WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry weather

  1. Flow intake control using dry-weather forecast

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Icke

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Level-based control of the influent flow causes peak discharges at a waste water treatment plant (WWTP after rainfall events. Furthermore, the capacity of the post-treatment is in general smaller than the maximum hydraulic capacity of the WWTP. This results in a significant bypass of the post-treatment during peak discharge. The optimisation of influent flow reduces peak discharge, and increases the treatment efficiency of the whole water cycle, which benefits the surface water quality. In this paper, it is shown that half of the bypasses of the post-treatment can be prevented by predictive control. A predictive controller for influent flow is implemented using the Aquasuite® Advanced Monitoring and Control platform. Based on real-time measured water levels in the sewerage and both rainfall and dry-weather flow (DWF predictions, a discharge limitation is determined by a volume optimisation technique. For the analysed period (February–September 2016 results at WWTP Bennekom show that about 50 % of bypass volume can be prevented. Analysis of single rainfall events shows that the used approach is still conservative and that the bypass can be even further decreased by allowing discharge limitation during precipitation.

  2. Flow intake control using dry-weather forecast

    Science.gov (United States)

    Icke, Otto; van Schagen, Kim; Huising, Christian; Wuister, Jasper; van Dijk, Edward; Budding, Arjan

    2017-08-01

    Level-based control of the influent flow causes peak discharges at a waste water treatment plant (WWTP) after rainfall events. Furthermore, the capacity of the post-treatment is in general smaller than the maximum hydraulic capacity of the WWTP. This results in a significant bypass of the post-treatment during peak discharge. The optimisation of influent flow reduces peak discharge, and increases the treatment efficiency of the whole water cycle, which benefits the surface water quality. In this paper, it is shown that half of the bypasses of the post-treatment can be prevented by predictive control. A predictive controller for influent flow is implemented using the Aquasuite® Advanced Monitoring and Control platform. Based on real-time measured water levels in the sewerage and both rainfall and dry-weather flow (DWF) predictions, a discharge limitation is determined by a volume optimisation technique. For the analysed period (February-September 2016) results at WWTP Bennekom show that about 50 % of bypass volume can be prevented. Analysis of single rainfall events shows that the used approach is still conservative and that the bypass can be even further decreased by allowing discharge limitation during precipitation.

  3. From the weather forecast to the prognostic moisture content of dry agricultural crops.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atzema, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Part 1The aim of the study of grass is to forecast the drying of cut grass up to five days ahead, hourly. The first investigated problem is the response of the drying of cut grass to the weather elements. Next a simple model and an advanced model for the drying of cut grass are presented. Errors in

  4. From the weather forecast to the prognostic moisture content of dry agricultural crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Atzema, A.J.

    1994-01-01

    Part 1

    The aim of the study of grass is to forecast the drying of cut grass up to five days ahead, hourly. The first investigated problem is the response of the drying of cut grass to the weather elements. Next a simple model and an advanced model for the drying of cut

  5. Contribution of sand-associated enterococci to dry weather water quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halliday, Elizabeth; Ralston, David K; Gast, Rebecca J

    2015-01-06

    Culturable enterococci and a suite of environmental variables were collected during a predominantly dry summer at a beach impacted by nonpoint source pollution. These data were used to evaluate sands as a source of enterococci to nearshore waters, and to assess the relationship between environmental factors and dry-weather enterococci abundance. Best-fit multiple linear regressions used environmental variables to explain more than half of the observed variation in enterococci in water and dry sands. Notably, during dry weather the abundance of enterococci in dry sands at the mean high-tide line was significantly positively related to sand moisture content (ranging from mean ENT in water could be predicted by a linear regression with turbidity alone. Temperature was also positively correlated with ENT abundance in this study, which may indicate an important role of seasonal warming in temperate regions. Inundation by spring tides was the primary rewetting mechanism that sustained culturable enterococci populations in high-tide sands. Tidal forcing modulated the abundance of enterococci in the water, as both turbidity and enterococci were elevated during ebb and flood tides. The probability of samples violating the single-sample maximum was significantly greater when collected during periods with increased tidal range: spring ebb and flood tides. Tidal forcing also affected groundwater mixing zones, mobilizing enterococci from sand to water. These data show that routine monitoring programs using discrete enterococci measurements may be biased by tides and other environmental factors, providing a flawed basis for beach closure decisions.

  6. Performance of some sunflower genotypes grown under dry weather conditions in south Bulgaria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurettin Tahsin

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Information on yield and agricultural performance of new sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. hybrids grown under dry weather conditions in South Bulgaria is limited. The objectives of this field study is to acquire information on seed yield and other agricultural characteristics of five sunflower hybrids and their parental lines in South Bulgaria. This research was carried out on the Experimental farm at the Agricultural University in Plovdiv, Bulgaria in the seasons of 2008 and 2009. Statistical analysis revealed that the differences among genotypes for all studied characters were significant in both seasons as well as in the combined one.

  7. Exceedance Frequency Analysis of Contaminants in Streams Under Dry-Weather Conditions in Denton, Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Manjul; Hudak, Paul F

    2016-02-01

    Percentages of dry-weather stream samples exceeding water quality criteria for ten parameters were compiled for mixed land use watersheds in north-central Texas. Most problematic were total suspended solids (TSS), total dissolved solids (TDS), ammonia, nitrate, phosphorus and copper. Nutrients had much higher exceedance frequency at a sampling station impacted by wastewater discharge. Whereas, TSS and TDS exceedance frequency was highest in predominantly agricultural and rangeland watersheds, and urbanized watersheds respectively. Total dissolved solids was most often exceeded in urbanized watersheds. For several parameters, especially TDS, TSS, ammonia and copper, median concentrations were below water quality thresholds in most watersheds, but exceedance frequency was high. For example, median TSS was less than its threshold in every watershed, but exceedance frequency was higher than 10 % in four of five watersheds - and nearly 43 % in one watershed. This pattern reflects the skewed nature of water quality data; often times, many observations cluster around the lowest values, causing the median to be relatively low, but several (high) outliers form the right-hand tail of the distribution. Results of this study indicate a need to examine exceedance frequency in addition to traditional descriptive measures to better understand dry-weather stream quality in watersheds.

  8. Evaluating weather research and forecasting (WRF) model predictions of turbulent flow parameters in a dry convective boundary layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gibbs, J.A.; Fedorovich, E.; Eijk, A.M.J. van

    2011-01-01

    Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model predictions using different boundary layer schemes and horizontal grid spacings were compared with observational and numerical large-eddy simulation data for conditions corresponding to a dry atmospheric convective boundary layer (CBL) over the southern

  9. Biocides in urban wastewater treatment plant influent at dry and wet weather: concentrations, mass flows and possible sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bollmann, Ulla E; Tang, Camilla; Eriksson, Eva; Jönsson, Karin; Vollertsen, Jes; Bester, Kai

    2014-09-01

    In recent years, exterior thermal insulation systems became more and more important leading to an increasing amount of houses equipped with biocide-containing organic façade coatings or fungicide treated wood. It is known that these biocides, e.g. terbutryn, carbendazim, and diuron, as well as wood preservatives as propiconazole, leach out of the material through contact with wind driven rain. Hence, they are present in combined sewage during rain events in concentrations up to several hundred ng L(-1). The present study focused on the occurrence of these biocides in five wastewater treatment plants in Denmark and Sweden during dry and wet weather. It was discovered, that biocides are detectable not only during wet weather but also during dry weather when leaching from façade coatings can be excluded as source. In most cases, the concentrations during dry weather were in the same range as during wet weather (up to 100 ng L(-1)); however, for propiconazole noteworthy high concentrations were detected in one catchment (4.5 μg L(-1)). Time resolved sampling (12 × 2 h) enabled assessments about possible sources. The highest mass loads during wet weather were detected when the rain was heaviest (e.g. up to 116 mg h(-1) carbendazim or 73 mg h(-1) mecoprop) supporting the hypothesis that the biocides were washed off by wind driven rain. Contrary, the biocide emissions during dry weather were rather related to household activities than with emissions from buildings, i.e., emissions were highest during morning and evening hours (up to 50 mg h(-1)). Emissions during night were significantly lower than during daytime. Only for propiconazole a different emission behaviour during dry weather was observed: the mass load peaked in the late afternoon (3 g h(-1)) and declined slowly afterwards. Most likely this emission was caused by a point source, possibly from inappropriate cleaning of spray equipment for agriculture or gardening. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier

  10. The effect of wet-dry weathering on the rate of bedrock river channel erosion by saltating gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Satomi; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2017-05-01

    Previous work has shown that the bedrock erosion rate E because of collisions of saltating bedload can be expressed by E = βqb(1-Pc), where qb is the sediment transport rate, Pc is the extent of alluvial cover, and β is the abrasion coefficient. However, the dependence of the abrasion coefficient on the physical characteristics of the bedrock material is poorly known, and in particular, the effects of wet-dry weathering on the saltation-abrasion bedrock incision has not been specifically characterized. Observation suggests that the typical wet-dry cycling of exposed bedrock in river beds gives rise to cracks and voids that are likely to alter the incision rate of the material when subjected to impacts of moving sediment. In this study, flume experiments are performed to develop an understanding of how wet-dry cycling affects the rock tensile strength and the bedrock erosion rate. To represent the physical effects of weathering, boring cores taken from natural bedrock channel are exposed to artificial wet-dry cycles. The experimental results suggest the following: (1) the abrasion coefficient for fresh bedrock is estimated by β = 1.0 × 10- 4σT- 2(d/ksb)0.5, where σT is the tensile strength, d is the diameter of colliding gravel, and ksb is the hydraulic roughness height of bedrock; (2) the tensile strength of the bedrock decreases exponentially as a result of repeated wet-dry cycles, σT/σT0 = exp (-CTNWa0/σT0), where σT0 is the initial tensile strength, Wa0 is the initial normalized rate of water absorption., N is the number of wet-dry cycles, and CT is a constant; (3) the erosion rate of fresh bedrock depends on the inverse of the square of tensile strength, but the erosion rate of weathered bedrock depends on the - 1.5 power of tensile strength.

  11. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    ), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...... that using wind data without the influence of soil moisture most likely lead to an overestimation of the wind erosion risk. It is, therefore, strongly recommended for wind erosion risk assessments to associate more importance to winds that occur during dry times of the year, by including soil moisture...

  12. Small drains, big problems: the impact of dry weather runoff on shoreline water quality at enclosed beaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rippy, Megan A; Stein, Robert; Sanders, Brett F; Davis, Kristen; McLaughlin, Karen; Skinner, John F; Kappeler, John; Grant, Stanley B

    2014-12-16

    Enclosed beaches along urban coastlines are frequent hot spots of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) pollution. In this paper we present field measurements and modeling studies aimed at evaluating the impact of small storm drains on FIB pollution at enclosed beaches in Newport Bay, the second largest tidal embayment in Southern California. Our results suggest that small drains have a disproportionate impact on enclosed beach water quality for five reasons: (1) dry weather surface flows (primarily from overirrigation of lawns and ornamental plants) harbor FIB at concentrations exceeding recreational water quality criteria; (2) small drains can trap dry weather runoff during high tide, and then release it in a bolus during the falling tide when drainpipe outlets are exposed; (3) nearshore turbulence is low (turbulent diffusivities approximately 10(-3) m(2) s(-1)), limiting dilution of FIB and other runoff-associated pollutants once they enter the bay; (4) once in the bay, runoff can form buoyant plumes that further limit vertical mixing and dilution; and (5) local winds can force buoyant runoff plumes back against the shoreline, where water depth is minimal and human contact likely. Outdoor water conservation and urban retrofits that minimize the volume of dry and wet weather runoff entering the local storm drain system may be the best option for improving beach water quality in Newport Bay and other urban-impacted enclosed beaches.

  13. Natural weathering in dry disposed ash dump: Insight from chemical, mineralogical and geochemical analysis of fresh and unsaturated drilled cores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akinyemi, S A; Akinlua, A; Gitari, W M; Khuse, N; Eze, P; Akinyeye, R O; Petrik, L F

    2012-07-15

    Some existing alternative applications of coal fly ash such as cement manufacturing; road construction; landfill; and concrete and waste stabilisation use fresh ash directly collected from coal-fired power generating stations. Thus, if the rate of usage continues, the demand for fresh ash for various applications will exceed supply and use of weathered dry disposed ash will become necessary alternative. As a result it's imperative to understand the chemistry and pH behaviour of some metals inherent in dry disposed fly ash. The bulk chemical composition as determined by XRF analysis showed that SiO2, Al2O3 and Fe2O3 were the major oxides in fresh ash and unsaturated weathered ashes. The unsaturated weathered ashes are relatively depleted in CaO, Fe2O3, TiO2, SiO2, Na2O and P2O5 due to dissolution and hydrolysis caused by chemical interaction with ingressing CO2 from the atmosphere and infiltrating rain water. Observed accumulations of Fe2O3, TiO2, CaO, K2O, Na2O and SO3 and Zn, Zr, Sr, Pb, Ni, Cr and Co in the lower layers indicate progressive downward movement through the ash dump though at a slow rate. The bulk mineralogy of unsaturated weathered dry disposed ash, as determined by XRD analysis, revealed quartz and mullite as the major crystalline phases; while anorthite, hematite, enstatite, lime, calcite, and mica were present as minor mineral phases. Pore water chemistry revealed a low concentration of readily soluble metals in unsaturated weathered ashes in comparison with fresh ash, which shows high leachability. This suggests that over time the precipitation of transient minor secondary mineral phases; such as calcite and mica might retard residual metal release from unsaturated weathered ash. Chloride and sulphate species of the water soluble extracts of weathered ash are at equilibrium with Na+ and K+; these demonstrate progressive leaching over time and become supersaturated at the base of unsaturated weathered ash. This suggests that the ash dump does not

  14. The effect of wet-dry weathering on the rate of bedrock river channel erosion by saltating gravel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inoue, Takuya; Yamaguchi, Satomi; Nelson, Jonathan M.

    2017-01-01

    Previous work has shown that the bedrock erosion rate E because of collisions of saltating bedload can be expressed by E = βqb(1-Pc), where qb is the sediment transport rate, Pc is the extent of alluvial cover, and β is the abrasion coefficient. However, the dependence of the abrasion coefficient on the physical characteristics of the bedrock material is poorly known, and in particular, the effects of wet-dry weathering on the saltation-abrasion bedrock incision has not been specifically characterized. Observation suggests that the typical wet-dry cycling of exposed bedrock in river beds gives rise to cracks and voids that are likely to alter the incision rate of the material when subjected to impacts of moving sediment. In this study, flume experiments are performed to develop an understanding of how wet-dry cycling affects the rock tensile strength and the bedrock erosion rate. To represent the physical effects of weathering, boring cores taken from natural bedrock channel are exposed to artificial wet-dry cycles. The experimental results suggest the following: (1) the abrasion coefficient for fresh bedrock is estimated by β = 1.0 × 10− 4σT− 2(d/ksb)0.5, where σT is the tensile strength, d is the diameter of colliding gravel, and ksb is the hydraulic roughness height of bedrock; (2) the tensile strength of the bedrock decreases exponentially as a result of repeated wet-dry cycles, σT/σT0 = exp (-CTNWa0/σT0), where σT0 is the initial tensile strength, Wa0 is the initial normalized rate of water absorption., N is the number of wet-dry cycles, and CT is a constant; (3) the erosion rate of fresh bedrock depends on the inverse of the square of tensile strength, but the erosion rate of weathered bedrock depends on the − 1.5 power of tensile strength.

  15. Future 400 kV Algerian network and radio electric disturbances in dry weather and under rain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brahami M.

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The development of the electrical power networks to very high voltage (V.H.V reveals problems involved in the high electric fields; it is essential to consider it in the design of installations in order to avoid or to mitigate some problematic or dangerous effects. Among the most important harmful effects, we can note the "radio interference disturbances". The principal aim of this paper is the use of a simulation programme using an analytical method based on the theory of propagation modes, made by one of the authors, for determination and calculation of the exact profile of disturbance field of actual high voltage lines (220 kV and in project (400 kV in dry weather and under rain. Specific software called "effect corona" was developed for this purpose.

  16. Weather and climate impacts of biomass burning aerosols during the dry season in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolusu, Seshagirirao; Marsham, John; Spracklen, Dominic; Parker, Douglas; Dalvi, Mohit; Johnson, Ben; Mann, Graham

    2016-04-01

    Amazonia is a major global source of biomass burning aerosols (BBA) with impacts on weather and climate. BBA can be represented in weather models, with satellite-observed fires used to provide emissions fields, but such emissions normally require tuning to give realistic aerosol fields in models. Here, we investigate the two-way coupling between BBA and regional weather during the South American Biomass Burning Analysis (SAMBBA) field campaign, using both a set of short-range (2-day) forecasts and nested 20-day runs with the Met Office Unified Model (MetUM). Short-range forecasts with parametrised convection show that BBA exert an overall cooling influence on the Earth-atmosphere system, although some levels of the atmosphere are directly warmed by the absorption of solar radiation: BBA reduce the clear-sky net radiation at the surface by 15 ± 1 W m-2 and reduces net top-of-atmosphere radiation by 8 ± 1 W m-2, with a direct atmospheric warming of 7 ± 1 W m-2. BBA-induced reductions in all-sky radiation are smaller in magnitude, but of the same sign. The differences in heating induced by BBA lead to a more anticyclonic circulation at 700 hPa. BBA cools the boundary layer, but warms air above, reducing the BL depth by around 19 m. Locally, on a 150 km scale, changes in precipitation reach around 4 mm day-1 due to changes in the location of convection, with BBA leading to fewer rain events that are more intense, which may be linked to the BBA changing the vertical profile of stability in the lower atmosphere. The localised changes in rainfall tend to average out to give a 5 % (0.06 mm day-1) decrease in total precipitation, but the change in regional water budget is dominated by decreased evapotranspiration from the reduced net surface fluxes (0.2 to 0.3 mm day-1). The results show that although including BBA either prognostoically, or through a climatology, improves forecasts, but differences between the impacts of prognostic and climatological aerosol are small

  17. Site characterization summary report for dry weather surface water sampling upper East Fork Poplar Creek characterization area Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-08-01

    This report describes activities associated with conducting dry weather surface water sampling of Upper East Fork Poplar Creek (UEFPC) at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This activity is a portion of the work to be performed at UEFPC Operable Unit (OU) 1 [now known as the UEFPC Characterization Area (CA)], as described in the RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak- Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee and in the Response to Comments and Recommendations on RCRA Facility Investigation Plan for Group 4 at the Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, Oak Ridge, Tennessee, Volume 1, Operable Unit 1. Because these documents contained sensitive information, they were labeled as unclassified controlled nuclear information and as such are not readily available for public review. To address this issue the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) published an unclassified, nonsensitive version of the initial plan, text and appendixes, of this Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) Facility Investigation (RFI) Plan in early 1994. These documents describe a program for collecting four rounds of wet weather and dry weather surface water samples and one round of sediment samples from UEFPC. They provide the strategy for the overall sample collection program including dry weather sampling, wet weather sampling, and sediment sampling. Figure 1.1 is a schematic flowchart of the overall sampling strategy and other associated activities. A Quality Assurance Project Plan (QAPJP) was prepared to specifically address four rounds of dry weather surface water sampling and one round of sediment sampling. For a variety of reasons, sediment sampling has not been conducted and has been deferred to the UEFPC CA Remedial Investigation (RI), as has wet weather sampling.

  18. Mössbauer and XRD analysis of corrosion products on weathering steel treated by wet-dry cycles using various solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyabu, Matashige; Nomura, Kiyoshi; Koike, Yuya; Okazawa, Atsushi

    2016-12-01

    Weathering steels (COR-TEN) were corroded by wet-dry cycles using a splay of various solutions in a laboratory. Corrosion products on weathering steel were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectrometry at room and low temperatures. Fine α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and γ-Fe 2 O 3 are fundamentally formed in various atmospheric conditions. β-FeOOH is additionally formed under the existence of chloride ions, but not formed when sulfate ions are coexisting. Spraying a NaF solution prevents the progress of corrosion.

  19. Mössbauer and XRD analysis of corrosion products on weathering steel treated by wet-dry cycles using various solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oyabu, Matashige; Nomura, Kiyoshi, E-mail: dqf10204@nifty.com [Kanazawa Institute of Technology (Japan); Koike, Yuya [Meiji University, Department of Applied Chemistry (Japan); Okazawa, Atsushi [The University of Tokyo, School of Arts and Sciences (Japan)

    2016-12-15

    Weathering steels (COR-TEN) were corroded by wet-dry cycles using a splay of various solutions in a laboratory. Corrosion products on weathering steel were characterized by X-ray diffractometry and Mössbauer spectrometry at room and low temperatures. Fine α-FeOOH, γ-FeOOH and γ-Fe {sub 2}O{sub 3} are fundamentally formed in various atmospheric conditions. β-FeOOH is additionally formed under the existence of chloride ions, but not formed when sulfate ions are coexisting. Spraying a NaF solution prevents the progress of corrosion.

  20. Experimental research on the mixed sand ratio and initial dry density of weathered sand improved expansive soil free load swelling rate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Jun; Yang Zhi; Zhang Guodong; Tang Yunwei; Chen Hongping

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, through the indoor free load swelling rate test, expansive soil in a section of a first- class highway reconstruction project in Yichang City was studied. It emphatically analyzed the interrelations among free load swelling rate, non-load time, the proportion of mixed sand and initial dry density. Experimen- tal studies have shown that: Free load swelling deformation is mainly divided into three stages of rapid expan- sion, slow expansion and final stability; when the initial dry density is constant, free load swelling rate of the weathered sand modified soil will reduce rapidly before they slow down with the increase of sand proportion, and weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate is not sensitive to the large amount of sand mixed; in the same mixed sand ratio, weathered sand modified soil free load swelling rate increases rapidly with the in- crease of initial dry density, there is a good linear correlation between them. To take appropriate control of the initial dry density during the expansive soil subgrade construction helps to reduce its swelling deformation and ensures the stability of the embankment.

  1. Gonotrophic cycle duration, fecundity and parity of Anopheles gambiae complex mosquitoes during an extended period of dry weather in a semi arid area in Baringo County, Kenya.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Albert O. Mala

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available An entomological longitudinal survey was carried out over a 22 month period in two semi-arid villages in Baringo District in Kenya to study how adult malaria vectors survive under semi-arid conditions and during extended periods of dry weather. Methods Wild caught female mosquitoes were dissected to examine ovarian lobes for parity status and to determine number of gonotrophic cycles they had undergone. Duration of the first and second gonotrophic cycles were estimated using cage-reared F1 females. Blood-fed females were kept individually in plastic vials and percent oviposition incidence recorded. Results Significantly fewer mosquitoes laid eggs during the dry than the wet season. The average duration of the first gonotrophic cycle in the wet season was 4.1 d after blood feeding, 1.1 d (36% longer than the dry season (3.0 d. The average duration of the second gonotrophic cycle in the wet season was 2.9 d after second blood meal, 0.7 d (31.8% longer than those in the dry season. Chi-square tests showed the gonotrophic cycle duration was significantly shorter during the dry than the wet season. Both gonotrophic cycle duration and physiological age varied significantly between wet and dry seasons. Conclusion These findings suggest the duration of gonotrophic cycle among Anopheles gambiae in dry lands with scarce breeding sites is shorter during the dry than wet season. Low fecundity rates during the dry season could be a sign of reduced reproductive activity. However lack of variation in seasonal mating frequency is a clear indication that oviposition and mating kinetics are influenced differently even under the same environmental conditions. It is likely that the results of this study will shed an understanding on spatial and temporal heterogeneities experienced in malaria transmission in semi-arid regions of the world where malaria and indeed mosquito-borne diseases are a public health menace.

  2. Chemical weathering trends in fine-grained ephemeral stream sediments of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marra, Kristen R.; Elwood Madden, Megan E.; Soreghan, Gerilyn S.; Hall, Brenda L.

    2017-03-01

    We investigated chemical weathering trends within the fine-grained ( 40 m2/g. Utilization of MFW (mafic-felsic-weathered) and A-CN-K (Al2O3-CaO + Na2O-K2O) plots, however, are more effective in discerning the extent and nature of chemical weathering in these stream systems. Ca and Na depletion observed within the sediments exhibiting the highest surface area in Delta Stream suggest that chemical weathering may result in pitting and/or incongruent dissolution of pyroxenes and feldspars, as well as the development of amorphous and/or nanophase weathering products. In contrast, Clark Glacier stream sediments do not have similar leaching trends in the fine-grained sediment fraction and exhibit minimal weathering overall. This may suggest that fine-grained material is being trapped on top of the Clark Glacier surface and has not yet been transported into the weathering environment of the hyporheic zone due to timing of sampling. Alternatively, complete dissolution of very fine-grained sediment could be occurring in this stream transect, and is therefore not preserved in the fine sediment fraction. Overall, the magnitude of chemical weathering observed between the two stream systems is ultimately related to the nature of the underlying drift (cold and wet-based drift deposition), dispersal patterns of eolian fines, and variable stream discharge rates. Thus, incorporation of local fine-grained sediment derived from the underlying glacial drift deposits and distributed via the varying wind regimes within the hyper-arid climate into active stream channels may facilitate incongruent mineral dissolution and development of weathering products, and ultimately influence the composition and concentration of meltwater stream solutes.

  3. Stochastic weather generator based on dry and wet spells%基于干湿期的随机天气发生器

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李世娟; 诸叶平

    2014-01-01

    Climate change is important for agriculture and the environment. Changing rainfall amounts have positively or negatively impact on plant growth. The reduction in solar radiation can potentially reduce the photosynthesis, growth of plants and potential evaporation. Stochastic weather generators can generate a long series of weather variable statistics, which usually are used as the input of system models to analyze and evaluate the effect of climate on systems. This paper described a stochastic weather generator WGDWS which consisted of dry and wet spell, daily precipitation, solar radiation, and maximum and minimum temperature models. It included two types of models. The first one was a dry and wet spell model in which dry and wet spell lengths were defined as an independent stochastic variable respectively, and it was the principal model. The second one referred to other weather variables whose modeling was dependent on the first one. The generation of weather element values mainly contained two steps: generating a dry or wet spell length based on their empirical distribution in a month, and then generating the daily value of each variable in the related period. The generator could provide any length of time series of daily weather stochastic values as input data for the driving of crop models. The observed 1973 -2003 daily weather data from nine meteorological sites in different geographical region in China were used to determine model parameters of a generator in two types of generator, including WGDWS which was based on dry and wet spell and DWSS which was based on dry and wet days. After generating 100 years of daily weather variables, including total solar radiation, maximum temperature, minimum temperature and precipitation, at the above nine sites with the help of WGDWS and DWSS, monthly statistics of these variables were computed. A T-test showed that there was no significant difference between the generated and observed monthly statistics for different

  4. Gap-filling of dry weather flow rate and water quality measurements in urban catchments by a time series modelling approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sandoval, Santiago; Vezzaro, Luca; Bertrand-Krajewski, Jean-Luc

    2016-01-01

    seeks to evaluate the potential of the Singular Spectrum Analysis (SSA), a time-series modelling/gap-filling method, to complete dry weather time series. The SSA method is tested by reconstructing 1000 artificial discontinuous time series, randomly generated from real flow rate and total suspended...... solids (TSS) online measurements (year 2007, 2 minutes time-step, combined system, Ecully, Lyon, France). Results show up the potential of the method to fill gaps longer than 0.5 days, especially between 0.5 days and 1 day (mean NSE > 0.6) in the flow rate time series. TSS results still perform very...

  5. Warm Dry Weather Conditions Cause of 2016 Fort McMurray Wild Forest Fire and Associated Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Singh, R. P.; da Silva, E. A., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change is evident from the increasing temperature around the world, day to day life and increasing frequency of natural hazards. The warm and dry conditions are the cause of frequent forest fires around the globe. Forest fires severely affect the air quality and human health. Multi sensor satellites and dense network of ground stations provide information about vegetation health, meteorological, air quality and atmospheric parameters. We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data of wild forest fire that occurred in May 2016 in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. This wild forest fire destroyed 10 per cent of Fort McMurray's housing and forced more than 90,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas. Our results show that the warm and dry conditions with low rainfall were the cause of Fort McMurray wild fire. The air quality parameters (particulate matter, CO, ozone, NO2, methane) and greenhouse gases measured from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite show enhanced levels soon after the forest fire. The emissions from the forest fire affected health of population living in surrounding areas up to 300 km radius.

  6. Influences of land use and antecedent dry-weather period on pollution level and ecological risk of heavy metals in road-deposited sediment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jin; Hua, Pei; Krebs, Peter

    2017-09-01

    Road-deposited sediment and its adsorbed pollutants have been regarded as significant sources of urban diffuse pollution. In this study, the solid-phase concentrations (mg/g), surface load (mg/m(2)) and chemical fractionation of zinc (Zn), copper (Cu) and cadmium (Cd) were determined. Geo-accumulation (Igeo) and ecological risk (RI) indexes were employed for metal risk assessment. Results show that the highest solid-phase concentrations of Zn and Cu were usually found at an industrial area. However, Cd had the highest solid-phase concentrations at a rural area, followed by a commercial area. The surface loads of Zn and Cu decreased along the city centre to city border gradient. However, Cd was distributed irregularly. In terms of chemical fractionation, the predominant components of Zn and Cd were identified in the unstable exchangeable fractions, indicating high potential ecological risks to the aquatic environments. Cu posed a comparably low risk due to the high proportions of the stable components of residual and oxidisable fractions. According to a two-dimensional hierarchical cluster analysis, Zn and Cu surface loads were dominantly influenced by the antecedent dry-weather period; Cd contents were strongly land-use type dependent. In addition, the enrichment capability was ranked as Zn > Cu > Cd determined by Igeo index. The sampling site dependent potential ecological risk was determined as rural area (R) > commercial city centre (W) > federal highway (B) > industrial area (I) > main road (S) > secondary road (A) by the RI index. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Subsidy Policy of Discharge Reduction from Drainage Pumping Stations during Dry Weather in Central Urban Area%中心城区排水泵站旱天放江污染削减的补贴政策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建锋

    2014-01-01

    Discharges from pumping stations to rivers in dry weather have become an important issue which causes environmental complaints of residents and serious influence of water quality in central Shanghai. To guide the engineering and administrative measures used to reduce the volume of discharged water from pumping stations in dry weather as soon as possible,the subsidy policy needs to be implemented. The principles including water index evaluation,partial subsidies,and classified subsidies as well as encouraging and guiding to build the inspection and subsidy standards of discharges from pumping stations in dry weather were used in this paper. Tons of water to mix contact investigation and modification cost were about 1. 63 and 2. 67 yuan,respectively. The construction and modification cost of intercepting and draining water facilities were 108. 39 yuan/m3 . The combined sewer pumping station reduced the water level of pipeline operation to avoid fore-river discharges before rain weather and the cost of ton of water running increased 0. 091 5 yuan. The operation cost needed to reduce the water level of collecting basin to the lowest level in order to avoid maintenance discharges was 58. 5 yuan/104 m3 . Based on the reduction of subsidy standards of discharges from pumping stations in dry weather,it was expected to effectively reduce 19. 209 9 million volumes of discharged water in dry weather,which was 86. 58% of the total discharges amount. The basic subsidy of one-time engineering was 51. 201 2 million yuan. And the basic subsidy of annual operation cost was 0. 093 3 million yuan.%上海市中心城区泵站旱天放江已成为居民环保投诉、严重影响河道水质景观的主要问题,为引导削减泵站旱天放江量的工程性、管理性措施尽快实施,需实施资金补贴政策。该研究采用水量指标考核、分项补贴、分类补贴和鼓励引导原则,构建泵站旱天放江考核和补贴标准;估算确定吨水混接点

  8. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  9. Drivers of weathering-related magnetic concentration changes in lacustrine sediments of the Tibetan Plateau - cases in dry and humid climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appel, E.; Zhang, W.; Hu, S.; Herb, C.; Goddu, S.; Koutsodendris, A.; Pross, J.; Fang, X.

    2014-12-01

    Magnetic susceptibility (MS) variations in lacustrine cores from the westerlies-dominated arid Qaidam basin (NE Tibetan Plateau) and the monsoon- dominated humid Heqing basin (SE Tibetan Plateau) have turned out to record changes in moisture fluxes throughout the Pleistocene. In both cases humidity-related weathering of magnetite to maghemite and hematite by low-temperature oxidation in the catchment is recognized as a main driver. In Qaidam basin fluctuations of low and high MS values show orbital cyclicities and reflect relatively higher and lower humidity, respectively, as revealed by calibration to pollen results. The range and possible changes of the catchment area, remains unclear. A tectonic control of the proxy record becomes evident by comparing results in an overlapping age interval (~2.7-1.7 Ma) of two cores in ~20 km distance. The records in the sediments of the Qaidam basin may be dominated by paleo-environmental changes near the lakeshore and controlled by regional water recycling. In Heqing basin the extent of the catchment is far clearer and processes in the catchment and their pathway into lake sediments are better understood. These processes comprise chemical weathering of limestone rocks, strong magnetic enhancement in soils by both enrichment of coarser-grained magnetite inherited from the bedrock and bacterial production of ultrafine magnetite. Relative changes of wind and surface water transport in more and less humid periods led to systematic variations of MS values and carbonate contents on a clear eccentricity (100-kyr) scale. Amplitudes of the cycles can be interpreted with the relative influence of the Indian summer monsoon in this area.

  10. Accuracy assessment of land surface temperature retrievals from Landsat 7 ETM + in the Dry Valleys of Antarctica using iButton temperature loggers and weather station data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabyn, Lars; Zawar-Reza, Peyman; Stichbury, Glen; Cary, Craig; Storey, Bryan; Laughlin, Daniel C; Katurji, Marwan

    2014-04-01

    The McMurdo Dry Valleys of Antarctica are the largest snow/ice-free regions on this vast continent, comprising 1% of the land mass. Due to harsh environmental conditions, the valleys are bereft of any vegetation. Land surface temperature is a key determinate of microclimate and a driver for sensible and latent heat fluxes of the surface. The Dry Valleys have been the focus of ecological studies as they arguably provide the simplest trophic structure suitable for modelling. In this paper, we employ a validation method for land surface temperatures obtained from Landsat 7 ETM + imagery and compared with in situ land surface temperature data collected from four transects totalling 45 iButtons. A single meteorological station was used to obtain a better understanding of daily and seasonal cycles in land surface temperatures. Results show a good agreement between the iButton and the Landsat 7 ETM + product for clear sky cases. We conclude that Landsat 7 ETM + derived land surface temperatures can be used at broad spatial scales for ecological and meteorological research.

  11. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  12. Wacky Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabarre, Amy; Gulino, Jacqueline

    2013-01-01

    What do a leaf blower, water hose, fan, and ice cubes have in common? Ask the students who participated in an integrative science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (I-STEM) education unit, "Wacky Weather," and they will tell say "fun and severe weather"--words one might not have expected! The purpose of the unit…

  13. 江苏常州城市绿化应对高温干旱天气研究%Research about urban greening response to high temperature and dry weather in Changzhou Jiangsu

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵卫华

    2013-01-01

    The effect of high temperature and dry weather on urban greening was studied Preliminary. The study indicated that the tolerance ability of original tall tree against high temperature and dry weather is stronger than the other trees and small shrubs. Significant difference was found in the resistance to drought heat of different plant species such as Ginkgo biloba, Cinnamonum camphora, Acer palmatum cv. Atropurpureum, Magnolia grandilfora, Ligustrum quihoui, Buxus sinica, Aucuba japonica var. variegata D’Om-Brain etc. However, it seemed no harm to Platanus hispanica, Lagerstroemia indica, Koelreteria interifolia, Hibiscus syriacus, Photinia serrulata etc. The unscientific landscaping planting and management increased the damage seriously. For future urban ecological landscape construction, we must try our best to reduce the effect of natural disasters and man-made disasters on urban greening.%初步研究了高温干旱天气对城市绿化的影响。通过绿地调查统计发现:高大乔木在高温干旱天气下适应能力较强,而新种树木和色块对高温干旱天气的抵抗能力较弱;不同植物品种耐旱耐热性差异显著,受害较重的植物有银杏、香樟、红枫、广玉兰、小叶女贞、瓜子黄杨、八角金盘、洒金桃叶珊瑚等,而二球悬铃木、紫薇、黄山栾树、木槿、石楠等受害轻微;绿化种植和管理的不科学加重了植物受害的程度。对今后城市生态园林建设,必须采取必要措施来降低城市绿化受自然和人为灾害的影响。

  14. Mirador - Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Earth Science data access made simple. Our weather system includes the dynamics of the atmosphere and its interaction with the oceans and land. The improvement of...

  15. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  16. Stormy Weather

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    Inspired by the deep abyss of the unknown; a constant source for investigation and discovery, heating and destruction, all simultaneously. Beneath the deep darkness, millions of species vibrantly thrive in another universe wholly untouched by human hands, though affected by their choices. The weathered pieces and people associated with seaside villages, the deep wrinkles that tell a story of one's life and experiences like

  17. A Data Model for Determining Weather's Impact on Travel Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Ove; Torp, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    for storing and map-matching GPS data, and integrating this data with detailed weather data. The model is generic in the sense that it can be used anywhere GPS data and weather data is available. Next, we analyze the correlation between travel time and the weather classes dry, fog, rain, and snow along...

  18. Monthly Weather Review

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Supplements to the Monthly Weather Review publication. The Weather Bureau published the Monthly weather review Supplement irregularly from 1914 to 1949. The...

  19. Weather Prediction Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacmeister, Julio T.

    Awareness of weather and concern about weather in the proximate future certainly must have accompanied the emergence of human self-consciousness. Although weather is a basic idea in human existence, it is difficult to define precisely.

  20. Weather in Your Life.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kannegieter, Sandy; Wirkler, Linda

    Facts and activities related to weather and meteorology are presented in this unit. Separate sections cover the following topics: (1) the water cycle; (2) clouds; (3) the Beaufort Scale for rating the speed and force of wind; (4) the barometer; (5) weather prediction; (6) fall weather in Iowa (sleet, frost, and fog); (7) winter weather in Iowa…

  1. Introducing GFWED: The Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-01-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5 latitude by 2-3 longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia,Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DCD1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRAs precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphereocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  2. Development of a Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Field, R. D.; Spessa, A. C.; Aziz, N. A.; Camia, A.; Cantin, A.; Carr, R.; de Groot, W. J.; Dowdy, A. J.; Flannigan, M. D.; Manomaiphiboon, K.; Pappenberger, F.; Tanpipat, V.; Wang, X.

    2015-06-01

    The Canadian Forest Fire Weather Index (FWI) System is the mostly widely used fire danger rating system in the world. We have developed a global database of daily FWI System calculations, beginning in 1980, called the Global Fire WEather Database (GFWED) gridded to a spatial resolution of 0.5° latitude by 2/3° longitude. Input weather data were obtained from the NASA Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA), and two different estimates of daily precipitation from rain gauges over land. FWI System Drought Code calculations from the gridded data sets were compared to calculations from individual weather station data for a representative set of 48 stations in North, Central and South America, Europe, Russia, Southeast Asia and Australia. Agreement between gridded calculations and the station-based calculations tended to be most different at low latitudes for strictly MERRA-based calculations. Strong biases could be seen in either direction: MERRA DC over the Mato Grosso in Brazil reached unrealistically high values exceeding DC = 1500 during the dry season but was too low over Southeast Asia during the dry season. These biases are consistent with those previously identified in MERRA's precipitation, and they reinforce the need to consider alternative sources of precipitation data. GFWED can be used for analyzing historical relationships between fire weather and fire activity at continental and global scales, in identifying large-scale atmosphere-ocean controls on fire weather, and calibration of FWI-based fire prediction models.

  3. Land Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — METAR is the international standard code format for hourly surface weather observations. The acronym roughly translates from French as Aviation Routine Weather...

  4. Project Weather and Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Pal J. Kirkeby

    2000-01-01

    Introduces Project Weather and Water with the goal of developing and testing ideas of how to implement weather topics and water physics in an integrated way. Discusses teacher preparation, implementation, and evaluation of this project. (ASK)

  5. Pilot Weather Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Aviation weather reports relayed from pilots to FAA air traffic controllers or National Weather Service personnel. Elements include sky cover, turbulence, wind...

  6. Natural Weathering Exposure Station

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Corps of Engineers' Treat Island Natural Weathering Exposure Station is a long-term natural weathering facility used to study concrete durability. Located on the...

  7. Surface Weather Observations Hourly

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Standard hourly observations taken at Weather Bureau/National Weather Service offices and airports throughout the United States. Hourly observations began during the...

  8. Surface Weather Observing Manuals

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Manuals and instructions for taking weather observations. Includes the annual Weather Bureau 'Instructions for Preparing Meteorological Forms...' and early airways...

  9. Daily Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — These daily weather records were compiled from a subset of stations in the Global Historical Climatological Network (GHCN)-Daily dataset. A weather record is...

  10. Winter Weather Emergencies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severe winter weather can lead to health and safety challenges. You may have to cope with Cold related health problems, including ... there are no guarantees of safety during winter weather emergencies, you can take actions to protect yourself. ...

  11. National Convective Weather Diagnostic

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current convective hazards identified by the National Convective Weather Detection algorithm. The National Convective Weather Diagnostic (NCWD) is an automatically...

  12. Internet Weather Source

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (NWS) National Telecommunications Gateway provides weather, hydrologic, and climate forecasts and warnings for the United States, its...

  13. Weather Radar Stations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — These data represent Next-Generation Radar (NEXRAD) and Terminal Doppler Weather Radar (TDWR) weather radar stations within the US. The NEXRAD radar stations are...

  14. The power of weather

    OpenAIRE

    Christian Huurman; Francesco Ravazzolo; Chen Zhou

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the predictive power of weather for electricity prices in day ahead markets in real time. We find that next-day weather forecasts improve the forecast accuracy of Scandinavian day-ahead electricity prices substantially in terms of point forecasts, suggesting that weather forecasts can price the weather premium. This improvement strengthens the confidence in the forecasting model, which results in high center-mass predictive densities. In density forecast, such a predictive...

  15. Weather Fundamentals: Meteorology. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) looks at how meteorologists gather and interpret current weather data collected from sources…

  16. Cold-Weather Sports

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Surgery? A Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness Cold-Weather Sports KidsHealth > For Teens > Cold-Weather Sports A A A What's in this article? ... Equipment Ahh, winter! Shorter days. Frigid temperatures. Foul weather. What better time to be outdoors? Winter sports ...

  17. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  18. Weather Conditions, Weather Information and Car Crashes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriaan Perrels

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Road traffic safety is the result of a complex interaction of factors, and causes behind road vehicle crashes require different measures to reduce their impacts. This study assesses how strongly the variation in daily winter crash rates associates with weather conditions in Finland. This is done by illustrating trends and spatiotemporal variation in the crash rates, by showing how a GIS application can evidence the association between temporary rises in regional crash rates and the occurrence of bad weather, and with a regression model on crash rate sensitivity to adverse weather conditions. The analysis indicates that a base rate of crashes depending on non-weather factors exists, and some combinations of extreme weather conditions are able to substantially push up crash rates on days with bad weather. Some spatial causation factors, such as variation of geophysical characteristics causing systematic differences in the distributions of weather variables, exist. Yet, even in winter, non-spatial factors are normally more significant. GIS data can support optimal deployment of rescue services and enhance in-depth quantitative analysis by helping to identify the most appropriate spatial and temporal resolutions. However, the supportive role of GIS should not be inferred as existence of highly significant spatial causation.

  19. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  20. Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program - Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2010-06-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE) Weatherization Assistance Program reduces energy costs for low-income households by increasing the energy efficiency of their homes, while ensuring their health and safety.

  1. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  2. Weather Test Reference Year of Greenland

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kragh, Jesper; Pedersen, Frank; Svendsen, Svend

    2005-01-01

    The building code of Greenland from 1982 is to be revised in the coming years fulfilling the increased demand of more energy efficient buildings. To establish appropriate levels of energy consumption for heating the weather conditions have to be analyzed. The purpose of this paper is to describe...... test reference year is constructed using measurements from the town Uummannaq located in the north part of Greenland on the west coast. The construction of the test reference years fulfills the procedures described in the standard EN ISO 15927-4 using the following main weather parameters: Dry bulb...

  3. Artificial weathering of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Hermo, B.

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article summarizes a series of artificial weathering tests run on granite designed to: simulate the action of weathering agents on buildings and identify the underlying mechanisms, determine the salt resistance of different types of rock; evaluate consolidation and water-repellent treatment durability; and confirm hypotheses about the origin of salts such as gypsum that are often found in granite buildings. Salt crystallization tests were also conducted, using sodium chloride, sodium sulphate, calcium sulphate and seawater solutions. One of these tests was conducted in a chamber specifically designed to simulate salt spray weathering and another in an SO2 chamber to ascertain whether granite is subject to sulphation. The test results are analyzed and discussed, along with the shortcomings of each type of trial as a method for simulating the decay observed in monuments. The effect of factors such as wet-dry conditions, type of saline solution and the position of the planes of weakness on the type of decay is also addressed.En este trabajo se hace una síntesis de varios ensayos de alteración artificial realizados con rocas graníticas. Estos ensayos tenían distintos objetivos: reproducir las formas de alteración encontradas en los edificios para llegar a conocer los mecanismos que las generan, determinar la resistencia de las diferentes rocas a la acción de las sales, evaluar la durabilidad de tratamientos de consolidación e hidrofugación y constatar hipótesis acerca del origen de algunas sales, como el yeso, que aparecen frecuentemente en edificios graníticos. En los ensayos de cristalización de sales se utilizaron disoluciones de cloruro de sodio, sulfato de sodio, sulfato de calcio y agua de mar. Uno de estos ensayos se llevó a cabo en una cámara especialmente diseñada para reproducir la alteración por aerosol marino y otro se realizó en una cámara de SO2, con el objeto de comprobar si en rocas graníticas se puede producir

  4. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  5. Benign Weather Modification

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-11-02

    operational interest in modifying weather to support combat operations increased, ultimately leading to a multi-service effort called PROJECT POPEYE . The goal...This, coupled with the revelations concerning weather modification use in the Vietnam War (PROJECT POPEYE ), was a double blow to weather modification...AWS-TR-74-247, June 1984. Cobb, James T., Jr., et. al. Project Popeye : Final Report. China Lake, CA: Naval Weapons Center, 1967. Langmuir, Irving

  6. Is Weather Chaotic?

    CERN Document Server

    Raidl, A

    1998-01-01

    The correlation dimension and K2-entropy are estimated from meteorological time- series. The results lead us to claim that seasonal variability of weather is under influence of low dimensional dynamics, whereas changes of weather from day to day are governed by high dimensional system(s). Error-doubling time of this system is less than 3 days. We suggest that the outstanding feature of the weather dynamics is deterministic chaos.

  7. Space Weather Laboratory

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Space Weather Computational Laboratory is a Unix and PC based modeling and simulation facility devoted to research analysis of naturally occurring electrically...

  8. Space Weather Analysis

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Space Weather Analysis archives are model output of ionospheric, thermospheric and magnetospheric particle populations, energies and electrodynamics

  9. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  10. Weather and emotional state

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spasova, Z.

    2010-09-01

    Introduction Given the proven effects of weather on the human organism, an attempt to examine its effects on a psychic and emotional level has been made. Emotions affect the bio-tonus, working ability and concentration, hence their significance in various domains of economic life, such as health care, education, transportation, tourism, etc. Data and methods The research has been made in Sofia City within a period of 8 months, using 5 psychological methods (Eysenck Personality Questionnaire (EPQ), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI), Test for Self-assessment of the emotional state (developed by Wessman and Ricks), Test for evaluation of moods and Test "Self-confidence - Activity - Mood" (developed by the specialists from the Military Academy in Saint Petersburg). The Fiodorov-Chubukov's complex-climatic method was used to characterize meteorological conditions because of the purpose to include in the analysis a maximal number of meteorological elements. 16 weather types are defined in dependence of the meteorological elements values according to this method. Abrupt weather changes from one day to another, defined by the same method, were considered as well. Results and discussions The results obtained by t-test show that the different categories of weather lead to changes in the emotional status, which indicates a character either positive or negative for the organism. The abrupt weather changes, according to expectations, have negative effect on human emotions but only when a transition to the cloudy weather or weather type, classified as "unfavourable" has been realized. The relationship between weather and human emotions is rather complicated since it depends on individual characteristics of people. One of these individual psychological characteristics, marked by the dimension "neuroticism", has a strong effect on emotional reactions in different weather conditions. Emotionally stable individuals are more "protected" to the weather influence on their emotions

  11. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather

  12. Designing a Weather Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    The collection and analysis of weather data is crucial to the location of alternate energy systems like solar and wind. This article presents a design challenge that gives students a chance to design a weather station to collect data in advance of a large wind turbine installation. Data analysis is a crucial part of any science or engineering…

  13. Evaporation and weather

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bruin, H.A.R. de; Feddes, R.A.; Holtslag, A.A.M.; Lablans, W.N.; Schuurmans, C.J.E.; Shuttleworth, W.J.

    1987-01-01

    Data on evaporation to be used in agriculture, hydrology, forestry, etc. are usually supplied by meteorologists. Meteorologists themselves also use evaporation data. Air mass properties determining weather are strongly dependent on the input of water vapour from the surface. So for weather predictio

  14. Weather and road capacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Thomas Christian

    2014-01-01

    The paper presents estimations of the effect of bad weather on the observed speed on a Danish highway section; Køge Bugt Motorvejen. The paper concludes that weather, primarily precipitation and snow, has a clear negative effect on speed when the road is not in hypercongestion mode. Furthermore......, the capacity of the highway seems to be reduced in bad weather and there are indications that travel time variability is also increased, at least in free-flow conditions. Heavy precipitation reduces speed and capacity by around 5-8%, whereas snow primarily reduces capacity. Other weather variables......-parametrically against traffic density and in step 2 the residuals from step 1 are regressed linearly against the weather variables. The choice of a non-parametric method is made to avoid constricting ties from a parametric specification and because the focus here is not on the relationship between traffic flow...

  15. Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-15

    Weather in Mountainous Terrain (Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support) Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1...Meteorology Overcoming Scientific Barriers to Weather Support Fiesta Resort & Conference Center Tempe, AZ February 1 & 2, 2010 Hosted by University

  16. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  18. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle....... The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show...

  19. Thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors under Danish weather conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    2010-01-01

    . The investigations are based on calculations with a newly developed program. Measured weather data from a solar radiation measurement station at Technical University of Denmark in Kgs. Lyngby Denmark in the period 1990 to 2002 and the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY data file are used in the investigations....... The weather data used for Sisimiut are based on a Test Reference Year, TRY weather data file. The thermal advantages of different tracking strategies is investigated for two flat plate solar collectors with different efficiencies, operated at different temperature levels. The investigations show......Theoretical investigations have been carried out with the aim to elucidate the thermal advantage of tracking solar collectors for different weather conditions in Kgs. Lyngby, Denmark (55.8°N), and for the weather conditions in Sisimiut, Greenland (66.9°N), just north of the arctic circle...

  20. Oil Rig Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather observations taken at offshore platforms along the United States coastlines. The majority are located in oil-rich areas of the Gulf of Mexico, Gulf of...

  1. Uruguay - Surface Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface weather observation forms for 26 stations in Uruguay. Period of record 1896-2005, with two to eight observations per day. Files created through a...

  2. Cape Kennedy Weather Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Digitized data taken from original weather observations taken at Cape Kennedy Air Force Station, Florida. Elements recorded are wind speed and direction,...

  3. Monthly Weather Observations

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Surface Weather Observation 1001 Forms is a set of historical manuscript records for the period 1893-1948. The collection includes two very similar form types: Form...

  4. Daily Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Several different government offices have published the Daily weather maps over its history. The publication has also gone by different names over time. The U.S....

  5. Weather Information Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-01

    Science Communications International (SCI), formerly General Science Corporation, has developed several commercial products based upon experience acquired as a NASA Contractor. Among them are METPRO, a meteorological data acquisition and processing system, which has been widely used, RISKPRO, an environmental assessment system, and MAPPRO, a geographic information system. METPRO software is used to collect weather data from satellites, ground-based observation systems and radio weather broadcasts to generate weather maps, enabling potential disaster areas to receive advance warning. GSC's initial work for NASA Goddard Space Flight Center resulted in METPAK, a weather satellite data analysis system. METPAK led to the commercial METPRO system. The company also provides data to other government agencies, U.S. embassies and foreign countries.

  6. Space Weather Products

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Collection includes a variety of space weather datasets from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and from the World Data Service for Geophysics,...

  7. Genetically optimizing weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, S. B.; Staats, Kai; Romero-Colmenero, Encarni

    2016-07-01

    humidity, air pressure, wind speed and wind direction) into a database. Built upon this database, we have developed a remarkably simple approach to derive a functional weather predictor. The aim is provide up to the minute local weather predictions in order to e.g. prepare dome environment conditions ready for night time operations or plan, prioritize and update weather dependent observing queues. In order to predict the weather for the next 24 hours, we take the current live weather readings and search the entire archive for similar conditions. Predictions are made against an averaged, subsequent 24 hours of the closest matches for the current readings. We use an Evolutionary Algorithm to optimize our formula through weighted parameters. The accuracy of the predictor is routinely tested and tuned against the full, updated archive to account for seasonal trends and total, climate shifts. The live (updated every 5 minutes) SALT weather predictor can be viewed here: http://www.saao.ac.za/ sbp/suthweather_predict.html

  8. Cockpit weather information system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tu, Jeffrey Chen-Yu (Inventor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather information, periodically collected from throughout a global region, is periodically assimilated and compiled at a central source and sent via a high speed data link to a satellite communication service, such as COMSAT. That communication service converts the compiled weather information to GSDB format, and transmits the GSDB encoded information to an orbiting broadcast satellite, INMARSAT, transmitting the information at a data rate of no less than 10.5 kilobits per second. The INMARSAT satellite receives that data over its P-channel and rebroadcasts the GDSB encoded weather information, in the microwave L-band, throughout the global region at a rate of no less than 10.5 KB/S. The transmission is received aboard an aircraft by means of an onboard SATCOM receiver and the output is furnished to a weather information processor. A touch sensitive liquid crystal panel display allows the pilot to select the weather function by touching a predefined icon overlain on the display's surface and in response a color graphic display of the weather is displayed for the pilot.

  9. WEATHERING PROCESS IN EOCENE FLYSCH IN REGION OF SPLIT (CROATIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Predrag Miščević

    2001-12-01

    Full Text Available The Eocene flysh in the region of Split (Dalmatia, Croatia is char¬acterized by the presence of layers with different characteristics. It mainly includes thin-layered marls, clayey marls, calcareous marls, clastic lay¬ered limestones, calcarenites and breccias. Those parts that can be de¬scribed as the soft rocks or hard clays by the mechanical means, exposed to weathering reduce the durability within "an engineering time scale". The paper deals with the factors that influence the weathering process. The analyzed weathering is a combination of processes acting simulta¬neously. Most of these processes depend on the change of the water con¬tent, thus the weathering process mainly develops when a material is subjected to the wetting-drying process, On the base of these results form of degradation process is modeled. The weathering process can be main¬ly described as physical weathering combined with chemical weathering on the free surfaces and on the cracks walls. Erosion as a result of weath¬ering, is the dominant geomorphic process on analyzed flysch terrain. According to the analysis, as the most appropriate due to the characteris¬tics the tests are chosen as index properties. Some of these tests are modified in order to adapt them to the determined characteristics of ma¬terials from flysch layers. The correlations between the measured values are used as the basis for the classification proposal of the analyzed mate¬rial, according to its resistance to weathering processes. Roughly, three main groups of samples are recognizable: the first one with carbonate content more then 90% is not weathered at the engineers time scale; the second group with carbonate content from 75% to 90% include samples susceptible to weathering in engineers time scale; the third group with carbonate content less then 75% include samples in which the weather¬ing occurs immediately after the exposition to the weathering factors.

  10. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, R.; Joosten, I.; Beentjes, T.; Megens, L.; Mardikian, P.; Chemello, C.; Watters, C.; Hull, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  11. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Molen, R.; Joosten, I.; Beentjes, T.; Megens, L.; Mardikian, P.; Chemello, C.; Watters, C.; Hull, P.

    2011-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  12. Dry ice blasting for the conservation cleaning of metals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. van der Molen; I. Joosten; T. Beentjes; L. Megens

    2010-01-01

    This research was carried out to assess the feasibility of dry ice blasting as a replacement for solvent cleaning for the removal of organic layers from metal cultural heritage objects. The effects of dry ice blasting on test samples of aluminium, bronze and weathering steel were studied along with

  13. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belant Jerrold L

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local economies. Therefore, it is advantageous to predict human WNV risks for cost-effective controls of the disease and optimal allocations of limited resources. Understanding relationships between precipitation and WNV transmission is crucial for predicting the risk of the human WNV disease outbreaks under predicted global climate change scenarios. Methods We analyzed data on the human WNV incidences in the 82 counties of Mississippi in 2002, using standard morbidity ratio (SMR and Bayesian hierarchical models, to determine relationships between precipitation and human WNV risks. We also entertained spatial autocorrelations of human WNV risks with conditional autocorrelative (CAR models, implemented in WinBUGS 1.4.3. Results We observed an inverse relationship between county-level human WNV incidence risk and total annual rainfall during the previous year. Parameters representing spatial heterogeneity in the risk of human exposure to WNV improved model fit. Annual precipitation of the previous year was a predictor of spatial variation of WNV risk. Conclusions Our results have broad implications for risk assessment of WNV and forecasting WNV outbreaks. Assessing risk of vector-born infectious diseases will require understanding of complex ecological relationships. Based on the climatologically characteristic drought occurrence in the past and on climate model predictions for climate change and potentially greater drought occurrence in the future, we suggest that the frequency and relative risk of WNV outbreaks could increase.

  14. Dry weather induces outbreaks of human West Nile virus infections

    OpenAIRE

    Belant Jerrold L; Minnis Richard B; Wang Guiming; Wax Charles L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Since its first occurrence in the New York City area during 1999, West Nile virus (WNV) has spread rapidly across North America and has become a major public health concern in North America. By 2002, WNV was reported in 40 states and the District of Columbia with 4,156 human and 14,539 equine cases of infection. Mississippi had the highest human incidence rate of WNV during the 2002 epidemic in the United States. Epidemics of WNV can impose enormous impacts on local econom...

  15. Extreme weather-year sequences have non-additive effects on environmental nitrogen losses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Javed; Necpalova, Magdalena; Archontoulis, Sotirios V; Anex, Robert P; Bourguignon, Marie; Herzmann, Daryl; Mitchell, David C; Sawyer, John E; Zhu, Qing; Castellano, Michael J

    2017-08-14

    The frequency and intensity of extreme weather years, characterized by abnormal precipitation and temperature, are increasing. In isolation, these years have disproportionately large effects on environmental N losses. However, the sequence of extreme weather years (e.g., wet-dry vs. dry-wet) may affect cumulative N losses. We calibrated and validated the DAYCENT ecosystem process model with a comprehensive set of biogeophysical measurements from a corn-soybean rotation managed at three N fertilizer inputs with and without a winter cover crop in Iowa, USA. Our objectives were to determine: i) how two-year sequences of extreme weather affect two-year cumulative N losses across the crop rotation, and ii) if N fertilizer management and the inclusion of a winter cover crop between corn and soybean mitigate the effect of extreme weather on N losses. Using historical weather (1951-2013), we created nine two-year scenarios with all possible combinations of the driest ('dry'), wettest ('wet'), and average ('normal') weather years. We analyzed the effects of these scenarios following several consecutive years of relatively normal weather. Compared to the normal-normal two-year weather scenario, two-year extreme weather scenarios affected two-year cumulative NO3(-) leaching (range: -93 to +290%) more than N2 O emissions (range: -49 to +18%). The two-year weather scenarios had non-additive effects on N losses: compared to the normal-normal scenario, the dry-wet sequence decreased two-year cumulative N2 O emissions while the wet-dry sequence increased two-year cumulative N2 O emissions. Although dry weather decreased NO3(-) leaching and N2 O emissions in isolation, two-year cumulative N losses from the wet-dry scenario were greater than the dry-wet scenario. Cover crops reduced the effects of extreme weather on NO3(-) leaching but had a lesser effect on N2 O emissions. As the frequency of extreme weather is expected to increase, these data suggest that the sequence of inter

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  17. Space weather & telecommunications

    CERN Document Server

    Goodman, John M

    2006-01-01

    This book is both a survey of practical concepts for forecasting the performance of various telecommunication systems as well as a balanced treatment of space-weather phenomena that give rise to telecommunication impairment episodes. It bridges the gap in the relationship that exists between the following two disciplines: space weather and telecommunication system performance. There are a number of books that address one of the two disciplines in some detail, but only merely mention the other as an afterthought. In this book the author has married the two disciplines so that the readership can

  18. Solar Drying of Hazelnut by Three Different Types of System

    OpenAIRE

    Olgun, Hayati; RZAYEV, Perviz

    2000-01-01

    Hazelnut is the most important agricultural product of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, and is exported to the world market dried and unshelled. The traditional sun drying process used by hazelnut farmers takes about 3 to 10 days depending on the weather conditions. If precipitation is high during the harvesting period, drying takes longer and causes the harvest to be spoilt. Although Turkey grows almost 75% of the world's hazelnuts, due to the current difficulties in th...

  19. Driver behaviour data linked with vehicle, weather, road surface, and daylight data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hjelkrem, Odd André; Ryeng, Eirin Olaussen

    2017-02-01

    In this data set, vehicle observations have been linked to data containing weather and road surface conditions. A total of 311 908 observations are collected and classified in categories of precipitation type, road status information, and daylight condition. The data is collected for a long period of time, so that several different weather situations are present, ranging from dry summer to adverse winter weather conditions.

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  2. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  3. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  4. Microbial Weathering of Olivine

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKay, D. S.; Longazo, T. G.; Wentworth, S. J.; Southam, G.

    2002-01-01

    Controlled microbial weathering of olivine experiments displays a unique style of nanoetching caused by biofilm attachment to mineral surfaces. We are investigating whether the morphology of biotic nanoetching can be used as a biosignature. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  5. Winter Weather: Indoor Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  6. Winter Weather: Frostbite

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  7. Winter Weather Checklists

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  8. Weather at LANL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruggeman, David Alan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-19

    This report gives general information about how to become a meteorologist and what kinds of jobs exist in that field. Then it goes into detail about why weather is monitored at LANL, how it is done, and where the data can be accessed online.

  9. Cold Weather Pet Safety

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... they can be knocked over, potentially starting a fire. Check your furnace before the cold weather sets in to make ... avoided because of the risk of burns or fire. Heated pet mats should also be used ... to burrow, get them back inside quickly because they are showing signs of ...

  10. Dress for the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glen, Nicole J.; Smetana, Lara K.

    2010-01-01

    "If someone were traveling to our area for the first time during this time of year, what would you tell them to bring to wear? Why?" This question was used to engage students in a guided-inquiry unit about how climate differs from weather. In this lesson, students explored local and national data sets to give "travelers" advice…

  11. 'Is it the weather?'

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. Jacobsen (Ben); W.A. Marquering (Wessel)

    2004-01-01

    textabstractWe show that results in the recent strand of the literature that tries to explain stock returns by weather induced mood shifts of investors might be data-driven inference. More specifically, we consider two recent studies (Kamstra, Kramer and Levi, 2003a and Cao and Wei, 2004) that claim

  12. Weathering of Pisha-Sandstones in the Wind-Water Erosion Crisscross Region on the Loess Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Two types of pisha-sandstones of purple sandstones and gray sandstones, widely distributing in the wind-water erosion crisscross region of China, were selected and used in laboratory experiments for a better understanding of the drying-wetting-freezing weathering process resulting from the apportionment of water or salt solution to rock samples. Weathering experiments were carried out under the conditions of environment control (including temperature, moisture and salt solution). All rock samples were frequently subjected to 140 drying-wetting-freezing cycles. The influences of weathering process were evaluated. It was found that the different treatments of moisture and salt solution applications could affect the nature of the weathering products resulting from drying-wetting-freezing. It was also observed that salt solution could effectively alleviate the weathering of pisha-sandstones. Although not all the observations could be explained, it was apparent that simulated environmental factors had both direct and indirect effects on the weathering of rocks.

  13. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  14. Weatherization Works: An interim report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Kinney, L.F. [Synertech Systems Corp., Syracuse, NY (United States)

    1993-11-01

    The National Weatherization Evaluation is the first comprehensive evaluation of the Weatherization Assistance Program since 1984. The evaluation was designed to accomplish the following goals: Estimate energy savings and cost effectiveness; Assess nonenergy impacts; Describe the weatherization network; Characterize the eligible population and resources; and Identify factors influencing outcomes and opportunities for the future. As a national program, weatherization incorporates considerable diversity due to regional differences. Therefore, evaluation results are presented both in aggregate and for three climate regions: cold, moderate and hot.

  15. Weather impacts on natural, social and economic systems. German report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flechsig, M.; Gerlinger, K.; Herrmann, N.; Klein, R.J.T.; Schneider, M.; Sterr, H.; Schellnhuber, H.J.

    2000-05-01

    The EU project Weather Impacts on Natural, Social and Economic Systems (WISE) has analysed impacts of current climate variability to evaluate the sensitivity of today's society to extreme weather. Unlike studies of anticipated impacts of climate change, WISE did not rely on scenarios and projections, but on existing and newly collected data. The research involved (i) the statistical modelling of meteorological and sectoral time series, aimed at quantifying the impacts of changing weather variables on sector output, (ii) a population survey, aimed at investigating public perception of and behavioural response to unusually hot and dry summers and mild winters, and (iii) a management survey, aimed at obtaining insight into managers' awareness and perception of the importance of extreme weather on their operations. The three activities revealed a wealth of data and information, providing relevant insights into Germany's sensitivity to and perception of extreme weather events. Sectors that were analysed included agriculture, outdoor fire, water supply, human health, electricity and gas consumption and tourism. It appears from the statistical modelling that extreme weather can have impressive impacts on all sectors, especially when expressed in monetary terms. However, weather variability is generally considered a manageable risk, to which sectors in Germany appear reasonably well-adapted. The population and management surveys reveal both positive and negative impacts of extreme weather. People generally respond to these impacts by adjusting their activities. The utilities (electricity, gas and water) indicate that they are robsut to the current level of weather variability and do not consider climate change an important threat to their operations. The tourism sector experiences impacts but typically takes a reactive approach to adaptation, although it is also developing weather-insensitive products. (orig.)

  16. North America Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Maps contains a surface analysis comprised of plotted weather station observations, isobars indicating low and high-pressure...

  17. Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Severe Weather Data Inventory (SWDI) is an integrated database of severe weather records for the United States. SWDI enables a user to search through a variety...

  18. Modeling the role of weathering in shore platform development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trenhaile, Alan S.

    2008-02-01

    A mathematical, wave-erosional model was modified to study the additional effect of weathering by wetting and drying and salt weathering on the development of shore platforms in macro- to mesotidal environments. Model rates of downwearing by these processes, at different tidal elevations, were based on data obtained from a series of laboratory experiments on sandstones from eastern Canada. Backwearing by mechanical wave erosion was calculated using basic wave equations. There were several types of run which were designed to determine the effect of: weathering and the production of fine-grained sediment; the periodic accumulation of debris on weathering in the upper intertidal zone; and weathering in reducing rock resistance and facilitating wave quarrying. The results implied that, compared to mechanical wave erosion, the direct effect of weathering and fine-grained sediment production makes only a small contribution to the long-term development of shore platforms. The relationship between cliff-foot debris occurrence and platform development and morphology was inconsistent because of the negative feedback relationship between erosion rates, surface gradients, and rates of wave attenuation. The model suggested that weathering can play an important, indirect role in assisting wave quarrying of joint blocks and other rock fragments.

  19. What characterizes planetary space weather?

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Space weather has become a mature discipline for the Earth space environment. With increasing efforts in space exploration, it is becoming more and more necessary to understand the space environments of bodies other than Earth. This is the background for an emerging aspect of the space weather discipline: planetary space weather. In this article, we explore what characterizes planetary space weather, using some examples throughout the solar system. We consider energy s...

  20. Effect of accelerated weathering and leaching on the chemistry and phytotoxicity of coal-mine overburden

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Frouz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Overburden weathering may influence its effects on soil development and plant growth. Here, an accelerated-weathering experiment was used to determine how weathering affects the chemistry and toxicity of coal-mine overburden. Seven samples of overburden were collected; two samples were from a heap of partly weathered material, and five from mining pits. In both cases, the most weathered top 10 cm was removed. Samples included coal-rich clays (with > 1% coal and coal-free clays. The samples were artificially weathered by subjecting them to 20 cycles of drying-rewetting-freezing-thawing. Coal-rich clays that have not been weathered were acidic and toxic to Sinapis alba seedlings, but weathering increased their pH, reduced their conductivity and tended to reduce their phytotoxicity. In contrast, weathering tended to reduce the pH of coal-free alkaline clays. S. alba grew poorly in weathered coal-free clay, but when grown in coal-rich clays it grew better in some substrates whereas others were phytotoxic due to their high As content. Weathering decreased Al, As and Na contents and decreased substrate mass by 1–37%. Overall, these results indicate that weathering changes the properties of overburden in ways that are important for soil development and plant growth but the nature and extent of the changes depend on the initial composition of the substrate.

  1. Severe Weather Planning for Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Barbara McNaught; Strong, Christopher; Bunting, Bill

    2008-01-01

    Flash floods, severe thunderstorms, and tornadoes occur with rapid onset and often no warning. Decisions must be made quickly and actions taken immediately. This paper provides tips for schools on: (1) Preparing for Severe Weather Emergencies; (2) Activating a Severe Weather Plan; (3) Severe Weather Plan Checklist; and (4) Periodic Drills and…

  2. Whether weather affects music

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aplin, Karen L.; Williams, Paul D.

    2012-09-01

    The creative output of composers, writers, and artists is often influenced by their surroundings. To give a literary example, it has been claimed recently that some of the characters in Oliver Twist and A Christmas Carol were based on real-life people who lived near Charles Dickens in London [Richardson, 2012]. Of course, an important part of what we see and hear is not only the people with whom we interact but also our geophysical surroundings. Of all the geophysical phenomena to influence us, the weather is arguably the most significant because we are exposed to it directly and daily. The weather was a great source of inspiration for artists Claude Monet, John Constable, and William Turner, who are known for their scientifically accurate paintings of the skies [e.g., Baker and Thornes, 2006].

  3. The Weather Man

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蒋涵毅

    2009-01-01

    Secondly. the weather man一定会告诉我们每天的最高和最低温度(the highest and the lowest temperature)。我们用℃来表示摄氏度,有的地方则用°F,那是华氏温度。°F=9/5×℃+32

  4. Tactical Weather Expert System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective of this project was to assess the feasibility of developing an expert system for tactical weather prediction. Using WILLARD, an expert ...indicate that intelligent interpretations of cloud formations can be made. These inferences can then be automatically passed to the expert system for...processing as another piece of information. It is anticipated that this technology will significantly reduce the dependence of the expert system on a

  5. Space Weather Ballooning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Tony; Johnson, Sam; Koske-Phillips, Amelia; White, Michael; Yarborough, Amelia; Lamb, Aaron; Herbst, Anna; Molina, Ferris; Gilpin, Justin; Grah, Olivia; Perez, Ginger; Reid, Carson; Harvey, Joey; Schultz, Jamie

    2016-10-01

    We have developed a "Space Weather Buoy" for measuring upper atmospheric radiation from cosmic rays and solar storms. The Buoy, which is carried to the stratosphere by helium balloons, is relatively inexpensive and uses off-the-shelf technology accessible to small colleges and high schools. Using this device, we have measured two Forbush Decreases and a small surge in atmospheric radiation during the St. Patrick's Day geomagnetic storm of March 2015.

  6. Weathering the financial storm

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ólafsson, Tjörvi; Pétursson, Thórarinn G.

    2011-01-01

    to explain a significant share of the cross-country variation in the depth and duration of the crisis and provide quite sharp predictions of the incidence of banking and currency crises. This suggests that country-specific initial conditions played an important role in determining the economic impact...... of the crisis and, in particular, that countries with sound fundamentals and flexible economic frameworks were better able to weather the financial storm....

  7. Areosynchronous weather imager

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puschell, Jeffery J.; Lock, Robert

    2016-09-01

    Mars is characterized by rapidly changing, poorly understood weather that is a concern for future human missions. Future Areosynchronous Mars Orbit (AMO) communication satellites offer possible platforms for Mars weather imagers similar to the geosynchronous Earth orbit (GEO) weather imagers that have been observing Earth since 1966. This paper describes an AReosynchronous Environmental Suite (ARES) that includes two imagers: one with two emissive infrared bands (10.8 μm and 12.0 μm) at 4 km resolution and the other with three VNIR bands (500 nm, 700 nm, 900 nm) at 1 km resolution. ARES stares at Mars and provides full disk coverage as fast as every 40 sec in the VNIR bands and every 2 min in the emissive bands with good sensitivity (SNR 200 in the VNIR for typical radiances and NEDT 0.2K at 180 K scene temperature in the emissive infrared). ARES size, mass, power and data rate characteristics are compatible with expectations for hosted payloads onboard future AMO communication satellites. Nevertheless, more work is needed to optimize ARES for future missions, especially in terms of trades between data rate, full disk coverage rate, sensitivity, number of spectral bands and spatial resolution and in study of approaches for maintaining accurate line of sight knowledge during data collection.

  8. Weather Monitoring Station: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mr. Dipak V. Sose

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Weather monitoring plays a very important role in human life hence study of weather system is necessary. Currently there are two types of the weather monitoring stations available i.e. wired and wireless. Wireless system has some advantages over the wired one hence popular now a days. The parameters are include in weather monitoring usually temperature, humidity atmospheric pressure, light intensity, rainfall etc. There are many techniques existed using different processor such as PIC, AVR, ARM etc. Analog to digital channel are used to fetch the analog output of the sensors. The wireless techniques used in the weather monitoring having GSM, FM channel, Zigbee, RF etc Protocols

  9. Weather forecasting based on hybrid neural model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Tanzila; Rehman, Amjad; AlGhamdi, Jarallah S.

    2017-02-01

    Making deductions and expectations about climate has been a challenge all through mankind's history. Challenges with exact meteorological directions assist to foresee and handle problems well in time. Different strategies have been investigated using various machine learning techniques in reported forecasting systems. Current research investigates climate as a major challenge for machine information mining and deduction. Accordingly, this paper presents a hybrid neural model (MLP and RBF) to enhance the accuracy of weather forecasting. Proposed hybrid model ensure precise forecasting due to the specialty of climate anticipating frameworks. The study concentrates on the data representing Saudi Arabia weather forecasting. The main input features employed to train individual and hybrid neural networks that include average dew point, minimum temperature, maximum temperature, mean temperature, average relative moistness, precipitation, normal wind speed, high wind speed and average cloudiness. The output layer composed of two neurons to represent rainy and dry weathers. Moreover, trial and error approach is adopted to select an appropriate number of inputs to the hybrid neural network. Correlation coefficient, RMSE and scatter index are the standard yard sticks adopted for forecast accuracy measurement. On individual standing MLP forecasting results are better than RBF, however, the proposed simplified hybrid neural model comes out with better forecasting accuracy as compared to both individual networks. Additionally, results are better than reported in the state of art, using a simple neural structure that reduces training time and complexity.

  10. Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Year-Old Can the Weather Affect My Child's Asthma? KidsHealth > For Parents > Can the Weather Affect My ... empeorar el asma de mi hijo? Weather and Asthma The effect of weather on asthma symptoms isn' ...

  11. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, K.; Hong, S.; Jangsuk, C.; Dong Kyu, K.; Jinyee, C.; Yeongoh, C.

    2016-12-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  12. Space Weather Services of Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, KiChang; Kim, Jae-Hun; Kim, Young Yun; Kwon, Yongki; Wi, Gwan-sik

    2016-07-01

    The Korean Space Weather Center (KSWC) of the National Radio Research Agency (RRA) is a government agency which is the official source of space weather information for Korean Government and the primary action agency of emergency measure to severe space weather condition. KSWC's main role is providing alerts, watches, and forecasts in order to minimize the space weather impacts on both of public and commercial sectors of satellites, aviation, communications, navigations, power grids, and etc. KSWC is also in charge of monitoring the space weather condition and conducting research and development for its main role of space weather operation in Korea. In this study, we will present KSWC's recent efforts on development of application-oriented space weather research products and services on user needs, and introduce new international collaborative projects, such as IPS-Driven Enlil model, DREAM model estimating electron in satellite orbit, global network of DSCOVR and STEREO satellites tracking, and ARMAS (Automated Radiation Measurement for Aviation Safety).

  13. Municipalities' Preparedness for Weather Hazards and Response to Weather Warnings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehiriz, Kaddour; Gosselin, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    The study of the management of weather-related disaster risks by municipalities has attracted little attention even though these organizations play a key role in protecting the population from extreme meteorological conditions. This article contributes to filling this gap with new evidence on the level and determinants of Quebec municipalities’ preparedness for weather hazards and response to related weather warnings. Using survey data from municipal emergency management coordinators and secondary data on the financial and demographic characteristics of municipalities, the study shows that most Quebec municipalities are sufficiently prepared for weather hazards and undertake measures to protect the population when informed of imminent extreme weather events. Significant differences between municipalities were noted though. Specifically, the level of preparedness was positively correlated with the municipalities’ capacity and population support for weather-related disaster management policies. In addition, the risk of weather-related disasters increases the preparedness level through its effect on population support. We also found that the response to weather warnings depended on the risk of weather-related disasters, the preparedness level and the quality of weather warnings. These results highlight areas for improvement in the context of increasing frequency and/or severity of such events with current climate change. PMID:27649547

  14. Weathering of Carbonate Rocks by Biological Soil Crusts in Karst Areas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ye Chen; Bin Lian; Zuoying Yin; Yuan Tang

    2014-01-01

    The weathering of carbonate rocks by biological soil crusts (BSC) in karst areas is very common. It is helpful to understand the weathering mechanisms and processes for avoiding karst rock-desertification. The weathering of carbonate rocks by BSC in karst areas, namely the expansion, contraction and curl resulting from environmental wetting-drying cycles, was investigated and ana-lyzed in this paper. The bulk density, area and thickness of BSC were determined and the weathering amount of limestone and dolomite per unit area of BSC was calculated as 3 700 and 3 400 g·m-2; the amount of biomass on the surface of limestone and dolomite was calculated as 1 146 and 1 301 g·m-2, respectively. Such an increased weathering amount was not only the result of chemical and physical weathering of BSC on carbonate rocks, but also the attachment and cementation of BSC to clay parti-cles, dust-fall, sand particles, solid particles brought by strong air currents, wind and other factors in the surrounding environment, which may also be related to the special environment and the special time period. Based on the results obtained, a weathering mode of BSC is studied, and the mechanisms of weathering by BSC are discussed. In conclusion, we suggest that the mechanical force exerted by the expansion and constriction of gelatinous and mucilaginous substances through wetting and drying of BSC play a significant role in the physical weathering process of the carbonate substrates.

  15. The Weather in Richmond

    OpenAIRE

    Harless, William Edwin

    2014-01-01

    ABSTRACT: The Weather in Richmond is a short documentary about the Oilers, the football team at Richmond High School in downtown Richmond, California, as they struggle in 2012 with the legacy of winning no games, with the exception of a forfeit, in two years. The video documents the city of Richmond’s poverty and violence, but it also is an account of the city’s cultural diversity, of the city’s industrial history and of the hopes of some of the people who grow up there. The...

  16. Combating bad weather

    CERN Document Server

    Mukhopadhyay, Sudipta

    2015-01-01

    Every year lives and properties are lost in road accidents. About one-fourth of these accidents are due to low vision in foggy weather. At present, there is no algorithm that is specifically designed for the removal of fog from videos. Application of a single-image fog removal algorithm over each video frame is a time-consuming and costly affair. It is demonstrated that with the intelligent use of temporal redundancy, fog removal algorithms designed for a single image can be extended to the real-time video application. Results confirm that the presented framework used for the extension of the

  17. Severe Weather Forecast Decision Aid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauman, William H., III; Wheeler, Mark M.; Short, David A.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents a 15-year climatological study of severe weather events and related severe weather atmospheric parameters. Data sources included local forecast rules, archived sounding data, Cloud-to-Ground Lightning Surveillance System (CGLSS) data, surface and upper air maps, and two severe weather event databases covering east-central Florida. The local forecast rules were used to set threat assessment thresholds for stability parameters that were derived from the sounding data. The severe weather events databases were used to identify days with reported severe weather and the CGLSS data was used to differentiate between lightning and non-lightning days. These data sets provided the foundation for analyzing the stability parameters and synoptic patterns that were used to develop an objective tool to aid in forecasting severe weather events. The period of record for the analysis was May - September, 1989 - 2003. The results indicate that there are certain synoptic patterns more prevalent on days with severe weather and some of the stability parameters are better predictors of severe weather days based on locally tuned threat values. The results also revealed the stability parameters that did not display any skill related to severe weather days. An interactive web-based Severe Weather Decision Aid was developed to assist the duty forecaster by providing a level of objective guidance based on the analysis of the stability parameters, CGLSS data, and synoptic-scale dynamics. The tool will be tested and evaluated during the 2005 warm season.

  18. Effect of drying methods on the discoloration of three major domestic softwood species in Korea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ho-yang Kang

    2006-01-01

    Japanese pine, Korean pine and larch are three major softwood species in Korea. Their colors are relatively light, thus easily discolored due to drying and UV irradiation. In this study, they were dried with five different drying methods, steam treated and exposed to weathering. Their colors were measured using a spectrophotometer and comparisons made both among species and drying methods. For Japanese and Korean pines, high temperature dried and steam-dried specimens showed distinct color differences compared with the controls. Steam treatment discolored the dried specimens of Japanese and Korean pines but did not discolor those of larch. After weathering for 144 days the specimens of Japanese pine showed slight color differences among drying methods.

  19. NASA Space Weather Center Services: Potential for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Chulaki, A.; Lee, H.; Hesse, M.

    2012-01-01

    The NASA Space Weather Center's primary objective is to provide the latest space weather information and forecasting for NASA's robotic missions and its partners and to bring space weather knowledge to the public. At the same time, the tools and services it possesses can be invaluable for research purposes. Here we show how our archive and real-time modeling of space weather events can aid research in a variety of ways, with different classification criteria. We will list and discuss major CME events, major geomagnetic storms, and major SEP events that occurred during the years 2010 - 2012. Highlights of major tools/resources will be provided.

  20. Road Weather and Connected Vehicles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pisano, P.; Boyce, B. C.

    2015-12-01

    On average, there are over 5.8 M vehicle crashes each year of which 23% are weather-related. Weather-related crashes are defined as those crashes that occur in adverse weather or on slick pavement. The vast majority of weather-related crashes happen on wet pavement (74%) and during rainfall (46%). Connected vehicle technologies hold the promise to transform road-weather management by providing improved road weather data in real time with greater temporal and geographic accuracy. This will dramatically expand the amount of data that can be used to assess, forecast, and address the impacts that weather has on roads, vehicles, and travelers. The use of vehicle-based measurements of the road and surrounding atmosphere with other, more traditional weather data sources, and create road and atmospheric hazard products for a variety of users. The broad availability of road weather data from mobile sources will vastly improve the ability to detect and forecast weather and road conditions, and will provide the capability to manage road-weather response on specific roadway links. The RWMP is currently demonstrating how weather, road conditions, and related vehicle data can be used for decision making through an innovative Integrated Mobile Observations project. FHWA is partnering with 3 DOTs (MN, MI, & NV) to pilot these applications. One is a mobile alerts application called the Motorists Advisories and Warnings (MAW) and a maintenance decision support application. These applications blend traditional weather information (e.g., radar, surface stations) with mobile vehicle data (e.g., temperature, brake status, wiper status) to determine current weather conditions. These weather conditions, and other road-travel-relevant information, are provided to users via web and phone applications. The MAW provides nowcasts and short-term forecasts out to 24 hours while the EMDSS application can provide forecasts up to 72 hours in advance. The three DOTs have placed readers and external

  1. Rough weather rescue

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-07-01

    This report, which was commissioned by the Offshore Division of the Health and Safety Executive, reviews the type of equipment and techniques used to rescue people from the water around offshore platforms in rough weather. It also examines the limitations of the equipment in extreme conditions and reports the views of the various industry sectors (as determined by a questionnaire survey). The type of incidents covered by the report include: man overboard; helicopter ditching; and evacuation from totally enclosed motor propelled survival craft (TEMPSC) and life rafts. The report considers: the approach taken by other oil-producing countries; current escape, evacuation and rescue (EER) practices for the UK Continental Shelf (UKCS); environmental limits; methods for rescue and recovery from the water and TEMPSC; launch and recovery systems; fast rescue craft (FSC) and daughter craft; emergency response and rescue vessels; helicopters; casualty personal protection equipment; claimed versus actual equipment performance; training and practice procedures; attitudes to environmental limits; lessons learnt from incidents; mechanical recovery devices; equipment design and use in rough weather; and recommendations for improvements.

  2. Weatherization Apprenticeship Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, Eric J

    2012-12-18

    Weatherization improvement services will be provided to Native people by Native people. The proposed project will recruit, train and hire two full-time weatherization technicians who will improve the energy efficiency of homes of Alaska Natives/American Indians residing in the Indian areas, within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska. The Region includes Anchorage as well as 8 small tribal villages: The Native Villages of Eklutna, Knik, Chickaloon, Seldovia, Ninilchik, Kenaitze, Salamatof, and Tyonek. This project will be a partnership between three entities, with Cook Inlet Tribal Council (CITC) as the lead agency: CITCA's Employment and Training Services Department, Cook Inlet Housing Authority and Alaska Works Partnership. Additionally, six of the eight tribal villages within the Cook Inlet Region of Alaska have agreed to work with the project in order to improve the energy efficiency of their tribally owned buildings and homes. The remaining three villages will be invited to participate in the establishment of an intertribal consortium through this project. Tribal homes and buildings within Anchorage fall under Cook Inlet Region, Inc. (CIRI) tribal authority.

  3. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  4. Space Weather- Physics and Effects

    CERN Document Server

    Bothmer, Volker

    2007-01-01

    This book is a state-of-the-art review on the physics of space weather and on space weather impacts on human technology, including manned spaceflight. With contributions from a team of international experts, this comprehensive work covers all aspects of space weather physical processes, and all known aspects of space hazards from humans, both in space and on Earth. Space Weather - Physics and Effects provides the first comprehensive, scientific background of space storms caused by the sun and its impact on geospace focuses on weather issues that have become vital for the development of nationwide technological infrastructures explains magnetic storms on Earth, including the effects of EUV radiation on the atmosphere is an invaluable aid in establishing real-time weather forecasts details the threat that solar effects might have on modern telecommunication systems, including national power grid systems, aircraft and manned spaceflight.

  5. Weather Forecasting Systems and Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mecikalski, John (Inventor); MacKenzie, Wayne M., Jr. (Inventor); Walker, John Robert (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A weather forecasting system has weather forecasting logic that receives raw image data from a satellite. The raw image data has values indicative of light and radiance data from the Earth as measured by the satellite, and the weather forecasting logic processes such data to identify cumulus clouds within the satellite images. For each identified cumulus cloud, the weather forecasting logic applies interest field tests to determine a score indicating the likelihood of the cumulus cloud forming precipitation and/or lightning in the future within a certain time period. Based on such scores, the weather forecasting logic predicts in which geographic regions the identified cumulus clouds will produce precipitation and/or lighting within during the time period. Such predictions may then be used to provide a weather map thereby providing users with a graphical illustration of the areas predicted to be affected by precipitation within the time period.

  6. Weatherization Beyond the Numbers: Case Studies of Fifteen High-performing Weatherization Agencies - Conducted May 2011 through July 2012

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tonn, Bruce Edward [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Rose, Erin M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hawkins, Beth A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    The report presents fifteen individual case studies of high-performing and unique local weatherization agencies. This research was one component of the retrospective evaluation of the U.S. Department of Energy s Weatherization Assistance Program. The agencies were chosen to represent a range of contexts and approaches to weatherization. For example, the set of agencies includes a mix of urban and rural agencies, those that mainly use in-house crews to weatherize homes versus those that use contractor crews, and a mix of locations, from very cold climates to moderate to hot humid and dry climates. The case studies were mainly based on site visits to the agencies that encompassed interviews with program directors, weatherization crews, and recipients of weatherization. This information was supplemented by secondary materials. The cases document the diversity of contexts and challenges faced by the agencies and how they operate on a day-by-day basis. The cases also high common themes found throughout the agencies, such as their focus on mission and respect for their clients.

  7. Small Sensors for Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, A. C.

    2015-12-01

    The Naval Research Laboratory is actively pursuing enhancing the nation's space weather sensing capability. One aspect of this plan is the concept of flying Space Weather sensor suites on host spacecraft as secondary payloads. The emergence and advancement of the CubeSat spacecraft architecture has produced a viable platform for scientifically and operationally relevant Space Weather sensing. This talk will provide an overview of NRL's low size weight and power sensor technologies targeting Space Weather measurements. A summary of on-orbit results of past and current missions will be presented, as well as an overview of future flights that are manifested and potential constellation missions.

  8. Bishop Paiute Weatherization Training Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlos Hernandez

    2010-01-28

    The DOE Weatherization Training Grant assisted Native American trainees in developing weatherization competencies, creating employment opportunities for Bishop Paiute tribal members in a growing field. The trainees completed all the necessary training and certification requirements and delivered high-quality weatherization services on the Bishop Paiute Reservation. Six tribal members received all three certifications for weatherization; four of the trainees are currently employed. The public benefit includes (1) development of marketable skills by low-income Native individuals, (2) employment for low-income Native individuals in a growing industry, and (3) economic development opportunities that were previously not available to these individuals or the Tribe.

  9. Using Forecasting to Teach Weather Science

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsubota, Y.; Takahashi, T.

    2009-09-01

    Weather affects our lives and hence, is a popular topic in daily conversations and in the media. Therefore, it is not only important to teach weather, but is also a good idea to use 'weather' as a topic in science teaching. Science education has two main objectives: to acquire scientific concepts and methods. Weather forecasting is an adequate theme to teach scientific methods because it is dependent on observation. However, it is not easy to forecast weather using only temporal observation. We need to know the tendency of 'weather change' via consecutive and/or continuous weather observation. Students will acquire scientific-observation skills through weather observation. Data-processing skills would be enhanced through a weather-forecasting contest. A contest should be announced within 5 days of school events, such as a school excursion and field day. Students submit their own weather forecast by gathering weather information through the internet, news paper and so on. A weather-forecasting contest compels the student to observe the weather more often. We currently have some different weather forecasts. For example, American weather-related companies such as ACCU weather and Weather Channel provide weather forecast for the many locations all over the world. Comparing these weather forecasting with actual weather, participants such as students could evaluate the differences between forecasted and actual temperatures. Participants will judge the best weather forecast based on the magnitude of the difference. Also, participants evaluate the 'hitting ratio' of each weather forecast. Students can learn elementary statistics by comparing various weather forecasts. We have developed our weather web-site that provides our own weather forecasting and observation. Students acquire science skills using our weather web-site. We will report our lessen plans and explain our weather web-site.

  10. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...... making TSBI3 a powerful tool for energy analysis and optimisation of buildings. Other applications of the TRY are manifold including energy studies for solar systems and photovoltaic architecture....

  11. Weather Fundamentals: Hurricanes & Tornadoes. [Videotape].

    Science.gov (United States)

    1998

    The videos in this educational series, for grades 4-7, help students understand the science behind weather phenomena through dramatic live-action footage, vivid animated graphics, detailed weather maps, and hands-on experiments. This episode (23 minutes) features information on the deadliest and most destructive storms on Earth. Through satellite…

  12. Tibetan History of Weather Monitoring

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    Modem weather monitoring began in Tibet at the end of the 19th century. In 1894, the British set up a weather monitoting station in Chunpei of Yadong,which continued to operate until August 1956. In the 1940s, the Nationalist Govemment's Ministry of Communications set up a rainfall measuring station in Qamdo, Xikang Province.

  13. Weather Modification: Finding Common Ground.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garstang, Michael; Bruintjes, Roelof; Serafin, Robert; Orville, Harold; Boe, Bruce; Cotton, William; Warburton, Joseph

    2005-05-01

    Research and operational approaches to weather modification expressed in the National Research Council's 2003 report on “Critical Issues in Weather Modification Research” and in the Weather Modification Association's response to that report form the basis for this discussion. There is agreement that advances in the past few decades over a broad front of understanding physical processes and in technology have not been comprehensively applied to weather modification. Such advances need to be capitalized upon in the form of a concerted and sustained national effort to carry out basic and applied research in weather modification. The need for credible scientific evidence and the pressure for action should be resolved. Differences in the perception of current knowledge, the utility of numerical models, and the specific needs of research and operations in weather modification must be addressed. The increasing demand for water and the cost to society inflicted by severe weather require that the intellectual, technical, and administrative resources of the nation be combined to resolve whether and to what degree humans can influence the weather.The National Center for Atmospheric Research is sponsored by the National Science Foundation

  14. Japanese space weather research activities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, M.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper, we present existing and planned Japanese space weather research activities. The program consists of several core elements, including a space weather prediction system using numerical forecasts, a large-scale ground-based observation network, and the cooperative framework "Project for Solar-Terrestrial Environment Prediction (PSTEP)" based on a Grant-in Aid for Scientific Research on Innovative Areas.

  15. Weather to Make a Decision

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyle, Julie E.; Mjelde, James W.; Litzenberg, Kerry K.

    2006-01-01

    DECIDE is a teacher-friendly, integrated approach designed to stimulate learning by allowing students to make decisions about situations they face in their lives while using scientific weather principles. This learning unit integrates weather science, decision theory, mathematics, statistics, geography, and reading in a context of decision…

  16. Cool Stars and Space Weather

    CERN Document Server

    Vidotto, A A; Cameron, A C; Morin, J; Villadsen, J; Saar, S; Alvarado, J; Cohen, O; Holzwarth, V; Poppenhaeger, K; Reville, V

    2014-01-01

    Stellar flares, winds and coronal mass ejections form the space weather. They are signatures of the magnetic activity of cool stars and, since activity varies with age, mass and rotation, the space weather that extra-solar planets experience can be very different from the one encountered by the solar system planets. How do stellar activity and magnetism influence the space weather of exoplanets orbiting main-sequence stars? How do the environments surrounding exoplanets differ from those around the planets in our own solar system? How can the detailed knowledge acquired by the solar system community be applied in exoplanetary systems? How does space weather affect habitability? These were questions that were addressed in the splinter session "Cool stars and Space Weather", that took place on 9 Jun 2014, during the Cool Stars 18 meeting. In this paper, we present a summary of the contributions made to this session.

  17. Detection of Weather Radar Clutter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas

    2008-01-01

    Weather radars provide valuable information on precipitation in the atmosphere but due to the way radars work, not only precipitation is observed by the weather radar. Weather radar clutter, echoes from non-precipitating targets, occur frequently in the data, resulting in lowered data quality....... Especially in the application of weather radar data in quantitative precipitation estimation and forecasting a high data quality is important. Clutter detection is one of the key components in achieving this goal. This thesis presents three methods for detection of clutter. The methods use supervised...... and precipitating and non-precipitating clouds. Another method uses the difference in the motion field of clutter and precipitation measured between two radar images. Furthermore, the direction of the wind field extracted from a weather model is used. The third method uses information about the refractive index...

  18. Selection of Weather Parameters for Air-Conditioning System Design for Buildings with Long Thermal Lag

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GE Lian-feng; LEI Ming; CHEN You-ming

    2009-01-01

    Two building factors-a longer thermal lag of more than one hour for building envelops and a lag of indoor radiation to convert into cooling load-have impact on the instantaneous heat input and instantaneous cooling load.So the two factors should be taken into account when selecting the weather parameters for air-con-ditioning system design.This paper developed a new statistic method for the rational selection of coincident solar irradiance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures.The method was applied to historic weather records of 25 years in Hong Kong to generate coincident design weather data.And the results show that traditional design solar irra-diance,dry-bulb and wet-bulb temperatures may be significantly overestimated in many conditions,and the de-sign weather data for the three different constructions is not kept constant.

  19. Space weathering of asteroids

    CERN Document Server

    Shestopalov, D I; Cloutis, E A

    2012-01-01

    Analysis of laboratory experiments simulating space weathering optical effects on atmosphereless planetary bodies reveals that the time needed to alter the spectrum of an ordinary chondrite meteorite to resemble the overall spectral shape and slope of an S-type asteroid is about ~ 0.1 Myr. The time required to reduce the visible albedo of samples to ~ 0.05 is ~ 1 Myr. Since both these timescales are much less than the average collisional lifetime of asteroids larger than several kilometers in size, numerous low-albedo asteroids having reddish spectra with subdued absorption bands should be observed instead of an S-type dominated population. It is not the case because asteroid surfaces cannot be considered as undisturbed, unlike laboratory samples. We have estimated the number of collisions occurring in the time of 105 yr between asteroids and projectiles of various sizes and show that impact-activated motions of regolith particles counteract the progress of optical maturation of asteroid surfaces. Continual r...

  20. Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old Cold-Weather Sports and Your Family KidsHealth > For Parents > Cold- ... once the weather turns frosty. Beating the Cold-Weather Blahs Once a chill is in the air, ...

  1. The effects of synoptic weather on influenza infection incidences: a retrospective study utilizing digital disease surveillance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Naizhuo; Cao, Guofeng; Vanos, Jennifer K.; Vecellio, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    The environmental drivers and mechanisms of influenza dynamics remain unclear. The recent development of influenza surveillance-particularly the emergence of digital epidemiology-provides an opportunity to further understand this puzzle as an area within applied human biometeorology. This paper investigates the short-term weather effects on human influenza activity at a synoptic scale during cold seasons. Using 10 years (2005-2014) of municipal level influenza surveillance data (an adjustment of the Google Flu Trends estimation from the Centers for Disease Control's virologic surveillance data) and daily spatial synoptic classification weather types, we explore and compare the effects of weather exposure on the influenza infection incidences in 79 cities across the USA. We find that during the cold seasons the presence of the polar [i.e., dry polar (DP) and moist polar (MP)] weather types is significantly associated with increasing influenza likelihood in 62 and 68% of the studied cities, respectively, while the presence of tropical [i.e., dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical (MT)] weather types is associated with a significantly decreasing occurrence of influenza in 56 and 43% of the cities, respectively. The MP and the DP weather types exhibit similar close positive correlations with influenza infection incidences, indicating that both cold-dry and cold-moist air provide favorable conditions for the occurrence of influenza in the cold seasons. Additionally, when tropical weather types are present, the humid (MT) and the dry (DT) weather types have similar strong impacts to inhibit the occurrence of influenza. These findings suggest that temperature is a more dominating atmospheric factor than moisture that impacts the occurrences of influenza in cold seasons.

  2. A Systems Analysis of Alternative Concepts for Aircrew Cold Weather Clothing

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-03-01

    Boot, Mountain Gloves Leather Shells with Wool Inserts Nomex Flight Gloves Headwear Cap, cold weather Balaclava Flight Helmet, SPH-4 𔄀. ;’, 62...accommodate easy drying to minimize cold injuries. (9) Must be compatible with existing/developmental protectIve aircrew headwear (flight helmet) during flight... Headwear for survival situations should consist of the standard cap, cold weather, and/or face masks used in conjunction with the parka hood. (10

  3. Space weathering on airless bodies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pieters, Carle M.; Noble, Sarah K.

    2016-10-01

    Space weathering refers to alteration that occurs in the space environment with time. Lunar samples, and to some extent meteorites, have provided a benchmark for understanding the processes and products of space weathering. Lunar soils are derived principally from local materials but have accumulated a range of optically active opaque particles (OAOpq) that include nanophase metallic iron on/in rims formed on individual grains (imparting a red slope to visible and near-infrared reflectance) and larger iron particles (which darken across all wavelengths) such as are often found within the interior of recycled grains. Space weathering of other anhydrous silicate bodies, such as Mercury and some asteroids, produces different forms and relative abundance of OAOpq particles depending on the particular environment. If the development of OAOpq particles is minimized (such as at Vesta), contamination by exogenic material and regolith mixing become the dominant space weathering processes. Volatile-rich bodies and those composed of abundant hydrous minerals (dwarf planet Ceres, many dark asteroids, and outer solar system satellites) are affected by space weathering processes differently than the silicate bodies of the inner solar system. However, the space weathering products of these bodies are currently poorly understood and the physics and chemistry of space weathering processes in different environments are areas of active research.

  4. Quantifying chemical weathering rates along a precipitation gradient on Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe: New insight from U-series isotopes in weathering rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jacqueline M.; Ma, Lin; Sak, Peter B.; Gaillardet, Jerome; Ren, Minghua; Engle, Mark A.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-12-01

    that multiple weathering clasts from the same watershed were analyzed for U-series isotope disequlibrian and show consistent results. The U-series disequilibria allowed for the determination of rind formation ages and weathering advance rates with a U-series mass balance model. The weathering advance rates generally decreased with decreasing curvature: ∼0.17 ± 0.10 mm/kyr for high curvature, ∼0.12 ± 0.05 mm/kyr for medium curvature, and ∼0.11 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.06 ± 0.03 mm/kyr for low curvature locations. The observed positive correlation between the curvature and the weathering rates is well supported by predictions of weathering models, i.e., that the curvature of the rind-core boundary controls the porosity creation and weathering advance rates at the clast scale. At the watershed scale, the new weathering advance rates derived on the low curvature transects for the relatively dry Deshaies watershed (average rate of 0.08 mm/kyr; MAP = 1800 mm and MAT = 23 °C) are ∼60% slower than the rind formation rates previously determined in the much wetter Bras David watershed (∼0.18 mm/kyr, low curvature transect; MAP = 3400 mm and MAT = 23 °C) also on Basse-Terre Island. Thus, a doubling of MAP roughly correlates with a doubling of weathering advance rate. The new rind study highlights the effect of precipitation on weathering rates over a time scale of ∼100 kyr. Weathering rinds are thus a suitable system for investigating long-term chemical weathering across environmental gradients, complementing short-term riverine solute fluxes.

  5. Space Weather Forecasting: An Enigma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sojka, J. J.

    2012-12-01

    The space age began in earnest on October 4, 1957 with the launch of Sputnik 1 and was fuelled for over a decade by very strong national societal concerns. Prior to this single event the adverse effects of space weather had been registered on telegraph lines as well as interference on early WWII radar systems, while for countless eons the beauty of space weather as mid-latitude auroral displays were much appreciated. These prior space weather impacts were in themselves only a low-level science puzzle pursued by a few dedicated researchers. The technology boost and innovation that the post Sputnik era generated has almost single handedly defined our present day societal technology infrastructure. During the decade following Neil's walk on the moon on July 21, 1969 an international thrust to understand the science of space, and its weather, was in progress. However, the search for scientific understand was parsed into independent "stove pipe" categories: The ionosphere-aeronomy, the magnetosphere, the heliosphere-sun. The present day scientific infrastructure of funding agencies, learned societies, and international organizations are still hampered by these 1960's logical divisions which today are outdated in the pursuit of understanding space weather. As this era of intensive and well funded scientific research progressed so did societies innovative uses for space technologies and space "spin-offs". Well over a decade ago leaders in technology, science, and the military realized that there was indeed an adverse side to space weather that with each passing year became more severe. In 1994 several U.S. agencies established the National Space Weather Program (NSWP) to focus scientific attention on the system wide issue of the adverse effects of space weather on society and its technologies. Indeed for the past two decades a significant fraction of the scientific community has actively engaged in understanding space weather and hence crossing the "stove

  6. Extreme Weather and Natural Disasters

    CERN Document Server

    Healey, Justin

    2012-01-01

    Australia is a vast land in which weather varies significantly in different parts of the continent. Recent extreme weather events in Australia, such as the Queensland floods and Victorian bushfires, are brutal reminders of nature's devastating power. Is global warming increasing the rate of natural disasters? What part do La Niña and El Niño play in the extreme weather cycle? Cyclones, floods, severe storms, bushfires, landslides, earthquakes, tsunamis - what are the natural and man-made causes of these phenomena, how predictable are they, and how prepared are we for the impacts of natural dis

  7. Sustainable yields from large diameter wells in shallow weathered aquifers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushton, K. R.; de Silva, C. S.

    2016-08-01

    Large diameter wells in shallow weathered aquifers provide a valuable source of water for domestic and agricultural purposes in many locations including the Indian subcontinent. However, when used for irrigation, these wells often fail towards the end of the dry season. By considering two case studies in the dry and intermediate rainfall zones of Sri Lanka, reasons for the limited yield of these wells are identified. The first case study is concerned with a sloping catchment; a significant proportion of the precipitation during the rainy season either becomes runoff or passes down-gradient through the aquifer and is discharged at the ground surface. Furthermore, during the dry season, groundwater discharge continues. In the second case study the topography is generally flat but, even though the aquifer fills most years during the rainy season, there is often only sufficient water to irrigate about half of each farmer's holding. These investigations are based on field information and the development of conceptual and computational models. Of critical importance in assessing the long term yield of a well is the formation of a seepage face on the side of the well, with the water table a significant distance above the pumping water level. Consequently the water table may only be lowered to about half the depth of the well. The paper concludes with recommendations for the exploitation of groundwater from shallow weathered aquifers to minimise the risk of failure during the dry season.

  8. STEREO Space Weather and the Space Weather Beacon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biesecker, D. A.; Webb, D F.; SaintCyr, O. C.

    2007-01-01

    The Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) is first and foremost a solar and interplanetary research mission, with one of the natural applications being in the area of space weather. The obvious potential for space weather applications is so great that NOAA has worked to incorporate the real-time data into their forecast center as much as possible. A subset of the STEREO data will be continuously downlinked in a real-time broadcast mode, called the Space Weather Beacon. Within the research community there has been considerable interest in conducting space weather related research with STEREO. Some of this research is geared towards making an immediate impact while other work is still very much in the research domain. There are many areas where STEREO might contribute and we cannot predict where all the successes will come. Here we discuss how STEREO will contribute to space weather and many of the specific research projects proposed to address STEREO space weather issues. We also discuss some specific uses of the STEREO data in the NOAA Space Environment Center.

  9. Dry vacuum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  10. Outbreaks of the cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), related to weather in Southeast Queensland, Australia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamilton, J.G.; Gage, S.H.

    1986-10-01

    The cotton tipworm, Crocidosema plebejana (Zeller), has periodically caused serious damage to seedling cotton in Southeast Queensland. An analysis of data over 11 years revealed that outbreaks of this pest are weather related. A heat/precipitation ratio (weather index) was calculated and compared with population levels of the tipworm. Outbreaks were strongly correlated to cool and wet weather during March--November, the principal growth period of the weed host Malva parviflora (L.). Infestations were minor when conditions were dry. A prediction based on this index is compared with field infestation levels in 1984. 16 refs., 1 fig., 6 tabs.

  11. Climate control: United States weather modification in the cold war and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harper, Kristine C

    2008-03-01

    Rainmaking, hail busting, fog lifting, snowpack enhancing, lightning suppressing, hurricane snuffing...weather control. At the lunatic fringe of scientific discussion in the early twentieth century--and the subject of newspaper articles with tones ranging from skeptical titters to awestruck wonder--weather modification research became more serious after World War II. In the United States, the 'seeds' of silver iodide and dry ice purported to enhance rainfall and bust hailstorms soon became seeds of controversy from which sprouted attempts by federal, state and local government to control the controllers and exploit 'designer weather' for their own purposes.

  12. KZBW Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  13. Fish Springs weather CY 2011

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2011 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  14. Fish Springs weather CY 2010

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Weather data for calendar year 2010 at Fish Springs National Wildlife Refuge. Data is provided for each month and includes maximum temperature, minimum temperature,...

  15. The science of space weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eastwood, Jonathan P

    2008-12-13

    The basic physics underpinning space weather is reviewed, beginning with a brief overview of the main causes of variability in the near-Earth space environment. Although many plasma phenomena contribute to space weather, one of the most important is magnetic reconnection, and recent cutting edge research in this field is reviewed. We then place this research in context by discussing a number of specific types of space weather in more detail. As society inexorably increases its dependence on space, the necessity of predicting and mitigating space weather will become ever more acute. This requires a deep understanding of the complexities inherent in the plasmas that fill space and has prompted the development of a new generation of scientific space missions at the international level.

  16. KZOA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  17. KZSE Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  18. KZMA Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  19. US Weather Bureau Storm Reports

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather Bureau and US Army Corps and other reports of storms from 1886-1955. Hourly precipitation from recording rain gauges captured during heavy rain, snow,...

  20. Surface Weather Observations (Pre-1893)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Monthly weather records from U.S. Army Forts stations (~1820-1871), U.S. Army Signal Service Stations (1871-1892), Smithsonian Institution voluntary observer network...

  1. KZLC Center Weather Advisory (CWA)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The CWA is an aviation weather warning for conditions meeting or approaching national in-flight advisory (AIRMET, SIGMET or SIGMET for convection) criteria. CWAs are...

  2. Weather data communication and utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcfarland, R. H.; Nickum, J. D.; Mccall, D. L.

    1983-01-01

    The communication of weather data to aircraft is discussed. Problems encountered because of the great quantities of data available and the limited capacity to transfer this via radio link to an aircraft are discussed. Display devices are discussed.

  3. Practical Weathering for Geology Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodder, A. Peter

    1990-01-01

    The design and data management of an activity to study weathering by increasing the rate of mineral dissolution in a microwave oven is described. Data analysis in terms of parabolic and first-order kinetics is discussed. (CW)

  4. WARP Weather Information Network Server

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation — WINS is the dissemination module of the WARP system that provides an interface to various NAS Users/systems that require weather data/products/information from WARP...

  5. Northern Hemisphere Synoptic Weather Maps

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Daily Series of Synoptic Weather Maps. Part I consists of plotted and analyzed daily maps of sea-level and 500-mb maps for 0300, 0400, 1200, 1230, 1300, and 1500...

  6. Titan: Callisto With Weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, J. M.; Pappalardo, R. T.

    2008-12-01

    , Titan might have accreted relatively cold. Without being in a forced resonance, Titan's interior may have never undergone significant tidal heating. Analogous to Callisto's tenuous CO2 atmosphere, believed to be generated by sublimation of interior ices, interior clathrated methane within Titan may slowly diffuse outward from the cold interior, rather than the atmosphere being replenished by cryovolcanism. The hypothesis that Titan is "Callisto with weather" -- with geological processes that are principally exogenic -- can be tested through geophysical and thermal modeling, and by modeling the evolution of landscapes that are shaped by exogenic processes alone.

  7. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  8. Simulation and Data Analytics for Mobile Road Weather Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chettri, S. R.; Evans, J. D.; Tislin, D.

    2016-12-01

    Numerous algorithmic and theoretical considerations arise in simulating a vehicle-based weather observation network known as the Mobile Platform Environmental Data (MoPED). MoPED integrates sensor data from a fleet of commercial vehicles (about 600 at last count, with thousands more to come) as they travel interstate, state and local routes and metropolitan areas throughout the conterminous United States. The MoPED simulator models a fleet of anywhere between 1000-10,000 vehicles that travel a highway network encoded in a geospatial database, starting and finishing at random times and moving at randomly-varying speeds. Virtual instruments aboard these vehicles interpolate surface weather parameters (such as temperature and pressure) from the High-Resolution Rapid Refresh (HRRR) data series, an hourly, coast-to-coast 3km grid of weather parameters modeled by the National Centers for Environmental Prediction. Whereas real MoPED sensors have noise characteristics that lead to drop-outs, drift, or physically unrealizable values, our simulation introduces a variety of noise distributions into the parameter values inferred from HRRR (Fig. 1). Finally, the simulator collects weather readings from the National Weather Service's Automated Surface Observation System (ASOS, comprised of over 800 airports around the country) for comparison, validation, and analytical experiments. The simulator's MoPED-like weather data stream enables studies like the following: Experimenting with data analysis and calibration methods - e.g., by comparing noisy vehicle data with ASOS "ground truth" in close spatial and temporal proximity (e.g., 10km, 10 min) (Fig. 2). Inter-calibrating different vehicles' sensors when they pass near each other. Detecting spatial structure in the surface weather - such as dry lines, sudden changes in humidity that accompany severe weather - and estimating how many vehicles are needed to reliably map these structures and their motion. Detecting bottlenecks in the

  9. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  10. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  11. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  12. Quantitative Chemical Indices of Weathered Igneous Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A study was conducted to compare the effectiveness of different weathering indices for characterising weathered igneous rocks of Hong Kong. Among eight chemical indices evaluated in this study, the Parker index has been found most suitable for a quantitative description of state of weathering. Based on geochemical results of 174 samples, the index decreases almost linearly with an increasing extent of weathering. The results enable a better understanding of the modification of geotechnical properties of igneous rocks associated with weathering processes.

  13. Space Weather - the Economic Case

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bisi, M. M.; Gibbs, M.

    2015-12-01

    Following on from the UK Government's placement of space weather on it's National Risk Register, in 2011, and the Royal Academy of Engineering's study into the impacts of a severe space weather event, the next piece of key evidence, to underpin future investment decisions, is understanding the socio-economic impact of space weather This poster outlines a study, funded by the UK Space Agency, which will assess the socio-economic cost of space weather, both severe events, such as 1989 & a modern day repeat of the Carrington storm and also the cost of day-to-day impacts. The study will go on to estimate the cost benefit of forecasting and also investigate options for an operational L5 spacecraft mission and knowledge exchange activities with the South African Space Agency. The findings from the initial space weather socio-economic literature review will be presented along with other findings to date and sets out the tasks for the remainder of this programme of work.

  14. Space Weather Research: Indian perspective

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhardwaj, Anil; Pant, Tarun Kumar; Choudhary, R. K.; Nandy, Dibyendu; Manoharan, P. K.

    2016-12-01

    Space weather, just like its meteorological counterpart, is of extreme importance when it comes to its impact on terrestrial near- and far-space environments. In recent years, space weather research has acquired an important place as a thrust area of research having implications both in space science and technology. The presence of satellites and other technological systems from different nations in near-Earth space necessitates that one must have a comprehensive understanding not only of the origin and evolution of space weather processes but also of their impact on technology and terrestrial upper atmosphere. To address this aspect, nations across the globe including India have been investing in research concerning Sun, solar processes and their evolution from solar interior into the interplanetary space, and their impact on Earth's magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere system. In India, over the years, a substantial amount of work has been done in each of these areas by various agencies/institutions. In fact, India has been, and continues to be, at the forefront of space research and has ambitious future programs concerning these areas encompassing space weather. This review aims at providing a glimpse of this Indian perspective on space weather research to the reader and presenting an up-to-date status of the same.

  15. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang Xianai [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Duygu, E-mail: dkocaefe@uqac.ca [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Kocaefe, Yasar [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada); Boluk, Yaman [University of Alberta, 3-142 Markin/CNRL Natural Resources Engineering Facility, Edmonton, Alberta, T6G 2W2 (Canada); Krause, Cornelia [Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555, boul. de l' Universite, Chicoutimi, Quebec, G7H 2B1 (Canada)

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Investigate detailed structural changes of heat-treated wood due to weathering. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Identify connection between physical structural changes and chemical degradation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Study effect of heat treatment conditions on weathering degradation process. - Abstract: Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  16. Space Weather, Environment and Societies

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2006-01-01

    Our planet exists within a space environment affected by constantly changing solar atmosphere producing cosmic particles and electromagnetic waves. This "space weather" profoundly influences the performance of our technology because we primarily use two means for transmitting information and energy; namely, electromagnetic waves and electricity. On an everyday basis, we have developed methods to cope with the normal conditions. However, the sun remains a fiery star whose 'angry' outbursts can potentially destroy spacecrafts, kill astronauts, melt electricity transformers, stop trains, and generally wreak havoc with human activities. Space Weather is the developing field within astronomy that aims at predicting the sun’s violent activity and minimizing the impacts on our daily lives. Space Weather, Environment, and Societies explains why our technological societies are so dependent on solar activity and how the Sun disturbs the transmission of information and energy. Footnotes expand specific points and the ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  18. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  19. Biogeochemical stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, J. E.; Virginia, R. A.; Lyons, W. B.; McKnight, D. M.; Priscu, J. C.; Doran, P. T.; Fountain, A. G.; Wall, D. H.; Moorhead, D. L.

    2007-03-01

    Among aquatic and terrestrial landscapes of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica, ecosystem stoichiometry ranges from values near the Redfield ratios for C:N:P to nutrient concentrations in proportions far above or below ratios necessary to support balanced microbial growth. This polar desert provides an opportunity to evaluate stoichiometric approaches to understand nutrient cycling in an ecosystem where biological diversity and activity are low, and controls over the movement and mass balances of nutrients operate over 10-106 years. The simple organisms (microbial and metazoan) comprising dry valley foodwebs adhere to strict biochemical requirements in the composition of their biomass, and when activated by availability of liquid water, they influence the chemical composition of their environment according to these ratios. Nitrogen and phosphorus varied significantly in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems occurring on landscape surfaces across a wide range of exposure ages, indicating strong influences of landscape development and geochemistry on nutrient availability. Biota control the elemental ratio of stream waters, while geochemical stoichiometry (e.g., weathering, atmospheric deposition) evidently limits the distribution of soil invertebrates. We present a conceptual model describing transformations across dry valley landscapes facilitated by exchanges of liquid water and biotic processing of dissolved nutrients. We conclude that contemporary ecosystem stoichiometry of Antarctic Dry Valley soils, glaciers, streams, and lakes results from a combination of extant biological processes superimposed on a legacy of landscape processes and previous climates.

  20. DOECTZDATA; California sixteen-zone weather data. [IBM360

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helmich, C.

    DOECTZDATA is a collection of hourly weather data for each of 365 days in a year for sixteen different California thermal zones representing Eureka, Santa Rosa, San Francisco, Santa Cruz, Santa Barbara, Los Angeles, San Diego, Santa Ana, Pasadena, San Bernardino, Red Bluff, Sacramento, Fresno, Daggett, Brawley, and Tahoe. The data presented are in the form of the WBAN Hourly Surface Observation data used by the National Climatic Center, Asheville, North Carolina. They include the sky condition, visibility, weather and/or obstruction to vision information, sea level pressure, dew point temperature, wind direction and speed, station pressure, dry and wet bulb temperature, relative humidity, and cloud and obscuring phenomena information.IBM360; OS/360.

  1. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  2. Weather, fuels, fire behavior, plumes, and smoke - the nexus of fire meteorology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scott L. Goodrick; Timothy J. Brown; W. Matt Jolly

    2017-01-01

    In a pair of review papers, Potter (2012a, 2012b) summarized the significant fire weather research findings over about the past hundred years. Our scientific understanding of wildland fire-atmosphere interactions has evolved: from simple correlations supporting the notion that hot, dry, and windy conditions lead to more intense fires, we have moved towards more...

  3. Root distribution and seasonal water status in weathered granitic bedrock under chaparral

    Science.gov (United States)

    P. D. Sternberg; M. A. Anderson; R. C. Graham; J. L. Beyers; K. R. Tice

    1996-01-01

    Soils in mountainous terrain are often thin and unable to store sufficient water to support existing vegetation through dry seasons. This observation has led to speculation about the role of bedrock in supporting plant growth in natural ecosystems, since weathered bedrocks often have appreciable porosity and, like soil, can store and transmit water. This study, within...

  4. Verification of Space Weather Forecasts using Terrestrial Weather Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henley, E.; Murray, S.; Pope, E.; Stephenson, D.; Sharpe, M.; Bingham, S.; Jackson, D.

    2015-12-01

    The Met Office Space Weather Operations Centre (MOSWOC) provides a range of 24/7 operational space weather forecasts, alerts, and warnings, which provide valuable information on space weather that can degrade electricity grids, radio communications, and satellite electronics. Forecasts issued include arrival times of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and probabilistic forecasts for flares, geomagnetic storm indices, and energetic particle fluxes and fluences. These forecasts are produced twice daily using a combination of output from models such as Enlil, near-real-time observations, and forecaster experience. Verification of forecasts is crucial for users, researchers, and forecasters to understand the strengths and limitations of forecasters, and to assess forecaster added value. To this end, the Met Office (in collaboration with Exeter University) has been adapting verification techniques from terrestrial weather, and has been working closely with the International Space Environment Service (ISES) to standardise verification procedures. We will present the results of part of this work, analysing forecast and observed CME arrival times, assessing skill using 2x2 contingency tables. These MOSWOC forecasts can be objectively compared to those produced by the NASA Community Coordinated Modelling Center - a useful benchmark. This approach cannot be taken for the other forecasts, as they are probabilistic and categorical (e.g., geomagnetic storm forecasts give probabilities of exceeding levels from minor to extreme). We will present appropriate verification techniques being developed to address these forecasts, such as rank probability skill score, and comparing forecasts against climatology and persistence benchmarks. As part of this, we will outline the use of discrete time Markov chains to assess and improve the performance of our geomagnetic storm forecasts. We will also discuss work to adapt a terrestrial verification visualisation system to space weather, to help

  5. Tomorrow's Forecast: Oceans and Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smigielski, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This issue of "Art to Zoo" focuses on weather and climate and is tied to the traveling exhibition Ocean Planet from the Smithsonian's National Museum of Natural History. The lessons encourage students to think about the profound influence the oceans have on planetary climate and life on earth. Sections of the lesson plan include: (1) "Ocean…

  6. Winter Weather Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Part 3 of 3) Hot Weather Tips Heat Stress in Older Adults FAQs Extreme Heat PSAs Related Links MMWR Bibliography CDC's Program Floods Flood Readiness Personal Hygiene After a Disaster Cleanup of Flood Water After a Flood Worker Safety Educational Materials Floods ...

  7. Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eslami, Hassan; Eshow, Michelle

    2014-01-01

    Dynamic Weather Routes Architecture Overview, presents the high level software architecture of DWR, based on the CTAS software framework and the Direct-To automation tool. The document also covers external and internal data flows, required dataset, changes to the Direct-To software for DWR, collection of software statistics, and the code structure.

  8. Mexican Space Weather Service (SCIESMEX)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzalez-Esparza, A.; De la Luz, V.; Mejia-Ambriz, J. C.; Aguilar-Rodriguez, E.; Corona-Romero, P.; Gonzalez, L. X.

    2015-12-01

    Recent modifications of the Civil Protection Law in Mexico include now specific mentions to space hazards and space weather phenomena. During the last few years, the UN has promoted international cooperation on Space Weather awareness, studies and monitoring. Internal and external conditions motivated the creation of a Space Weather Service in Mexico (SCIESMEX). The SCIESMEX (www.sciesmex.unam.mx) is operated by the Geophysics Institute at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM). The UNAM has the experience of operating several critical national services, including the National Seismological Service (SSN); besides that has a well established scientific group with expertise in space physics and solar- terrestrial phenomena. The SCIESMEX is also related with the recent creation of the Mexican Space Agency (AEM). The project combines a network of different ground instruments covering solar, interplanetary, geomagnetic, and ionospheric observations. The SCIESMEX has already in operation computing infrastructure running the web application, a virtual observatory and a high performance computing server to run numerical models. SCIESMEX participates in the International Space Environment Services (ISES) and in the Inter-progamme Coordination Team on Space Weather (ICTSW) of the Word Meteorological Organization (WMO).

  9. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  10. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  11. Weather-Corrected Performance Ratio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dierauf, T.; Growitz, A.; Kurtz, S.; Cruz, J. L. B.; Riley, E.; Hansen, C.

    2013-04-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) system performance depends on both the quality of the system and the weather. One simple way to communicate the system performance is to use the performance ratio (PR): the ratio of the electricity generated to the electricity that would have been generated if the plant consistently converted sunlight to electricity at the level expected from the DC nameplate rating. The annual system yield for flat-plate PV systems is estimated by the product of the annual insolation in the plane of the array, the nameplate rating of the system, and the PR, which provides an attractive way to estimate expected annual system yield. Unfortunately, the PR is, again, a function of both the PV system efficiency and the weather. If the PR is measured during the winter or during the summer, substantially different values may be obtained, making this metric insufficient to use as the basis for a performance guarantee when precise confidence intervals are required. This technical report defines a way to modify the PR calculation to neutralize biases that may be introduced by variations in the weather, while still reporting a PR that reflects the annual PR at that site given the project design and the project weather file. This resulting weather-corrected PR gives more consistent results throughout the year, enabling its use as a metric for performance guarantees while still retaining the familiarity this metric brings to the industry and the value of its use in predicting actual annual system yield. A testing protocol is also presented to illustrate the use of this new metric with the intent of providing a reference starting point for contractual content.

  12. Thermal stress weathering and the spalling of Antarctic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, J. L.; Marchant, D. R.; Mackay, S. L.; Head, J. W.

    2017-01-01

    Using in situ field measurements, laboratory analyses, and numerical modeling, we test the potential efficacy of thermal stress weathering in the flaking of millimeter-thick alteration rinds observed on cobbles and boulders of Ferrar Dolerite on Mullins Glacier, McMurdo Dry Valleys (MDV). In particular, we examine whether low-magnitude stresses, arising from temperature variations over time, result in thermal fatigue weathering, yielding slow crack propagation along existing cracks and ultimate flake detachment. Our field results show that during summer months clasts of Ferrar Dolerite experience large-temperature gradients across partially detached alteration rinds (>4.7°C mm-1) and abrupt fluctuations in surface temperature (up to 12°C min-1); the latter are likely due to the combined effects of changing solar irradiation and cooling from episodic winds. The results of our thermal stress model, coupled with subcritical crack growth theory, suggest that thermal stresses induced at the base of thin alteration rinds 2 mm thick, common on rocks exposed for 105 years, may be sufficient to cause existing cracks to propagate under present-day meteorological forcing, eventually leading to rind detachment. The increase in porosity observed within alteration rinds relative to unaltered rock interiors, as well as predicted decreases in rind strength based on allied weathering studies, likely facilitates thermal stress crack propagation through a reduction of fracture toughness. We conclude that thermal stress weathering may be an active, though undervalued, weathering process in hyperarid, terrestrial polar deserts such as the stable upland region of the MDV.

  13. The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar heating systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Elsa; Furbo, Simon; Shah, Louise Jivan

    2003-01-01

    The influence of weather on the thermal performance of solar combi systems, solar domestic hot water systems and solar heating plants is investigated. The investigation is based on weather data from the Danish Design Reference Year, DRY and weather data measured for a period from 1990 until 2002....... The investigation is based on calculations with validated models. Solar heating systems with different solar collector types, heat storage volumes and solar fractions are included in the investigation. The yearly solar radiation varies with approximately 20 % in the period from 1990 until 2002. The calculations...... show that the thermal performance of the investigated systems varies due to the weather variation. The variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar heating plant is about 40 % while the variation of the yearly thermal performance of a solar domestic hot water system is about 30...

  14. OpenWeather: a peer-to-peer weather data transmission protocol

    CERN Document Server

    Yanes, Adrian

    2011-01-01

    The study of the weather is performed using instruments termed weather stations. These weather stations are distributed around the world, collecting the data from the different phenomena. Several weather organizations have been deploying thousands of these instruments, creating big networks to collect weather data. These instruments are collecting the weather data and delivering it for later processing in the collections points. Nevertheless, all the methodologies used to transmit the weather data are based in protocols non adapted for this purpose. Thus, the weather stations are limited by the data formats and protocols used in them, not taking advantage of the real-time data available on them. We research the weather instruments, their technology and their network capabilities, in order to provide a solution for the mentioned problem. OpenWeather is the protocol proposed to provide a more optimum and reliable way to transmit the weather data. We evaluate the environmental factors, such as location or bandwi...

  15. [Little Dry Creek Drainage

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Map of the drainage boundary, direction of flow, canals and ditches, and streets for the drainage study plan and profile for Little Dry Creek sub area in the North...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... information about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a ... the Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media ...

  17. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide Eye ... What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Can you explain why I have halos and blurry ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pediatric Ophthalmology Education Center Oculofacial Plastic Surgery Center Laser Surgery Education Center Redmond Ethics Center Global Ophthalmology Guide ... What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... about eye health and preserving your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear- ... Academy Financial Relationships with Industry Medical Disclaimer Privacy Policy Terms of Service For Advertisers For Media Ophthalmology ...

  2. High potential for weathering and climate effects of non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porada, Philipp; Lenton, Tim; Pohl, Alexandre; Weber, Bettina; Mander, Luke; Donnadieu, Yannick; Beer, Christian; Pöschl, Ulrich; Kleidon, Axel

    2017-04-01

    Early non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician may have strongly increased chemical weathering rates of surface rocks at the global scale. This could have led to a drawdown of atmospheric CO2 and, consequently, a decrease in global temperature and an interval of glaciations. Under current climatic conditions, usually field or laboratory experiments are used to quantify enhancement of chemical weathering rates by non-vascular vegetation. However, these experiments are constrained to a small spatial scale and a limited number of species. This complicates the extrapolation to the global scale, even more so for the geological past, where physiological properties of non-vascular vegetation may have differed from current species. Here we present a spatially explicit modelling approach to simulate large-scale chemical weathering by non-vascular vegetation in the Late Ordovician. For this purpose, we use a process-based model of lichens and bryophytes, since these organisms are probably the closest living analogue to Late Ordovician vegetation. The model explicitly represents multiple physiological strategies, which enables the simulated vegetation to adapt to Ordovician climatic conditions. We estimate productivity of Ordovician vegetation with the model, and relate it to chemical weathering by assuming that the organisms dissolve rocks to extract phosphorus for the production of new biomass. Thereby we account for limits on weathering due to reduced supply of unweathered rock material in shallow regions, as well as decreased transport capacity of runoff for dissolved weathered material in dry areas. We simulate a potential global weathering flux of 2.8 km3 (rock) per year, which we define as volume of primary minerals affected by chemical transformation. Our estimate is around 3 times larger than today's global chemical weathering flux. Furthermore, chemical weathering rates simulated by our model are highly sensitive to atmospheric CO2 concentration, which implies

  3. Fire Danger and Fire Weather Records

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The National Weather Service (formerly Weather Bureau) and Forest Service developed a program to track meteorological conditions conducive to forest fires, resulting...

  4. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  5. Integrating Sphere-based Weathering Device

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Description:In the artificial ultraviolet (UV) weathering of materials, a need exists for weathering devices that can uniformly illuminate test specimens with a high...

  6. NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The NOAA Weather and Climate Toolkit is an application that provides simple visualization and data export of weather and climatological data archived at NCDC. The...

  7. Newspaper Clippings and Articles (Weather-related)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Weather-related newspaper articles and photos, almost exclusively from Baltimore, MD and nearby areas. Includes storm damage, rainfall reports, and weather's affect...

  8. Rainmakers: why bad weather means good productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jooa Julia; Gino, Francesca; Staats, Bradley R

    2014-05-01

    People believe that weather conditions influence their everyday work life, but to date, little is known about how weather affects individual productivity. Contrary to conventional wisdom, we predict and find that bad weather increases individual productivity and that it does so by eliminating potential cognitive distractions resulting from good weather. When the weather is bad, individuals appear to focus more on their work than on alternate outdoor activities. We investigate the proposed relationship between worse weather and higher productivity through 4 studies: (a) field data on employees' productivity from a bank in Japan, (b) 2 studies from an online labor market in the United States, and (c) a laboratory experiment. Our findings suggest that worker productivity is higher on bad-, rather than good-, weather days and that cognitive distractions associated with good weather may explain the relationship. We discuss the theoretical and practical implications of our research.

  9. National Weather Service County Warning Area Boundaries

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains polygons corresponding to the County Warning Areas (CWAs) of each Weather Forecast Office (WFO) in the National Weather Service (NWS).

  10. National Weather Service: Watch, Warning, Advisory Display

    Science.gov (United States)

    weather.gov Site Map News Organization Search for: SPC NCEP All NOAA Search by city or zip ... Fire Wx Outlooks RSS Feeds E-Mail Alerts Weather Information Storm Reports Storm Reports Dev. NWS Hazards ...

  11. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to

  12. Weather Derivatives – Origin, Types and Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Binkowski

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The number of companies that are exposed to the revenues loss risk caused by weather variability is still increasing. The businesses that are mostly exposed to weather risk are following: energy, agriculture, constructions and transport. That situation has initiated dynamic growth of weather derivatives markets as well as the awareness of the weather risk among the market participants. Presently, the weather derivatives markets evaluate rapidly in all the mature economies: USA, Asia and Europe. Constructing weather derivatives relies on qu- antifying climate factors in the form of indexes, what is quite simple task, more difficultly can be gathering precise historical data of required climate factors. Taking into consideration so far development of derivatives ñ especially the financial derivatives based on different types of indexes ñ financial market has at disposal wide range of different types of proved derivatives (futures, forward, options, swaps, which can be successfully utilised on the weather-driven markets both for hedging weather risk and speculating.

  13. World War II Weather Record Transmittances

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — World War II Weather Record Transmittances are a record of the weather and meteorological data observed during World War II and transferred to the archive. It...

  14. Electro-dry-adhesion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, Jeffrey; Menon, Carlo

    2012-03-27

    This work presents novel conductive bioinspired dry adhesives with mushroom caps that enable the use of a synergistic combination of electrostatic and van der Waals forces (electro-dry-adhesion). An increase in shear adhesion bond strength of up to 2046% on a wide range of materials is measured when a maximum electrical field of 36.4 V μm(-1) is applied. A suction effect, due to the shape of the dry adhesive fibers, on overall adhesion was not noted for electro-dry-adhesives when testing was performed at both atmospheric and reduced pressure. Utilization of electrostatics to apply a preloading force to dry adhesive fiber arrays allows increased adhesion even after electrostatic force generation has been halted by ensuring the close contact necessary for van der Waals forces to be effective. A comparison is made between self-preloading of the electro-dry-adhesives and the direct application of a normal preloading pressure resulting in nearly the same shear bond strength with an applied voltage of 3.33 kV on the same sample.

  15. Winter circulation weather types and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Galicia, Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royé, D.; Taboada, J. J.; Martí, A.; Lorenzo, M. N.

    2016-04-01

    The link between various pathologies and atmospheric conditions has been a constant topic of study over recent decades in many places across the world; knowing more about it enables us to pre-empt the worsening of certain diseases, thereby optimizing medical resources. This study looked specifically at the connections in winter between respiratory diseases and types of atmospheric weather conditions (Circulation Weather Types, CWT) in Galicia, a region in the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, the study used hospital admission data associated with these pathologies as well as an automatic classification of weather types. The main result obtained was that weather types giving rise to an increase in admissions due to these diseases are those associated with cold, dry weather, such as those in the east and south-east, or anticyclonic types. A second peak was associated with humid, hotter weather, generally linked to south-west weather types. In the future, this result may help to forecast the increase in respiratory pathologies in the region some days in advance.

  16. Winter circulation weather types and hospital admissions for respiratory diseases in Galicia, Spain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Royé, D; Taboada, J J; Martí, A; Lorenzo, M N

    2016-04-01

    The link between various pathologies and atmospheric conditions has been a constant topic of study over recent decades in many places across the world; knowing more about it enables us to pre-empt the worsening of certain diseases, thereby optimizing medical resources. This study looked specifically at the connections in winter between respiratory diseases and types of atmospheric weather conditions (Circulation Weather Types, CWT) in Galicia, a region in the north-western corner of the Iberian Peninsula. To do this, the study used hospital admission data associated with these pathologies as well as an automatic classification of weather types. The main result obtained was that weather types giving rise to an increase in admissions due to these diseases are those associated with cold, dry weather, such as those in the east and south-east, or anticyclonic types. A second peak was associated with humid, hotter weather, generally linked to south-west weather types. In the future, this result may help to forecast the increase in respiratory pathologies in the region some days in advance.

  17. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume IV. United States: WYEC data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities using Weather Year for Energy Calculations (WYEC) source weather data. Considerable overlap is present in cities (21) covered by both the TRY and WYEC data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  18. Amplified mid-latitude planetary waves favour particular regional weather extremes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Screen, James A.; Simmonds, Ian

    2014-08-01

    There has been an ostensibly large number of extreme weather events in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes during the past decade. An open question that is critically important for scientists and policy makers is whether any such increase in weather extremes is natural or anthropogenic in origin. One mechanism proposed to explain the increased frequency of extreme weather events is the amplification of mid-latitude atmospheric planetary waves. Disproportionately large warming in the northern polar regions compared with mid-latitudes--and associated weakening of the north-south temperature gradient--may favour larger amplitude planetary waves, although observational evidence for this remains inconclusive. A better understanding of the role of planetary waves in causing mid-latitude weather extremes is essential for assessing the potential environmental and socio-economic impacts of future planetary wave changes. Here we show that months of extreme weather over mid-latitudes are commonly accompanied by significantly amplified quasi-stationary mid-tropospheric planetary waves. Conversely, months of near-average weather over mid-latitudes are often accompanied by significantly attenuated waves. Depending on geographical region, certain types of extreme weather (for example, hot, cold, wet, dry) are more strongly related to wave amplitude changes than others. The findings suggest that amplification of quasi-stationary waves preferentially increases the probabilities of heat waves in western North America and central Asia, cold outbreaks in eastern North America, droughts in central North America, Europe and central Asia, and wet spells in western Asia.

  19. Decision Making Models Using Weather Forecast Information

    OpenAIRE

    Hiramatsu, Akio; Huynh, Van-Nam; Nakamori, Yoshiteru

    2007-01-01

    The quality of weather forecast has gradually improved, but weather information such as precipitation forecast is still uncertainty. Meteorologists have studied the use and economic value of weather information, and users have to translate weather information into their most desirable action. To maximize the economic value of users, the decision maker should select the optimum course of action for his company or project, based on an appropriate decision strategy under uncertain situations. In...

  20. Space Weather Receives First "Impact Rating"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lanzerotti, Louis J.

    2007-08-01

    Journal Citation Reports, published by Thomson Scientific (http://scientific.thomson.com/isi/), has issued its first impact factor for Space Weather. It is 1.610. I consider this number to be very good, strongly validating the impact that Space Weather has already made in its short life within the community of space weather professionals.

  1. Space Weather Effects on Range Operations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    www.windows2universe.org/space_weather/space_weather.html What are scientists talking about when they say “space weather”? How is it like weather on...particle events observed by ground level, high latitude neutron monitors and the Concorde observations are summarised in Table 1 (Refs. 12 & 13), which

  2. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  3. 49 CFR 195.224 - Welding: Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Welding: Weather. 195.224 Section 195.224 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation (Continued) PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY... PIPELINE Construction § 195.224 Welding: Weather. Welding must be protected from weather conditions...

  4. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  5. The Early Years: The Wonders of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on the wonders of winter weather, as it often inspires teachers' and students' interest in collecting weather data, especially if snow falls. Beginning weather data collection in preschool will introduce children to the concepts of making regular observations of natural phenomena, recording the observations (data),…

  6. Reducing prediction uncertainty of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.

    2007-01-01

    In closed agricultural systems the weather acts both as a disturbance and as a resource. By using weather forecasts in control strategies the effects of disturbances can be minimized whereas the resources can be utilized. In this situation weather forecast uncertainty and model based control are cou

  7. Efficient Ways to Learn Weather Radar Polarimetry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Qing; Yeary, M. B.; Zhang, Guifu

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. weather radar network is currently being upgraded with dual-polarization capability. Weather radar polarimetry is an interdisciplinary area of engineering and meteorology. This paper presents efficient ways to learn weather radar polarimetry through several basic and practical topics. These topics include: 1) hydrometeor scattering model…

  8. Simulator Of A "Weather" Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Khramenkova, Ksenia; Hermant, Olivier; Pawlak, Renaud

    2012-01-01

    International audience; In this article a cloud simulator for the "weather" cloud is considered. The purpose of such a simulator is evaluating different cloud architectures and algorithms before implementation. The main idea is to analyze the performance beforehand, in order to avoid unsuitable algorithms being implemented in a real cloud. Two methods of request allocation policies to the nodes are considered. Their behavior in terms of interaction with nodes' cachememory is compared. Finally...

  9. Weather, Climate and Food Security

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beer, T.

    2016-12-01

    To climatologists food security is dominated by the impacts of weather and climate on food systems. But the link between the atmosphere and food security is more complex. Extreme weather events such as tropical cyclones impact directly on agriculture, but they also impact on the logistical distribution of food and can thus disrupt the food supply chain, especially in urban areas. Drought affects human life and health as well as impacting dramatically on the sustainable development of society. It represents a pending danger for vulnerable agricultural systems that depend on the rainfall, water supply and reservoirs. Developed countries are affected, but the impact is disproportionate within the developing world. Drought, especially when it results in famine, can change the life and economic development of developing nations and stifle their development for decades. A holistic approach is required to understand the phenomena, to forecast catastrophic events such as drought and famine and to predict their societal consequences. In the Food Security recommendations of the Rio+20 Forum on Science, Technology and Innovation for Sustainable Development it states that it is important "To understand fully how to measure, assess and reduce the impacts of production on the natural environment including climate change, recognizing that different measures of impact (e.g. water, land, biodiversity, carbon and other greenhouse gases, etc) may trade-off against each other..." This talk will review the historical link between weather, climate, drought and food supplies; examine the international situation; and summarise the response of the scientific community

  10. The Weather and Climate Toolkit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Del Greco, S.; Hankins, B.

    2010-12-01

    The Weather and Climate Toolkit (WCT) is free, platform independent software distributed from NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center (NCDC). The WCT allows the visualization and data export of weather and climate data, including Radar, Satellite and Model data. By leveraging the NetCDF for Java library and Common Data Model, the WCT is extremely scalable and capable of supporting many new datasets in the future. Gridded NetCDF files (regular and irregularly spaced, using Climate-Forecast (CF) conventions) are supported, along with many other formats including GRIB. The WCT provides tools for custom data overlays, Web Map Service (WMS) background maps, animations and basic filtering. The export of images and movies is provided in multiple formats. The WCT Data Export Wizard allows for data export in both vector polygon/point (Shapefile, Well-Known Text) and raster (GeoTIFF, ESRI Grid, VTK, Gridded NetCDF) formats. These data export features promote the interoperability of weather and climate information with various scientific communities and common software packages such as ArcGIS, Google Earth, MatLAB, GrADS and R. The WCT also supports an embedded, integrated Google Earth instance. The Google Earth Browser Plugin allows seamless visualization of data on a native 3-D Google Earth instance linked to the standard 2-D map. Level-II NEXRAD data for Hurricane Katrina GPCP (Global Precipitation Product), visualized in 2-D and internal Google Earth view.

  11. Positive lightning and severe weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, C.; Murphy, B.

    2003-04-01

    In recent years researchers have noticed that severe weather (tornados, hail and damaging winds) are closely related to the amount of positive lightning occurring in thunderstorms. On 4 July 1999, a severe derecho (wind storm) caused extensive damage to forested regions along the United States/Canada border, west of Lake Superior. There were 665,000 acres of forest destroyed in the Boundary Waters Canoe Area Wilderness (BWCAW) in Minnesota and Quetico Provincial Park in Canada, with approximately 12.5 million trees blown down. This storm resulted in additional severe weather before and after the occurrence of the derecho, with continuous cloud-to-ground (CG) lightning occurring for more than 34 hours during its path across North America. At the time of the derecho the percentage of positive cloud-to-ground (+CG) lightning measured by the Canadian Lightning Detection Network (CLDN) was greater than 70% for more than three hours, with peak values reaching 97% positive CG lightning. Such high ratios of +CG are rare, and may be useful indicators for short-term forecasts of severe weather.

  12. Analysis on Photovoltaic Energy-Assisted Drying of Green Peas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Onur Taşkın

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A photovoltaic energy-assisted industrial dryer has been analyzed. The dryer has been tested in various weather and working conditions with 3 kg of green peas from 75.6% initial moisture content to 20% final moisture content (w.b.. The effect of various drying air temperatures at three levels (40, 50, and 60°C and two distinct air velocities (3 m/s and 4 m/s was examined. Drying performance was assessed with regard to criteria including drying kinetics, specific and total energy consumption, and color and rehydration ratio. The results have proved that total drying duration reduces as air velocity rate and drying air temperature raise. Relying upon the drying durations, the generation performances of photovoltaic panels were between 5.261 and 3.953 W. On the other part, energy consumptions of dryer were between 37.417 and 28.111 W. The best specific energy consumption was detected in 50°C at 3 m/s for 600 minutes with 7.616 kWh/kg. All drying conditions caused darkening as color parameters. Rehydration assays have showed that rehydrated green peas attained higher capacity with raised air temperature and air velocity.

  13. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny L Gayton

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Johnny L GaytonEyesight Associates, Warner Robins, GA, USAPurpose: This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women.Method: A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms “dry eye” and “women” were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature.Results: Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications.Conclusion: The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.Keywords: dry eye disease, etiology, prevalence, postmenopausal women

  14. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  15. Drying of Malaysian Capsicum annuum L. (Red Chili) Dried by Open and Solar Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Ahmad Fudholi; Mohd Yusof Othman; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Kamaruzzaman Sopian

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated the performance of solar drying in the Malaysian red chili (Capsicum annuum L.). Red chilies were dried down from approximately 80% (wb) to 10% (wb) moisture content within 33 h. The drying process was conducted during the day, and it was compared with 65 h of open sun drying. Solar drying yielded a 49% saving in drying time compared with open sun drying. At the average solar radiation of 420 W/m2 and air flow rate of 0.07 kg/s, the collector, drying system, and pickup de...

  16. Evaluation of weather-based rice yield models in India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sudharsan, D.; Adinarayana, J.; Reddy, D. Raji; Sreenivas, G.; Ninomiya, S.; Hirafuji, M.; Kiura, T.; Tanaka, K.; Desai, U. B.; Merchant, S. N.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to compare two different rice simulation models—standalone (Decision Support System for Agrotechnology Transfer [DSSAT]) and web based (SImulation Model for RIce-Weather relations [SIMRIW])—with agrometeorological data and agronomic parameters for estimation of rice crop production in southern semi-arid tropics of India. Studies were carried out on the BPT5204 rice variety to evaluate two crop simulation models. Long-term experiments were conducted in a research farm of Acharya N G Ranga Agricultural University (ANGRAU), Hyderabad, India. Initially, the results were obtained using 4 years (1994-1997) of data with weather parameters from a local weather station to evaluate DSSAT simulated results with observed values. Linear regression models used for the purpose showed a close relationship between DSSAT and observed yield. Subsequently, yield comparisons were also carried out with SIMRIW and DSSAT, and validated with actual observed values. Realizing the correlation coefficient values of SIMRIW simulation values in acceptable limits, further rice experiments in monsoon (Kharif) and post-monsoon (Rabi) agricultural seasons (2009, 2010 and 2011) were carried out with a location-specific distributed sensor network system. These proximal systems help to simulate dry weight, leaf area index and potential yield by the Java based SIMRIW on a daily/weekly/monthly/seasonal basis. These dynamic parameters are useful to the farming community for necessary decision making in a ubiquitous manner. However, SIMRIW requires fine tuning for better results/decision making.

  17. Operational Space Weather Activities in the US

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Thomas; Singer, Howard; Onsager, Terrance; Viereck, Rodney; Murtagh, William; Rutledge, Robert

    2016-07-01

    We review the current activities in the civil operational space weather forecasting enterprise of the United States. The NOAA/Space Weather Prediction Center is the nation's official source of space weather watches, warnings, and alerts, working with partners in the Air Force as well as international operational forecast services to provide predictions, data, and products on a large variety of space weather phenomena and impacts. In October 2015, the White House Office of Science and Technology Policy released the National Space Weather Strategy (NSWS) and associated Space Weather Action Plan (SWAP) that define how the nation will better forecast, mitigate, and respond to an extreme space weather event. The SWAP defines actions involving multiple federal agencies and mandates coordination and collaboration with academia, the private sector, and international bodies to, among other things, develop and sustain an operational space weather observing system; develop and deploy new models of space weather impacts to critical infrastructure systems; define new mechanisms for the transition of research models to operations and to ensure that the research community is supported for, and has access to, operational model upgrade paths; and to enhance fundamental understanding of space weather through support of research models and observations. The SWAP will guide significant aspects of space weather operational and research activities for the next decade, with opportunities to revisit the strategy in the coming years through the auspices of the National Science and Technology Council.

  18. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn;

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  19. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  20. Trigger Point Dry Needling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-03-01

    Increasingly, physical therapists in the United States and throughout the world are using dry needling to treat musculoskeletal pain, even though this treatment has been a controversial addition to practice. To better generalize to physical therapy practice the findings about dry needling thus far, the authors of a study published in the March 2017 issue of JOSPT identified the need for a systematic review examining the effectiveness of dry needling performed by physical therapists on people with musculoskeletal pain. Their review offers a meta-analysis of data from several included studies and assesses the evidence for risks of bias. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2017;47(3):150. doi:10.2519/jospt.2017.0502.

  1. Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program network. Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mihlmester, P.E.; Koehler, W.C. Jr.; Beyer, M.A. [Aspen Systems Corp., Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Applied Management Sciences Div.; Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Beschen, D.A. Jr. [Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States). Office of Weatherization Assistance Programs

    1992-02-01

    The Characterization of the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) Network was designed to describe the national network of State and local agencies that provide WAP services to qualifying low-income households. The objective of this study was to profile the current WAP network. To achieve the objective, two national surveys were conducted: one survey collected data from 49 State WAP agencies (including the coterminous 48 States and the District of Columbia), and the second survey collected data from 920 (or 81 percent) of the local WAP agencies.

  2. Magnetically responsive dry fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Filipa L.; Bustamante, Rodney; Millán, Angel; Palacio, Fernando; Trindade, Tito; Silva, Nuno J. O.

    2013-07-01

    Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid.Ferrofluids and dry magnetic particles are two separate classes of magnetic materials with specific niche applications, mainly due to their distinct viscosity and interparticle distances. For practical applications, the stability of these two properties is highly desirable but hard to achieve. Conceptually, a possible solution to this problem would be encapsulating the magnetic particles but keeping them free to rotate inside a capsule with constant interparticle distances and thus shielded from changes in the viscosity of the surrounding media. Here we present an example of such materials by the encapsulation of magnetic ferrofluids into highly hydrophobic silica, leading to the formation of dry ferrofluids, i.e., a material behaving macroscopically as a dry powder but locally as a ferrofluid where magnetic nanoparticles are free to rotate in the liquid. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01784b

  3. Drying of Rosella (Hibiscus sabdariffa Flower Petals using Solar Dryer with Double Glass Cover Collector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tjukup Marnoto

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Chemical ingredients in rosella petals are very beneficial for health. Rosella petals needed to be drained for storage and packing purpose. The traditional drying takes 5 days and less healthy. Solar dryer technology can speed up the drying process and protect materials from dust contamination. Solar dryer with double glass covered collector has been designed and made for drying of agricultural products such as rosella flowers. Rosella petals as much as 2300 grams with initial moisture content of 90.84 % be dried with this dryer until the moisture content of 7.67 % takes only 2 days, although the weather was less sunny . The temperature in the drying chamber was not more than 50° C, so it was good for drying groceries, not damaging chemical ingredients. The relative humidity in the space dryeris was about 40 % and it was still relative low. Drying rate and drying performance was expressed by the efficiency and Specific Moisture Evaporation Rate ( SMER were influenced by water content of the dried material and weather. Daily efficiency at the first and the second day: 14.931 % and 5.78%, while the daily SMER on the first and the second day: 0.222 and 0.0256 ( kg / kWh .

  4. Convective Air Drying Characteristics for Thin Layer Carrots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut Dumitru Velescu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most commonly used vegetables for human nutrition due to high vitamin and fibre content. Drying is one of the oldest methods of food preservation, and it represents a very important aspect of food processing. Sun drying is the most common method used to preserve agricultural products in most tropical countries; this technique is extremely weather dependent, and has the problems of contamination with dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Also, the required drying time can be quite long. Therefore, using solar and hot-air dryers, which are far more rapid, providing uniformity and hygiene are inevitable for industrial food drying processes. Aim: This paper presents a kinetic study of convective drying without pre-treatment of carrot. The effects of the temperature of the drying agent, the speed of the drying agent and the thickness of the kinetics of drying the sample of carrots were investigated. Materials and methods: The experiments were carried out with the aid of an installation for drying food products, that is capable of ensuring the temperature of the drying agent (air in the range of +25 ... +125 °C. The drying process was conducted at temperature of 45 °C in first hour of process, 2 hours at 55 °C, and 3 hours at 60 °C. The air velocity was setup  at 1.0 - 2.5 m/s. Carrots were divided into segments of a thickness of 0.4 cm. Two mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental data. Results: The drying rate increases with temperature and decreases with the sample diameter. The Page model is given better prediction than the Henderson and Pabis model and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of carrot slices. Conclusions: The most important characteristics of carrot required for simulation and optimization of the drying were studied. The values of calculated effective diffusivity for drying at 45, 55 and 60oC of air temperature and 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 m

  5. Research on the dry intrusion accompanying the low vortex precipitation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAO; XiuPing; WU; GuoXiong; ZHAO; BingKe; YU; YuBin; YANG; GuiMing

    2007-01-01

    precipitation. Meanwhile, because of the good agreement between the high PV at the upper level and the dry intrusion illustrated by the vapor cloud images, the dry intrusion in the vapor cloud images is the direct and clear description of the high PV forcing which provides a new insight in understanding the evolution and development of the practical weather systems. Besides, both the skills of isentropic analysis and potential temperature coordinates system analysis are important to revealing the three-dimension structure of the dry intrusion.

  6. An Improved, Downscaled, Fine Model for Simulation of Daily Weather States

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG Zhihong; DING Yuguo; ZHENG Chunyu; CHEN Weilin

    2011-01-01

    In this study,changes in daily weather states were treated as a complex Markov chain process,based on a continuous-time watershed model (soil water assessment tool,SWAT) developed by the Agricultural Research Service at the U.S.Department of Agriculture (USDA-ARS).A finer classification using total cloud amount for dry states was adopted,and dry days were classified into three states:clear,cloudy,and overcast (rain free). Multistate transition models for dry- and wet-day series were constructed to comprehensively downscale the simulation of regional daily climatic states.The results show that the finer,improved,downscaled model overcame the oversimplified treatment of a two-weather state model and is free of the shortcomings of a multistate model that neglects finer classification of dry days (i.e.,finer classification was applied only to wet days).As a result,overall simulation of weather states based on the SWAT greatly improved,and the improvement in simulating daily temperature and radiation was especially significant.

  7. Probability for Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L. A.

    2013-12-01

    Over the last 60 years, the availability of large-scale electronic computers has stimulated rapid and significant advances both in meteorology and in our understanding of the Earth System as a whole. The speed of these advances was due, in large part, to the sudden ability to explore nonlinear systems of equations. The computer allows the meteorologist to carry a physical argument to its conclusion; the time scales of weather phenomena then allow the refinement of physical theory, numerical approximation or both in light of new observations. Prior to this extension, as Charney noted, the practicing meteorologist could ignore the results of theory with good conscience. Today, neither the practicing meteorologist nor the practicing climatologist can do so, but to what extent, and in what contexts, should they place the insights of theory above quantitative simulation? And in what circumstances can one confidently estimate the probability of events in the world from model-based simulations? Despite solid advances of theory and insight made possible by the computer, the fidelity of our models of climate differs in kind from the fidelity of models of weather. While all prediction is extrapolation in time, weather resembles interpolation in state space, while climate change is fundamentally an extrapolation. The trichotomy of simulation, observation and theory which has proven essential in meteorology will remain incomplete in climate science. Operationally, the roles of probability, indeed the kinds of probability one has access too, are different in operational weather forecasting and climate services. Significant barriers to forming probability forecasts (which can be used rationally as probabilities) are identified. Monte Carlo ensembles can explore sensitivity, diversity, and (sometimes) the likely impact of measurement uncertainty and structural model error. The aims of different ensemble strategies, and fundamental differences in ensemble design to support of

  8. Accelerated weathering of biosolid-amended copper mine tailings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pond, Andrew P; White, Scott A; Milczarek, Michael; Thompson, Thomas L

    2005-01-01

    Application of municipal biosolids to mine tailings can enhance revegetation success, but may cause adverse environmental impacts, such as increased leaching of NO3- and metals to ground water. Kinetic weathering cells were used to simulate geochemical weathering to determine the effects of biosolid amendment on (i) pH of leachate and tailings, (ii) leaching of NO3- and SO4(2-), (iii) leaching and bioavailability (DTPA-extractable) of selected metals, and (iv) changes in tailing mineralogy. Four Cu mine tailings from southern Arizona differing in initial pH (3.3-7.3) and degree of weathering were packed into triplicate weathering cells and were unamended and amended with two rates (equivalent to 134 and 200 Mg dry matter ha(-1)) of biosolids. Biosolid application to acid (pH 3.3) tailings resulted in pH values as high as 6.3 and leachate pH as high as 5.7, and biosolids applied to circumneutral tailings resulted in no change in tailing or leachate pH. Concentrations of NO3--N of up to 23 mg L(-1) occurred in leachates from circumneutral tailings. The low pH of the acidic tailing apparently inhibited nitrification, resulting in leachate NO3--N of tailings (final rate of 0.04 compared with 0.11 g SO4(2-)-S wk(-1)). Copper concentrations in leachates from acidic tailings were reduced from 53 to 27 mg L(-1) with biosolid amendment. Copper and As concentrations increased slightly in leachates from biosolid-amended circumneutral tailings. Small increases in DTPA-extractable Cu, Ni, and Zn occurred in all tailings with increased biosolid rate. Overall, there was little evidence of potential for adverse environmental impacts resulting from biosolid application to these Cu mine tailings.

  9. Evolution of Oxidative Continental Weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konhauser, Kurt; Lalonde, Stefan

    2014-05-01

    The Great Oxidation Event (GOE) is currently viewed as a protracted process during which atmospheric oxygen levels increased above 10-5 times the present atmospheric level. This value is based on the loss of sulphur isotope mass independent fractionation (S-MIF) from the rock record, beginning at 2.45 Ga and disappearing by 2.32 Ga. However, a number of recent papers have pushed back the timing for oxidative continental weathering, and by extension, the onset of atmospheric oxygenation several hundreds of million years earlier despite the presence of S-MIF (e.g., Crowe et al., 2013). This apparent discrepancy can, in part, be resolved by the suggestion that recycling of older sedimentary sulphur bearing S-MIF might have led to this signal's persistence in the rock record for some time after atmospheric oxygenation (Reinhard et al., 2013). Here we suggest another possibility, that the earliest oxidative weathering reactions occurred in environments at profound redox disequilibrium with the atmosphere, such as biological soil crusts, riverbed and estuarine sediments, and lacustrine microbial mats. We calculate that the rate of O2 production via oxygenic photosynthesis in these terrestrial microbial ecosystems provides largely sufficient oxidizing potential to mobilise sulphate and a number of redox-sensitive trace metals from land to the oceans while the atmosphere itself remained anoxic with its attendant S-MIF signature. These findings reconcile geochemical signatures in the rock record for the earliest oxidative continental weathering with the history of atmospheric sulphur chemistry, and demonstrate the plausible antiquity of a terrestrial biosphere populated by cyanobacteria. Crowe, S.A., Dossing, L.N., Beukes, N.J., Bau, M., Kruger, S.J., Frei, R. & Canfield, D.E. Atmospheric oxygenation three billion years ago. Nature 501, 535-539 (2013). Reinhard, C.T., Planavsky, N.J. & Lyons, T.W. Long-term sedimentary recycling of rare sulphur isotope anomalies. Nature 497

  10. The Predication of Relationship Between Harvesting Moisture Content and The Most Convenient Rice Moisture After Drying to Obtained The Highest Head Rice Yield When Rice is Dried in Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ulger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is dried after harvesting and milled before consumption. But cracklings occur on rice while rice isbeing dried with hot weather. Depending on cracking amount milling rice yield will be high or low. In orderto minimize breakage during the drying process, the relationship between harvesting grain moisture contentand storage moisture content was examined. Thus the highest head rice yield could be obtained. For thatobject , rice samples that were harvested in different harvested moisture content, were dried with hot weatherin prototype dryer which was designed for this object. Rice samples were dried to different moisture andhead rice yield was predicated after drying process , thus the moisture of dried rice which was obtainedmaximum head rice yield was found.According to the data, relationship between harvesting moisture content and the moisture of dried rice onprototypes drying machine is significant as statistical. A regression equation was obtained with data fromdrying process. With this equation, the most convenient moisture to obtained highest head rice yield afterdrying can be predicted. “The most convenient rice moisture after drying =( 4.66 + 0.59 x Harvestingmoisture content±0.54”.

  11. Properties of Spray Dried Food and Spray Drying Characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Fumio

    The following conclusions are obtained, studying properties of spray dried food and drying characteristics. (a) Dried particles are similar to spray droplets in size distribution (y=2.5), and particle count distribution is arranged as (dn/dx = ae-bx). (b) The ratio of the particle diameters before and after drying is calculated with moisture before and after drying, and porosity is given as (εp = ww4). (c) The standard drying method is presented to evaluate accurately drying problems at a certain standard. (d) Equilibrium moisture at 20 up to 100°C are summarized in terms of adsorption potential. (e) It makes clear that calulation based on the theory of residence time and drying time represents well complex spray drying characteristics.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Find an Ophthalmologist ...

  13. Insurance adaptation to extreme weather

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wakeford, C. [Institute for Catastrophic Loss Reduction, Toronto, ON (Canada)

    2005-07-01

    This paper examined the role of climate change as a catalyst for specific changes in insurance practices. The presentation addressed how insurance companies are adapting behaviours in response to increasing climate variability and growth in severe weather damage. It discussed ancient examples of insurance as well as more modern insurance practices. Statistics on the number of disasters, global natural disaster economic and insured losses and infrastructure spending are presented. Internal adaptation such as prospective underwriting and incentives and external adaptation such as working with governments and organizations and individuals were also discussed. It was concluded that directions for the future include continued research, heightened awareness and more resilient communities. 3 tabs.

  14. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  15. Quality of dry ginger (Zingiber officinale) by different drying methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    E, Jayashree; R, Visvanathan; T, John Zachariah

    2014-11-01

    Ginger rhizomes sliced to various lengths of 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40, 50 mm and whole rhizomes were dried from an initial moisture content of 81.3 % to final moisture content of less than 10 % by various drying methods like sun drying, solar tunnel drying and cabinet tray drying at temperatures of 50, 55, 60 and 65 °C. Slicing of ginger rhizomes significantly reduced the drying time of ginger in all the drying methods. It was observed that drying of whole ginger rhizomes under sun took the maximum time (9 days) followed by solar tunnel drying (8 days). Significant reduction in essential oil and oleoresin content of dry ginger was found as the slice length decreased. The important constituents of ginger essential oil like zingiberene, limonene, linalool, geraniol and nerolidol as determined using a gas chromatography was also found to decrease during slicing and as the drying temperature increased. The pungency constituents in the oleoresin of ginger like total gingerols and total shogoals as determined using a reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography also showed a decreasing trend on slicing and with the increase in drying temperature. It was observed from the drying studies that whole ginger rhizomes dried under sun drying or in a solar tunnel drier retained the maximum essential oil (13.9 mg/g) and oleoresin content (45.2 mg/g) of dry ginger. In mechanical drying, the drying temperature of 60 °C was considered optimum however there was about 12.2 % loss in essential oil at this temperature.

  16. Control of angular leaf spot on dry beans with fungicides and its effect on plant production

    OpenAIRE

    Deman, Luis Alfredo Raue; Maringoni, Antonio Carlos [UNESP

    2012-01-01

    The angular leaf spot of dry bean caused by the fungus Phaeoisairopsis griseola is a very important disease on dry bean crops in Brazil. In propitious weather conditions, susceptible cultivars have significant losses due to this disease. In these conditions, fungicide usage is an important step for angular leaf spot management. Since the effects of this method of control on plant physiology are not known, this study had the following objectives: a) Verify the action of fungicide in physiologi...

  17. Differentiating Hydrothermal, Pedogenic, and Glacial Weathering in a Cold Volcanic Mars-Analog Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scudder, N. A.; Horgan, B.; Havig, J.; Rutledge, A.; Rampe, E. B.; Hamilton, T.

    2016-01-01

    Although the current cold, dry environment of Mars extends back through much of its history, its earliest periods experienced significant water- related surface activity. Both geomorphic features (e.g., paleolakes, deltas, and river valleys) and hydrous mineral detections (e.g., clays and salts) have historically been interpreted to imply a "warm and wet" early Mars climate. More recently, atmospheric modeling studies have struggled to produce early climate conditions with temperatures above 0degC, leading some studies to propose a "cold and icy" early Mars dominated by widespread glaciation with transient melting. However, the alteration mineralogy produced in subglacial environments is not well understood, so the extent to which cold climate glacial weathering can produce the diverse alteration mineralogy observed on Mars is unknown. This summer, we will be conducting a field campaign in a glacial weathering environment in the Cascade Range, OR in order to determine the types of minerals that these environments produce. However, we must first disentangle the effects of glacial weathering from other significant alteration processes. Here we attempt a first understanding of glacial weathering by differentiating rocks and sediments weathered by hydrothermal, pedogenic, and glacial weathering processes in the Cascades volcanic range.

  18. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume I. Eastern United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 23 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  19. Phytoplankton diversity in relation to different weather conditions in two urban made lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munay Abdulqadir Omar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Many scientists have reported that global warming have significant impact on phytoplankton community, however, the impact of global warming on phytoplankton communities in suburban made lake is less understood. Therefor the objective of this study are to observe the effect of variable weather conditions on the diversity and succession of phytoplankton in mesotrophic lake (Seri Serdang and oligotrophic lake (Engineering Faculty Lake. Samples were collected from surface water and species diversity (Shannon Weaver Diversity Index was calculated. Daily weather and rain fall were recorded. A total of 65 species from five divisions (Chlorophyta, Euglenophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta and 52 species belonging to six divisions (Chlorophyta, Cyanophyta, Bacillariophyta, Euglenophyta, Cryptophyta & Charophyta were recorded from Engineering Faculty Lake and Seri Serdang Lake respectively. Division of Chlorophyta was found most dominant in both lakes during all the weeks (67%. The most dominant species in Faculty Engineering Lake was Microcystis aeruginosa during all weather conditions. Whereas, the most dominant species in Seri Serdang Lake during all weather conditions were Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, Planktothrix agardhii. The phytoplankton density was low during dry weather conditions for both lakes. The present finding suggested noticeable correlation between weather changes to the alteration of population density of phytoplankton.

  20. Weather data for simplified energy calculation methods. Volume II. Middle United States: TRY data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsen, A.R.; Moreno, S.; Deringer, J.; Watson, C.R.

    1984-08-01

    The objective of this report is to provide a source of weather data for direct use with a number of simplified energy calculation methods available today. Complete weather data for a number of cities in the United States are provided for use in the following methods: degree hour, modified degree hour, bin, modified bin, and variable degree day. This report contains sets of weather data for 22 cities in the continental United States using Test Reference Year (TRY) source weather data. The weather data at each city has been summarized in a number of ways to provide differing levels of detail necessary for alternative simplified energy calculation methods. Weather variables summarized include dry bulb and wet bulb temperature, percent relative humidity, humidity ratio, wind speed, percent possible sunshine, percent diffuse solar radiation, total solar radiation on horizontal and vertical surfaces, and solar heat gain through standard DSA glass. Monthly and annual summaries, in some cases by time of day, are available. These summaries are produced in a series of nine computer generated tables.

  1. Structural analysis of heat-treated birch (Betule papyrifera) surface during artificial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Krause, Cornélia

    2013-01-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the surface structural changes of birch (Betule papyrifera) wood, heat-treated to different temperatures, was studied using the fluorescence microscopy and the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Changes in the chemical structure of wood components were analyzed by FTIR in order to understand the mechanism of degradation taking place due to heat treatment and artificial weathering. The results are compared with those of the untreated (kiln-dried) birch. The SEM analysis results show that the effect of weathering on the cell wall of the untreated birch surface is more than that of heat-treated samples. The FTIR spectroscopy results indicate that lignin is the most sensitive component of heat-treated birch to the weathering degradation process. Elimination of the amorphous and highly crystallised cellulose is observed for both heat-treated and untreated wood during weathering. It is also observed that heat treatment increases the lignin and crystallised cellulose contents, which to some extent protects heat-treated birch against degradation due to weathering.

  2. Weathering of ordinary chondrites from Oman: Correlation of weathering parameters with 14C terrestrial ages and a refined weathering scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zurfluh, Florian J.; Hofmann, Beda A.; Gnos, Edwin; Eggenberger, Urs; Jull, A. J. Timothy

    2016-09-01

    We have investigated 128 14C-dated ordinary chondrites from Oman for macroscopically visible weathering parameters, for thin section-based weathering degrees, and for chemical weathering parameters as analyzed with handheld X-ray fluorescence. These 128 14C-dated meteorites show an abundance maximum of terrestrial age at 19.9 ka, with a mean of 21.0 ka and a pronounced lack of samples between 0 and 10 ka. The weathering degree is evaluated in thin section using a refined weathering scale based on the current W0 to W6 classification of Wlotzka (1993), with five newly included intermediate steps resulting in a total of nine (formerly six) steps. We find significant correlations between terrestrial ages and several macroscopic weathering parameters. The correlation of various chemical parameters including Sr and Ba with terrestrial age is not very pronounced. The microscopic weathering degree of metal and sulfides with newly added intermediate steps shows the best correlation with 14C terrestrial ages, demonstrating the significance of the newly defined weathering steps. We demonstrate that the observed 14C terrestrial age distribution can be modeled from the abundance of meteorites with different weathering degrees, allowing the evaluation of an age-frequency distribution for the whole meteorite population.

  3. The Impact of Different Weather Files on London Detached Residential Building Performance—Deterministic, Uncertainty, and Sensitivity Analysis on CIBSE TM48 and CIBSE TM49 Future Weather Variables Using CIBSE TM52 as Overheating Criteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph Amoako-Attah

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Though uncertainties of input variables may have significant implications on building simulations, they are quite often not identified, quantified, or included in building simulations results. This paper considers climatic deterministic, uncertainty, and sensitivity analysis through a series of simulations using the CIBSE UKCIP02 future weather years, CIBSE TM48 for design summer years (DSYs, and the latest CIBSE TM49 DSY future weather data which incorporates the UKCP09 projections to evaluate the variance and the impact of differing London future weather files on indoor operative temperature of a detached dwelling in the United Kingdom using the CIBSE TM52 overheating criteria. The work analyses the variability of comparable weather data set to identify the most influential weather parameters that contribute to thermal comfort implications for these dwellings. The choice of these weather files is to ascertain their differences, as their development is underpinned by different climatic projections. The overall pattern of the variability of the UKCIP02 and UKCP09 Heathrow weather data sets under Monte Carlo sensitivity consideration do not seem to be very different from each other. The deterministic results show that the operative temperatures of the UKCIP02 are slightly higher than those of UKCP09, with the UKCP09 having a narrow range of operative temperatures. The Monte Carlo sensitivity analysis quantified and affirmed the dry bulb and radiant temperatures as the most influential weather parameters that affect thermal comfort on dwellings.

  4. Effects of UV-accelerated weathering and natural weathering conditions on anti-fungal efficacy of wood/PVC composites doped with propylene glycol-based HPQM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Srimalanon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This work studied the mechanical, physical and weathering properties and anti-fungal efficacy of polyvinyl chloride(PVC and wood flour/polyvinyl chloride composites(WPVC. 2-hydroxypropyl-3-piperazinyl-quinoline carboxylic acid methacrylate (HPQM in propylene glycol was used as an anti-fungal agent. Propylene glycol-based HPQM was doped in neat PVC and in WPVC containing 50 and 100 pph wood (WPVC-50 and WPVC-100. The flexural properties of PVC decreased when propylene glycol-based HPQM was added. However, adding this component did not affect the flexural properties of WPVC. Fungal growth inhibition test and dry weight technique were used for evaluation of anti-fungal effectiveness. Aspergillus niger was used as a testing fungus. Adding propylene glycol-based HPQM to WPVC-100 led to the most effective anti-fungal performance. Wood flour acted as an anti-fungal promoter for the WPVC composites. The optimal dosages of propylene glycol-based HPQM in PVC, WPVC-50, and WPVC-100 were 50000, 15000, and 10000 ppm, respectively. UV-accelerated weathering aging and natural weathering conditions were found to affect the flexural properties of PVC and WPVC. The change in the anti-microbial performance of WPVC under natural weathering were slower than those under UV-accelerated weathering aging. The anti-microbial evaluation indicated that the samples doped with less than 20000 ppm propylene glycol-based HPQM had a more pronounced effect than the ones doped with higher dosages.

  5. Automatic Weather Station (AWS) Lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rall, Jonathan A.R.; Abshire, James B.; Spinhirne, James D.; Smith, David E. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    An autonomous, low-power atmospheric lidar instrument is being developed at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center. This compact, portable lidar will operate continuously in a temperature controlled enclosure, charge its own batteries through a combination of a small rugged wind generator and solar panels, and transmit its data from remote locations to ground stations via satellite. A network of these instruments will be established by co-locating them at remote Automatic Weather Station (AWS) sites in Antarctica under the auspices of the National Science Foundation (NSF). The NSF Office of Polar Programs provides support to place the weather stations in remote areas of Antarctica in support of meteorological research and operations. The AWS meteorological data will directly benefit the analysis of the lidar data while a network of ground based atmospheric lidar will provide knowledge regarding the temporal evolution and spatial extent of Type la polar stratospheric clouds (PSC). These clouds play a crucial role in the annual austral springtime destruction of stratospheric ozone over Antarctica, i.e. the ozone hole. In addition, the lidar will monitor and record the general atmospheric conditions (transmission and backscatter) of the overlying atmosphere which will benefit the Geoscience Laser Altimeter System (GLAS). Prototype lidar instruments have been deployed to the Amundsen-Scott South Pole Station (1995-96, 2000) and to an Automated Geophysical Observatory site (AGO 1) in January 1999. We report on data acquired with these instruments, instrument performance, and anticipated performance of the AWS Lidar.

  6. Space weather and space anomalies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. I. Dorman

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available A large database of anomalies, registered by 220 satellites in different orbits over the period 1971-1994 has been compiled. For the first time, data from 49 Russian Kosmos satellites have been included in a statistical analysis. The database also contains a large set of daily and hourly space weather parameters. A series of statistical analyses made it possible to quantify, for different satellite orbits, space weather conditions on the days characterized by anomaly occurrences. In particular, very intense fluxes (>1000 pfu at energy >10 MeV of solar protons are linked to anomalies registered by satellites in high-altitude (>15000 km, near-polar (inclination >55° orbits typical for navigation satellites, such as those used in the GPS network, NAVSTAR, etc. (the rate of anomalies increases by a factor ~20, and to a much smaller extent to anomalies in geostationary orbits, (they increase by a factor ~4. Direct and indirect connections between anomaly occurrence and geomagnetic perturbations are also discussed.

  7. Drying of hot chilli using solar tunnel drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.A. [Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701 (Bangladesh); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 (Bangladesh)

    2007-01-15

    A mixed mode type forced convection solar tunnel drier was used to dry hot red and green chillies under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh. The drier consisted of transparent plastic covered flat-plate collector and a drying tunnel connected in series to supply hot air directly into the drying tunnel using two fans operated by a photovoltaic module. The drier had a loading capacity of 80 kg of fresh chillies. Moisture content of red chilli was reduced from 2.85 to 0.05 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 20 h in solar tunnel drier and it took 32 h to reduce the moisture content to 0.09 and 0.40 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. In case of green chilli, about 0.06 kg kg{sup -1} (db) moisture content was obtained from an initial moisture content of 7.6 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 22 h in solar tunnel drier and 35 h to reach the moisture content to 0.10 and 0.70 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. The use of a solar tunnel drier and blanching of sample led to a considerable reduction in drying time and dried products of better quality in terms of colour and pungency in comparison to products dried under the sun. The solar tunnel drier and blanching of chilli are recommended for drying of both red and green chillies. (author)

  8. Prediction Techniques in Operational Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhukov, Andrei

    2016-07-01

    The importance of forecasting space weather conditions is steadily increasing as our society is becoming more and more dependent on advanced technologies that may be affected by disturbed space weather. Operational space weather forecasting is still a difficult task that requires the real-time availability of input data and specific prediction techniques that are reviewed in this presentation, with an emphasis on solar and interplanetary weather. Key observations that are essential for operational space weather forecasting are listed. Predictions made on the base of empirical and statistical methods, as well as physical models, are described. Their validation, accuracy, and limitations are discussed in the context of operational forecasting. Several important problems in the scientific basis of predicting space weather are described, and possible ways to overcome them are discussed, including novel space-borne observations that could be available in future.

  9. Five case studies of multifamily weatherization programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kinney, L; Wilson, T.; Lewis, G. [Synertech Systems Corp. (United States); MacDonald, M. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The multifamily case studies that are the subject of this report were conducted to provide a better understanding of the approach taken by program operators in weatherizing large buildings. Because of significant variations in building construction and energy systems across the country, five states were selected based on their high level of multifamily weatherization. This report summarizes findings from case studies conducted by multifamily weatherization operations in five cities. The case studies were conducted between January and November 1994. Each of the case studies involved extensive interviews with the staff of weatherization subgrantees conducting multifamily weatherization, the inspection of 4 to 12 buildings weatherized between 1991 and 1993, and the analysis of savings and costs. The case studies focused on innovative techniques which appear to work well.

  10. Etiology, prevalence, and treatment of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gayton, Johnny L

    2009-01-01

    This review article examines the prevalence, etiology, and current therapies of dry eye disease, with special focus on postmenopausal women. A systematic literature search utilizing MEDLINE was conducted to identify peer-reviewed articles related to dry eye published prior to September 2008. The terms "dry eye" and "women" were searched in combination with one or more of the following words or phrases: prevalence, postmenopausal, etiology, risk factors, therapy, medications, surgery, tear film, and quality of life. Articles were selected based on their direct applicability to the subject matter. A manual search was also conducted based on citations in the published literature. Epidemiologic studies identified prevalence rates ranging from 7% in the United States to 33% in Taiwan and Japan. Risk factors include advanced age, female sex, smoking, extreme heat or cold weather conditions, low relative humidity, use of video display terminals, refractive surgery, contact lens wear, and certain medications. The last decade has brought about a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye disease. New therapies that can alleviate the signs and symptoms of dry eye disease and, consequently, improve the quality of life of dry eye patients are available in the market.

  11. STATISTICAL ANALYSIS AND TRENDS OF DRY DAYS IN SYLHET REGION OF BANGLADESH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Mustakim Ali Shah

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The rainfall distribution in Bangladesh is not uniform and refl ecting topography. Hilly Sylhet region receives substantial rainfall every year compare to other regions of Bangladesh. Though Sylhet region is less vulnerable to drought but weather pattern is not constant and changing day by day. Hence as a part of drought an alysis, behavior of dry days is important. This study focuses on dry days pattern and associ ated changes from daily records of last 54 years for Sylhet region. Monthly, yearly and seasonal variations of dry days were analyzed to check for major changes. In order to inve stigate extreme dry events, time history of monthly dry days data were transformed into fre quency domain using the Fast Fourier Transform (FFT. Variability of dry days in tim e scale was also checked from filtered signals which is very useful for drought a nalysis, agricultural development and disaster management for the north-east region of Bangladesh.

  12. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES) in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY) and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  13. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks

    OpenAIRE

    McMichael, Anthony J.

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental c...

  14. Space Weather and Real-Time Monitoring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Watari

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance of information and communications technology enables to collect a large amount of ground-based and space-based observation data in real-time. The real-time data realize nowcast of space weather. This paper reports a history of space weather by the International Space Environment Service (ISES in association with the International Geophysical Year (IGY and importance of real-time monitoring in space weather.

  15. Validation of two (parametric vs non-parametric) daily weather generators

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dubrovsky, M.; Skalak, P.

    2015-12-01

    As the climate models (GCMs and RCMs) fail to satisfactorily reproduce the real-world surface weather regime, various statistical methods are applied to downscale GCM/RCM outputs into site-specific weather series. The stochastic weather generators are among the most favourite downscaling methods capable to produce realistic (observed-like) meteorological inputs for agrological, hydrological and other impact models used in assessing sensitivity of various ecosystems to climate change/variability. To name their advantages, the generators may (i) produce arbitrarily long multi-variate synthetic weather series representing both present and changed climates (in the latter case, the generators are commonly modified by GCM/RCM-based climate change scenarios), (ii) be run in various time steps and for multiple weather variables (the generators reproduce the correlations among variables), (iii) be interpolated (and run also for sites where no weather data are available to calibrate the generator). This contribution will compare two stochastic daily weather generators in terms of their ability to reproduce various features of the daily weather series. M&Rfi is a parametric generator: Markov chain model is used to model precipitation occurrence, precipitation amount is modelled by the Gamma distribution, and the 1st order autoregressive model is used to generate non-precipitation surface weather variables. The non-parametric GoMeZ generator is based on the nearest neighbours resampling technique making no assumption on the distribution of the variables being generated. Various settings of both weather generators will be assumed in the present validation tests. The generators will be validated in terms of (a) extreme temperature and precipitation characteristics (annual and 30-years extremes and maxima of duration of hot/cold/dry/wet spells); (b) selected validation statistics developed within the frame of VALUE project. The tests will be based on observational weather series

  16. Study on drying rate in contact drying with flexible screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟宏; 陆仁书; 张显权

    2000-01-01

    The moisture contents (MC) of popular veneers were tested in Composition Board Laboratory of Northeast Forestry University by contact drying with flexible screen. The influence factors considered included temperature, initial moisture contents (IMC), and veneer thickness. Veneer-drying laws under different hot press conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the drying rate increased with temperature rising. 160℃ was considered to be more efficient than 140℃ and 180℃ because excessive high temperature has no significant contribution to drying rate. IMC had significant effect on drying rate. The veneer with high IMC had a higher drying rate at above fiber saturation point (FSP) and a lower drying rate at below FSP, compared to the veneer with low IMC. Average drying rate also varied with thickness in power law.

  17. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  18. An unusually dry story

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivas Rajagopala

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We present a middle-aged woman with a prior history of central nervous system (CNS demyelinating disorder who presented with an acute onset quadriparesis and respiratory failure. The evaluation revealed distal renal tubular acidosis with hypokalemia and medullary nephrocalcinosis. Weakness persisted despite potassium correction, and ongoing evaluation confirmed recurrent CNS and long-segment spinal cord demyelination with anti-aquaporin-4 antibodies. There was no history of dry eyes or dry mouth. Anti-Sjogren′s syndrome A antigen antibodies were elevated, and there was reduced salivary flow on scintigraphy. Coexistent antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with inferior vena cava thrombosis was also found on evaluation. The index patient highlights several rare manifestations of primary Sjogren′s syndrome (pSS as the presenting features and highlights the differential diagnosis of the clinical syndromes in which pSS should be considered in the Intensive Care Unit.

  19. Drying characteristics and kinetics of fluidized bed dried potato

    OpenAIRE

    S.B. BAKAL; K.H. GEDAM; Sharma, G. P.

    2008-01-01

    In developed countries, more than 50% potatoes are consumed as processed products. As drying is the vital phenomenon in processing, it is necessary to investigate the drying characteristics and its kinetics. In this experimental study, drying kinetics of Potato in two different shape of cuboidal & cylindrical with three aspect ratio was investigated as a function of drying conditions. Experiments were conducted using air temperatures of 50, 60 and 70 ºC, at velocity of 7 ms-1. The experimenta...

  20. Dry Eye Syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad-Ali Javadi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Our understanding of keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS, also known as dry eye syndrome, has been changed over recent years. Until lately, the condition was thought to be merely due to aqueous tear insufficiency. Today, it is understood that KCS is a multifactorial disorder due to inflammation of the ocular surface and lacrimal gland, neurotrophic deficiency and meibomian gland dysfunction. This change in paradigm has led to the development of new and more effective medications.

  1. Drying of complex suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    Xu, Lei; Bergés, Alexis; Lu, Peter J.; Studart, André R.; Schofield, Andrew B.; Oki, Hidekazu; Davies, Simon; Weitz, David A.

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the 3D structure and drying dynamics of complex mixtures of emulsion droplets and colloidal particles, using confocal microscopy. Air invades and rapidly collapses large emulsion droplets, forcing their contents into the surrounding porous particle pack at a rate proportional to the square of the droplet radius. By contrast, small droplets do not collapse, but remain intact and are merely deformed. A simple model coupling the Laplace pressure to Darcy's law correctly estimates ...

  2. Effects of rare earth on inclusions and corrosion resistance of 10PCuRE weathering steel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUE

    2010-01-01

    The types,morphologies and distributions of nonmetallic inclusions in Cu-P weathering steels with and without rare earth were analyzed through a quantitative image analyzer,scanning electron microscopy(SEM)and energy dispersive spectroscopy(EDS)attached to SEM.Solid-soluble content of rare earth in the steels was analyzed by non-aqua electroanalysis and ICP.The results showed that rare earth modified the types and the morphologies of inclusions in the weathering steels.The small spherical rare earth oxysulfides and rare earth sulphides replaced the elongated MnS inclusions in the RE weathering steels.The rare earth inclusions dispersedly distributed and most inclusions were smaller than 2 μm in size.The optimum content of RE was 0.0065%-0.016% for 10PCuRE weathering steels containing about0.002% oxygen and 0.004% sulfur.Solid-soluble content of rare earth in steels was(14-20)x 10-6,which can act as a micro-alloying element.The corrosion resistance of 10PCuRE weathering steels and Q235 were studied by dry-wet cyclic immersion test.Their corrosion rates were obtained respectively.The polarization curves and pitting corrosion behaviors of weathering steels with and without rare earth were measured by electrochemical methods.The corrosion resistance of Cu-P weathering steels was improved by adding an appropriate amount of rare earth.Less and fewer rare earth inclusions largely decreased pitting susceptibility and rate of pit propagation.The pitting potential and the resistance against pitting corrosion of the RE weathering steel were significantly improved due to the modification of rare earth to inclusions.

  3. Traffic Control Under Complex Weather Conditions in Suining Airport

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕维峰

    2014-01-01

    Complex weather conditions is meaning thunderstorm freezing turbulence wind-shear low visibility weather affect the flight safety. When confronted with complex weather conditions,the controllers should know the weather condition and trend weather,and notify the aircraft under your control zone.The controllers provide the required services to the pilots,help the pilots to avoid the complex weather.In this paper, through different complex weathers under different control command,get the different methods of control.

  4. Amazonian chemical weathering rate derived from stony meteorite finds at Meridiani Planum on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröder, Christian; Bland, Phil A.; Golombek, Matthew P.; Ashley, James W.; Warner, Nicholas H.; Grant, John A.

    2016-11-01

    Spacecraft exploring Mars such as the Mars Exploration Rovers Spirit and Opportunity, as well as the Mars Science Laboratory or Curiosity rover, have accumulated evidence for wet and habitable conditions on early Mars more than 3 billion years ago. Current conditions, by contrast, are cold, extremely arid and seemingly inhospitable. To evaluate exactly how dry today's environment is, it is important to understand the ongoing current weathering processes. Here we present chemical weathering rates determined for Mars. We use the oxidation of iron in stony meteorites investigated by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity at Meridiani Planum. Their maximum exposure age is constrained by the formation of Victoria crater and their minimum age by erosion of the meteorites. The chemical weathering rates thus derived are ~1 to 4 orders of magnitude slower than that of similar meteorites found in Antarctica where the slowest rates are observed on Earth.

  5. Surface Reactivity in Tropical Highly Weathered Soils and Implications for Rational Soil Management

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    R. MOREAU; J. PETARD

    2004-01-01

    Highly weathered soils are distributed in the humid and wet-dry tropics, as well as in the humid subtropics. As a result of strong weathering, these soils are characterized by low activity clays, which develop variable surface charge and related specific properties. Surface reactions regarding base exchange and soil acidification, heavy metal sorption and mobility, and phosphorus sorption and availability of the tropical highly weathered soils are reviewed in this paper.Factors controlling surface reactivity towards cations and anions, including ion exchange and specific adsorption processes, are discussed with consideration on practical implications for rational management of these soils. Organic matter content and pH value are major basic factors that should be controlled through appropriate agricultural practices, in order to optimise favorable effects of colloid surface properties on soil fertility and environmental quality.

  6. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  7. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  8. Weather Satellite Enterprise Information Chain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamilkowski, M. L.; Grant, K. D.; Miller, S. W.; Cochran, S.

    2015-12-01

    NOAA & NASA are acquiring the next-generation civilian operational weather satellite: Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). Contributing the afternoon orbit & ground system (GS) to replace current NOAA POES Satellites, its sensors will collect meteorological, oceanographic & climatological data. The JPSS Common Ground System (CGS), consisting of C3 and IDP segments, is developed by Raytheon. It now flies the Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite, transferring data between ground facilities, processing them into environmental products for NOAA weather centers, and expanding to support JPSS-1 in 2017. As a multi-mission system, CGS provides combinations of C3, data processing, and product delivery for numerous NASA, NOAA, DoD and international missions.The CGS provides a wide range of support to a number of missions: Command and control and mission management for the S-NPP mission today, expanding this support to the JPSS-1 satellite mission in 2017 Data acquisition for S-NPP, the JAXA's Global Change Observation Mission - Water (GCOM-W1), POES, and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) and Coriolis/WindSat for the DoD Data routing over a global fiber network for S-NPP, JPSS-1, GCOM-W1, POES, DMSP, Coriolis/WindSat, NASA EOS missions, MetOp for EUMETSAT and the National Science Foundation Environmental data processing and distribution for S-NPP, GCOM-W1 and JPSS-1 The CGS plays a key role in facilitating the movement and value-added enhancement of data all the way from satellite-based sensor data to delivery to the consumers who generate forecasts and produce watches and warnings. This presentation will discuss the information flow from sensors, through data routing and processing, and finally to product delivery. It will highlight how advances in architecture developed through lessons learned from S-NPP and implemented for JPSS-1 will increase data availability and reduce latency for end user applications.

  9. Weather pattern climatology of the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barchet, W.R.; Davis, W.E.

    1984-01-01

    In this study the geographic domain covered the 48 conterminous states of the United States. The daily synoptic weather pattern was classified into nine types for the 10-year period January 1, 1969 to December 31, 1978. Weather pattern types were defined relative to the classical polar front model of a mid-latitude cyclonic storm system and its associated air masses. Guidelines for classifying weather patterns on an operational basis were developed. These were applied to 3652 daily surface weather maps to produce a time series of weather pattern type at 120 grid points of a 160 point, 3/sup 0/ latitude by 4/sup 0/ longitude array over the United States. Statistics on the frequency of occurrence, persistence and alternation of weather patterns were calculated for each grid point. Summary statistics for the entire grid and for six regions were also presented. Frequency of occurrence and persistence were found to depend on the size and speed of movement of the weather pattern. Large, slow moving air masses had higher frequency of occurrence and longer persistence than small (fronts) or rapidly moving (or changing) features (fronts, storm centers). Some types showed distinct regional preferences. The subtropical maritime high occurred mainly in the south central and southeast. An indeterminate weather pattern type accounted for those weather patterns that did not fit the polar front model or were too disorganized to be classified. The intermountain thermal low of the desert southwest was one such feature that dominated both frequency of occurrence and persistence in this region. Alternation from one weather pattern to another followed the polar front model of a moving cyclonic storm. The tendency for anticyclonic weather patterns to become disorganized as they weakened was seen in the high percentage of these patterns that changed to an indeterminate pattern as they aged.

  10. The Application of Synoptic Weather Forecasting Rules to Selected Weather Situations in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Fred E.

    The document describes the use of weather maps and data in teaching introductory college courses in synoptic meteorology. Students examine weather changes at three-hour intervals from data obtained from the "Monthly Summary of Local Climatological Data." Weather variables in the local summary include sky cover, air temperature, dew point, relative…

  11. Hedging Weather Risk for Corn Production in Northeastern China: The Efficiency of Weather-indexed Insurance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Baojing; Guo, Changhao; Kooten, van G.C.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose – The paper analyzes the hedging efficiency of weather-indexed insurance for corn production in Northeast of China. The purpose of this paper is to identify the potential weather variables that impact corn yields and to analyze the efficiency of weather-indexed insurance under varying

  12. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, H.

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also pr

  13. Observational Simulation of Icing in Extreme Weather Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gultepe, Ismail; Heymsfield, Andrew; Agelin-Chaab, Martin; Komar, John; Elfstrom, Garry; Baumgardner, Darrel

    2017-04-01

    Observations and prediction of icing in extreme weather conditions are important for aviation, transportation, and shipping applications, and icing adversely affects the economy. Icing environments can be studied either in the outdoor atmosphere or in the laboratory. There have been several aircraft based in-situ studies related to weather conditions affecting aviation operations, transportation, and marine shipping that includes icing, wind, and turbulence. However, studying severe weather conditions from aircraft observations are limited due to safety and sampling issues, instrumental uncertainties, and even the possibility of aircraft producing its own physical and dynamical effects. Remote sensing based techniques (e.g. retrieval techniques) for studying severe weather conditions represent usually a volume that cannot characterize the important scales and also represents indirect observations. Therefore, laboratory simulations of atmospheric processes can help us better understand the interactions among microphysical and dynamical processes. The Climatic Wind Tunnel (CWT) in ACE at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology (UOIT) has a large semi-open jet test chamber with flow area 7-13 m2 that can precisely control temperatures down to -40°C, and up to 250 km hr-1 wind speeds, for heavy or dry snow conditions with low visibility, similar to ones observed in the Arctic and cold climate regions, or at high altitude aeronautical conditions. In this study, the ACE CWT employed a spray nozzle array suspended in its settling chamber and fed by pressurized water, creating various particle sizes from a few microns up to mm size range. This array, together with cold temperature and high wind speed, enabled simulation of severe weather conditions, including icing, visibility, strong wind and turbulence, ice fog and frost, freezing fog, heavy snow and blizzard conditions. In this study, the test results will be summarized, and their application to aircraft

  14. Quantifying chemical weathering rates along a precipitation gradient on Basse-Terre Island, French Guadeloupe: new insight from U-series isotopes in weathering rinds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Jacqueline M.; May, Linda; Sak, Peter B.; Gaillardet, Jerome; Ren, Minghua; Engle, Mark A.; Brantley, Susan L.

    2016-01-01

    . This is the first time that multiple weathering clasts from the same watershed were analyzed for U-series isotope disequlibrian and show consistent results. The U-series disequilibria allowed for the determination of rind formation ages and weathering advance rates with a U-series mass balance model. The weathering advance rates generally decreased with decreasing curvature: ∼0.17 ± 0.10 mm/kyr for high curvature, ∼0.12 ± 0.05 mm/kyr for medium curvature, and ∼0.11 ± 0.04, 0.08 ± 0.03, 0.06 ± 0.03 mm/kyr for low curvature locations. The observed positive correlation between the curvature and the weathering rates is well supported by predictions of weathering models, i.e., that the curvature of the rind-core boundary controls the porosity creation and weathering advance rates at the clast scale.At the watershed scale, the new weathering advance rates derived on the low curvature transects for the relatively dry Deshaies watershed (average rate of 0.08 mm/kyr; MAP = 1800 mm and MAT = 23 °C) are ∼60% slower than the rind formation rates previously determined in the much wetter Bras David watershed (∼0.18 mm/kyr, low curvature transect; MAP = 3400 mm and MAT = 23 °C) also on Basse-Terre Island. Thus, a doubling of MAP roughly correlates with a doubling of weathering advance rate. The new rind study highlights the effect of precipitation on weathering rates over a time scale of ∼100 kyr. Weathering rinds are thus a suitable system for investigating long-term chemical weathering across environmental gradients, complementing short-term riverine solute fluxes.

  15. Medium-range fire weather forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.O. Roads; K. Ueyoshi; S.C. Chen; J. Alpert; F. Fujioka

    1991-01-01

    The forecast skill of theNational Meteorological Center's medium range forecast (MRF) numerical forecasts of fire weather variables is assessed for the period June 1,1988 to May 31,1990. Near-surface virtual temperature, relative humidity, wind speed and a derived fire weather index (FWI) are forecast well by the MRF model. However, forecast relative humidity has...

  16. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  17. Uncertainty analysis of weather controlled systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keesman, K.J.; Doeswijk, T.G.

    2010-01-01

    The indoor climate of many storage facilities for agricultural produce is controlled by mixing ambient air with the air flow through the store room. Hence, the indoor climate is affected by the ambient weather conditions. Given hourly fluctuating energy tariffs, weather forecasts over some days are

  18. Adaptive Weather Forecasting using Local Meteorological Information

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    In general, meteorological parameters such as temperature, rain and global radiation are important for agricultural systems. Anticipating on future conditions is most often needed in these systems. Weather forecasts then become of substantial importance. As weather forecasts are subject to uncertain

  19. The Early Years: About the Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashbrook, Peggy

    2015-01-01

    Observing and documenting elements of weather teach children about using tools and their senses to learn about the environment. This column discusses resources and science topics related to students in grades preK to 2. This month's issue describes an activity where students indirectly document local weather by counting outdoor clothing types worn…

  20. Extreme weather events and infectious disease outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMichael, Anthony J

    2015-01-01

    Human-driven climatic changes will fundamentally influence patterns of human health, including infectious disease clusters and epidemics following extreme weather events. Extreme weather events are projected to increase further with the advance of human-driven climate change. Both recent and historical experiences indicate that infectious disease outbreaks very often follow extreme weather events, as microbes, vectors and reservoir animal hosts exploit the disrupted social and environmental conditions of extreme weather events. This review article examines infectious disease risks associated with extreme weather events; it draws on recent experiences including Hurricane Katrina in 2005 and the 2010 Pakistan mega-floods, and historical examples from previous centuries of epidemics and 'pestilence' associated with extreme weather disasters and climatic changes. A fuller understanding of climatic change, the precursors and triggers of extreme weather events and health consequences is needed in order to anticipate and respond to the infectious disease risks associated with human-driven climate change. Post-event risks to human health can be constrained, nonetheless, by reducing background rates of persistent infection, preparatory action such as coordinated disease surveillance and vaccination coverage, and strengthened disaster response. In the face of changing climate and weather conditions, it is critically important to think in ecological terms about the determinants of health, disease and death in human populations.

  1. AWE: Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.; Norvig, Peter (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Weather is one of the major causes of aviation accidents. General aviation (GA) flights account for 92% of all the aviation accidents, In spite of all the official and unofficial sources of weather visualization tools available to pilots, there is an urgent need for visualizing several weather related data tailored for general aviation pilots. Our system, Aviation Weather Data Visualization Environment AWE), presents graphical displays of meteorological observations, terminal area forecasts, and winds aloft forecasts onto a cartographic grid specific to the pilot's area of interest. Decisions regarding the graphical display and design are made based on careful consideration of user needs. Integral visual display of these elements of weather reports is designed for the use of GA pilots as a weather briefing and route selection tool. AWE provides linking of the weather information to the flight's path and schedule. The pilot can interact with the system to obtain aviation-specific weather for the entire area or for his specific route to explore what-if scenarios and make "go/no-go" decisions. The system, as evaluated by some pilots at NASA Ames Research Center, was found to be useful.

  2. Learn about Earth Science: Weather. [CD-ROM].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2000

    This CD-ROM, designed for students in grades K-2, explores the world of weather. Students investigate weather to learn about climate and the seasons, how animals adapt to weather changes, how clouds tell us about conditions, and how weather plays a part in our everyday lives. The weather calendar lets students record and write about conditions…

  3. Terrestrial Planets Accreted Dry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albarede, F.; Blichert-Toft, J.

    2007-12-01

    Plate tectonics shaped the Earth, whereas the Moon is a dry and inactive desert. Mars probably came to rest within the first billion years of its history, and Venus, although internally very active, has a dry inferno for its surface. The strong gravity field of a large planet allows for an enormous amount of gravitational energy to be released, causing the outer part of the planetary body to melt (magma ocean), helps retain water on the planet, and increases the pressure gradient. The weak gravity field and anhydrous conditions prevailing on the Moon stabilized, on top of its magma ocean, a thick buoyant plagioclase lithosphere, which insulated the molten interior. On Earth, the buoyant hydrous phases (serpentines) produced by reactions between the terrestrial magma ocean and the wet impactors received from the outer Solar System isolated the magma and kept it molten for some few tens of million years. The elemental distributions and the range of condensation temperatures show that the planets from the inner Solar System accreted dry. The interior of planets that lost up to 95% of their K cannot contain much water. Foundering of their wet surface material softened the terrestrial mantle and set the scene for the onset of plate tectonics. This very same process may have removed all the water from the surface of Venus 500 My ago and added enough water to its mantle to make its internal dynamics very strong and keep the surface very young. Because of a radius smaller than that of the Earth, not enough water could be drawn into the Martian mantle before it was lost to space and Martian plate tectonics never began. The radius of a planet therefore is the key parameter controlling most of its evolutional features.

  4. Pushing the Envelope of Extreme Space Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pesnell, W. D.

    2014-12-01

    Extreme Space Weather events are large solar flares or geomagnetic storms, which can cost billions of dollars to recover from. We have few examples of such events; the Carrington Event (the solar superstorm) is one of the few that had superlatives in three categories: size of solar flare, drop in Dst, and amplitude of aa. Kepler observations show that stars similar to the Sun can have flares releasing millions of times more energy than an X-class flare. These flares and the accompanying coronal mass ejections could strongly affect the atmosphere surrounding a planet. What level of solar activity would be necessary to strongly affect the atmosphere of the Earth? Can we map out the envelope of space weather along the evolution of the Sun? What would space weather look like if the Sun stopped producing a magnetic field? To what extreme should Space Weather go? These are the extremes of Space Weather explored in this talk.

  5. Space weather: European Space Agency perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daly, E. J.; Hilgers, A.

    Spacecraft and payloads have become steadily more sophisticated and therefore more susceptible to space weather effects. ESA has long been active in applying models and tools to the problems associated with such effects on its spacecraft. In parallel, ESA and European agencies have built a highly successful solar-terrestrial physics capability. ESA is now investigating the marriage of these technological and scientific capabilities to address perceived user needs for space weather products and services. Two major ESA-sponsored studies are laying the groundwork for a possible operational European space weather service. The wide-ranging activities of ESA in the Space Weather/Space Environment domain are summarized and recent important examples of space weather concerns given.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  7. Weatherization works: Final report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.; Kinney, L.F.

    1994-09-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year (supplemented by data from 1991-92). The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it (1) saves energy, (2) lowers fuel bills, and (3) improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years.

  8. Using Music to Communicate Weather and Climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, P.; Aplin, K. L.; Brown, S.; Jenkins, K.; Mander, S.; Walsh, C.

    2016-12-01

    Depictions of weather and other atmospheric phenomena are common throughout the arts. Unlike in the visual arts, however, there has been little study of meteorological inspiration in music. This presentation will discuss the frequencies with which different weather types have been depicted in music over time, covering the period from the seventeenth century to the present day. Beginning with classical orchestral music, we find that composers were generally influenced by their own country's climate in the type of weather they chose to represent. Depictions of weather vary from explicit mimicry using traditional and specialized orchestral instruments, through to subtle suggestions. Pieces depicting stormy weather tend to be in minor keys, whereas pieces depicting fair weather tend to be in major keys. As befits the national stereotype, British composers seem disproportionately keen to depict the UK's variable weather patterns and stormy coastline. Moving onto modern popular music, we have identified and analyzed over 750 songs referring to different weather types. We find that lyrical references to bad weather peaked in songs written during the stormy 1950s and 60s, when there were many hurricanes, before declining in the relatively calm 1970s and 80s. This finding again suggests a causal link between song-writers' meteorological environments and compositional outputs. Composers and song-writers have a unique ability to emotionally connect their listeners to the environment. This ability could be exploited to communicate environmental science to a broader audience. Our work provides a catalogue of cultural responses to weather before (and during the early stages of) climate change. The effects of global warming may influence musical expression in future, in which case our work will provide a baseline for comparison.

  9. MALAYSIAN WEATHER DATA (TRY) FOR ENERGY SIMULATIONS IN BUILDINGS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reimann, Gregers Peter

    2001-01-01

    Detailed energy simulations for buildings in Malaysia have become possible after the recent construction of a Malaysian TRY (Test Reference Year) based on 21 years of hourly weather data from Subang Meteorological Station. The climatic parameters contained in the TRY are dry bulb temperature, wet...... bulb temperature, absolute humidity, relative humidity, cloud cover, wind speed, wind direction, sunshine hours, global, diffuse and beam solar radiation. The computer program TSBI3 uses the TRY to perform annual energy simulations for buildings hour by hour. The input and output are very detailed...... making TSBI3 a powerful tool for energy analysis and optimisation of buildings. Other applications of the TRY are manifold including energy studies for solar systems and photovoltaic architecture....

  10. WEATHER AND CIRCULATION TYPES ACCOMPANYING THERMAL AND HUMIDITY CONDITIONS UNFAVOURABLE TO THE HUMAN HEALTH IN SUMMER IN KRAKOW (POLAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. CIARANEK

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of a study analysing the frequency of occurrence and patterns of change in the human perception of temperature in relation to types of weather and circulation in Krakow. The Humidex index used for the purpose was determined at three measurement times (6, 12, 18 UTC with data spanning the period 1961-2012. The frequency of occurrence of all types of discomfort situation was found to be on the increase. Days with some discomfort occurred most frequently during non-advection situations, (especially in the centre of a meteorological high or anticyclonic wedge, accompanied by transformed polar maritime air or continental polar air. The weather varied greatly on such days, from cloudy to sunny and with or without precipitation. Days with high discomfort levels were associated with the advection of tropical air accompanied typically by very hot, sweltering weather, and by dry, very sunny weather.

  11. Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Program First Steps Toward Tribal Weatherization – Human Capacity Development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiita, Joanne

    2013-07-30

    The Alaska Native Weatherization Training and Jobs Project expanded weatherization services for tribal members’ homes in southeast Alaska while providing weatherization training and on the job training (OJT) for tribal citizens that lead to jobs and most probably careers in weatherization-related occupations. The program resulted in; (a) 80 Alaska Native citizens provided with skills training in five weatherization training units that were delivered in cooperation with University of Alaska Southeast, in accordance with the U.S. Department of Energy Core Competencies for Weatherization Training that prepared participants for employment in three weatherizationrelated occupations: Installer, Crew Chief, and Auditor; (b) 25 paid OJT training opportunities for trainees who successfully completed the training course; and (c) employed trained personnel that have begun to rehab on over 1,000 housing units for weatherization.

  12. A Century of Monitoring Weather and Crops: The Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heddinghaus, Thomas R.; Le Comte, Douglas M.

    1992-02-01

    Publication of a national weekly weather summary called the Weekly Weather Chronicle began in 1872. This summary was the precursor of today's Weekly Weather and Crop Bulletin (WWCB), a publication that reports global weather and climate conditions relevant to agricultural interests, as well as current national activities and assessments of crop and livestock conditions. The WWCB is produced by the Joint Agricultural Weather Facility (JAWF), a world agricultural weather information center located in the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) headquarters in Washington, D.C., and jointly staffed by units of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration's Climats. Analysis Center and USDA's World Agricultural Outlook Board and National Agricultural Statistics Service. Besides featuring charts and tables (e.g., temperature and precipitation maps and crop progress and condition tables), the WWCB contains summaries and special stories highlighting significant weather events affecting agriculture, such as droughts, torrential rains, floods, unusual warmth, heat waves, severe freezes, heavy snowfall, blizzards, damaging storms, and hurricanes.

  13. Forecasting Space Weather from Magnetograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, maps of the measured field in the photosphere, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). For each type of event, the expected rate is readily converted to the chance that the active region will produce such an event in any given forward time window of a day or so. If the chance is small enough (e.g. <5%), the forecast is All Clear for that type of event. We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare

  14. Climatology of salt transitions and implications for stone weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grossi, C.M., E-mail: c.grossi-sampedro@uea.ac.uk [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Brimblecombe, P. [School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Menendez, B. [Geosciences et Environnement Cergy, Universite de Cergy-Pontoise 95031 Cergy-Pontoise cedex (France); Benavente, D. [Lab. Petrologia Aplicada, Unidad Asociada UA-CSIC, Dpto. Ciencias de la Tierra y del Medio Ambiente, Universidad de Alicante, Alicante 03080 (Spain); Harris, I. [Climatic Research Unit, School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich NR4 7TJ (United Kingdom); Deque, M. [Meteo-France/CNRM, CNRS/GAME, 42 Avenue Coriolis, F-31057 Toulouse, Cedex 01 (France)

    2011-06-01

    This work introduces the notion of salt climatology. It shows how climate affects salt thermodynamic and the potential to relate long-term salt damage to climate types. It mainly focuses on specific sites in Western Europe, which include some cities in France and Peninsular Spain. Salt damage was parameterised using the number of dissolution-crystallisation events for unhydrated (sodium chloride) and hydrated (sodium sulphate) systems. These phase transitions have been calculated using daily temperature and relative humidity from observation meteorological data and Climate Change models' output (HadCM3 and ARPEGE). Comparing the number of transitions with meteorological seasonal data allowed us to develop techniques to estimate the frequency of salt transitions based on the local climatology. Results show that it is possible to associate the Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. Temperate fully humid climates seem to offer the highest potential for salt damage and possible higher number of transitions in summer. Climates with dry summers tend to show a lesser frequency of transitions in summer. The analysis of temperature, precipitation and relative output from Climate Change models suggests changes in the Koeppen-Geiger climate types and changes in the patterns of salt damage. For instance, West Europe areas with a fully humid climate may change to a more Mediterranean like or dry climates, and consequently the seasonality of different salt transitions. The accuracy and reliability of the projections might be improved by simultaneously running multiple climate models (ensembles). - Research highlights: {yields} We introduce the notion of salt climatology for heritage conservation. {yields} Climate affects salt thermodynamics on building materials. {yields} We associate Koeppen-Geiger climate types with potential salt weathering. {yields} We offer future projections of salt damage in Western Europe due to climate change. {yields} Humid

  15. Dry EEG Electrodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Lopez-Gordo

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Electroencephalography (EEG emerged in the second decade of the 20th century as a technique for recording the neurophysiological response. Since then, there has been little variation in the physical principles that sustain the signal acquisition probes, otherwise called electrodes. Currently, new advances in technology have brought new unexpected fields of applications apart from the clinical, for which new aspects such as usability and gel-free operation are first order priorities. Thanks to new advances in materials and integrated electronic systems technologies, a new generation of dry electrodes has been developed to fulfill the need. In this manuscript, we review current approaches to develop dry EEG electrodes for clinical and other applications, including information about measurement methods and evaluation reports. We conclude that, although a broad and non-homogeneous diversity of approaches has been evaluated without a consensus in procedures and methodology, their performances are not far from those obtained with wet electrodes, which are considered the gold standard, thus enabling the former to be a useful tool in a variety of novel applications.

  16. Solar drying and agribusiness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastiana del Monserrate Ruiz Cedeño

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Agribusinesses are the livelihoods of rural populations, but when production increase, many products are damaged and lose their commercial value due to lack of conservation treatments at a local level. Agricultural production represents the foundation of economic development of the province of Manabi. A significant level of agricultural products is lost due to lack of conservation technologies. Solar drying is a way of conserving by dehydration of some products such as: vegetables, fruits, aromatic and medicinal plants. This can be achieved by a process of proper conservation that is conducive to reduce losses using technologies easy to build, as are the different types of solar dryers which are already used in different parts of the South American region. This article proposes to introduce solar-drying technology in agricultural areas of the province of Manabi. And thereby achieve the regaining of different products that today are lost, incorporating new and attractive, marketable lines based on agricultural products naturally dehydrated with a high nutritionalvalue, capable of contributing to human health not only in the province but also in the country.

  17. Increasing Crop Diversity Mitigates Weather Variations and Improves Yield Stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaudin, Amélie C. M.; Tolhurst, Tor N.; Ker, Alan P.; Janovicek, Ken; Tortora, Cristina; Martin, Ralph C.; Deen, William

    2015-01-01

    Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops) and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage) on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple environmental

  18. Increasing crop diversity mitigates weather variations and improves yield stability.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélie C M Gaudin

    Full Text Available Cropping sequence diversification provides a systems approach to reduce yield variations and improve resilience to multiple environmental stresses. Yield advantages of more diverse crop rotations and their synergistic effects with reduced tillage are well documented, but few studies have quantified the impact of these management practices on yields and their stability when soil moisture is limiting or in excess. Using yield and weather data obtained from a 31-year long term rotation and tillage trial in Ontario, we tested whether crop rotation diversity is associated with greater yield stability when abnormal weather conditions occur. We used parametric and non-parametric approaches to quantify the impact of rotation diversity (monocrop, 2-crops, 3-crops without or with one or two legume cover crops and tillage (conventional or reduced tillage on yield probabilities and the benefits of crop diversity under different soil moisture and temperature scenarios. Although the magnitude of rotation benefits varied with crops, weather patterns and tillage, yield stability significantly increased when corn and soybean were integrated into more diverse rotations. Introducing small grains into short corn-soybean rotation was enough to provide substantial benefits on long-term soybean yields and their stability while the effects on corn were mostly associated with the temporal niche provided by small grains for underseeded red clover or alfalfa. Crop diversification strategies increased the probability of harnessing favorable growing conditions while decreasing the risk of crop failure. In hot and dry years, diversification of corn-soybean rotations and reduced tillage increased yield by 7% and 22% for corn and soybean respectively. Given the additional advantages associated with cropping system diversification, such a strategy provides a more comprehensive approach to lowering yield variability and improving the resilience of cropping systems to multiple

  19. Weather Station and Sensor Locations, MDTA Roadway weather station, weather stations, weather sensors, Roadway weather sensors, RWIS, MDTA weather sensors, Published in 2009, 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, Maryland Transportation Authority.

    Data.gov (United States)

    NSGIC GIS Inventory (aka Ramona) — This Weather Station and Sensor Locations dataset, published at 1:1200 (1in=100ft) scale, was produced all or in part from Hardcopy Maps information as of 2009. It...

  20. Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) Project: Dissemination of Weather Information for the Reduction of Aviation Weather-Related Accident Causal Factors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrell, Michael; Tanger, Thomas

    2004-01-01

    Weather Information Communications (WINCOMM) is part of the Weather Accident Prevention (WxAP) Project, which is part of the NASA's Aviation Safety and Security Program. The goals of WINCOMM are to facilitate the exchange of tactical and strategic weather information between air and ground. This viewgraph presentation provides information on data link decision factors, architectures, validation goals. WINCOMM is capable of providing en-route communication air-to-ground, ground-to-air, and air-to-air, even on international or intercontinental flights. The presentation also includes information on the capacity, cost, and development of data links.

  1. CO2 diffusion into pore spaces limits weathering rate of an experimental basalt landscape

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Haren, Joost; Dontsova, Katerina; Barron-Gafford, Greg A.; Troch, Peter A.; Chorover, Jon; DeLong, Stephen B.; Breshears, David D.; Huxman, Travis E.; Pelletier, Jon D.; Saleska, Scott; Zeng, Xubin; Ruiz, Joaquin

    2017-01-01

    Basalt weathering is a key control over the global carbon cycle, though in situ measurements of carbon cycling are lacking. In an experimental, vegetation-free hillslope containing 330 m3 of ground basalt scoria, we measured real-time inorganic carbon dynamics within the porous media and seepage flow. The hillslope carbon flux (0.6–5.1 mg C m–2 h–1) matched weathering rates of natural basalt landscapes (0.4–8.8 mg C m–2 h–1) despite lacking the expected field-based impediments to weathering. After rainfall, a decrease in CO2 concentration ([CO2]) in pore spaces into solution suggested rapid carbon sequestration but slow reactant supply. Persistent low soil [CO2] implied that diffusion limited CO2 supply, while when sufficiently dry, reaction product concentrations limited further weathering. Strong influence of diffusion could cause spatial heterogeneity of weathering even in natural settings, implying that modeling studies need to include variable soil [CO2] to improve carbon cycling estimates associated with potential carbon sequestration methods.

  2. On-line data acquisition system for Aanderaa weather station

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    Aanderaa Weather Station can be installed at unattended remote places for collection of various weather parameters at regular preselected intervals. The weather parameters are recorded on the magnetic spool inside a battery operated datalogger which...

  3. Operational, regional-scale, chemical weather forecasting models in Europe

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kukkonen, J.; Balk, T.; Schultz, D.M.; Baklanov, A.; Klein, T.; Miranda, A.I.; Monteiro, A.; Hirtl, M.; Tarvainen, V.; Boy, M.; Peuch, V.H.; Poupkou, A.; Kioutsioukis, I.; Finardi, S.; Sofiev, M.; Sokhi, R.; Lehtinen, K.; Karatzas, K.; San José, R.; Astitha, M.; Kallos, G.; Schaap, M.; Reimer, E.; Jakobs, H.; Eben, K.

    2011-01-01

    Numerical models that combine weather forecasting and atmospheric chemistry are here referred to as chemical weather forecasting models. Eighteen operational chemical weather forecasting models on regional and continental scales in Europe are described and compared in this article. Topics discussed

  4. Weatherization Works: Final Report of the National Weatherization Evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.

    2001-02-01

    In 1990, the US Department of Energy (DOE) sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation's largest residential energy conservation program. Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) managed the five-part study. This document summarizes the findings of the evaluation. Its conclusions are based mainly on data from the 1989 program year. The evaluation concludes that the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement. Specifically, it saves energy, lowers fuel bills, and improves the health and safety of dwellings occupied by low-income people. In addition, the Program achieves its mission in a cost-effective manner based on each of three perspectives employed by the evaluators. Finally, the evaluation estimates that the investments made in 1989 will, over a 20-year lifetime, save the equivalent of 12 million barrels of oil, roughly the amount of oil added to the Strategic Petroleum Reserve in each of the past several years. The Program's mission is to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families--particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Substantial progress has been made, but the job is far from over. The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) reports that the average low-income family spends 12 percent of its income on residential energy, compared to only 3% for the average-income family. Homes where low-income families live also have a greater need for energy efficiency improvements, but less money to pay for them.

  5. A spectrocolorimetric and chemical study on color modification of heat-treated wood during artificial weathering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xianai; Kocaefe, Duygu; Kocaefe, Yasar; Boluk, Yaman; Pichette, Andre

    2012-05-01

    Effect of artificial weathering on the wood surface color modifications of three North American species (jack pine, aspen, and birch) heat-treated under different temperatures was studied by spectrocolorimetric colormeter (datacolor, CHECK TM). Data was analyzed using the reflectance spectra (400-700 nm) as well as the CIE-L*a*b* system and ΔE. Kubelka-Munk (K-M) spectra of samples were recorded as a function of artificial weathering time to obtain the absorption maxima of the chromophore woods formed during artificial weathering. The results were compared with those of the respective untreated (Kiln-dried) species. Analysis of chemical components shows that the lignin percent of jack pine, aspen, and birch increased after heat treatment (28.66-35.9%, 20.27-26.41%, and 19.04-22.71% respectively) which might be due to smaller influence of heat treatment on lignin content than hemicelluloses. This improves the resistance of heat-treated wood to photo-degradation. This is also supported by the smaller change observed in K-M spectra and total color parameters in CIE-L*a*b* system of heat-treated wood samples compared to those of untreated wood when weathered for72 h. However, the lignin percent of heat-treated woods reduce to maximum 2.5% after artificial weathering of 1512 h. This suggests that the weathering degrades most lignin matrix; consequently, both the colors of heat-treated woods and untreated woods are lighter and very similar after a long period of artificial weathering.

  6. MEASURING SYSTEM OF ADVERSE WEATHER PHENOMENA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Ćurić

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Measuring system of adverse weather phenomena. The adverse weather phenomena in nowadays are becoming an extraordinary problem in human life and human activity. Therefore, it seems very important to know the thresholds of adverse weather phenomena. These thresholds can be calculated in different ways, but some experience has shown that for weather elements which departures from normal follow the normal distribution suits to use the Gaussian curve of frequency distribution (temperature and pressure. For such weather elements the normal curve of frequency distribution may be used for classification of thresholds. For weather elements which departures do not depend on such a frequency distribution configuration (precipitation amounts may be used a decile method. For wind speed thresholds, the Beaufort scale units can be used for calculation. In this paper the threshold scales for four basic weather elemnts are presented. All these scales contain four steps each. They are defined: normal, above normal, much above normal and extraordinary above normal or normal, below normal, much below normal and extraordinary below normal. The examples by observations of Meteorological Observatory in Belgrade are presented.

  7. Experimental evaluation of drying characteristics of sewage sludge and hazelnut shell mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pehlivan, Hüseyin; Ateş, Asude; Özdemir, Mustafa

    2016-11-01

    In this study the drying behavior of organic and agricultural waste mixtures has been experimentally investigated. The usability of sewage sludge as an organic waste and hazelnut shell as an agricultural waste was assessed in different mixture range. The paper discusses the applicability of these mixtures as a recovery energy source. Moisture content of mixtures has been calculated in laboratory and plant conditions. Indoor and outdoor solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. A total more than 140 samples including for drying has been carried out to build up results. Indoor and outdoor weather conditions are taken into consideration in winter and summer. The most effective drying capacity is obtained in mixture of 20 % hazelnut shell and 80 % sewage sludge.

  8. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, M. M.; Hesse, M.; Kuznetsova, M.; Rastaetter, L.; MacNeice, P. J.; Jain, P.; Garneau, J. W.; Berrios, D. H.; Pulkinnen, A.; Rowland, D.

    2008-12-01

    Space weather affects virtually all of NASA's endeavors, from robotic missions to human exploration. Knowledge and prediction of space weather conditions is therefore essential to NASA operations. The diverse nature of currently available space environment measurements and modeling products, along with the lack of single-portal access, renders its practical use for space weather analysis and forecasting unfeasible. There exists a compelling need for accurate real-time forecasting of both large-scale and local space environments - and their probable impacts for missions. A vital design driver for any system that is created to solve this problem lies in the fact that information needs to be presented in a form that is useful and as such, must be both easily accessible and understandable. The Integrated Space Weather Analysis System is a joint development project at NASA GSFC between the Space Weather Laboratory, Community Coordinated Modeling Center, Applied Engineering & Technology Directorate, and NASA HQ Office Of Chief Engineer. The iSWA system will be a turnkey, web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines forecasts based on the most advanced space weather models with concurrent space environment information. It will be customer configurable and adaptable for use as a powerful decision making tool offering an unprecedented ability to analyze the present and expected future space weather impacts on virtually all NASA human and robotic missions. We will discuss some of the key design considerations for the system and present some of the initial space weather analysis products that have been created to date.

  9. Simulation and optimization of energy systems for in-bin drying of canola grain (rapeseed)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenau, G.J.; Arinze, E.A.; Sokhansanj, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering

    1995-01-01

    Energy utilization systems optimization and management strategies for in-bin drying of canola were investigated by using a validated computer simulation model and typical weather data for a prairie location in North America. The use of different energy systems, including natural gas, propane, electricity, solar energy, and combined natural gas and solar energy for drying grain within 15 days with airflow rates of 0.5-2m{sup 3}/min t, initial grain moisture contents of 13, 16 and 19%, and three harvest dates in August, September and October, was simulated for 10% and 8% moisture contents average-dry and through-dry policies. The drying systems were optimized by considering the total annual cost of a drying system within set bounds of drying time ({<=}15 days) and spoilage index (SI < 1.0). Continuous fan operation with 1.5-2m{sup 3}/min t ambient air with about 9-26 MJ/t fan energy consumption was required to dry canola grain to 10% and 8% average-dry and through-dry moisture contents in 15 days or less August at 19% initial moisture content or less. Supplemental heat, by raising the ambient temperature by 5-10{sup o}C, maintaining the plenum temperature at 20{sup o}C and solar heating, must be applied to successfully dry the product in September and October. Solar heating for drying was found to be more cost effective than other supplemental heat systems provided a well designed flat-plate solar collector for air heating can be found for use in locations with good solar energy availability. Heating the drying air with natural gas or propane was the cost effective for situations where the use of conventional energy systems is preferable to renewable energy sources in grain drying operation. (Author)

  10. Dry aging of beef; Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humidity of 75 to 80 %. However there are various opinions on dry aging procedures and purveyors of such products are passionate about their programs. Recently, there has been an increased interest in dry aging process by a wider array of purveyors and retailers in the many countries. Dry aging process is very costly because of high aging shrinkage (6 to15 %), trims loss (3 to 24 %), risk of contamination and the requirement of highest grades meat with. The packaging in highly moisture-permeable bag may positively impact on safety, quality and shelf stability of dry aged beef. The key effect of dry aging is the concentration of the flavor that can only be described as "dry-aged beef". But the contribution of flavor compounds of proteolysis and lipolysis to the cooked dry aged beef flavor is not fully known. Also there are limited scientific studies of aging parameters on the quality and palatability of dry aged beef.

  11. Weather station with a web server

    OpenAIRE

    Repinc, Matej

    2013-01-01

    In this diploma thesis we present the process of making a cheap weather station using Arduino prototyping platform and its functionality. The weather station monitors current temperature, humidity of air and air pressure. The station has its own simple HTTP server that is used to relay current data in two different formats: JSON encoded data and simple HTML website. The weather station can also send data to a pre-defined server used for data collection. We implemented a web site where data an...

  12. The quiet revolution of numerical weather prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauer, Peter; Thorpe, Alan; Brunet, Gilbert

    2015-09-01

    Advances in numerical weather prediction represent a quiet revolution because they have resulted from a steady accumulation of scientific knowledge and technological advances over many years that, with only a few exceptions, have not been associated with the aura of fundamental physics breakthroughs. Nonetheless, the impact of numerical weather prediction is among the greatest of any area of physical science. As a computational problem, global weather prediction is comparable to the simulation of the human brain and of the evolution of the early Universe, and it is performed every day at major operational centres across the world.

  13. Space weather and coronal mass ejections

    CERN Document Server

    Howard, Tim

    2013-01-01

    Space weather has attracted a lot of attention in recent times. Severe space weather can disrupt spacecraft, and on Earth can be the cause of power outages and power station failure. It also presents a radiation hazard for airline passengers and astronauts. These ""magnetic storms"" are most commonly caused by coronal mass ejections, or CMES, which are large eruptions of plasma and magnetic field from the Sun that can reach speeds of several thousand km/s. In this SpringerBrief, Space Weather and Coronal Mass Ejections, author Timothy Howard briefly introduces the coronal mass ejection, its sc

  14. PRESIDENT MUSHARRAF: All Weather Friendship Keeps Rising

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    @@ Tangible Suggestions on Promoting All Weather Bilateral Trade I would first of all like to extend warm greetings from the people of Pakistan to the people of China on the 55th year of all weather friendship between our two countries and this all weather friendship will keep rising. Succeeding generations in both countries have ever since carefully nurtured this friendship which has blossomed into beautiful and all comprehensive partnership for peace and development. Pakistan China friendship is rooted in the ethos of our peoples.It evokes spontaneous love, respect, admiration and touches a receptive cord in every heart that resonates and energizes this unique relationship.

  15. Dry ice blasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lonergan, Jeffrey M.

    1992-04-01

    As legal and societal pressures against the use of hazardous waste generating materials has increased, so has the motivation to find safe, effective, and permanent replacements. Dry ice blasting is a technology which uses CO2 pellets as a blasting medium. The use of CO2 for cleaning and stripping operations offers potential for significant environmental, safety, and productivity improvements over grit blasting, plastic media blasting, and chemical solvent cleaning. Because CO2 pellets break up and sublime upon impact, there is no expended media to dispose of. Unlike grit or plastic media blasting which produce large quantities of expended media, the only waste produced by CO2 blasting is the material removed. The quantity of hazardous waste produced, and thus the cost of hazardous waste disposal is significantly reduced.

  16. NASA GSFC Space Weather Center - Innovative Space Weather Dissemination: Web-Interfaces, Mobile Applications, and More

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maddox, Marlo; Zheng, Yihua; Rastaetter, Lutz; Taktakishvili, A.; Mays, M. L.; Kuznetsova, M.; Lee, Hyesook; Chulaki, Anna; Hesse, Michael; Mullinix, Richard; hide

    2012-01-01

    The NASA GSFC Space Weather Center (http://swc.gsfc.nasa.gov) is committed to providing forecasts, alerts, research, and educational support to address NASA's space weather needs - in addition to the needs of the general space weather community. We provide a host of services including spacecraft anomaly resolution, historical impact analysis, real-time monitoring and forecasting, custom space weather alerts and products, weekly summaries and reports, and most recently - video casts. There are many challenges in providing accurate descriptions of past, present, and expected space weather events - and the Space Weather Center at NASA GSFC employs several innovative solutions to provide access to a comprehensive collection of both observational data, as well as space weather model/simulation data. We'll describe the challenges we've faced with managing hundreds of data streams, running models in real-time, data storage, and data dissemination. We'll also highlight several systems and tools that are utilized by the Space Weather Center in our daily operations, all of which are available to the general community as well. These systems and services include a web-based application called the Integrated Space Weather Analysis System (iSWA http://iswa.gsfc.nasa.gov), two mobile space weather applications for both IOS and Android devices, an external API for web-service style access to data, google earth compatible data products, and a downloadable client-based visualization tool.

  17. Powernext weather, benchmark indices for effective weather risk management; Powernext Weather, des indices de reference pour gerer le risque meteo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2006-07-01

    According to the U.S. Department of Energy, an estimated 25% of the GNP is affected by weather-related events. The variations in temperature - even small ones - can also have long-lasting effects on the operational results of a company. Among other, the Energy supply sector is sensitive to weather risks: a milder or harsher than usual winter leads to a decrease or increase of energy consumption. The price of electricity on power trading facilities like Powernext is especially sensitive to odd changes in temperatures. Powernext and Meteo-France (the French meteorological agency) have joined expertise in order to promote the use of weather indices in term of decision making or underlying of hedging tools to energy actors, end users from any other sector of activity and specialists of the weather risk hedging. The Powernext Weather indices are made from information collected by Meteo-France's main observation network according to the norms of international meteorology, in areas carefully selected. The gross data are submitted to a thorough review allowing the correction of abnormalities and the reconstitution of missing data. Each index is fashioned to take into account the economic activity in the various regions of the country as represented by each region's population. This demographic information represents a fair approximation of the weight of the regional economic activity. This document presents the Powernext/Meteo France partnership for the elaboration of efficient weather-related risk management indices. (J.S.)

  18. Dried fruit and dental health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadler, Michèle Jeanne

    2016-12-01

    A comprehensive review of the literature has found that the common perceptions that dried fruits are "sticky", adhere to teeth, and are detrimental to dental health on account of their sugar content are based on weak evidence. There is a lack of good quality scientific data to support restrictive advice for dried fruit intake on the basis of dental health parameters and further research is required. A number of potentially positive attributes for dental health, such as the need to chew dried fruits which encourages salivary flow, and the presence of anti-microbial compounds and of sorbitol, also require investigation to establish the extent of their effects and whether they balance against any potentially negative attributes of dried fruit. Advice on dried fruit consumption should also take account of the nutritional benefits of dried fruit, being high in fibre, low in fat and containing useful levels of micronutrients.

  19. Impact of Tactical and Strategic Weather Avoidance on Separation Assurance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refai, Mohamad S.; Windhorst, Robert

    2011-01-01

    The ability to keep flights away from weather hazards while maintaining aircraft-to-aircraft separation is critically important. The Advanced Airspace Concept is an automation concept that implements a ground-based strategic conflict resolution algorithm for management of aircraft separation. The impact of dynamic and uncertain weather avoidance on this concept is investigated. A strategic weather rerouting system is integrated with the Advanced Airspace Concept, which also provides a tactical weather avoidance algorithm, in a fast time simulation of the Air Transportation System. Strategic weather rerouting is used to plan routes around weather in the 20 minute to two-hour time horizon. To address forecast uncertainty, flight routes are revised at 15 minute intervals. Tactical weather avoidance is used for short term trajectory adjustments (30 minute planning horizon) that are updated every minute to address any weather conflicts (instances where aircraft are predicted to pass through weather cells) that are left unresolved by strategic weather rerouting. The fast time simulation is used to assess the impact of tactical weather avoidance on the performance of automated conflict resolution as well as the impact of strategic weather rerouting on both conflict resolution and tactical weather avoidance. The results demonstrate that both tactical weather avoidance and strategic weather rerouting increase the algorithm complexity required to find aircraft conflict resolutions. Results also demonstrate that tactical weather avoidance is prone to higher airborne delay than strategic weather rerouting. Adding strategic weather rerouting to tactical weather avoidance reduces total airborne delays for the reported scenario by 18% and reduces the number of remaining weather violations by 13%. Finally, two features are identified that have proven important for strategic weather rerouting to realize these benefits; namely, the ability to revise reroutes and the use of maneuvers

  20. National Ignition Facility wet weather construction plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugler, A N

    1998-01-01

    This report presents a wet weather construction plan for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) construction project. Construction of the NIF commenced in mid- 1997, and excavation of the site was completed in the fall. Preparations for placing concrete foundations began in the fall, and above normal rainfall is expected over the tinter. Heavy rainfall in late November impacted foundation construction, and a wet weather construction plan was determined to be needed. This wet weather constiction plan recommends a strategy, techniques and management practices to prepare and protect the site corn wet weather effects and allow construction work to proceed. It is intended that information in this plan be incorporated in the Stormwater Pollution Prevention Plan (SWPPP) as warranted.

  1. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  2. Space weather research and forecast in USA

    CERN Document Server

    Pevtsov, Alexei A

    2016-01-01

    In the United States, scientific research in space weather is funded by several Government Agencies including the National Science Foundation (NSF) and the National Aeronautics and Space Agency (NASA). For commercial purposes, space weather forecast is made by the Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Observations come from the network of groundbased observatories funded via various sources, as well as from the instruments on spacecraft. Numerical models used in forecast are developed in the framework of individual research projects. Later, the most promising models are selected for additional testing at SWPC. In order to increase the application of models in research and education, NASA in collaboration with other agencies created Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC). In mid-1990, US scientific community presented compelling evidence for developing the National Program on Space Weather, and in 1995, such program has been formally created...

  3. Improving Local Weather Forecasts for Agricultural Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doeswijk, T.G.; Keesman, K.J.

    2005-01-01

    For controlling agricultural systems, weather forecasts can be of substantial importance. Studies have shown that forecast errors can be reduced in terms of bias and standard deviation using forecasts and meteorological measurements from one specific meteorological station. For agricultural systems

  4. Europe's First Space Weather Think Tank

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilensten, Jean; Clark, Toby; Belehaki, Anna

    2004-04-01

    A new European intergovernmental action devoted to space weather has been recently approved. This paper describes the political and scientific context in which this action takes place, and the goals of this action, called COST 724.

  5. The fate of chromium during tropical weathering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Alfons; Frei, Robert

    2014-01-01

    . The negatively fractionated δ53Cr values measured in the weathering profile relative to the unaltered tonalitic bedrock characterized by a high temperature magmatic inventory Cr isotope signature are consistent with loss of a positively fractionated Cr(VI) pool formed during weathering. The predicted existence......We performed a mineral, geochemical and Cr–Sr–Pb isotope study on a laterite profile developed on ca. 540 Ma old tonalitic bedrock in Madagascar with special emphasis on the behavior of chromium during tropical weathering. The observed strong depletions of Ca, Si, and P, and enrichment of Fe and Al...... of the soil profile relative to stage one altered saprolite. This gain in Cr is accompanied by decreasing δ53Cr values and can be explained by partial immobilization (possibly by adsorption/coprecipitation on/with Fe-oxy-hydroxides) of mobile Cr(III) during upward transport in the weathering profile...

  6. Wet mammals shake at tuned frequencies to dry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickerson, Andrew K; Mills, Zachary G; Hu, David L

    2012-12-01

    In cold wet weather, mammals face hypothermia if they cannot dry themselves. By rapidly oscillating their bodies, through a process similar to shivering, furry mammals can dry themselves within seconds. We use high-speed videography and fur particle tracking to characterize the shakes of 33 animals (16 animals species and five dog breeds), ranging over four orders of magnitude in mass from mice to bears. We here report the power law relationship between shaking frequency f and body mass M to be f ∼ M(-0.22), which is close to our prediction of f ∼ M(-0.19) based upon the balance of centrifugal and capillary forces. We also observe a novel role for loose mammalian dermal tissue: by whipping around the body, it increases the speed of drops leaving the animal and the ensuing dryness relative to tight dermal tissue.

  7. Convective drying of sludge cake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianbo; Peng, Xiaofeng; Xue, Yuan; Lee, Duujong; Chu, Chingping

    2002-08-01

    This paper presented an experimental study on convective drying of waste water sludge collected from Beijing GaoBeiDian Sewage Treatment Plant, particularly on the correlation between the observed shrinkage dynamics of sludge cake and the drying curve. During the initial stage of drying the process resembles to that of a particulate bed, in which moisture diffuses and evaporates at the upper surface. Conventional drying theory assuming a diffusion-evaporating front interprets this period of drying. Consequently, owing to the very large shrinkage ratio of the dried cake, cracks emerges and propagates on and within the cake body, whence inducing evaporating channel that facilitates the water removal. This occurrence compensates the reduction of surface area for evaporation, whence extending the constant-rate period during the test. Afterwards, the cracks meet with each other and form isolated cake piles, while the subsequent drying occur mainly within these piles and the conventional theory fails. The transition between the drying on a plain cake layer and that on the isolated piles demonstrates the need to adopt distinct descriptions on these two regimes of drying for the sludge cake.

  8. Controlling Stormwater Quality with Filter Soil—Event and Dry Weather Testing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karin Cederkvist

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The use of filter soil is increasing for control of quality of stormwater runoff prior to infiltration or discharge. This study aimed to gain knowledge about treatment efficacy of filter soils at field scale. Percolate samples from swale-trench systems with filter soil based on agricultural till with/without limestone were monitored for 15 and 9 rain events respectively. Further, two curb extensions with filter soil based on landfill soil were monitored for 10 and 8 events. Pollutant concentrations in percolate were compared to influent samples from the catchment area. Additionally one of the curb extensions was tested twice by adding high-dose synthetic influent containing runoff pollutants of concern. Despite generally low influent pollutant levels, phosphorus, copper, zinc, lead and some polyaromatic hydrocarbons exceeded guiding criteria for protection of groundwater and freshwater. Concentrations in the percolate were in most cases reduced, but phosphorus increased and despite reduced concentrations copper, lead and benzo(apyrene still exceeded guiding criteria. Pollutants from the synthetic influent were efficiently retained, except the pesticide MCPA. Filter soil based on landfill soil tended to perform better than agricultural till. No impact of limestone was observed. Overall the filter soils performed well in retaining pollutants, despite simultaneous processes of mobilization and immobilization.

  9. Warm and dry weather accelerates and elongates Cladosporium spore seasons in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kasprzyk, Idalia; Kaszewski, Boguslaw Michal; Weryszko-Chmielewska, Elzbieta; Nowak, Malgorzata; Sulborska, Aneta; Kaczmarek, Joanna; Szymanska, Agata; Haratym, Weronika; Jedryczka, Malgorzata

    Temperature is the environmental factor that systematically changes for decades and, as in plants and animals, can significantly affect the growth and development of fungi, including the abundance of their sporulation. During the time of study (2010-2012), a rapid increase in air temperature was observed in Poland, which coincided with the substantial decrease in rainfall. The increase in annual mean temperatures at three monitoring sites of this study was 0.9 °C in Lublin and Rzeszow (east Poland) and 2.0 °C in Poznan (west Poland). Such warming of air masses was comparable to the average global air temperature rise in the period of 1880-2012 accounting for 0.85 °C, as reported by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Moreover, there was a substantial decrease in rainfall, ranging from 32.7 % (Poznan) to 43.0 % (Rzeszow). We have demonstrated that under such conditions the mean and median values of total Cladosporium spore counts significantly increased and the spore seasons were greatly accelerated. Moreover, earlier start and later end of the season caused its extension, lasting from over 20 days in Rzeszow to around 60 days in Lublin and Poznan, when the cumulative amount of 5-95 % of spores was considered. The time of reaching the cumulative amount of 50 % of spores was up to 25 days earlier (difference in Poznan between 2010 and 2012). There was also a striking acceleration of the date of the maximal Cladosporium spore concentration per cubic metre of air (26 days for Lublin, 43 for Poznan and 56 for Rzeszow).

  10. Mechanics of weathered clay-marl rock masses along the rupture surface in homogeneous dry slopes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kostić Srđan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Authors analyze stress-strain distribution within slope using the shear stress reduction technique based on finite element method, which was previously confirmed to provide approximately the same results as the Janbu's corrected limit equilibrium method. Results obtained indicate that the largest vertical displacements occur at the slope base and crest, while central part of the slope is exposed to the largest horizontal displacements. Normal and shear stress show maximum values in the middle part of the slope. It was also determined that separate stress-strain relations could be derived for the exact upper and lower part of the rupture surface. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 37005

  11. CRADE OF SAND AND DUST STORM WEATHER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Niu Ruoyun; Tian Cuiying; Bi Baogui; Yang Keming; Wang Youheng; Tuo Ya; Ding Haifang; Zhang Tairen

    2011-01-01

    Background Sand and dust storm,as one of the main disastrous weathers that affect northern China,not only affect the people health and normal life,but cause the short-term climatic changes due to the direct and indirect radiation of the earth-atmosphere system through the dust floating in the sky.The sand end dust weather and its potential harm on the national economy,ecological environment,social activities and other aspects have aroused worldwide concern.

  12. Space Weather Gets Real—on Smartphones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobiska, W. Kent; Crowley, Geoff; Oh, Seung Jun; Guhathakurta, Madhulika

    2010-10-01

    True to the saying that "a picture is worth a thousand words," society's affinity for visual images has driven innovative efforts to see space weather as it happens. The newest frontiers of these efforts involve applications, or apps, on cellular phones, allowing space weather researchers, operators, and teachers, as well as other interested parties, to have the ability to monitor conditions in real time with just the touch of a button.

  13. Key findings of the national weatherization evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.A.; Berry, L.G.

    1994-10-01

    In 1990, the U.S. Department of Energy sponsored a comprehensive evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program, the nation`s largest residential energy conservation program. The primary goal of the evaluation was to establish whether the Program meets the objectives of its enabling legislation and fulfills its mission statement, to reduce the heating and cooling costs for low-income families-particularly the elderly, persons with disabilities, and children by improving the energy-efficiency of their homes and ensuring their health and safety. Oak Ridge National Laboratory managed a five-part study which produced a series of documents evaluating the Program. The objective of this document is to summarize the findings of the five-part National Weatherization Evaluation. The five studies were as follows: (1) Network Study-this study characterized the weatherization network`s leveraging, capabilities, procedures, staff, technologies, and innovations; (2) Resources and Population Study-this study profiled low-income weatherization resources, the weatherized population, and the population remaining to be served; (3) Multifamily Study-this study described the nature and extent of weatherization activities in larger multifamily buildings; (4) Single-family Study-this study estimated the national savings and cost- effectiveness of weatherizing single-family and small multifamily dwellings that use natural gas or electricity for space heating; (5) Fuel-Oil Study-this study estimated the savings and cost-effectiveness of weatherizing single-family homes, located in nine northeastern states, that use fuel oil for space heating. This paper provides a brief overview of each study`s purposes, research methods and most important findings.

  14. Dew architectures - Dew annouces the good weather

    OpenAIRE

    Beysens, Daniel; Broggini, Filippo; Milimouk-Melnytchouk, Iryna; Ouazzani, Jalil; Tixier, Nicolas

    2012-01-01

    International audience; Dew is a natural phenomenon that occurs under particular weather conditions (clear nocturnal sky, humid air, low wind) and on a surface specially designed for this purpose (high radiative cooling properties, special architectural design). Depending on the weather conditions and the surface characteristics, the water yield can give up to 0.7 litres per square meter and per night. Although the collection of rain water on roof turns out to be relatively simple, dew harves...

  15. Climate change and extreme events in weather

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RameshKumar, M.R.

    monsoon and b) tropical cyclones. Basically the climate of India is domi- nated by the south west monsoon season which accounts for about 75% of the annual rainfall. The extreme weather events occur over India are: Floods, Droughts, Tropical Cyclones..., Heat Waves and Cold Waves, Storms Surges, Hail Storms, Thunderstorms, Dust Storms. Floods, droughts and tropical cyclones have specific significance a far as India is concerned. Floods and droughts are the two sides of the weather phenomena...

  16. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  17. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and progre

  18. Topographic imprint on chemical weathering in deeply weathered soil-mantled landscapes (southern Brazil)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanacker, Veerle; Schoonejans, Jerome; Ameijeiras-Marino, Yolanda; Opfergelt, Sophie; Minella, Jean

    2017-04-01

    The regolith mantle is defined as the thin layer of unconsolidated material overlaying bedrock that contributes to shape the Earth's surface. The development of the regolith mantle in a landscape is the result of in-situ weathering, atmospheric input and downhill transport of weathering products. Bedrock weathering - the physical and chemical transformations of rock to soil - contributes to the vertical development of the regolith layer through downward propagation of the weathering front. Lateral transport of soil particles, aggregates and solutes by diffusive and concentrated particle and solute fluxes result in lateral redistribution of weathering products over the hillslope. In this study, we aim to expand the empirical basis on long-term soil evolution at the landscape scale through a detailed study of soil weathering in subtropical soils. Spatial variability in chemical mass fluxes and weathering intensity were studied along two toposequences with similar climate, lithology and vegetation but different slope morphology. This allowed us to isolate the topographic imprint on chemical weathering and soil development. The toposequences have convexo-concave slope morphology, and eight regolith profiles were analysed involving the flat upslope, steep midslope and flat toeslope part. Our data show a clear topographic imprint on soil development. Along hillslope, the chemical weathering intensity of the regolith profiles increases with distance from the crest. In contrast to the upslope positions, the soils in the basal concavities develop on in-situ and transported regolith. While the chemical weathering extent on the slope convexities (the upslope profiles) is similar for the steep and gentle toposequence, there is a clear difference in the rate of increase of the chemical weathering extent with distance from the crest. The increase of chemical weathering extent along hillslope is highest for the steep toposequence, suggesting that topography enhances soil particle

  19. Seasonal Forecasting of Fire Weather Based on a New Global Fire Weather Database

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.; Field, Robert D.; Spessa, Allan C.

    2016-01-01

    Seasonal forecasting of fire weather is examined based on a recently produced global database of the Fire Weather Index (FWI) system beginning in 1980. Seasonal average values of the FWI are examined in relation to measures of the El Nino-Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD). The results are used to examine seasonal forecasts of fire weather conditions throughout the world.

  20. Operational Space Weather in USAF Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smithtro, C.; Quigley, S.

    2006-12-01

    Most education programs offering space weather courses are understandably and traditionally heavily weighted with theoretical space physics that is the basis for most of what is researched and modeled. While understanding the theory is a good and necessary grounding for anyone working the field of space weather, few military or commercial jobs employ such theory in real-time operations. The operations sites/centers are much more geared toward use of applied theory-resultant models, tools and products. To ensure its operations centers personnel, commanders, real-time system operators and other customers affected by the space environment are educated on available and soon-to-be operational space weather models and products, the USAF has developed applicable course/lecture material taught at various institutions to include the Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT) and the Joint Weather Training Complex (335th/TRS/OUA). Less frequent training of operational space weather is available via other venues that will be discussed, and associated course material is also being developed for potential use at the National Security Space Institute (NSSI). This presentation provides an overview of the programs, locations, courses and material developed and/or taught by or for USAF personnel dealing with operational space weather. It also provides general information on student research project results that may be used in operational support, along with observations regarding logistical and professional benefits of teaching such non-theoretical/non-traditional material.

  1. Solar energy drying for agricultural products. Nosanbutsu kanso ni okeru taiyonetsu riyo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, Jun' ichi (National Grassland Research Inst., Tochigi, (Japan))

    1989-09-30

    Natural drying was previously used to dry agricultral products but artificial drying is widely used today with the diffusion of agricultural machines. Therefore, solar energy utilization to dry agricultural products depends on how effective solar energy is utilized in addition to the mechanized artificial drying. Further, drying of agricaltural products varies in respective countries and local areas because water content in products varies on weather conditions. Wheats harvested in U.S. contain fewer water content and can be dried for 3 months in a large storing bin by natural ventilation and cn be shortened to 1 month by placing a solar collector before the blower. Many Japanese farmers utilize vinyl houses and drying is made by combining vinyl house, and flat floor type dryer, circulating dryer or rotary stirring dryer. Moreover, 100% utilization of solar enegy results higher cost, so that in many cases, combined utilization with oil firing is made. Moderate heat such as solar energy is suitable for drying of agricultural products to maintain the quality and it is desirable to develop any reasonal technique. 14 refs., 12 fig.

  2. Flight Deck Weather Avoidance Decision Support: Implementation and Evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Shu-Chieh; Luna, Rocio; Johnson, Walter W.

    2013-01-01

    Weather related disruptions account for seventy percent of the delays in the National Airspace System (NAS). A key component in the weather plan of the Next Generation of Air Transportation System (NextGen) is to assimilate observed weather information and probabilistic forecasts into the decision process of flight crews and air traffic controllers. In this research we explore supporting flight crew weather decision making through the development of a flight deck predicted weather display system that utilizes weather predictions generated by ground-based radar. This system integrates and presents this weather information, together with in-flight trajectory modification tools, within a cockpit display of traffic information (CDTI) prototype. that the CDTI features 2D and perspective 3D visualization models of weather. The weather forecast products that we implemented were the Corridor Integrated Weather System (CIWS) and the Convective Weather Avoidance Model (CWAM), both developed by MIT Lincoln Lab. We evaluated the use of CIWS and CWAM for flight deck weather avoidance in two part-task experiments. Experiment 1 compared pilots' en route weather avoidance performance in four weather information conditions that differed in the type and amount of predicted forecast (CIWS current weather only, CIWS current and historical weather, CIWS current and forecast weather, CIWS current and forecast weather and CWAM predictions). Experiment 2 compared the use of perspective 3D and 21/2D presentations of weather for flight deck weather avoidance. Results showed that pilots could take advantage of longer range predicted weather forecasts in performing en route weather avoidance but more research will be needed to determine what combinations of information are optimal and how best to present them.

  3. CCMC: Serving research and space weather communities with unique space weather services, innovative tools and resources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Pulkkinen, Antti; Maddox, Marlo

    2015-04-01

    With the addition of Space Weather Research Center (a sub-team within CCMC) in 2010 to address NASA’s own space weather needs, CCMC has become a unique entity that not only facilitates research through providing access to the state-of-the-art space science and space weather models, but also plays a critical role in providing unique space weather services to NASA robotic missions, developing innovative tools and transitioning research to operations via user feedback. With scientists, forecasters and software developers working together within one team, through close and direct connection with space weather customers and trusted relationship with model developers, CCMC is flexible, nimble and effective to meet customer needs. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of CCMC/SWRC’s space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases, and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  4. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. [Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States); Witherspoon, M.J. [National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States); Brown, M.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy`s national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  5. The scope of the Weatherization Assistance Program: The weatherized population and the resource base

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Power, M.; Eisenberg, J.F.; Michels, E. (Economic Opportunity Research Inst., Washington, DC (United States)); Witherspoon, M.J. (National Association for State Community Service Programs, Washington, DC (United States)); Brown, M.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States))

    1992-05-01

    This study is one of five parts of the US Department of Energy's national evaluation of its Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). It has three major goals: (1) to enumerate the size and sources of investment in low-income weatherization; (2) to provide a count of the number of low-income units weatherized by all weatherization programs and characterized the type and tenure of those homes; and (3) to document the extent to which the DOE/WAP funding has been expanded though use of external resources.

  6. Extreme weather events in Iran under a changing climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh-Choobari, Omid; Najafi, M. S.

    2017-03-01

    Observations unequivocally show that Iran has been rapidly warming over recent decades, which in sequence has triggered a wide range of climatic impacts. Meteorological records of several ground stations across Iran with daily temporal resolution for the period 1951-2013 were analyzed to investigate the climate change and its impact on some weather extremes. Iran has warmed by nearly 1.3° C during the period 1951-2013 (+0.2° per decade), with an increase of the minimum temperature at a rate two times that of the maximum. Consequently, an increase in the frequency of heat extremes and a decrease in the frequency of cold extremes have been observed. The annual precipitation has decreased by 8 mm per decade, causing an expansion of Iran's dry zones. Previous studies have pointed out that warming is generally associated with more frequent heavy precipitation because a warmer air can hold more moisture. Nevertheless, warming in Iran has been associated with more frequent light precipitation, but less frequent moderate, heavy and extremely heavy precipitation. This is because in the subtropical dry zones, a longer time is required to recharge the atmosphere with water vapour in a warmer climate, causing more water vapour to be transported from the subtropics to high latitudes before precipitations forms. In addition, the altitude of the condensation level increases in a warmer climate in subtropical regions, causing an overall decrease of precipitation. We argue that changing in the frequency of heavy precipitation in response to warming varies depending on the geographical location. Warming over the dry subtropical regions is associated with a decrease in the frequency of heavy precipitation, while an increase is expected over both subpolar and tropical regions. The warmer climate has also led to the increase in the frequency of both thunderstorms (driven by convective heating) and dust events over Iran.

  7. Staying dry under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo; Megaridis, Constantine; Walther, Jens; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Patankar, Neelesh

    2012-11-01

    Lotus leaves are known for their non-wetting properties due to the presence of surface texture. The superhydrophobic behavior arises because of the prevention of liquid water from entering the pores of the roughness. Present superhydrophobic materials rely on air trapped within the surface pores to avoid liquid permeation. This is typically unsustainable for immersed bodies due to dissolution of the air, especially under elevated pressures. Here, molecular dynamics simulations are used to demonstrate the non-wetting behavior of an immersed ten-nanometer pore. This is accomplished by establishing thermodynamically sustained vapor pockets of the surrounding liquid medium. Over 300,000 atoms were used to construct the nanopore geometry and simulate SPC/E water molecules. Ambient pressure was varied along two isotherms (300 K, and 500 K). This approach for vapor-stabilization could offer valuable guidance for maintaining surfaces dry even in a submerged state without relying on trapped air. The approach may be extended to control general phase behavior of water adjacent to textured surfaces. ISEN support is gratefully acknowledged.

  8. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  9. Sessile nanofluid droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, Xin; Crivoi, Alexandru; Duan, Fei

    2015-03-01

    Nanofluid droplet evaporation has gained much audience nowadays due to its wide applications in painting, coating, surface patterning, particle deposition, etc. This paper reviews the drying progress and deposition formation from the evaporative sessile droplets with the suspended insoluble solutes, especially nanoparticles. The main content covers the evaporation fundamental, the particle self-assembly, and deposition patterns in sessile nanofluid droplet. Both experimental and theoretical studies are presented. The effects of the type, concentration and size of nanoparticles on the spreading and evaporative dynamics are elucidated at first, serving the basis for the understanding of particle motion and deposition process which are introduced afterward. Stressing on particle assembly and production of desirable residue patterns, we express abundant experimental interventions, various types of deposits, and the effects on nanoparticle deposition. The review ends with the introduction of theoretical investigations, including the Navier-Stokes equations in terms of solutions, the Diffusion Limited Aggregation approach, the Kinetic Monte Carlo method, and the Dynamical Density Functional Theory. Nanoparticles have shown great influences in spreading, evaporation rate, evaporation regime, fluid flow and pattern formation of sessile droplets. Under different experimental conditions, various deposition patterns can be formed. The existing theoretical approaches are able to predict fluid dynamics, particle motion and deposition patterns in the particular cases. On the basis of further understanding of the effects of fluid dynamics and particle motion, the desirable patterns can be obtained with appropriate experimental regulations.

  10. Viscous property of dried clay

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Li-sheng; LI Jian-zhong

    2006-01-01

    One dimensional and triaxial compression tests of air-dried and oven-dried Fujinomori clay and Pisa clay were carried out. Water content is less than 4.5 % and 1.0% for air-dried and oven-dried clay specimens, respectively. In all tests, axial strain rate was changed stepwise many times and drained creep tests were performed several times during monotonic loading at a constant strain rate. Global unloading (and also reloading in some tests) was applied during which creep loading tests were performed several times. Cyclic loading with small stress amplitude and several cycles was also performed to calculate the modulus of elasticity of the clay in tests. Local displacement transducer was used in triaxial compression test to increase measuring accuracy of axial strain. The results show that air-dried and oven-dried clay have noticeable viscous properties; during global unloading, creep deformation changes from positive to negative, i.e. there exist neutral points (zero creep deformation or no creep deformation point) in global unloading part of strain-stress curve; viscous property of Fujinomori clay decreases when water content decreases, i.e. viscous property of air-dried Fujinomori clay is more significant than that of oven-dried Fujinomori clay.

  11. Microwave Drying of Moist Coals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salomatov, Vl. V.; Karelin, V. A.; Sladkov, S. O.; Salomatov, Vas. V.

    2017-03-01

    Physical principles and examples of practical implementation of drying large bodies of coal by microwave radiation are considered. It is shown that energy consumption in microwave drying of brown coals decreases to 1.5-1.8 (kW·h)/ kg as compared with traditional types of drying, for which the expenditures of energy amount to 3.0 (kW·h)/kg. In using microwave drying, the technological time of drying decreases to 4 h, whereas the time of convective drying, with other things being equal, comes to 8-20 h. Parallel with microwave radiation drying, grinding of a fuel takes place, as well as entrainment of such toxic and ecologically harmful elements as mercury, chlorine, phosphorus, sulfur, and nitrogen. An analysis of the prospects of using a microwave energy for drying coal fuel has shown that microwave radiation makes it possible to considerably economize in energy, increase explosional safety, improve the ecological situation, and reduce the metal content and overall dimensions of the equipment.

  12. 14 CFR 135.213 - Weather reports and forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Weather reports and forecasts. 135.213... Operating Limitations and Weather Requirements § 135.213 Weather reports and forecasts. (a) Whenever a person operating an aircraft under this part is required to use a weather report or forecast, that...

  13. 44 CFR 15.3 - Access to Mt. Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Access to Mt. Weather. 15.3... HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL CONDUCT AT THE MT. WEATHER EMERGENCY ASSISTANCE CENTER AND AT THE NATIONAL EMERGENCY TRAINING CENTER § 15.3 Access to Mt. Weather. Mt. Weather contains classified material and...

  14. 46 CFR 44.01-13 - Heavy weather plan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Heavy weather plan. 44.01-13 Section 44.01-13 Shipping... VOYAGES Administration § 44.01-13 Heavy weather plan. (a) Each heavy weather plan under § 44.01-12(b) must... Inspection. Approval of a heavy weather plan is limited to the current hurricane season. (b) The...

  15. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  16. Highlights of Space Weather Services/Capabilities at NASA/GSFC Space Weather Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fok, Mei-Ching; Zheng, Yihua; Hesse, Michael; Kuznetsova, Maria; Pulkkinen, Antti; Taktakishvili, Aleksandre; Mays, Leila; Chulaki, Anna; Lee, Hyesook

    2012-01-01

    The importance of space weather has been recognized world-wide. Our society depends increasingly on technological infrastructure, including the power grid as well as satellites used for communication and navigation. Such technologies, however, are vulnerable to space weather effects caused by the Sun's variability. NASA GSFC's Space Weather Center (SWC) (http://science.gsfc.nasa.gov//674/swx services/swx services.html) has developed space weather products/capabilities/services that not only respond to NASA's needs but also address broader interests by leveraging the latest scientific research results and state-of-the-art models hosted at the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC: http://ccmc.gsfc.nasa.gov). By combining forefront space weather science and models, employing an innovative and configurable dissemination system (iSWA.gsfc.nasa.gov), taking advantage of scientific expertise both in-house and from the broader community as well as fostering and actively participating in multilateral collaborations both nationally and internationally, NASA/GSFC space weather Center, as a sibling organization to CCMC, is poised to address NASA's space weather needs (and needs of various partners) and to help enhancing space weather forecasting capabilities collaboratively. With a large number of state-of-the-art physics-based models running in real-time covering the whole space weather domain, it offers predictive capabilities and a comprehensive view of space weather events throughout the solar system. In this paper, we will provide some highlights of our service products/capabilities. In particular, we will take the 23 January and the 27 January space weather events as examples to illustrate how we can use the iSWA system to track them in the interplanetary space and forecast their impacts.

  17. Water Age Responses to Weather Conditions in a Hyper-Eutrophic Channel Reservoir in Southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Du

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Channel reservoirs have the characteristics of both rivers and lakes, in which hydrodynamic conditions and the factors affecting the eutrophication process are complex and highly affected by weather conditions. Water age at any location in the reservoir is used as an indicator for describing the spatial and temporal variations of water exchange and nutrient transport. The hyper-eutrophic Changtan Reservoir (CTR in Southern China was investigated. Three weather conditions including wet, normal, and dry years were considered for assessing the response of water age by using the coupled watershed model Soil Water Assessment Tool (SWAT and the three-dimensional hydrodynamic model Environmental Fluid Hydrodynamic Code (EFDC. The results showed that the water age in CTR varied tremendously under different weather conditions. The averaged water ages at the downstream of CTR were 3 d, 60 d, and 110 d, respectively in the three typical wet, normal, and dry years. The highest water ages at the main tributary were >70 d, >100 d, and >200 d, respectively. The spatial distribution of water ages in the tributaries and the reservoir were mainly affected by precipitation. This paper provides useful information on water exchange and transport pathways in channel reservoir, which will be helpful in understanding nutrient dynamics for controlling algal blooms.

  18. CME front and severe space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, N.; Skoug, R.; Tulasi Ram, S.; Rajesh, P. K.; Shiokawa, K.; Otsuka, Y.; Batista, I. S.; Ebihara, Y.; Nakamura, T.

    2014-12-01

    Thanks to the work of a number of scientists who made it known that severe space weather can cause extensive social and economic disruptions in the modern high-technology society. It is therefore important to understand what determines the severity of space weather and whether it can be predicted. We present results obtained from the analysis of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), solar energetic particle (SEP) events, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), CME-magnetosphere coupling, and geomagnetic storms associated with the major space weather events since 1998 by combining data from the ACE and GOES satellites with geomagnetic parameters and the Carrington event of 1859, the Quebec event of 1989, and an event in 1958. The results seem to indicate that (1) it is the impulsive energy mainly due to the impulsive velocity and orientation of IMF Bz at the leading edge of the CMEs (or CME front) that determine the severity of space weather. (2) CMEs having high impulsive velocity (sudden nonfluctuating increase by over 275 km s-1 over the background) caused severe space weather (SvSW) in the heliosphere (failure of the solar wind ion mode of Solar Wind Electron Proton Alpha Monitor in ACE) probably by suddenly accelerating the high-energy particles in the SEPs ahead directly or through the shocks. (3) The impact of such CMEs which also show the IMF Bz southward from the leading edge caused SvSW at the Earth including extreme geomagnetic storms of mean DstMP power outages happened during some of these SvSW events. (4) The higher the impulsive velocity, the more severe the space weather, like faster weather fronts and tsunami fronts causing more severe damage through impulsive action. (5) The CMEs having IMF Bz northward at the leading edge do not seem to cause SvSW on Earth, although, later when the IMF Bz turns southward, they can lead to super geomagnetic storms of intensity (Dstmin) less than even -400 nT.

  19. Daily Weather and Children's Physical Activity Patterns.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Remmers, Teun; Thijs, Carel; Timperio, Anna; Salmon, J O; Veitch, Jenny; Kremers, Stef P J; Ridgers, Nicola D

    2017-05-01

    Understanding how the weather affects physical activity (PA) may help in the design, analysis, and interpretation of future studies, especially when investigating PA across diverse meteorological settings and with long follow-up periods. The present longitudinal study first aims to examine the influence of daily weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns among primary school children across four seasons, reflecting day-to-day variation within each season. Second, we investigate whether the influence of weather elements differs by day of the week (weekdays vs weekends), gender, age, and body mass index. PA data were collected by ActiGraph accelerometers for 1 wk in each of four school terms that reflect each season in southeast Australia. PA data from 307 children (age range 8.7-12.8 yr) were matched to daily meteorological variables obtained from the Australian Government's Bureau of Meteorology (maximum temperature, relative humidity, solar radiation, day length, and rainfall). Daily PA patterns and their association with weather elements were analyzed using multilevel linear mixed models. Temperature was the strongest predictor of moderate and vigorous PA, followed by solar radiation and humidity. The relation with temperature was curvilinear, showing optimum PA levels at temperatures between 20°C and 22°C. Associations between weather elements on PA did not differ by gender, child's age, or body mass index. This novel study focused on the influence of weather elements on intraindividual PA patterns in children. As weather influences cannot be controlled, knowledge of its effect on individual PA patterns may help in the design of future studies, interpretation of their results, and translation into PA promotion.

  20. Drying Characteristics of Garcinia atroviridis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waigoon RITTIRUT

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Some physical and chemical properties of fresh garcinia fruits are reported. The most suitable drying conditions for garcinia material in a tray dryer based on the final moisture content were determined by extensive testing. It was found that for the material thickness of 2, 4 and 6 mm, a temperature of 55 °C and air velocity of 1.2 m/s are suitable for drying. The most suitable time where the final moisture content met the commercial standard was found to be 199, 256 and 427 min, respectively. The higher the temperature, the shorter the drying time. It was also observed that the suitable drying time for 2-mm thick material and air velocity of 1.2 m/s was 199, 159 and 99 min for drying temperature of 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively. Drying characteristics are also reported. Most of the drying rate curves appear in a falling rate period except at low temperature and low velocity of operation parameters i.e. 55 °C and 0.5 m/s for 4-mm thick material, where the constant drying rate is approximately 0.09 kg water/min.m2. The sorption isotherm is sigmoidal shape at 30 °C and monolayer moisture content is 14.78 kg water/100 kg dry solid. Soaking material in 1.5 and 3.0 %w/w sodium chloride did not affect the drying rate. Effective moisture diffusivities were evaluated to be  5.57´10-10, 6.94´10-10 and 1.11´10-9 m2/s at temperatures 55, 65 and 75 °C, respectively.

  1. Association of weather and air pollution interactions on daily mortality in 12 Canadian cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanos, J K; Cakmak, S; Kalkstein, L S; Yagouti, Abderrahmane

    It has been well established that both meteorological attributes and air pollution concentrations affect human health outcomes. We examined all cause nonaccident mortality relationships for 28 years (1981-2008) in relation to air pollution and synoptic weather type (encompassing air mass) data in 12 Canadian cities. This study first determines the likelihood of summertime extreme air pollution events within weather types using spatial synoptic classification. Second, it examines the modifying effect of weather types on the relative risk of mortality (RR) due to daily concentrations of air pollution (nitrogen dioxide, ozone, sulfur dioxide, and particulate matter pollutant interactions to determine dependent and independent pollutant effects using the relatively new time series technique of distributed lag nonlinear modeling (DLNM). Results display dry tropical (DT) and moist tropical plus (MT+) weathers to result in a fourfold and twofold increased likelihood, respectively, of an extreme pollution event (top 5 % of pollution concentrations throughout the 28 years) occurring. We also demonstrate statistically significant effects of single-pollutant exposure on mortality (p effect RR increases due to pollutant exposure within DT and MT+ weather types are 14.9 and 11.9 %, respectively. Adjusted exposures (two-way pollutant effect estimates) generally results in decreased RR estimates, indicating that the pollutants are not independent. Adjusting for ozone significantly lowers 67 % of the single-pollutant RR estimates and reduces model variability, which demonstrates that ozone significantly controls a portion of the mortality signal from the model. Our findings demonstrate the mortality risks of air pollution exposure to differ by weather type, with increased accuracy obtained when accounting for interactive effects through adjustment for dependent pollutants using a DLNM.

  2. Using Artificial Intelligence to Inform Pilots of Weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spirkovska, Lilly; Lodha, Suresh K.

    2006-01-01

    An automated system to assist a General Aviation (GA) pilot in improving situational awareness of weather in flight is now undergoing development. This development is prompted by the observation that most fatal GA accidents are attributable to loss of weather awareness. Loss of weather awareness, in turn, has been attributed to the difficulty of interpreting traditional preflight weather briefings and the difficulty of both obtaining and interpreting traditional in-flight weather briefings. The developmental automated system not only improves weather awareness but also substantially reduces the time a pilot must spend in acquiring and maintaining weather awareness.

  3. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  4. System for deflection measurements of floating dry docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a system for deflection measurement of floating dry docks. The system contains two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes set of reference marks, an industrial computer and a display. Each channel contains CMOS camera with long focal-length lens. Reference marks are implemented as IR LED arrays with 940 nm working wavelength for better performance within bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, high humidity etc.). In the paper we demonstrate results of an analysis of different optical schemes for coupling the oppositely directed channels of the measurement unit and show that the scheme with two image sensors with separated lenses is an optimal option, because it allows usage of nonequidistant location of reference marks and demonstrates the least value of parasitic shift caused by rotations of the measuring unit. The developed system was tested both on specially-designed setup and in real infrastructure of a floating dry dock. The conducted tests proved that a measuring error of the system is smaller than +/- 1.5 mm within the measurement range of +/- 150 mm when deflection of 100 m dock is measured. Obtained results showed that the system demonstrates an ability to work in a harsh environment including poor weather conditions.

  5. The effect of weather on mood, productivity, and frequency of emotional crisis in a temperate continental climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnston, A. G.

    1988-06-01

    A group of 62 mostly university student subjects kept structured diaries of their feelings and their productivity for six weeks in Illinois in early autumn. During the same period, daily frequency of telephone calls to a crisis intervention service in the same community was monitored, and complete daily weather data for the vicinity were provided by a local meteorological research facility. Major findings are as follows. The weather appears to influence mood and productivity, but only to a smallextent compared with the aggregate of all other controlling factors. Males show a relatively stronger effect than females. Psychologically troubled people generally appear to be more affected by weather than university students. The students and the crisis intervention service clients with “mild” problems tend to be stressed more when the weather is unstable, cloudy, warm and humid, and least stressed during sunny, dry, cool weather with rising barometric pressure. The crisis service clients with “severe” problems react oppositely to these two weather types. The meaning of these and other results and the strengths and weaknesses of this study's design are discussed.

  6. Weatherization and Indoor Air Quality: Measured Impacts in Single Family Homes Under the Weatherization Assistance Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pigg, Scott [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Cautley, Dan [Energy Center of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Francisco, Paul [Univ. of Illinois, Urbana-Champaign, IL (United States); Hawkins, Beth A [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brennan, Terry M [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2014-09-01

    This report summarizes findings from a national field study of indoor air quality parameters in homes treated under the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP). The study involved testing and monitoring in 514 single-family homes (including mobile homes) located in 35 states and served by 88 local weatherization agencies.

  7. Sr isotope evolution during chemical weathering of granites -- impact of relative weathering rates of minerals

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The Sr isotopic systematics in the weathering profiles of biotite granite and granite porphyry in southern Jiangxi Province were investigated. The results showed that during the chemical weathering of granites, remarked fractionation occurred between Rb and Sr. During the early stages of chemical weathering of granites, the released Sr/Si and Sr/Ca ratios are larger than those of the parent rocks, and the leaching rate of Sr is higher than those of Si, Ca, K, Rb, etc. Dynamic variations in relative weathering rates of the main Sr-contributing minerals led to fluctuation with time in 87Sr/86Sr ratios of inherent and released Sr in the weathering crust of granite. Successive weathering of biotite, plagioclase and K-feldspar made 87Sr/86Sr ratios in the weathering residues show such a fluctuation trend as to decrease first, increase, and then decrease again till they maintain stable. This work further indicates that when Sr isotopes are used to trace biogeochemical processes on both the catchment and global scales, one must seriously take account of the prefer-ential release of Sr from dissolving solid phase and the fluctuation of 87Sr/86Sr ratios caused by the variations of relative weathering rates of Sr-contributing minerals.

  8. WRF-Fire: coupled weather-wildland fire modeling with the weather research and forecasting model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janice L. Coen; Marques Cameron; John Michalakes; Edward G. Patton; Philip J. Riggan; Kara M. Yedinak

    2012-01-01

    A wildland fire behavior module (WRF-Fire) was integrated into the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) public domain numerical weather prediction model. The fire module is a surface fire behavior model that is two-way coupled with the atmospheric model. Near-surface winds from the atmospheric model are interpolated to a finer fire grid and used, with fuel properties...

  9. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  10. Establishing Denudation Chronology through Weathering Geochronology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riffel, S. B.; Vasconcelos, P. M.; Farley, K. A.; Carmo, I. O.

    2011-12-01

    Planar landforms - erosion surfaces - are used as temporal markers in denudation chronology. These surfaces are interpreted as the result of long-term weathering and denudation controlled by a specific base level within a given time-interval characterized by long-term tectonic stability. The presence of several planar landforms at distinct elevations is interpreted as evidence for distinct denudation events, separated by periods of tectonic reactivation and crustal uplift. We selected an area in the Paraná-La Plata basin, southern Brazil (25°S lat.) to investigate if the application of weathering geochronology by the 40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He methods could permit differentiating different elevation landsurfaces. We dated supergene Mn oxyhydroxides by 40Ar/39Ar geochronology and coexisting supergene Fe oxyhydroxides by the (U-Th)/He method from one of the three regional landsurfaces - The First, Second, and Third Paraná plateaus - previously identified in this area. Two sites were sampled from the Second Paraná Plateau: a ferricrust at Serra das Almas (7 hand specimens of goethite at 1080 m of altitude) and deeply weathered ferricretes and saprolites at Vila Velha (11 hand specimens of cryptomelane and 14 of goethite at 910 m of altitude). The Serra das Almas sites hosts a stratified weathering profile with ferricrust, and mottle zone. The Vila Velha site results from intense weathering that led to the precipitation of well-crystallized supergene minerals precipitated within fractures in the saprolites. The geochronological results are correlatable between the two sites and the two distinct methods (40Ar/39Ar and (U-Th)/He), and they reveal three generations of weathering and mineral precipitation: Late Eocene-Oligocene, Early Miocene, and Pleistocene. The geochronological results suggested that the Second Paraná Plateau formed by regional erosion during the Oligocene, and that this landsurface has been continuously exposed to weathering and erosion since then

  11. Training Early Career Space Weather Researchers and other Space Weather Professionals at the CISM Space Weather Summer School

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, N. A.; Hughes, W.

    2011-12-01

    This talk will outline the organization of a summer school designed to introduce young professions to a sub-discipline of geophysics. Through out the 10 year life time of the Center for Integrated Space Weather Modeling (CISM) the CISM Team has offered a two week summer school that introduces new graduate students and other interested professional to the fundamentals of space weather. The curriculum covers basic concepts in space physics, the hazards of space weather, and the utility of computer models of the space environment. Graduate students attend from both inside and outside CISM, from all the sub-disciplines involved in space weather (solar, heliosphere, geomagnetic, and aeronomy), and from across the nation and around the world. In addition, between 1/4 and 1/3 of the participants each year are professionals involved in space weather in some way, such as: forecasters from NOAA and the Air Force, Air Force satellite program directors, NASA specialists involved in astronaut radiation safety, and representatives from industries affected by space weather. The summer school has adopted modern pedagogy that has been used successfully at the undergraduate level. A typical daily schedule involves three morning lectures followed by an afternoon lab session. During the morning lectures, student interaction is encouraged using "Timeout to Think" questions and peer instruction, along with question cards for students to ask follow up questions. During the afternoon labs students, working in groups of four, answer thought provoking questions using results from simulations and observation data from a variety of source. Through the interactions with each other and the instructors, as well as social interactions during the two weeks, students network and form bonds that will last them through out their careers. We believe that this summer school can be used as a model for summer schools in a wide variety of disciplines.

  12. Space Weather Studies at Istanbul Technical University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaymaz, Zerefsan

    2016-07-01

    This presentation will introduce the Upper Atmosphere and Space Weather Laboratory of Istanbul Technical University (ITU). It has been established to support the educational needs of the Faculty of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 2011 to conduct scientific research in Space Weather, Space Environment, Space Environment-Spacecraft Interactions, Space instrumentation and Upper Atmospheric studies. Currently the laboratory has some essential infrastructure and the most instrumentation for ionospheric observations and ground induced currents from the magnetosphere. The laboratory has two subunits: SWIFT dealing with Space Weather Instrumentation and Forecasting unit and SWDPA dealing with Space Weather Data Processing and Analysis. The research area covers wide range of upper atmospheric and space science studies from ionosphere, ionosphere-magnetosphere coupling, magnetic storms and magnetospheric substorms, distant magnetotail, magnetopause and bow shock studies, as well as solar and solar wind disturbances and their interaction with the Earth's space environment. We also study the spacecraft environment interaction and novel plasma instrument design. Several scientific projects have been carried out in the laboratory. Operational objectives of our laboratory will be carried out with the collaboration of NASA's Space Weather Laboratory and the facilities are in the process of integration to their prediction services. Educational and research objectives, as well as the examples from the research carried out in our laboratory will be demonstrated in this presentation.

  13. ESA situational awareness of space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luntama, Juha-Pekka; Glover, Alexi; Keil, Ralf; Kraft, Stefan; Lupi, Adriano

    2016-07-01

    ESA SSA Period 2 started at the beginning of 2013 and will last until the end of 2016. For the Space Weather Segment, transition to Period 2 introduced an increasing amount of development of new space weather service capability in addition to networking existing European assets. This transition was started already towards the end of SSA Period 1 with the initiation of the SSA Space Weather Segment architecture definition studies and activities enhancing existing space weather assets. The objective of Period 2 has been to initiate SWE space segment developments in the form of hosted payload missions and further expand the federated service network. A strong focus has been placed on demonstration and testing of European capabilities in the range of SWE service domains with a view to establishing core products which can form the basis of SWE service provision during SSA Period 3. This focus has been particularly addressed in the SSA Expert Service Centre (ESC) Definition and Development activity that was started in September 2015. This presentation will cover the current status of the SSA SWE Segment and the achievements during SSA Programme Periods 1 and 2. Particular attention is given to the federated approach that allow building the end user services on the best European expertise. The presentation will also outline the plans for the Space Weather capability development in the framework of the ESA SSA Programme in 2017-2020.

  14. Visually Comparing Weather Features in Forecasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinan, P Samuel; Meyer, Miriah

    2016-01-01

    Meteorologists process and analyze weather forecasts using visualization in order to examine the behaviors of and relationships among weather features. In this design study conducted with meteorologists in decision support roles, we identified and attempted to address two significant common challenges in weather visualization: the employment of inconsistent and often ineffective visual encoding practices across a wide range of visualizations, and a lack of support for directly visualizing how different weather features relate across an ensemble of possible forecast outcomes. In this work, we present a characterization of the problems and data associated with meteorological forecasting, we propose a set of informed default encoding choices that integrate existing meteorological conventions with effective visualization practice, and we extend a set of techniques as an initial step toward directly visualizing the interactions of multiple features over an ensemble forecast. We discuss the integration of these contributions into a functional prototype tool, and also reflect on the many practical challenges that arise when working with weather data.

  15. Iron isotopic fractionation during continental weathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fantle, Matthew S.; DePaolo, Donald J.

    2003-10-01

    The biological activity on continents and the oxygen content of the atmosphere determine the chemical pathways through which Fe is processed at the Earth's surface. Experiments have shown that the relevant chemical pathways fractionate Fe isotopes. Measurements of soils, streams, and deep-sea clay indicate that the {sup 56}Fe/{sup 54}Fe ratio ({delta}{sup 56}Fe relative to igneous rocks) varies from +1{per_thousand} for weathering residues like soils and clays, to -3{per_thousand} for dissolved Fe in streams. These measurements confirm that weathering processes produce substantial fractionation of Fe isotopes in the modern oxidizing Earth surface environment. The results imply that biologically-mediated processes, which preferentially mobilize light Fe isotopes, are critical to Fe chemistry in weathering environments, and that the {delta}{sup 56}Fe of marine dissolved Fe should be variable and negative. Diagenetic reduction of Fe in marine sediments may also be a significant component of the global Fe isotope cycle. Iron isotopes provide a tracer for the influence of biological activity and oxygen in weathering processes through Earth history. Iron isotopic fractionation during weathering may have been smaller or absent in an oxygen-poor environment such as that of the early Precambrian Earth.

  16. Infiltration as Ventilation: Weather-Induced Dilution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sherman, Max H. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Turner, William J.N. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Walker, Iain S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2011-06-01

    The purpose of outdoor air ventilation is to dilute or remove indoor contaminants to which occupants are exposed. It can be provided by mechanical or natural means. In most homes, especially older homes, weather-driven infiltration provides the dominant fraction of the total ventilation. As we seek to provide good indoor air quality at minimum energy cost, it is important to neither over-ventilate nor under-ventilate. Thus, it becomes critically important to evaluate correctly the contribution infiltration makes to the total outdoor air ventilation rate. Because weather-driven infiltration is dependent on building air leakage and weather-induced pressure differences, a given amount of air leakage will provide different amounts of infiltration. Varying rates of infiltration will provide different levels of contaminant dilution and hence effective ventilation. This paper derives these interactions and then calculates the impact of weather-driven infiltration for different climates. A new “N-factor” is introduced to provide a convenient method for calculating the ventilation contribution of infiltration for over 1,000 locations across North America. The results of this work could be used in indoor air quality standards (specifically ASHRAE 62.2) to account for the contribution of weather-driven infiltration towards the dilution of indoor pollutants.

  17. Weather-centric rangeland revegetation planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardegree, Stuart P; Abatzoglou, John T.; Brunson, Mark W; Germino, Matthew; Hegewisch, Katherine C; Moffet, Corey A; Pilliod, David; Roundy, Bruce A.; Boehm, Alex R; Meredith, Gwendwr R

    2017-01-01

    Invasive annual weeds negatively impact ecosystem services and pose a major conservation threat on semiarid rangelands throughout the western United States. Rehabilitation of these rangelands is challenging due to interannual climate and subseasonal weather variability that impacts seed germination, seedling survival and establishment, annual weed dynamics, wildfire frequency, and soil stability. Rehabilitation and restoration outcomes could be improved by adopting a weather-centric approach that uses the full spectrum of available site-specific weather information from historical observations, seasonal climate forecasts, and climate-change projections. Climate data can be used retrospectively to interpret success or failure of past seedings by describing seasonal and longer-term patterns of environmental variability subsequent to planting. A more detailed evaluation of weather impacts on site conditions may yield more flexible adaptive-management strategies for rangeland restoration and rehabilitation, as well as provide estimates of transition probabilities between desirable and undesirable vegetation states. Skillful seasonal climate forecasts could greatly improve the cost efficiency of management treatments by limiting revegetation activities to time periods where forecasts suggest higher probabilities of successful seedling establishment. Climate-change projections are key to the application of current environmental models for development of mitigation and adaptation strategies and for management practices that require a multidecadal planning horizon. Adoption of new weather technology will require collaboration between land managers and revegetation specialists and modifications to the way we currently plan and conduct rangeland rehabilitation and restoration in the Intermountain West.

  18. Review on space weather in Latin America. 2. The research networks ready for space weather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the second of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work comprises a summary of scientific challenges in space weather research that are considered to be open scientific questions and how they are being addressed in terms of instrumentation by the international community, including the Latin American groups. We also provide an inventory of the networks and collaborations being constructed in Latin America, including details on the data processing, capabilities and a basic description of the resulting variables. These instrumental networks currently used for space science research are gradually being incorporated into the space weather monitoring data pipelines as their data provides key variables for monitoring and forecasting space weather, which allow these centers to monitor space weather and issue watches, warnings and alerts.

  19. Review on space weather in Latin America. 3. Development of space weather forecasting centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denardini, Clezio Marcos; Dasso, Sergio; Gonzalez-Esparza, J. Americo

    2016-11-01

    The present work is the third of a three-part review of space weather in Latin America, specifically observing its evolution in three countries (Argentina, Brazil and Mexico). This work presents the decision process for the spinning off of space weather prediction centers from space science groups with our interpretation of the reasons/opportunities that lead to this. Lastly, the constraints for the progress in space weather monitoring, research, and forecast are listed with recommendations to overcome them, which we believe will lead to the access of key variables for the monitoring and forecasting space weather, which will allow these centers to better monitor space weather and issue warnings, ​watches and alerts.

  20. Drying of thin colloidal films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Routh, Alexander F.

    2013-04-01

    When thin films of colloidal fluids are dried, a range of transitions are observed and the final film profile is found to depend on the processes that occur during the drying step. This article describes the drying process, initially concentrating on the various transitions. Particles are seen to initially consolidate at the edge of a drying droplet, the so-called coffee-ring effect. Flow is seen to be from the centre of the drop towards the edge and a front of close-packed particles passes horizontally across the film. Just behind the particle front the now solid film often displays cracks and finally the film is observed to de-wet. These various transitions are explained, with particular reference to the capillary pressure which forms in the solidified region of the film. The reasons for cracking in thin films is explored as well as various methods to minimize its effect. Methods to obtain stratified coatings through a single application are considered for a one-dimensional drying problem and this is then extended to two-dimensional films. Different evaporative models are described, including the physical reason for enhanced evaporation at the edge of droplets. The various scenarios when evaporation is found to be uniform across a drying film are then explained. Finally different experimental techniques for examining the drying step are mentioned and the article ends with suggested areas that warrant further study.

  1. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  2. Natural attenuation of weathered oil using aquatic plants in a farm in Southeast Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Cruz, María Del Carmen; Trujillo-Narcía, Antonio; Trujillo-Rivera, Eduardo A; Arias-Trinidad, Alfredo; Mendoza-López, María Remedios

    2016-09-01

    An experiment was conducted in field for three years to assess the sustainability of aquatic plants Leersia hexandra, Cyperus articulatus, and Eleocharis palustris for use in the removal of total hydrocarbons of weathered oil in four areas contaminated with 60916-119373 mg/kg of hydrocarbons. The variables evaluated were coverage of plant, dry matter, density of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, and the removal of total weathered oil. The variables showed statistical differences (p = 0.05) due to the effects of time and the amount of oil in the soil. The three aquatic plants survived on the farm during the 36-month evaluation. The grass L. hexandra yielded the greatest coverage of plant but was inhibited by the toxicity of the oil, which, in contrast, stimulated the coverage of C. articulatus. The rhizosphere of L. hexandra in control soil was more densely colonized by N-fixing bacteria, while the density of phosphate and potassium solubilizing rhizobacteria was stimulated by exposure to oil. C. articulatus coverage showed positive relationship with the removal of weathered oil; positive effect between rhizosphere and L. hexandra grass coverage was also identified. These results contributed to the removal of weathered oil in Gleysols flooded and affected by chronic discharges of crude oil.

  3. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    a raw material in the production of starch, tapioca and snack foods ... The material was dried for 8 hours daily after which it was kept indoors overnight. The surface with .... statistical package (MS Office, 2007). .... preservation and marketing.

  4. EFFECT OF DRYING CONDITIONS ON MUSHROOM QUALITY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MANOJ KULSHRESHTHA

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Fluidized bed drying of mushroom was undertaken to study the drying characteristics and quality of the dried mushrooms. Drying was done at drying air temperatures of 50, 70, and 90oC and air velocities of 1.71 and 2.13 m/s. Two batch sizes, namely, 0.5 kg and 1 kg of sliced milky mushrooms were dried. Drying characteristics and the quality of dried mushrooms were analyzed. The results indicated that the drying time decreased only marginally with increase in air velocity. Drying air temperature of 50oC was better as it resulted in a dried product having better rehydration characteristics, lesser shrinkage and lighter color. Highest energy efficiency (79.74% was observed while drying a batch size of 1 kg at a drying air temperature of 50oC, using an air velocity of 1.7 m/s.

  5. Landslides as weathering reactors; links between physical erosion and weathering in rapidly eroding mountain belts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emberson, R.; Hovius, N.; Galy, A.

    2014-12-01

    The link between physical erosion and chemical weathering is generally modelled with a surface-blanketing weathering zone, where the supply of fresh minerals is tied to the average rate of denudation. In very fast eroding environments, however, sediment production is dominated by landsliding, which acts in a stochastic fashion across the landscape, contrasting strongly with more uniform denudation models. If physical erosion is a driver of weathering at the highest erosion rates, then an alternative weathering model is required. Here we show that landslides can be effective 'weathering reactors'. Previous work modelling the effect of landslides on chemical weathering (Gabet 2007) considered the fresh bedrock surfaces exposed in landslide scars. However, fracturing during the landslide motion generates fresh surfaces, the total surface area of which exceeds that of the exposed scar by many orders of magnitude. Moreover, landslides introduce concavity into hillslopes, which acts to catch precipitation. This is funnelled into a deposit of highly fragmented rock mass with large reactive surface area and limited hydraulic conductivity (Lo et al. 2007). This allows percolating water reaction time for chemical weathering; any admixture of macerated organic debris could yield organic acid to further accelerate weathering. In the South island of New Zealand, seepage from recent landslide deposits has systematically high solute concentrations, far outstripping concentration in runoff from locations where soils are present. River total dissolved load in the western Southern Alps is highly correlated with the rate of recent (erosion; this contrasts with persistent and ubiquitous weathering associated with soil production. Solute fluxes from fast eroding landscapes therefore likely depend on climatic or tectonic forcing of mass wasting; greater precipitation would drive increased weathering, while earthquakes, in generating landslides (Dadson et al. 2003; Chen & Hawkins 2009

  6. Natural wind drying of willow stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Berg, van den J.V.; Sonneveld, C.; Meerdink, G.

    2000-01-01

    The process of natural wind drying of willow (Salix viminalis) stems in large piles was investigated. A simple drying model was developed for stems. Large-scale drying experiments were conducted and drying data were statistically analysed. Whether drying in a pile of willow stems was uniform was inv

  7. A Mathematical Model for Freeze-Drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Based on the experiments on freeze-drying carrot and potato slabs, the effects of some parameters, such as heating temperature and pressure on the freeze-drying process are examined. A simple model of freeze-drying is established to predict drying time and the mass variations of materials during the drying. The experimental results agree well with those calculated by the model.

  8. Weathering a Perfect Storm from Space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Love, Jeffrey J.

    2016-01-01

    Extreme space-weather events — intense solar and geomagnetic storms — have occurred in the past: most recently in 1859, 1921 and 1989. So scientists expect that, sooner or later, another extremely intense spaceweather event will strike Earth again. Such storms have the potential to cause widespread interference with and damage to technological systems. A National Academy of Sciences study projects that an extreme space-weather event could end up costing the American economy more than $1 trillion. The question now is whether or not we will take the actions needed to avoid such expensive consequences. Let’s assume that we do. Below is an imagined scenario of how, sometime in the future, an extreme space-weather event might play out.

  9. Space Weather Research Towards Applications in Europe

    CERN Document Server

    Lilensten, Jean

    2007-01-01

    This book shows the state of the art in Europe on a very new discipline, Space Weather. This discipline lies at the edge between science and industry. This book reflects such a position, with theoretic papers and applicative papers as well. It is divided into 5 chapters. Each chapter starts with a short introduction, which shows the coherence of a given domain. Then, 4 to 5 contributions written by the best specialists in Europe give detailed hints of a hot topic in space weather. From the reading of this book, it becomes evident that space weather is a living discipline, full of promises and already full of amazing realizations. The strength of Europe is clear through the book, but it is also clear that this discipline is world wide.

  10. ISES Experience in Delivering Space Weather Services

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boteler, David

    The International Space Environment Service has over eighty years experience in providing space weather services to meet a wide variety of user needs. This started with broadcast on December 1, 2008 from the Eiffel Tower about radio conditions. The delivery of information about ionospheric effects on high frequency (HF) radio propagation continue to be a major concern in many parts of the world. The movement into space brought requirements for a new set of space weather services, ranging from radiation dangers to man in space, damage to satellites and effects on satellite communication and navigation systems. On the ground magnetic survey, power system and pipeline operators require information about magnetic disturbances that can affect their operations. In the past these services have been delivered by individual Regional Warning Centres. However, the needs of new trans-national users are stimulating the development of new collaborative international space weather services.

  11. Weather effects on aerial snow measurement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollan, O.

    1979-01-01

    When aerial snow measurements are carried out, various weather phenomena have influence on the survey operations and the registered gamma radiation values. Among these phenomena are low visibility and wind causing problems to aircraft operations, and temperature inversions which may trap radioactive gases and particles in the air layer near the ground. The pressure and temperature of the air and its humidity influence the gamma radiation field above the ground, and this should be taken into consideration. As some types of weather may cause delays and errors in the snow measurement, it is important for the operators to have a reliable account of the weather situation prior to and during the survey flights. This will reduce the cost of the measurement operation and improve the quality of the collected data.

  12. Aircraft Path Planning under Adverse Weather Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Z.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, flight safety is still one of the main issues for all airlines. En route civil airplanes may encounter adverse weather conditions. Some fatal airplane accidents happened because of the weather disturbance. Moreover, we should also design path to avoid the prohibited area. Therefore a good path planning algorithm plays an increasingly important role in air traffic management. An efficient path planning algorithm can help the plane to avoid severe weather conditions, restricted areas and moving obstacles to ensure the safety of the cabin crews and passengers. Here, we build our algorithm based on the A* search algorithm. Moreover, our algorithm can also find the path with least energy costs. As a result, our algorithm can improve the safety operation of the airplanes and reduce the workload of pilots and air traffic controllers.

  13. Healthy Housing Opportunities During Weatherization Work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilson, J.; Tohn, E.

    2011-03-01

    In the summer and early fall of 2010, the National Center for Healthy Housing interviewed people from a selection of state and local agencies that perform weatherizations on low-income housing in order to gauge their approach to improving the health and safety of the homes. The interviews provided a strong cross section of what work agencies can do, and how they go about funding this work when funds from the Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) do not cover the full extent of the repairs. The report also makes recommendations for WAP in how to assist agencies to streamline and maximize the health and safety repairs they are able to make in the course of a standard weatherization.

  14. Land plants, weathering, and Paleozoic climatic evolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goddéris, Yves; Maffre, Pierre; Donnadieu, Yannick; Carretier, Sébastien

    2017-04-01

    At the end of the Paleozoic, the Earth plunged into the longest and most severe glaciation of the Phanerozoic eon (Montanez et al., 2013). The triggers for this event (called the Late Paleozoic Ice Age, LPIA) are still debated. Based on field observations and laboratory experiments showing that CO2 consumption by rock weathering is enhanced by the presence of plants, the onset of the LPIA has been related to the colonization of the continents by vascular plants in the latest Devonian. By releasing organic acids, concentrating respired CO2 in the soil, and by mechanically breaking rocks with their roots, land plants may have increased the weatherability of the continental surfaces. The "greening" of the continents may also have contributed to an enhanced burial of organic carbon in continental sedimentary basins, assuming that lignin decomposers have not yet evolved (Berner, 2004). As a consequence, CO2 went down, setting the conditions for the onset of the LPIA. This scenario is now widely accepted in the scientific community, and reinforces the feeling that biotic evolutionary steps are main drivers of the long-term climatic evolution. Although appealing, this scenario suffers from some weaknesses. The timing of the continent colonization by vascular plants was achieved in the late Devonian, several tens of million years before the onset of the LPIA (Davies and Gibling, 2013). Second, lignin decomposer fungi were present at the beginning of the Carboniferous, 360 million years ago while the LPIA started around 340-330 Ma (Nelsen et al., 2016). Land plants have also decreased the continental albedo, warming the Earth surface and promoting runoff. Weathering was thus facilitated and CO2 went down. Yet, temperature may have stayed constant, the albedo change compensating for the CO2 fall (Le Hir et al., 2010). From a modelling point of view, the effect of land plants on CO2 consumption by rock weathering is accounted for by forcing the weatherability of the

  15. Historical halo displays as past weather indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neuhäuser, Dagmar; Neuhäuser, Ralph

    2017-04-01

    Certain halo displays like the 22° circle were known to indicate specific weather pattern since millennia - as specified in Babylonian omina, Aristotle's Meteorology, farmers' weather lore, etc. Today, it is known that halo phenomena are due to refraction and reflection of sun and moon light in ice crystals in cirrus and cirrostratus, so that halo observations do indicate atmospheric conditions like temperature, humidity, pressure etc. in a few km height. The Astronomical Diaries of Babylonia have recorded both halo phenomena (circles, parhelia, etc.) and weather conditions (rain, clouds, etc.), so that we can use them to show statistically, whether, which and how fast halo phenomena are related to weather - for the last few centuries BC for Babylonia. We can then also compare the observations of Babylonian priests in the given BC epoch (without air and light pollution) with the last few decades of the modern epoch (with air and light pollution), where amateur halo observers have systematically recorded such phenomena (in Europe). Weather and climate are known to be partly driven by solar activity. Hence, one could also consider whether there is an indirect relation between halo displays as weather proxy and aurorae as solar activity proxy - if low solar activity leads to low pressure systems, one could expect more halos, preliminary studies show such a hint. For the last few decades, we have many halo observations, satellite imaging of the aurora oval, and many data on solar activity. A statistically sufficient amount of aurora and halo observations should be available for the historic time to investigate such a possible connection: halos were recorded very often in antiquity and the medieval times (as found in chronicles etc.), and modern scholarly catalogs of aurorae also often contain unrecognized halo displays.

  16. LOCAL WEATHER CLASSIFICATIONS FOR ENVIRONMENTAL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna PIOTROWICZ

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Two approaches of local weather type definitions are presented and illustrated for selected stations of Poland and Hungary. The subjective classification, continuing long traditions, especially in Poland, relies on diurnal values of local weather elements. The main types are defined according to temperature with some sub-types considering relative sunshine duration, diurnal precipitation totals, relative humidity and wind speed. The classification does not make a difference between the seasons of the year, but the occurrence of the classes obviously reflects the annual cycle. Another important feature of this classification is that only a minor part of the theoretically possible combination of the various types and sub-types occurs in all stations of both countries. The objective version of the classification starts from ten possible weather element which are reduced to four according to factor analysis, based on strong correlation between the elements. This analysis yields 3 to 4 factors depending on the specific criteria of selection. The further cluster analysis uses four selected weather elements belonging to different rotated factors. They are the diurnal mean values of temperature, of relative humidity, of cloudiness and of wind speed. From the possible ways of hierarchical cluster analysis (i.e. no a priori assumption on the number of classes, the method of furthest neighbours is selected, indicating the arguments of this decision in the paper. These local weather types are important tools in understanding the role of weather in various environmental indicators, in climatic generalisation of short samples by stratified sampling and in interpretation of the climate change.

  17. What determines the severity of space weather?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balan, Nanan; Skoug, Ruth; Hsu, Ray R.

    Thanks to the works of a number of scientists it is known that severe space weather (SSW) can cause extensive social and economic disruptions in the modern high-tech society. It is therefore important to understand what determines the severity of space weather, and whether it can be predicted. We present the results obtained from the analysis of solar-geophysical data during 30 space weather events that occurred since 1957 and produced geomagnetic storms of intensity less than -275 nT, and the Carrington event of 1859. The results seem to indicate that (1) space weather can become severe occasionally (7 since 1957) as experienced by satellite systems, Earth-based systems and Earth’s environment. (2) It is the impulsive energy (or power) at the leading edge of the CMEs (coronal mass ejections) mainly due to impulsive leading edge velocity and partly due to density that determines the severity of space weather in the heliosphere; the higher the impulsive velocity (sudden increase by over 275 km s-1 over the background), the more severe the space weather. (3) Such CMEs with IMF Bz also southward from the leading edge cause SSW on Earth though the magnitude of southward Bz does not seem important, and the minimum impulsive velocity for SSW on Earth seems higher than that for SSW in heliosphere. (4) CMEs having northward IMF Bz at the leading edge do not seem to cause SSW on Earth though they can lead to geomagnetic storms of long duration main phase with intensity less than even -420 nT.

  18. An introduction to Space Weather Integrated Modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhong, D.; Feng, X.

    2012-12-01

    The need for a software toolkit that integrates space weather models and data is one of many challenges we are facing with when applying the models to space weather forecasting. To meet this challenge, we have developed Space Weather Integrated Modeling (SWIM) that is capable of analysis and visualizations of the results from a diverse set of space weather models. SWIM has a modular design and is written in Python, by using NumPy, matplotlib, and the Visualization ToolKit (VTK). SWIM provides data management module to read a variety of spacecraft data products and a specific data format of Solar-Interplanetary Conservation Element/Solution Element MHD model (SIP-CESE MHD model) for the study of solar-terrestrial phenomena. Data analysis, visualization and graphic user interface modules are also presented in a user-friendly way to run the integrated models and visualize the 2-D and 3-D data sets interactively. With these tools we can locally or remotely analysis the model result rapidly, such as extraction of data on specific location in time-sequence data sets, plotting interplanetary magnetic field lines, multi-slicing of solar wind speed, volume rendering of solar wind density, animation of time-sequence data sets, comparing between model result and observational data. To speed-up the analysis, an in-situ visualization interface is used to support visualizing the data 'on-the-fly'. We also modified some critical time-consuming analysis and visualization methods with the aid of GPU and multi-core CPU. We have used this tool to visualize the data of SIP-CESE MHD model in real time, and integrated the Database Model of shock arrival, Shock Propagation Model, Dst forecasting model and SIP-CESE MHD model developed by SIGMA Weather Group at State Key Laboratory of Space Weather/CAS.

  19. Atmospheric Corrosion of Q235 Carbon Steel and Q450 Weathering Steel in Turpan,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiang YU; Chao-fang DONG; Yue-hua FANG; Kui XIAO; Chun-yun GUO; Gang HE; Xiao-gang LI

    2016-01-01

    Q235 carbon steel and Q450 weathering steel were exposed to the hot and dry environment of Turpan, China for three years.The corrosion rates of both steels were calculated and compared.The morphologies of the rust layer products were observed by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy.Analyses of the rust layers were performed by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy,X-ray powder diffraction,and Raman spectroscopy,and anal-ysis results indicate that the compositions of rust are main iron rich oxide such as FeOOH,Fe3 O4 ,and Fe2 O3 .The iron oxide layer content proportion was calculated through a semi-quantitative algorithm.The resistance elements (Cr,Ni,and Cu)enhanced the resistance properties of the Q450 weathering steel matrix.Moreover,the resistance elements increased the proportion of goethite crystals in the corroded rust layer.

  20. Aviation Weather Observations for Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS) and Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS). Federal Meteorological Handbook No. 9.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Department of Transportation, Washington, DC.

    This handbook provides instructions for observing, identifying, and recording aviation weather at Limited Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (LAWRS) and Supplementary Aviation Weather Reporting Stations (SAWRS). Official technical definitions, meteorological and administrative procedures are outlined. Although this publication is intended for use…

  1. How MAG4 Improves Space Weather Forecasting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falconer, David; Khazanov, Igor; Barghouty, Nasser

    2013-01-01

    Dangerous space weather is driven by solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejection (CMEs). Forecasting flares and CMEs is the first step to forecasting either dangerous space weather or All Clear. MAG4 (Magnetogram Forecast), developed originally for NASA/SRAG (Space Radiation Analysis Group), is an automated program that analyzes magnetograms from the HMI (Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager) instrument on NASA SDO (Solar Dynamics Observatory), and automatically converts the rate (or probability) of major flares (M- and X-class), Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), and Solar Energetic Particle Events.

  2. Space Weather Effects of Coronal Mass Ejection

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K. N. Iyer; R. M. Jadav; A. K. Jadeja; P. K. Manoharan; Som Sharma; Hari Om Vats

    2006-06-01

    This paper describes the space weather effects of a major CME which was accompanied by extremely violent events on the Sun. The signatures of the event in the interplanetary medium (IPM) sensed by Ooty Radio Telescope, the solar observations by LASCO coronagraph onboard SOHO, GOES X-ray measurements, satellite measurements of the interplanetary parameters, GPS based ionospheric measurements, the geomagnetic storm parameter Dst and ground based ionosonde data are used in the study to understand the space weather effects in the different regions of the solar-terrestrial environment. The effects of this event are compared and possible explanations attempted.

  3. An operation problem in weather forecasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. L. Mlurkrar

    1953-07-01

    Full Text Available The weather forecaster has to get ready his forecasts at definite hours of the day on the basis of isopleths. Provided the observations from most of the main stations had been received, the deduction that could be had by decreasing the plotting tome and studying the chart at greater leisure was often better than if the plotting time had not been decreased. A consideration of the weather chart plotted for a given forecast would also help the subsequent, forecasts, due account having been taken of the diurnal changes

  4. Investigation of possible sun-weather relationships

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Businger, S

    1978-01-01

    Statistical correlations between anomalous solar activity (as denoted by large solar flares, active plages, and interplanetary magnetic sector boundaries) and the circulation of the troposphere are reviewed. Two indices (measuring atmospheric vorticity and mean zonal geostrophic flow in the northern hemisphere) are analyzed in an effort to reveal possible sun-weather relationships. The result of this analysis provides no additional statistical evidence for a connection between solar activity and the weather. Finally, physical mechanisms that have been suggested to explain the claimed correlations are discussed.

  5. GEO Satellites as Space Weather Sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-26

    Solar Energy , Jan. 2016. Lohmeyer, W. and K. Cahoy, "Space Weather Radiation Effects on Geostationary Satellite Solid-State Power Amplifiers...with space weather observations and models. We analyzed two component types: solar cells and high power amplifiers. For amplifiers, we identified the...analysis  focused  on  two  component  types:   solar  cells  and  high   power  amplifiers.  We  have  calculated

  6. Detection and attribution of extreme weather disasters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huggel, Christian; Stone, Dáithí; Hansen, Gerrit

    2014-05-01

    Single disasters related to extreme weather events have caused loss and damage on the order of up to tens of billions US dollars over the past years. Recent disasters fueled the debate about whether and to what extent these events are related to climate change. In international climate negotiations disaster loss and damage is now high on the agenda, and related policy mechanisms have been discussed or are being implemented. In view of funding allocation and effective risk reduction strategies detection and attribution to climate change of extreme weather events and disasters is a key issue. Different avenues have so far been taken to address detection and attribution in this context. Physical climate sciences have developed approaches, among others, where variables that are reasonably sampled over climatically relevant time periods and related to the meteorological characteristics of the extreme event are examined. Trends in these variables (e.g. air or sea surface temperatures) are compared between observations and climate simulations with and without anthropogenic forcing. Generally, progress has been made in recent years in attribution of changes in the chance of some single extreme weather events to anthropogenic climate change but there remain important challenges. A different line of research is primarily concerned with losses related to the extreme weather events over time, using disaster databases. A growing consensus is that the increase in asset values and in exposure are main drivers of the strong increase of economic losses over the past several decades, and only a limited number of studies have found trends consistent with expectations from climate change. Here we propose a better integration of existing lines of research in detection and attribution of extreme weather events and disasters by applying a risk framework. Risk is thereby defined as a function of the probability of occurrence of an extreme weather event, and the associated consequences

  7. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  8. 10-minute consultation Dry mouth

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mark Taubert; Eleanor M R Davies; Ian Back

    2007-01-01

    @@ A 67 year old man presents with a six week history of dry mouth (xerostomia). He has prostate cancer, which has spread to his spine, and he takes opiates for pain relief. Recently, he started taking an antidepressant.

  9. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Nandy, Krishanu; Schutzius, Thomas M.; Varanasi, Kripa K.; Megaridis, Constantine M.; Walther, Jens H.; Koumoutsakos, Petros; Espinosa, Horacio D.; Patankar, Neelesh A.

    2015-08-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water. In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys - thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical predictions are consistent with molecular dynamics simulations and experiments.

  10. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moisture Hot, dry air in desert environments Air conditioners that cool the air and remove moisture Taking ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to ...

  11. Extreme weather events and related disasters in the Philippines, 2004-08: a sign of what climate change will mean?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yumul, Graciano P; Cruz, Nathaniel A; Servando, Nathaniel T; Dimalanta, Carla B

    2011-04-01

    Being an archipelagic nation, the Philippines is susceptible and vulnerable to the ill-effects of weather-related hazards. Extreme weather events, which include tropical cyclones, monsoon rains and dry spells, have triggered hazards (such as floods and landslides) that have turned into disasters. Financial resources that were meant for development and social services have had to be diverted in response, addressing the destruction caused by calamities that beset different regions of the country. Changing climatic patterns and weather-related occurrences over the past five years (2004-08) may serve as an indicator of what climate change will mean for the country. Early recognition of this possibility and the implementation of appropriate action and measures, through disaster risk management, are important if loss of life and property is to be minimised, if not totally eradicated. This is a matter of urgent concern given the geographical location and geological characteristics of the Philippines.

  12. Matrix effects in applying mono- and polyclonal ELISA systems to the analysis of weathered oils in contaminated soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollard, S J T; Farmer, J G; Knight, D M; Young, P J

    2002-01-01

    Commercial mono- and polyclonal enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) systems were applied to the on-site analysis of weathered hydrocarbon-contaminated soils at a former integrated steelworks. Comparisons were made between concentrations of solvent extractable matter (SEM) determined gravimetrically by Soxhlet (dichloromethane) extraction and those estimated immunologically by ELISA determination over a concentration range of 2000-330,000 mg SEM/kg soil dry weight. Both ELISA systems tinder-reported for the more weathered soil samples. Results suggest this is due to matrix effects in the sample rather than any inherent bias in the ELISA systems and it is concluded that, for weathered hydrocarbons typical of steelworks and coke production sites, the use of ELISA requires careful consideration as a field technique. Consideration of the target analyte relative to the composition of the hydrocarbon waste encountered appears critical.

  13. Distinguishing high and low flow domains in urban drainage systems 2 days ahead using numerical weather prediction ensembles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, Vianney Augustin Thomas; Grum, Morten; Mikkelsen, Peter Steen

    2017-01-01

    Precipitation constitutes a major contribution to the flow in urban storm- and wastewater systems. Forecasts of the anticipated runoff flows, created from radar extrapolation and/or numerical weather predictions, can potentially be used to optimize operation in both wet and dry weather periods....... However, flow forecasts are inevitably uncertain and their use will ultimately require a trade-off between the value of knowing what will happen in the future and the probability and consequence of being wrong. In this study we examine how ensemble forecasts from the HIRLAM-DMI-S05 numerical weather...... prediction (NWP) model subject to three different ensemble post-processing approaches can be used to forecast flow exceedance in a combined sewer for a wide range of ratios between the probability of detection (POD) and the probability of false detection (POFD). We use a hydrological rainfall-runoff model...

  14. Soil phosphorus and water effects on growth, nutrient and carbohydrate concentrations, d13C, and nodulation of mimosa (Albizia julibrissin Durz.) on a highly weathered soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Growth and physiological performance of multipurpose tree species can be severely constrained by nutrient shortages such as of phosphorus (P) in highly-weathered soils. Limitations to plant growth are accentuated by seasonal dry periods. We examined P fertilization and irrigation effects on growth...

  15. Dry aging of beef; Review

    OpenAIRE

    Dashdorj, Dashmaa; Tripathi, Vinay Kumar; Cho, Soohyun; Kim, Younghoon; Hwang, Inho

    2016-01-01

    The present review has mainly focused on the specific parameters including aging (aging days, temperature, relative humidity, and air flow), eating quality (flavor, tenderness and juiciness), microbiological quality and economic (shrinkage, retail yields and cost) involved beef dry aging process. Dry aging is the process where beef carcasses or primal cuts are hanged and aged for 28 to 55 d under controlling environment conditions in a refrigerated room with 0° to 4 °C and with relative humid...

  16. Dry PMR-15 Resin Powders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vannucci, Raymond D.; Roberts, Gary D.

    1988-01-01

    Shelf lives of PMR-15 polymides lengthened. Procedure involves quenching of monomer reactions by vacuum drying of PRM-15 resin solutions at 70 to 90 degree F immediately after preparation of solutions. Absence of solvent eliminates formation of higher esters and reduces formation of imides to negligible level. Provides fully-formulated dry PMR-15 resin powder readily dissolvable in solvent at room temperature immediately before use. Resins used in variety of aerospace, aeronautical, and commercial applications.

  17. NASA Space Weather Research Center: Addressing the Unique Space Weather Needs of NASA Robotic Missions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Pulkkinen, A. A.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Maddox, M. M.; Mays, M. L.; Taktakishvili, A.; Chulaki, A.; Thompson, B. J.; Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Muglach, K.; Evans, R. M.; Wiegand, C.; MacNeice, P. J.; Rastaetter, L.

    2014-12-01

    The Space Weather Research Center (SWRC) has been providing space weather monitoring and forecasting services to NASA's robotic missions since its establishment in 2010. Embedded within the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) (see Maddox et al. in Session IN026) and located at NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, SWRC has easy access to state-of-the-art modeling capabilities and proximity to space science and research expertise. By bridging space weather users and the research community, SWRC has been a catalyst for the efficient transition from research to operations and operations to research. In this presentation, we highlight a few unique aspects of SWRC's space weather services, such as addressing space weather throughout the solar system, pushing the frontier of space weather forecasting via the ensemble approach, providing direct personnel and tool support for spacecraft anomaly resolution, prompting development of multi-purpose tools and knowledge bases (see Wiegand et al. in the same session SM004), and educating and engaging the next generation of space weather scientists.

  18. The New Space Weather Action Center; the Next Level on Space Weather Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collado-Vega, Y. M.; Lewis, E. M.; Cline, T. D.; MacDonald, E.

    2016-12-01

    The Space Weather Action Center (SWAC) provides access for students to near real-time space weather data, and a set of easy instructions and well-defined protocols that allow them to correctly interpret such data. It is a student centered approach to teaching science and technology in classrooms, as students are encouraged to act like real scientists by accessing, collecting, analyzing, recording, and communicating space weather forecasts. Integration and implementation of several programs will enhance and provide a rich education experience for students' grades 5-16. We will enhance the existing data and tutorials available using the Integrated Space Weather Analysis (iSWA) tool created by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) at NASA GSFC. iSWA is a flexible, turn-key, customer-configurable, Web-based dissemination system for NASA-relevant space weather information that combines data based on the most advanced space weather models available through the CCMC with concurrent space environment information. This tool provides an additional component by the use of videos and still imagery from different sources as a tool for educators to effectively show what happens during an eruption from the surface of the Sun. We will also update content on the net result of space weather forecasting that the public can experience by including Aurorasaurus, a well established, growing, modern, innovative, interdisciplinary citizen science project centered around the public's visibility of the northern lights with mobile applications via the use of social media connections.

  19. Geochemical investigation of weathering processes in a forested headwater catchment: Mass-balance weathering fluxes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, B.F.; Herman, J.S.

    2008-01-01

    Geochemical research on natural weathering has often been directed towards explanations of the chemical composition of surface water and ground water resulting from subsurface water-rock interactions. These interactions are often defined as the incongruent dissolution of primary silicates, such as feldspar, producing secondary weathering products, such as clay minerals and oxyhydroxides, and solute fluxes (Meunier and Velde, 1979). The chemical composition of the clay-mineral product is often ignored. However, in earlier investigations, the saprolitic weathering profile at the South Fork Brokenback Run (SFBR) watershed, Shenandoah National Park, Virginia, was characterized extensively in terms of its mineralogical and chemical composition (Piccoli, 1987; Pochatila et al., 2006; Jones et al., 2007) and its basic hydrology. O'Brien et al. (1997) attempted to determine the contribution of primary mineral weathering to observed stream chemistry at SFBR. Mass-balance model results, however, could provide only a rough estimate of the weathering reactions because idealized mineral compositions were utilized in the calculations. Making use of detailed information on the mineral occurrence in the regolith, the objective of the present study was to evaluate the effects of compositional variation on mineral-solute mass-balance modelling and to generate plausible quantitative weathering reactions that support both the chemical evolution of the surface water and ground water in the catchment, as well as the mineralogical evolution of the weathering profile. ?? 2008 The Mineralogical Society.

  20. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  1. Morphology of drying blood pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laan, Nick; Smith, Fiona; Nicloux, Celine; Brutin, David; D-Blood project Collaboration

    2016-11-01

    Often blood pools are found on crime scenes providing information concerning the events and sequence of events that took place on the scene. However, there is a lack of knowledge concerning the drying dynamics of blood pools. This study focuses on the drying process of blood pools to determine what relevant information can be obtained for the forensic application. We recorded the drying process of blood pools with a camera and measured the weight. We found that the drying process can be separated into five different: coagulation, gelation, rim desiccation, centre desiccation, and final desiccation. Moreover, we found that the weight of the blood pool diminishes similarly and in a reproducible way for blood pools created in various conditions. In addition, we verify that the size of the blood pools is directly related to its volume and the wettability of the surface. Our study clearly shows that blood pools dry in a reproducible fashion. This preliminary work highlights the difficult task that represents blood pool analysis in forensic investigations, and how internal and external parameters influence its dynamics. We conclude that understanding the drying process dynamics would be advancement in timeline reconstitution of events. ANR funded project: D-Blood Project.

  2. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  3. Solar energy dryer kinetics using flat-plate finned collector and forced convection for potato drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Fatimah; Misran, Erni; Dina, Sari Farah; Heppy

    2017-06-01

    Research on potato drying using the indirect solar dryer with flat-plate finned collector and forced convection has been done. The research was conducted at the outdoor field of Laboratory of Institute for Research and Standardization of Industry on June 14th-23rd, 2016 from 9:00 am to 4:00 pm. This research aims to obtain the drying kinetics model of potato (Solanumtuberosum L.) using an indirect solar dryer's (ISD) with flat plate-finned collector and forced convection. The result will be compared to the open sun drying (OSD) method. Weather conditions during the drying process took place as follows; surrounding air temperature was in the range 27 to 34.7 °C, relative humidity (RH) 29.5 to 61.0% and the intensity of solar radiation 105.6 to 863.1 Watt/m2. The dried potato thicknesses were 1.0 cm, 1.5 cm and 2.0 cm, with the average initial water content of 76.46%. The average temperature in the collector chamber ranged from 42.2 to 57.4 °C and the drying chamber was at 46.2 °C. The best drying result was obtained from a sample size of 1 cm thickness using the IDS method with an average drying rate of 0.018 kg H2O per kg dry-weight.hour and the water content was constant at 5.02% in 21 hours of drying time. The most suitable kinetics model is Page model, equation MR = exp (-0.049 t1,336) for 1.0 cm thickness, exp (-0.066 t1,222) for 1.5 cm thickness and exp (-0.049 t1,221) for 2.0 cm thickness. The quality of potato drying using ISD method is better than using OSD which can be seen from the color produced.

  4. Overview of Space Weather Impacts and NASA Space Weather Center Services and Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Y.

    2012-01-01

    The presentation is divided into two major components. First, I will give an overview of space weather phenomenon and their associated impacts. Then I will describe the comprehensive list of products and tools that NASA Space Weather Center has developed by leveraging more than a decade long modeling experience enabled by the Community Coordinated Modeling Center (CCMC) and latest scientific research results from the broad science community. In addition, a summary of the space weather activities we have been engaged in and our operational experience will be provided.

  5. Detecting Weather Radar Clutter by Information Fusion With Satellite Images and Numerical Weather Prediction Model Output

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøvith, Thomas; Nielsen, Allan Aasbjerg; Hansen, Lars Kai

    2006-01-01

    A method for detecting clutter in weather radar images by information fusion is presented. Radar data, satellite images, and output from a numerical weather prediction model are combined and the radar echoes are classified using supervised classification. The presented method uses indirect...... information on precipitation in the atmosphere from Meteosat-8 multispectral images and near-surface temperature estimates from the DMI-HIRLAM-S05 numerical weather prediction model. Alternatively, an operational nowcasting product called 'Precipitating Clouds' based on Meteosat-8 input is used. A scale...

  6. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  7. High-intensity drying processes-impulse drying. Yearly report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orloff, D.I.

    1991-06-01

    Impulse drying is an innovative process for drying paper that holds great promise for reducing the energy consumed during the manufacture of paper and similar web products. impulse drying occurs when a wet paper web passes through a press nip in which one of the rolls is heated to a high temperature. A steam layer adjacent to the heated surface grows and displaces water from the sheet in a very efficient manner. The energy required for water removal is very much less than that required for conventional evaporative drying. To eliminate sheet delamination, low thermal mass ceramic press roll coatings were developed to reduce heat transfer to the sheet, while maintaining high heat flux during early stages of the process. In so doing, most of the transferred energy is used to form steam that displaces liquid water, rather than in excessively heating the sheet. During this period, a prototype ceramic coating was developed and its impulse drying performance was compared to that of steel surfaces. It was observed that ceramic platens can be operated at higher temperatures and pressures resulting in improved water removal and physical properties without inducing sheet delamination. Heat flux measurement techniques were developed to provide a mechanistic explanation for the superior performance of the prototype. The work confirmed that the prototype ceramic coating is more energy efficient than the steel surface.

  8. Dual-Rate Transmission Reduces Weather Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Posner, E. C.

    1984-01-01

    Scheme ensures maximum data received on average. Dual-rate scheme for maximizing data returned during spacecraft mission, adaptable, as is or with modifications, to high-frequency terrestrial data transmission. Data rate fixed in advance at minimum value guarantees reasonable prospect of success during bad weather. Dualrate strategy yields net data rate 2.5 times best achievable with single transmission rate.

  9. Active Discriminative Dictionary Learning for Weather Recognition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caixia Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Weather recognition based on outdoor images is a brand-new and challenging subject, which is widely required in many fields. This paper presents a novel framework for recognizing different weather conditions. Compared with other algorithms, the proposed method possesses the following advantages. Firstly, our method extracts both visual appearance features of the sky region and physical characteristics features of the nonsky region in images. Thus, the extracted features are more comprehensive than some of the existing methods in which only the features of sky region are considered. Secondly, unlike other methods which used the traditional classifiers (e.g., SVM and K-NN, we use discriminative dictionary learning as the classification model for weather, which could address the limitations of previous works. Moreover, the active learning procedure is introduced into dictionary learning to avoid requiring a large number of labeled samples to train the classification model for achieving good performance of weather recognition. Experiments and comparisons are performed on two datasets to verify the effectiveness of the proposed method.

  10. Iron ore weathering potentials of ectomycorrhizal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adeleke, R A; Cloete, T E; Bertrand, A; Khasa, D P

    2012-10-01

    Plants in association with soil microorganisms play an important role in mineral weathering. Studies have shown that plants in symbiosis with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have the potential to increase the uptake of mineral-derived nutrients. However, it is usually difficult to study many of the different factors that influence ectomycorrhizal weathering in a single experiment. In the present study, we carried out a pot experiment where Pinus patula seedlings were grown with or without ECM fungi in the presence of iron ore minerals. The ECM fungi used included Pisolithus tinctorius, Paxillus involutus, Laccaria bicolor and Suillus tomentosus. After 24 weeks, harvesting of the plants was carried out. The concentration of organic acids released into the soil, as well as potassium and phosphorus released from the iron ore were measured. The results suggest that different roles of ectomycorrhizal fungi in mineral weathering such as nutrient absorption and transfer, improving the health of plants and ensuring nutrient circulation in the ecosystem, are species specific, and both mycorrhizal roots and non-mycorrhizal roots can participate in the weathering process of iron ore minerals.

  11. School Science Inspired by Improving Weather Forecasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Heather; Renfrew, Ian A.; Vaughan, Geraint

    2014-01-01

    High winds and heavy rain are regular features of the British weather, and forecasting these events accurately is a major priority for the Met Office and other forecast providers. This is the challenge facing DIAMET, a project involving university groups from Manchester, Leeds, Reading, and East Anglia, together with the Met Office. DIAMET is part…

  12. The Quest for the Perfect Weather Forecaster

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahl, Jonathan; Horwitz, Kevin; Berg, Craig; Gruhl, Mary

    2004-01-01

    It is said that meteorology is the only profession where a person can be wrong half the time and still keep his or her job. The truth is not quite so bleak, but one can still ask, "Just how accurate are weather forecasters, anyway?" This article presents two projects for middle level students to investigate this issue in a hands-on,…

  13. Solar Energy: Solar and the Weather.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knapp, Henry H., III

    This module on solar and the weather is one of six in a series intended for use as supplements to currently available materials on solar energy and energy conservation. Together with the recommended texts and references (sources are identified), these modules provide an effective introduction to energy conservation and solar energy technologies.…

  14. Swarm Products and Space Weather Applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stolle, Claudia; Olsen, Nils; Martini, Daniel

    The Swarm satellite constellation mission provides high precision magnetic field data and models and other observations that enable us to explore near Earth space for example in terms of in situ electron density and electric fields. On board GPS observables can be used for sounding ionospheric an...... in aeronomy and space weather. We will emphasize results from the Swarm mission....

  15. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  16. Cockpit weather graphics using mobile satellite communications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seth, Shashi

    Many new companies are pushing state-of-the-art technology to bring a revolution in the cockpits of General Aviation (GA) aircraft. The vision, according to Dr. Bruce Holmes - the Assistant Director for Aeronautics at National Aeronautics and Space Administration's (NASA) Langley Research Center, is to provide such an advanced flight control system that the motor and cognitive skills you use to drive a car would be very similar to the ones you would use to fly an airplane. We at ViGYAN, Inc., are currently developing a system called the Pilot Weather Advisor (PWxA), which would be a part of such an advanced technology flight management system. The PWxA provides graphical depictions of weather information in the cockpit of aircraft in near real-time, through the use of broadcast satellite communications. The purpose of this system is to improve the safety and utility of GA aircraft operations. Considerable effort is being extended for research in the design of graphical weather systems, notably the works of Scanlon and Dash. The concept of providing pilots with graphical depictions of weather conditions, overlaid on geographical and navigational maps, is extremely powerful.

  17. Data Network Weather Service Reporting - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michael Frey

    2012-08-30

    A final report is made of a three-year effort to develop a new forecasting paradigm for computer network performance. This effort was made in co-ordination with Fermi Lab's construction of e-Weather Center.

  18. Estimating Runoff Coefficients Using Weather Radars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahm, Malte; Thorndahl, Søren Liedtke; Rasmussen, Michael R.;

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a method for estimating runoff coefficients of urban drainage catchments based on a combination of high resolution weather radar data and insewer flow measurements. By utilising the spatial variability of the precipitation it is possible to estimate the runoff coefficients...

  19. WEATHER CONDITIONS AND COMPLAINTS IN FIBROMYALGIA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DEBLECOURT, ACE; KNIPPING, AA; DEVOOGD, N; VANRIJSWIJK, MH

    1993-01-01

    Patients with musculoskeletal disorders, including fibromyalgia syndrome (FS), often state that weather conditions modulate their complaints. There have been a few studies concerning this issue, but the results appear to be contradictory. We tried to relate the subjective symptoms of pain, stiffness

  20. Lateral weathering gradients in glaciated catchments

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, K. J.; Bailey, S. W.; Ross, D. S.; Strahm, B. D.; Schreiber, M. E.

    2016-12-01

    Mineral dissolution and the distribution of weathering products are fundamental processes that drive development and habitability of the Earth's critical zone; yet, the spatial configuration of these processes in some systems is not well understood. Feedbacks between hydrologic flows and weathering fluxes are necessary to understanding how the critical zone develops. In upland glaciated catchments of the northeastern USA, primary mineral dissolution and the distribution of weathering products are spatially distinct and predictable over short distances. Hillslopes, where shallow soils force lateral hydrologic fluxes through accumulated organic matter, produce downslope gradients in mineral depletion, weathering product accumulation, soil development, and solute chemistry. We propose that linked gradients in hydrologic flow paths, soil depth, and vegetation lead to predictable differences in the location and extent of mineral dissolution in regolith (soil, subsoil, and rock fragments) and bedrock, and that headwater catchments within the upland glaciated northeast show a common architecture across hillslopes as a result. Examples of these patterns and processes will be illustrated using observations from the Hubbard Brook Experimental Forest in New Hampshire where laterally distinct soils with strong morphological and biogeochemical gradients have been documented. Patterns in mineral depletion and product accumulation are essential in predicting how ecosystems will respond to stresses, disturbance, and management.

  1. Weathering approaches to carbon dioxide sequestration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schuiling, R.D.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of enhanced weathering is to capture CO2 by the carbonation of silicates, or by dissolution of these silicates during which the greenhouse gas CO2 is converted to bicarbonate in solution. Research in this field is still focused on increasing the rate of reaction, but the required additional

  2. Characterising Cold Weather for the UK mainland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fradley, Kate; Dacre, Helen; Ambaum, Maarten

    2016-04-01

    Excess Winter Mortality is a peak in the population's mortality rate during winter months and is correlated with low outdoor temperatures. Excess Winter Mortality has adverse impacts, including increased demand on health services. The management of resources for such increased demands maybe improved through incorporation of weather forecasting information to advanced warnings. For the UK, prolonged cold periods are associated with easterly advection, and high pressure systems. Characterisation of the synoptic conditions associated with cold periods is important to understand forecast performance. Principal Component Analysis has been used with mean sea level pressure from 35 years of ERA interim reanalysis to capture synoptic variability on a continuous scale. Cold events in the North and South of the UK mainland have been identified as having different synoptic variability using this method. Furthermore extending the Principal Component Analysis to investigate the skill of forecasts has identified systematic under prediction of some cold weather synoptic conditions. Ensemble forecasts are used to quantify the uncertainty associated with these cold weather synoptic conditions. This information maybe be used to improve the value of existing weather warnings.

  3. Oil sheen weathering post Deepwater Horizon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kellermann, M. Y.; Redmond, M. C.; Reddy, C. M.; Aeppli, C.; Nelson, R. K.; Valentine, D. L.

    2013-12-01

    A recently published study identified the source of the reoccurred oil sheens close to the Deepwater Horizon (DWH) disaster site as a finite contamination most likely derived from tanks and pits on the DWH wreckage itself. Here we use geochemical fingerprinting and microbial community analysis to better understand the fate and weathering processes affecting these surface oils. Both, alkanes and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are shown to reflect a linear decrease of hydrocarbon compounds with increasing distance to the DWH wreckage site (equivalent to exposure time on the sea surface). These results indicate that in the early stage of weathering the combined effects of dissolution and evaporation dominate the degradation of these surface oils. Sheen microbial communities were dominated by Cyanobacteria, Planctomycetes, Verrucomicrobia, Flavobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, and Deltaproteobacteria, with low relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria likely to be hydrocarbon degraders (no more than 15% of sequences in each sample). However, some of these Gammaproteobacteria were closely related to putative hydrocarbon degraders observed in abundance in deep water plumes during the primary Deepwater Horizon spill, suggesting that very low levels of biodegradation may be also occurring. This in situ weathering experiment provides new insights in hydrocarbon weathering dynamics and shows how chemical and biological changes can potentially be masked by large evaporative losses of compounds smaller than C18 n-alkanes.

  4. Weathering of a liquid solar collector

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    Commercially available flate plate hot water solar collector is characterized in report that presents 10 month weathering study of system. Collector efficiency was calculated and plotted from measurements of fluid temperature and flow rate, ambient temperature and solar flux. Windspeed and wind direction were also measured during tests.

  5. Extreme Convective Weather in Future Decades

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gadian, Alan; Burton, Ralph; Groves, James; Blyth, Alan; Warner, James; Holland, Greg; Bruyere, Cindy; Done, James; Thielen, Jutta

    2016-04-01

    WISER (Weather Climate Change Impact Study at Extreme Resolution) is a project designed to analyse changes in extreme weather events in a future climate, using a weather model (WRF) which is able to resolve small scale processes. Use of a weather model is specifically designed to look at convection which is of a scale which cannot be resolved by climate models. The regional meso-scale precipitation events, which are critical in understanding climate change impacts will be analysed. A channel domain outer model, with a resolution of ~ 20km in the outer domain drives an inner domain of ~ 3 km resolution. Results from 1989-1994 and 2020-2024 and 2030-2034 will be presented to show the effects of extreme convective events over Western Europe. This presentation will provide details of the project. It will present data from the 1989-1994 ERA-interim and CCSM driven simulations, with analysis of the future years as defined above. The representation of pdfs of extreme precipitation, Outgoing Longwave Radiation and wind speeds, with preliminary comparison with observations will be discussed. It is also planned to use the output to drive the EFAS (European Flood model) to examine the predicted changes in quantity and frequency of severe and hazardous convective rainfall events and leading to the frequency of flash flooding due to heavy convective precipitation.

  6. Briefing highlights space weather risks to GPS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tretkoff, Ernie

    2011-07-01

    Solar storms, which are expected to increase as the Sun nears the most active phase of the solar cycle, can disrupt a variety of technologies on which society relies. Speakers at a 22 June briefing on Capitol Hill in Washington, D. C., focused on how space weather can affect the Global Positioning System (GPS), which is used in a wide range of industries, including commercial air travel, agriculture, national security, and emergency response. Rocky Stone, chief technical pilot for United Airlines, noted that GPS allows more aircraft to be in airspace, saves fuel, and helps aircraft move safely on runways. “Improvements in space weather forecasting need to be pursued,” he said. Precision GPS has also “changed the whole nature of farming,” said Ron Hatch, Director of Navigation Systems, NavCom Technology/John Deere. GPS makes it possible for tractors to be driven in the most efficient paths and for fertilizer and water to be applied precisely to the areas that most need them. Space weather-induced degradation of GPS signals can cause significant loss to farms that rely on GPS. Elizabeth Zimmerman, Deputy Associate Administrator for the Office of Response and Recovery at the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA), described how FEMA relies on GPS for disaster recovery. The agency is developing an operations plan for dealing with space weather, she said.

  7. Optical properties of a tropical estuary during wet and dry conditions in the Nha Phu estuary, Khanh Hoa Province, south-east Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Hai, Doan Nhu; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    There has been a strong research focus on optical properties in temperate estuaries but very much less in tropical estuaries. These properties comprise light and beam attenuation dominated by suspended particulate matter, Chl a, and CDOM. Spatially and temporally distributed data on optical prope...... estuaries, was the episodic character with days of strong rainfall followed by longer periods of dry weather. All sampling, both wet and dry, was carried out in the dry season which implies a less definitive perception of wet and dry seasons....

  8. Comparative Study of Different Stochastic Weather Generators for Long-Term Climate Data Simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sushant Mehan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Climate is one of the single most important factors affecting watershed ecosystems and water resources. The effect of climate variability and change has been studied extensively in some places; in many places, however, assessments are hampered by limited availability of long-term continuous climate data. Weather generators provide a means of synthesizing long-term climate data that can then be used in natural resource assessments. Given their potential, there is the need to evaluate the performance of the generators; in this study, three commonly used weather generators—CLImate GENerator (CLIGEN, Long Ashton Research Station Weather Generator (LARS-WG, and Weather Generators (WeaGETS were compared with regard to their ability to capture the essential statistical characteristics of observed data (distribution, occurrence of wet and dry spells, number of snow days, growing season temperatures, and growing degree days. The study was based on observed 1966–2015 weather station data from the Western Lake Erie Basin (WLEB, from which 50 different realizations were generated, each spanning 50 years. Both CLIGEN and LARS-WG performed fairly well with respect to representing the statistical characteristics of observed precipitation and minimum and maximum temperatures, although CLIGEN tended to overestimate values at the extremes. This generator also overestimated dry sequences by 18%–30% and snow-day counts by 12%–19% when considered over the entire WLEB. It (CLIGEN was, however, well able to simulate parameters specific to crop growth such as growing degree days and had an added advantage over the other generators in that it simulates a larger number of weather variables. LARS-WG overestimated wet sequence counts across the basin by 15%–38%. In addition, the optimal growth period simulated by LARS-WG also exceeded that obtained from observed data by 16%–29% basin-wide. Preliminary results with WeaGETS indicated that additional evaluation is

  9. Impact of weather variability on nitrate leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richards, Karl; Premrov, Alina; Hackett, Richard; Coxon, Catherine

    2016-04-01

    The loss of nitrate (NO3 - N) to water via leaching and overland flow contributes to eutrophication of freshwaters, transitional and near coastal waters with agriculture contributing significantly to nitrogen (N) loading to these water. Environmental regulations, such as the Nitrates and Water Framework Directives, have increased constraints on farmers to improve N management in regions at risk of NO3--N loss to water. In addition, farmers also have to manage their systems within a changing climate as the imapcts of climate change begin to impact resulting in more frequent extreme events such as floods and droughts. The objective of this study was to investigate the link between weather volatility and the concentration of leached NO3--N spring barley. Leaching was quantified under spring barley grown on a well-drained, gravelly sandy soil using ceramic cup samplers over 6 drainage years under the same farming practices and treatments. Soil solution NO3--N concentrations under spring barley grown by conventional inversion ploughing and reduced tillage were compared to weather parameters over the period. Weather was recorded at a national Met Eireann weather station on site. Soil solution NO3--N varied significantly between years. Within individual years NO3--N concentrations varied over the drainage season, with peak concentrations generally observed in the autumn time, decreasing thereafter. Under both treatments there was a three-fold difference in mean annual soil solution NO3--N concentration over the 6 years with no change in the agronomic practices (crop type, tillage type and fertiliser input). Soil solution nitrate concentrations were significantly influenced by weather parameters such as rainfall, effective drainage and soil moisture deficit. The impact of climate change in Ireland could lead to increased NO3--N loss to water further exacerbating eutrophication of sensitive estuaries. The increased impact on eutrophication of waters, related to climatic

  10. WEATHER SENSITIVITY OF KINDERGARTEN AGE CHILDREN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. RAZSI

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Living organisms are sensitive to the changes of weather. Our study is carried out on effects of weather changes on children’s behaviour in 29 kindergarten groups in Eger. The kindergarten nurces were asked to characterise the behaviour of the children group every day during three month, from March 2011 to May 2011. Marks from 1 to 5 were defined, giving 3 to average behaviour, 2 and 4 to worse and to better than average one. Marks 1 and 5 were retained for extremely good or bad behaviour of the group on the given day. The components evaluated separately were as follows: i- Playing, array or disarray: How do they play? Do they keep the array, or make chaos? ii- Sleeping: Normally, children of this age sleep for a few hours after lunch, but sometimes they do not want to do so. We looked after how it depends on the actual weather. iii- Aggression: Sometimes, some children are more aggressive than the others, but on other days these children do not show aggressive attitude. Was this the case on the given day? iv- Activity: How were children motivated for activities on the given day? In order to compare these marks, provided by the kindergarten groups, with weather and its changes, front analysis was performed every day, based on temperature data at the 925 hPa and 850 hPa levels. Besides that, surface observations of temperature, sunshine, humidity were also incorporated into the search for weather relatedness of the children’s behaviour.

  11. Innovative Information Technology for Space Weather Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H.; Qu, M.; Shih, F.; Denker, C.; Gerbessiotis, A.; Lofdahl, M.; Rees, D.; Keller, C.

    2004-05-01

    Solar activity is closely related to the near earth environment -- summarized descriptively as space weather. Changes in space weather have adverse effect on many aspects of life and systems on earth and in space. Real-time, high-quality data and data processing would be a key element to forecast space weather promptly and accurately. Recently, we obtained a funding from US National Science Foundation to apply innovative information technology for space weather prediction. (1) We use the technologies of image processing and pattern recognition, such as image morphology segmentation, Support Vector Machines (SVMs), and neural networks to detect and characterize three important solar activities in real-time: filament eruptions, flares, and emerging flux regions (EFRs). Combining the real time detection with the recent statistical study on the relationship among filament eruptions, flares, EFRs, coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and geomagnetic storms, we are establishing real time report of solar events and automatic forecasting of earth directed CMEs and subsequent geomagnetic storms. (2) We combine state-of-art parallel computing techniques with phase diverse speckle imaging techniques, to yield near real-time diffraction limited images with a cadence of approximately 10 sec. We utilize the multiplicity of parallel paradigms to optimize the calculation of phase diverse speckle imaging to improve calculation speed. With such data, we can monitor flare producing active regions continuously and carry out targeted studies of the evolution and flows in flare producing active regions. (3) We are developing Web based software tools to post our processed data, events and forecasting in real time, and to be integrated with current solar activity and space weather prediction Web pages at BBSO. This will also be a part of Virtual Solar Observatory (VSO) being developed by the solar physics community. This research is supported by NSF ITR program.

  12. Subarctic physicochemical weathering of serpentinized peridotite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulven, O. I.; Beinlich, A.; Hövelmann, J.; Austrheim, H.; Jamtveit, B.

    2017-06-01

    Frost weathering is effective in arctic and subarctic climate zones where chemical reactions are limited by the reduced availability of liquid water and the prevailing low temperature. However, small scale mineral dissolution reactions are nevertheless important for the generation of porosity by allowing infiltration of surface water with subsequent fracturing due to growth of ice and carbonate minerals. Here we combine textural and mineralogical observations in natural samples of partly serpentinized ultramafic rocks with a discrete element model describing the fracture mechanics of a solid when subject to pressure from the growth of ice and carbonate minerals in surface-near fractures. The mechanical model is coupled with a reaction-diffusion model that describes an initial stage of brucite dissolution as observed during weathering of serpentinized harzburgites and dunites from the Feragen Ultramafic Body (FUB), SE-Norway. Olivine and serpentine are effectively inert at relevant conditions and time scales, whereas brucite dissolution produces well-defined cm to dm thick weathering rinds with elevated porosity that allows influx of water. Brucite dissolution also increases the water saturation state with respect to hydrous Mg carbonate minerals, which are commonly found as infill in fractures in the fresh rock. This suggests that fracture propagation is at least partly driven by carbonate precipitation. Dissolution of secondary carbonate minerals during favorable climatic conditions provides open space available for ice crystallization that drives fracturing during winter. Our model reproduces the observed cm-scale meandering fractures that propagate into the fresh part of the rock, as well as dm-scale fractures that initiate the breakup of larger domains. Rock disintegration increases the reactive surface area and hence the rate of chemical weathering, enhances transport of dissolved and particulate matter in the weathering fluid, and facilitates CO2 uptake by

  13. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  14. PREBIOTICS AS DRYING AIDS FOR SPRAY DRYING FRUIT JUICES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. FREIXO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Natural fruit juices are difficult to transform into powder because they are rich in sugars and acids with low glass transition temperatures, resulting in a sticky behaviour during spray drying. The present research work aimed to test the prebiotics maltodextrin and arabic gum as drying agents in order to be able to produce dehydrated powder from pineapple, strawberry and apple juices. 2 % of maltodextrin and an inlet air temperature of 130 °C are recommended to spray dry apple juice, reaching 60 % yield of powder with a water activity below 0.40. For strawberry juice, 2 % of this carrier is recommended and the inlet air temperature, 120 °C or 130 °C, did not seem relevant. For pineapple, neither the concentration of the carrier nor the inlet air temperature seemed to be relevant.

  15. Modeling multiple resource limitation in tropical dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medvigy, D.; Xu, X.; Zarakas, C.

    2015-12-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) are characterized by a long dry season when little rain falls. At the same time, many neotropical soils are highly weathered and relatively nutrient poor. Because TDFs are often subject to both water and nutrient constraints, the question of how they will respond to environmental perturbations is both complex and highly interesting. Models, our basic tools for projecting ecosystem responses to global change, can be used to address this question. However, few models have been specifically parameterized for TDFs. Here, we present a new version of the Ecosystem Demography 2 (ED2) model that includes a new parameterization of TDFs. In particular, we focus on the model's framework for representing limitation by multiple resources (carbon, water, nitrogen, and phosphorus). Plant functional types are represented in terms of a dichotomy between "acquisitive" and "conservative" resource acquisition strategies. Depending on their resource acquisition strategy and basic stoichiometry, plants can dynamically adjust their allocation to organs (leaves, stem, roots), symbionts (e.g. N2-fixing bacteria), and mycorrhizal fungi. Several case studies are used to investigate how resource acquisition strategies affect ecosystem responses to environmental perturbations. Results are described in terms of the basic setting (e.g., rich vs. poor soils; longer vs. shorter dry season), and well as the type and magnitude of environmental perturbation (e.g., changes in precipitation or temperature; changes in nitrogen deposition). Implications for ecosystem structure and functioning are discussed.

  16. Longing for Clouds - Does Beautiful Weather have to be Fine?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mădălina Diaconu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Any attempt to outline a meteorological aesthetics centered on so-called beautiful weather has to overcome several difficulties: In everyday life, the appreciation of the weather is mostly related to practical interests or reduced to the ideal of stereotypical fine weather that is conceived according to blue-sky thinking irrespective of climate diversity. Also, an aesthetics of fine weather seems, strictly speaking, to be impossible given that such weather conditions usually allow humans to focus on aspects other than weather, which contradicts the autotelic character of beauty. The unreflective equation of beautiful weather with moderately sunny weather and a cloudless sky also collides with the psychological need for variation: even living in a “paradisal” climate would be condemned to end in monotony. Finally, whereas fine weather is related in modern realistic literature to cosmic harmony and a universal natural order, contemporary literary examples show that in the age of the climate change, fine weather may be deceitful and its passive contemplation, irresponsible. This implies the necessity of a reflective aesthetic attitude on weather, as influenced by art, literature, and science, which discovers the poetics of bad weather and the wonder that underlies average weather conditions.

  17. Forecasting irrigation demand by assimilating satellite images and numerical weather predictions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelosi, Anna; Medina, Hanoi; Villani, Paolo; Falanga Bolognesi, Salvatore; D'Urso, Guido; Battista Chirico, Giovanni

    2016-04-01

    Forecasting irrigation water demand, with small predictive uncertainty in the short-medium term, is fundamental for an efficient planning of water resource allocation among multiple users and for decreasing water and energy consumptions. In this study we present an innovative system for forecasting irrigation water demand, applicable at different spatial scales: from the farm level to the irrigation district level. The forecast system is centred on a crop growth model assimilating data from satellite images and numerical weather forecasts, according to a stochastic ensemble-based approach. Different sources of uncertainty affecting model predictions are represented by an ensemble of model trajectories, each generated by a possible realization of the model components (model parameters, input weather data and model state variables). The crop growth model is based on a set of simplified analytical relations, with the aim to assess biomass, leaf area index (LAI) growth and evapotranspiration rate with a daily time step. Within the crop growth model, LAI dynamics is let be governed by temperature and leaf dry matter supply, according to the development stage of the crop. The model assimilates LAI data retrieved from VIS-NIR high-resolution multispectral satellite images. Numerical weather model outputs are those from the European limited area ensemble prediction system (COSMO-LEPS), which provides forecasts up to five days with a spatial resolution of seven kilometres. Weather forecasts are sequentially bias corrected based on data from ground weather stations. The forecasting system is evaluated in experimental areas of southern Italy during three irrigation seasons. The performance analysis shows very accurate irrigation water demand forecasts, which make the proposed system a valuable support for water planning and saving at farm level as well as for water management at larger spatial scales.

  18. Weathering of sulfidic shale and copper mine waste: Secondary minerals and metal cycling in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammarstrom, J.M.; Seal, R.R.; Meier, A.L.; Jackson, J.C.

    2003-01-01

    Metal cycling via physical and chemical weathering of discrete sources (copper mines) and regional (non-point) sources (sulfide-rich shale) is evaluated by examining the mineralogy and chemistry of weathering products in Great Smoky Mountains National Park, Tennessee, and North Carolina, USA. The elements in copper mine waste, secondary minerals, stream sediments, and waters that are most likely to have negative impacts on aquatic ecosystems are aluminum, copper, zinc, and arsenic because these elements locally exceed toxicity guidelines for surface waters or for stream sediments. Acid-mine drainage has not developed in streams draining inactive copper mines. Acid-rock drainage and chemical weathering processes that accompany debris flows or human disturbances of sulfidic rocks are comparable to processes that develop acid-mine drainage elsewhere. Despite the high rainfall in the mountain range, sheltered areas and intermittent dry spells provide local venues for development of secondary weathering products that can impact aquatic ecosystems.

  19. Weather data analysis based on typical weather sequence analysis. Application: energy building simulation

    CERN Document Server

    David, Mathieu; Garde, Francois; Boyer, Harry

    2014-01-01

    In building studies dealing about energy efficiency and comfort, simulation software need relevant weather files with optimal time steps. Few tools generate extreme and mean values of simultaneous hourly data including correlation between the climatic parameters. This paper presents the C++ Runeole software based on typical weather sequences analysis. It runs an analysis process of a stochastic continuous multivariable phenomenon with frequencies properties applied to a climatic database. The database analysis associates basic statistics, PCA (Principal Component Analysis) and automatic classifications. Different ways of applying these methods will be presented. All the results are stored in the Runeole internal database that allows an easy selection of weather sequences. The extreme sequences are used for system and building sizing and the mean sequences are used for the determination of the annual cooling loads as proposed by Audrier-Cros (Audrier-Cros, 1984). This weather analysis was tested with the datab...

  20. Spatial Risk Premium on Weather Derivatives and Hedging Weather Exposure in Electricity

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Osipenko, Maria

    2011-01-01

    Due to dependency of energy demand on temperature, weather derivatives enable the effective hedging of temperature related fluctuations. However, temperature varies in space and time and therefore the contingent weather derivatives also vary. The spatial derivative price distribution involves a risk premium. We examine functional principal components of temperature variation for this spatial risk premium. We employ a pricing model for temperature derivatives based on dynamics modelled via a v...