO) has developed the Bed Mixing Dryer technology since early 1990s. The first pilot plant was built in 1994 to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant. The capacity of the plant is 6 MW{sub e} and 20 MW of district heat. In Kuusamo the dryer is connected to a bubbling fluidized bed. Since it`s commissioning the dryer has been used successfully for about 3000 hours during the heating season in wintertime. The second application of the technology will be a demonstration project in Oerebro (S). IVO Power Engineering Ltd will supply in 1997 a dryer to Oerebro Energi`s peat, wood and coal fired CHP plant equipped with circulating fluidized bed boiler. The fuel to be dried is sawdust with fuel input of about 60 MW. In Kuusamo the dryer produces 3 MW of additional district heat and in Oerebro 6 MW. The fuels in Kuusamo are peat, saw dust and bark. In addition to the municipal heat production this type of drying technology has its benefits in pulp and paper industry processes. Disposal of paper mill sludges is becoming more difficult and costly which has resulted in need of alternative treatment. Drying of the sludge before combustion in a boiler for power production is an attractive option. At the moment IVO is carrying out several studies to apply the Bed Mixing Dryer in pulp and paper industry processes. Economy of drying the sludge looks promising

  19. Analysis of Traditional Historical Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Karsten; Schmidt, A. L.; Petersen, A. H.

    2013-01-01

    A recurrent problem for scholars who investigate traditional and historical clothing is the measuring of items of clothing and subsequent pattern construction. The challenge is to produce exact data without damaging the item. The main focus of this paper is to present a new procedure...... for establishing a three-dimensional model and the corresponding two-dimensional pattern for items of skin clothing that are not flat. The new method is non-destructive, and also accurate and fast. Furthermore, this paper presents an overview of the more traditional methods of pattern documentation and measurement...

  20. 20 CFR 638.525 - Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Clothing. 638.525 Section 638.525 Employees... THE JOB TRAINING PARTNERSHIP ACT Center Operations § 638.525 Clothing. The Job Corps Director shall establish procedures to provide clothing for all students by means of a clothing purchase allowance and...

  1. Performance of modified greenhouse dryer with thermal energy storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Om Prakash

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available In this attempt, the main goal is to do annual performance, environomical analysis, energy analysis and exergy analysis of the modified greenhouse dryer (MGD operating under active mode (AM and passive mode (PM. Thermal storage is being applied on the ground of MGD. It is applied in three different ways namely barren floor, floor covered with black PVC sheet (PVC and Black Coated. Experimental study of dryers in no-load conditions reveals that floor covered with a black PVC sheet is more conducive for drying purpose than other floors. The MGD under AM is found to be more effective as compared to PM for tomato and capsicum, which are high moisture content crops. For medium moisture content crop (potato chips, both dryers show relatively similar drying performance. Crops dried inside the greenhouse dryer are found to be more nutrient than open sun dried crops. The payback period of the modified greenhouse dryer under passive mode is found to be 1.11 years. However, for the active mode of the modified greenhouse dryer is only 1.89 years. The embodied energy of the passive mode of the dryer is a 480.277 kWh and 628.73 kWh for the active mode of the dryer. The CO2 emissions per annum for passive and active mode greenhouse dryers are found to be 13.45 kg and 17.6 kg respectively. The energy payback time, carbon mitigation and carbon credit have been calculated based type of crop dried. The range of exergy efficiency is 29%–86% in MGD under PM and 30%–78% in the MGD under AM. The variation of Heat utilization factor (HUF for MGD under PM is 0.12–0.38 and 0.26–0.53 for MGD under AM. The range of co-efficient of performances (COP for MGD under PM is 0.55–0.87 and 0.58–0.73 for MGD under AM.

  2. Noise impacts from professional dog grooming forced-air dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter M Scheifele

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to measure the sound output of four commonly used brands of forced-air dryers used by dog groomers in the United States. Many dog groomers have questions about the effect of this exposure on their hearing, as well as on the hearing of the dogs that are being groomed. Readings taken from each dryer at 1 meter (the likely distance of the dryer from the groomer and the dog showed average levels ranging from 105.5 to 108.3 dB SPL or 94.8 to 108.0 dBA. Using the 90 dBA criterion required by the US Occupational Safety and Health Administration, dog groomers/bathers are at risk if exposure to the lowest intensity dryer (94.8 dBA exceeds 4 hours per day. If the more stringent 85 dBA criterion and 3 dB tradeoff is applied, less than one hour of exposure is permissible in an 8 hour day. Cautions are recommended for any persons exposed to noise from forced-air dryers.

  3. Study on Predrying by Spin Flash Dryer for Granulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王晓静; 叶鸣; 钱树德

    2004-01-01

    Spin flash dryer has the advantages of both fluidized bed dryer and pneumatic dryer.It has predominance in dealing with thermal sensitive materials.In this paper,the distribution of the air velocity in the spin flash dryer is discussed,which indicates that the rotating air in the dryer chamber can be divided into two areas,potential flow area and plane swirl area.Experiments show that air tangent velocity effects the process of granulation most remarkably.The radial distribution and moisture content of the particles have their intrinsic rules along either the diameter or height of the drying chamber.Besides,the operating parameters of predrying on bleaching powder are optimized.To meet the strict standard of the wet-pressing granulator on the moisture content of the feeder,a narrow lap is made at proper height in the wall of the drying chamber,where a chute and a rotating valve are installed in order to predry the filter cake and remove a part of water.Then the material is fed into the wet-pressing granulator.

  4. Waterless Clothes-Cleaning Machine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Glenn; Ganske, Shane

    2013-01-01

    A waterless clothes-cleaning machine has been developed that removes loose particulates and deodorizes dirty laundry with regenerative chemical processes to make the clothes more comfortable to wear and have a fresher smell. This system was initially developed for use in zero-g, but could be altered for 1-g environments where water or other re sources are scarce. Some of these processes include, but are not limited to, airflow, filtration, ozone generation, heat, ultraviolet light, and photocatalytic titanium oxide.

  5. The UTCI-clothing model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havenith, George; Fiala, Dusan; Błazejczyk, Krzysztof; Richards, Mark; Bröde, Peter; Holmér, Ingvar; Rintamaki, Hannu; Benshabat, Yael; Jendritzky, Gerd

    2012-05-01

    The Universal Thermal Climate Index (UTCI) was conceived as a thermal index covering the whole climate range from heat to cold. This would be impossible without considering clothing as the interface between the person (here, the physiological model of thermoregulation) and the environment. It was decided to develop a clothing model for this application in which the following three factors were considered: (1) typical dressing behaviour in different temperatures, as observed in the field, resulting in a model of the distribution of clothing over the different body segments in relation to the ambient temperature, (2) the changes in clothing insulation and vapour resistance caused by wind and body movement, and (3) the change in wind speed in relation to the height above ground. The outcome was a clothing model that defines in detail the effective clothing insulation and vapour resistance for each of the thermo-physiological model's body segments over a wide range of climatic conditions. This paper details this model's conception and documents its definitions.

  6. 75 FR 27504 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Held Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-17

    ... substantial product hazard.'' B. The Product A hand-held hair dryer is a portable electrical appliance with a..., electrically energized wires across which a fan blows air. These dryers are typically used in bathrooms...

  7. 76 FR 37636 - Substantial Product Hazard List: Hand-Supported Hair Dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-06-28

    .... The Product A hand-supported hair dryer is a portable electrical appliance with a cord-and-plug..., electrically energized wires, across which a fan blows air. These dryers are typically used in bathrooms...

  8. Bringing coal preheating in drum dryers to a commercial level

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babanin, B.I.; Proushin, Yu.E.; Dinel' t, V.M.; Nikolaeva, V.Z.; Shabarshova, Yu.V.; Patrushev, A.N.; Vodop' yanov, A.G.; Vlasov, V.S.; Sementin, V.P.

    1988-10-01

    Discusses operation of a system for coal charge preheating used in Western Siberia since 1965. It is the first coal preheating system constructed in the USSR. The following aspects of system operation are discussed: composition of combustion gases used for coal drying, drying temperature, consumption rate of combustion gases depending on coal moisture content, flue gas recirculation system, transport and storage of dried coal, methods for dust separation (wet and dry), air pollution from coal dryers, and efficiency of air pollution control. Operation of the coal preheating system shows that one-stage coal drying and preheating is economic but associated with increased investment (construction cost) and with increased coal comminution. Large one-stage dryers also cause irregular coal preheating depending on distribution of coal grain size (with overheating of coal fines). Recommendations for design modifications of one-stage dryers are made. 3 refs.

  9. Development of polyhouse type solar dryer for Kashmir valley.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahi, Navin Chandra; Khan, Junaid N; Lohani, Umesh C; Singh, Anupama; Kumar, Anil

    2011-06-01

    Polyhouse type solar dryer (PSD) consist of drying chamber, drying trays and exhaust fan was developed for drying fruits and vegetables. The relative humidity (RH) inside the PSD varied in between 21 to 74% as compared to outside RH which ranged from 40 to 75%. The performance was found suitable and resulted in efficient drying at low RH. The thermal performance test for PSD under full and no load testing conditions were calculated. The temperature inside the dryer was 62 to 76% higher than the ambient conditions. PSD was helpful in reducing the drying ranging from 33 to 53%. The capacity of PSD was 100-150 kg per batch. The economic cost of solar dryer was compared with mechanical drying for beneficial to local producer. The cost of PSD Rs 80,000 could recover within the period of 1.5 years by adopting solar drying technology.

  10. Behavior of a portable solar dryer for pineapple fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Moya, Róger; Solano, Marco

    2012-01-01

    In Costa Rica, there has been a growing interest to use pineapple fiber from plant, for which current processes need to be improved or new processes need to be developed, with emphasis on drying methods. This work presents the design and evaluation of the behavior of a prototype portable solar dryer in four sites of Costa Rica. The design describes the main parts of the dryer, as well as how they were constructed. The behavior was evaluated according to temperature and relative humidity insid...

  11. PIV measurements of flow structures in a spray dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meyer, Knud Erik; Velte, Clara Marika; Ullum, Thorvald

    2011-01-01

    Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields and dyna......Stereoscopic Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements are made in horizontal planes in a simplified scale model of a spray dryer using water as fluid. The sample rate was sufficient to resolve phenomena at lower frequencies. Data reveal asymmetric velocity fields in both mean fields...

  12. Performance of a solar box cooker-cum-dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patel, R.S. [VP and RPTP Science College, Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India); Patel, P.D.; Vinodkumar, P.C.; Joshipura, K.N. [Sardar Patel Univ., Vallabh Vidyanagar, Gujarat (India)

    2004-07-01

    The present investigation aims at a simultaneous theoretical and experimental investigation on different aspects of box type solar cooker, and its conversion as a dryer. A theoretical model has been attempted to simulate various thermal processes in a box type solar cooker. The theoretical study has also helped us to identify the sensitive heat exchange coefficients of the different cooker elements. The cooker-dryer designed presently has a potential of enhancing the device utility factor by a fairly large magnitude. This device will also give boost to adopt the solar energy utilization especially in the tropical developing countries. (orig.)

  13. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  14. Clothing creator trademark : Business plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stern, B.

    1990-10-01

    SYMAGERY has developed a patented process to manufacture clothing without direct human labor. This CLOTHING CREATOR{trademark}, will have the ability to produce two (2) perfect garments every 45 seconds or one (1) every 30 seconds. The process will combine Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM) technology with heat molding and ultrasonic bonding/cutting techniques. This system for garment production, will have the capacity to produce garments of higher quality and at lower productions costs than convention cut and sew methods. ADVANTAGES of the process include: greatly reduced production costs; increased quality of garments; reduction in lead time; and capacity to make new class of garments. This technology will accommodate a variety of knit, woven and nonwoven materials containing a majority of synthetic fibers. Among the many style of garments that could be manufactured by this process are: work clothing, career apparel, athletic garments, medical disposables, health care products, activewear, haz/mat garments, military clothing, cleanroom clothing, outdoor wear, upholstery, and highly contoured stuffed toy shells. 3 refs.

  15. Clothing Consumption in Urban China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Zhiming(张志明); Li Yi(李毅); Gong Chen(龚晨); John Moody; Liu Wing-sun (廖泳申); Wu Haidong(吴海东)

    2001-01-01

    Based on data gathered through a questionnaire survey with 3,544 respondents in six largest cities in China, the clothing expenditures of Chinese consumers and influential factors are investigated in this paper. It was found that regional differences exist sig nificantly among the cities, possibly due to differences in economy,customs, culture and other factors It was also found that the demographic and soionomic factors including age, gender, marital staus , education level,occupation, and household income have a significant influence on clothing expenditures. Further, the interactive influences of geographic variable with demographic and socioeconomic variables on the clothing expenditures were ex amined. The findings should have useful implications for segmenting Chinese consumers and developing marketing strategies in China.

  16. Safer work clothing for fishermen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geving, Ingunn Holmen; Reitan, Jarl; Sandsund, Mariann; Faerevik, Hilde; Reinertsen, Randi Eidsmo; Aasjord, Halvard

    2006-01-01

    The fisherman's work environment consists of many potential risks. A study of occupational accidents in the Norwegian fishing industry in the nine-year period from 1998 to 2006 shows that more than 3/4 of the deaths were caused by loss of fishing vessel or man-overboard accidents. Furthermore, the greatest risk of drowning is found in the smallest fleet. The aim of our project was to develop safer work clothing and through this contribute to a reduction in work accidents and injuries in the fishing fleet. We considered that it is possible to produce protective work clothing that satisfies a specification of requirements covering the fishermen's needs for protection and comfort during work. An end user-centred process including twenty-three personal interviews and a questionnaire was used to clarify the fishermen's needs and wishes before detailed design and product development. We identified an overview of all the fishermen's needs for protection during work, and produced a prioritised list of functional requirements for the clothing. The results show that the clothing previously preferred by fishermen does not satisfy all the users' demands for safety, functionality and comfort. These demands have been taken into consideration when designing improved work clothing for the fishing fleet. A selected number of prototypes were developed on the basis of the established specification of requirements. The prototypes were evaluated according to the users' requirements through tests in SINTEF's Work Physiology Laboratory and on board fishing vessels. The results demonstrate that the new protective clothing satisfies the fishermen's requirements.

  17. Solar dryer with thermal storage and biomass-backup heater

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Madhlopa, A. [Department of Physics and Biochemical Sciences, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi); Ngwalo, G. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Malawi Polytechnic, P/Bag 303, Blantyre 3 (Malawi)

    2007-04-15

    An indirect type natural convection solar dryer with integrated collector-storage solar and biomass-backup heaters has been designed, constructed and evaluated. The major components of the dryer are biomass burner (with a rectangular duct and flue gas chimney), collector-storage thermal mass and drying chamber (with a conventional solar chimney). The thermal mass was placed in the top part of the biomass burner enclosure. The dryer was fabricated using simple materials, tools and skills, and it was tested in three modes of operation (solar, biomass and solar-biomass) by drying twelve batches of fresh pineapple (Ananas comosus), with each batch weighing about 20 kg. Meteorological conditions were monitored during the dehydration process. Moisture and vitamin C contents were determined in both fresh and dried samples. Results show that the thermal mass was capable of storing part of the absorbed solar energy and heat from the burner. It was possible to dry a batch of pineapples using solar energy only on clear days. Drying proceeded successfully even under unfavorable weather conditions in the solar-biomass mode of operation. In this operational mode, the dryer reduced the moisture content of pineapple slices from about 669 to 11% (db) and yielded a nutritious dried product. The average values of the final-day moisture-pickup efficiency were 15%, 11% and 13% in the solar, biomass and solar-biomass modes of operation respectively. It appears that the solar dryer is suitable for preservation of pineapples and other fresh foods. Further improvements to the system design are suggested. (author)

  18. Operation experiences of biofuel dryers; Drifterfarenheter fraan aangtorkar och direkta roekgastorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berge, Christian; Dejfors, Charlotte [AaF Energikonsult Stockholm AB (Sweden)

    2000-01-01

    A study regarding operation experiences of indirect steam dryers and direct flue gas dryers of biofuels has been conducted. In the study, plants with the two types of dryers have been visited and operational experiences have been gathered and analysed. Results show that the well proven technique with flue gas dryers has a higher availability than the steam dryers. Several plants have problem with the feeding and discharge systems. Material selection is very important to prevent corrosion. Indirect steam dryers have more environmental regulations than flue gas dryers because of the generated condensate from the fuel drying process. Future work should concentrate on material selections, refining the feeding and discharge systems and control system.

  19. Cooling clothing utilizing water evaporation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Tominaga, Naoto; Melikov, Arsen Krikor

    2014-01-01

    We developed cooling clothing that utilizes water evaporation to cool the human body and has a mechanism to control the cooling intensity. Clean water was supplied to the outer surface of the T-shirt of the cooling clothing, and a small fan was used to enhance evaporation on this outer surface...... temperature ranging from 27.4 to 30.7 °C to establish a suitable water supply control method. A water supply control method that prevents water accumulation in the T-shirt and water dribbling was validated; this method is established based on the concept of the water evaporation capacity under the applied...

  20. Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    New York State Education Dept., Albany. Bureau of Continuing Education Curriculum Development.

    This guide was prepared to help instructors of adult textiles and clothing programs improve their teaching; it is designed to be used with other department publications: Clothing Services Training Guide, Resource Courses for Planning Local Adult Homemaking Programs, and Resource Kit Tips for Teaching Textiles and Clothing (see AC 008 741). Each…

  1. Marketing Strategies in the Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷丽娜

    2011-01-01

    Chinese clothing industry has stepped into a new era when the fierce competition,the internationalization and the pluralism coexist.If the clothing enterprises want to catch the market opportunities,and stand out in the clothing industry,they should chang

  2. Re-creation of Chinese Traditional Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘瑜; 张祖芳

    2003-01-01

    On the basis of analysis on both the typical characteristics of Chinese traditional clothing and trendy fashion on present market that is inspired from it,this paper illustrates several re-creation methods of Chinese traditional clothing.These suggestions would push this oriental traditional clothing to a new high in world fashion field and adopted by more and more common people.

  3. 33 CFR 142.36 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Protective clothing. 142.36... Protective clothing. Personnel in areas where there are flying particles, molten metal, radiant energy, heavy dust, or hazardous materials shall wear clothing and gloves providing protection against the...

  4. 46 CFR 154.1840 - Protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Protective clothing. 154.1840 Section 154.1840 Shipping... FOR SELF-PROPELLED VESSELS CARRYING BULK LIQUEFIED GASES Operations § 154.1840 Protective clothing... operation, except those assigned to gas-safe cargo control rooms, wears protective clothing....

  5. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable technologies

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to deal with the innovative technologies in the field of textiles and clothing sustainability. It details a number of sustainable and innovative technologies and highlights their implications in the clothing sector. There are currently various measures to achieve sustainability in the textiles and the clothing industry, including innovations in the manufacturing stage, which is the crux of this book.

  6. 76 FR 5733 - Clothing Allowance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-02

    ... service-connected disability, wears or uses a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance (including a wheelchair) which VA determines tends to wear out or tear the veteran's clothing or uses prescription medication for... uses a qualifying appliance for a service-connected disability and prescription medication for a...

  7. Performances of continuous dryer with inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arsenijević Zorana Lj.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available A fluid bed dryer with inert particles represents a very attractive alternative to other drying technologies according to the main efficiency criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and speci­fic air consumption. A high drying efficiency results from the large con­tact area and from the large temperature difference between the inlet and outlet air. A rapid mixing of the particles leads to nearly isothermal conditions throughout the bed. A fluid bed dryer with inert particles was used for drying of slurries. Experiments were performed in a cylindrical column 215 mm in diameter with glass spheres as inert particles. In this paper, results of drying experi­ments with slurries of Zineb fungicide, copper hydroxide, calcium carbo­nate and pure water used as the feed material are presented. In our fluidized bed we successfully dried a number of other materials such as: fungicides and pesticides (Ziram, Propineb, Mangozeb, copper oxy-chloride, copper oxy-sulphate, Bordeaux mixture, other inorganic compounds (calcium sulphate, cobalt carbonate, electrolytic copper, sodium chloride, and a complex compound (organo-bentonite. The effects of operating conditions on dryer throughput and product quality were investigated. Main performance criteria, i.e. specific water evaporation rate, specific heat consumption and specific air consumption, were quantified. Temperature profile along the bed was mapped, and nearly isothermal conditions were found due to thorough mixing of the particles. Analysis of drying and energy efficiencies as a function of inlet and outlet air temperature difference was performed for deeper insight in dryer behavior and for optimizing dryer design and operation from an energy point of view. A simple mathematical model based on an overall heat balance predicts the dryer performance quite well. The industrial prototype with fluid bed of 0.8 m in diameter and capacity 650 kg of evaporated moisture per

  8. From Clothing to Laundry Water: Investigating the Fate of Phthalates, Brominated Flame Retardants, and Organophosphate Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saini, Amandeep; Thaysen, Clara; Jantunen, Liisa; McQueen, Rachel H; Diamond, Miriam L

    2016-09-01

    The accumulation of phthalate esters, brominated flame retardants (BFRs) and organophosphate esters (OPEs) by clothing from indoor air and transfer via laundering to outdoors were investigated. Over 30 days cotton and polyester fabrics accumulated 3475 and 1950 ng/dm(2) ∑5phthalates, 65 and 78 ng/dm(2) ∑10BFRs, and 1200 and 310 ng/dm(2) ∑8OPEs, respectively. Planar surface area concentrations of OPEs and low molecular weight phthalates were significantly greater in cotton than polyester and similar for BFRs and high molecular weight phthalates. This difference was significantly and inversely correlated with KOW, suggesting greater sorption of polar compounds to polar cotton. Chemical release from cotton and polyester to laundry water was >80% of aliphatic OPEs (log KOW phthalates (log KOW 4-6), and phthalates (log KOW > 8) and BFRs (log KOW > 6). These results support the hypothesis that clothing acts an efficient conveyer of soluble semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) from indoors to outdoors through accumulation from air and then release during laundering. Clothes drying could as well contribute to the release of chemicals emitted by electric dryers. The results also have implications for dermal exposure.

  9. Design and performance evaluation of a new hybrid solar dryer for banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amer, B.M.A. [Agricultural Engineering Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Cairo University, Giza 12613 (Egypt); Hossain, M.A. [FMP Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur 1701 (Bangladesh); Gottschalk, K. [Leibniz-Institut fuer Agrartechnik Potsdam-Bornim, 100 Max-Eyth-Allee, 14467 Potsdam (Germany)

    2010-04-15

    A hybrid solar dryer was designed and constructed using direct solar energy and a heat exchanger. The dryer consists of solar collector, reflector, heat exchanger cum heat storage unit and drying chamber. The drying chamber was located under the collector. The dryer was operated during normal sunny days as a solar dryer, and during cloudy day as a hybrid solar dryer. Drying was also carried out at night with stored heat energy in water which was collected during the time of sun-shine and with electric heaters located at water tank. The efficiency of the solar dryer was raised by recycling about 65% of the drying air in the solar dryer and exhausting a small amount of it outside the dryer. Under Mid-European summer conditions it can raise up the air temperature from 30 to 40 C above the ambient temperature. The solar dryer was tested for drying of ripe banana slices. The capacity of the dryer was to dry about 30 kg of banana slices in 8 h in sunny day from an initial moisture content of 82% to the final moisture content of 18% (wb). In the same time it reduced to only 62% (wb) moisture content in open sun drying method. The colour, aroma and texture of the solar dried products were better than the sun drying products. (author)

  10. Modeling Neanderthal clothing using ethnographic analogues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wales, Nathan

    2012-12-01

    Although direct evidence for Neanderthal clothing is essentially nonexistent, information about Paleolithic clothing could provide insights into the biological, technological, and behavioral capabilities of Neanderthals. This paper takes a new approach to understanding Neanderthal clothing through the collection and analysis of clothing data for 245 recent hunter-gatherer groups. These data are tested against environmental factors to infer what clothing humans tend to wear under different conditions. Beta regression is used to predict the proportion of the body covered by clothing according to a location's mean temperature of the coldest month, average wind speed, and annual rainfall. In addition, logistic regression equations predict clothing use on specific parts of the body. Neanderthal clothing patterns are modeled across Europe and over a range of Pleistocene environmental conditions, thereby providing a new appreciation of Paleolithic behavioral variability. After accounting for higher tolerances to cold temperatures, it is predicted that some Neanderthals would have covered up to 80% of their bodies during the winter, probably with non-tailored clothing. It is also likely that some populations covered the hands and feet. In comparison with Neanderthals, Upper Paleolithic modern humans are found to have worn more sophisticated clothing. Importantly, these predictions shed new light on the relationship between Neanderthal extinction and their simple clothing.

  11. Clothing Matching for Visually Impaired Persons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Shuai; Tian, Yingli; Arditi, Aries

    2011-01-01

    Matching clothes is a challenging task for many blind people. In this paper, we present a proof of concept system to solve this problem. The system consists of 1) a camera connected to a computer to perform pattern and color matching process; 2) speech commands for system control and configuration; and 3) audio feedback to provide matching results for both color and patterns of clothes. This system can handle clothes in deficient color without any pattern, as well as clothing with multiple colors and complex patterns to aid both blind and color deficient people. Furthermore, our method is robust to variations of illumination, clothing rotation and wrinkling. To evaluate the proposed prototype, we collect two challenging databases including clothes without any pattern, or with multiple colors and different patterns under different conditions of lighting and rotation. Results reported here demonstrate the robustness and effectiveness of the proposed clothing matching system.

  12. Energy Efficient Dryer with Rice Husk Fuel for Agriculture Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Djaeni

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Energy usage is crucial aspect on agriculture drying process. This step spends about 70% of total energy in post harvest treatment. The design of efficient dryer with renewable energy source is urgently required due to the limitation of fossil fuel energy. This work discusses the performance of air dehumidification using rice husk fuel as heat source for onion, and paddy drying. Unlike conventional dryer, the humidity of air during the drying was dehumidified by adsorbent. Hence, the driving force of drying can be  kept high.  As consequences, the drying time and energy usage can be reduced. Here, the research was conducted in two step: laboratory and pilot scale tests. Results showed that the lowering air humidity with rice husk fuel has improved the energy efficiency. At operational temperature 60oC, the heat efficiency of 75%  was achieved. 

  13. Application of Constrained Linear MPC to a Spray Dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we develop a linear model predictive control (MPC) algorithm for control of a two stage spray dryer. The states are estimated by a stationary Kalman filter. A non-linear first-principle engineering model is developed to simulate the spray drying process. The model is validated against...... experimental data and able to precisely predict the temperatures, the air humidity and the residual moisture in the dryer. The MPC controls these variables to the target and reject disturbances. Spray drying is a cost-effective method to evaporate water from liquid foods and produces a free flowing powder....... The main challenge of spray drying is to meet the residual moisture specification and prevent powder from sticking to the chamber walls. By simulation we compare the performance of the MPC against the conventional PID control strategy. During an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, the MPC increases...

  14. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Osondu L. C.; Ugwuoke E.C; Chikelu C. C.; Eze N.N; Ukwuani S.T

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  15. The effect of dryer load on freeze drying process design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sajal M; Jameel, Feroz; Pikal, Michael J

    2010-10-01

    Freeze-drying using a partial load is a common occurrence during the early manufacturing stages when insufficient amounts of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) are available. In such cases, the immediate production needs are met by performing lyophilization with less than a full freeze dryer load. However, it is not obvious at what fractional load significant deviations from full load behavior begin. The objective of this research was to systematically study the effects of variation in product load on freeze drying behavior in laboratory, pilot and clinical scale freeze-dryers. Experiments were conducted with 5% mannitol (high heat and mass flux) and 5% sucrose (low heat and mass flux) at different product loads (100%, 50%, 10%, and 2%). Product temperature was measured in edge as well as center vials with thermocouples. Specific surface area (SSA) was measured by BET gas adsorption analysis and residual moisture was measured by Karl Fischer. In the lab scale freeze-dryer, the molar flux of inert gas was determined by direct flow measurement using a flowmeter and the molar flux of water vapor was determined by manometric temperature measurement (MTM) and tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) techniques. Comparative pressure measurement (capacitance manometer vs. Pirani) was used to determine primary drying time. For both 5% mannitol and 5% sucrose, primary drying time decreases and product temperature increases as the load on the shelves decreases. No systematic variation was observed in residual moisture and vapor composition as load decreased. Further, SSA data suggests that there are no significant freezing differences under different load conditions. Independent of dryer scale, among all the effects, variation in radiation heat transfer from the chamber walls to the product seems to be the dominant effect resulting in shorter primary drying time as the load on the shelf decreases (i.e., the fraction of edge vials increases).

  16. Learning sustainability by developing a solar dryer for microalgae retrieval

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedita Malheiro

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Excessive fossil fuel consumption is driving the search for alternative energy production solutions and, in particular, for sustainable sources of energy such as microalgae, from which biodiesel, among other useful compounds, can be obtained. After producing the microalgae, they must be harvested and dried. Existing drying solutions consume too much energy and are, therefore, expensive and unsustainable. The goal of this EPS@ISEP Spring 2013 project was to develop a solar microalgae dryer for the microalgae laboratory of ISEP. A multinational team of five students from distinct fields of study was responsible for designing and building the solar microalgae dryer prototype. The prototype includes a control system to ensure that the microalgae are not destroyed during the drying process. The solar microalgae dryer works as a distiller, extracting the excess water from the microalgae suspension. This paper details the design steps, the building technologies, the ethical and sustainable concerns and compares the prototype with existing solutions. The proposed sustainable microalgae drying process is competitive as far as energy usage is concerned. Finally, the project contributed to increase the team’s sustainable development awareness, active learning and motivation.

  17. PERFORMANCE ASSESSMENT OF SOLAR DRYER WITH INDIRECT HEATING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boryana Brashlyanova

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The performed tests were designed to identify and analyze the parameters of drying in a authors model solar dryer. They to be the basis for constructing of an improved model. Drying was carried out in a pilot model solar dryer with prunes in two cycles. Both samples were run under steady sunshine in outdoor air temperature ranging between 20-22°C in the morning and 33-35°C in the early afternoon hours. Depending on the ambient conditions, the drying temperature was found in the range of 30 to 50°C. The dried samples had a water activity Aw> 0.9, due to which the storage is at -18°C. The duration of the drying process of prunes was inconstant and lasted from 2 to 3 days, depending on the final moisture content of the product and the external temperature, humidity, and intensity of solar radiation. The obtained two products intermediate moisture prunes, in addition to direct human consumption could be used as a base for incorporation into other products. Prunes with intermediate moisture content 40% could be consumed directly at ambient temperature or after freezing and tempering at -6 to -5ºC. Based on the established parameters we are to design and produce an improved solar dryer model that allows better utilization of heat and shortening the process duration.

  18. E-COMMERCE SIDEWALK CLOTHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dias Ariffiana

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available E-commerce merupakan aplikasi perdagangan barang atau jasa berbasis web melalui media internet.  Sidewalk Clothing saat ini dalam melakukan proses jual beli masih mengharuskan pembeli dan penjual bertatap muka secara langsung. E-commerce atau yang lebih dikenal dengan toko online memberikan kemudahan dalam melakukan proses jual beli sehingga transaksi jual beli menjadi lebih efektif dan efisien. Hasil yang dicapai dalam pembuatan e-commerce ini adalah mempermudah proses transaksi jual beli tanpa terikat waktu dan tempat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini pemilik toko dimudahkan dalam memperbaharui informasi mengenai produk yang dijual dan dapat sekaligus meningkatkan penjualan. Pembeli dimudahkan dalam dalam mendapatkan informasi produk yang ditawarkan dan pembeli bisa membeli produk tersebut setiap saat. Dengan adanya e-commerce ini dapat memudahkan transaksi jual beli antara pemilik toko dan pembeli, serta memudahkan pemilik toko dalam memperbaharui informasi sehingga dengan adanya e- commerce omset penjualan akanmeningkat. Kata Kunci:E-commerce, website, Sidewalk Clothing

  19. Modelling of Specific Moisture Extraction Rate and Leakage Ratio in a Condensing Tumble Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Stawreberg, Lena; Nilsson, Lars

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The use of tumble dryers in households is becoming more common. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electric energy. A statistical model over the tumble dryer is created from a design of experiments. The model will be used to find the best settings for the power supply to the heater, the internal airflow and the external airflow in order to reach a high specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) and a low leakage ratio of water vapour. The aim also involves expl...

  20. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berkowitz, Shari Salzhauer

    2015-01-01

    High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA) of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.

  1. Hand dryer noise in public restrooms exceeds 80 dBA at 10 ft (3 m

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shari Salzhauer Berkowitz

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available High airflow hand dryers are found in many public restrooms today. These dryers offer quick and clean hand drying, and are seen as being an environment-friendly alternative to paper towels. However, many new hand dryers are loud, exposing individuals using the facilities as well as those employees who clean the facilities to potentially dangerous noise. Prolonged exposure to high levels of occupational noise can cause damage to hair cells in the cochlea, resulting in varying degrees of noise-induced hearing loss. This study examined the intensity (in dBA of the noise produced by the air dryers in campus restrooms. Hand dryer peak and average noise was measured with a sound level meter at 2.5 ft, 5 ft, and 10 ft from the dryer. Noise measurements did not decrease as predicted by the inverse-square law, probably because of the reverberative surfaces found in the restrooms. The small sample of hand dryers tested was mostly found to be producing more noise than the manufacturer claimed they would; indeed, none of the dryers would be safe for an 8-h workday exposure. While hand dryers do reduce paper trash, they pose as a different sort of hazard to our environment and population.

  2. [Clothes of the HOUSE, or Clothes of REASON? Children's clothing during the Age of Enlightenment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kottek, Samuel

    2014-01-01

    Children's clothing is a subject that forms part of the history of pediatrics. Many studies focus on the ideas developed by Locke and Rousseau. Here we choose to focus our study on an author who is rarely quoted: Jacques Ballexserd (1726-1774), "citizen of Geneva," who is little known to historians of pediatrics. However, George Frederic Still (1868-1941) devotes two pages to his views in his Histoire de la Pédiatrie.

  3. Physics model for wringing of wet cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dany Rahmayanti, Handika; Utami, Fisca Dian; Abdullah, Mikrajuddin

    2016-11-01

    One activity that has been performed by human beings for a long time is washing clothes. Before the invention of the washing machine, clothes were washed by hand and then wrung before drying in the open air. When observed carefully, the wringing of cloth presents some interesting phenomena. However, there are no reports on the physical modelling of this very old activity. This paper reports a simple model to explain the discharge of water from clothes when squeezed. A simple tool was also designed to retrieve data to confirm the theory. We found that the theoretical predictions accurately explained the experimental results. The experiments were conducted on two types of cloth: towels and batik cloth. We also obtained a universal curve to which all the data converged.

  4. Plausible cloth animation using dynamic bending model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chuan Zhou; Xiaogang Jin; Charlie C.L. Wang; Jieqing Feng

    2008-01-01

    Simulating the mechanical behavior of a cloth is a very challenging and important problem in computer animation. The models of bending in most existing cloth simulation approaches are taking the assumption that the cloth is little deformed from a plate shape.Therefore, based on the thin-plate theory, these bending models do not consider the condition that the current shape of the cloth under large deformations cannot be regarded as the approximation to that before deformation, which leads to an unreal static bending. [This paper introduces a dynamic bending model which is appropriate to describe large out-plane deformations such as cloth buckling and bending, and develops a compact implementation of the new model on spring-mass systems. Experimental results show that wrinkles and folds generated using this technique in cloth simulation, can appear and vanish in a more natural way than other approaches.

  5. Astronaut Clothing for Exploration Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poritz, Darwin H.; Orndoff, Evelyne; Kaspranskiy, Rustem R.; Schesinger, Thilini; Byrne, Vicky

    2016-01-01

    Astronaut clothes for exploration missions beyond low Earth orbit need to satisfy several challenges not met by the currently-used mostly-cotton clothing. A laundering system is not expected to be available, and thus soiled garments must be trashed. Jettisoning waste does not seem feasible at this time. The cabin oxygen concentration is expected to be higher than standard, and thus fabrics must better resist ignition and burning. Fabrics need to be identified that reduce logistical mass, that can be worn longer before disposal, that are at least as comfortable as cotton, and that resist ignition or that char immediately after ignition. Human factors and psychology indicate that crew well-being and morale require a variety of colors and styles to accommodate personal identity and preferences. Over the past four years, the Logistics Reduction Project under NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems Program has sponsored the Advanced Clothing System Task to conduct several ground studies and one ISS study. These studies have evaluated length of wear and personal preferences of commercially-available exercise- and routine-wear garments made from several fabrics (cotton, polyester, Merino wool, and modacrylic), woven and knitted. Note that Merino wool and modacrylic char like cotton in ambient air, while polyester unacceptably melts. This paper focuses on the two components of an International Space Station study, onboard and on the ground, with astronauts and cosmonauts. Fabrics were randomized to participants. Length of wear was assessed by statistical survival analysis, and preference by exact binomial confidence limits. Merino wool and modacrylic t-shirts were worn longer on average than polyester t-shirts. Interestingly, self-assessed preferences were inconsistent with length-of-wear behavior, as polyester was preferred to Merino wool and modacrylic.

  6. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    Folaranmi, Joshua

    2008-01-01

    This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene) of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium) sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness) measuring 100mmx50mm all arrang...

  7. Estimation of drying parameters in rotary dryers using differential evolution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lobato, F S; Jr, V Steffen; Barrozo, M A S; Arruda, E B, E-mail: vsteffen@mecanica.ufu.br, E-mail: masbarrozo@ufu.br

    2008-11-01

    Inverse problems arise from the necessity of obtaining parameters of theoretical models to simulate the behavior of the system for different operating conditions. Several heuristics that mimic different phenomena found in nature have been proposed for the solution of this kind of problem. In this work, the Differential Evolution Technique is used for the estimation of drying parameters in realistic rotary dryers, which is formulated as an optimization problem by using experimental data. Test case results demonstrate both the feasibility and the effectiveness of the proposed methodology.

  8. Heat-pump tumble dryers; Waermepumpen-Tumbler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemig, N.; Gatter, R.

    2004-07-01

    Commonly available tumble dryers with air-vented or condenser systems in combination with electrical heating have a high specific energy consumption and never fulfil the requirements for Energy Label Class A (<= 0.55 kWh/kg.). The development of a tumbler with a heat pump system has enabled a reduction of almost 50% in the specific energy consumption. In addition to ecological aspects, this means that a significant reduction in energy costs is achieved as well as a beneficial effect on room climate. Other considerations taken into account in the development of the 6.5 kg tumbler were: (i) Compact modular design; integration of the heat pump in the appliance casing; (ii) Long operating life without clogging-up of the heat exchanger by fluff; (iii) Stable process throughout the drying in ambient temperatures of up to 35 {sup o}C. Process stability in particular presented a tough challenge. The solution came in the form of an additional booster condenser that prevents overheating of the compressor towards the end of the process when only negligible amounts of energy are being carried away as a result of the low residual moisture in the laundry. It proved possible to reduce the specific power consumption to less than 0.4 kWh/kg and the leak rate to less 30 %. Thanks to the compact, modular design, the heat pump could be integrated in a housing which has the same size as a conventional 6.5 kg dryer. Clogging-up of the heat exchanger surfaces with fluff was prevented by a multi-stage cascade filtration system. With this heat pump dryer it has been possible for the very first time to develop to series production and launch an appliance in the up to 6.5 kg category that not only fulfils the requirements of Energy Label Class A but also offers a serious alternative to conventional tumble dryers thanks to its compact design, operating safety and ease of operation. Future development opportunities lie in more cost-effective production of the heat pump module, shortening of

  9. Improving Dryer and Press Efficiencies Through Combustion of Hydrocarbon Emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee

    2005-10-31

    Emission control devices on dryers and presses have been legislated into the industry, and are now an integral part of the drying system. These devices consume large quantities of natural gas and electricity and down-sizing or eliminating them will provide major energy savings. The principal strategy taken here focuses on developing process changes that should minimize (and in some cases eliminate) the need for controls. A second approach is to develop lower-cost control options. It has been shown in laboratory and full-scale work that Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAPs) emerge mainly at the end of the press cycle for particleboard, and, by extension, to other prod-ucts. Hence, only the air associated with this point of the cycle need be captured and treated. A model for estimating terpene emissions in the various zones of veneer dryers has been developed. This should allow the emissions to be concentrated in some zones and minimized in others, so that some of the air could be directly released without controls. Low-cost catalysts have been developed for controlling HAPs from dryers and presses. Catalysts conventionally used for regenerative catalytic oxidizers can be used at much lower temperatures for treating press emissions. Fluidized wood ash is an especially inexpensive mate-rial for efficiently reducing formaldehyde in dryer emissions. A heat transfer model for estimating pinene emissions from hot-pressing strand for the manufacture of flakeboard has been constructed from first principles and validated. The model shows that most of the emissions originate from the 1-mm layer of wood adjoining the platen surface. Hence, a simple control option is to surface a softwood mat with a layer of hardwood prior to pressing. Fines release a disproportionate large quantity of HAPs, and it has been shown both theo-retically and in full-scale work that particles smaller than 400 µm are principally responsible. Georgia-Pacific is considering green

  10. Kinetics of potato drying using fluidized bed dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bakal, Sushant Balasaheb; Sharma, Gyanendra Prasad; Sonawane, Somnath P; Verma, Radhachran C

    2012-10-01

    The effect of air temperature and two different shapes (cuboidal and cylindrical) with 3 aspect ratio of each shape on the drying kinetics of potato (Solanum tuberosum) in fluidized bed dryer was investigated. Drying was carried out at 50, 60 and 70°C at 7 m/s air velocity. Drying data were analysed to obtain effective diffusivity of moisture transfer. During drying moisture transfer from potato were described by Fick's diffusion model. Two mathematical models were fitted to experimental data. The Page model gave better fit than simple exponential model. The Arrehnious activation energy value expresses the effect of temperature on diffusivity.

  11. Performance Evaluation Of A Grain Maize Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osondu L. C.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Drying under direct sunlight is one of the oldest techniques used by mankind to preserve Agriculture based food and non-food products. This paper focused on the use of solar dryer to reduce the moisture content of Agriculture produce such as maize. The experiment performed showed the moisture content of maize reduced from 20 to 13. It was also observed that the temperature increased with time. The assumed maximum temperature of the collector plate in the experiment was 100.

  12. Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Analysis Of Students' Performance In Clothing And Textiles In Colleges Of ... failure of students in Clothing and Textiles more than foods and Nutrition and Home ... of students in the academic performance in clothing and Textiles were made.

  13. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand)

    2012-07-01

    In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35 C to 65 C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  14. Model-Based Energy Efficiency Optimization of a Low-Temperature Adsorption Dryer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atuonwu, J.C.; Straten, G. van; Deventer, H.C. van; Boxtel, A.J.B. van

    2011-01-01

    Low-temperature drying is important for heat-sensitive products, but at these temperatures conventional convective dryers have low energy efficiencies. To overcome this challenge, an energy efficiency optimization procedure is applied to a zeolite adsorption dryer subject to product quality. The

  15. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  16. 40 CFR 63.2264 - Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... hardwood veneer dryer. 63.2264 Section 63.2264 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2264 Initial compliance demonstration for a hardwood veneer dryer....

  17. 40 CFR 63.2265 - Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... softwood veneer dryer. 63.2265 Section 63.2265 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... CATEGORIES National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants: Plywood and Composite Wood Products Initial Compliance Requirements § 63.2265 Initial compliance demonstration for a softwood veneer dryer....

  18. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes (abstract)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar drying is a ubiquitous method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. Most of the published articles in the literature provide insight on the performance of solar dryers in service but little information on the dryer construction material selection process or mater...

  19. MICROBIOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE AIR BLOWN BY WARM AIR HAND DRYERS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Recai OÐUR; Omer Faruk TEKBAS; Osman HANCI; Umut OZCAN

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of air blown from warm air hand dryers, and to compare findings with the microbiological characteristics of indoor air in which the dryer settled. Air samples was taken from different public places (shopping centers, restaurants and hospitals and investigated for total viable counts, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, E. Coli, Staphylococcus aureus and enteric pathogens. There were differences between sampling indoor places for some of the microorganisms, but all of the air samples taken from dryers contained more microorganisms than indoor air, and the differences between hand dryers and indoor air were statistically significant (p<0.05 except for enteric pathogens. As a result it could be said that warm air hand dryers could be microbiological contamination sources in restrooms or the other places that they are used. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2005; 4(1.000: 1-7

  20. Experimental Analysis of Open, Simple and Modified Greenhouse Dryers for Drying Potato Flakes Under Forced Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanuj Kumar Sahu

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Drying using burning of fossil fuels and open sun drying are traditional way to dry crops, fruits, vegetables etc. But there are some disadvantages associated with them such as crops are affected by dirt and other impurities. To overcome the problems associated with open sun drying and drying using burning of fossil fuels, solar greenhouse drying is found out to be the best alternative. In present work the performance of simple and modified greenhouse dryer is evaluated and effort is made to increase the drying rate of greenhouse dryer which has been achieved in modified greenhouse dryer with inclined roof. Total weight of potato flakes was reduced by 80.1 % in modified greenhouse dryer in just 5 hours whereas it took 6 hours in simple greenhouse dryer for achieving nearly same values.

  1. Brand Development Suggestions of Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张霞; 陈素英

    2013-01-01

    According to the analysis of the current situation and problems of Chinese clothing brand, the corresponding measures are raised from three aspects of brand positioning, brand broadcast and brand extension strategy. Some guidance and reference value is provided for the brand building and upgrading of Chinese clothing brand.

  2. Irradiation Aging Testing of Fiber Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN; Hu; BAI; Bing; LIU; Xin-peng; YU; Bin-tao; TONG; Zhen-feng; YANG; Wen

    2013-01-01

    Fiber cloth is a kind of insulation material which is widely used in nuclear power plants.In the NPP reactors,due to the effect of high temperature,neutron irradiation and other factors,the strength of material will reduce significantly.It results in pollution in NPP by the loss of fiber cloth.In order to

  3. Obsessive compulsive disorder presenting for redundant clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N A Uvais

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This is a case report of a 15-year-old girl who presented with redundant clothing. On evaluation, it was found that she had obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD, and redundant clothing was a symptom of OCD, which has hitherto not been reported.

  4. Traditional Woman Clothing and Ornamentations Which Belongs to Sille, Konya in Turkish Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melek TUFAN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Sille which is one of the oldest settlements and cradle of civilizations, has a big importance of traditional clothing and crafts to shape them besides food and oral culture. These traditional clothes is maintained carefully by Sille woman from childhood to the periods of maidenhood, being bride, maturity and senility by obeying the rules of those peri ods. These woman clothes that are used traditionally in an attentive way reached the present day by passing down. It is important to record Sille region‟s woman clothes by taking photos with regards to save and maintain these traditional clothes. In this research it is analysed that traditional clothes cepken set, silah kürkü set, cubba ve sarka clothing samples belong to Sille, Konya with regards to material, colour, cut, sewing, ornamentation technique and or namentation the metoh and down to next gener ations and to record them by the help of observation vouchers.

  5. Hair Shaft Damage from Heat and Drying Time of Hair Dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yoonhee; Kim, Youn-Duk; Hyun, Hye-Jin; Pi, Long-quan; Jin, Xinghai

    2011-01-01

    Background Hair dryers are commonly used and can cause hair damage such as roughness, dryness and loss of hair color. It is important to understand the best way to dry hair without causing damage. Objective The study assessed changes in the ultra-structure, morphology, moisture content, and color of hair after repeated shampooing and drying with a hair dryer at a range of temperatures. Methods A standardized drying time was used to completely dry each hair tress, and each tress was treated a total of 30 times. Air flow was set on the hair dryer. The tresses were divided into the following five test groups: (a) no treatment, (b) drying without using a hair dryer (room temperature, 20℃), (c) drying with a hair dryer for 60 seconds at a distance of 15 cm (47℃), (d) drying with a hair dryer for 30 seconds at a distance of 10 cm (61℃), (e) drying with a hair dryer for 15 seconds at a distance of 5 cm (95℃). Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and lipid TEM were performed. Water content was analyzed by a halogen moisture analyzer and hair color was measured with a spectrophotometer. Results Hair surfaces tended to become more damaged as the temperature increased. No cortex damage was ever noted, suggesting that the surface of hair might play a role as a barrier to prevent cortex damage. Cell membrane complex was damaged only in the naturally dried group without hair dryer. Moisture content decreased in all treated groups compared to the untreated control group. However, the differences in moisture content among the groups were not statistically significant. Drying under the ambient and 95℃ conditions appeared to change hair color, especially into lightness, after just 10 treatments. Conclusion Although using a hair dryer causes more surface damage than natural drying, using a hair dryer at a distance of 15 cm with continuous motion causes less damage than drying hair naturally. PMID:22148012

  6. Evaluating the parameters of a mobile maize dryer in practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Los

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The method of drying maize for grain has been recently employed on a large scale in the Czech Republic not only thanks to new maize hybrids but also thanks to the existence of new models of drying plants. One of the new post-harvest lines is a plant in Lipoltice (mobile dryer installed in 2010, storage base in 2012 where basic operational measurements were made of the energy intensiveness of drying and operating parameters of the maize dryer were evaluated. The process of maize drying had two stages, i.e. pre-drying from the initial average grain humidity of 28.55% to 19.6% in the first stage, and the additional drying from 16.7% to a final storage grain humidity of 13.7%. Mean volumes of natural gas consumed per 1 t% for drying in the first and second stage amounted to 1.275 m3 and 1.56 m3, respectively. The total mean consumption of electric energy per 1 t% was calculated to be 1.372 kWh for the given configuration of the post-harvest line.

  7. Drying characteristics of paddy in an integrated dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikantan, M R; Barnwal, P; Goyal, R K

    2014-04-01

    Drying characteristics of paddy (long grain variety PR-118 procured from PAU, Ludhiana) in an integrated dryer using single as well as combined heating source was studied at different air temperatures. The integrated dryer comprises three different air heating sources such as solar, biomass and electrical. Drying of paddy occurred in falling rate period. It was observed that duration of drying of paddy from 22 to 13 % moisture content (w.b.) was 5-9 h depending upon the source of energy used. In order to select a suitable drying curve, six thin layer-drying models (Newton, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic and Wang and Singh) were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. Among the mathematical models investigated, Wang and Singh model best described the drying behaviour of paddy using solar, biomass and combined heating sources with highest coefficient of determination (r (2)) values and least chi-square, χ (2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) values. However, Page model adequately described the drying behavior of paddy using electrical heating source.

  8. An Environmental Perspective on Clothing Consumption

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gwozdz, Wencke; Nielsen, Kristian S.; Mueller, Tina

    2017-01-01

    Efforts to decrease the environmental impact of today’s clothing industry across the entire process of production, purchase, maintenance, and disposal can be driven by either suppliers or consumers. Changing the behavior of the latter, however, requires an understanding of current clothing...... consumption patterns—a currently under-researched area. We therefore shed more light on these patterns in the purchase, use and maintenance, and discard phases by analyzing unique data on 4617 adult consumers (aged 18–65) from Germany, Poland, Sweden, and the U.S., who we divide into five segments based...... on clothing consumption behavior. At the low end of the spectrum is a consumer segment that earns the least, consumes mostly budget brand clothing, and is the least open to alternative more environmentally friendly business models such as fashion leasing or clothing libraries. At the other extreme lies...

  9. Unexpected behavioural consequences of preterm newborns' clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durier, Virginie; Henry, Séverine; Martin, Emmanuelle; Dollion, Nicolas; Hausberger, Martine; Sizun, Jacques

    2015-03-17

    Restrictions of preterm newborns' movements could have consequences ranging from stress enhancement to impairment of their motor development. Therefore, ability to freely express motor activities appears crucial for their behavioural and physiological development. Our aim was to evaluate behavioural issues of two types of clothing used in NICU. We observed 18 healthy 34-37 post-conception week-old preterm newborns, during resting periods, when they were undisturbed by any interventions. Newborns wore either light clothing (bodysuit and a light wrapping) or heavy clothing (pyjamas, cardigan and sleep-sack). The percentages of time each subject spent in different postures were compared between clothing situations. Arm and hand postures differed in relation to clothing: babies bent their arms more and held their hands nearer their heads when in bodysuits than when in sleepwear. Consequently, babies in bodysuits spent more time touching their body or their environment whereas the others generally were touching nothing. Self-touch is an important way to comfort one's self. Heavy clothing may impair self-soothing behaviours of preterm newborn babies that already lack other forms of contact. Results suggest that more attention should be paid to apparently routine and marginal decisions such as choice of clothes.

  10. Design, Construction and Testing of Simple Solar Maize Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joshua FOLARANMI

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This project reports the design, construction and testing of a simple solar maize dryer. It is design in such a way that solar radiation is not incident directly on the maize, but preheated air warmed during its flow through a low pressure thermosphonic solar energy air heater or collector made up of an insulating material (polystyrene of size 100mmx50mmx25.4mm, absorber plate (aluminium sheet painted black of size 100mmx50mm and a cover glass (5mm thickness measuring 100mmx50mm all arranged in this order contributed to the heating. The test results gave temperature above 45OC in the drying chamber, and the moisture content of 50kg of maize reduced to about 12.5% in three days of 9hours each day of drying.

  11. Heat-pump-assisted dryer: Pt. 2; Experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pendyala, V.R.; Devotta, S.; Patwardhan, V.S. (National Chemical Lab., Poona (India))

    1990-07-01

    The performance of an experimental heat-pump-assisted dryer under operating conditions of some practical interest was studied. The system was operated using R11 and R12. The approach velocity of air to the evaporator and the superheat of the working fluid at the exit of the evaporator were identified as the critical parameters for optimization. The system was evaluated with respect to coefficient of performance (COP) and specific energy consumption (SEC). The (COP){sub A} and (SEC) values obtained using R11 were 3.5 and 3500 kJ/kg, respectively, and the corresponding values for R12 were 2.5 and 1800 kJ/kg. In spite of the lower (COP){sub A} for R12, the corresponding (SEC) values were better because the system could be operated without any additional electrical heating with R12. (author).

  12. Soybean drying characteristics in microwave rotary dryer with forced convection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ruifang WANG; Zhanyong LI; Yanhua LI; Jingsheng YE

    2009-01-01

    A new hybrid drying technique by combining microwave and forced convection drying within a rotary drum, i.e., microwave rotary drying, was developed with the purpose to improve the uniformity of microwave drying. In a laboratory microwave rotary dryer, rewetted soybean was utilized as experimental material to study the effects of drum rotating speed, ventilation flow rate, and specific microwave power on the drying kinetics and cracking ratio of soybean. It was found that, with rotation, the cracking ratio can be lowered but without distinct improvement in the drying rate. Increasing ventilation flow rate and specific microwave power can improve the drying rate, but the cracking ratio also increases as a negative result. The cracking ratio lower than 10% can be attained for ventilation flow rate lower than 2.0 m3·h-1 or specific microwave energy lower than 0.4 kW·kg-1 in the present experiments.

  13. Spray dryer/baghouse system testing - CRADA 92-001. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pennline, H. W.

    1992-04-28

    A series of seven tests were conducted to evaluate the effectiveness of scrubbing both NO{sub 2} and SO{sub 2} in a spray dryer/baghouse system. The operating conditions specified were a high spray dryer inlet temperature (500{degrees}F), and a high spray dryer outlet temperature (250 to 300 {degrees}F). The data required to adequately evaluate the effectiveness of this technology is enclosed. Discussion of some of the variables as well as an itemized list of the testing information is part of the report.

  14. 28 CFR 571.22 - Release clothing and transportation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Release clothing and transportation. 571... AND RELEASE RELEASE FROM CUSTODY Release Gratuities, Transportation, and Clothing § 571.22 Release clothing and transportation. (a) Staff shall provide release clothing appropriate for the time of year...

  15. ENERGY STAR Certified Commercial Clothes Washers

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Certified models meet all ENERGY STAR requirements as listed in the Version 7.0 ENERGY STAR Program Requirements for Clothes Washers that are effective as of March...

  16. System Design of Cold Weather Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nishkam Kasturiya

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available System design of cold weather protective clothing is a critical process, as it involvesconsideration of the effects of a number of external and internal parameters like environmental factors and physical, physico-mechanical and psychological parameters. The bulk and weightof the textile materials used in protective clothing should be as low as possible, so thatclothing does not create physical stress and discomfort to the soldier and does not affecthis combat duties adversely. This paper discusses the essential factors involved in thedesigning of cold weather protective clothing and different insulating materials availablein the market for developing better protective clothing. Different stores'developed at theDefence Materials & Stores Research & Development Establishment, Kanpur, the order ofarrangement of various insulating materials in those stores and the protection level achievedare discussed.

  17. Scientists Create Clothing with 'Knitted' Muscle Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 163272.html Scientists Create Clothing With 'Knitted' Muscle Power Fabric reacts to low voltage charge and could ... techniques that one day might help provide muscle power to disabled people or seniors who have trouble ...

  18. Principle of Melt-glue Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈人豪; 曹建达; 李济群; 张利梅; 何洋

    2003-01-01

    This paper advances a new concept of textile-meltglue cloth, and introduces the readers to the basic principle of melt-glue cloth. On the basis of melt spinning, the spinneret can be replaced by a spinning device that consists of an outer spinneret (a loop)and an inner spinneret ( a round plate), and between them there is an interval circle on which the centers of the holes are evenly distributed. When the machine is running, the outer spinneret (or the inner one) is fixed, the inner spinneret (or the outer one)is spinning, and a columnar net will be obtained.Then it will be excided with the help of a cutter in transporting it. Finally the once-forming melt-glue cloth will be produced. Compared with the traditional woven fabric, melt-glue cloth has a lot of special features and a bright future of application.

  19. Textiles and clothing sustainability nanotextiles and sustainability

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the sustainability aspects of textiles and clothing sector in light of nanomaterials and technologies. The invasion of nano in every industrial sector has been important and has made remarkable changes as well as posed new challenges, including the textiles and clothing sector. There is quite a great deal of research happening in terms of nano materials for textiles across the globe, some of which are covered in this book. .

  20. Press and Dryer Roll Surgaces and Web Transfer Systems for Ultra High Paper Maching Speeds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    T. F. Patterson

    2004-03-15

    The objective of the project was to provide fundamental knowledge and diagnostic tools needed to design new technologies that will allow ultra high speed web transfer from press rolls and dryer cylinders.

  1. Diabetes, damp casts, and hair dryers are not a good combination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henderson, Bernardine C; Lawson, Derek; Conley, G Reid

    2013-01-01

    Second- and third-degree burns of the toes resulted when a 69-year-old man with Charcot foot and a recent fractured ankle followed the advice of his local podiatrist. The man got his fiberglass cast wet while showering and was told to dry his cast using the low setting on a blow dryer. The following presents a literature review of cast drying, hair dryers, and this unfortunate man's case.

  2. Technical and environmental analysis of biofuel dryers; Teknisk och miljoemaessig analys av biobraensletorkar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muenter, M.; Hagman, U.; Harnevie, H.; Johansen, H.; Kristensson, I.; Westermark, M.; Viberg, T. [Vattenfall Energimarknad, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1999-03-01

    A study regarding technology and environmental impact of the drying process of biofuels has been conducted. In the study two different types of dryers are analyzed. The result from the study shows that emissions of primarily hydrocarbons is high from the direct technic. The emission can be decreased considerably by improving the burner of the dryer. For the indirect technic the evaporated water give rise to problems in the sewage treatment plant. Studies show that biological treatment will result in an acceptable condensate.

  3. Designing, constructing and evaluating a dynamic prototype dryer for obtaining rolled dehydrated fruit pulp

    OpenAIRE

    Vanegas Mahecha, Pedro; Parra Coronado, Alfonso

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes how a functional prototype for a dynamic dryer was designed, along with its basic parts: drying tunnel, mechanical transport system for material inside the equipment and selecting and designing a system for supplying hot air. A simple transport mechanism was implemented which allowed combining two flow dispositions: parallel and countercurrent flow. Mango (Mangifera indica L) pulp was dehydrated using three dryer air temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) and three drying air...

  4. Further development of a mixed-dryer for wood biomass; Sekoituskuivurin jatkokehitys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heinonen, O. [Imatran Voima Oy, Vantaa (Finland). Research and Development; Parvio, E. [IVO International Oy, Vantaa (Finland)

    1995-12-31

    Imatran Voima Oy and IVO International Ltd are developing a new, advanced drying method for high moisture content fuels such as peat, biomass, and brown coal. The drying technology is based on using the heat of the fluidized bed directly for drying. The drying takes place at steam atmosphere, which makes it possible to recover the latent heat of evaporation back to process at high temperature level. This improves the thermal efficiency of the plant considerably. The technology is called bed mixing dryer. The pilot plant of the bed mixing dryer was built to IVO`s Kuusamo peat and wood fired power plant that was commissioned in the beginning of 1994. The Kuusamo district heating power plant has a fuel input of 27 MW that gives a power output of 6 MWe and district heat output of 17.5/21.2 MWth. As fuels are used peat, saw dust and wood wastes. The boiler is a bubbling fluidized bed boiler and the steam cycle is a conventional back pressure steam process. The unique feature in the plant is the new dryer that increases the overall thermal efficiency of the plant 10 to 15 units of percentage. In this project the operation and behaviour of the bed mixing dryer has been examined. Various components of the dryer were developed by the cold model tests carried out at IVO`s laboratory in Helsinki. Testing with the Kuusamo bed mixing dryer consisted of about 390 hours of drying tests with peat, bark and saw dust. The dryer operated well, and the drying was effective. The measured final moisture content varied from 7 to 19 % depending on the fuel particle size and the temperature level of the dryer

  5. A greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries: Development and dissemination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serm Janjai

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a greenhouse type solar dryer for small-scale dried food industries was developed and disseminated. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate sheets on a concrete floor. The system is 8.0m in width, 20.0m in length and 3.5m in height, with a loading capacity about 1,000kg of fruits or vegetables. To ensure continuous drying operation, a 100kW-LPG gas burner was incorporated to supply hot air to the dryer during cloudy or rainy days. Nine 15-W DC fans powered by three 50-W PV modules were used to ventilate the dryer. This dryer was installed for a small-scale food industry at Nakhon Pathom in Thailand to produce osmotically dehydrated tomato. To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry 3 batches of osmotically dehydrated tomato. Results obtained from these experiments showed that drying air temperatures in the dryer varied from 35°C to 65°C. In addition, the drying time for these products was 2-3 days shorter than that of the natural sun drying and good quality dried products were obtained. A system of differential equations describing heat and moisture transfers during drying of osmotically dehydrated tomato was also developed. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. For dissemination purpose, other two units of this type of dryer were constructed and tested at two locations in Thailand and satisfactory results were obtained.

  6. Preparation of powdered egg yolk using a mini spray dryer Estudo da obtenção de ovo em pó usando mini spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Maria Ignário

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Powdered egg is used as an emulsifying agent in emulsion formulations. It is an excellent source of high quality protein, of which the yolk contains 44% and the egg white 56%. Spray drying is a widely applied method for drying aqueous or organic solutions and emulsions in the chemical and food industries. Spray drying can be used to preserve food or simply as a rapid drying method. The objective of this work was to study the viability of obtaining powdered egg yolk powder using a Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. The egg yolk protein was evaluated by the semi-micro Kjeldahl method. It was concluded that the use of the Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer to produce powdered egg yolk is perfectly feasible.Ovo em pó pode ser usado como agente emulsificante. É uma excelente fonte de alta qualidade protéica contendo 44% na gema e 56% na clara. Spray dryer é um método amplamente usado para secar soluções aquosas ou orgânicas, emulsões, na indústria química e alimentícia. Spray dryer pode ser usado para preservar alimentos ou simplesmente como um método rápido de secagem. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a viabilidade de obtenção de gema de ovo em pó utilizando o Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer. O teor de proteínas da gema de ovo foi analisado pelo método semi-micro Kjeldahl. Concluiu-se o uso do Büchi B-190 Mini Spray Dryer para a obtenção de gema de ovo em pó é perfeitamente viável.

  7. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  8. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 2: model verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    The experimental and predicted performance data of a heat pump dryer system is reported. Chopped alfalfa was dried in a cabinet dryer in batches and also by emulating continuous bed drying using two heat pumps operating in parallel. Results showed that alfalfa was dried from an initial moisture content of 70% (wb) to a final moisture content of 10% (wb). The batch drying took about 4.5 h while continuous bed drying took 4 h to dry the same amount of material. The average air velocity inside the dryer was 0.36 m s{sup -1}. Low temperatures (30-45{sup o}C) for safe drying of specialty crops were achieved experimentally. The heat pump drying system used in this study was about 50% more efficient in recovering the latent heat from the dryer exhaust compared to the conventional dryers. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) was maximum when relative humidity stayed above 40%. The dryer was shown to be capable of SMER of between 0.5 and 1.02 kg kW{sup -1} h{sup -1}. It was concluded that continuous bed drying is potentially a better option than batch drying because high process air humidity ratios at the entrance of the evaporator and constant moisture extraction rate and specific moisture extraction rate values can be maintained. An uncertainty analysis confirmed the accuracy of the model. (author)

  9. Radioactive contamination incidents involving protective clothing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reichelt, R.; Clay, M.; Eichorst, J.

    1996-10-01

    The study focuses on incidents at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities involving the migration of radioactive contaminants through protective clothing. The authors analyzed 68 occurrence reports for the following factors: (1) type of work; (2) working conditions; (3) type of anti-contamination (anti-C) material; (4) area of body or clothing contaminated; and (5) nature of spread of contamination. A majority of reports identified strenuous work activities such as maintenance, construction, or decontamination and decommissioning (D&D) projects. The reports also indicated adverse working conditions that included hot and humid or cramped work environments. The type of anti-C clothing most often identified was cotton or water-resistant, disposable clothing. Most of the reports also indicated contaminants migrating through perspiration-soaked areas, typically in the knees and forearms. On the basis of their survey, the authors recommend the use of improved engineering controls and resilient, breathable, waterproof protective clothing for work in hot, humid, or damp areas where the possibility of prolonged contact with contamination cannot be easily avoided or controlled.

  10. The Effects of Fin Spacing and Tube Outer Diameter of Evaporator on System Performance in Heat Pump Tumble Dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Onan, Cenk; Erdem, Serkan; Özkan, Derya Burcu; Heperkan, Hasan Alpay

    2014-01-01

    In heat pump tumble dryers, moisture separates from the laundry and leaves the dryer system at the evaporator. Moist air goes out the drum and enters the evaporator whose outer surface is below the dew point temperature. Air cools and then leaves its moisture. At the airside of the evaporator the wet surface develops and simultaneous heat-mass transfer occurs. Fin-and-tube heat exchangers are used as evaporators in household heat pump tumble dryers. In addition to optimum operating conditions...

  11. Performance study of a heat pump dryer system for speciality crops - Pt. 1: development of a simulation model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adapa, P.K.; Schoenau, G.J.; Sokhansanj, S. [University of Saskatchewan (Canada). College of Engineering

    2002-07-01

    This research is concerned with the technology of heat pump assisted drying of specialty crops. A simplified procedure for modelling the performance of a low temperature heat pump dryer was developed. The system modelled consists of a vapour compression heat pump coupled to a continuous cross flow bed dryer. The model takes into account the detailed heat and mass transfer phenomena taking place in the heat pump and dryer circuits. (author)

  12. Feasibility study on pliant media drying using fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, J. H.; Zaid, M. H. H. M.; Batcha, M. F. M.; Asmuin, N.

    2015-09-01

    The usage of pliant media for blasting in surface preparation has gained substantial interest in various industries, particularly oil and gas. Being a clean technology, this relatively new method of surface preparation has become an alternative to conventional abrasive blasting technique which lowers fugitive emissions from blasting process and hence lowering risk to workers in the industry. Despite proven to be effective and cost efficient, the usage of pliant media in tropical climate poses a new challenge due to the torrential rain in the monsoon season. During rainy and wet conditions, the pliant media was literally soaked and the recovery rate of the pliant media for a continuous blasting becomes retarded. A viable technique for drying of this pliant media has then become imperative. The present study proposes to dry water laden pliant media in a Swirling Fluidized Bed Dryer (SFBD). In this preliminary study, three bed loadings of 1.7, 2.0 and 2.3 kg of pliant media was dried in the SfBd at 80°C, 90°C and 100°C. The experimental works revealed that the SFBD has shown excellent potential to dry the pliant media with a relatively short drying time. The behaviour of moisture ratio and drying rate against time are discussed. The findings conclude that the SFBD is a feasible technique for wet pliant media drying and can be extended for continuous processing system.

  13. Particle size control of detergents in mixed flow spray dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Jonathan Crosby

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Particle size is a key quality parameter of a powder detergent as it determines its performance, the bulk density and the look and feel of the product. Consequently, it is essential that particle size is controlled to ensure the consistency of performance when comparing new formulations. The majority of study reported in the literature relating to particle size control, focuses on the spray produced by the atomisation technique. One approach advocated to achieve particle size control is the manipulation of the ratio of the mass slurry rate and mass flow rate of gas used for atomisation. Within this study, ratio control was compared with an automatic cascade loop approach using online measurements of the powder particle size on a small-scale pilot plant. It was concluded that cascade control of the mean particle size, based on manipulating the mass flow rate of gas, resulted in tighter, more responsive control. The effect of a ratio change varied with different formulations and different slurry rates. Furthermore, changes in slurry rate caused complications, as the impact on particle size growth in the dryer is non-linear and difficult to predict. The cascade loop enables further study into the effect of particle size on detergent performance.

  14. DESIGN AND THERMAL PERFORMANCE OF THE SOLAR BIOMASS HYBRID DRYER FOR CASHEW DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Dhanuskodi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying of Cashew nut to remove testa is one of the most energy-intensive processes of cashew nut process industry. For this reason a hybrid dryer consisting of a solar flat plate collector, a biomass heater and a drying chamber is designed and fabricated. 40 kg of Cashew nut with initial moisture of 9 % is used in the experiment. The performance test of the dryer is carried out in two modes of operation: hybrid-forced convection and hybrid-natural convection. Drying time and drying efficiency during these two modes of operation are estimated and compared with the sun drying. The system is capable of attaining drying temperature between 50º and 70ºC. In the hybrid forced drying, the required moisture content of 3% is achieved within 7 hours and the average system efficiency is estimated as 5.08%. In the hybrid natural drying, the required moisture content is obtained in 9 hours and the average system efficiency is 3.17%. The fuel consumption during the drying process is 0.5 kg/hr and 0.75 kg/hr for forced mode and natural mode, respectively. The drying process in the hybrid forced mode of operation is twice faster than the sun drying. The dryer can be operated in any climatic conditions: as a solar dryer on normal sunny days, as a biomass dryer at night time and as a hybrid dryer on cloudy days. Based on the experimental study, it is concluded that the developed hybrid dryer is suitable for small scale cashew nut farmers in rural areas of developing countries.

  15. Fashion marketing in textile and clothing industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alica Grilec Kaurić

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Fashion marketing explores connection between fashion design and marketing including development, promotion, sales and price aspects of fashion industry. Successful fashion marketing managers are aware that the most important fashion marketing elements are customer trend identification, building strong brands and creating positive image of the producers. This paper presents the findings of a research conducted for the purpose of identifying trends in marketing sector in textile and clothing industry in Croatia. The research was conducted through personal interviews with marketing and company managers in Croatia. The research identified that marketing is insufficiently implemented in Croatian textile and clothing industry, despite growing brand management importance. However, because of lack in marketing knowledge and bad brand management, development of fashion brand is the most critical factor in successful business activity in textile and clothing industry.

  16. Anisotropic Cloth Modeling for Material Fabric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Mingmin; Pan, Zhigengx; Mi, Qingfeng

    Physically based cloth simulation has been challenging the graphics community for more than three decades. With the developing of virtual reality and clothing CAD, it has become the key technique of virtual garment and try-on system. Although it has received considerable attention in computer graphics, due to its flexible property and realistic feeling that the textile engineers pay much attention to, there is not a successful methodology to simulate cloth both in visual realism and physical accuracy. We present a new anisotropic textile modeling method based on physical mass-spring system, which models the warps and wefts separately according to the different material fabrics. The simulation process includes two main steps: firstly the rigid object simulation and secondly the flexible mass simulation near to be equilibrium. A multiresolution modeling is applied to enhance the tradeoff fruit of the realistic presentation and computation cost. Finally, some examples and the analysis results show the efficiency of the proposed method.

  17. Influence of Clothing Fabrics on Skin Microcirculation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHENG Ling; PAN Ning; ZHAO Lian-ying; HUAUNG Gu

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of clothing fabric on human skin microcirculation. Once skin is covered with a clothing fabric, human sensations, namely, coolness, warmth, softness, and roughness, are amused immediately, and the cutaneous micrecireulation may be changed consequently. Since the complex relationships of the human skin, the environment, and the clothing, there is few publication focusing on the physiological responses of the skin to the fabrics. In this paper, a Laser Doppler Flowmetry (LDF) was used to test the dynamic responses of the skin blood flow when the fabric was placed on the skin. Effects of different fabrics on the skin blood flux were investigated. The results show that cold stimulation of fabric has remarkable influences on the skin blood flux, and the surface properties of fabric are of importance to affect the human skin blood flow.

  18. Multifunctional Laminated Composite Materials for Protective Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nermin M. Aly

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Protective clothing performs a vital role in maintaining the safety of human in workplace. The developments in this field are proceeding to fulfill the needs with multifunctional materials at competitive costs. Recently, the protective clothing field introduces the usage of composite materials taking advantage of their outstanding properties. In this paper, the multifunctional performance of hybrid laminated composites (HLC was investigated aiming to be utilized in protective clothing. The influences of reinforcement and resin properties on the physical properties of the laminated composites and their resistance to puncture load and UV transmittance were studied. ANOVA test was used for the statistical analysis of the results. The results showed that, the reinforcement material and structure and the fiber/matrix interface have major influences on the laminated composites performance. It was revealed that, the HLC fabricated from (polyester/glass fabric with satin 4 structure and nonwoven glass fiber mat exhibited the best functional performance.

  19. Otzi, the iceman and his leather clothes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Püntener, Alois G; Moss, Serge

    2010-01-01

    Over 5000 years ago, a man climbed up to the icy heights of the glacier in South Tyrol, Italy and died. He was found by accident in 1991, with his clothes and equipment, mummified and frozen: an archaeological sensation and a unique snapshot of a Copper Age man. For several years highly specialised research teams have examined the mummy and all accompanying items. This paper describes how fur and leather clothes of the iceman could have been tanned. Details of the analytical tests undertaken on the 5000 year old leather samples and what they revealed are presented.

  20. The Changing Fate of Cloth Shoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    ONE day I found by chance one of my old photos taken 30 years ago. In it I was still a serious 17-year-old girl with my hair in two short braids and dressed in a blue cloth coat, brown corduroys and a pair of black cloth shoes each fastened by a strap at the side My eyes fixed on the shoes and lingered for quite a long time. A smile quietly crawled over my lips. Isn't it the fashionable "little girl's shoe" which is expected to prevail in the market this year?

  1. The CSR Challenges in the Clothing Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulina Księżak

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to study the clothing and textile industry through the prism of the CSR. First of all, it investigates the ways in which companies of this sector deal with the social responsibility issues that are specifically important to the characteristics of the fashion industry. Secondly, the motivators of implementing CSR in the textile and clothing business are identified and analysed. Thirdly, the CSR practices of H&M Hennes & Mauritz AB, a wellknown multinational corporation operating in the sector of fashion, are discussed in order to illustrate the theoretical review with the case study approach.

  2. Mud cloth from Mali: its making and use

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Owner

    The stark, geometric, black and white designs tradi- ... Due to the symbolic nature of the mud cloth designs, and the use of these .... Tourist-Market Bogolan Large quantities of cloth .... interested in their graphic quality (Rovine, 1997; Luke-.

  3. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve

  4. Heat stress in chemical protective clothing: Porosity and vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Hartog, E.A. den; Martini, S.

    2011-01-01

    Heat strain in chemical protective clothing is an important factor in industrial and military practice. Various improvements to the clothing to alleviate strain while maintaining protection have been attempted. More recently, selectively permeable membranes have been introduced to improve protection

  5. Shared Emotional Values in Sustainable Clothing Design Approaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Durrani, Marium; Petersen, Louise Ravnløkke Munk; Niinimäki, Kirsi

    2016-01-01

    Recent sustainable initiatives in fashion companies are framing design practices that challenge the traditional role of clothing designers. This preliminary study aims to open discussion on challenging traditional clothing design, through an exploration of the shared emotional values between user...

  6. Assessment of differences between products obtained in conventional and vacuum spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda de Melo RAMOS

    Full Text Available Abstract In this work, an experimental unit of a vacuum spray dryer was built. This prototype attempted to combine the advantages of freeze-drying (drying at low temperatures due to vacuum and spray drying (increase of surface area aiming the improvement of heat transfer efficiency. Maltodextrin solutions were dried in the vacuum operated equipment and in conventional spray dryer. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed obtaining powder at low temperatures due to the lowering of pressure conditions (2-5 kPa inside the drying chamber. The products obtained in the two systems were characterized and compared for particle size distribution, moisture content, water activity, bulk density and solubility in water. The processes yields were also evaluated and compared. The vacuum spray dryer system allowed the production of larger, more soluble and less dense particles than those obtained in the conventional configuration of the equipment, resulting in drier and, therefore, with lower water activity particles. Thus, the use of the vacuum spray dryer as a drying technique may be an alternative for the production of powder rich in thermosensitive compounds.

  7. Enhancement of Energy Efficiency and Food Product Quality Using Adsorption Dryer with Zeolite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Djaeni

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a basic operation in wood, food, pharmaceutical and chemical industry. Currently, several drying methods are often not efficient in terms of energy consumption (energy efficiency of 20-60% and have an impact on product quality degradation due to the introduction of operational temperature upper 80oC. This work discusses the development of adsorption drying with zeolite to improve the energy efficiency as well as product quality. In this process, air as drying medium is dehumidified by zeolite. As a result humidity of air can be reduced up to 0.1 ppm. So, for heat sensitive products, the drying process can be performed in low or medium temperature with high driving force. The study has been conducted in three steps: designing the dryer, performing laboratory scale equipment (tray, spray, and fluidised bed dryers with zeolite, and evaluating the dryer performance based on energy efficiency and product quality. Results showed that the energy efficiency of drying process is 15-20% higher than that of conventional dryer. In additon, the dryer can speed up drying time as well as retaining product quality.

  8. Review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer for agriculture produce

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450 Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W.; Alghoul, M.A. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2011-02-15

    Over the past three decades there has been nearly exponential growth in drying R and D on a global scale. Improving of the drying operation to save energy, improve product quality as well as reduce environmental effect remained as the main objectives of any development of drying system. A solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is a new solar drying system, which have contributed to better cost-effectiveness and better quality dried products as well as saving energy. A solar collector is adapted to provide thermal energy in a reactor so a chemical reaction can take place. This reduces the dependency of the drying technology on fossil energy for heating. In this paper a review on advanced of solar assisted chemical heat pump dryer is presented (the system model and the results from experimental studies on the system performance are discussed). The review of heat pump dryers and solar assisted heat pump dryer is presented. Description of chemical heat pump types and the overview of chemical heat pump dryer are discussed. The combination of chemical heat pump and solar technology gives extra efficiency in utilizing energy. (author)

  9. Performance Analysis of a Solar Dryer Equipped with a Recycling Air System and Desiccant Chamber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Aghkhani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a high energy consuming process. Solar drying is one of the most popular methods for dehydration of agricultural products. In the present study, the performance of a forced convection solar dryer equipped with recycling air system and desiccant chamber was investigated. The solar dryer is comprised of solar collector, drying chamber, silica jell desiccant chamber, air ducts, fan and measuring and controlling system. Drying rate and energy consumption in three levels of air temperature (40, 45 and 50 oC and two modes of drying (with recycling air and no-recycling with open duct system were measured and compared. The results showed that increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time and increased the energy consumption in the mode of non-recycling air system. The dryer efficiency and drying rate were better in the mode of recycling air system than open duct system. The highest dryer efficiency was obtained from drying air temperature of 50 oC and the mode of recycling air system. In general, the efficiency of solar collector and the highest efficiency of the dryer were 0.34 and 0.41, respectively.

  10. Droplet size measurements for spray dryer scale-up.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thybo, Pia; Hovgaard, Lars; Andersen, Sune Klint; Lindeløv, Jesper Saederup

    2008-01-01

    This study was dedicated to facilitate scale-up in spray drying from an atomization standpoint. The purpose was to investigate differences in operating conditions between a pilot and a production scale nozzle. The intension was to identify the operating ranges in which the two nozzles produced similar droplet size distributions. Furthermore, method optimization and validation were also covered. Externally mixing two-fluid nozzles of similar designs were used in this study. Both nozzles are typically used in commercially available spray dryers, and they have been characterized with respect to droplet size distributions as a function of liquid type, liquid flow rate, atomization gas flow rate, liquid orifice diameter, and atomization gas orifice diameter. All droplet size measurements were carried out by using the Malvern Spraytec with nozzle operating conditions corresponding to typical settings for spray drying. This gave droplets with Sauter Mean Diameters less than 40 microm and typically 5-20 microm. A model previously proposed by Mansour and Chigier was used to correlate the droplet size to the operating parameters. It was possible to make a correlation for water incorporating the droplet sizes for both the pilot scale and the production scale nozzle. However, a single correlation was not able to account properly for the physical properties of the liquid to be atomized. Therefore, the droplet size distributions of ethanol could not be adequately predicted on the basis of the water data. This study has shown that it was possible to scale up from a pilot to production scale nozzle in a systematic fashion. However, a prerequisite was that the nozzles were geometrically similar. When externally mixing two-fluid nozzles are used as atomizers, the results obtained from this study could be a useful guideline for selecting appropriate operating conditions when scaling up the spray-drying process.

  11. People's clothing behaviour according to external weather and indoor environment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    De Carli, M.; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Zarrella, A.

    2007-01-01

    In prehistoric times man wore furs of animals to protect himself from the cold. Successively over the centuries clothing has become also a tool to distinguish ourselves in society. Clothing has in addition an important impact on people's perception of the indoor environment. Clothing behaviour ha...

  12. 28 CFR 551.7 - Bathing and clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Bathing and clothing. 551.7 Section 551.7... Grooming § 551.7 Bathing and clothing. Each inmate must observe the standards concerning bathing and clothing that exist in the institution as required by standards of § 551.1....

  13. Virtual Dressing Simulation toward both Simpleness and Cloth Deformation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Tomomi; Ono, Satoshi; Nakayama, Shigeru

    This paper proposes a method for virtually trying clothes on without costly devices. The proposed method approximately acquires a deformation caused by a user's body shape from a 2D image of a marked cloth. Experiments showed the proposed method could reduce cloth size error for about a half of tested examinees.

  14. Clothing Company Pegs Chinese Retail Market

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WuAlun

    2003-01-01

    Using a flurry of brand and marketing strategies, Zheng Yonggang has staged the most astonishing turnaround in China's clothing industry. The once insolvent State-owned factory that Zheng was transferred to in 1989 now boasts the country's top fashion brands, and is quickly becoming a multi-business conglomerate. In 1994, the FIRS

  15. Clothing and Textiles II. Semester Course. Draft.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanton, Harriet; And Others

    The clothing and textiles guide for a second level semester course for grades 10-12 identifies objectives and learning experiences with basic reference to developmental tasks, needs, interests, capacities, and prior learning experiences of students. It was developed for use with students who exhibited skill and a high degree of satisfaction from…

  16. The Art of African Senufo Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalton, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The Senufo people create paintings on hand-woven fabric using natural fibers, natural dyes made from leaves, and mud dug from the roots of trees. The fabric of the Senufo is woven in strips approximately six-to-eight inches wide, and sewn together to make a larger fabric for painting. The stylized drawings painted on the cloth are of masked…

  17. INNOVATIVE CLOTHING DESIGN FOR WOMEN DURING PREGNANCY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    POPESCU Georgeta

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available During pregnancy there is an evident change in the physical appearance of a woman's body. The most evident change is the substantial weight gain, increased abdominal region, torso and hip, and limbs thickening. Physical changes leads to the need of a wardrobe changing, especially in the fourth month of pregnancy. Given these factors the question arises is to identify the transformations of body conformation and ensure a maximum comfort in developing clothing products for this category. Because it is a continuous transformation, the products must be designed to be adjustable and versatile, ensuring their usability for a long period of the pregnancy and even after birth. The paper presents the specific algorithms for body conformations during pregnancy and the patterns designed based on these algorithms with the proper modifications. The principle of designing clothes for pregnant women refers to the introduction of pregnancy-related size changes in the standard method of pattern design. The research was conducted by INCDTP during the initial stage of a project, financed through national founds, consisting in a documentary study on morphologic indicators of women during the pregnancy period, the changes observe and their application in pattern design. Following the principles specific to the product group studied regarding comfort and style, INCDTP specialists have developed and produced a collection of clothing products for women during pregnancy. Key words: Pregnancy, algorithms, proportions, morphological indices, pattern design, clothing, changes

  18. 77 FR 34218 - Clothing Allowance; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-11

    ... construed to impose a restriction that VA did not intend. This document corrects that error. DATES: This... Service, Veterans Benefits Administration, Department of Veterans Affairs, 810 Vermont Avenue NW... medication would be eligible for a clothing allowance for each such appliance or medication if each...

  19. Calculation of Clothing Insulation and Vapour Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    1989-10-31

    W.B. Shelley, and T.F. Hatch (1947). Thermal exchanges of man at high temperatures. Am. J. Physiol. 11, 626. Nielsen, R., B.W. Olesen, and P.O. Fanger ...Madsen, and P.O. Fanger (1982). Ef- fect of body posture and activity on the thermal insulation of clothing: measurements by a movable thermal manikin

  20. 38 CFR 3.810 - Clothing allowance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... wears or uses certain prosthetic or orthopedic appliances which tend to wear or tear clothing (including a wheelchair) because of such disability and such disability is the loss or loss of use of a hand or... Director or designee certifies that because of such disability a prosthetic or orthopedic appliance is...

  1. A Planning Experimental Investigation on Tobacco Leaves Dryer Using Paddy Husk and Coal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huy Bich Nguyen

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In Viet Nam, the drying technology and techniques for tobacco leaves is one of the most difficulties and plays as key point to get high economic efficiency in tobacco production. To drying for tobacco leaves of 3,500 hectare, for example in Gia Lai province, there needs about 3000 dryers and there is more than 100,000 cubic meter of wood have been burned for drying which equivalent to more than 300 hectare of forest is deforested annually. A designing and manufacturing study for new tobacco dryer to replace the wood fuel by paddy-husk or coal-wood has been implemented. The results indicate that the new dryer using rice-husk or coal can be replaced for the actual drying system used fire wood with the high quality of tobacco leaves and high efficiency. The planning experimental investigation has found the function of the rate of energy consumption and the quality of drying products successful

  2. Optical Illusions and Effects on Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saliha AĞAÇ

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available “Visual perception” is in the first ranking between the types of perception. Gestalt Theory of the major psychological theories are used in how visual perception realizes and making sense of what is effective in this process. In perception stage brain tak es into account not only stimulus from eyes but also expectations arising from previous experience and interpreted the stimulus which are not exist in the real world as if they were there. Misperception interpretations that brain revealed are called as “Pe rception Illusion” or “Optical Illusion” in psychology. Optical illusion formats come into existence due to factors such as brightness, contrast, motion, geometry and perspective, interpretation of three - dimensional images, cognitive status and color. Opti cal illusions have impacts of different disciplines within the study area on people. Among the most important types of known optical illusion are Oppel - Kundt, Curvature - Hering, Helzholtz Sqaure, Hermann Grid, Muller - Lyler, Ebbinghaus and Ponzo illusion etc . In fact, all the optical illusions are known to be used in numerous area with various techniques and different product groups like architecture, fine arts, textiles and fashion design from of old. In recent years, optical illusion types are frequently us ed especially within the field of fashion design in the clothing model, in style, silhouette and fabrics. The aim of this study is to examine the clothing design applications where optical illusion is used and works done in this subject. Some research of the design with the changing fashion of clothes of different types of optical illusions is discussed with examples of their effects on visual perception. In the study, optical illusory clothing models are scanned by visual analysis from documents like film , video, picture, web pages. The findings were analyzed in terms of the surface and design and effects of the optical illusion on clothing design has tried to put

  3. Performance of a Forced-Convection Greenhouse Dryer for Fish Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martunis Martunis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT. This research present experimental performance of a forced convection greenhouse dryer for drying of fish. The greenhouse dryer was installed at Aceh province, Indonesia. It has a concrete floor with the area of 6×4 m2. The roof of dryer is built in semi-cylindrical shape and covered with transparent polycarbonate sheets. Two axial flow fans powered by a 50-watt solar cell module was used to generate forced convection for ventilating the dryer.To investigate its performance, the dryer was used to dry two batches of fish. The Results showed that to dry 50 kg fish with initial moisture 68 % required 11 hours. Incontrast, to dry the same amount of fish using sun drying take a time about 2 days. The air temperature inside greenhouse dryer at noon in the clear day was 45-55°C. Kinerja Pengering Rumah Kaca Dengan Metode Konveksi Paksa Untuk Pengeringan Ikan ABSTRAK. Penelitian ini memperlihatkan hasil percobaan terhadap kinerja pengering rumah kaca dengan metode konveksi udara secara paksa pada pengeringan ikan. Penelitian pengering rumah kaca ini dilakukan di Propinsi Aceh, Indonesia. Pengering ini berlantaikan beton dengan luas sebesar 6x4 m2. .Atapnya dibuat berbentuk semi-selinder dan ditutup dengan lembaran plastik transparan berbahan polikarbonat. Dua buah kipas dengan aliran udara secara aksial dipasang dengan sumber daya berasal dari panel surya sebesar 50 Watt dan dipakai untuk menghasilkan konveksi udara paksa pada ventilasi pengering. Untuk menginvestigasi kinerja rumah kaca ini, pengering ini digunakan untuk mengeringkan dua tumpukan ikan. Hasilnya menunjukkan bahwa untuk mengeringkan sebanyak 50 kg ikan dengan kadar air awalnya sebesar 68% membutuhkan waktu selama 11 jam. Sebaliknya, dengan menggunakan sinar matahari secara langsung, untuk mengeringkan ikan dengan jumlah yang sama, maka waktu yang dibutuhkan lebih lama yaitu sekitar 2 hari. Suhu udara di dalam rumah pengering tepat pada siang hari yang cerah berkisar antara 45

  4. Performance of solar dryer chamber used for convective drying of sponge-cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aissa Walid

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar dryer chamber is designed and operated for five days of July 2008. Drying experiments are conducted for sponge-cotton; as a reference drying material in the ranges between 35.0 to 49.5°C of ambient air temperature, 35.2 to 69.8 °C drying air temperature, 30 to 1258 W/m2 solar radiation and 0.016 to 0.08 kg/s drying air flow rate. For each experiment, the mass flow rate of the air remained constant throughout the day. The variation of moisture ratio, drying rate, overall dryer efficiency, and temperature distribution along the dryer chamber for various drying air temperatures and air flow rates are discussed. The results indicated that drying air temperature is the main factor in controlling the drying process and that air mass flow rate has remarkable influence on overall drying performance. For the period of operation, the dryer attained an average temperature of 53.68°C with a standard deviation of 8.49°C within a 12-h period from 7:00 h to 19:00 h. The results of this study indicated that the present drying system has overall efficiency between 1.85 and 18.6 % during drying experiments. Empirical correlations of temperature lapse and moisture ratio in the dryer chamber are found to satisfactorily describe the drying curves of sponge-cotton material which may form the basis for the development of solar dryer design charts.

  5. Hierarchically Arranged Helical Fiber Actuators Derived from Commercial Cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Jiang; Lin, Huijuan; Dunlop, John W C; Yuan, Jiayin

    2017-02-20

    The first hygroscopically tunable cloth actuator is realized via impregnation of a commercial cloth template by a three dimensionally (3D) nanoporous polymer/carbon nanotube hybrid network. The nanoporous hybrid guarantees diffusion of water into the cloth actuator and amplifies the deformation scale. The cloth actuators are mechanically stable with high tensile strength. Because the commercial cotton cloth is inexpensive, such actuators capable of complex motions can be produced in a large size and scale for a wide variety of utilities (e.g. electric generators and "smart" materials).

  6. Design and Realization of Cloth Order System on Mobile Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li; SHAO Shi-huang; ZENG Xian-hui; PU Fang; YIN Mei-hua

    2002-01-01

    Based on the analysis of developing target, function and constitution of cloth order system under wap gateway,the mobile communication principle of cloth order system under wap gateway is given out. The implementation method for information commnication of cloth order system are elaborated by using programming technology of active server page (ASP)3.0 and wireless markup language (WML). The browsing and inquiry of cloth information, sending and receiving of cloth order can be easily realized by the developed order system on mobile internet according to user's requirements.

  7. A View on Wear Mechanism of Metallic Card Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Liang; WANG Wen-qiang; NI Huai-sheng

    2008-01-01

    The wear mechanism of metallic card clothing,used in textile industry, was analyzed. A fast wear test for metallic card clothing racks was developed, which was used as collecting the wear metal particles. The failure type of card clothing was analyzed by the mean of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and ferro-spectrum technology. The results show that the main wear mechanism of metallic card clothing is low load and high repetition interval fatigue wear caused by friction force between fiber and metal wire teeth.The appropriate quenching microstmcture, which improves the wear resistance of the metallic card clothing rack is also discussed.

  8. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    In this study an industrial batch dryer simulation tool is presented. The numerical model behind the scene is developed using the simulation software Engineering Equation Solver (EES) and compared to measurements from a batch dryer facility in Denmark producing insulation boards. In the constant...... content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non...

  9. Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers: airborne contamination risks for aseptically manufactured sterile drug products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ljungqvist, Bengt; Reinmüller, Berit

    2007-01-01

    In pharmaceutical manufacturing, freeze-drying processes can be adversely affected by temperature differences relative to the surrounding air. Loading and unloading of freeze-dryers are performed either without or with temperature differences between the cleanroom and the chamber of the freeze-dryer. This operation can cause a flow of room air through the opening, creating a contamination risk, especially when manual handling of material is performed in this area. To minimize this risk, a high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filter unit should be installed above the opening to provide clean air and protect the opening. Here the theoretical relationships are discussed and design criteria are presented.

  10. The Progress of the Clothing for Cold Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yasuda, Takeshi; Ijiri, Tokiko

    The clothing for cold weather were discused. The total insulation in man is made up of sum of the insulation afforded by clothes, air and tissues. A function of clothing is to protect the body from the environment, this is especially true when himalayan expedition. Many expedition to the himalayan high altitude have had useful experiences in the textile and clothing field. Historical development and fundamental matters of clothing for himalayan expedition were explained. The insulating properties of a fabric are due not to the fibers of the fabric itseif, but to the air trapped with in the fabric. it is impotant to realise that the thermal insulation of clothing is proportional to the thickness of the dead space air trapped within the clothing. Down clothes are extremely warm, light and comfortable. A windproof outer layer is necessary to prevent penetration by external air. If air penetrates, clothing the trapped dead air is moved and insu1ation will diminish. Overheating when exercising in the cold with loss of insulation associated with the production of sweat, and thus of darnp clothing, is a well recognized hazard. It was considered that we must make every effort to be as safe as possible in clothing science field for cold environment.

  11. 3D quantification of microclimate volume in layered clothing for the prediction of clothing insulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Yejin; Hong, Kyunghi; Hong, Sung-Ae

    2007-05-01

    Garment fit and resultant air volume is a crucial factor in thermal insulation, and yet, it has been difficult to quantify the air volume of clothing microclimate and relate it to the thermal insulation value just using the information on the size of clothing pattern without actual 3D volume measurement in wear condition. As earlier methods for the computation of air volume in clothing microclimate, vacuum over suit and circumference model have been used. However, these methods have inevitable disadvantages in terms of cost or accuracy due to the limitations of measurement equipment. In this paper, the phase-shifting moiré topography was introduced as one of the 3D scanning tools to measure the air volume of clothing microclimate quantitatively. The purpose of this research is to adopt a non-contact image scanning technology, phase-shifting moiré topography, to ascertain relationship between air volume and insulation value of layered clothing systems in wear situations where the 2D fabric creates new conditions in 3D spaces. The insulation of vests over shirts as a layered clothing system was measured with a thermal manikin in the environmental condition of 20 degrees C, 65% RH and air velocity of 0.79 m/s. As the pattern size increased, the insulation of the clothing system was increased. But beyond a certain limit, the insulation started to decrease due to convection and ventilation, which is more apparent when only the vest was worn over the torso of manikin. The relationship between clothing air volume and insulation was difficult to predict with a single vest due to the extreme openings which induced active ventilation. But when the vest was worn over the shirt, the effects of thickness of the fabrics on insulation were less pronounced compared with that of air volume. In conclusion, phase-shifting moiré topography was one of the efficient and accurate ways of quantifying air volume and its distribution across the clothing microclimate. It is also noted

  12. Design, Development and Performance Evaluation of a Small Scale Solar Assisted Paddy Dryer for on Farm Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sidrah Ashfaq

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available With the continued escalation in population growth and the expansion of international food trade and demand of high quality product for food security at low cost has created considerable interest in the development of new post-harvest technologies. This is particularly important for developing countries where post-harvest losses of cereals are between 10-20% and of fruits and vegetables as high as 20- 100% A new solar assisted paddy dryer with central air distribution model (along the length of drying chamber has been developed. Due to this distinct feature of the dryer high drying rate was achieved during the drying processes .Other components of the dryer are perforated drying chamber, blower and flat plat solar air collector. Dryer was evaluated using 100kg of freshly harvested paddy at 23.78% moisture content (wb. Performance evaluation results showed that the mean drying rate of the solar assisted paddy dryer was 0.87kg/hr per for every 100kg, whereas 0.46kg/hr was the sun drying rate comparatively. The faster drying rate of the dryer reveals its suability to dry the paddy for its safe storage moisture content rapidly. By using the solar assisted paddy dryer, approximately 50% saving in time was also achieved as compared with the traditional sun drying method. Solar assisted paddy dryer took 10hr for drying the 100kg paddy up to 14%, while sun drying method dried paddy up to 13.89% in 19 hours. Cost analysis also showed that, by using solar assisted paddy dryer we candry good quality paddy at low cost as compared with the open sun drying method. For development of agriculture in the rural areas, commercial size of the solar assisted paddy dryer can be amplified and produced at community level.

  13. TRADITIONAL WOMAN CLOTHES OF TAVAS, DENİZLİ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filiz ERDEN

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available When it is examined, it is obvious that clothing has had different phases from old periods up to now. People have created clothings in accordance with their civilization level and any nation has formed its own clothes according to its customs, rituals beliefs and life styles. By this forms, any nation has created its own clothings. While clothing has been formed by t he effect of natural environment, traditional clothing has been formed according to social features. In the formation of these clothings, natural environment has not had an direct effect; yet, they are evaluated in their geographical regions and vicinities , because there are the same sociological, psychological and historical formations. People living in Anatolia have tried to make their clothes much more ostentatious and useful. And they have displayed admirable ornamentations on their clothes. It is possi ble to see that on traditional clothings. Clothing which has a big importance differs from city to city and even from town to town. This study is done on the pupose of analysing, fixating and finding out the clothes whose usage disappear swiftly but exist only in weddings, chests and doweries with regards to reveal the clothing culture and the understanding of art which takes form on this culture in Tavas, Denizli. This study is done by the purpose of analysing the traditional Turkish woman clothings that are don (şalvar, göynek, üç etek, cepken, tel kırma(bürgü, krep, kuşak, peştamalin which belong to Tavas, Denizli region in terms of material, cut, sewing and ornamentation features; and providing evidence in the direction of science discipline.

  14. Cloth Modeling Based on Particle System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟跃崎; 王善元

    2001-01-01

    A physical-based particle system is employed for cloth modeling supported by two basic algorithms, between which one is the construction of the internal and external forces acting on the particle system in terms of KES-F bending and shearing tests, and the other is the collision algorithm of which the collision detection is carried by means of bi-section of time step and the collision response is handled according to the empirical law for frictionless collision With these algorithms. the geometric state of parcles can be expressed as ordinary differential equationswhich is numerically solved by fourth order Runge- Kutta integration. Different draping figures of cotton fabric and wool fabric prove that such a particle system is suitable for 3D cloth modeling and simulation.

  15. Integrated human-clothing system model for estimating the effect of walking on clothing insulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghaddar, Nesreen [American University of Beirut, Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, P.O. Box 11-236, Riad ElSolh, 1107 2020, Beirut (Lebanon); Ghali, Kamel [Beirut Arab University, Faculty of Engineering, Beirut (Lebanon); Jones, Byron [Kansas State University, College of Engineering, 148 Rathbone Hall, 66506-5202, Manhattan, KS (United States)

    2003-06-01

    The objective of this work is to develop a 1-D transient heat and mass transfer model of a walking clothed human to predict the dynamic clothing dry heat insulation values and vapor resistances. Developing an integrated model of human and clothing system under periodic ventilation requires estimation of the heat and mass transfer film coefficients at the skin to the air layer subject to oscillating normal flow. Experiments were conducted in an environmental chamber under controlled conditions of 25 C and 50% relative humidity to measure the mass transfer coefficient at the skin to the air layer separating the wet skin and the fabric. A 1-D mathematical model is developed to simulate the dynamic thermal behavior of clothing and its interaction with the human thermoregulation system under walking conditions. A modification of Gagge's two-node model is used to simulate the human physiological regulatory responses. The human model is coupled to a clothing three-node model of the fabric that takes into consideration the adsorption of water vapor in the fibers during the periodic ventilation of the fabric by the air motion in from ambient environment and out from the air layer adjacent to the moist skin. When physical activity and ambient conditions are specified, the integrated model of human-clothing can predict the thermo-regulatory responses of the body together with the temperature and insulation values of the fabric. The developed model is used to predict the periodic ventilation flow rate in and out of the fabric, the periodic fabric regain, the fabric temperature, the air layer temperature, the heat loss or gain from the skin, and dry and vapor resistances of the clothing. The heat loss from the skin increases with the increase of the frequency of ventilation and with the increased metabolic rate of the body. In addition, the dry resistance of the clothing fabrics, predicted by the current model, IS compared with published experimental data. The current

  16. Shanghai:Clothes Sales Rebound in October

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    According to the regular statistics release of Shanghai Garment Industry Association,the top 10 department stores of Shanghai sold 1.3 million sets/pieces clothes in October,rising 161,000 sets/pieces from previous month,or up by 14.1% month over month,and up by 5.7% year over year.The sales value were 579 million yuan,rising 19 million yuan from previous month.

  17. Musical and clothing invitations to protection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deniaud, F

    1993-01-01

    The Chaussez Capote Project interviewed 48 youths in Abidjan and Dabou aged 14-25 years on how to best get individuals in their age group to use condoms. 251 individuals aged 15-25 were also surveyed in Abidjan on the same subject. While more than 80% of this latter group had already discussed AIDS, sexually transmitted disease (STD), and prevention with others, 90% still wanted advice on these themes from medical staff and the media. 40% who had already used condoms did so incorrectly, while approximately 33% had experienced condom breakage during use. Respondents felt that condom promotion should be associated with information on AIDS, STDs, and contraception or information on general health. In response to this feedback, the project commissioned the creation of a promotional music cassette with French and African songs of different musical styles. Lyrics imparted technical information and correct misconceptions related to condom use. Free distribution of the cassette commenced August 1992, and approximately 800 were given to organizations and businesses. The cassette also aired on radio and Ivorian television, but met with only limited success. It is thought that its impact was limited due to the small number of copies duplicated and inefficient distribution. A new version was therefore created with different songs and short messages by popular African singers for local duplication and sale at a subsidized price starting December 1993. As a 2nd intervention, clothing metaphors applied to condoms and condom use were applied to the development of a clothing promotion loincloth designed Spring 1993. The cloth was pretested and revised to ultimately consist of panels depicting 2 young couples, a condom, a panther, and the words Entre nous. The cloth has been ordered for use by the National AIDS Committee, a condom social marketing project, and the French agency for development cooperation.

  18. Processamento de achocolatado de cupuaçu por spray-dryer Cupuassu chocolate drink powder processed by spray-dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available O achocolatado de cupuaçu é uma mistura do pó de cupuaçu, açúcar, aroma e outros ingredientes constantes da formulação. Este produto formulado foi processado por spray-dryer, gerando um produto seco, pulverizado e instantaneizado. O achocolatado acrescido de água (concentrado passa pelo spray-dryer formando glóbulos de pequeno diâmetro que são arrastados por uma corrente de ar quente. A rápida evaporação de líquido permite manter baixa a temperatura do ar na secagem, não afetando o produto. O pó de cupuaçu não dispersa prontamente em água devido ao seu conteúdo de óleo. Conseqüentemente, necessita-se de uma forma desengordurada para se obter instantaneização. A secagem por spray-dryer reúne as melhores condições de rendimento técnico em comparação com outros processos. Obtiveram rendimentos de processo acima de 20% e a instantaneização completa do produto.Cupuassu chocolate drink powder is a mixture of cupuassu powder, sugar, flavour and other ingredients of formulation. The product was processed by spray-dryer, leading a dry, pulverized and instantised product. The chocolate drink powder with water (concentrated pass through spray-dryer forming small diameter globules that are arrested by a hot air stream. The rapid evaporation allows keeping low temperature at drying air, and no affecting the product. The process is a set of better conditions of technique and economical efficiency in comparison to other process. Cupuassu powder does not disperse readily in water owing to its oil content. Consequently, a form of cocoa with the oil removed is needed to produce an acceptably instant drink. The results obtained were satisfactory, due to the complete instantisation of the product after processing.

  19. Cementitious Spray Dryer Ash-Tire Fiber Material for Maximizing Waste Diversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles E. Riley

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray dryer absorber (SDA material, also known as spray dryer ash, is a byproduct of coal combustion and flue gas scrubbing processes that has self-cementing properties similar to those of class C fly ash. SDA material does not usually meet the existing standards for use as a pozzolan in Portland cement concrete due to its characteristically high sulfur content, and thus unlike fly ash, it is rarely put to beneficial use. This paper presents the results of a study with the objective of developing beneficial uses for SDA material in building materials when combined with tire fiber reinforcement originating from a recycling process. Specifically, spray dryer ash was investigated for use as the primary or even the sole binding component in a mortar or concrete. This study differs from previous research in that it focuses on very high contents of spray dryer ash (80 to 100 percent in a hardened product. The overarching objective is to divert products that are normally sent to landfills and provide benefit to society in beneficial applications.

  20. Performance analysis of greenhouse dryer by using insulated north-wall under natural convection mode

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Singh Chauhan

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available A prototype north wall insulated greenhouse dryer has been fabricated and tested in no-load conditions under natural convection mode. Experimentation has been conducted in two different cases. Case-I is when solar collector placed inside the dryer and Case-II is North wall insulated greenhouse dryer without solar collector. Coefficient of performance, heat utilisation factor, convective heat transfer coefficient and coefficient of diffusivity have been evaluated in thermal performance analysis. The difference of the highest convective heat transfer coefficient of both cases is 29.094W/m2°C which is showing the effectiveness of insulated north wall and solar collector. The maximum coefficient of diffusivity (0.0827 was achieved during the third day of experiment in Case-II. The inside room temperature of wall insulated greenhouse dryer for Case-I is 4.11%, 5.08 % and 11.61 % higher than the Case-II during the day 1, day 2 and day 3 respectively. This result is also showing the effectiveness of solar collector and insulated north wall. The highest heat utilisation factor (0.616 is obtained during the second day for Case-I while for Case-II it is 0.769 during the third day of experimentation. Maximum coefficient of performance achieved is 0.892 during the third day of the experiment for Case-I whereas 0.953 is obtained on the first day of experimentation for Case-II.

  1. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; Deguzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II

    1986-01-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2 percent at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25 percent (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiencies can range up to about 65 percent). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented. 3 references.

  2. Spray dryer/ESP testing for utility retrofit applications on high-sulfur coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robards, R.F.; DeGuzman, J.S.; Runyan, R.A.; Flora, H.B. II

    1986-04-01

    The Tennessee Valley Authority's continuing research and development efforts for evaluating dry flue gas desulfurization (DFGD) at the Shawnee Test Facility have resulted in the testing of a 1- to 2-MW spray dryer electrostatic precipitator (ESP) system. In this program, three test blocks were used to determine the effectiveness of this concept on high-sulfur coal (3.5- to 4.0-percent sulfur on a dry basis) application. The main ESP variables evaluated included 12- and 15-inch plate spacing using a Duratrode discharge electrode as well as spray dryer variables of lime stoichiometry, approach-to-saturation temperature, residence time, and others. The results indicate that DFGD products are easier to collect than fly ash with removal efficiencies of 96.4 to 99.2% at low SCA values. SO/sub 2/ removal across the ESP typically ran 10 to 25% (spray dryer SO/sub 2/ removal efficiences can range up to about 65%). Thus, a spray dryer appears to be a potential option for SO/sub 2/ control in a utility retrofit application where an ESP currently exists for particulate collection. Data supporting this conclusion are presented.

  3. Development of Simple Drying Model for Performance Prediction of Solar Dryer: Theoretical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Shobhana; Kumar, Subodh

    2012-01-01

    of experimental drying parameters. A laboratory model of mixed-mode solar dryer system is tested with cylindrical potato samples of thickness 5 and 18 mm under simulated indoor conditions. The potato samples were dried at a constant absorbed thermal energy of 750 W/m2 and air mass flow rate of 0.011 kg...

  4. Design of solar thermal dryers for 24-hour food drying processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solar drying is a method that has been adopted for many years as a food preservation method. To this date, significant advancements have been made in this field with the adoption of a multitude of solar thermal dryer designs for single-layer and multi-layer drying of fruit and vegetables e.g. cabine...

  5. Electrostatic sampling of trace DNA from clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zieger, Martin; Defaux, Priscille Merciani; Utz, Silvia

    2016-05-01

    During acts of physical aggression, offenders frequently come into contact with clothes of the victim, thereby leaving traces of DNA-bearing biological material on the garments. Since tape-lifting and swabbing, the currently established methods for non-destructive trace DNA sampling from clothing, both have their shortcomings in collection efficiency and handling, we thought about a new collection method for these challenging samples. Testing two readily available electrostatic devices for their potential to sample biological material from garments made of different fabrics, we found one of them, the electrostatic dust print lifter (DPL), to perform comparable to well-established sampling with wet cotton swabs. In simulated aggression scenarios, we had the same success rate for the establishment of single aggressor profiles, suitable for database submission, with both the DPL and wet swabbing. However, we lost a substantial amount of information with electrostatic sampling, since almost no mixed aggressor-victim profiles suitable for database entry could be established, compared to conventional swabbing. This study serves as a proof of principle for electrostatic DNA sampling from items of clothing. The technique still requires optimization before it might be used in real casework. But we are confident that in the future it could be an efficient and convenient contribution to the toolbox of forensic practitioners.

  6. REFLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF M ALATYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available It is known that Turks who have a rich culture and an old and well - known civilization have a unique clothing style. The clothing of Turks varies according to the geographical regions, living styles, social differences and gender along the periods they lived. Clothing is one of the most important needs in life depending on the individual and social attributes. The clothing which first emerged as protection means is a social fact complementing the physical and psychological existence of human being, changing forms depending on technological developments and phases, and continuously changing under the affect of fashion today. Clothing is an aesthetic value fed by the feelings of individuals. So, clothing has an indispensable place in the structure and communication of cultural and social identity within this direction. The costumes of traditional Turkish Anatolian women reflect thoughts an d feelings When Turkish Nation’s long history and the cultures that it had interacted are thought, it’s seen that the glory and magnificence it had has also reflected in it’s clothing culture. Traditional clothing of Malatya region has a special character istic. However, these clothes are dissappearing day by day, With the present study, we aimed to protect our cultural heritage and carry these clothes to the present via current designs. This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion .

  7. Improvement of the Rotary Dryers of Wet Pelletized Oil-Furnace Carbon Blacks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zečević, M

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Due to the demand for higher production capacity and natural-gas energy savings, improvements were made to the rotary dryers in the drying process of wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Since the rotary dryers were originally designed for drying semi-wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks, they did not entirely satisfy optimal conditions for drying wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks. Figure 1 shows the drying principle with key dimensions. The energy for drying the wet pelletized oil-furnace carbon blacks was provided by natural gas combustion in an open-furnace system with an uncontrolled feed of combustion air. Improvements on the rotary dryers were carried out by adjusting the excess oxygen in the gases passing through the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack. By regulating the butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack, and applying the prescribed operations for drying wet pelletized oil furnace carbon blacks, the excess oxygen in the tail gases was adjusted in the range of φ = 3.0 % and 5.0 %, depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon blacks. Suggested also is installation of a direct-reverse automatic butterfly valve on the dryer exhaust stack to automatically determine the volume fraction of oxygen in the tail gas, and the volume flow rate of natural gas for combustion. The results the improvements carried out are shown in Tables 3 to 5. Table 2 shows the thermal calculations for the hood of the rotary dryer. Preheating of the process water in the temperature range of 70 °C and 80 °C is also recommended using the net heat from the oil-furnace process for wet pelletization. The results of preheating the process water are shown in Table 1. Depending on the type of oil-furnace carbon black, the aforementioned improvements resulted in natural gas energy savings ranging from 25 % to 35 % in relation to the average natural gas requirement in the drying process, and thus a reduction in carbon emissions of up to 40

  8. Amorphous particle deposition and product quality under different conditions in a spray dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meng Wai Woo; Wan Ramli Wan Daud; Siti Masrinda Tasirin; Meor Zainal Meor Talib

    2008-01-01

    Deposition of amorphous particles, as a prevalent problem particularly in the spray drying of fruit and vegetable juices, is due to low-molecular weight sugars and is strongly dependent on the condition of the particles upon collision with the dryer wall. This paper investigates the condition of the amorphous particles impacting the wall at different drying conditions with the aim of elucidating the deposition mechanism and physical phenomena in the drying chamber. A model sucrose-maltodextrin solution was used to represent the low-molecular-weight sugar. Particle deposits were collected on sampling plates placed inside the dryer for analyses of moisture content, particle rigidity (using SEM) and size distribution. Moisture content was adopted as a general indicator of stickiness. Product particles collected at the bottom of the experimental dryer were found to have higher moisture than particle deposits on samplers inside the dryer. Moisture content profile in the dryer shows that apart from the atomizer region, where particles are relatively wet, particle deposits at other regions exhibit similar lower moisture content. At the highest temperature adopted in the experiments, particles became rubbery suggesting liquid-bridge formation as the dominant deposition mechanism. Further analysis on particles size distribution reveals a particle segregation mechanism whereby smaller particles follow preferentially to the central air stream while larger particles tend to re-circulate in the chamber, as predicted in past CFD simulation. The findings from this work will form the basis and provide validating data for further modeling of wall deposition of amorphous particles in spray drying using CFD.

  9. PENGARUH PENGERINGAN DENGAN FAR INFRARED DRYER, OVEN VAKUM DAN FREEZE DRYER TERHADAP WARNA, KADAR TOTAL KAROTEN, BETA KAROTEN DAN VITAMIN C PADA DAUM BAYAM (Amaranthus Tricolor L. [Effect of Drying with Far Infrared Dryer, Oven Vacuum, and Freeze Dryer on the Color, Total Carotene, Beta-Carotene, and Vitamin C of Spinach Leaves (Amaranthus Tricolor L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ridwan Thahir2

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Spinach is a well known vegetable as a source of nutrition especially for is carotene. Soinach leaves need to be dried for application in product development of food like biscuit, extruded products and analysis. One the drying method that became popular is drying using infrared wave. The aim of this research was to compare the effect of blanching and drying (far infrared dryer, oven vacuum, and freeze dryer on the color, total carotene, beta-carotene, and vitamin C of spinach leaves. Blanching and drying of increased brightness, a value, and b value. The a value is shows spinach brightness in mix red-green color while b value shows mix blue-yellow. Total carotene of fresh spinach decreased by 10.47% after blanching. Drying with vacuum decreased the total carotene by 39.31% (with blanching and 31.66 (with blanching. Drying with freeze dryer decreased the beta carotene by 4.99% (with blanching and 18.60% (with blanching. Drying with FIR dryer decreased spinach total carotene by 34.90% (with blanching and 24.86% (with blanching. The beta-carotene of fresh spinach with balancing treatment decreased of by 16.53%.drying oven vacuum decreased the beta carotene by 42.80% (wiyh blanching and 18.91% (with blanching. Drying with freeze dyer decreased the beta carotene by 29.03% (with blanching the beta carotene. The decreased of beta-carotene is bigger than total carotene. Vitamin C of fresh spinach decreased by 20.35% after blanching. Drying with oven vacuum decreased of 55.77% (without blanching and 65.42% (with blanching f the vitamin C. drying with freeze dryer decreased the vitamin C by 13.21% (without blanching and 30.67% (with blanching. Meanwhile, the vitamin C of spinach after drying with FIR dyer decreased of 60.53% (without blanching and 70.29% (with blanching.

  10. Performance Investigation of a Chimney-Dependent Solar Crop Dryer for Different Inlet Areas with a Fixed Outlet Area

    OpenAIRE

    J. K. Afriyie; Bart - Plange, A.

    2012-01-01

    The paper describes the performance of a direct-mode solar crop dryer with a solar chimney. Tests were performed for three differently inclined drying-chamber roofs, each with three inlet areas for a given exit area. Cassava was used as the test crop. The results show that the increase in the inlet area for a given exit area can improve the ventilation in the dryer. However, this does not necessarily improve the drying performance of the direct-mode dryer. A wide inlet area for a given exit a...

  11. Optimizing the protection against the physiological burden of CBRN clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brasser, Paul

    2010-01-01

    Soldiers can wear chemical, biological, radiological and nuclear (CBRN) protective clothing to be protected against warfare agents. The disadvantage of that clothing is that higher protection introduces higher physiological burden. Therefore an optimum between comfort and protection must be found. Models of all relevant processes were created to find this optimum. The airflow profile around a cylinder with clothing-representing a dressed human body part-was modelled. This flow profile was used for calculating the agent vapour breakthrough through the clothing and for calculating the deposition of agents onto the skin (as indicators for protection). The flow profile was also used for calculating the temperature profile around the body part and the relative humidity underneath and in the clothing (as representative for physiological burden). As a result a tool was created, which can be used to identify the optimum properties of CBRN protective clothing, depending on the intended mission of the soldiers.

  12. Investigating Moisture Management Properties of Weaving Military Clothes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esra TAŞTAN ÖZKAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Clothes which are used as military clothes are different from the other clothes, because they areworn continuously and long time. Heat, humidity and air movements are very important for these clothesbecause these parameters effect the thermophysiological comfort properties of clothes. These clothes mustallow the passage of water vapour from the body of the garment to feel comfortable to wearer. In thisstudy, moisture management properties of different blends of wool/polyester fabrics which are used inwinter military clothes were examined with MMT test device. For this aim, wetting time, absorption rate,spreading speed, accumulative one way transfer index and overall moisture management capacity offabrics, which have different wool/polyester blend ratio and weave pattern, were investigated. Also fabricpattern which are more appropriate for moisture transfer, were determined.

  13. Animating Wrinkles by Example on Non-Skinned Cloth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurdo, Javier S; Brito, Juan P; Otaduy, Miguel A

    2013-01-01

    The simulation of cloth with rich folds and wrinkles is a computationally expensive process. In this paper, we introduce an example-based algorithm for fast animation of plausible cloth wrinkles. Our algorithm does not depend on a character's pose, therefore it is valid for loose dresses, curtains, etc., not just cloth defined by skinning techniques. Central to our approach is a correspondence between low and high-resolution cloth deformations, both at the training and synthesis stages. Based on this correspondence, we define an algorithm for synthesizing cloth wrinkles as a function of the deformation of a low-resolution cloth and a set of example poses. We demonstrate the animation of plausible high-resolution wrinkles at high frame rates, suitable for interactive applications such as video games.

  14. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable fashion and consumption

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This is the first book to introduce and explain the concept of sustainable consumption with reference to the clothing sector. It uses various case studies to detail sustainable consumption behavior in the industry. Consumption is a key issue and is a major driver when it comes to sustainability in any industry, including clothing sector. Several studies which have highlighted the need for sustainable consumption in the clothing sector are discussed in this book.

  15. Does variation in clothing make us more thermally comfortable?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorre, Mette Havgaard; Jensen, Rasmus Lund

    2014-01-01

    In the same room, people will wear different amounts of clothes if there is no strict dress code. Ideally everybody would put on just the right amount to feel thermally comfortable, but that is not always the case. To improve simulations of thermal comfort, an estimate of clothing insulation...... among people is higher at low temperatures than at high temperatures, and that people do choose their clothing according to thermal preference, but that the distribution of thermal comfort votes is the same....

  16. The mature female clothing shopper: Profiles and shopping behaviour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Visser

    1996-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to profile the mature female clothing shopper. More specifically certain variables that could be attributed to differences in consumer behaviour were investigated. Mature female clothing shoppers were segmented as clothing moderates, clothing enthusiasts and the clothing unconcerned. These three cluster groups significantly differed regarding clothing involvement, clothing orientation, activities, interests, opinions, family orientation, needs and media usage. No significant differences were found among the three groups regarding evaluative criteria for clothing and clothing store attributes. Profiles of the clusters were developed, along with applicable marketing implications. Recommendations for further research are made. Opsomming  Hierdie studie is onderneem ten einde die vroulike kledingverbruikers van 55 en ouer te tipeer. Die veranderlikes wat 'n bydrae kon lewer ten opsigte van die verskille in verbruikersgedrag is ondersoek. Die verbruikers is gesegmenteer as die kledinggematigdes, kleding- entoesiaste en die kleding-onbetrokkenes. Die drie groeperings verskil beduidend van mekaar ten opsigte van die volgende veranderlikes naamlik: kleding-betrokkenheid, kleding-oriëntasie, aktiwiteite belangstellings, opinies, familie oriëntasie, behoeftes en media gebruik. Geen beduidende verskille kon gevind word tussen die drie groeperings ten opsigte van die veranderlikes evalueringskriteria van klere en winkeleienskappe nie. Profiele van die verskillende trosse is ontwikkel en die bemarkingsimplikasies is uitgewys. Aanbevelings vir verdere navorsing word gedoen.

  17. Estimating Clothing Thermal Insulation Using an Infrared Camera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeong-Hoon Lee

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a novel algorithm for estimating clothing insulation is proposed to assess thermal comfort, based on the non-contact and real-time measurements of the face and clothing temperatures by an infrared camera. The proposed method can accurately measure the clothing insulation of various garments under different clothing fit and sitting postures. The proposed estimation method is investigated to be effective to measure its clothing insulation significantly in different seasonal clothing conditions using a paired t-test in 99% confidence interval. Temperatures simulated with the proposed estimated insulation value show closer to the values of actual temperature than those with individual clothing insulation values. Upper clothing’s temperature is more accurate within 3% error and lower clothing’s temperature is more accurate by 3.7%~6.2% error in indoor working scenarios. The proposed algorithm can reflect the effect of air layer which makes insulation different in the calculation to estimate clothing insulation using the temperature of the face and clothing. In future, the proposed method is expected to be applied to evaluate the customized passenger comfort effectively.

  18. Modern cleanroom clothing systems: people as a contamination source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinmüller, Berit; Ljungqvist, Bengt

    2003-01-01

    Today, clothing and clothing systems for cleanrooms are mainly tested with regard to material properties such as particle generation, particle filtration, and resistance to wear. The dispersal chamber or "body-box" has been used for studying the protective efficacy of clothing systems in use, for example by Hoborn in 1981 (1) and Whyte and Bailey in 1985. A modified dispersal chamber has recently been installed at KTH. Tests and comparative studies have been performed in the dispersal chamber on selected clothing systems. The latest tests have been performed in two parts. In Part 1, each person performed 12 sequences dressed in new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with small variations, such as with and without goggles, different face masks, and different sizes of hoods. In Part 2, each person performed six test sequences with new, modern cleanroom clothing systems with variations in fabrics, and as a comparison, two sequences with pharmaceutical clothing system and surgical clothing system, respectively. The results are given in total number of airborne particles (> or = 0.5 microm per cubic meter) and airborne aerobic CFU per cubic meter. Statistical evaluations of the results have been performed. The source strengths of the contamination source people wearing modern cleanroom clothing systems have been estimated.

  19. Dry and wet heat transfer through clothing dependent on the clothing properties under cold conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Richards, M.G.M.; Rossi, R.; Meinander, H.; Broede, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Holmér, I.; Nocker, W.; Havenith, G.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of moisture on the heat transfer through clothing in relation to the water vapour resistance, type of underwear, location of the moisture and climate. This forms part of the work performed for work package 2 of the European Union THERMPROTECT p

  20. The effect of air permeability of chemical protective clothing material on clothing vapour resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Vuister, R.; Wammes, L.

    1996-01-01

    One of the major problems associated with Chemical Warfare Protective Clothing (CW) is the additional heat load created by the garments. For CW-overgarments, research in the direction of reducing material thickness and thus heat and vapour resistance have not resulted in major improvements. The

  1. Intelligence in Clothing Pattern CAD System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xu; ZHANG Zu-fang

    2007-01-01

    It analyzes three recognition methods for fiveelements, i.e. dot, line, loop, dothing pattern as well ascharacters, and also appfies intelligent points and tangentialcurve in the CAD system to solve the problem complained byCAD users. It indicates that recognition of five elements is afoundational technique of intelligence in clothing patternCAD system. Common functions in operation state such asmove, rotation, flip, measure, should precede ones inelement state as dot, line, and pattern. Moreover, it isrealized that the less skill the CAD user needs, the more theCAD software is high-tech.

  2. Dermal Uptake of Benzophenone-3 from Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morrison, Glenn C; Bekö, Gabriel; Weschler, Charles J.

    2017-01-01

    Benzophenone-3 (also known as BP-3 or oxybenzone) is added to sunscreens, plastics, and some coatings to filter UV radiation. The suspected endocrine disruptor BP-3 has been detected in the air and settled dust of homes and is expected to redistribute from its original sources to other indoor....../m(3). Next, three participants wore the exposed shirts for 3 h. After 3 h of exposure, participants wore their usual clothing during the collection of urine samples for the next 48 h. Urine was analyzed for BP-3, a metabolite (BP-1), and six other UV filters. The rate of urinary excretion of the sum...

  3. Prediction of wall deposition behaviour in a pilot-scale spray dryer using deposition correlations for pipe flows

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KOTA K.; LANGRISH T.A.G.

    2007-01-01

    The particle deposition behaviour of skim milk, water and maltodextrin in the conical section of a pilot-scale spray dryer was predicted using simple correlations for particle depositions in pipes. The predicted particle deposition fluxes of these materials were then compared with the measured deposition fluxes. The predicted particle deposition regimes of the spray dryer were expected to be in the diffusional and mixed (diffusional and inertial) regimes, but the experimental results suggested that the particle deposition was mainly in the inertial regime. Therefore, using the pipe correlations for predicting deposition in a pilot-scale spray dryer suggests that they do not sufficiently represent the actual deposition behaviour. This outcome indicates that a further study of particle flow patterns needs to be carried out using numerical simulations (computational fluid dynamics,CFD) in view of the additional geometrical complexity of the spray dryer.

  4. Development of a Mini-Freeze Dryer for Material-Sparing Laboratory Processing with Representative Product Temperature History.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obeidat, Wasfy M; Sahni, Ekneet; Kessler, William; Pikal, Michael

    2017-09-13

    The goal of the work described in this publication was to evaluate a new, small, material-sparing freeze dryer, denoted as the "mini-freeze dryer or mini-FD", capable of reproducing the product temperature history of larger freeze dryers, thereby facilitating scale-up. The mini-FD wall temperatures can be controlled to mimic loading procedures and dryer process characteristics of larger dryers. The mini-FD is equipped with a tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) water vapor mass flow monitor and with other advanced process analytical technology (PAT) sensors. Drying experiments were performed to demonstrate scalability to larger freeze dryers, including the determination of vial heat transfer coefficients, K v . Product temperature histories during K v runs were evaluated and compared with those obtained with a commercial laboratory-scale freeze dryer (LyoStar II) for sucrose and mannitol product formulations. When the mini-FD wall temperature was set at the LyoStar II band temperature (- 20°C) to mimic lab dryer edge vials, edge vial drying in the mini-FD possessed an average K v within 5% of those obtained during drying in the LyoStar II. When the wall temperature of the mini-FD was set equal to the central vial product temperature, edge vials behaved as center vials, possessing a K v value within 5% of those measured in the LyoStar II. During both K v runs and complete product freeze drying runs, the temperature-time profiles for the average edge vials and central vial in the mini-FD agreed well with the average edge and average central vials of the LyoStar II.

  5. Experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, S.; Lamlert, N.; Intawee, P. [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Mahayothee, B. [Department of Food Technology, Faculty of Engineering and Industrial Technology, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh 2202 (Bangladesh); Nagle, M.; Mueller, J. [Institute of Agricultural Engineering, University of Hohenheim, Stuttgart 70593 (Germany)

    2009-09-15

    This paper presents experimental and simulated performance of a PV-ventilated solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana. The dryer consists of a parabolic roof structure covered with polycarbonate plates on a concrete floor. Three fans powered by a 50-W PV module ventilate the dryer. To investigate the experimental performances of the solar greenhouse dryer for drying of peeled longan and banana, 10 full scale experimental runs were conducted. Of which five experimental runs were conducted for drying of peeled longan and another five experimental runs were conducted for drying of banana. The drying air temperature varied from 31 C to 58 C during drying of peeled longan while it varied from 30 C to 60 C during drying of banana. The drying time of peeled longan in the solar greenhouse dryer was 3 days, whereas 5-6 days are required for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The drying time of banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was 4 days, while it took 5-6 days for natural sun drying under similar conditions. The quality of solar dried products in terms of colour and taste was high-quality dried products. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of peeled longan and banana in the solar greenhouse dryer was developed and this system of non-linear partial differential equations was solved numerically using the finite difference method. The numerical solution was programmed in Compaq Visual FORTRAN version 6.5. The simulated results reasonably agreed with the experimental data for solar drying of peeled longan and banana. This model can be used to provide the design data and is also essential for optimal design of the dryer. (author)

  6. A flowsheet model of a well-mixed fluidized bed dryer: Applications in controllability assessment and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langrish, T.A.G.; Harvey, A.C.

    2000-01-01

    A model of a well-mixed fluidized-bed dryer within a process flowsheeting package (SPEEDUP{trademark}) has been developed and applied to a parameter sensitivity study, a steady-state controllability analysis and an optimization study. This approach is more general and would be more easily applied to a complex flowsheet than one which relied on stand-alone dryer modeling packages. The simulation has shown that industrial data may be fitted to the model outputs with sensible values of unknown parameters. For this case study, the parameter sensitivity study has found that the heat loss from the dryer and the critical moisture content of the material have the greatest impact on the dryer operation at the current operating point. An optimization study has demonstrated the dominant effect of the heat loss from the dryer on the current operating cost and the current operating conditions, and substantial cost savings (around 50%) could be achieved with a well-insulated and airtight dryer, for the specific case studied here.

  7. THE EFFECT OF THE THICKNESS OF A PACKED BED ON THE DYNAMIC AND THERMAL BEHAVIOR OF A SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S KHALDI

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying food in the sun is a safe, easy and economical way to preserve food, especially fruits. Cabinet dryers are the most popular equipment for fruit drying. Because of intermittent nature of solar energy, storage is required for uninterrupted supply in order to match the needs. The main objective of this study is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with packed bed as thermal storage with natural airflow for drying figs (Ficuscarica. The cabinet dryer were envisaged theoretically (computational fluid dynamics (CFD. The distribution of the velocity and temperature of air within the solar dryer were presented during one day of August and under the climate conditions of Tlemcen (Algeria.  The effects of presence of a packed bed on the distribution of velocity and temperature of airflow and on the temperature of figs were analyzed. The results show that the solar dryer design, incorporating a packed bed enhances the capabilities and performance of the solar dryer, through increasing time of drying.

  8. Modelling and simulation of processes by smart sensing : a solar dryer for plant material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, E.C.; Diezma, B.; Ruiz-Altisent, M. [LPF-TAGRALIA Univ. Politecnica, CENIM-CSIC, Madrid (Spain)

    2010-07-01

    This paper reported on a study in which as small wood dryer was modelled. Studies have shown that properly designed solar dryers may prove to be energy saving devices for drying processes. The drying rate expressed as -dX/dt=f/X (where X is DB wood moisture content), allows to identify 2 different kinetics, notably for high X values or fibre saturation point (FSP) and for X values under FSP, in which diffusion is the mechanism that governs a decreasing drying rate at this stage. The complex drying rate model developed in this study made it possible the determine the wood and convective mass transfer at the wood-air interface. Validation and application to fruit and plant drying cycles is currently underway. Three different proposed models are used in the software for a smart sensor system, which is based on Sensirion sensors for temperature and relative humidity in the air, and thermocouples for timber temperature.

  9. Pronounced increase in breathing rate in the "hair dryer model" of experimental febrile seizures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuchmann, Sebastian; Tolner, Else A; Marshall, Pepin; Vanhatalo, Sampsa; Kaila, Kai

    2008-05-01

    In a study using a heated chamber for induction of experimental febrile seizures (eFS) in rat pups, ictal activity was shown to be precipitated by a respiratory alkalosis (Schuchmann et al., 2006). In sharp contrast to this, in a recent review Dubé et al., (2007) suggest that the respiratory alkalosis is model specific, and that no increase in respiratory rate is observed in the widely used "hair dryer model" of eFS. The data in the present work, based on well-established techniques for measuring respiratory rates in rat pups, show a pronounced increase in the "hair dryer model" with values that are slightly higher than those recorded in the heated chamber model. Hence, a temperature-evoked increase in respiration is a common feature of these two models of eFS.

  10. Polychlorinated biphenyls removal from contaminated soils using a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit: implications for emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Bing; Xue, Nandong; Ding, Qiong; Vogt, Rolf David; Zhou, Lingli; Li, Fasheng; Wu, Guanglong; Zhang, Shilei; Zhou, Dandan; Liu, Bo; Yan, Yunzhong

    2014-11-01

    An assessment in China of the application of a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit for the remediation of soils contaminated with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) demonstrated that it is well suited to remove PCBs from soils. A remarkable reduction of total PCBs in soils from 163-770 μg g(-1) to 0.08-0.15 μg g(-1) was achieved. This represented removal efficiencies of greater than 99.9% and an approximate 100% removal of the toxic equivalent of the PCBs. Furthermore, the emissions to the atmosphere from the unit were in compliance with current PCBs regulations. In conclusion, remediation of PCBs-contaminated soils based on a transportable indirect thermal dryer unit appears to be a highly efficient and environmentally sound treatment technology that has huge implications for cleaning thousands of regionally dispersed sites of PCBs contamination in China.

  11. Theoretical Model for Predicting Moisture Ratio during Drying of Spherical Particles in a Rotary Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. T. Ademiluyi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A mathematical model was developed for predicting the drying kinetics of spherical particles in a rotary dryer. Drying experiments were carried out by drying fermented ground cassava particles in a bench scale rotary dryer at inlet air temperatures of 115–230°C, air velocities of 0.83 m/s–1.55 m/s, feed mass of 50–500 g, drum drive speed of 8 rpm, and feed drive speed of 100 rpm to validate the model. The data obtained from the experiments were used to calculate the experimental moisture ratio which compared well with the theoretical moisture ratio calculated from the newly developed Abowei-Ademiluyi model. The comparisons and correlations of the results indicate that validation and performance of the established model are rather reasonable.

  12. Slurry atomizer for a coal-feeder and dryer used to provide coal at gasifier pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loth, John L.; Smith, William C.; Friggens, Gary R.

    1982-01-01

    The present invention is directed to a coal-water slurry atomizer for use a high-pressure dryer employed in a pumping system utilized to feed coal into a pressurized coal gasifier. The slurry atomizer is provided with a venturi, constant area slurry injection conduit, and a plurality of tangentially disposed steam injection ports. Superheated steam is injected into the atomizer through these ports to provide a vortical flow of the steam, which, in turn, shears slurry emerging from the slurry injection conduit. The droplets of slurry are rapidly dispersed in the dryer through the venturi where the water is vaporized from the slurry by the steam prior to deleterious heating of the coal.

  13. Thin layer drying of cassava starch using continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Trisnaningtyas, Rona

    2015-12-01

    This paper present the experimental work and thin layer modelling of cassava starch drying in continuous vibrated fluidized bed dryer. The experimental data was used to validate nine thin layer models of drying curve. Cassava starch with 0.21 initial moisture content was dried in different air drying temperature (50°C, 55°C, 60°C, 65°C, 70°C), different weir height in bed (0 and 1 cm), and different solid feed flow (10 and 30 gr.minute-1). The result showed air dryer temperature has a significant effect on drying curve, while the weir height and solid flow rate are slightly. Based on value of R2, χ2, and RMSE, Page Model is the most accurate simulation for thin layer drying model of cassava starch.

  14. Reversible Humidity Sensitive Clothing for Personal Thermoregulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Ying; Zhang, Fenghua; Wang, Meng; Gardner, Calvin J.; Kim, Gunwoo; Liu, Yanju; Leng, Jinsong; Jin, Sungho; Chen, Renkun

    2017-03-01

    Two kinds of humidity-induced, bendable smart clothing have been designed to reversibly adapt their thermal insulation functionality. The first design mimics the pores in human skin, in which pre-cut flaps open to produce pores in Nafion sheets when humidity increases, as might occur during human sweating thus permitting air flow and reducing both the humidity level and the apparent temperature. Like the smart human sweating pores, the flaps can close automatically after the perspiration to keep the wearer warm. The second design involves thickness adjustable clothes by inserting the bent polymer sheets between two fabrics. As the humidity increases, the sheets become thinner, thus reducing the gap between the two fabrics to reduce the thermal insulation. The insulation layer can recover its original thickness upon humidity reduction to restore its warmth-preservation function. Such humidity sensitive smart polymer materials can be utilized to adjust personal comfort, and be effective in reducing energy consumption for building heating or cooling with numerous smart design.

  15. ASSEMBLY LINE BALANCING in a CLOTHING COMPANY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HASNALCACI Kubra

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Assembly lines take the attention of researchers and companies because of its great effect on efficiency. Efficiency in assembly lines has an important role on cost and quality which are the basic fundamentals of competition. Assembly lines contain a number of workstations and tasks (jobs are processed in these stations and are moved from station to station. The tasks are assigned to each station regarding a cycle time. The cycle time is the maximum available time for the production of a job at any workstation. The assingning of jobs to workstations is based on the objective of minimizing the workflow among the workstations, reducing the throughput time as well as the work in progress and thus increasing productivity. If the jobs are not allocated in balance, this will cause idle workstations and waste of workforce besides the loss of overall efficiency. In this study, an assebly line balancing problem was examined for a five pocket denim trousers in a clothing company. Firstly, priority associations and standard durations of operations of denim trousers were determined. Then, assembly line balancing study was carried out by using ranked positional weights assembly line balancing method developed by Helgeson and Birnie to increase the production in a clothing company manufacturing five pocket denim trousers.

  16. Pre-Flight Advanced Clothing Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orndoff, Evelyne; Poritz, Darwin; Schlesinger, Thilini; Byme, Vicky

    2014-01-01

    All human space missions require significant logistical mass and volume that will become an excessive burden for long duration missions beyond low Earth orbit. The current International Space Station (ISS) crew wardrobe has already evolved not only to reduce some of the logistical burden but also to address crew preference. The present study was undertaken to find ways further to reduce this logistical burden while examining human response to different types of clothes. The primary objective of the study is to measure how long people can wear the same exercise garment, depending on the type of fabric and the presence of antimicrobial treatment. The secondary objective is to assess the reasons for length of wear from perceptions of clothing characteristics, including nine ordinal scales. Cardiovascular exercise was chosen as the activity in this experiment for its profuse sweating effect and because it is considered a more severe treatment applied to the clothes than every-day usage. Study garments were exercise T-shirts and shorts purchased from various vendors. Fabric construction, fabric composition, and finishing treatment were defined as the key variables. A web-based questionnaire was used for self-reported data collection. The study was divided in three balanced experiments: a cotton-polyester-wool (CPW) T-shirts study with 61 participants, a polyester-modacrylic-polyester/cocona (PMC) T-shirts study with 40 participants, and a shorts study with 70 participants. In the CPW study, the T-shirts were made of 100% cotton, or of 100% polyester or of 100% wool, and categorized into open and tight knit constructions. In the PMC study, the T-shirts were made of 100% polyester, or of 82% modacrylic, or of 95% polyester with 5% cocona fiber, without construction distinction. The shorts were made either of 100% cotton or of 100% polyester, and were knitted or woven. Some garments were treated with Bio-Protect 500 antimicrobial finish according the experimental design

  17. Improvement of thermal comfort by cooling clothing in warm climate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sakoi, Tomonori; Melikov, Arsen Krikor; Kolencíková, Sona;

    2014-01-01

    comfort compared to convective cooling alone. The supply of a small amount of water allowed the cooling clothing to provide a continuous cooling effect, whereas the effect of convective cooling alone decreased as sweat dried. However, the controllability of the cooling clothing needs to be improved....

  18. Textiles and clothing sustainability implications in textiles and fashion

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book comprehensively covers the topic of sustainability in the clothing and fashion sector. Sustainability is applied under different industrial sectors and there has to be a distinction in every industrial sector when it comes to sustainability in its application. Though the definition is common for sustainability, sustainability in the clothing sector has its unique objectives, principles, and limitations, which this book highlights.

  19. The Analysis of Competitiveness of China's Textiles and Clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wang Chen

    2009-01-01

    @@ The pattern of global textilesand clothing trade The trade volume of global textiles and clothing changed from 50 billion U.S. dollars in the early 60s to 583.4 billion U.S. dollars in 2007, with an increase of 100 times. Since 1990, trade volume (especially import volume) in some developed countries increased day by day.

  20. Effects of Dressing Poses on Clothing Thermal Insulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the effects of dressing poses on clothing thermal insulation are studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of still air layer over human body has not been influenced by the dressing poses, but the dressing poses have effects on the thermal insulation of clothing system.

  1. Thermal Insulation Distribution Pattern of Layered Clothing Ensemble

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李俊; 韦鸿发; 刘岩; 张渭源

    2004-01-01

    With a thermal manikin, the distribution pattern of thermal insulation in multi-layered clothing ensemble is studied. It is found that the thermal insulation of multi-layered clothing ensemble has certain statistical relationship with the thermal insulation of each layer, and the prediction equation has been established.

  2. Human physiology as the determining factor in protective clothing design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daanen, Hein

    2014-01-01

    Protective clothing is designed to protect humans against risks like fire, chemicals or blunt impact. Although protect¡ve clothing diminishes the effects of external risks, it may hinder people in functioning and it may also introduce new (internal) risks. Manufacturers are often not aware of the se

  3. Effect of Clothing on Measurement of Bone Mineral Density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamara, Elizabeth A; Feldman, Anna Z; Malabanan, Alan O; Abate, Ejigayehu G; Whittaker, LaTarsha G; Yano-Litwin, Amanda; Dorazio, Jolene; Rosen, Harold N

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown whether allowing patients to have BMD (bone mineral density) studies acquired while wearing radiolucent clothing adlib contributes appreciably to the measurement error seen. To examine this question, a spine phantom was scanned 30 times without any clothing, while draped with a gown, and while draped with heavy winter clothing. The effect on mean BMD and on SD (standard deviation) was assessed. The effect of clothing on mean or SD of the area was not significant. The effect of clothing on mean and SD for BMD was small but significant and was around 1.6% for the mean. However, the effect on BMD precision was much more clinically important. Without clothing the spine phantom had an least significant change of 0.0077 gm/cm(2), while when introducing variability of clothing the least significant change rose as high as 0.0305 gm/cm(2). We conclude that, adding clothing to the spine phantom had a small but statistically significant effect on the mean BMD and on variance of the measurement. It is unlikely that the effect on mean BMD has any clinical significance, but the effect on the reproducibility (precision) of the result is likely clinically significant.

  4. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  5. Exercise Clothing for Children in a Weight-Management Program

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carroll, Kate; Alexander, Marina; Spencer, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    This study investigated whether clothing can be perceived as a form of encouragement for success in a weight management exercise program. A small (n = 30) sample of children and parents, enrolled in a weight-management exercise program, responded to a survey instrument that included questions regarding fit and comfort of the clothing children wore…

  6. The influence of the clothing sales assistant on the female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    consumers' emotions as influenced by the clothing sales assistant ... a direct impact on the consumer's emotions, which may influence the ... Four factors regarding the clothing sales assistant's influence on the ... store behaviour (De Klerk et al, 1998), purchase satis- ..... such as patience, self-respect, and respect for other.

  7. Stories in the Cloth: Art Therapy and Narrative Textiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garlock, Lisa Raye

    2016-01-01

    In this article I weave together the relevance of narrative textile work in therapeutic and human rights contexts; showcase Common Threads, an international nonprofit that uses story cloths with survivors of gender-based violence; outline a master's level art therapy course in story cloths; and relate how textiles helped build a sibling…

  8. Protective clothing based on permselective membrane and carbon adsorption

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baker, R.

    1995-03-01

    The objective of this program is to develop improved protective clothing for use by workers engaged in decomissioning and decontamination of former DOE sites. The proposed technology concerns a new protective clothing fabric that combines a permselective membrane layer (for water transmission and breathability) with a sorptive layer.

  9. Acquisition: Buy American Act Issues on Procurements of Military Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    mandatory uniform items (shirts, trousers, coats, headwear , etc.) that are procured by the Defense Supply Center Philadelphia and requisitioned by...FSC codes cover the following types of military clothing and related items: • FSC 8415-Special purpose clothing: special purpose headwear

  10. Effect of Selected Factors on Drying Process of Tomato in Forced Convection Solar Energy Dryer

    OpenAIRE

    U.S. Muhammed; A.M.I. El-Okene; Isiaka, M

    2012-01-01

    The effect of air velocity, slice thickness and grazing materials in drying process of tomato in forced convection solar energy dryer was evaluated. The result is to serve as an input for solar energy development for drying of vegetable and fruit products in North West Ecological zone of Nigeria. In order to evaluate the effects of the above factors in drying operation, a split-split-plot experimental design was used. Differences among the treatments and their interactions were tested with or...

  11. Design and Fabrication of a Direct Natural Convection Solar Dryer for Tapioca

    OpenAIRE

    Diemuodeke E. OGHENERUONA; Momoh O.L. YUSUF

    2011-01-01

    Based on preliminary investigations under controlled conditions of drying experiments, a direct natural convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated to dry tapioca in the rural area. This paper describes the design considerations followed and presents the results of MS excel computed results of the design parameters. A minimum of 7.56 m2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch of 100 kg tapioca in 20 hours (two days drying period). The initial and final moisture content consider...

  12. Sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of shopping centres in Kraków

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Lenart-Boroń

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Shopping habits have changed over the past several years and consumers choose shopping centres, where they can spend time and visit restaurants. People usually wash hands before meals, but toilets in shopping centres are visited by hundreds of users every day which makes their cleanliness questionable. Therefore, the aim of this study was to assess the sanitary condition of electrical hand dryers in toilets of the selected shopping centres in Kraków. Material and methods. Air was sampled at the outlet of electrical hand dryers and surface swabs of hand dryers were taken in toilets of five shopping centres. Air sampling was conducted using the MAS-100 impactor. The number of mesophilic bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, staphylococci and Escherichia coli was determined. The results of air analyses were compared with the limits provided by the Polish Standards on air quality. Results. The number of microorganisms varied between the studied centres. In terms of mesophilic bacteria and fungi the air was unpolluted. The concentration of actinomycetes however significantly exceeded the limits set by the Polish Standards. Numerous Escherichia coli were found both in the air and in swabs in one of the centres. However the number of E. coli and staphylococci did not exceed the minimum infective dose. Conclusions. The studies showed high concentrations of airborne actinomycetes and staphylococci. Also the presence of E. coli in the air and swabs allows the conclusion that legal regulations for concentrations of airborne microorganisms are necessary to make people aware of this problem. However, it was found that using electrical hand dryers does not have impact on human health.

  13. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    OpenAIRE

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-01-01

    Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side an...

  14. Performance of a convective, infrared and combined infrared- convective heated conveyor-belt dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mesery, Hany S; Mwithiga, Gikuru

    2015-05-01

    A conveyor-belt dryer was developed using a combined infrared and hot air heating system that can be used in the drying of fruits and vegetables. The drying system having two chambers was fitted with infrared radiation heaters and through-flow hot air was provided from a convective heating system. The system was designed to operate under either infrared radiation and cold air (IR-CA) settings of 2000 W/m(2) with forced ambient air at 30 °C and air flow of 0.6 m/s or combined infrared and hot air convection (IR-HA) dryer setting with infrared intensity set at 2000 W/m(2) and hot at 60 °C being blown through the dryer at a velocity of 0.6 m/s or hot air convection (HA) at an air temperature of 60 °C and air flow velocity 0.6 m/s but without infrared heating. Apple slices dried under the different dryer settings were evaluated for quality and energy requirements. It was found that drying of apple (Golden Delicious) slices took place in the falling rate drying period and no constant rate period of drying was observed under any of the test conditions. The IR-HA setting was 57.5 and 39.1 % faster than IR-CA and HA setting, respectively. Specific energy consumption was lower and thermal efficiency was higher for the IR-HA setting when compared to both IR-CA and HA settings. The rehydration ratio, shrinkage and colour properties of apples dried under IR-HA conditions were better than for either IR-CA or HA.

  15. Thermal sludge dryer demonstration: Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant, Buffalo, NY. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-01-01

    The Buffalo Sewer Authority (BSA), in cooperation with the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (Energy Authority), commissioned a demonstration of a full scale indirect disk-type sludge dryer at the Bird Island Wastewater Treatment Plant (BIWWTP). The purpose of the project was to determine the effects of the sludge dryer on the sludge incineration process at the facility. Sludge incineration is traditionally the most expensive, energy-intensive unit process involving solids handling at wastewater treatment plants; costs for incineration at the BIWWTP have averaged $2.4 million per year. In the conventional method of processing solids, a series of volume reduction measures, which usually includes thickening, digestion, and mechanical dewatering, is employed prior to incineration. Usually, a high level of moisture is still present within sewage sludge following mechanical dewatering. The sludge dryer system thermally dewaters wastewater sludge to approximately 26%, (and as high as 38%) dry solids content prior to incineration. The thermal dewatering system at the BIWWTP has demonstrated that it meets its design requirements. It has the potential to provide significant energy and other cost savings by allowing the BSA to change from an operation employing two incinerators to a single incinerator mode. While the long-term reliability of the thermal dewatering system has yet to be established, this project has demonstrated that installation of such a system in an existing treatment plant can provide the owner with significant operating cost savings.

  16. Effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kituu, G.M.; Shitanda, D.; Kanali, C.L.; Mailutha, J.T. [Jomo Kenyatta Univ. of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi (Kenya). BEED

    2008-07-01

    In addition to being a source of protein, fish is an important source of local and foreign currency earnings in Kenya. A substantial amount of fish production is exported. Approximately 30 per cent is exported to the European Union, the United States, and countries in the Middle East, but nearly half of the total annual fish harvest in Kenya goes to waste due to poor processing and preservation. Measures must be taken to ensure the fish industry is protected and waste is minimized, since the livelihood of over 500,000 people depends on fish as a source of proteins and employment. Therefore, it is necessary to implement appropriate and affordable processing and preservation techniques for fish at the artisanal landing sites in order to reduce the wastage and spoilage of fish during oversupply, and to enhance long storage. This paper presented studies that were conducted to determine the effect of brining on the drying rate of tilapia in a solar tunnel dryer. The paper discussed the materials and methods, including a description of the solar tunnel dryer system; the brining process of fish; the fish drying process; and data analysis. It was concluded that limiting the amount of salt used in brining, and subsequently dehydrating fish with a solar tunnel dryer achieves a more stable and suitable dried fish product than osmotic dehydration or solar drying process separately. 19 refs., 5 figs., 2 appendices.

  17. PADDY DRYING IN MIXED ADSORPTION DRYER WITH ZEOLITE: DRYING RATE AND TIME ESTIMATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mochammad Djaeni

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the main problem of the rice stock and distribution in Indonesia is the quality degradation as indicated in unpleasant odor (smelly, stained, yellowness, and high percentage of broken rice. This is due to the low of paddy quality dried by from either direct sunlight or conventional fluidized bed dryer. As a result, the paddy cracks and breaks easily during milling in which causes the storage life being shorter as the enzymatic degradation by germ or fungi occurs. Air dehumidified with zeolite at drying medium temperature is potential to improve the quality of paddy. Zeolite is a material having high affinity to water vapor. In this case, the paddy and zeolite was mixed and fluidized with the air. The air will evaporate water from paddy, and at same time, the zeolite will adsorb water from air. Hence, the humidity of dryer can be kept low in which improves the driving force for drying. This work discusses the effect of presence of zeolite in the dryer, operational drying temperature, air velocity and relative humidity on drying rate of paddy. The results showed that increasing of zeolite as well as operational temperature increased the drying rate. In addition, using the model, the air dehumidification with zeolite and increase of air velocity can speed up drying time significantly at operational temperature below 80oC. This condition is very suitable for paddy drying since the quality degradation can be avoided.

  18. Modeling and simulation of the drying of thin sheets in a continuous infrared dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dhib, R.; Broadbent, A.D.; Therien, N. (Sherbrooke Univ., PQ (Canada))

    1994-10-01

    A differential model describing the dynamics of the infrared drying process has been set up from mass and energy balances between the moving wet material, the radiant emitters, and the air forced inside the dryer. The objective of the study is to provide a predictive model that can be used to assess the dynamic behavior of the infrared drying of a thin sheet of porous material (e.g. paper or textile). The process output responses to changes in material velocity, heating power, and water content of the entering sheet are presented. Thin sheets of bleached cotton were used to calibrate the model, and experiments were conducted to cover the entire range of operating conditions of an infrared pilot-plant dryer. The model consists of a set of four coupled hyperbolic partial differential equations describing the variations of the air and web temperatures and humidities as a function of time and space along the dryer length. The model predictions agreed well with the experimental data. Model predictions using arithmetic averages for the parameters, and parameters correlated with operational variables, are also presented and discussed. 30 refs., 9 figs., 5 tabs.

  19. Design and development of desiccant seed dryer with airflow inversion and recirculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, R S; Singh, Sukhmeet; Singh, Parm Pal

    2014-11-01

    A desiccant seed dryer has been developed to dry seed in deep bed at safe temperatures for good shelf life and germination. The dryer consists of two chambers viz., air conditioning control unit and seed drying chamber. It operates in seed drying mode and desiccant regeneration mode. It has provision for recirculation of the drying air to minimise the moisture removal from drying air. Also, it has provision of airflow inversion through deep seed bed for uniform drying. Moisture removal from drying air has been done using silica gel desiccant. Chilly 'Punjab Surakh', Chilly 'Punjab Guchhedaar', Paddy, Coriander, Fenugreek and Radish seeds was dried with hot air at 38 °C from initial moisture content of 26.9 to 5 % (wb) in 2 h, 46.52 to 4.19 % (wb) in 4.25 h, 13.3 to 2.61 % (wb) in 4 h, 13.4 to 10.08 % (wb) in 3 h, 12.4 to 8.22 % (wb) in 4¼ h and 10.6 to 6.08 % (wb) in 4 h respectively. The statistical analysis based on paired t-test showed that seed drying in this dryer has no adverse effect on seed germination.

  20. Designing, constructing and evaluating a dynamic prototype dryer for obtaining rolled dehydrated fruit pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Vanegas Mahecha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available  This paper describes how a functional prototype for a dynamic dryer was designed, along with its basic parts: drying tunnel, mechanical transport system for material inside the equipment and selecting and designing a system for supplying hot air. A simple transport mechanism was implemented which allowed combining two flow dispositions: parallel and countercurrent flow. Mango (Mangifera indica L pulp was dehydrated using three dryer air temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C and three drying air speeds inside the dryer (1.6, 2.2, 3.4 m s-1 for evaluating the prototype. Propane gas was used as fuel for heating the air. The prototype design led to dehydrating fruit pulp having 4.26 bs smooth initial humidity content up to a 0.11 db final humidity content, with 8-hour drying time (70°C and 3.4 m s-1 air speed, assuming 4.5 0.5 mm pulp thickness, in 300 x 180 mm and 15 mm height rectangular trays. 1.5 0.5 mm thickness rolled dehydrated pulps were obtained in these conditions  The final product had 0.60a (aw water activity providing for a stable product, having low water content and very similar characteristics to those of the fresh product (shown by Weende analysis. 

  1. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  2. Design and Fabrication of a Direct Natural Convection Solar Dryer for Tapioca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diemuodeke E. OGHENERUONA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Based on preliminary investigations under controlled conditions of drying experiments, a direct natural convection solar dryer was designed and fabricated to dry tapioca in the rural area. This paper describes the design considerations followed and presents the results of MS excel computed results of the design parameters. A minimum of 7.56 m2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch of 100 kg tapioca in 20 hours (two days drying period. The initial and final moisture content considered were 79 % and 10 % wet basis, respectively. The average ambient conditions are 32ºC air temperatures and 74 % relative humidity with daily global solar radiation incident on horizontal surface of 13 MJ/m2/day. The weather conditions considered are of Warri (lat. 5°30’, long. 5°41’, Nigeria. A prototype of the dryer so designed was fabricated with minimum collector area of 1.08 m2. This prototype dryer will be used in experimental drying tests under various loading conditions.

  3. 暖衣机再设计的设计研究%The Design and Exploration of Design research and design warm clothing machine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王潇; 李琦

    2013-01-01

    目前来看市场上暖风干衣机在国内已经有十二三年的历史了,发国内同在普及率越来越高,需求率越来越大,可是在造型功能上还远远没有达到现代人们所需要的水平。通过对这种产品的再设计来重新定位暖衣机所带来的作用和功能,来提高人们的生活质量。我相信这会为今后小家电产品市场提供一个更好的发展舞台。%Currently on the market the clothes dryer in the country has a twelve or thirteen years,hair domestic with increasingly high penetration rate,demand rate is more and more big, but in other functions are far from reaching the level needed to modern people. Based on the redesign of products to reposition the role and function of warm clothing machine, to improve people’s quality of life. I believe that this will provide a stage to develop a better for the future of small household electrical appliancesmarket.

  4. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies n vertical dryers (first part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (1. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-05-01

    Using different types of sensors, the operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies was studied. The evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists is analysed in the first part of this article; Actions performed and optimising efficiency in the use of co-generation system output in vertical dryers will be handled in IC and V next issue. (authors)

  5. Thermoelectric fabrics: toward power generating clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong; Cai, Kefeng; Chen, Song; Wang, Hongxia; Shen, Shirley Z; Donelson, Richard; Lin, Tong

    2015-03-23

    Herein, we demonstrate that a flexible, air-permeable, thermoelectric (TE) power generator can be prepared by applying a TE polymer (e.g. poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate)) coated commercial fabric and subsequently by linking the coated strips with a conductive connection (e.g. using fine metal wires). The poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonate) coated fabric shows very stable TE properties from 300 K to 390 K. The fabric device can generate a TE voltage output (V) of 4.3 mV at a temperature difference (ΔT) of 75.2 K. The potential for using fabric TE devices to harvest body temperature energy has been discussed. Fabric-based TE devices may be useful for the development of new power generating clothing and self-powered wearable electronics.

  6. Bern clothes washer study. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tomlinson, J.J.; Rizy, D.T.

    1998-03-01

    The US market for domestic clothes washers is currently dominated by conventional, vertical axis washers, which typically require about 40 gallons of water for each load. Although small for an individual load, the fact that 35 billion loads of laundry are washed annually in the US results in a substantial quantity of water and energy use. Although much smaller, today`s market for high-efficiency clothes washers which use much less water and energy is growing albeit slowly as manufacturers are making washers based around tumble-action, horizontal axis designs available, information about their performance and benefits is being developed, and consumers are made aware of these benefits. To help build awareness of these benefits and to accelerate markets for high-efficiency washers, DOE, under its Energy Star Program and in cooperation with Maytag Appliances, conducted a field-evaluation of high-efficiency washers using Bern, Kansas (population approximately 200) as a test bed. Baseline washer performance data as well as customer washing behavior were obtained from data collected on the existing washers of more than 100 participants in this instrumented study. Following a 2-month initial study period, all conventional washers were replaced by high-efficiency, tumble action washers, and the experiment continued for another 3-month period. Based on measured data from over 20,000 loads of laundry, the impact of the washer replacement on (1) individual customers` energy and water consumption, (2) customers` laundry habits and perceptions, and (3) the community`s water supply and waste water systems were determined and reported.

  7. A comparative life cycle assessment of conventional hand dryer and roll paper towel as hand drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joseph, Tijo; Baah, Kelly; Jahanfar, Ali; Dubey, Brajesh

    2015-05-15

    A comparative life cycle assessment, under a cradle to gate scope, was carried out between two hand drying methods namely conventional hand dryer use and dispenser issued roll paper towel use. The inventory analysis for this study was aided by the deconstruction of a hand dryer and dispenser unit besides additional data provided by the Physical Resources department, from the product system manufacturers and information from literature. The LCA software SimaPro, supported by the ecoinvent and US-EI databases, was used towards establishing the environmental impacts associated with the lifecycle stages of both the compared product systems. The Impact 2002+ method was used for classification and characterization of these environmental impacts. An uncertainty analysis addressing key input data and assumptions made, a sensitivity analysis covering the use intensity of the product systems and a scenario analysis looking at a US based use phase for the hand dryer were also conducted. Per functional unit, which is to achieve a pair of dried hands, the dispenser product system has a greater life cycle impact than the dryer product system across three of four endpoint impact categories. The use group of lifecycle stages for the dispenser product system, which represents the cradle to gate lifecycle stages associated with the paper towels, constitutes the major portion of this impact. For the dryer product system, the use group of lifecycle stages, which essentially covers the electricity consumption during dryer operation, constitutes the major stake in the impact categories. It is evident from the results of this study that per dry, for a use phase supplied by Ontario's grid (2010 grid mix scenario) and a United States based manufacturing scenario, the use of a conventional hand dryer (rated at 1800 W and under a 30s use intensity) has a lesser environmental impact than with using two paper towels (100% recycled content, unbleached and weighing 4 g) issued from a roll

  8. Rice Grain Physical and Chemical analysis from Paddy Drying by Using a Solar Tunnel Dryer at Prathum Tani, Thailand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sookramoon Krissadang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the RD31 rice grain physical and chemical analysis from paddy drying by using a solar tunnel dryer. RD31 paddy was dried in a compact solar tunnel dryer, with a drying chamber volume in the size of 0.113 m3 and 2.112 m2 flat plate collectors. The experiment was performed on May 15, 2014 at Faculty of Industrial Technology Vallaya Alongkorn Rajabhat University Pathum Tani Thailand. The samples for testing were three varieties of Thai rice namely RD31 (from the farm, RD31 (dried in a solar tunnel dryer, and Prathum Tani 1 (from the market. The test consists of RD 31 dried by a solar tunnel dryer; the moisture content was reduced to about 14 wt. %. Then 3 varieties of rice were milled and sent to the laboratory for analyzing physical and chemical properties, repeated 3 times. The results showed that the average drying temperature was 67.75 °C. The paddy moisture reduction content was estimated from 49.96 to 14.64 MC (% w.b. within 6 hours. All dimensions of RD31, dried by using solar tunnel dryer milled rice were closely related to those of the Prathum Tani 1, purchased from the market. The ratio of length to width of 3 samples: RD31 (raw rice, RD31 (dried in solar tunnel dryer, and Prathum Tani 1 (from the market were 3.54, 3.47, and 3.44, respectively. 3 rice grain varieties were slender. The yield percentage was 60%, 75 %, and 70 %, respectively. Results from chemical test showed that the alkaline spreading value were 4-5, 3, and 2, respectively. The quality of the RD31 rice grain dried in a solar tunnel dryer passed the Thailand Ministry of Agriculture rice quality standard

  9. Non-iterative distance constraints enforcement for cloth drapes simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hidajat, R. L. L. G.; Wibowo, Arifin, Z.; Suyitno

    2016-03-01

    A cloth simulation represents the behavior of cloth objects such as flag, tablecloth, or even garments has application in clothing animation for games and virtual shops. Elastically deformable models have widely used to provide realistic and efficient simulation, however problem of overstretching is encountered. We introduce a new cloth simulation algorithm that replaces iterative distance constraint enforcement steps with non-iterative ones for preventing over stretching in a spring-mass system for cloth modeling. Our method is based on a simple position correction procedure applied at one end of a spring. In our experiments, we developed a rectangle cloth model which is initially at a horizontal position with one point is fixed, and it is allowed to drape by its own weight. Our simulation is able to achieve a plausible cloth drapes as in reality. This paper aims to demonstrate the reliability of our approach to overcome overstretches while decreasing the computational cost of the constraint enforcement process due to an iterative procedure that is eliminated.

  10. Clothing selection behavior of the aged women for thermal comfort.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeong, W S

    1999-05-01

    Wearing behavior and thermoregulatory responses of five young women (YG; 20 +/- 1 yr) and five aged women (AG; 65 +/- 3 yr) to indoor cold in summer were investigated in this study. The subjects were exposed to 21.0 +/- 0.5 degrees C and 55 +/- 5% RH while seated during a 90-minute experiment. The subjects were allowed to select and wear for thermal comfort clothing whenever they needed additional clothing during the experiment. Rectal temperature (Tre) and temperatures of 7 sites (head, chest, forearm, hand, thigh, leg, foot) of the skin of the subjects were measured every 10 minutes. Mean skin temperature (Tsk) of the subject was obtained every 10 minutes. First selection time of additional clothing was monitored and weight of selected total clothing was calculated. The results for this study were as follows: Tre and Tsk gradually decreased in YG and AG, however Tre decreased less than Tsk which decreased greater in AG than YG (p clothing and thermal sensation response were slower than YG's. Furthermore, total clothing weight was less in AG than YG. It was concluded that clothing selection behavior would modify the intrinsic thermoregulatory responses of the aged women to the cold stress in the summer.

  11. RE FLECTIONS FROM TRADITIONAL CLOTHES OF KONYA REGION TODAY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.Elhan ÖZUS

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Clothing is the way of wearing that is owned by a society, or a job. There is the essance of social statue and differance rather than fashion. In this aspect made a way of wearing according to their own custom and social organism. One of the specialities of setting apart the societies and defining their cultural differances and social classes is the way of wearing. As it is known, Turkish clothes reflecting the specialities of Turki sh culture and way of living them are the greatest heritage coming from ancient times. Between those heritages, women clothes show a great variety of examples. If you look into those examples, you will see the delight of past, way of art, way of living. Th ose clothes also are at the quality of certificate showing the delight of Turkish people. In this study, traditional Anatolian part of our culture in the position of clothes to protect , promote and special occasions using the transfer to future generation s in terms of Konya traditional women's clothes from the old carpets , rugs and ethnographic goods trading profession dealing with Velinaci Gezgin's stores located in the clothes were examined This study identified and the traditional dresses fabric , patterns and motifs are made by making use of designs suitable to the present day fashion . The technique used in the research is defined firstly the survey of written resources. As the result of research made in that area, observations, research and findi ngs are transferred into text.

  12. Circular Economy in the Clothing Industry : Challenges and Strategies

    OpenAIRE

    RIBEIRO ROSA, ANDRÉ MANUEL

    2016-01-01

    This  exploratory research  identifies  how  can  clothing companies  implement  textile recyclingtechnologies that help transition them to a sustainable circular economy business model, given the challenges of eco-innovation diffusion. The study is exploratory in nature, employs a literature review and a case study of Patagonia, the outdoor equipment and clothing company that pioneered the use of recycled fibers in the outdoor clothing industry and continues to have today several initiatives...

  13. DEMAND FOR TEXTILE AND CLOTHING EXPORTS OF PAKISTAN

    OpenAIRE

    2000-01-01

    This research has seen the trade prospects for Pakistan’s textile and clothing exports in the international market at the time when it has been decided in the WTO Agreement on Textiles and Clothing that the trade in this sector from the developing to developed countries should be completely free from quantitative restrictions and governed by the normal GATT rules by 2005. The paper has also reviewed the current status of Pakistan’s textile industry. Textile and clothing is the major contribut...

  14. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  15. An Investigation of Self-Concept, Clothing Selection, and Life Satisfaction among Disabled Consumers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hyo Jung

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation investigates the relationships between various aspects of self-concept (i.e., generalized self-efficacy, public self-consciousness, state hope, and self-esteem), clothing selection (i.e., clothing that expresses individuality, clothing that improves the emotional state, clothing that camouflages the body), and life satisfaction…

  16. A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer using polycarbonate cover: Modeling and testing in a tropical environment of Lao People's Democratic Republic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Janjai, Serm; Intawee, Poolsak; Kaewkiew, Jinda; Sritus, Chanoke [Solar Energy Research Laboratory, Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Khamvongsa, Vathsana [Department of Physics, Faculty of Natural Science, National University of Laos, P O Box 7322, Vientiane (Lao People' s Democratic Republic)

    2011-03-15

    A large-scale solar greenhouse dryer with a loading capacity of 1000 kg of fruits or vegetables has been developed and tested at field levels. The dryer has a parabolic shape and the dryer is covered with polycarbonate sheets. The base of the dryer is a black concrete floor with an area of 7.5 x 20.0 m{sup 2}. Nine DC fans powered by three 50-W solar cell modules are used to ventilate the dryer. The dryer was installed at Champasak (15.13 N, 105.79 E) in Lao People's Democratic Republic (Lao PDR). It is routinely used to dry chilli, banana and coffee. To assess the experimental performances of the dryer, air temperature, air relative humidity and product moisture contents were measured. One thousand kilograms of banana with the initial moisture content of 68% (wb) was dried within 5 days, compared to 7 days required for natural sun drying with the same weather conditions. Also three hundred kilograms of chilli with the initial moisture content of 75% (wb) was dried within 3 days while the natural sun drying needed 5 days. Two hundred kilograms of coffee with the initial moisture content of 52% (wb) was dried within 2 days as compared to 4 days required for natural sun drying. The chilli, coffee and banana dried in this dryer were completely protected from insects, animals and rain. Furthermore, good quality of dried products was obtained. The payback period of the dryer is estimated to be 2.5 years. A system of partial differential equations describing heat and moisture transfer during drying of chilli, coffee and banana in the greenhouse dryer was developed. These equations were solved by using the finite different method. The simulated results agree well with the experimental data. This model can be used to provide the design data for this type of dryer in other locations. (author)

  17. UPAYA PENINGKATAN MUTU DAN EFISIENSI PROSES PENGERINGAN JAGUNG DENGAN MIXED-ADSORPTION DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luqman Buchori

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available THE EFFORT OF EFFICIENCY AND QUALITY IMPROVEMENT ON CORN DRYING PROCESS USING MIXED-ADSORPTION DRYER. The main problem in corn drying process is the low of energy efficiency (50% and quality products. Consequently, operating costs in large for fuel consumption and the short shelf life of corn. Zeolite adsorption dryers have the potential to overcome this problem. This research aims to study composition of corn-zeolite and the effect of temperature on drying speed and protein and fat content in corn. Research variables are the ratio of corn and zeolite (1:0, 1:3, 1:1, 3:1 and intake air temperature (room temperature, 30oC, 40oC, 50oC. Sampling for moisture testing performed every 15 minutes. For energy purposes also calculated the energy efficiency (h based on the amount of heat used to evaporate water from the corn (Qevap divided by the total heat requirement to regenerate the zeolite and raising the air temperature (Qintr. Profiles of temperature and water in the mixed adsorption dryer are also studied. The results showed that the greater number of zeolite used, the water content of the final outcome a little more drying, protein and fat content of the final result of drying is relatively constant. The larger intake air temperature, the water content of the less drying results, protein content decreases, and the fat content does not change/relatively constant. The best variable was a ratio of corn: zeolite is 1:3 and air temperature was 50oC. While the variables that are suitable and in accordance with ISO standards for dry foods (14% are air temperature of between 40oC and 50oC with a ratio of corn:zeolite is 1:3. The energy efficiency of 81.23% is obtained. Modeling done with FEMLAB (COMSOL can describe the moisture content and temperature profiles in the corn and zeolite. Keywords: corn; drying; energy efficiency; mixed adsorption dryer; zeolite Abstrak Masalah utama proses pengeringan jagung adalah rendahnya efisiensi energi (50% dan mutu

  18. The Application of Drama Elements in the Clothing Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔振伟

    2013-01-01

    Chinese drama is an art form of Chinese traditional, and it’s a representation of Chinese soul. It uses the reference of the aesthetic features of the drama elements in clothing design, through analysis of drama ele-ments in the image and aesthetic features in modern clothing design’s practice and innovation. And it elaborates drama elements in the reality combining born, vivid design methods, demonstration of modern clothing design the innovation and reference in Chinese drama elements. We can draw that the aesthetic characteristics of the drama elements and modern clothing design are mutual penetration to each other. And we make creative prac-tice by using the aesthetics facial makeup.

  19. The aesthetic of dragon pattern elements in modern clothing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任倩慧

    2015-01-01

    Dragon pattern with a long history of traditional patterns,contains profound cultural connotation.This passage illustrate the aesthetic analysis of dragon pattern in modern clothing, analyze the aesthetic expression of dragon pattern with modern costume designer.

  20. Factors that influence household and individual clothing expenditure ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    S Blignaut

    Departement Consumer Study: Food, Clothing, Housing. University of ..... Norum (1989) used the age of the household head .... necessarily made purchases known to the ..... children on family life cycle spending behavior: theory and.

  1. The systematization of information: functional clothes through the mind map

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliete Auxiliadora Assunção Ourives

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Currently, if checks the evolution in women's clothing design aiming at the well-being, comfort and quality of life. However, women still complain of discomfort of breast movement during physical activities carried out in factory floors and sporting activities, among other activities. This discomfort, according to the women, increases during the menstrual period. Therefore, to structure the information on the subject is important, because it will suit the functional clothing designs for these activities. The mind map is a tool suitable for this because assists the organization process of thought and understanding of the information about a particular subject. With that, this work aims to structure information for project requirements with a focus on functional female clothing. The method of research is descriptive and exploratory character. In the end, this work presented project guidelines of functional guidelines female clothing through the process of analysis the mind map.

  2. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  3. The Textile and Clothing Sector in Botswana: Challenges and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Textile and Clothing Sector in Botswana: Challenges and Opportunities ... South Africa and Swaziland through the SACU Agreement and thus products ...... assistance and value chain support, SME training and offer export support. 6.

  4. E-Commerce Strategies for Chinese Clothing Enterprises

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zu-fang; TANG Ming-hao; DAI Wei

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the characteristics and consuming behaviors of the Chinese people. The difficulties in developing e-commerce for enterprises in China are discussed and the practical strategies suitable for China's clothing enterprises are proposed.

  5. The South African clothing industry: problems experienced with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    BlignautAS

    The South African clothing industry: problems experienced with body measurements. ISSN 0378-5254 .... men's dress shirt requires three dimensions – neck girth, shoulder girth ..... It is not always easy to describe or explain how and where ...

  6. Form factors and related quantities in clothed-particle representation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shebeko, Alexander; Arslanaliev, Adam

    2017-03-01

    We show new applications of the notion of clothed particles in quantum field theory. Its realization by means of the clothing procedure put forward by Greenberg and Schweber allows one to express the total Hamiltonian H and other generators of the Poincaré group for a given system of interacting fields through the creation (annihilation) operators for the so-called clothed particles with physical (observed) properties. Here such a clothed particle representation is used to calculate the matrix elements (shortly, form factors) of the corresponding Nöther current operators sandwiched between the H eigenstates. Our calculations are performed with help of an iterative technique suggested by us earlier when constructing the NN → πNN transition operators. As an illustration, we outline some application of our approach in the spinor quantum electrodynamics.

  7. Consumer product safety: Risk assessment of exposure to asbestos emissions from hand-held hair dryers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hallenbeck, William H.

    1981-01-01

    The United States Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) is concerned that consumer exposure to asbestos from consumer products may present an unreasonable risk of injury. Recently, CPSC has obtained agreement by industry to cease production and distribution of hair dryers containing asbestos heat insulation. CPSC intends to broaden its investigation by selecting consumer products containing asbestos for “priority attention.” The Commission does not intend to make quantitative estimates of cancer risks posed by exposure to asbestos fibers in making regulatory decisions. This position may lead to a serious waste of resources for the Commission, industry, and society. The Commission should focus its initial attention on those products for which the release of asbestos is significant enough to cause an unreasonable health risk. To make a risk assessment for a particular use of asbestos, CPSC must acquire or request data on asbestos emissions and define “unreasonable risk to health.” In an attempt to give some meaning to the phrase “risk assessment,” the primary goal of this paper is to present a detailed risk assessment of exposure to asbestos from hand-held hair dryers. Several scenarios of use are presented using various assumptions regarding time of operation, mixing of fibers in a small room, rate of fiber emission, and time of exposure. The worst case analysis of the health risk of exposure to hair dryer emissions is based on several conservative assumptions and shows that the increased number of deaths per year due to respiratory cancer is 4 for the entire United States population. A more representative case analysis shows the increased number of deaths to be on the order of 0.15 per year.

  8. Survey on solar dryers for drying of food and wood in Ghana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oestergaard Jensen, S.; Correll Frank, F. [Danish Technological Inst., Taastrup (Denmark); Floejgaard Kristensen, E. [Danish Inst. of Agricultural Sciences, Tjele (Denmark)

    1999-11-01

    The survey was conducted as a part of the project 'Test and Research Project into the Drying of Food and Wood Products with Solar Heat'. The aim of the survey was to investigate the need for drying of food and wood in Ghana and the already existing experience on solar drying in order to form a basis for the initial decisions within the project concerning the location of three demonstration solar dryers for crops, fish and wood, which species to dry and the type of solar dryers. The project deals with transfer of knowledge in the field of drying of crops and wood and solar air heating systems from Denmark to Ghana. The aim of the survey was, therefore, also to give the Danish experts an impression of the conditions in Ghana in order to facilitate an appropriate design of the solar dryers. Three of the four Danish partners participated in the survey. The fourth Danish partner - the manufacturer of solar heating systems Aidt Miljoe - are already familiar with the conditions in Ghana due to an earlier project in Ghana. The survey was planed by the Energy Commission of Ghana, the Ghanaian partner and consultants: DENG, University of Science and Technology, Kumasi and Econkoad. The time schedules for the survey - one for crops/fish and one for wood - are found in Annex A. The schedules were very well prepared and the sites to visit were well chosen. The visits gave the Danish experts a good overview of the situation in Ghana in the field of post harvesting of crops, handling of fish, drying and manufacturing of wood and existing experience on solar drying. The schedules included a large variety of different information and impressions e.g. ranging from large sawmill to small carpenters and workshops. Despite tight schedules the consultants managed to stick very close to the time schedules shown in Annex A. (au)

  9. The main factors influencing green consumer’s purchasing behavior in Chinese clothing market Case RYB

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Tingting

    2012-01-01

    Green clothing has emerged as the new products in the green market in China. With the improvement of living standard, the demand transfer of consumer from practicability of clothing to ecological and health clothing especially in the children’s clothing has increased. It is significant for marketers to understand the main factors influencing green consumer purchasing behavior in the Chinese clothing market. The main objective of this thesis was to find out the major factors influencing gr...

  10. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    OpenAIRE

    Blaženka Knežević; Mia Delić; Kristina Ptić

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper expla...

  11. Sustainable clothing: challenges, barriers and interventions for encouraging more sustainable consumer behaviour

    OpenAIRE

    Harris, Fiona; Roby, Helen; Dibb, Sally

    2016-01-01

    Research with consumers has revealed limited awareness of the sustainability impact of clothing (Goworek et al., 2012). Semi-structured interviews conducted with a range of experts in sustainable clothing to increase understanding of the challenges for sustainable clothing revealed that a focus on sustainability alone will not drive the necessary changes in consumers’ clothing purchase, care and disposal behaviour for three reasons: (i) clothing sustainability is too complex; (ii) consumers a...

  12. Cloth Simulation Based Motion Capture of Dressed Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasler, Nils; Rosenhahn, Bodo; Seidel, Hans-Peter

    Commonly, marker based as well as markerless motion capture systems assume that the tracked person is wearing tightly fitting clothes. Unfortunately, this restriction cannot be satisfied in many situations and most preexisting video data does not adhere to it either. In this work we propose a graphics based vision approach for tracking humans markerlessly without making this assumption. Instead, a physically based simulation of the clothing the tracked person is wearing is used to guide the tracking algorithm.

  13. Textiles and clothing sustainability sustainable textile chemical processes

    CERN Document Server

    2017-01-01

    This book highlights the challenges in sustainable wet processing of textiles, natural dyes, enzymatic textiles and sustainable textile finishes. Textile industry is known for its chemical processing issues and many NGO’s are behind the textile sector to streamline its chemical processing, which is the black face of clothing and fashion sector. Sustainable textile chemical processes are crucial for attaining sustainability in the clothing sector. Seven comprehensive chapters are aimed to highlight these issues in the book.

  14. ROMANIAN TEXTILES AND CLOTHING INDUSTRY – PRESENT AND PERSPECTIVES

    OpenAIRE

    Ovidiu FOLCUT; Diana-Mihaela POCIOVĂLIŞTEANU; Radu DESPA; Razvan MUSTEA; Iuliu IVANESCU; Mona Maria IVANESCU

    2009-01-01

    In January 2007 Romania joined the EU. Since then its current import duties for clothing and textiles has dropped a full 10% to between 6% and 8%. Consequently, import and re-export opportunities for Hong Kong, the Chinese mainland and other Asian suppliers are expected to increase, according to local Romanian importers. Chinese mainland firms are said to have invested US $254 million in the Romanian economy, but no details are available about the proportion directly invested in the clothing ...

  15. Influential factors of Chinese purchaser behavior in clothing market

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Zaichen

    2013-01-01

    Clothing market is a competitive market. Enterprises strive to attract purchasers consumption, as the result more strategies are carried out on sale, goods and services. Purchasers are facing more options and different experiences. Hereby, purchaser behavior is changing by the influence of competitive market. The thesis is aim to research the Chinese purchaser behavior in clothing market worldwide. The behaviors are different against the market from western countries to China, as the cons...

  16. Circular economy business models in the clothing industry

    OpenAIRE

    Setterwall Rydberg, Alma

    2016-01-01

    Production, consumption and waste managment of clothing is causing severe environmental damage and needs to be transformed. In this thesis the question of how circular economy business models can contribute to make the clothing business more sustainable is investigated. Two small companies in Jämtland, Sweden, are used as case studies. Case A, Rent-a-Plagg, is renting outdoor wear on a ski resort. By providing the possibility to get access instead of ownership they make their customers avoid ...

  17. Fuzzy Synthetic Evaluation for Quality of Clothing Industry's Salesman

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Jian-ping; FANG Fei

    2002-01-01

    It is essential for the human resource management to establish a scientific and efficient evaluation system for the clothing industry. This paper discusses the evaluation system for the quality of clothing industry's salesman, using fuzzy set theory from the following five aspects: basic quality,work attitude, knowledge level,work ability and work achievement. A just and useful way for the human resource manager to evaluate employees' quality is elaborated.

  18. Protective Clothing Part 4. Industrial Environments (A Bibliography with Abstracts)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1976-04-01

    Heat pipes NTIS/PS-75/316/OGSB NTIS/PS-75/317/8GSB Heliostats , Solar energy concentrators NTIS/PS-75/690/8GSB Hematuria NTIS/PS-75/260/OGSB...8217 working operat determined that the wear personal clothing of the heat stress problem. Rec regulations set forth by industrial hygiene practi any...Criteria, Inspection, Standards, Recommendations, Industrial hygiene, Oil refineries. Insulation, Heat stress. Protective clothing IDENTIFIERS

  19. Clothed Particles in Quantum Electrodynamics and Quantum Chromodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shebeko Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The notion of clothing in quantum field theory (QFT, put forward by Greenberg and Schweber and developed by M. Shirokov, is applied in quantum electrodynamics (QED and quantum chromodynamics (QCD. Along the guideline we have derived a novel analytic expression for the QED Hamiltonian in the clothed particle representation (CPR. In addition, we are trying to realize this notion in QCD (to be definite for the gauge group SU(3 when drawing parallels between QCD and QED.

  20. Performance evaluation of solar assisted dryers for low temperature drying applications: Pt. 1; Plants description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arata, A. (Universidad Tecnica Federico Santa Maria, Valparaiso (Chile)); Sharma, V.K. (Commission of the European Communities, Ispra (Italy))

    1991-01-01

    Research aimed at investigating the most appropriate cost effective food preservation technology suitable for implementation with limited financial resources is reported. It is hoped that the simple designs discussed in the present communication can be fabricated by small-scale industries using simple tools and relatively cheap and locally available materials. This first paper presents a detailed description, along with a preliminary heat transfer analysis, for fruit dryers developed and tested experimentally. Results obtained from the experiments conducted will be reported in a second paper. (author).

  1. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Farah Dina; Himsar Ambarita; Farel H. Napitupulu; Hideki Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO2)86·(SiO2)106]·264H2O) as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very ...

  2. Burn injuries caused by a hair-dryer--an unusual case of child abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darok, M; Reischle, S

    2001-01-01

    About 1.4-26% burn injuries in children appear to be abusive in origin. A 2.5-year-old girl was referred to our institute because of suspected child abuse. Clinical examination and later interrogation of the mother revealed non-recent deep second degree burn injuries on both gluteal regions, caused by the partner of the mother by pressing a hand-held hair-dryer against the skin. The authors present the findings of this unusual method of child abuse.

  3. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  4. Comparison of Linear and Nonlinear Model Predictive Control for Optimization of Spray Dryer Operation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik;

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we compare the performance of an economically optimizing Nonlinear Model Predictive Controller (E-NMPC) to a linear tracking Model Predictive Controller (MPC) for a spray drying plant. We find in this simulation study, that the economic performance of the two controllers are almost...... equal. We evaluate the economic performance with an industrially recorded disturbance scenario, where unmeasured disturbances and model mismatch are present. The state of the spray dryer, used in the E-NMPC and MPC, is estimated using Kalman Filters with noise covariances estimated by a maximum...

  5. Mathematical simulation of acoustic and gas-dynamical processes in the channel of an acoustoconvective dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fedorchenko, I. A.; Fedorov, A. V.

    2013-07-01

    This paper presents and analyzes the data of numerical simulation of nonstationary flow in the channel of an acoustoconvective dryer in which the acoustic field is produced by a Hartmann generator. The gas-dynamical flow field and frequency characteristics of the problem are calculated in axisymmetric and three-dimensional formulations. The jet outflowing from the generator nozzle with change in the resonator length and in the jet pressure ratio was investigated parametrically. The results of numerical calculations are compared with experimental data.

  6. Building solar dryer of tropical woods; Construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez R, J; Flores M, F. E; Cuevas D, O [Universidad de Quintana Roo, Chetumal, Quintana Roo (Mexico); Tolentino E, G [LABINTHAP-SEPI-ESIME-IPN, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    In Quintana Roo, Mexico, several species of wood are used for handicrafts. The most commonly method used in the communities nearby Chetumal is natural drying, with the disadvantage of low quality in their products because the moisture contains in the wood. In this project studied the design of solar dryer for tropical woods in Quintana Roo. [Spanish] En este trabajo, se parte del analisis de las condiciones climatologicas existentes en el estado de Quintana Roo, Mexico, asi como de las necesidades de madera seca de una comunidad, como parametros basicos para el diseno y construccion de un secador solar de maderas tropicales.

  7. A low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer to produce spherical microparticles from polymeric matrices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Paiva Luz

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The spray-drying technique has been widely used for drying heat-sensitive foods, pharmaceuticals, and other substances, because it leads to rapid solvent evaporation from droplets. This method involves the transformation of a feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate, by spraying the feed into a hot medium. Despite being most often considered a dehydration process, spray drying can also be used as an encapsulation method. Therefore, this work proposes the use of a simple and low-cost ultrasonic spray dryer system to produce spherical microparticles. This equipment was successfully applied to the preparation of dextrin microspheres on a laboratory scale and for academic purposes.

  8. DNA Extraction and Amplification from Contemporary Polynesian Bark-Cloth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncada, Ximena; Payacán, Claudia; Arriaza, Francisco; Lobos, Sergio; Seelenfreund, Daniela; Seelenfreund, Andrea

    2013-01-01

    Background Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. Methodology We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa) using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. Conclusions Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials. PMID:23437166

  9. DNA extraction and amplification from contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ximena Moncada

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Paper mulberry has been used for thousands of years in Asia and Oceania for making paper and bark-cloth, respectively. Museums around the world hold valuable collections of Polynesian bark-cloth. Genetic analysis of the plant fibers from which the textiles were made may answer a number of questions of interest related to provenance, authenticity or species used in the manufacture of these textiles. Recovery of nucleic acids from paper mulberry bark-cloth has not been reported before. METHODOLOGY: We describe a simple method for the extraction of PCR-amplifiable DNA from small samples of contemporary Polynesian bark-cloth (tapa using two types of nuclear markers. We report the amplification of about 300 bp sequences of the ITS1 region and of a microsatellite marker. CONCLUSIONS: Sufficient DNA was retrieved from all bark-cloth samples to permit successful PCR amplification. This method shows a means of obtaining useful genetic information from modern bark-cloth samples and opens perspectives for the analyses of small fragments derived from ethnographic materials.

  10. A Mathematical Modeling Framework for Analysis of Functional Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolin Man

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available In the analysis and design of functional clothing systems, it is helpful to quantify the effects of a system on a wearer’s physical performance capabilities. Toward this end, a clothing modeling framework for quantifying the mechanical interactions between a given clothing system design and a specific wearer performing defined physical tasks is proposed. The modeling framework consists of three interacting modules: (1 a macroscale fabric mechanics/dynamics model; (2 a collision detection and contact correction module; and (3 a human motion module. In the proposed framework, the macroscopic fabric model is based on a rigorous large deformation continuum-degenerated shell theory representation. Material models that capture the stress-strain behavior of different clothing fabrics are used in the continuum shell framework. The collision and contact module enforces the impenetrability constraint between the fabric and human body and computes the associated contact forces between the two. The human body is represented in the current framework as an assemblage of overlapping ellipsoids that undergo rigid body motions consistent with human motions while performing actions such as walking, running, or jumping. The transient rigid body motions of each ellipsoidal body segment in time are determined using motion capture technology. The integrated modeling framework is then exercised to quantify the resistance that the clothing exerts on the wearer during the specific activities under consideration. Current results from the framework are presented and its intended applications are discussed along with some of the key challenges remaining in clothing system modeling.

  11. ANALISIS KELAYAKAN TEKNIS DAN FINANSIAL DARI INVESTASI PENGADAAN TRAY DRYER BERBAHAN BAKAR BIOMASSA PADA USAHA ARANG TEMPURUNG KELAPA BERBASIS EKSPOR (Studi Kasus di Tropica Nucifera Industry – Yogyakarta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fanny Widadie

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to assess the technical and financial feasibility of procurement investment Tray Dryer fueled biomass to operations of coconut shell charcoal briquette in PT. Tropica Nucifera Industry. The result showed that investment-Tray Dryer on cocnut shell charcoal briquette bussiness was highly feasibile both the technical and financial aspects. The technical aspect was seen that the quantity-production capabilities of coconut shell charcoal briquettes using a dryer-Tray Dryer could be increased 15 percent compared the previous consdition-used of solar energy. While the quality of the charcoal briquettes produced from Tray Dryer was a much butter quality, moisture content (6.39%; ash (2.65%; carbon-bound (85.83%, compared to using sunlight, water content (15.89; ash (2.57% and carbon-bound (77.32%.The financial aspects of procurement Tray Dryer investment that its value was more feasible than previous, nothing Tray Dryer. Coconut shell charcoal briquet enterprises without using Tray Dryer was feasible to be done with NPV 1,058,928.12, IRR 63%, Payback Period 1 year and 9 moths, Net B/C 2.25 and analysis of swicthcing value reached 20 percent. And after the business using Tray Drayer, the financial analysis was much more feasible with NPV 2,285,500,498.12, IRR 113%, Payback Period 11 months, Net B/C 3.5 and analysis of switching value reached 50 percent.

  12. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  13. Comparative performance of coriander dryer coupled to solar air heater and solar air-heater-cum-rockbed storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chauhan, P.M.; Choudhury, C.; Garg, H.P. [Indian Inst. of Technology, Centre for Energy Studies, New Delhi (India)

    1996-03-01

    In the present communication, efforts have been made to study the drying characteristics of coriander in a stationary 0.5 tonne/batch capacity deep-bed dryer coupled to a solar air heater and a rockbed storage unit to receive hot air during sunshine and off-sunshine hours, respectively. The drying bed was assumed to consist of a number of thin layers of grains stacked upon each other. The theoretical investigation was made by writing the energy and mass balance equations for different components of the dryer-cum-air-heater-cum-storage and by adopting a finite difference approach for simulation. (author)

  14. Performance Analysis of Solar Assisted Fluidized Bed Dryer Integrated Biomass Furnace with and without Heat Pump for Drying of Paddy

    OpenAIRE

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    The performances of a solar assisted fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SA-FBDIBF) and a solar assisted heat pump fluidized bed dryer integrated biomass furnace (SAHP-FBDIBF) for drying of paddy have been evaluated, and also drying kinetics of paddy were determined. The SA-FBDIBF and the SAHP-FBDIBF were used to dry paddy from 11 kg with moisture content of 32.85% db to moisture content of 16.29% db (14% wb) under an air mass flow rate of 0.1037 kg/s within 29.73 minutes and 22.9...

  15. Effect of volume fraction of ramie cloth on physical and mechanical properties of ramie cloth/UP resin composite

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LEI Wen-guang; REN Chao

    2006-01-01

    Ramie cloth/UP resin composite was formed at 0.2 MPa and cured at room temperature for 24 h and treated at 80 ℃ for2 h. The physical and mechanical properties of the composites with different volume fractions of ramie cloth were studied. The results show that,with the increase of the volume fraction of the ramie cloth,densities of the composites become greater and greater,though all lower than the theoretical values,the linear shrinkage during the formation decreases from 1.20% of the original UP resin to 0.18% of the composite with 30% of ramie cloth in volume,all the composites also absorb more water than UP resin casting,greater volume fraction of the fiber,more water will be absorbed,but the increase in water absorption becomes smaller and smaller with time. As regards some mechanical properties,the tensile strength,flexural strength,flexural modulus and impact strength are all improved when more ramie fiber is added. Compared with those of pure UP resin casting,the mechanical properties are increased by 93.93%,76.20%,190.18% and 227.26% respectively when the volume fraction of the ramie cloth in the composite is 30%. The differential scanning calorimetry results show that only one peak will appear for the sample without or with less ramie fiber while two peaks will appear when more ramie cloth is added.

  16. Experimental investigation of a solar dryer with natural convective heat flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gbaha, P.; Yobouet Andoh, H.; Kouassi Saraka, J. [Laboratoire d' Energies d' Energies Nouvelles et Renouvelables, Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphoeuet-Boigny, B.P. 1526 Yamoussoukro (Ivory Coast); Kamenan Koua, B.; Toure, S. [Laboratoire d' Energie Solaire, Universite de Cocody, 22 B.P.: 582, Abidjan 22 (Ivory Coast)

    2007-09-15

    A direct type natural convection solar dryer is designed. It is constructed in local materials (wood, blades of glass, metals) then tested experimentally in foodstuffs drying (cassava, bananas, mango). It is about an experimental approach which consists in analyzing the behavior of the dryer. The study relates mainly kinetics and establishment of drying heat balances. The influence of significant parameters governing heat and mass transfers, such as solar incident radiation, drying air mass flow and effectiveness, is analyzed in order to evaluate its thermal performances. Experimental data can be represented by empirical correlations of the form M(t)=M{sub i}exp(-kt) for representation of drying process. The resolution of these drying equations makes-possible to predict total drying time of each product. Moreover, this drying process allows to reduce the moisture content of cassava and sweet banana approximately to 80% in 19 and 22 h, respectively to reach the safety threshold value of 13%. This value permits the conservation of these products about one year without deterioration. The determination of parameters, like ambient temperature, drying chamber temperature, drying air mass flow and incident heat fluxes, allow to predict the drying effectiveness for modeling and refining the dimensioning of the elaborate prototype. (author)

  17. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM CET Bahal, Haryana–127028 (India); Varun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.)–177005 (India); Sharma, Naveen [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IITR, (U.K.)–247667 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2), sum of squares error (SSE), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  18. DESIGN AND PERFORMANCE TESTING OF AN INDUSTRIAL-SCALE INDIRECT SOLAR DRYER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. KHAMA

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, an indirect solar dryer was developed and tested for drying food. This unit operation is an interesting technique for preservation in agricultural applications. The dryer was designed at industrial scale in order to carry out experiments in real applications and to get concrete results. It operated without additional energy in the passive and active modes, allowing the comparison between the two. The relationship between the solar collector air temperature and the relevant ambience parameters was deduced. The collector efficiency reached 66.56 % with forced ventilation and 46.32 % with natural ventilation. It also increased linearly with the solar radiation varying between 400-800 W/m2 for air velocities ranging between 1 and 1.40 m/s. The effect of the air velocity on the collector efficiency was negligible for solar intensities close to 800 W/m2.The tomato drying occurred mainly in the falling drying rate period. On average, the moisture content in dry basis was reduced from 14.32 kg water/kg dry matter to 0.14 kg water/kg dry matter. The equilibrium moisture content of tomatoes was reached after 12 when the system was used with one layer. In the case it was used with four layers, the difference among the four durations of drying was one hour between each tray.

  19. Mathematical Modelling of a Reduced Thermal Energy Consuming Spray Dryer for Evaporating Caustic Soda Solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatope Olufemi

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Experimental demonstration, mathematical modelling and simulation of a technique for reducing thermal energy consumption in the diaphragm cell process using a techno-economically viable process to produce 73% wt. NaOH from electrolytic diaphragm cell catholytes of about 10% wt. NaOH was carried out in this work. The technique completely eradicated the use of thermal energy in concentrating catholyte effluents from about 10% wt. NaOH solution to 50% wt. NaOH solution. This resulted in a specific energy savings of about 2.68×106 J/kg NaOH. The use of a spray dryer for increasing the concentration of 50% wt. NaOH solution to 73% wt. NaOH solution further improved the energy savings compared to that of multiple effect evaporators by 1.41×106 J/kg of solution, which corresponds to about 61.05% specific energy savings. The deviation of all simulated results from experimental data was between -0.062 and +0.084, portraying a good predictive tool for probing into the spray dryer operations. This work is expected to reduce considerably the total energy consumption of the diaphragm cell process through process integration or new processing methodology, with improved equipment designs.

  20. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhanushkodi, Saravanan; Wilson, Vincent H.; Sudhakar, Kumarasamy

    2015-12-01

    Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  1. Drying process optimization for an API solvate using heat transfer model of an agitated filter dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nere, Nandkishor K; Allen, Kimberley C; Marek, James C; Bordawekar, Shailendra V

    2012-10-01

    Drying an early stage active pharmaceutical ingredient candidate required excessively long cycle times in a pilot plant agitated filter dryer. The key to faster drying is to ensure sufficient heat transfer and minimize mass transfer limitations. Designing the right mixing protocol is of utmost importance to achieve efficient heat transfer. To this order, a composite model was developed for the removal of bound solvent that incorporates models for heat transfer and desolvation kinetics. The proposed heat transfer model differs from previously reported models in two respects: it accounts for the effects of a gas gap between the vessel wall and solids on the overall heat transfer coefficient, and headspace pressure on the mean free path length of the inert gas and thereby on the heat transfer between the vessel wall and the first layer of solids. A computational methodology was developed incorporating the effects of mixing and headspace pressure to simulate the drying profile using a modified model framework within the Dynochem software. A dryer operational protocol was designed based on the desolvation kinetics, thermal stability studies of wet and dry cake, and the understanding gained through model simulations, resulting in a multifold reduction in drying time.

  2. Drying of suspensions and solutions on inert particle surface in mechanically spouted bed dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To eliminate some disadvantages of the conventional spouted bed dryers the mechanically spouted bed (MSB) system was developed. This dryer type is convenient to use inert particles providing an increased surface area for drying of materials of high-moisture content and heat sensitive materials. On three different drying tasks are demonstrated the experimental optimization of process parameters to obtain products of demanded quality. The main object was at drying of AlO(OH) suspension to preserve the particle size under 2.5 μm and to obtain product with a moisture content of about 0.05 kg/kg (d.b.). For this reason a very thin particle coating and intensive abrasion had to be assured. At drying of tomato concentrates the thermoplasticity makes the process very difficult. To jump over the deliquescent and sticky state developed at the critical temperature-moisture content values a very short drying time (8-10 s) must be provided. The third task was to form powder-like product from bovine serum albumin (BSA) solution having very low solid content (2-4%). The selected process parameters given in this paper resulted in a mean particle size of less than 20 μm while the soluble preserved protein content was higher than 90%.

  3. Making large, flowable particles of protein or disaccharide in a mini-scale spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Joachim; Lee, Geoffrey

    2016-11-01

    A mini-scale spray dryer, the ProCept 4M8, with a 1.4 m or 2.1 m drying chamber length has been used to prepare large, flowable particles of catalase, trehalose or lactose. A 25 kHz ultrasonic nozzle or a Rayleigh breakup mono-disperse droplet generator was used for atomization. The ultrasonic nozzle produced dried particles of average diameter ≥30 µm that show incipient flow behavior when measured with the vibrating spatula method. A high solute concentration of 69% w/w in the liquid feed was required, which is readily achievable with trehalose but not with the viscous catalase solution. At lower solute concentrations, e.g. 20% w/w, the mono-disperse droplet generator was able to produce well flowable particles of approximately 50 µm diameter, although with a low yield. This is a result of collisions between the droplets falling through the drying chamber when then coalesce. It is possible to produce dried, flowable particles in milligram quantities on a mini-scale spray dryer such as the ProCept using the 25 kHz ultrasonic nozzle. With the mono-disperse droplet generator the long drying chamber ensures a residence time of a number of seconds, but this also allows droplet coalescence at fall heights >40 cm.

  4. Performance analysis of solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fadhel, M.I. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Multimedia University, Jalan Ayer Keroh Lama, 75450, Melaka (Malaysia); Sopian, K.; Daud, W.R.W. [Solar Energy Research Institute, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, 43600 Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)

    2010-11-15

    A solar-assisted chemical heat-pump dryer has been designed, fabricated and tested. The performance of the system has been studied under the meteorological conditions of Malaysia. The system consists of four main components: solar collector (evacuated tubes type), storage tank, solid-gas chemical heat pump unit and dryer chamber. A solid-gas chemical heat pump unit consists of reactor, condenser and evaporator. The reaction used in this study (CaCl2-NH{sub 3}). A simulation has been developed, and the predicted results are compared with those obtained from experiments. The maximum efficiency for evacuated tubes solar collector of 80% has been predicted against the maximum experiment of 74%. The maximum values of solar fraction from the simulation and experiment are 0.795 and 0.713, respectively, whereas the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump (COP{sup h}) maximum values 2.2 and 2 are obtained from simulation and experiments, respectively. The results show that any reduction of energy at condenser as a result of the decrease in solar radiation will decrease the coefficient of performance of chemical heat pump as well as decrease the efficiency of drying. (author)

  5. Standard practice for acoustic emission examination of cast iron yankee and steam heated paper dryers

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2007-01-01

    1.1 This practice provides guidelines for carrying out acoustic emission (AE) examinations of Yankee and Steam Heated Paper Dryers (SHPD) of the type to make tissue, paper, and paperboard products. 1.2 This practice requires pressurization to levels used during normal operation. The pressurization medium may be high temperature steam, air, or gas. The dryer is also subjected to significant stresses during the heating up and cooling down periods of operation. Acoustic Emission data maybe collected during these time periods but this testing is beyond the scope of this document. 1.3 The AE measurements are used to detect, as well as, localize emission sources. Other methods of nondestructive testing (NDT) may be used to further evaluate the significance of acoustic emission sources. 1.4 This standard does not purport to address all of the safety concerns, if any, associated with its use. It is the responsibility of the user of this standard to establish appropriate safety and health practices and determine th...

  6. Drying kinetics of whole and sliced turmeric rhizomes (Curcuma longa L. in a solar conduction dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Borah

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of turmeric was carried out in a solar conduction dryer (SCD. Drying air temperature was achieved around 39–51 °C for an ambient temperature in the range of 25–28 °C. Moisture content from 78.65% (wb, was reduced to 6.36% (wb and 5.50% (wb for solid and sliced samples respectively in 12 h effective drying time. Drying curve of sliced samples showed more uniform falling in comparison to that of whole samples. The average effective moisture diffusivity was found to be 1.852 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for slab samples and 1.456 × 10−10 m2 s−1 for solid samples. Out of four models tried for simulation, Page model was found as best fitted thin layer drying model when simulation was done for all the drying data. The overall thermal efficiency of the dryer was found to be 55%. Drying of sliced rhizomes showed better drying kinetics and effective drying time could be reduced by slicing instead of drying in whole form.

  7. Solar Drying Kinetics of Cass Ava Slices in a Mixed Flow Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dairo Olawale Usman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics of cassava slices was investigated in a mixed mode natural convection solar dryer to obtain a suitable mathematical model describing the drying. The average drying chamber temperature was between 34 ±2 °C and 50 ±1.8 °C, while 10 commonly used thin layer drying models were used for drying curve modelling. Coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE were used to determine the models performances. The drying curve of cassava slices showed a reduction of moisture content with increased drying time in the solar dryer, and the variation of moisture ratio exponentially decreased with increased drying time. The Midilli and Logarithmic models showed better fit to the experimental drying data of cassava slices. As compared with other models tested, there were no significant differences (p >0.05 in the R2 values obtained for the Midilli and Logarithmic models; hence, the Logarithmic model was preferable because of the lower RMSE. The diffusion mechanism could be used to describe the drying of cassava slices that was found to be in the falling rate period. A diffusion coefficient (Deff of 1.22 × 10-8 m2 s-1 was obtained, which was within the established standard for food products.

  8. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil, Varun, Naveen Sharma

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2, sum of squares error (SSE, mean squared error (MSE and root mean square error (RMSE between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  9. Life Cycle Cost of Solar Biomass Hybrid Dryer Systems for Cashew Drying of Nuts in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dhanushkodi Saravanan

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Cashew nut farming in India is mostly carried out in small and marginal holdings. Energy consumption in the small scale cashew nut processing industry is very high and is mainly due to the high energy consumption of the drying process. The drying operation provides a lot of scope for energy saving and substitutions of other renewable energy sources. Renewable energy-based drying systems with loading capacity of 40 kg were proposed for application in small scale cashew nut processing industries. The main objective of this work is to perform economic feasibility of substituting solar, biomass and hybrid dryer in place of conventional steam drying for cashew drying. Four economic indicators were used to assess the feasibility of three renewable based drying technologies. The payback time was 1.58 yr. for solar, 1.32 for biomass and 1.99 for the hybrid drying system, whereas as the cost-benefit estimates were 5.23 for solar, 4.15 for biomass and 3.32 for the hybrid system. It was found that it is of paramount importance to develop solar biomass hybrid dryer for small scale processing industries.

  10. Analysis and Testing of a Natural Convection Solar Dryer for the Tropics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. O. Adelaja

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Solar dryers are imperative for the tropical and sub-Saharan African countries, which are faced with the duo challenges of inadequate electrical energy supply, which has severely limited the application of conventional refrigeration as a means of preservation of agricultural produce, and the need to make produce competitive in the international market. In this study, a cost-effective natural convection solar dryer was developed; the thermal and drying analyses were done and tested to obtain some performance evaluation parameters for the system in order to examine its efficiency and effectiveness by drying some plantain fillets. The collector and system efficiencies are found to be 46.4% and 78.73%, respectively, while a percentage moisture removal of 77.5% was achieved at the 20th hour in order to give final moisture contents of 15.75% in the product, which still maintained its integrity. With a cost of about $195.00, it has been affordable for the small- and medium-scale enterprises as well as for private use in domestic applications.

  11. Formulation and evaluation of albumin microspheres and its enteric coating using a spray-dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bejugam, Naveen K; Uddin, Akm N; Gayakwad, Sanjay G; D'Souza, Martin J

    2008-12-01

    This study optimized and evaluated the conditions for surface coating of microspheres using a spray-dryer. Four formulations of Bromophenol blue (BPB)-loaded albumin microspheres were prepared using a spray-dryer, cross-linked at different concentrations and time periods. One of the optimized formulations with the desired characteristics was selected for enteric coating with Eudragit L100-55. The procedure involved suspending BPB microspheres in polymer solution and spray-drying it. Four enteric coated formulations were prepared with different concentrations of microspheres in suspension (0.25 and 0.5%w/v) and polymer concentrations (0.25 and 0.5%w/v). Change in the mean particle size after coating was determined using a Laser Particle Counter. The surface coating technique employed did not significantly increase the particle size. Enteric coating efficiency was determined in simulated gastric fluid. Compared to the uncoated microspheres the cumulative amount of drug released from coated microspheres was significantly lower for 3 h, implying efficient surface coating.

  12. An Analytical Solution Applied to Heat and Mass Transfer in a Vibrated Fluidised Bed Dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Picado, Apolinar

    2011-07-01

    A mathematical model for the drying of particulate solids in a continuous vibrated fluidised bed dryer was developed and applied to the drying of grain wetted with a single liquid and porous particles containing multicomponent liquid mixtures. Simple equipment and material models were applied to describe the process. In the plug-flow equipment model, a thin layer of particles moving forward and well mixed in the direction of the gas flow was regarded; thus, only the longitudinal changes of particle moisture content and composition as well as temperature along the dryer were considered. Concerning the material model, mass and heat transfer in a single isolated particle was studied. For grain wetted with a single liquid, mass and heat transfer within the particles was described by effective transfer coefficients. Assuming a constant effective mass transport coefficient and effective thermal conductivity of the wet particles, analytical solutions of the mass and energy balances were obtained. The variation of both transport coefficients along the dryer was taken into account by a stepwise application of the analytical solution in space intervals with non-uniform inlet conditions and averaged coefficients from previous locations in the dryer. Calculation results were verified by comparison with experimental data from the literature. There was fairly good agreement between experimental data and simulation but the results depend strongly on the correlation used to calculate heat and mass transfer coefficients. For the case of particles containing a multicomponent liquid mixture dried in the vibrated fluidised bed dryer, interactive diffusion and heat conduction were considered the main mechanisms for mass and heat transfer within the particles. Assuming a constant matrix of effective multicomponent diffusion coefficients and thermal conductivity of the wet particles, analytical solutions of the diffusion and conduction equations were obtained. The equations for mass

  13. Métodos de seleção de secadores Dryer selection methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Felipe Toro Alonso

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Quando uma etapa de secagem faz-se necessária, o engenheiro deve escolher um secador adequado que se integre no processo como um todo. E ele deverá comparar as vantagens e desvantagens dentre as várias alternativas disponíveis tomando em conta tanto o ponto de vista técnico como o econômico. Alguns autores escrevem sobre a seleção de secadores. Embora cada autor desenvolva seleção dos secadores de um modo próprio, identifica-se uma linha geral no procedimento de escolha do equipamento. Todos os autores estabelecem um roteiro ou um fluxograma com questionamentos segundo os quais somos dirigidos ao equipamento mais apropriado. De uma breve revisão sobre o tema, podemos notar dois mecanismos básicos para o desenvolvimento da seleção de secadores: analítico - em que uma seqüência de processos decisórios elimina os equipamentos inadequados à solução, conduzindo à determinação da melhor solução; numérico - em que cada equipamento recebe uma pontuação de acordo com a sua adequação à solução do problema, na totalização, a melhor solução é a que obtém a maior pontuação. Neste artigo são apresentados os resultados da seleção de secadores obtidos em um novo modelo de seleção proposto por ALONSO [2].When a drying step is needed, the engineer must choose the most adequate equipment, which must fit into the whole process. He must compare the advantages and disadvantages among the many available choices considering both technical and economic aspects. Some authors describe the dryer selection. Even though each author develops his or her own dryer selection, a general guideline in their dryer selection models may be identified. Every author establishes a query or a flowchart by which through its inquiry we are guided to the most appropriate equipment. From a brief review, one may notice two basic procedures for dryer selection: analytical by which a series of process decision eliminates the inappropriate equipment

  14. Physiological effects of a modification of the construction of impermeable protective clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marszałek, Anna; Bartkowiak, Grazyna; Lezak, Krzysztof

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to improve the construction of impermeable clothing protecting against liquid chemical agents in order to lower the thermal strain caused by the clothing during work. Previous studies indicated that light work in a hot environment in this kind of clothing could last 30 min only. We propose a modification of the construction; new models of protective clothing were tested in wear trials. Then the results were compared with a basic model of impermeable protective clothing. Results indicated that all new models of protective clothing allowed workers to work 39-64% longer than in a basic model of protective clothing. Thus new clothing significantly improved comfort of work in impermeable protective clothing because of the lower thermal strain that it imposed on the user.

  15. The interaction between clothing and air weapon pellets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wightman, G; Wark, K; Thomson, J

    2015-01-01

    Comparatively few studies have been carried out on air weapon injuries yet there are significant number of injuries and fatalities caused by these low power weapons because of their availability and the public perception that because they need no licence they are assumed to be safe. In this study ballistic gel was tested by Bloom and rupture tests to check on consistency of production. Two series of tests were carried out firing into unclothed gel blocks and blocks loosely covered by different items of clothing to simulate attire (tee shirt, jeans, fleece, and jacket). The damage to the clothing caused by different shaped pellets when fired at different ranges was examined. The apparent hole size was affected by the shape of pellet (round, pointed, flat and hollow point) and whether damage was predominantly caused by pushing yarn to one side or by laceration of the yarn through cutting or tearing. The study also compared penetration into clothed gel and unclothed gel under identical conditions, and loose clothing greatly reduced penetration. With loose clothing at 9.1 m range clothing reduced penetration to 50-70% of the penetration of unclothed gel but at 18.3m range only 7 out of 36 shots penetrated the gel. This cannot be accounted for by the energy loss at the longer range (3-7% reduction from 9.1 m to 18.3 m range in unclothed gels) and it is suggested that impulse may have a role to play. Shots that did not penetrate the gel were used to estimate the possible stopping time for the pellet (around 75 μs) and force (1700 N) or stress (100 MPa) required to bring the pellet to a halt. Even with these low energy projectiles, cloth fibres were entrained in the gel showing the potential for penetration of the body and subsequent infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. APIs and Researchers: The Emperor's New Clothes?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Edmond

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available As part of the Europeana Cloud (eCloud project, Trinity College Dublin investigated best practice in the use of web services, such as APIs, for accessing large data sets from cultural heritage collections. This research looked into the provision and use of APIs, and moreover, whether or not more customised programmatic access to datasets is what researchers want or need. In order to understand whether current patterns of API usage reflect a skills gap on the part of researchers or a mismatch of tool to purpose, we looked not only at the creators and developer/users of APIs, but also at humanists already re-using big data; approaches in cultural heritage institutions and other research infrastructures to bring API use to non-technical audiences; and the kinds of training and other support services available or emerging within the data-intensive humanities research lifecycle. We conducted both desk research and a series of 11 interviews with figures working as researchers, developers or data providers, including figures from both the API development and the data usage communities. This research, conducted under the eCloud project and supported by the European Commission’s ICT Policy and Support Programme (Grant number 325091, was begun in March 2014 and is now in its concluding validation stage. The results of the research are not yet finalised, but the contribution is already emerging of this work to the debate about APIs being either the way forward for digital cultural heritage collections, or the Emperor’s New Clothes (or maybe a bit of both.

  17. Thermal insulation and clothing area factors of typical Arabian Gulf clothing ensembles for males and females: measurements using thermal manikins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-ajmi, F F; Loveday, D L; Bedwell, K H; Havenith, G

    2008-05-01

    The thermal insulation of clothing is one of the most important parameters used in the thermal comfort model adopted by the International Standards Organisation (ISO) [BS EN ISO 7730, 2005. Ergonomics of the thermal environment. Analytical determination and interpretation of thermal comfort using calculation of the PMV and PPD indices and local thermal comfort criteria. International Standardisation Organisation, Geneva.] and by ASHRAE [ASHRAE Handbook, 2005. Fundamentals. Chapter 8. American Society of Heating Refrigeration and Air-conditioning Engineers, Inc., 1791 Tullie Circle N.E., Atlanta, GA.]. To date, thermal insulation values of mainly Western clothing have been published with only minimal data being available for non-Western clothing. Thus, the objective of the present study is to measure and present the thermal insulation (clo) values of a number of Arabian Gulf garments as worn by males and females. The clothing ensembles and garments of Arabian Gulf males and females presented in this study are representative of those typically worn in the region during both summer and winter seasons. Measurements of total thermal insulation values (clo) were obtained using a male and a female shape thermal manikin in accordance with the definition of insulation as given in ISO 9920. In addition, the clothing area factors (f cl) determined in two different ways were compared. The first method used a photographic technique and the second a regression equation as proposed in ISO 9920, based on the insulation values of Arabian Gulf male and female garments and ensembles as they were determined in this study. In addition, fibre content, descriptions and weights of Arabian Gulf clothing have been recorded and tabulated in this study. The findings of this study are presented as additions to the existing knowledge base of clothing insulation, and provide for the first time data for Arabian Gulf clothing. The analysis showed that for these non-Western clothing designs, the

  18. European cloth and "tropical" skin: clothing material and British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Ryan

    2009-01-01

    As Britain's imperial and colonial ambitions intensified toward the end of the nineteenth century, the preservation of white European health in tropical climates became an increasingly important concern. Since at least the seventeenth century, the "tropics" had been seen as spaces holding vast potential wealth but also death and disease. To combat these deadly but desirable landscapes, the British built a considerable commodity culture around the preservation of white European health, and for many, tropical clothing was one of the most important and essential items in their "kits." This article investigates the composition and use of such clothing in relation to British ideas of health and hygiene in tropical climates. First, it considers debates that ensued over the best material--wool, cotton, linen, silk, or a combination of these materials--and the role of "black" skin and local practice in the development of tropical clothing. Second, it demonstrates the importance of location in any discussion of tropical medicine and hygiene, and the tension and ambiguity that still surrounded British ideas of health and hygiene in the tropical colonies. Third, it argues that tropical clothing was important in the maintenance of climatic etiologies despite advances in parasitology and sanitary science. Finally, it considers the relationship of tropical clothing to the formation of a unique colonial identity. To British men and women embarking for any number of tropical destinations, proper clothing was not a banal and mundane component of their outfitting. For many, the clothing signified a departure from the safe and "civil" climes of Britain for adventure in the expanding tropical empire.

  19. Near infrared transmission through clothing: applications in sensing and screening

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchins, D. A.; Canal, C. M.; Saleem, A.; Davis, L. A. J.; Green, R. J.

    2011-11-01

    Experiments have been performed to demonstrate that near infrared (NIR) transmission through a wide range of clothing materials is possible. Studies have shown that the characteristics of NIR transmission are affected by both the type of fibre used, and the weave pattern. A series of experiments has indicated that NIR transmission is also dependent on other variables such as fabric porosity and dye colour. It is shown that, in many cases, transmission coefficients are sufficiently high that imaging and spectroscopy of objects hidden behind clothing samples should be possible. However, while transmission through clothing at NIR wavelengths in the 750-1,700 nm range is often more effective than in the visible or IR regions, the fabrics themselves will modify the transmitted signal in terms of spatial effects, intensity and spectral content. The paper also describes the possible use of near infrared signals to identify objects that are hidden behind clothing layers. This can be done using spectroscopy. It is important, however, to distinguish the various contributions that exist within the backscattered signal. A set of careful laboratory experiments have demonstrated that transmission through a set of different clothing fabrics does modify the spectral content of signals, but that the spectrum of a particular chemical can still be identified, provided certain steps are taken. These involve a set of careful calibration measurements, and the use of processing techniques for the retrieval of data. It will be shown that this is possible for both granular solids and selected liquids.

  20. A new methodology for measurement of sludge residence time distribution in a paddle dryer using X-ray fluorescence analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Charlou, Christophe; Milhé, Mathieu; Sauceau, Martial; Arlabosse, Patricia

    2015-02-01

    Drying is a necessary step before sewage sludge energetic valorization. Paddle dryers allow working with such a complex material. However, little is known about sludge flow in this kind of processes. This study intends to set up an original methodology for sludge residence time distribution (RTD) measurement in a continuous paddle dryer, based on the detection of mineral tracers by X-ray fluorescence. This accurate analytical technique offers a linear response to tracer concentration in dry sludge; the protocol leads to a good repeatability of RTD measurements. Its equivalence to RTD measurement by NaCl conductivity in sludge leachates is assessed. Moreover, it is shown that tracer solubility has no influence on RTD: liquid and solid phases have the same flow pattern. The application of this technique on sludge with different storage duration at 4 °C emphasizes the influence of this parameter on sludge RTD, and thus on paddle dryer performances: the mean residence time in a paddle dryer is almost doubled between 24 and 48 h of storage for identical operating conditions.

  1. Design and Performance Evaluation of a Solar Assisted Heat Pump Dryer Integrated with Biomass Furnace for Red Chilli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Yahya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The performance of a solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace has been designed and evaluated for drying red chillies, and drying kinetics of red chillies were evaluated. The red chillies were dried from 22 kg with moisture content of 4.26 db to moisture content of 0.08 db which needed 11 hours, with the average drying chamber temperature, drying chamber relative humidity, and an air mass flow rate of 70.5°C, 10.1%, and 0.124 kg/s, respectively, while the open sun drying needed 62 hours. Compared to open sun drying, this dryer yielded 82% saving in drying time. The drying rate, the specific moisture extraction rate, and thermal efficiency of the dryer were estimated in average to be about 1.57 kg/h, 0.14 kg/kWh, and 9.03%, respectively. Three mathematical models, the Newton, Henderson-Pabis, and Page models, were fitted to the experimental data on red chillies dried by solar assisted heat pump dryer integrated with biomass furnace and open sun drying. The performance of these models was evaluated by comparing the coefficient of determination (R2, mean bias error (MBE, and root mean-square error (RMSE. The Page model gave the best results for representing drying kinetics of red chillies.

  2. Energy-saving dryer that protects laundry. Thermodynamics and functional model. Final report of 1{sup st} phase; Energiesparender, waescheschonender Trockner. Thermodynamik und Funktionsmuster. Schlussbericht der 1. Phase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Friedl, M.; Weilenmann, U.

    2006-07-01

    Tumble-dryer with heat recuperation: the goal of this project is to develop a tumble-dryer with high energy efficiency (class A), which dries laundry gently and which does not cost more than normal dryers. This goal is to be achieved with a tumble-dryer with heat recuperation. Top efficiency is attainable: a thermodynamic analysis showed that with the suggested concept the efficiency of the most efficient dryers can be reached. The critical parameter thereby is the heat transfer inside of the dryer-drum. The greater this transfer is, the more efficient the dryer will be. A quantification of this heat transfer will only be possible using an operating model. Stationary computations: this report describes the thermodynamic analysis as well as the design of the operating model. The computations presented in this report are based on stationary conditions. For the interpretation of the tests with the operating model a time-dependent computation will be used. Manufacturing of the operating model in 2{sup nd} phase: in the next project phase the operating model will be manufactured. By means of various measurements and tests to be made the energy efficiency is to be demonstrated and the parameters for an optimal drying-process are to be found. (author)

  3. Using landfill gas as the primary fuel for a 200 WTPD thermal dryer[Held jointly with the 4. Canadian organic residuals and biosolids managment conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shulmister, D. [Manattee County, Manatee, FL (United States). Wastewater Division; Monroe, A. [McKim and Creed, Cary, NC (United States)

    2007-07-01

    Although there is no evidence of health problems, there is a growing opposition to class B land application of biosolids in many localities in the United States, resulting in less sites available to dispose of class B biosolids. Manatee County, located on the West Coast of Florida, decided to implement thermal drying of its biosolids. This produced a class A pellet that could be used without restriction as a fertilizer or soil amendment. The dryer will be located at the county's southeast water reclamation facility, adjacent to the county's Lena Road landfill. The methane gas from the landfill will be used as the primary fuel for the dryer. This paper presented how Manatee County, Florida decided to meet its long term biosolids handling and disposal needs. The paper provided background information on Manatee County, Florida. It discussed the reasons for the dryer technology selection, location of the dryer, sizing criteria as well as listing the components of the dryer. The paper also discussed dryer procurement. Other topics that were presented included fuel requirements and an analysis of landfill gas. The County expects to save approximately two million dollars per year by selecting landfill gas from its Lena Road landfill as the primary fuel for the dryer. 5 tabs.

  4. Development of a clothing iron safety device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beers, Ryan; Anthamatten, Mitchell; Reid, Dixie; Kahn, Steven A; Lentz, Christopher W

    2009-01-01

    Contact burns from clothing irons are a common injury seen in children. These injuries occur when an unattended iron is within reach of toddlers in its upright position. In a previous study, the authors have shown that the surface of an iron takes 90 minutes to cool below the epidermal injury threshold of 49 degrees C. The authors have constructed an "iron shoe" to shield the iron surface from young hands during cooling. The device is intended to set the cooling iron in its down position providing additional protection. The device will insulate the iron surface to avoid the fire hazard when positioned in this manner. A silicone polymer was used to create an "iron shoe." This polymer is stable at temperatures up to 370 degrees C. The device included sidewalls to shield the edges from contact. Thermal analysis of the device was conducted using an inexpensive and expensive iron. Thermocouples were placed on the iron surface and below the iron shoe. The irons were heated to its maximum temperature, placed in the shoe and then unplugged. Temperature cooling curves were obtained from the thermocouples. The experiment was repeated by measuring the temperature difference between the iron edge and the shoe sidewalls. The surface of both expensive and inexpensive irons reached a maximum of 205 degrees C. The temperature below the iron shoe reached a maximum of 49 degrees C (inexpensive) and 60 degrees C (expensive). The iron edge temperature reached a maximum of 188 degrees C (inexpensive) and 154 degrees C (expensive). The shoe sidewall temperature achieved a maximum of 52 degrees C (inexpensive) and 49 degrees C (expensive). Both expensive and inexpensive irons reach temperatures over 200 degrees C. The silicone "iron shoe" effectively shielded the surface and edge of both irons and approached the epidermal injury threshold of 49 degrees C. The temperature beneath the expensive iron did exceed 49 degrees C, but because the intention of the device is to place the iron in

  5. Birthplace of Fashion Designers: Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1995-01-01

    CLOTHING, as the old Chinese saying goes, is regarded as the most basic human need. In 1988 in Beijing, the first institute of higher learning to focus on the design and manufacture of clothing was established. The Beijing Institute of Clothing Technology (BICT) offers a combined curriculum of art and fashion that has fostered the talent of many outstanding young designers. The college is located near the ruins of the city wall from the Yuan Dynasty (1271-1368) and has an enrollment of 2,500 undergraduate and graduate students. Before 1988 the building housed a college of chemical fibre engineering that had many lecturers and professors who where considered accomplished at both theory and application. The school was expanded with the addition of nine subjects and three new departments—Garment,

  6. Microfibrous metallic cloth for acoustic isolation of a MEMS gyroscope

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Robert; Burch, Nesha; Black, Meagan; Beal, Aubrey; Flowers, George

    2011-04-01

    The response of a MEMS device that is exposed to a harsh environment may range from an increased noise floor to a completely erroneous output to temporary or even permanent device failure. One such harsh environment is high power acoustic energy possessing high frequency components. This type of environment sometimes occurs in small aerospace vehicles. In this type of operating environment, high frequency acoustic energy can be transferred to a MEMS gyroscope die through the device packaging. If the acoustic noise possesses a sufficiently strong component at the resonant frequency of the gyroscope, it will overexcite the motion of the proof mass, resulting in the deleterious effect of corrupted angular rate measurement. Therefore if the device or system packaging can be improved to sufficiently isolate the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic energy, the sensor may find new applications in this type of harsh environment. This research effort explored the use of microfibrous metallic cloth for isolating the gyroscope die from environmental acoustic excitation. Microfibrous cloth is a composite of fused, intermingled metal fibers and has a variety of typical uses involving chemical processing applications and filtering. Specifically, this research consisted of experimental evaluations of multiple layers of packed microfibrous cloth composed of sintered nickel material. The packed cloth was used to provide acoustic isolation for a test MEMS gyroscope, the Analog Devices ADXRS300. The results of this investigation revealed that the intermingling of the various fibers of the metallic cloth provided a significant contact area between the fiber strands and voids, which enhanced the acoustic damping of the material. As a result, the nickel cloth was discovered to be an effective acoustic isolation material for this particular MEMS gyroscope.

  7. Effect of body mass and clothing on carrion entomofauna.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matuszewski, Szymon; Frątczak, Katarzyna; Konwerski, Szymon; Bajerlein, Daria; Szpila, Krzysztof; Jarmusz, Mateusz; Szafałowicz, Michał; Grzywacz, Andrzej; Mądra, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Carcass mass largely affects pattern and rate of carrion decomposition. Supposedly, it is similarly important for carrion entomofauna; however, most of its likely effects have not been tested experimentally. Here, simultaneous effects of carcass mass and clothing are analyzed. A factorial block experiment with four levels of carcass mass (small carcasses 5-15 kg, medium carcasses 15.1-30 kg, medium/large carcasses 35-50 kg, large carcasses 55-70 kg) and two levels of carcass clothing (clothed and unclothed) was made in a grassland habitat of Western Poland. Pig carcasses (N = 24) were grouped into spring, early summer, and late summer blocks. Insects were sampled manually and with pitfall traps. Results demonstrate that insect assemblages are more complex, abundant, and long-lasting on larger carcasses, whereas clothing is of minor importance in this respect. Only large or medium/large carcasses were colonized by all guilds of carrion insects, while small or medium carcasses revealed high underrepresentation of late-colonizing insects (e.g., Cleridae or Nitidulidae). This finding indicates that carcasses weighing about 23 kg-a standard in forensic decomposition studies-give an incomplete picture of carrion entomofauna. Residencies of all forensically relevant insects were distinctly prolonged on larger carcasses, indicating that cadaver mass is a factor of great importance in this respect. The pre-appearance interval of most taxa was found to be unrelated to mass or clothing of a carcass. Moreover, current results suggest that rate of larval development is higher on smaller carcasses. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that carcass mass is a factor of crucial importance for carrion entomofauna, whereas the importance of clothing is small.

  8. An experimentally validated simulation model for a four-stage spray dryer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Lars Norbert; Poulsen, Niels Kjølstad; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2017-01-01

    is divided into four consecutive stages: a primary spray drying stage, two heated fluid bed stages, and a cooling fluid bed stage. Each of these stages in the model is assumed ideally mixed and the dynamics are described by mass- and energy balances. These balance equations are coupled with constitutive...... equations such as a thermodynamic model, the water evaporation rate, the heat transfer rates, and an equation for the stickiness of the powder (glass transition temperature). Laboratory data is used to model the equilibrium moisture content and the glass transition temperature of the powder. The resulting...... mathematical model is an index-1 differential algebraic equation (DAE) model with 12 states, 9 inputs, 8 disturbances, and 30 parameters. The parameters in the model are identified from well-excited experimental data obtained from the industrialtype spray dryer. The simulated outputs ofthe model are validated...

  9. Design and Experimentation of Collector based Solar Dryer with Recirculation for Spices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Ganesh There

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available Sun drying system is very common method of preserving agricultural product. Solar energy is used for heating of air and to dry food substance. In open sun drying food is unprotected from rain, wind-borne dirt and dust, infestation by insects, rodents and other animal. This process is practically attractive and environmentally sound. Shell life of agricultural product is improve by drying. This paper present design and construction of active solar dryer with recirculation technique. It consists of solar collector, drying chamber with netted trays and recirculation arrangement. Air is allowed through inlet and it is heated up in collector. Then it is circulated in drying chamber where it is utilize for drying. The design based on geographical location Wardha and meteorological data were obtained for proper design specification. Locally available materials were used for construction such as polyurethane glass, mild steel metal sheet, plywood sheet and insulating material.

  10. Evaluation and comparing of natural and forced solar dryer for mint drying in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2017-05-01

    Research Center during the years 2011-2013. Materials and Methods In this research an indirect cabinet solar dryer with three trays and grooved collector was constructed. To improve air convection, a chimney was mounted above the dryer. The dryer performance was evaluated by drying mint leaves in three levels of mass density of 2, 3, and 4 kg m-2 at two drying manners of natural and forced convection and compared with drying mint leaves in shade as the traditional method. Results and Discussion The results showed that total drying time required in different solar drier treatments was 3.5 to 15 h, while it was about 5 days in traditional method. Drying time in upper trays was more as the air flow decreased due to increase in mass density. Mean required drying time in forced convection was 29.7% less than that of natural convection. Maximum essences with 0.80% and 0.76% were belonged to "natural convection and 3kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively, while minimum one with 0.30% was for "forced convection and 2 kg m-2 mass density" treatment. Also, the highest and lowest chlorophyll content with 8.51 and 4.18 mg ml-1 were measured in "natural convection and 3 kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively. According to obtained results, 3 and 4 kg m-2 mass density can be suggested for natural and forced convection solar drying of mint leaves in Khuzestan condition respectively. Conclusions In order to reduce vegetable losses and increase Khuzestan vegetable producers income, indirect cabinet solar dryer for drying mint leaves in winter season, could be an appropriate option. For natural and forced convection drying methods, mass density of 3 and 4 kg m-2 is recommended respectively.

  11. Simulation of Solar Heat Pump Dryer Directly Driven by Photovoltaic Panels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houhou, H.; Yuan, W.; Wang, G.

    2017-05-01

    This paper investigates a new type of solar heat pump dryer directly driven by photovoltaic panels. In order to design this system, a mathematical model has been established describing the whole drying process, including models of key components and phenomena of heat and mass transfer at the product layer and the air. The results of simulation at different drying air temperatures and velocities have been calculated and it indicate that the temperature of drying air is crucial external parameter compared to the velocity, with the increase of drying temperature from 45°C to 55°C, the product moisture content (Kg water/Kg dry product) decreased from 0.75 Kg/Kg to 0.3 Kg/Kg.

  12. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  13. Adsorption isotherms of hog plum (Spondias mombin L. pulp powder obtained by spray dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Gomes de Moura Neto

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Food sorption isotherms are highly important to predict drying time and storage conditions of a product. Current assay evaluates the behavior of adsorption isotherms of hog plum powder obtained by spray-dryer, through mathematical models. GAB, BET, Henderson and Oswin models were adjusted to the experimental data at 25, 30, 35 and 40ºC. The BET model best adjusted to the atomized hog plum for all temperatures tested, with an error ranging between 8.45 and 11.17%. The coefficient of determination (R2 had rates higher than 0.9900 for all the adjusted models. The behavior of hog plum powder adsorption isotherms was classified as Type III.

  14. Chitosan microspheres loaded with holmium-165 produced by spray dryer for liver cancer therapy: preliminary experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyamoto, Douglas Massao; Pires, Geovanna; Lira, Raphael A. de; Melo, Vitor H.S.; Nascimento, Nanci; Azevedo, Mariangela de Burgos M. de, E-mail: douglas.miyamoto@usp.b [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Osso Junior, Joao Alberto [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Centro de Radiofarmacia

    2011-07-01

    Chitosan is a biopolymer of 2-deoxy-2-amino-D-glucose that is obtained by deacetylation of chitin. It's biocompatible, biodegradable, non toxic and has antitumor activity. Chitosan has many applications, such as their microparticles that can be used to treat prostate cancer, rheumatoid arthritis, and for liver tumor brachytherapy treatment. Our group is developing different biodegradable polymer-based microspheres loaded with holmium-165 for this purpose. The Chitosan microspheres were produced loaded with holmium (III) chloride, and not loaded with it, by Mini Spray Dryer procedure. The microspheres were evaluated by scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), confocal laser scanning microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, particle size, and X-ray diffraction. The EDS analysis confirmed the holmium chloride presence into the prepared chitosan microparticles. (author)

  15. The Development of a Spray Dryer based on a Food Industrial Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The spray dryer, which will satisfy the future demands, is developed through the engineering approach in accordance to 3A- Sanitary Standards in the food industry. The main points are as follows. 1) A High Discharge-Single Swirl Atomizer is adapted for practical use; which can mix effectively with single hot air jet. 2) An optimum jet distributer eliminates swirling components in the jet. 3) Secondary air from the periphery of the jet controls the diffusion and Coanda effect of the jet. 4) The drying chamber's wall is controlled at a temperature below the "Sticky Point" of products. 5) An optimum cooler is included in the bottom of the drying chamber. The above devices prevent undried particles from adhering to the drying chamber's wall, improve the fluidity of products as powder particles, and bring about high efficiency, stable and high quality long lasting productivity.

  16. Matrix structure selection in the microparticles of essential oil oregano produced by spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Joyce Maria Gomes; Borges, Soraia Vilela; Hijo, Ariel Antonio Campos Toledo; Silva, Eric Keven; Marques, Gerson Reginaldo; Cirillo, Marcelo Ângelo; de Azevedo, Viviane Machado

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this work was to select the best combination of encapsulants for the microencapsulation of oregano essential oil by spray dryer with the addition of Arabic gum (AG), modified starch (MS) and maltodextrin (MA). The simplex-centroid method was used to obtain an optimal objective function with three variables. Analytical methods for carvacrol quantification, water activity, moisture content, wettability, solubility, encapsulation efficiency (ME) and oil retention (RT) were used to evaluate the best combination of encapsulants. The use of AG as a single wall material increased ME up to 93%. Carvacrol is the major phenolic compound existent in the oregano essential oil. Carvacrol exhibits a maximum concentration of 57.8% in the microparticle with the use of 62.5% AG and 37.5% MA. A greater RT (77.39%) was obtained when 74.5% AG; MS 12.7% and 12.7% MA were applied, and ME (93%) was improved with 100% of gum.

  17. ANTIFUNGAL ACTIVITY OF HYBANTHUS ENNEASPERMUS ON WET CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arumugam Napoleon

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available During rainy season, when clothes are not properly dried they develop spots. In clothes the spots appear as black or greenish black in color and these spots or mildews were cultured and microscopically examined. It was identified as fungi, viz. Aspergillus niger, Aspergillus flavus and Aspergillus fumigatus. Antifungal activities of different extracts of Hybanthus enneaspermus were screened. The antifungal activity was graded, based on the zone of inhibition. Among the three extracts used for the present studies, methanolic extract exhibited the maximum growth inhibition, followed by chloroform and petroleum ether extract.

  18. A Methodological Approach to the Materiality of Clothing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Klepp, Ingun Grimstad; Bjerck, Mari

    2014-01-01

    clothes relate to each other on the whole or within parts of the wardrobe. More specifically, we discuss how this method can contribute to increasing the materiality of clothes studies. The theoretical point of departure for this approach is a practice theory in which the material enters as an integral...... part. First, the article briefly discusses developments within the study of dress and fashion. Second, the methods combined and developed in wardrobe studies are discussed. The emphasis here is primarily not only on the weaknesses of the individual methods in practice-oriented dress studies, but also...

  19. Drying operation of ceramic tile bodies in vertical dryers (second part); Le sechage des carreaux ceramiques dans les sechoirs verticaux (2. partie)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mallol, G.; Mezquita, A.; Llorens, D.; Jarque, J.C.; Sahun, J.; Valle, F. [Universitat Jaume I., Istituto de Tecnologia Ceramica, ITC, Association de Investigacion de las Industrias Ceramicas, Castellon (Spain); Gas Natural SDF, S.A., Barcelona (Spain)

    2002-06-01

    The operation in a steady and non-steady state of a vertical dryer used for drying ceramic tile bodies and the evolution of tile body characteristics at the dryer exists were studied in the first part of this article. This second part deals with the adjustments of the burner temperature settings during stoppage, gas flow rate in the stack and recirculating gas flow rate. In addition, in some drying facilities co-generation systems are used with internal gas combustion motors. In the present study a series of modifications is proposed regarding existing facilities in order to optimise current dryer use. (authors)

  20. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse. Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality

  1. Solar energy dryer kinetics using flat-plate finned collector and forced convection for potato drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Misran, Erni; Dina, Sari Farah; Heppy

    2017-06-01

    Research on potato drying using the indirect solar dryer with flat-plate finned collector and forced convection has been done. The research was conducted at the outdoor field of Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry on June 14th-23rd, 2016 from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. This research aims to obtain the drying kinetics model of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) using an indirect solar dryer's (ISD) with flat plate-finned collector and forced convection. The result will be compared to the open sun drying (OSD) method. Weather conditions during the drying process took place as follows; surrounding air temperature was in the range 27 to 34.7 °C, relative humidity (RH) 29.5 to 61.0% and the intensity of solar radiation 105.6 to 863.1 Watt/m2. The dried potato thicknesses were 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm, with the average initial water content of 76.46%. The average temperature in the collector chamber ranged from 42.2 to 57.4 °C and the drying chamber was at 46.2 °C. The best drying result was obtained from a sample size of 1 cm thickness using the IDS method with an average drying rate of 0.018 kg H2O per kg dry-weight.hour and the water content was constant at 5.02% in 21 hours of drying time. The most suitable kinetics model is Page model, equation MR = exp (-0.049 t1,336) for 1.0 cm thickness, exp (-0.066 t1,222) for 1.5 cm thickness and exp (-0.049 t1,221) for 2.0 cm thickness. The quality of potato drying using ISD method is better than using OSD which can be seen from the color produced.

  2. Heat gain from thermal radiation through protective clothing with different insulation, reflectivity and vapour permeability

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bröde, P.; Kuklane, K.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Griefahn, B.; Holmér, I.; Meinander, H.; Nocker, W.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2010-01-01

    The heat transferred through protective clothing under long wave radiation compared to a reference condition without radiant stress was determined in thermal manikin experiments. The influence of clothing insulation and reflectivity, and the interaction with wind and wet underclothing were

  3. Roadmap to sustainable textiles and clothing regulatory aspects and sustainability standards of textiles and the clothing supply chain

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book covers the elements involved in achieving sustainability in textiles and clothing sector. The chapters covered in three volumes of this series title cover all the distinctive areas earmarked for achieving sustainable development in textiles and clothing industry. This third volume highlights the areas pertaining to the regulatory aspects and sustainability standards applicable to textiles and clothing supply chain. There are various standards earmarked for measuring the environmental impacts and sustainability of textile products. There are also plenty of certification schemes available along with the index systems applicable to textile sector. Brands and manufactures are also venturing into new developments to achieve sustainable development in textile sector. This third volume addresses all these important aspects.

  4. Integrating 3D Scanning\\ud Data & Textile Parameters into Virtual Clothing

    OpenAIRE

    Power, Jess; Apeagyei, P.R.; Jefferson, A.M.

    2011-01-01

    Globalisation has changed the face of the clothing and textile industries in many developed and developing nations. In the twenty first century no longer are clothes manufactured and retailed in specific local regions. Fashion and clothing have joined textiles in becoming a truly global operation. Despite this revolution many authors report that clothing and textiles still lag behind other manufacturing industries in relation to their enthusiasm to adopt new product development processes. The...

  5. Weaving the nation : Scottish clothing and textile cultures in the Long Eighteenth century

    OpenAIRE

    Tuckett, Sally Jeanne Susan

    2011-01-01

    Clothing and textiles are an important means of communication, providing nuanced signals of economic and social status, occupation, and political affiliation. Consequently the study of clothing and textiles is a valuable approach to the investigation of a past society. Building on current methodological approaches associated with clothing and textile history and the study of material culture, this thesis will investigate how the clothing and textiles of the Scottish population ...

  6. JUSTIFICATION FOR CHOOSING THE OPTIMAL PACKAGE OF MATERIALS FOR CLOTHING CHILDREN WITH METABOLIC SYNDROME

    OpenAIRE

    Ivashchenko I. N.

    2014-01-01

    Quality regulations of clothes and materials do not include features of children and adolescents with disorders of obesity in the design of clothes and selection of the materials. In the article, we proposed the choice of clothing materials management package with the structural features of the surface of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, the properties of materials and their functions

  7. Waterproof, Breathable Fabrics for Military Clothing Systems: An Innovative Approach to Acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-04-01

    extracting) and then dry bag in automatic tumble dryer set on permanent press cycle, 1501-1601 F for fifteen 20 (15) minutes (more than one bag can be...into the washer. The duration of each laundering cycle shall be 30 + 5 minutes. After laundering, place sample and ballast in an automatic tumble ... dryer set on permanent press cycle, 150’-1600 F, and dry for approximately 15 minutes. Conduct 20 laundering and drying cycles. After each drying cycle

  8. Impact of flow induced vibration acoustic loads on the design of the Laguna Verde Unit 2 steam dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsyth, D. R.; Wellstein, L. F.; Theuret, R. C.; Han, Y.; Rajakumar, C. [Westinghouse Electric Company LLC, Cranberry Township, PA 16066 (United States); Amador C, C.; Sosa F, W., E-mail: forsytdr@westinghouse.com [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Central Nucleoelectrica Laguna Verde, Km 42.5 Carretera Cardel-Nautla, 91680 Alto Lucero, Veracruz (Mexico)

    2015-09-15

    Industry experience with Boiling Water Reactors (BWRs) has shown that increasing the steam flow through the main steam lines (MSLs) to implement an extended power up rate (EPU) may lead to amplified acoustic loads on the steam dryer, which may negatively affect the structural integrity of the component. The source of these acoustic loads has been found to be acoustic resonance of the side branches on the MSLs, specifically, coupling of the vortex shedding frequency and natural acoustic frequency of safety relief valves (SRVs). The resonance that results from this coupling can contribute significant acoustic energy into the MSL system, which may propagate upstream into the reactor pressure vessel steam dome and drive structural vibration of steam dryer components. This can lead to high-cycle fatigue issues. Lock-in between the vortex shedding frequency and SRV natural frequency, as well as the ability for acoustic energy to propagate into the MSL system, are a function of many things, including the plant operating conditions, geometry of the MSL/SRV junction, and placement of SRVs with respect to each other on the MSLs. Comision Federal de Electricidad and Westinghouse designed, fabricated, and installed acoustic side branches (ASBs) on the MSLs which effectively act in the system as an energy absorber, where the acoustic standing wave generated in the side-branch is absorbed and dissipated inside the ASB. These ASBs have been very successful in reducing the amount of acoustic energy which propagates into the steam dome. In addition, modifications to the Laguna Verde Nuclear Power Plant Unit 2 steam dryer have been completed to reduce the stress levels in critical locations in the dryer. The objective of this paper is to describe the acoustic side branch concept and the design iterative processes that were undertaken at Laguna Verde Unit 2 to achieve a steam dryer design that meets the guidelines of the American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Boiler and Pressure

  9. United States Textiles and Clothing Imports Sink in 2009

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    In 2009,United States’ textiles and clothing imports experienced their worst fall in over 20 years.The year in fact witnessed an upheaval. Compared to 2008,the dollar value of United States’ sector imports in 2009 dropped by 13.7%.Coming on top of a

  10. "The Polishing Cloth": Student Writing Creates Writing Text.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larson, Sarah L.

    The concept of using good student writing to inspire more good student writing, of using a text to create the next year's text is a vital process that demonstrates DeKalb College's emphasis on individual student instruction and recognition. "The Polishing Cloth" is a collection of the best student essays from English composition,…

  11. 10 CFR 850.29 - Protective clothing and equipment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... beryllium, regardless of measured exposure levels. (b) The responsible employer must comply with 29 CFR 1910... and equipment. (c) The responsible employer must establish procedures for donning, doffing, handling... that contain beryllium with contamination on their bodies or their personal clothing; and (2)...

  12. Fiber, Fabric, and Fashion. Clothing and Textiles Curriculum. Environment I.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arizona State Univ., Tempe.

    A competency-based instructional guide for grades 7-14, this volume is one of three parts, each of which focuses on a different instructional environment (psychomotor, cognitive, or affective) for clothing or fashion instruction, and each of which includes competencies and corresponding learning activities for each of three instructional levels.…

  13. Chemistry I and Clothing, Textiles and Fashion Merchandising Majors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clausen, Donald F.

    1980-01-01

    The application of principles learned in a first course in chemistry to chemical problems of interest to home economics majors specializing in clothing and textiles or fashion merchandising is described. Concept transfer--teaching difficult concepts in terms of an everyday analogue--is also explained and relevant laboratory experiments are…

  14. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WORDS, TEXTS, CLOTHES AND TEXTILES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    STURZA Amalia

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper we will speculate the possible relationships between “word,” “text,” “textile,” and “clothing”. Many of the terms we use to describe our interactions with words are derived from the common linguistic root and numerous other expressions associated with reading and writing are drawn from the rich vocabulary of cloth. Textiles are one of the most ubiquitous components of material culture and they are also integral to the material history of texts. The intersection between texts and textiles locates the relationship between language and dress, as together they structure the fashion scene over the century. We compare these texts and storytelling with the process of making clothes, they go from fibers that are spun and then create the fabric or the material out of which the clothes are made. Besides the similitude of the words “text” and “textile” that have four similar letters there is also the resemblance in the way they transmit a message. While texts are meant to transmit something to the reader, to enchant and to create emotions in so various ways, just in the same way clothes are also meant to transmit emotions and feelings to the wearer or to the people watching them.

  15. 447 Clothing for Elderly Persons: Management and Caring Strategies

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    FIRST LADY

    2011-01-18

    Jan 18, 2011 ... so, the need and desire for food, and probably for fashion. The taste and choice of clothing among the elderly is believed to be tied with the individual .... other factors, this disease could cause a person to become so insensitive to ... location of older people and the role of consumer culture in age identities.

  16. Research on application of carbon fiber heating material in clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Huanhong

    2017-08-01

    With the development of society, the way of keeping warm clothing is also developing. Carbon fiber has the advantages of high efficiency, safety, mobility and comfort. As a heating element, it has good application prospect. In this paper, the main technology, application issues and design method of carbon fiber heating garment are analyzed, and the key problems in industrialization are also put forward.

  17. A test battery related to ergonomics of protective clothing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Havenith, G.; Heus, R.

    2004-01-01

    Specialised protective clothing, such as that worn by firefighters, is usually tested only to standards which give requirements for the materials used (e.g. EN469). However,this testing often neglects the effect the manufacturing process of the garment has on the material properties,the effects of

  18. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physic

  19. Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Female consumers' familiarity with clothing brands and their trust in brand names as an ... between the CBO and COM influences consumers' product perceptions. ... Data collection involved convenience sampling, and the self-completion of a ... Data analysis involved descriptive statistics, factor analysis, analysis of ...

  20. Early adolescent girls' expectations about the fit of clothes: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seugnet

    ISSN 0378-5254 Journal of Family Ecology and Consumer Sciences, Vol 32, 2004 .... investigation and study of the self, physically as well .... changes could influence her evaluation of her clothes and could ... ment fit and lack of knowledge about factors that influ- ... fact that it influences the encoding of new information.

  1. Concept to comfort-condition subjects wearing restrictive clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tucker, E. M.

    1968-01-01

    Heat exchanger maintains a desirable thermal balance in a subject wearing restrictive clothing. A grid of high thermal conductance fibers, in contact with the skin, transfers heat to or from the skin surface by means of a system of ducts, carrying the transfer fluid which is maintained at a controlled temperature.

  2. DNA profiles from clothing fibers using direct PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blackie, Renée; Taylor, Duncan; Linacre, Adrian

    2016-09-01

    We report on the successful use of direct PCR amplification of single fibers from items of worn clothing. Items of clothing were worn throughout the course of a day, with the individual commencing regular activities. Single fibers were taken from the cuff of the clothing at regular intervals and amplified directly. The same areas were subjected to tape-lifting, and also amplified directly for comparison. The NGM™ kit that amplifies 15 STR loci plus amelogenin was used. A total of 35 single fiber samples were processed and analyzed from five items of clothing, with 81 % of samples returning a profile of 14 alleles or more. All tape-lift samples amplified directly produced DNA profiles of 15 alleles or more. The aim was to develop a simple, operational method that could be used routinely in forensic science casework and that has the potential to generate more complete profiles, which would not be detected using standard extraction methods on this type of sample. For ease of implementation, the process also adheres to standard methods with no increase in the cycle number.

  3. Competency Based Curriculum for Clothing Services and Production Sewing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, Charlotte

    Designed to meet individual needs and learning levels of high school and postsecondary students enrolled in vocational training for occupations in clothing services and production sewing, this competency-based curriculum teaches skills in alterations, dressmaking, and power sewing machine operations. Skills are organized into 13 units: Awareness…

  4. Women’s Cloth-Making Campaign in Shanxi(2)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    THE cloth-making campaign carried out by the Eighth Route Army and the local people in Shanxi helped pulp them through a tough situation and win the victory of the War of Resistance Against Japan (1937-1945). In the remote hills where both industrial and agricultural development was slow-

  5. Heat strain in personal protective clothing: Challenges and intervention strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McLellan, T.M.; Daanen, H.A.M.

    2012-01-01

    Humans rely on sweat evaporation during exercise in the heat to promote cooling and to maintain thermal homeostasis. In protective clothing, however, sweat evaporation is severely hampered and this may lead to uncompensable heat strain, where core body temperature continues to rise leading to physic

  6. Holland Code, Job Satisfaction and Productivity in Clothing Factory Workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heesacker, Martin; And Others

    Published research on vocational interests and personality has not often assessed the characteristics of workers and the work environment in blue-collar, women-dominated industries. This study administered the Self-Directed Search (Form E) to 318 sewing machine operators in three clothing factories. Holland codes, productivity, job satisfaction,…

  7. Vocational Training in the Textiles and Clothing Industries in Greece.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drimousis, I.; Zisimopoulos, A.

    This document examines the circumstances under which vocational training in Greece is provided for jobs in the textile and clothing industries. Its objective is to identify guidelines for vocational training for a skilled work force at regional and national levels and to contribute to job mobility between industries. Statistical data,…

  8. Alterations in fruit and vegetable β-carotene and vitamin C content caused by open-sun drying, visqueen-covered and polyethylene-covered solar-dryers

    OpenAIRE

    Ndawula, J; Kabasa, JD; Byaruhanga, YB

    2004-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of three drying methods (open sun drying, visqueen-covered solar dryer and polyethylene-covered solar dryer) on b-carotene and vitamin C content of edible portions of mango fruit (Mangifera indica) and cowpea leaves (Vigna unguiculata). Commercial samples were analysed for vitamin C by titrimetry and b-carotene by spectrophotometery at 450nm. Differences in vitamin retention and loss associated with the three drying methods were assessed by analysis of vari...

  9. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-07-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidizing gas,(3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  10. Heat transfer to immersed horizontal tubes in gas fluidized bed dryers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonassen, Ola

    1999-10-01

    The main objective of this study was to construct heat pump fluidized bed dryers of the FHT type with improved dewatering capacity for a given size of the dryer. The use of heat exchangers immersed in the fluidized bed drying chambers is an important part of the FHT (Fluidized Bed High Temperature Heat Pump Dryer) concept. A pilot plant FHT dryer was built and successfully tested on fish meal raw material and seaweed. The plant included two fluidized bed drying chambers with immersed heat exchangers. The gain in water vapor of the drying air through the chambers was increased up to four times that of adiabatic drying. The energy saving concept was retained as a SMER ratio of 3.5 to 4.7 was measured in the same tests. Therefore optimization of the immersed heat exchangers was considered the most important single objective for this work. The optimization study of the heat exchangers was confined to the actual operating conditions for the dryers using: (1) Bubbling gas fluidized beds were used, (2) air as the only type of fluidising gas, (3) beds at atmospheric pressure, (4) bed temperatures below 100 {sup o}C, (5) fluidized particles of Geldart classes B and D, (6) horizontal tube banks for the immersed heat exchanger, and the influence of radiation heat transfer was ignored. The heat transfer study was confined to the fluidized bed side of the heat exchanger surface. It was concluded early in this work that the bubbles play a major role in generating the particle circulation inside the bed and hence also in heat transfer. Publications describing the most important bubble induced mechanisms contributing to high rates of heat transfer were found to be limited. Therefore the first part of this study was aimed at establishing a method for locating and measuring the size and rise velocity of bubbles inside the bed. The method established through this work using differential pressure measurements from two static pressure probes was used later in the study of heat transfer

  11. Systems approach to clothing for disabled users. Why is it difficult for disabled users to find suitable clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorén, M

    1996-12-01

    Today's clothing market is not adapted for people with unusual body dimensions and/or different kinds of functional impairments. They will be referred to as disabled users. The method of user-oriented product development combined with the soft systems methodology has been applied in order to understand and possibly solve their problem. Sixty five disabled users were interviewed. The results show that the disabled users must be divided into subgroups. Their requirements are very much dependent on their impairment not only regarding the fit and function of the clothing, but also regarding shopping and service in the stores. The symbolic values of clothing are just as important as the functional values. However, it is essential not to focus on the end product only, but to look at the problem as a system consisting of: manufacturing, marketing and end use. A new method of taking three dimensional measurements from range images of the human body has been developed. In combination with other developments in information technology it will be possible to synthesise a new system where the manufacturers and retailers of clothing can co-operate in order to give service to disabled users.

  12. Doing Business in Textiles and Clothing with China——What You Need to Know

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Don Shen

    2009-01-01

    @@ In the global textile and clothing market,China has been a major player for almost two decades. Since becoming a member of the World Trade Organization, China's textile and clothing manufacturing and sales have increased dramatically, largely due to increased business from the West. In order to inform foreign businesses about current practices in trade with Chinese textile and clothing companies, a study was conducted examining major changes in China's textile and clothing industries over the last two decades.Specifically, this study intended to provide an overview of China's textile and clothing industries to foreign companies interested in doing business in China.

  13. 服装专卖店的设计%Design of Monopolistic Clothing Store

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈贤昌

    2004-01-01

    Monopolistic clothing store is the best place for clothing industry to present the complete identity and distinctive style of brands. Actually the brand identity is reflected not only from clothes itself, but also from different aspects, e.g. an ornament, a brochure, a logo, and a clothes rack, or the outside appearance of the store, the window display and the inside environment. So monopolistic clothing store should focus on promoting the philosophy of brand and present the brand identity in its visual designs.

  14. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2017-01-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  15. Modeling 3D conjugate heat and mass transfer for turbulent air drying of Chilean papaya in a direct contact dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemus-Mondaca, Roberto A.; Vega-Gálvez, Antonio; Zambra, Carlos E.; Moraga, Nelson O.

    2016-03-01

    A 3D model considering heat and mass transfer for food dehydration inside a direct contact dryer is studied. The k- ɛ model is used to describe turbulent air flow. The samples thermophysical properties as density, specific heat, and thermal conductivity are assumed to vary non-linearly with temperature. FVM, SIMPLE algorithm based on a FORTRAN code are used. Results unsteady velocity, temperature, moisture, kinetic energy and dissipation rate for the air flow are presented, whilst temperature and moisture values for the food also are presented. The validation procedure includes a comparison with experimental and numerical temperature and moisture content results obtained from experimental data, reaching a deviation 7-10 %. In addition, this turbulent k- ɛ model provided a better understanding of the transport phenomenon inside the dryer and sample.

  16. Fabric Selection for the Reference Clothing Destined for Ergonomics Test of Protective Clothing: Physiological Comfort Point of View

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bartkowiak Grażyna

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The currently used methods of ergonomic assessment of protective clothing depend on the subjective feeling of research participants and don’t take into consideration all aspects of its use. Therefore, more amount of work is undertaken toward the development of new research tools for the ergonomic assessment of protective clothing. Research was carried out at the Central Institute for Labour Protection – National Research Institute in Lodz. A new methodology will take into consideration a variant of reference clothing, which is related to the results of ergonomics research of protective clothing. Preparation of the reference clothing initiated by picking the appropriate fabric is based on the results of parameters influencing the physiological comfort and sensorial comfort. In the current part, results of different fabric parameters are presented, which are related to physiological comfort, i.e., the thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, hygroscopicity, and air permeability. In the next part of research, we will focus on the parameters related to objective sensorial feelings, i.e., total hand value and its components. Seven fabrics, including six cotton/polyester fabrics, diverse in terms of constituent fiber content and structure parameters (weave, thread density per 1 dm, thread linear density, mass per square meter, thickness, and Tencel/polyester fabric were tested. The best in terms of thermal resistance, water vapor resistance, and air permeability was the cotton/polyester fabric (35% cotton/65% PES with the smallest mass per square meter. This fabric also exhibits the high hygroscopicity of 7.5%, which puts it into the fourth position.

  17. Sorbent utilization studies using a mini-pilot spray dryer. Final report, 1 September 1992--31 August 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keener, T.C.; Khang, S.J.; Wang, J.; Sanders, J.F.

    1993-09-30

    The main body of the report consists of four parts: 1. additives to change process chemistry for SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry; 2. recycle tests and hydration of fly ash with Ca(OH){sub 2} to increase reactivity; 3. limestone as an alternative sorbent and additive effects; 4. physical and chemical model developments for some of the additive effects and spray dryer mathematical model application. As the concentration of SO{sub 2} in the flue gases increases, the SO{sub 2} removal efficiency will go down. Additives such as delinquent salts (NaOH, NaCl, and NaHCO{sub 3}) have been shown to improve SO{sub 2} uptake, and these additive tests have indicated that SO{sub 2} uptake may be increased by as much as 60% over baseline conditions. Other additives such as H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, sugar, and some organic acids which can change the chemical reaction processes are suggested and tested, and some promising results have been obtained. Recycle has been shown to increase sorbent utilization by allowing partially reacted sorbent to react further with the SO{sub 2} in the flue gases. Two types of Ohio coal fly ashes have been extensively studied, and improvement of utilization in spray dryer flue gas desulfurization has been demonstrated. Limestone represents an area where significant cost savings can be realized. The spray dryer tests were designed to provide some results for understanding the magnitude of the limestone performance in the spray dryer system and the additive effects. The additive effects on increasing SO{sub 2} absorption by Ca(OH){sub 2} slurry were investigated, and the chemical and physical properties of these tested additives were studied. Some models have been formed to explain the additive phenomena.

  18. Performance of A Horizontal Cylinder Type Rotary Dryer for Drying Process ofOrganic Compost from Solid Waste Cocoa Pod

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Cocoa pod husk is the bigest component of cocoa pod, about 70% of total ht of mature pod, and to potentially used as organic compost source. Poten tial solid waste of cocoa pod husk from a cocoa processing centre is about 15— 22 m3/ha/year. A cocoa plantation needs about 20—30 ton/ha/year of organic matters. One of important steps in compos processing technology of cocoa pod solid waste is drying process. Organic compost with 20% moisture content is more easy in handling, application, storage and distribution. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has designed and tested a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer for drying process of organic compos from solid waste cocoa pod with kerosene burner as energy sources. The objective of this research is to study performance of a horizontal cylinder type rotary dryer using kerosene burner as energy source for drying process of organic compost from solid waste cocoa pod. The material used was solid waste cocoa pod with 70—75% moisture content (wet basis, 70% size particle larger than 4.76 mm, and 30% size particle less than 4.76 mm, 690—695 kg/m3 bulk density. Drying process temperatures treatment were 60OC, 80OC, and 100OC, and cylinder rotary speed treatments were 7 rpm, 10 rpm, dan 16 rpm. The results showed that dryer had capacity about 102—150 kg/h depend on drying temperature and cylinder rotary speed. Optimum operation condition at 100OC drying temperature, and 10 rpm cylinder rotary speed with drying time to reach final moisture content of 20% was 1,6 h, capacity 136,14 kg/ h, bulk density 410 kg/m3, porocity 45,15%, kerosene consumption as energy source was 2,57 l/h, and drying efficiency 68,34%. Key words : cocoa, drying, rotary dryer, compost, waste

  19. Study of dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer using CFD simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kriaa, Wassim; Bejaoui, Salma; Mhiri, Hatem; Le Palec, Georges; Bournot, Philippe

    2014-02-01

    In this study, we developed a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model to simulate dynamic structure and heat and mass transfer of a vertical ceramic tiles dryer (EVA 702). The carrier's motion imposed the choice of a dynamic mesh based on two methods: "spring based smoothing" and "local remeshing". The dryer airflow is considered as turbulent ( Re = 1.09 × 105 at the dryer inlet), therefore the Re-Normalization Group model with Enhanced Wall Treatment was used as a turbulence model. The resolution of the governing equation was performed with Fluent 6.3 whose capacities do not allow the direct resolution of drying problems. Thus, a user defined scalar equation was inserted in the CFD code to model moisture content diffusion into tiles. User-defined functions were implemented to define carriers' motion, thermo-physical properties… etc. We adopted also a "two-step" simulation method: in the first step, we follow the heat transfer coefficient evolution (Hc). In the second step, we determine the mass transfer coefficient (Hm) and the features fields of drying air and ceramic tiles. The found results in mixed convection mode (Fr = 5.39 at the dryer inlet) were used to describe dynamic and thermal fields of airflow and heat and mass transfer close to the ceramic tiles. The response of ceramic tiles to heat and mass transfer was studied based on Biot numbers. The evolutions of averages temperature and moisture content of ceramic tiles were analyzed. Lastly, comparison between experimental and numerical results showed a good agreement.

  20. Sustainability and Philanthropic Awareness in Clothing Disposal Behavior Among Young Malaysian Consumers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loi Wai Yee

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Young consumers are the stylish shoppers who have a strong tendency to follow the latest fashion. With the rapid changes in the fashion trends, the overconsumption of clothing has had a significant environmental impact on society. Hence, there is a need to understand how young fashionable consumers are disposing their unwanted clothes. The survey was conducted among 205 young respondents, and the results show that clothing disposal behavior is affected by philanthropic awareness and mediated by the attitude toward clothing disposal. Interestingly, environmental economic factors only influence clothing disposal behavior through the attitude toward the disposal of clothing. The findings provide a valuable insight into the government and related authorities or organizations in developing strategies to encourage young consumers to increase their clothing-recycling rate, and, thus, eliminate the environmental issues in near future.

  1. High efficiency technical solutions for domestic tumble dryer design and modeling of a dryer - with mechanical very humic air compression; Evaluation des solutions techniques a haute efficacite energetique pour les seche-linges domestiques - conception et modelisation d'un seche-linge a re-compression mecanique d'air tres humide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palandre, L.

    2005-12-15

    The aim of this work is to evaluate high efficiency solutions for domestic tumble dryers. A specific analysis focuses on the thermodynamic cycle with very humid air compression. The main components are designed. In a first time, two technologies of dryers are studied: evacuation dryer, and condensation dryer. Drying cycles are measured and analyzed. The energy consumption for the standard 5 kg cotton cycle is in the range of 3.3 kWh and 3.6 kWh. Two alternative solutions are proposed to reduce significantly the energy consumption: a heat pump dryer with R-134a, or an open cycle using steam or very humid air as refrigerant. In both cases, the energy consumption is cut by a factor 2. The measurement of convective heat transfer coefficients between linen and humid air has allowed to elaborate a correlation giving the Lewis function evolution with very high absolute humidity. Heat exchanges in the tumble have been characterized. A correlation giving the heat transfer coefficient in function of air mass flow rate, linen mass, and its relative humidity, is developed. An unsteady-state model is developed. It gives the drying cycle of the tumble dryer with mechanical very humid air compression. Simulations show that drying time could be reduced to 1 hour using this process compared to 2 hours with R-134a heat pump dryers. (author)

  2. Characterization of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] removals in a spray dryer/baghouse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Dowd, W.J.; Markussen, J.M.; Pennline, H.W. (Dept. of Energy, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)); Resnik, K.P. (Gilbert/Commonwealth, Inc., Library, PA (United States))

    1994-11-01

    Oxidation of NO to NO[sub 2] has been proposed as a method for enhancing NO[sub x] removals in conventional flue gas desulfurization (FGD) processes. This experimental investigation characterizes the removals of NO[sub 2] and SO[sub 2] in a 1.1 m[sup 3](standard)/min spray dryer/baghouse system. Flue gas was generated by burning a No. 2 fuel oil, which was subsequently spiked upstream of the spray dryer with NO[sub 2] or SO[sub 2] or both. Lime slurry was injected via a rotary atomizer into the spray dryer. Variables studied include the approach to the adiabatic saturation temperature, stoichiometric ratio, SO[sub 2] concentration, and NO[sub 2] concentration. Significant quantities of NO[sub 2] are scrubbed in this system, and over half of the total removal (at inlet NO[sub 2] > 400 ppm) occurs in the baghouse. Increasing NO[sub 2] concentrations enhance the amount of NO[sub x] removed in the system. Also, the presence of significant quantities of NO[sub 2] enhances the baghouse SO[sub 2] removal. Although up to 72% NO[sub 2] removals were obtained, concentrations of NO[sub 2] that exited the system were greater than 50 ppm for all conditions investigated.

  3. Motorcycle protective clothing: protection from injury or just the weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Rome, Liz; Ivers, Rebecca; Fitzharris, Michael; Du, Wei; Haworth, Narelle; Heritier, Stephane; Richardson, Drew

    2011-11-01

    Apart from helmets, little is known about the effectiveness of motorcycle protective clothing in reducing injuries in crashes. The study aimed to quantify the association between usage of motorcycle clothing and injury in crashes. Cross-sectional analytic study. Crashed motorcyclists (n=212, 71% of identified eligible cases) were recruited through hospitals and motorcycle repair services. Data was obtained through structured face-to-face interviews. The main outcome was hospitalization and motorcycle crash-related injury. Poisson regression was used to estimate relative risk (RR) and 95% confidence intervals for injury adjusting for potential confounders. Motorcyclists were significantly less likely to be admitted to hospital if they crashed wearing motorcycle jackets (RR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.69-0.91), pants (RR=0.49, 95% CI: 0.25-0.94), or gloves (RR=0.41, 95% CI: 0.26-0.66). When garments included fitted body armour there was a significantly reduced risk of injury to the upper body (RR=0.77, 95% CI: 0.66-0.89), hands and wrists (RR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.38-0.81), legs (RR=0.60, 95% CI: 0.40-0.90), feet and ankles (RR=0.54, 95% CI: 0.35-0.83). Non-motorcycle boots were also associated with a reduced risk of injury compared to shoes or joggers (RR=0.46, 95% CI: 0.28-0.75). No association between use of body armour and risk of fracture injuries was detected. A substantial proportion of motorcycle designed gloves (25.7%), jackets (29.7%) and pants (28.1%) were assessed to have failed due to material damage in the crash. Motorcycle protective clothing is associated with reduced risk and severity of crash related injury and hospitalization, particularly when fitted with body armour. The proportion of clothing items that failed under crash conditions indicates a need for improved quality control. While mandating usage of protective clothing is not recommended, consideration could be given to providing incentives for usage of protective clothing, such as tax exemptions for safety

  4. A study for the thermal treatment of dehydrated sewage sludge with gas-agitated double screw type dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hey-Suk; Shin, Mi-Soo; Jang, Dong-Soon; Na, Eun-Soo

    2005-01-01

    A specially designed dryer has been developed for the thermal treatment of dehydrated, highly viscous sewage sludge with moisture content more than 80 wt.% by an gas-agitated, double-screw type dryer system. The treatment capacity of sludge dryer was about 100 kg/h. It consists of burner, feeding hopper, hot gas supplying ducts with double screw conveyor, damper and outlets of drying gas and dried material. The sewage sludge was transported by the revolution of the cylinder conveyor together with the tumbling and mixing action of the screw and lifters. The heating of the sludge was made efficient by the combination action of conduction and convection modes together with the gas-agitation process. The conduction occurred across the surface of the combustor cylinder, the convection was made by the flue gas interaction over the sludge and the agitation action through holes of conveyor cylinder into the bottom of the sludge. The number and location of gas-agitation holes and thereby the fraction of drying gas into the agitation holes were evaluated by numerical calculation of turbulent reacting flow. To evaluate the performance of the dryer developed in this study, a series of parametric experiments were performed in terms of important variables. In general drying process occurred successfully even for the highly agglomerating municipal sewage sludge through the first lumped plastic phase to a fine granulate state when the heat and mass balance was matched by adjusting rpm of the conveyor, burner capacity, and the fraction of gas-agitation. Further the avoidance of initial sludge agglomeration was considered to be important by the combination action of screw and lifter. The weight of the sludge was reduced approximately by 60% and therefore the volume of sludge was decreased to approximately 75% of initial volume with the water content of 10-20%. Energy efficiency of dryer was evaluated in the range of 70-75% at the sludge feed rate, 100 kg/h. The results obtained show

  5. Mathematical modeling of drying of potato slices in a forced convective dryer based on important parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naderinezhad, Samira; Etesami, Nasrin; Poormalek Najafabady, Arefe; Ghasemi Falavarjani, Majid

    2016-01-01

    The effect of air temperature, air velocity, and sample shapes (circle and square with the same cross-sectional area) on kinetic drying of potato slices in a tunnel dryer was investigated experimentally and a suitable drying model was developed. The experiments of drying of potato slices were conducted at an air temperature of 45-70°C with an air velocity 1.60 and 1.81 m sec(-1). Results showed that drying temperature was the most effective parameter in the drying rate. The influence of air velocity was more profound in low temperature. The time for drying square slices was lower compared to the circle ones. Furthermore, drying data were fitted to different empirical models. Among the models, Midilli-Kucuk was the best to explain the single layer drying of potato slices. The parameters of this model were determined as functions of air velocity and temperature by multiple regression analysis for circle and square slices. Various statistical parameters were examined for evaluating the model.

  6. Design of a Low Cost Smart Dryer Temperature Measurement System for Tea Factories

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Utpal SARMA

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design of a low cost smart dryer temperature measurement system for Tea Factories using K-type Thermocouple implementing linearization polynomial. The thermo emf is amplified by an instrumentation amplifier having high CMRR (106 dB and high input impedance (1012 Ohm. The analog signal is converted to digital form with the help of an SPI compatible 12-bit ADC. Data acquisition and transmission is done with an 8- bit microcontroller. As the dependence of thermo emf on temperature is not linear hence it is fitted with a polynomial. NIST data for K-type TC is taken as a standard for this fitting. The error with linear fit and polynomial fit is also presented. The digital data is corrected according to the polynomial and sent to a PC located at a remote control room for monitoring and data logging via RS232C communication. The performance of the entire system is discussed in the paper.

  7. Evaluation of convective heat transfer coefficient of various crops in cyclone type dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akpinar, E. Kavak [Mechanical Engineering Department, Firat University, 23279 Elazig (Turkey)]. E-mail: eakpinar@firat.edu.tr

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, an attempt was made to evaluate the convective heat transfer coefficient during drying of various crops and to investigate the influences of drying air velocity and temperature on the convective heat transfer coefficient. Drying was conducted in a convective cyclone type dryer at drying air temperatures of 60, 70 and 80 deg. C and velocities of 1 and 1.5 m/s using rectangle shaped potato and apple slices (12.5 x 12.5 x 25 mm) and cylindrical shaped pumpkin slices (35 x 5 mm). The temperature changes of the dried crops and the temperature of the drying air were measured during the drying process. It was found that the values of convective heat transfer coefficient varied from crop to crop with a range 30.21406 and 20.65470 W/m{sup 2} C for the crops studied, and it was observed that the convective heat transfer coefficient increased in large amounts with the increase of the drying air velocity but increased in small amounts with the rise of the drying air temperature.

  8. Encapsulation of flaxseed oil using a benchtop spray dryer for legume protein-maltodextrin microcapsule preparation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can Karaca, Asli; Low, Nicholas; Nickerson, Michael

    2013-05-29

    Flaxseed oil was microencapsulated employing a wall material matrix of either chickpea (CPI) or lentil protein isolate (LPI) and maltodextrin using a benchtop spray dryer. Effects of emulsion formulation (oil, protein and maltodextrin levels) and protein source (CPI vs LPI) on the physicochemical characteristics, oxidative stability, and release properties of the resulting capsules were investigated. Microcapsule formulations containing higher oil levels (20% oil, 20% protein, 60% maltodextrin) were found to have higher surface oil and lower encapsulation efficiencies. Overall, LPI-maltodextrin capsules gave higher flaxseed oil encapsulation efficiencies (∼88.0%) relative to CPI-maltodextrin matrices (∼86.3%). However, both designs were found to provide encapsulated flaxseed oil protection against oxidation over a 25 d room temperature storage study relative to free oil. Overall, ∼37.6% of encapsulated flaxseed oil was released after 2 h under simulated gastric fluid, followed by the release of an additional ∼46.6% over a 3 h period under simulated intestinal fluid conditions.

  9. Controlling in situ crystallization of pharmaceutical particles within the spray dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woo, Meng Wai; Lee, May Ginn; Shakiba, Soroush; Mansouri, Shahnaz

    2016-12-20

    Simultaneous solidification and in situ crystallization (or partial crystallization) of droplets within the drying chamber are commonly encountered in the spray drying of pharmaceuticals. The crystallinity developed will determine the functionality of the powder and its stability during storage. This review discusses strategies that can be used to control the in situ crystallization process. Areas covered: The premise of the strategies discussed focuses on the manipulation of the droplet drying rate relative to the timescale of crystallization. This can be undertaken by the control of the spray drying operation, by the use of volatile materials and by the inclusion of additives. Several predictive approaches for in situ crystallization control and new spray dryer configuration strategies are further discussed. Expert opinion: Most reports, hitherto, have focused on the crystallinity of the spray dried material or the development of crystallinity during storage. More mechanistic understanding of the in situ crystallization process during spray drying is required to guide product formulation trials. The key challenge will be in adapting the mechanistic approach to the myriad possible formulations in the pharmaceutical industry.

  10. Modelling the Evaporation Rate in an Impingement Jet Dryer with Multiple Nozzles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna-Lena Ljung

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Impinging jets are often used in industry to dry, cool, or heat items. In this work, a two-dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics model is created to model an impingement jet dryer with a total of 9 pairs of nozzles that dries sheets of metal. Different methods to model the evaporation rate are studied, as well as the influence of recirculating the outlet air. For the studied conditions, the simulations show that the difference in evaporation rate between single- and two-component treatment of moist air is only around 5%, hence indicating that drying can be predicted with a simplified model where vapor is included as a nonreacting scalar. Furthermore, the humidity of the inlet air, as determined from the degree of recirculating outlet air, has a strong effect on the water evaporation rate. Results show that the metal sheet is dry at the exit if 85% of the air is recirculated, while approximately only 60% of the water has evaporated at a recirculation of 92,5%.

  11. Effect of Selected Factors on Drying Process of Tomato in Forced Convection Solar Energy Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    U.S. Muhammed

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The effect of air velocity, slice thickness and grazing materials in drying process of tomato in forced convection solar energy dryer was evaluated. The result is to serve as an input for solar energy development for drying of vegetable and fruit products in North West Ecological zone of Nigeria. In order to evaluate the effects of the above factors in drying operation, a split-split-plot experimental design was used. Differences among the treatments and their interactions were tested with orthogonal contrast test to access their significance while further analysis were done to compare all possible pairs of treatment means using Duncan’s Multiple Range Test (DMRT. The results showed that there is no significant difference, at 95% probability level, between the means of the three glazing materials used. However, the variations in mean slice thickness and in mean air flow rate are highly significant at 99% probability level. The results further revealed that drying rate increasing with decrease in slice thickness and increase in air flow rate. Drying of 15, 20 and 25 mm slice thickness of tomato was achieved in time range of 21-24, 27-29 and 30-50 h, respectively.

  12. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2016-11-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  13. Investigation of drying kinetics of tomato slices dried by using a closed loop heat pump dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coşkun, Salih; Doymaz, İbrahim; Tunçkal, Cüneyt; Erdoğan, Seçil

    2017-06-01

    In this study, tomato slices were dried at three different drying air temperatures (35, 40 and 45 °C) and at 1 m/s air velocities by using a closed loop heat pump dryer (HPD). To explain the drying characteristics of tomato slices, ten thin-layer drying models were applied. The drying of tomato slices at each temperature occurred in falling-rate period; no constant-rate period of drying was observed. The drying rate was significantly influenced by drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity varied between 8.28 × 10-11 and 1.41 × 10-10 m2/s, the activation energy was found to be 43.12 kJ/mol. Besides, at the end of drying process, the highest mean specific moisture extraction ratio and coefficient of performance of HPD system were obtained as 0.324 kg/kWh and 2.71, respectively, at the highest drying air temperature (45 °C).

  14. Thin layer modeling of tom yum herbs in vacuum heat pump dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artnaseaw, A; Theerakulpisut, S; Benjapiyaporn, C

    2010-04-01

    Thin layer vacuum heat pump drying experiments were conducted to determine drying models for Tom Yum herbs (chili, lemon grass, kaffir lime leaf and galangal slice). The drying experiments were conducted in a vacuum heat pump dryer at a constant drying pressure of 0.2 bars and drying temperatures ranging from 50 °C to 65 °C. The experimental results were fitted to a number of well-known thin layer drying models and it was found, for the range of drying temperature tested, that the Midilli model is the best model for all Tom Yum herbs. To account for the influence of drying temperature, the constants and coefficients of model were formulated as functions of the drying temperature. Statistical tests of agreement between the model and experimental results were performed by determining the coefficient of determination (R²) , reduced chi-square (χ²) and root mean square error (RMSE). It was found that the model is in very good agreement with the experimental results.

  15. Drying of oil palm frond particles in a fluidized bed dryer with inert medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun May Tee

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristic of oil palm frond fibres was investigated in a fluidized bed dryer with the presence of inert particles. Sand was used as inert material. Effects of air temperature (60, 70 and 80ºC, air velocity (0.79 and 0.85 m/s and mass ratio of fibres to sand (1:0, 1:1 and 1:2 on the drying curves were investigated. The results showed that the shortest drying time was obtained with the highest air temperature, air velocity and fibres to sand mass ratio. The experimental drying data were fitted to nine existing drying models namely Lewis, Page, Modified Page, Henderson and Pabis, Logarithmic, Two-term, Two-term exponential and Wang and Singh models and a proposed new model. The goodness-of-fit was determined based on the values of r2, c2 and RMSE. The results showed that the best quality of the fit was obtained using the proposed model. The new model was also validated for the superheated steam drying of oil palm empty fruit bunch from other work.

  16. Estudo de viabilidade da secagem da biomassa da banana verde em spray dryer rotativo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Kenji Oi

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a technical feasibility study for drying the biomass of green bananas at a pilot plant spray dryer with rotary atomizer. The biomass of the green banana is a component that can be used industrially in a wide variety of foods, with functional properties, especially the presence of resistant starch. The variables selected in the experimental procedure were the biomass concentration of green banana, feed flow rate and rotation of the atomizer. Responses were obtained as the mass and relative humidity of the dried product. Three levels were used in selected variables, which corresponded to the completion of 27 experiments. In experiments in which they obtained the lowest values of relative humidity, the amounts of mass were also the lowest, while in experiments where they met the higher amounts of the levels of relative humidity ranged from the highest. Considering the industrial application, whose purpose is the low humidity and increased production of the product, test 22 was the most appropriate, and found 11% moisture and 4.33 g in mass.

  17. Analysis of ginger drying inside a natural convection indirect solar dryer: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Sansaniwal

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a natural convection indirect solar cabinet dryer has been fabricated to study the drying behaviour of ginger rhizomes in terms of its convective heat transfer coefficient and moisture removing rate (% db. Various experiments were conducted during the months of March and April 2014 at Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar (29o5’5’’N, 75o45’55’’E, India. Experimental data obtained were used to evaluate the Nusselt number constants using linear regression method. Considering these constants, the average value of convective heat transfer coefficient was obtained and observed to decrease with increase in mass of ginger samples and progression of drying days with variation from 0.59 to 5.42 W/m2˚C for different mass of ginger samples. The moisture removing rate was reported to increase with increase in mass of ginger samples and decreases significantly with the progression of drying days. The average collector efficiency was also observed to vary from 14.97 to 16.14% under increasing and decreasing trends of solar radiations from morning to noon and noon to evening respectively. Modified page model was reported best for describing the drying behaviour of different mass of ginger samples. The experimental error in terms of percent uncertainty ranged from 29.19 to 46.25%.

  18. Prediction of Air Flow and Temperature Profiles Inside Convective Solar Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintilă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Solar tray drying is an effective alternative for post-harvest processing of fruits and vegetables. Product quality and uniformity of the desired final moisture content are affected by the uneven air flow and temperature distribution inside the drying chamber. The purpose of this study is to numerically evaluate the operation parameters of a new indirect solar dryer having an appropriate design based on thermal uniformity inside the drying chamber, low construction costs and easy accessibility to resources needed for manufacture. The research was focused on both the investigation of different operation conditions and analysis of the influence of the damper position, which is incorporated into the chimney, on the internal cabinet temperature and air flow distribution. Numerical simulation was carried out with Comsol Multiphysics CFD commercial code using a reduced 2D domain model by neglecting any end effects from the side walls. The analysis of the coupled thermal-fluid model provided the velocity field, pressure distribution and temperature distribution in the solar collector and in the drying chamber when the damper was totally closed, half open and fully open and for different operation conditions. The predicted results were compared with measurements taken in-situ. With progressing computing power, it is conceivable that CFD will continue to provide explanations for more fluid flow, heat and mass transfer phenomena, leading to better equipment design and process control for the food industry.

  19. Grafting of activated carbon cloths for selective adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gineys, M.; Benoit, R.; Cohaut, N.; Béguin, F.; Delpeux-Ouldriane, S.

    2016-05-01

    Chemical functionalization of an activated carbon cloth with 3-aminophthalic acid and 4-aminobenzoic acid groups by the in situ formation of the corresponding diazonium salt in aqueous acidic solution is reported. The nature and amount of selected functions on an activated carbon surface, in particular the grafted density, were determined by potentiometric titration, elemental analysis and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The nanotextural properties of the modified carbon were explored by gas adsorption. Functionalized activated carbon cloth was obtained at a discrete grafting level while preserving interesting textural properties and a large porous volume. Finally, the grafting homogeneity of the carbon surface and the nature of the chemical bonding were investigated using Time-of-Flight Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) technique.

  20. Global Quota System and China's Textile and Clothing Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hong Song

    2006-01-01

    By the middle of 2005, many Chinese textile and clothing enterprises were unable to continue business. Because of the safeguard actions invoked by WTO member countries, especially the USA, the EU and some developing countries, such as Turkey and Mexico, a stable and predictable overseas market no longer exists for export-oriented Chinese firms. It had actually been predicted that China would be the big winner after the elimination of the global quota system on 1 January 2005. What has happened to China's textile and clothing industries? What are the prospects for them over the next few years? Using a partial equilibrium analysis framework, this paper finds that China was the big loser under the quota system before 2005, and that China will be the big loser once again after the ending of that system.

  1. PROTECTIVE CLOTHING BASED ON PERMSELECTIVE MEMBRANE AND CARBON ADSORPTION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    J.G. Wijmans; J.O. Stull

    2001-11-07

    The goal of this project was to develop chemical protective clothing for use by DOE decontamination and decommissioning workers that is sufficiently water vapor permeable to keep the workers cool, thereby enhancing their productivity. This report describes the results of Phase II of a two-phase project to complete development of the novel permselective material and to test protective clothing made from the fabric. In Phase I a novel material incorporating a nonporous hydrophilic polyvinylacohol (PVA) layer, which is water vapor permeable but relatively impermeable to organic vapors, was developed. The results of the Phase I tests showed that the chemical resistance of the MTR material is comparable to that of Saranex/Tyvek materials, and that the comfort properties are closer to those of Tyvek (as measured in terms of CLO and permeability). Chemical resistance was measured using permeation tests against liquid dichloromethane. Comfort properties were ascertained by measuring the water vapor transmission of the material and by sweating manikin tests on whole protective suits. In addition, a cost/benefit analysis demonstrated that use of MTR's material technology could result in significant improvements in work productivity and cost savings if protective clothing items made from the new material were used more than once. In Phase II, MTR undertook a program to optimize the performance and production engineering for the new material technology. A partnership was formed with Kimberly-Clark Corporation to assist with a detailed evaluation of the MTR technology, and MTR used the services of Mr. Jeff Stull, President of the consulting firm International Personnel Protection, Inc., who conducted a detailed economic and application analysis for the developed fabric. The protective fabric manufacturing steps were simplified significantly, resulting in a 30% reduction in manufacturing costs and eliminating the necessity for capital investment in production equipment

  2. A Review of 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking'

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominic Davies

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available This review offers an account of journalist Anne Elizabeth Moore’s short comics, co-authored with the Ladydrawers collective, relating to the fashion industry and global apparel and sex trades, and that have been recently collected together in book form. The review argues that the resulting book, 'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex & Trafficking' (2016, is evidence of the ability of the comics form to document social justice issues with nuance, yet without losing sight of the politically imperative calls for change that those issues demand.   'Threadbare: Clothes, Sex and Trafficking', by The Ladydrawers and Anne Elizabeth Moore, Portland: Microcosm Publishing, 2016. Paperback, 160 pages, 6 x 8, 2 colour interior (8.1 oz, Published May 3, 2016, ISBN: 978-1-62106-739-9

  3. The effect of fan speed control system on the inlet air temperature uniformity in a solar dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. F Mousavi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Drying process of agricultural products, fruits and vegetables are highly energy demanding and hence are the most expensive postharvest operation. Nowadays, the application of control systems in different area of science and engineering plays a key role and is considered as the important and inseparable parts of any industrial process. The review of literature indicates that enormous efforts have been donefor the intelligent control of solar driers and in this regard some simulation models are used through computer programming. However, because of the effect of air velocity on the inlet air temperature in dryers, efforts have been made to control the fan speed based ont he temperature of the absorber plate in this study, and the behavior of this system was compared with an ordinary dryer without such a control system. Materials and methods: In this study, acabinet type solar dryer with forced convection and 5kg capacity of fresh herbs was used. The dryer was equipped with a fan in the outlet chamber (the chimney for creating air flow through the dryer. For the purpose of research methods and automatic control of fan speed and for adjusting the temperature of the drying inlet air, a control system consisting of a series of temperature and humidity sensors and a microcontroller was designed. To evaluatethe effect of the system with fan speed control on the uniformity of air temperature in the drying chamber and hence the trend of drying process in the solar dryer, the dryer has been used with two different modes: with and without the control of fan speed, each in twodays (to minimize the errors of almost the same ambient temperature. The ambient air temperature during the four days of experiments was obtained from the regional Meteorological Office. Some fresh mint plants (Mentha longifolia directly harvested from the farm in the morning of the experiment days were used as the drying materials. Each experimental run continued for 9

  4. Net profit increased slightly in most clothing listed companies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Entering July, listed companies’ performance report in the first half of 2012 will be disclosed. Up to July 16th, 54 textile and clothing listed companies published performance report. Among them, 5 companies’ net profit increased, 23 companies’ net profit slightly increased , 6 companies’ net profit slightly reduced, 4 companies’ net profit reduced compared with the expectation, 6 companies had losses for the first time, 9 companies sustained losses and 1 company made up the deficits and got surpluses.

  5. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  6. Principles of Slow Fashion Application in Clothing Collection Creation

    OpenAIRE

    Agnė Antanavičiūtė; Vaida Dobilaitė

    2015-01-01

    Today we can clearly see the damage which is caused by fast fashion production and mass consumption. Therefore, a relevant issue is how to reduce consumption, waste, and threat to the environment and human health. Research into the slow fashion designers approach towards eco-friendly and slow fashion products shows that it is necessary to spread ideas of slow fashion widely and teach users about ecologically friendly clothing. Therefore, this paper analyses theoretical and practical slow fash...

  7. Comparison of Testing Clothing Thermal Resistance on 2 Thermal Manikins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Yu-hong(谌玉红); JIANG Zhi-hua(姜志华); WU Zhi-xiao(吴志孝); Ingvar Holmer; Kalev Kuklane

    2003-01-01

    The paper compares clothing thermal resistance of the same ensemble tested by different thermal manikins in different laboratories. It also examines the consistence of the two groups of total thermal resistance by Paired-Sample T Test method, which proves that there is no remarkable difference in testing results under the same experiment method and requirement. It is of great significance in promoting the application of thermal manikin testing technology and academic exchange among different institutes.

  8. Motivation of Chinese consumers toward Western luxury clothing products

    OpenAIRE

    Kwan, Shuk Man

    2014-01-01

    This dissertation attempts to investigate the motivation of Chinese consumers towards the consumption/purchase of Western luxury clothing products, specifically the luxury in Chinese market, interpersonal and personal motives to purchase luxury products, and Chinese culture influences on luxury purchase motivation. The research was conducted by in-depth interviews following an interview guide. Snowball sampling technique was employed, and there were twelve Chinese participants involved in the...

  9. Transient Structures. Layers of Social Meaning in Conceptual Clothing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucian BROSCATEAN

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Within the conceptual framework of WLC 2016 we have chosen to explore a transdisciplinary approach of postmodern clothing. Fashion has always been a domain in which sociological, philosophical, political, cultural approaches have spoken about its contents and contexts. Recent sociological studies of fashion have revealed the deep meanings of conceptual clothing and the interwoven network of thoughts that is the starting point for such intellectual approaches. Fashion scholars such as Bradley Quinn, Caroline Evans, Valerie Steele or Malcolm Barnard have underlined the role of conceptual clothing in casting a light upon various social issues and symptoms. Through this paper we want to argument how layers of social meaning transform certain fashion projects in reflexions of the Zeitgeist. In the current socio-political context such investigations do not necessarily offer pertinent answers, but certainly raise more questions and awareness. By focusing on the works of Lucy and Jorge Orta, and Hussein Chalayan, our aim is to explore the different ways in which social changes, urban reconfigurations, and geographical dislocation question our notions of space, form, mobility, and identity. Our research will be a transdisciplinary one, analysing a consistent part of their work from different perspectives in order to reveal their influence on the way in which the design of clothing has taken the responsibility of becoming a shelter, a refuge, a mean of protection against the transient nature of contemporary societies. We will be analyzing Chalayan’s three projects, Afterwords (2000, Temporal Meditations (2003, and Absent Presence (2005, and Orta’s Refugee Wear (1992, Modular Architecture (1996, and Nexus Architecture (1993–2002. In investigating their works we shall focus on the character of artistic process, employed by both Chalayan and Orta, by using the objects (garments and the mechanisms of fashion (runway collection for Chalayan, and the

  10. The Engineering Design of Intelligent Protective Textiles and Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sungmee; Jayaraman, Sundaresan

    Terrorism has been on the rise in the past decade and continues to disrupt everyday life in many parts of the world. Protection against such threats is therefore critical for preserving peace and security around the world. In particular, the safety of defense personnel engaged in confronting and responding to such threats must be ensured. Since textiles and clothing are pervasive and are always "on" the soldier, they can serve as an excellent infrastructure or platform for such individual protection systems.

  11. A History of Court and Commoner Clothing in Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liam C. Kelley

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Trần Quang Đức. Ngàn năm áo mũ: Lich sử trang phục Việt Nam giai đoạn 1009–1945 [One thousand years of caps and robes: A history of Vietnamese clothing in the period 1009–1945]. TP Hồ Chí Minh: Nhã Nam, 2013. ISBN: 1467557900. Đức documents in incredible detail the history of the sartorial decisions made at various Vietnamese courts, from Quyền’s time until the end of the Nguyễn dynasty. Based on an extensive examination of Vietnamese, Chinese, European, and even Korean sources—most of which only briefly mention clothing in various periods—Đức has succeeded in producing a comprehensive overview of the clothing of Vietnamese rulers and their officials; when possible, he also comments on the dress of other segments of society, such as the military and commoners. One Thousand Years of Caps and Robes devotes a chapter to each Vietnamese dynasty: the Lý, the Trần, the Lê, the Tây Sơn, and the Nguyễn. Đức begins each chapter with an overview of the history of that dynasty’s styles of court dress and then goes into a detailed description of exactly which types of cap and robe the ruler and his officials wore, and in what ways these caps and robes extended previous practices or were innovations. He follows his examination of court dress with a discussion of military and commoner attire. The chapter introductions provide a concise history of changes in court clothing across time, while the detailed discussions of the caps and robes from each period offer a deeper level of understanding...

  12. Architecture of Gothic Period and Its Effect to Clothing Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Şerife YILDIZ

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Root of the word Gothic comes from a German tribe which lives in region of the Gotland of Scandinavia. Gothic period is a movement which ends the Midde Age and opens Renaissance. Alth ough seen in all branches of the art, Gothic is widely a style of architecture. Having been originated from the Roman architecture, Gothic Architecture come out in the second half of the 12th century and continued its existence until the half of the 16th c entury when classical architecture come out. In Europe, Gothic painting, sculpture and architecture were dominant and preserved its popularity until the Renaissance. Fashion means all the temporary new styles which come out in a certain period of time with the desires of dressing up, being different, wearing the most desirable. Although seen as two different design field, when we examine closely, we can see that fashion and architecture has many common point from the past to present. As man is the common po int of this two field, they naturally affect each other. Gothic architecture inspired clothing designs, which is enough to show how much they affected each other. In this study, our purpose is to reveal effects of the Gothic architecture on the clothing d esigns. The style used in the Gothic period architecture and models and styles in clothing designs was presented with the help of table of specification. According to this, both fields' sharing common aesthetic concern and same theoritic and ideologic bas e was accompanied by stylistic and structural similarities accordingly. Designers in this two different fields turned even to themselves for inspiration and technical strategy. Environmental and cultural factors affect both fashion designers and architects . When seen as a part of historical process, clothes and buildings with their important cultural and economic conditions are priceless anthropological buildings which show technological developments within the period.

  13. Identification of animal species in skin clothing from museum collections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Anne Lisbeth; Gilbert, Tom; Cappellini, Enrico

    2011-01-01

    Since the birth of museums, the identification of the materials from which objects are made has been a highly respected academic discipline, often yielding significant quantities of information about object provenance, traditional use of special materials, access to commodities, trade, hunting tr...... tradition, etc. This paper introduces methods that enable identification of animal sources in prehistoric and historic skin clothing, using the tools of microscopy, genetic profiling, and mass spectrometry-based protein sequencing of subsamples of hair and skin....

  14. Use of social media among speciality clothing companies

    OpenAIRE

    Kotamäki, Riikka

    2016-01-01

    This thesis is a research about how certain clothing companies in Finland use social media, especially Facebook and Instagram, in their marketing. The idea of the thesis was created during my work placement, which I completed at the case company, Dropinmarket. Dropinmarket has quite a poor social media presence at the moment and the goal of this thesis is to give recommendations on how to improve it. The introduction gives a more detailed view to the background of this thesis, introduces ...

  15. Calculation of clothing insulation by serial and parallel methods : effects on clothing choice by IREQ and thermal responses in the cold

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuklane, K.; Gao, C.; Holmér, I.; Giedraityte, L.; Bröde, P.; Candas, V.; Hartog, E.A. den; Meinander, H.; Richards, M.; Havenith, G.

    2007-01-01

    Cold protective clothing was studied in 2 European Union projects. The objectives were (a) to examine different insulation calculation methods as measured on a manikin (serial or parallel), for the prediction of cold stress (IREQ); (b) to consider the effects of cold protective clothing on metabolic

  16. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  17. [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Textiles and Clothing. Module I-D-1: Consumer Approach to Textiles and Clothing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    California State Univ., Fresno. Dept. of Home Economics.

    This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on consumer approach to textiles and clothing is the first in a set of four modules on consumer education related to textiles and clothing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education…

  18. "I Am Only Ten Years Old": Femininities, Clothing-Fashion Codes and the Intergenerational Gap of Interpretation of Young Girls' Clothes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rysst, Mari

    2010-01-01

    Based in experience-near anthropology, this article explores constructions of gender by 10-year-old Norwegian girls who are informed by a developmental discourse and by new clothing-fashion codes. The analysis reveals gaps in aesthetic understanding between the clothing-fashion industry, preteen girls and older generations. The industry seems to…

  19. Influence of illumination on autonomic thermoregulation and choice of clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Seung Hi; Jeong, Woon Seon

    2002-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate how different levels of illumination below 1,000 lx would affect the autonomic and behavioral temperature regulation of humans. Seven healthy college-aged women (20+/-0 years) volunteered to participate in this study. They were exposed to a temperature of 26 °C in 320 lx for 30 min ('Equilibrium') followed by 700 lx or 70 lx for 30 min (stage 1). After stage 1, they were exposed to 20 °C for 30 min in the same illumination as in stage 1 (stage 2). In stage 2 the subjects were instructed to select and wear the clothing they needed for their thermal comfort. The data obtained were analyzed by paired t-test and repeated measures of analysis of variance. Forearm skin blood flow tended to remain steady in 700 lx but decreased markedly in 70 lx in stage 1. There were no significant differences between subjective thermal responses of the subjects experiencing 700 lx or 70 lx in both stages although the subjects felt cooler in stage 2 than in stage 1. The subjects were likely to prefer wearing heavier clothing in 70 lx than in 700 lx. It was concluded that vasoconstriction in the upper limbs occurred more strongly in dim light, which might result in different clothing preferences in a cool environment from those associated with brighter light intensity.

  20. Fear no colors? Observer clothing color influences lizard escape behavior.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Putman, Breanna J; Drury, Jonathan P; Blumstein, Daniel T; Pauly, Gregory B

    2017-01-01

    Animals often view humans as predators, leading to alterations in their behavior. Even nuanced aspects of human activity like clothing color affect animal behavior, but we lack an understanding of when and where such effects will occur. The species confidence hypothesis posits that birds are attracted to colors found on their bodies and repelled by non-body colors. Here, we extend this hypothesis taxonomically and conceptually to test whether this pattern is applicable in a non-avian reptile and to suggest that species should respond less fearfully to their sexually-selected signaling color. Responses to clothing color could also be impacted by habituation to humans, so we examine whether behavior varied between areas with low and high human activity. We quantified the effects of four T-shirt colors on flight initiation distances (FID) and on the ease of capture in western fence lizards (Sceloporus occidentalis), and we accounted for detectability against the background environment. We found no differences in lizard behavior between sites. However, lizards tolerated the closest approaches and were most likely to be captured when approached with the T-shirt that resembled their sexually-selected signaling color. Because changes in individual behavior affect fitness, choice of clothing color by people, including tourists, hikers, and researchers, could impact wildlife populations and research outcomes.

  1. Analytical Provision of Profitable Activity of Clothing Industry Enterprises

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skrypnyk Mykola Ye.

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The goal of the article is improvement of the methodology of study of financial results through introduction into the domestic practice of application of modern instruments of methods of non-linear dynamics – catastrophe theory for analytical provision of management of profitability of clothing industry enterprises on its basis. In the result of the conducted study the article proves that the catastrophe theory is a conceptual and methodological basis for studying and forecasting financial results of activity of clothing industry enterprises as unstable to system changes and is a component of such a modern scientific direction as synergetics. The essence of the latter is that under conditions when in the course of conduct of main activity there is accumulation of a critical reserve of influence of various factors upon change of financial results, which, in their turn, undergo impact of various factors, including random ones, and at a certain point of time the activity becomes unprofitable, changing its qualitative characteristics in leaps and bounds, that is, it passes to a new trajectory of changes. The prospect of further studies in this direction is the study of behaviour of financial results of clothing production, which are negative for its activity due to uneven negative changes and which manifest themselves in unprofitable management due to unexpected reaction on correlation between the object of study and insignificant fluctuations of influence factors, in particular, in disproportions between the rates of growth of expenditure and income components of activity.

  2. The effect of clothing care activities on textile formaldehyde content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novick, Rachel M; Nelson, Mindy L; McKinley, Meg A; Anderson, Grace L; Keenan, James J

    2013-01-01

    Textiles are commonly treated with formaldehyde-based residues that may potentially induce allergic contact dermatitis in sensitive individuals. This study examined the initial formaldehyde content in clothing and resulting changes due to care activities. Twenty clothing articles were examined and 17 of them did not have detectable levels of formaldehyde. One shirt contained a formaldehyde concentration of 3172 ppm, and two pairs of pants had formaldehyde concentrations of 1391 ppm and 86 ppm. The two highest results represent formaldehyde levels that are up to 40-fold greater than international textile regulations. The two items with the greatest formaldehyde content were washed and dried in a manner similar to that used by consumers, including hand and machine washing in hot or cold water followed by air or machine drying. The washing and drying procedures reduced formaldehyde levels to between 26 and 72% of untreated controls. Differences in the temperature or type of washing and drying did not result in a clear trend in the subsequent formaldehyde content. In addition, samples were hot ironed, which did not affect the formaldehyde content as significantly. Understanding the formaldehyde content in clothing and its potential reduction through care activities may be useful for manufacturers and formaldehyde-sensitive individuals.

  3. Flexible pressure sensors for smart protective clothing against impact loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Zhu, Bo; Shu, Lin; Tao, Xiaoming

    2014-01-01

    The development of smart protective clothing will facilitate the quick detection of injuries from contact sports, traffic collisions and other accidents. To obtain real-time information like spatial and temporal pressure distributions on the clothing, flexible pressure sensor arrays are required. Based on a resistive fabric strain sensor we demonstrate all flexible, resistive pressure sensors with a large workable pressure range (0-8 MPa), a high sensitivity (1 MPa-1) and an excellent repeatability (lowest non-repeatability ±2.4% from 0.8 to 8 MPa) that can be inexpensively fabricated using fabric strain sensors and biocompatible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS). The pressure sensitivity is tunable by using elastomers with different elasticities or by the pre-strain control of fabric strain sensors. Finite element simulation further confirms the sensor design. The simple structure, large workable pressure range, high sensitivity, high flexibility, facile fabrication and low cost of these pressure sensors make them promising candidates for smart protective clothing against impact loading.

  4. MEANS OF SHAPING AND FORMSERIALIZE IN MODERN FUR CLOTHES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guseva M. A.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available In the article, we perform an analysis of the means of shaping and formserialize in fur clothes taken in the production of domestic and foreign fur companies. The spatial form of fur garments is solved, in the main, constructive. The type, direction and amount of articulation were determined by the design of the product and the properties of the fur: the height of the hairline, the size of fur semi-finished product. The proposed positioning of the shaping of articulation in fur clothes has to be performed in the environment of 3D CAD. It is established that in modern models of the silhouette of a fur product may be formed not only by design divisions but also by a combination of the product of different types of fur. We have performed studies on the use of funds of formation in models of industrial collections fur coat 2015-16 presented on the trading spots of Moscow. We have conducted a monitoring of consumer preferences on the types of fur among women and determined the causes of loss of fur, clothing of spatial forms under adverse conditions of wearing. We have also proposed innovative means of formserialize in a fur garment of solid and perforated fur

  5. Uncovering Sundanese Values by Analyzing Symbolic Meaning of Ménak Priangan Clothing (1800-1942)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karmila, M.; Suciati; Widiaty, I.

    2016-04-01

    This study investigates symbolic meanings found in the Sunda ethnic clothing, particularly the Menak Priangan clothing. This study aims to uncover and document those symbolic meanings found in the Menak Priangan clothing as an effort to develop Sunda cultural artefacts of West Java. This study on Menak Priangan clothing applies ethnography (visual) and aesthetic methods. The visual method is utilized in order to uncover local cultural (Sunda) values found in Menak Priangan clothing visualization, including: design, model, name, and representing colours, which then directed towards local Sundanese aesthetic concepts living within the Priangan community. Furthermore, aesthetic method is used to explore role of aesthetic values in empowering visual cultural values within certain community, particularly Sunda aesthetic values. The study results show that since the 19th century, Sunda ethnic clothing was limited to Priangan Sunda only, while traditional clothing wearing by Priangan people reflects their social strata, consisting of: a. Menak Gede (Menak pangluhurna: mayor), bearing raden title, b. Menak Leutik/Santana (mayor assistant), titles: asep, mas, agus, ujang, (Nyimas for woman), c. Somah/Cacah: ordinary people/lower class. Clothing is a cultural phenomenon within certain culture reflecting such society experiences. For Menak people, clothing and its accessories have important meanings. They wear such traditional clothing and accessories as a symbol of power they have within bureaucratic structure and as a symbol of social status they bear within traditional community structure.

  6. Analysis of the Interaction of Pulsed Laser with Nanoporous Activated Carbon Cloth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    B.V. Kalucljerovic; M.S. Trtica; B.B. Radak; J.M. Stasic; S.S. Krstic Musovic; V.M. Dodevski

    2011-01-01

    Interaction of pulsed transversely excited atmospheric (TEA) CO2-1aser radiation at 10.6 μm with nanoporous activated carbon cloth was investigated. Activated carbon cloth of different adsorption characteristics was used. Activated carbon cloth modifications were initiated by laser pulse intensities from 0.5 to 28 MW/cm^2, depending on the cloth adsorption characteristics. CO2 laser radiation was effectively absorbed by the used activated carbon cloth and largely converted into thermal energy. The type of modification depended on laser power density, number of pulses, but mostly on material characteristics such as specific surface area. The higher the surface area of activated carbon cloth, the higher the damage threshold.

  7. Explosion in a rotary dryer at a chemical factory. Eikoku kagaku koho no kaiten kansoki no bakuhatsu jiko (shiryo kenkazai no netsubunkai boso hanno)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shioji, Y. (Nippon Oil Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan))

    1991-10-15

    This paper reports a dryer explosion and fire accident in the Dow Chemical {prime}s King {prime}s Lynn factory in Great Britain. Nine other accidents of dryers on the similar type are also reported to indicate the importance of advance evaluation on substances for their hazard. The subject accident occurred while a group leader was reporting a gushing sound and white smoke from the door of the dryer room at a little after 17:00 on June 27, 1976, an explosion bursted at 17:10 causing an immediate death of an operator due to a blast from the explosion. THE damage of the manufacturing equipment is estimated to have amounted to about 1.25 million pounds. The exolosion accident has occurred when the Zoalene (product name), a chicken feed additeve, has been left in a dryer in nearly a sealed condition for 27 hours after having been dried, its temperature was maintained at 120-130 {degree}C as a result of heat insulating effect of the insulators on the dryer. This caused a pyrolysis of the product, of which heat accelerated the pyrolysisand led to an explosion. One of the basic causes was that no safety evaluation technique has been established to predict danger of the drying operation. 2 refs., 5 figs.

  8. Performance Evaluation of a Solar Dryer with Finny, Perforated Absorber Plate Collector Equipped with an Air Temperature Control System for Dill Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Razmipour

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Dill is one of the most important plants in the world because of its medicinal properties and it is widely used as a vegetable in the most parts of Iran. In the present study a new solar dryer with finny, perforated absorber plate collector was utilized to dry fresh dill. The dryer was comprised of a solar collector, a product container, a fan and a drying air temperature controller. The temperature controller was used as a control system to regulate the drying air temperature. Thermal performance of the dryer with finny, perforated solar collector was compared with that of a simple flat plate solar collector at different airflow rates. The effect of drying air temperature at three levels (45, 55 and 65 °C, the product size at three lengths (3, 5 and 7 cm and two different modes of drying (mixed and indirect on the dryer performance was investigated. The results showed that the finny, perforated absorber plate solar collector could improve the thermal efficiency about 11% in comparison with the flat plate collector and the highest thermal efficiency was achieved at the maximum airflow rate. Meanwhile, increasing the air temperature and decreasing the product size caused a significant reduction in energy consumption. Solar fraction reduced by increasing the air temperature. Finally a maximum dryer efficiency of 70% was observed at air temperature of 65 oC, product size of 3 cm with mixed mode drying.

  9. Mass transfer characteristics of eggplant slices during length of continuous band dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad; Amiri Chayjan, Reza; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad

    2016-12-01

    This study presents a mathematical modeling of eggplant slice drying process in a continuous band dryer. The experiments for drying of eggplant slices were conducted at three air temperature levels of 45, 60, and 75 °C, inlet air velocities of 1, 1.5, and 2 m/s, and belt linear speeds of 2.5, 6.5, and 10.5 mm/s. To estimate the drying kinetics of eggplant slices, different mathematical models were utilized to fit the empirical data of thin layer drying. The models were compared based on their coefficients of determination (R 2), reduced Chi squares (χ 2) and root mean square errors (RMSE) between the experimental and predicted moisture ratios (MR). A feed and cascade forward with back-propagation algorithm was employed to predict the moisture ratio (MR) and drying rate (DR). The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.40 × 10-9 to 1.13 × 10-8 m2/s. The activation energy varied from 14.18 to 25.09 kJ/mol. The obtained results show that the feed forward back-propagation network with training algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt, 4-5-5-2 topology, threshold functions of tansig-tansig-tansig can able to predict the moisture content and drying rate with R2 values of 0.9992 and 0.9726, respectively. Comparison of ANN results with mathematical models revealed that mathematical modeling yields better accuracy to predict the moisture content and drying rate of eggplant.

  10. Studi Eksperimen Karakteristik Pengeringan Batubara Dengan Variasi Beban Pengeringan Pada Cyclone Coal Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Krisnawan

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Batubara merupakan salah satu sumber bahan bakar yang digunakan pada Pembangkit Listrik Tenaga Uap. Agar didapatkan efisiensi yang tinggi pada PLTU maka batubara harus memiliki nilai kalor  tinggi. Indonesia sendiri merupakan salah satu negara penghasil batubara terbersa didunia. Namun hampir 80% batubara yang dihasilkan tergolong batubara rendah dan sedang. Untuk meningkatkan nilai kalor atas batubara perlu dilakukan pengeringan untuk mengurangi kadar air dalam batubara. Eksperimen dilakukan menggunakan batubara dengan moisture conten awal 25%. Batubara dikeringkan dalam chamber cyclone coal dryer dengan kecepatan udara dan temperature udara panas 550C. Pengambilan data dilakukan setiap 5 menit sekali dengan pengambilan sampel batubara selama 30 menit proses pengeringan. Untuk 5 menit pertama interval waktu pengambilan dilakukan selama 1 menit. Data yang diperoleh berupa relative humidity udara, temperatur, berat basah dan berat kering. Pengambilan data berat sampel kering dilakukan berdasarkan standart ASTM D5142 dengan pengeringan pada temperatur 1050C selama 3 jam. Percobaan dilakukan dengan variasi beban pengeringan 300gr,600gr,900gr. Dari hasil eksperimen diketahui bahwa pada 5 menit pertama proses pengeringan batubara memiliki drying rate paling cepat hal ini ditandai dengan penurunan moisture conten yang tajam.Temperatur udara outlet chamber untuk beban 900gr memiliki nilai paling rendah dibandingkan beban pengeringan yang lain yaitu 39.90C. Hal ini dikarenakan massa air pada beban 900 gr lebih banyak sehingga udara pengering mengalami proses pendinginan paling besar. Pada 5 menit pertama terjadi perubahan relative humidity terbesar untuk masing masing beban pengeringan, dimana untuk beban pengeringan 900 gr memiliki nilai relatie humidity terbesar pada menit pertama yaitu 35.47 %. Kenaikan Relative humidity ini dikarenakan massa air yang diilepaskan beban 900gr lebih banyak dari beban 600 gr dan 300 gr.

  11. Mass transfer characteristics of eggplant slices during length of continuous band dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaveh, Mohammad; Amiri Chayjan, Reza; Nikbakht, Ali Mohammad

    2017-06-01

    This study presents a mathematical modeling of eggplant slice drying process in a continuous band dryer. The experiments for drying of eggplant slices were conducted at three air temperature levels of 45, 60, and 75 °C, inlet air velocities of 1, 1.5, and 2 m/s, and belt linear speeds of 2.5, 6.5, and 10.5 mm/s. To estimate the drying kinetics of eggplant slices, different mathematical models were utilized to fit the empirical data of thin layer drying. The models were compared based on their coefficients of determination ( R 2), reduced Chi squares ( χ 2) and root mean square errors ( RMSE) between the experimental and predicted moisture ratios ( MR). A feed and cascade forward with back-propagation algorithm was employed to predict the moisture ratio ( MR) and drying rate ( DR). The effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.40 × 10-9 to 1.13 × 10-8 m2/s. The activation energy varied from 14.18 to 25.09 kJ/mol. The obtained results show that the feed forward back-propagation network with training algorithm of Levenberg-Marquardt, 4-5-5-2 topology, threshold functions of tansig-tansig-tansig can able to predict the moisture content and drying rate with R2 values of 0.9992 and 0.9726, respectively. Comparison of ANN results with mathematical models revealed that mathematical modeling yields better accuracy to predict the moisture content and drying rate of eggplant.

  12. Energy analyses and drying kinetics of chamomile leaves in microwave-convective dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics and energy aspects as well as mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of chamomile in a microwave-convective dryer are reported in this article. Drying experiments were carried out at 8 microwave power levels (200–900 W, air temperature of 50 °C, and air velocity of 0.5 m/s. Increasing the microwave output power from 200 to 900 W, decreased the drying time from 40 to 10 min. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The Midilli et al. model showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Moisture diffusivity values increase with decreasing moisture content down to 1.70 (kg water kg−1 dry matter but decrease with a further decrease in moisture content from 1.72 to 0.96 (kg water kg−1 dry matter. The average values of Deff increased with microwave power from 5.46 to 39.63 × 10−8 (m2 s−1. Energy consumption increased and energy efficiency decreased with moisture content of chamomile samples. Average specific energy consumption, energy efficiency and energy loss varied in the range 18.93–28.15 MJ kg−1 water, 8.25–13.07% and 16.79–26.01 MJ kg−1 water, respectively, while the best energy results were obtained at 400 W, 50 °C and 0.5 m s−1.

  13. Micro-Sized Particle Production of Momordicas sp Extract Using Spray Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maizirwan Mel

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is the most widely used industrial process involving particle formation and drying. It is highly suited for the continuous production of dry solids in either powder, granulate or agglomerate form from liquid feed-stocks as solutions, emulsions and pump able suspensions. Therefore, spray drying is an ideal process where the end-product must comply with precise quality standards regarding particle size distribution, residual moisture content, bulk density, and particle shape. In this study, Momordica sp extract product has been successfully spray dried into micro scale of powder particle and will be used as plant-based insulin. The process optimized using Taguchi method with four factors and three levels has given a good quality of the product. The average of particle size was obtained at about 11 microns.ABSTRAK: Kering sembur digunakan secara meluas dalam proses industri yang melibatkan pembentukan zarah dan pengeringan. Ia amat sesuai dalam penghasilan pepejal kering secara beterusan dalam bentuk serbuk, butiran atau gumpalan daripada simpanan suapan bendalir sebagai larutan, emulsi dan ampaian boleh dipam. Maka, kering sembur adalah proses yang ideal apabila hasil akhir harus mematuhi piawaian kualiti yang tepat berkaitan dengan pengagihan saiz zarah, kandungan kelengsaan sisa, ketumpatan pukal dan bentuk zarah. Dalam kajian ini, produk ekstrak Momordica sp (dikenali juga sebagai peria katak telah berjaya dikering sembur menjadi serbuk zarah berskala mikro dan akan digunakan sebagai insulin berasaskan tumbuhan. Proses ini dioptimumkan dengan pengunaan kaedah Taguchi empat faktor dan tiga peringkat, agar memberikan hasil produk yang berkualiti. Kadar purata saiz zarah yang terhasil adalah lebih kurang 11 mikron.KEY WORDS: micro-sized, particle, Momordica sp, spray dryer.

  14. COMPARISON OF JAPANESE AND CHINESE CLOTHING EVALUATIONS BY EXPERTS TAKING INTO ACCOUNT MARKETABILIT

    OpenAIRE

    Kim KyoungOk; Takatera Masayuki; Zhu AliChunhong; Otani Tsuyoshi

    2015-01-01

    To better understand the reasons for the marketability of clothing now designed and sold in China and Japan, we asked Japanese and Chinese experts to evaluate Chinese and Japanese brands of clothing currently for sale in the Japanese market. The marketability of the Chinese apparel items in the Japanese market was evaluated by the Japanese experts. Five Japanese jackets were purchased from a department store in Tokyo, and ten items of Chinese clothing were purchased from a department store in...

  15. The Influence of the Environment and Clothing on Human Exposure to Ultraviolet Light

    OpenAIRE

    Jin Liu; Wei Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Objection The aim of this study is to determine the effect of clothing and the environment on human exposure to ultraviolet light. Methods The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensity was measured, and air quality parameters were recorded in 2014 in Beijing, China. Three types of clothing (white polyester cloth, pure cotton white T-shirt, and pure cotton black T-shirt) were individually placed on a mannequin. The ultraviolet (ultraviolet A and ultraviolet B) light intensi...

  16. Adultification of Children′s Clothing%童装成人化趋势

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐韵; 熊兆飞

    2011-01-01

    It analyzed the reasons of children′s clothing tending to adultification,discussed how to make adult cloth elements combined better with children′s clothes,and gave the related measures.%分析了童装趋向于成人化的原因,探讨了如何使成人服装元素更好地与童装相结合,并给出了相关措施。

  17. COMAS烘丝机整体改造与应用%Rebuilding of COMAS Cut Tobacco Dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐伟民; 刘剑敏; 舒梦; 徐荣华

    2011-01-01

    浙江中烟工业有限责任公司下设两个生产基地,分别配备COMAS逆流式烘丝机和HAUNI顺流式烘丝机.为了克服烘丝机设备和叶丝干燥工艺差异、统一制丝生产工艺、实现不同产地产品的同质化,在对比分析了两种烘丝机工作原理和控制方式的基础上,对COMAS烘丝机进行了整体改造.内容包括:热风流向变为顺流式;风机增加变频调速功能,调节热风流量,减少能源消耗;采用HAUNI方式的热风温度与筒壁温度控制方式;在出料端安装负压传感器保持烘丝机进出风量平衡.改造后的COMAS烘丝机的热风流向、控制方式趋近于HAUNI顺流式烘丝机,各项工艺和物理指标均达到或优于改造前水平,烘丝冷却后含水率控制稳定,含水率偏差控制在0.18%以内,有效控制了干头干尾烟丝量,且减少了蒸汽消耗.%COMAS counter current cut tobacco dryer and HAUNI cocurrent cut tobacco dryer were separately used in two manufacturing facilities of China Tobacco Zhejiang Industrial Limited Corporation.In order to unify processing technology and quality of products, the working principles and control systems of the two dryers were compared and COMAS dryer was rebuilt as following; changing hot-air direction from counter current into cocurrent; adding a frequency conversion speed regulator to hot-air fan motor to adjust air volume and reduce energy consumption; the temperatures of hot-air and cylinder wall being controlled in the same way as that in HAUNI dryer; installing negative pressure sensor at output end to balance the input and output air flow.The rebuilt COMAS dryer showed better performance.The moisture content in dried cut tobacco after cooling was stable, and its deviation was under 0.18%.In addition, the amount of over-dried cut tobacco during start and finish of drying operation was effectively controlled and steam consumption was also reduced.

  18. Design and production of nursing clothes for the upper limb disabilities

    OpenAIRE

    岡部, 千幸

    2016-01-01

    Currently, most trending clothes are specifically made to fit the shape of the human body. So, we can say that we are wearing clothes based on the clothing’s shape. However, due to disabilities and advanced age, there are people who are unable to wear these types of general clothing. But recently, certain brands have been receiving public attention for making clothes that are designed to fit, even the elderly. For my research, I propose a system in which customers, ranging from the younger ge...

  19. CLOTHING BUYING MOTIVES AND STORE SELECTION CRITERIA – THE CASE OF CROATIAN ADOLESCENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blaženka Knežević

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyse Croatian adolescents’ clothing buying motives and their retail store selection criteria. The paper examined their preferences, attitudes and behaviours when buying clothes - whether adolescents with different primary clothing motives would have similar or different store selection criteria. Also, the paper determined how today’s adolescents spend money on clothes and whether they are more inclined to purchase branded clothes or not. Finally, the paper explained whether Croatian adolescents prefer purchasing in small or large specialized apparel stores, or whether they are more prone to online purchasing or even buying clothes in second-hand shops. Also, the society influences in forming adolescents’ attitudes and decisions towards store selection and purchasing preferences of clothes were examined. The research findings showed that shopping centres are the preferred retail format. In addition, adolescents do not have a fully developed attitude on fashion and clothing. Therefore, they strongly refer to opinions of family and friends when choosing clothes. Moreover, the Internet and TV are evaluated as influential channels of consumer communication within this particular group of consumers. Based on the findings, suggestions for service management and marketing strategies are provided for apparel retail companies that target adolescents.

  20. Study on the Relation between the Air Gap Size under Clothing and the Comfort Sensations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Yun-yi; PAN Jin-huan; LIU Su-yan

    2006-01-01

    Combining two non-contact testing instruments of a threedimensional body measure system and an infrared camera,the entrapped air gap under clothing and the clothing surface temperature distribution were measured without interfering the air gap state. It was discussed the effect of different air gap size on subjective clothing sensation. At the same time,taken the subjective sensations of moisture, adhesiveness and mugginess from the lower back as example, the relationship among the subjective evaluation, the air gap size and the clothing surface temperature were analyzed.