WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry storage system

  1. Macstor dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. E. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal (Canada)

    1996-04-15

    AECL, a Canadian Grown Corporation established since 1952, is unique among the world's nuclear organizations. It is both supplier of research reactors and heavy water moderated CANDU power reactors as well as operator of extensive nuclear research facilities. As part of its mandate, AECL has developed products and conceptual designs for the short, intermediate and long term storage and disposal of spent nuclear fuel. AECL has also assumed leadership in the area of dry storage of spent fuel. This Canadian Crown Corporation first started to look into dry storage for the management of its spent nuclear fuel in the early 1970's. After developing silo-like structures called concrete canisters for the storage of its research reactor enriched uranium fuel, AECL went on to perfect that technology for spent CANDU natural uranium fuel. In 1989 AECL teamed up with Trans nuclear, Inc.,(TN), a US based member of the international Trans nuclear Group, to extend its dry storage technology to LWR spent fuel. This association combines AECL's expertise and many years experience in the design of spent fuel storage facilities with TN's proven capabilities of processing, transportation, storage and handling of LWR spent fuel. From the early AECL-designed unventilated concrete canisters to the advanced MACSTOR concept - Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage - now available also for LWR fuel - dry storage is proving to be safe, economical, practical and, most of all, well accepted by the general public. AECL's experience with different fuels and circumstances has been conclusive.

  2. Standard review plan for dry cask storage systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-01-01

    The Standard Review Plan (SRP) For Dry Cask Storage Systems provides guidance to the Nuclear Regulatory Commission staff in the Spent Fuel Project Office for performing safety reviews of dry cask storage systems. The SRP is intended to ensure the quality and uniformity of the staff reviews, present a basis for the review scope, and clarification of the regulatory requirements. Part 72, Subpart B generally specifies the information needed in a license application for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high level radioactive waste. Regulatory Guide 3.61 {open_quotes}Standard Format and Content for a Topical Safety Analysis Report for a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask{close_quotes} contains an outline of the specific information required by the staff. The SRP is divided into 14 sections which reflect the standard application format. Regulatory requirements, staff positions, industry codes and standards, acceptance criteria, and other information are discussed.

  3. Dry spent fuel storage with the MACSTOR system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). CANDU Operations

    1996-10-01

    Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), and Transnuclear Inc. (TNI) began in 1989 the development of the concrete spent fuel storage system, called MACSTOR (Modular Air-Cooled Canister STORage) for use with LWR spent fuel assemblies. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure that can accommodate up to 20 spent fuel canisters. Each canister typically holds up to 21 PWR or 44 BWR spent fuel assemblies with a nominal fuel burn up rate of 40,000 MWD/MTU and a 7 year minimum cooling period. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. Thus, the utility can be assured of both positive cooling of the fuel and verification of the integrity of the fuel confinement boundary. The structure is seismically designed and is capable of withstanding site design basis accident events. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. The MACSTOR system can economically address a wide range of storage capacity requirements. The modular concept allows for flexibility in determining each module`s capacity. Starting with 8 canisters, the capacity can be increased by increments of 4 up to 20 canisters. The MACSTOR system is also flexible in accommodating the various spent fuel types from such reactors as VVER-440, VVER-1000 and RBMK 1500. (J.P.N.)

  4. Design of spent-fuel concrete pit dry storage and handling system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tamaki, H.; Natsume, T.; Maruoka, K.; Yokoyama, T. [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    An advanced dry storage system design with highly improved storage efficiency of spent nuclear fuel has been developed. The new concept 'Concrete Pit Dry Storage System' realizes a safe and economical solution to an increasing demand of storing spent fuel assemblies (SFAs) generated from commercial nuclear power reactors. The system is basically composed of a large mass concrete module which has densely arranged pit boreholes, sealed canisters containing spent fuel assemblies and a canister handling system. The system is characterized by the following advantages compared with the existing concrete module type storage systems: higher storage efficiency can be achieved by the storage module filled with concrete which also gives a high shielding performance; simple handling technology is used for transfer and installation of the canisters at the storage facility as well as the transport cask of the canisters, surface contamination of the canister is prevented; lower radiation around the storage area is provided to reduce radiation exposure during handling and storage; high structural integrity of the facility is maintained by the concrete module with a simple construction ; the ventilation gallery introducing cooling air air to the bit borehole has an enough draft height to improve cooling performance of the system; a result of the design concept, the storage system can store higher burn-up SFAs with a short cooling period. (authors)

  5. Quality Changes in Dried Tomatoes Stored in Sealed Polythene and Open Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bosede Adelola ADERIBIGBE

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Studies were conducted to quantify the changes in quality attributes of dried tomatoes during storage using High Density Polythene Film (HDPF and normal (traditional open storage systems. 300g of the dried tomato fruits were packaged in each of the six (6 high-density polythene film (HDPF bags while similar quantities were in open bowls as practiced by the rural processors. Periodic assessment of some quality parameters, microbial loads, moisture content, color, vitamins A and C, and phosphorus were conducted for a period of three months to ascertain how these two storage systems influence the changes in these quality attributes. The results showed that the fungal load counts of the dried samples prior to storage were 3.6·103 cfu/g. After three months of storage, the counts were 5.4·103 cfu/g and 7.2·103 cfu/g for the samples stored in HDPF and open systems respectively. These were significantly different at 5% level of confidence. Vitamin A of the samples changed from the initial value 134μg prior to storage to 98 μg and 103.4 μg after three months of storage in open and HDPF systems respectively. Vitamin C content changed from 5.21 mg/ 100g prior to storage to 3.69 mg/100g and 4.24 mg/100g in the samples stored in open and HDPF systems respectively after three months. The moisture content of the dried sample prior to storage was 4.2%. After three months of storage, the values were 7.13% and 3.93% respectively for samples stored in open and HDPF systems and these were highly significant at 5% level of confidence. The HDPF method gave better results compared to the traditional method of storage in Nigeria as far as these quality parameters assessed are concerned.

  6. Develop an piezoelectric sensing based on SHM system for nuclear dry storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Linlin; Lin, Bin; Sun, Xiaoyi; Howden, Stephen; Yu, Lingyu

    2016-04-01

    In US, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Monitoring is necessary to determine and predict the degradation state of the systems and structures. Therefore, nondestructive monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health" for the safe operation of nuclear power plants (NPP) and radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS). Innovative approaches are desired to evaluate the degradation and damage of used fuel containers under extended storage. Structural health monitoring (SHM) is an emerging technology that uses in-situ sensory system to perform rapid nondestructive detection of structural damage as well as long-term integrity monitoring. It has been extensively studied in aerospace engineering over the past two decades. This paper presents the development of a SHM and damage detection methodology based on piezoelectric sensors technologies for steel canisters in nuclear dry cask storage system. Durability and survivability of piezoelectric sensors under temperature influence are first investigated in this work by evaluating sensor capacitance and electromechanical admittance. Toward damage detection, the PES are configured in pitch catch setup to transmit and receive guided waves in plate-like structures. When the inspected structure has damage such as a surface defect, the incident guided waves will be reflected or scattered resulting in changes in the wave measurements. Sparse array algorithm is developed and implemented using multiple sensors to image the structure. The sparse array algorithm is also evaluated at elevated temperature.

  7. Simulating thermal behavior of AECL's spent fuel dry storage system with CATHENA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sabourin, G. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, PQ (Canada)

    1998-07-01

    This paper documents the comparisons between CATHENA predictions and temperature measurements taken at the Gentilly-2 NPP spent fuel dry storage facility and in a mock--up of a storage basket placed inside a storage cylinder. It also presents CATHENA temperature predictions related to the storage of spent fuel in MACSTOR modules as planned for Ignalina NPP, Lithuania. CATHENA has been chosen because it can simulate many noncondensable gases including air and helium, and because of its great flexibility in the representation of the MACSTOR module geometry. The results of the simulations show good agreement with the experimental measurements. The two comparisons indicate that CATHENA can be used to simulate heat transfer from the fuel to the external air circuit of the spent fuel dry storage system. For the Ignalina MACSTOR module, containing RBMK fuel having higher heat release than typical CANDU fuel, CATHENA predicts that the maximum fuel temperature is expected to be around 240 deg C, giving an acceptable margin below the maximum allowed temperature of 300 deg C. In conclusion, this paper shows that the thermalhydraulic code CATHENA can accurately predict the thermal behavior AECL's air cooled spent fuel dry storage system. (author)

  8. Evolution of the MACSTOR{trademark} dry spent fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Joubert, W.M. [Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, Quebec (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    The MACSTOR{trademark} (Modular Air-Cooled Canister Storage) system was developed by Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) for the interim storage of spent fuel discharged by light water reactors. It is a hybrid system which combines the operational economies of metal cask technology with the capital economies of concrete technology. The system includes all the necessary equipment to transfer spent fuel from a storage pool to an independent interim dry spent fuel storage site. After presenting a description of the system and a brief history of its development, the paper addresses its thermal performance and modeling for various design configurations. Finally, a brief summary of the experience being gained during the implementation of a MACSTOR{trademark} system modified for CANDU spent fuel at the Gentilly-2 NPP in Quebec is presented. It includes progress made in licensing activities and in public hearings pertinent to the initiation of the project.

  9. Inspection of Used Fuel Dry Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dennis C. Kunerth; Tim McJunkin; Mark McKay; Sasan Bakhtiari

    2012-09-01

    ABSTRACT The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulates the storage of used nuclear fuel, which is now and will be increasingly placed in dry storage systems. Since a final disposition pathway is not defined, the fuel is expected to be maintained in dry storage well beyond the time frame originally intended. Due to knowledge gaps regarding the viability of current dry storage systems for long term use, efforts are underway to acquire the technical knowledge and tools required to understand the issues and verify the integrity of the dry storage system components. This report summarizes the initial efforts performed by researchers at Idaho National Laboratory and Argonne National Laboratory to identify and evaluate approaches to in-situ inspection dry storage casks. This task is complicated by the design of the current storage systems that severely restrict access to the casks.

  10. Evaluating the feasibility of new surveillance concept for Dry Storage System through CFD methodology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tseng, Y.S., E-mail: yungshintseng@gmail.com [Nuclear Science and Technology Development Center, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsingchu 30013, 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Lin, C.H., E-mail: gp6ej3@gmail.com [Center for Energy and Environmental Research, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsingchu 30013, 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Shih, C., E-mail: ckshih@ess.nthu.edu.tw [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsingchu 30013, 325, Taiwan, ROC (China); Wang, J.R., E-mail: jongrongwang@gmail.com [Institute of Nuclear Engineering and Science, National Tsing Hua University, 101, Sec. 2, Kuang-Fu Rd., Hsingchu 30013, 325, Taiwan, ROC (China)

    2016-08-01

    Highlights: • Thermal hydraulic behavior of a 3-D dry cask under several off-normal conditions has been numerically investigated by ANSYS/FLUENT. • The simulation methodology was fully validated by comparing the measured results of VSC-17. • The results indicated that many design bases accidents can be early detected by the purposed surveillance method. • A simply determine rule has been developed for future application for dry storage ​monitoring. - Abstract: Since the Dry Storage System (DSS) has passed into a widespread middle-term storage method for Spent Nuclear Fuels (SNFs), the situation monitoring technology for a DSS should be further improved to ensure the reliability of DSS during storing time. However, a passive cooling mechanism with a full-sealed storage requirement causes that the internal situation cannot be directly monitored by thermocouples inserted into the DSS. In this study, a new surveillance method, therefore, has been proposed to overcome this problem. It can predict the DSS situation through measuring the temperature profile at the Transportable Storage Canister (TSC). A validated CFD methodology has been utilized to confirm the method through simulating the thermal characteristics of the ChinShan DSS (CSDSS). The major factors, such as the thermal loading, accident situation and flaw caused by penetrated hole probably, have been considered in this present work. The result shows that the above-mentioned issues would obviously affect the temperature profile on the TSC and can be identified via detecting the temperature profile difference on of TSC. These results confirm that the indirectly surveillance method has enough capability to replace the original monitored method and provide more system information of DSS vendor for middle-term storage.

  11. CFD Analysis of a Dry Storage System for MACSTOR/KN-400

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Yu sun; Shin, Byung soo; Chang, Soon heung [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-10-15

    There are four nuclear power plants in operation at Wolsong and, annually, more than 5,000 assemblies of spent nuclear fuels are released from each plant. Thus the concrete silo type dry storage system was constructed from '90. However, after 2006, another dry storage facility is required to accept the all amount of spent nuclear fuels from the plants. Instead of the concrete silo type, MACSTOR/KN-400 was developed to store the CANDU spent nuclear fuel more densely. In this study, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 model was performed to confirm the thermal integrity of the facility, especially for the concrete structure, using the commercial CFD code, FLUENT. The MACSTOR/KN-400 which has Thermal Insulation Panel (TIP) and IAEA Re-verification Pipe (RVP) was modeled and analyzed in the view point of the thermal integrity of the concrete structure.

  12. Developing a structural health monitoring system for nuclear dry cask storage canister

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiaoyi; Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Giurgiutiu, Victor; Knight, Travis; Lam, Poh-Sang; Yu, Lingyu

    2015-03-01

    Interim storage of spent nuclear fuel from reactor sites has gained additional importance and urgency for resolving waste-management-related technical issues. In total, there are over 1482 dry cask storage system (DCSS) in use at US plants, storing 57,807 fuel assemblies. Nondestructive material condition monitoring is in urgent need and must be integrated into the fuel cycle to quantify the "state of health", and more importantly, to guarantee the safe operation of radioactive waste storage systems (RWSS) during their extended usage period. A state-of-the-art nuclear structural health monitoring (N-SHM) system based on in-situ sensing technologies that monitor material degradation and aging for nuclear spent fuel DCSS and similar structures is being developed. The N-SHM technology uses permanently installed low-profile piezoelectric wafer sensors to perform long-term health monitoring by strategically using a combined impedance (EMIS), acoustic emission (AE), and guided ultrasonic wave (GUW) approach, called "multimode sensing", which is conducted by the same network of installed sensors activated in a variety of ways. The system will detect AE events resulting from crack (case for study in this project) and evaluate the damage evolution; when significant AE is detected, the sensor network will switch to the GUW mode to perform damage localization, and quantification as well as probe "hot spots" that are prone to damage for material degradation evaluation using EMIS approach. The N-SHM is expected to eventually provide a systematic methodology for assessing and monitoring nuclear waste storage systems without incurring human radiation exposure.

  13. Structural design concept and static analysis of CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, K. S.; Yang, K. H.; Paek, C. R.; Jung, J. S.; Lee, H. Y. [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-07-01

    In this study, an structural design concept on CANDU spent fuel compact dry storage system MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been established with a view to optimally design the structural members of the system. Design loads, loading combination and structural safety criteria of the module were reviewed assuming W olsung Site. The static analysis of the module showed that compressive stress concentration due to dead load and live load occurred around the center of roof slab. Maximum stress resulted from dead load is about twice as much as the stress from live load, and structural behavior of module caused by wind load was not significant. The static analysis results will have influence on the reinforcement bar design of structural members with other structural analyses.

  14. Effect of buffer systems and disaccharides concentration on Podoviridae coliphage stability during freeze drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dini, C; de Urraza, P J

    2013-06-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the stability of Podoviridae coliphage CA933P during lyophilization and storage in different media, and to establish similarities between the results obtained and those expected through mechanisms described for proteins stabilization during freeze-drying. PBS and SM buffer were assayed as lyophilization media. The effect of inorganic salts concentration as well as the addition of disaccharides on phage stability during freeze-drying and storage was also studied. The addition of low sucrose concentration (0.1 mol l⁻¹) to SM buffer stabilized phage during freezing and drying steps of the lyophilization process, but higher sugar concentrations were detrimental to phage stability during freeze-drying. Sucrose stabilized phage during storage for at least 120 days. The lyoprotective effect of low concentrations of disaccharides during the drying step of the lyophilization of proteins as well as the stabilization of the freeze-dried product in time correlated with the results obtained for phage CA933P.

  15. Evaluation of a solar-biomass-rock bed storage drying system, and its application for chilli drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus Leon, M.; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, Asian Inst. of Tech. Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    A renewable energy-based air heating system that does not require a conventional auxiliary heater, but can still meet a daily load fraction exceeding 90% and supply hot air at a steady temperature and flow rate continuously for 24 hours a day, has been developed. It combines an unglazed transpired solar collector (UTC), rock bed, and a biomass gasifier stove with heat exchanger. The system utilises part of the rock bed to supply supplementary heat. The UTC supplies the required hot air during the day (to meet the load), and the stove-heat exchanger unit supplies hot air to the rock bed (to charge it), also during the daytime. The rock bed stores the thermal energy during the daytime, and supplies heat during off-sunshine hours - both during day and night. The system was evaluated by drying 22 kg of red chilli, using hot air at 60 C and 90 m{sup 3}/h, from an initial moisture content of 76.7% (w.b) to 8.4% over 32.5 hours of continuous drying. The dryer contributed to a reduction of 66% in drying time compared to open sun drying. The temperature of hot air supplied was stable at 60{+-}3 C for over 24 hours during the entire drying duration. Providing a load fraction of 91.6% during the 24-hour operation, the air heating system can successfully dry red chilli in a continuous drying operation, at required air temperature and flow rate, which can be maintained fairly constant. (orig.)

  16. Seismic analysis and design of a spent nuclear fuel dry storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Kyu-Sup; Jeong, In-Su; Kim, Kap-Sun; Kim, Jong-Soo [KONES Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Yoon, Jeong-Hyoun; Kang, Young-Gon; Cho, Chun-Hyung; Lee, Heung-Young [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-11-15

    A comprehensive seismic analysis has been conducted in this paper by using the computer programs, SHAKE and SASSI, for a consolidated dry storage module named MACSTOR/KN-400, which will be constructed in Wolsung CANDU Nuclear Power Plant site. Especially seismic soil-structure interaction effects have been investigated in terms of transfer functions, maximum floor acceleration and floor response spectrum, and finally those effects are to be incorporated in the detailed structure design.

  17. MACSTOR, an on-site, dry, spent-fuel storage system developed by AECL for use by U. S. utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durante, R.; Feinroth, H.; Pattanyus, P. (AECL Technologies, Bethesda, MD (United States))

    1992-01-01

    The continuing delay in the U.S. Department of Energy's Yucca Mountain and monitored retrievable storage spent-fuel disposal and storage programs has prompted U.S. utilities to consider expanding on-site storage of spent reactor fuel. Long-term, on-site storage has certain advantages to U.S. utilities since it eliminates the need for costly and difficult shipping and puts control of the spent fuel completely under the direction of the owner-utility. AECL Technologies (AECL), through its research company and Canada deuterium uranium (CANDU) engineering services division, has been developing on-site storage for Canadian heavy water nuclear plants for almost 20 yr. AECL has developed a design for a dry storage unit, designated MACSTOR (modular air-cooled storage), that can accommodate U.S. light water reactor (LWR) fuel elements and could become a candidate for the U.S. market. This paper describes MACSTOR and its evolution from the original silos and CANSTOR system that was developed and used in Canada. These systems are subject to regulatory controls by the Atomic Energy Control Board of Canada and have proven to be safe, convenient, and cost effective.

  18. CFD Analysis on the Passive Heat Removal by Helium and Air in the Canister of Spent Fuel Dry Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Do Young; Jeong, Ui Ju; Kim, Sung Joong [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-05-15

    In the current commercial design, the canister of the dry storage system is mainly backfilled with helium gas. Helium gas shows very conductive behavior due to high thermal conductivity and small density change with temperature. However, other gases such as air, argon, or nitrogen are expected to show effective convective behavior. Thus these are also considered as candidates for the backfill gas to provide effective coolability. In this study, to compare the dominant cooling mechanism and effectiveness of cooling between helium gas and air, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis for the canister of spent fuel dry storage system with backfill gas of helium and air is carried out. In this study, CFD simulations for the helium and air backfilled gas for dry storage system canister were carried out using ANSYS FLUENT code. For the comparison work, two backfilled fluids were modeled with same initial and boundary conditions. The observed major difference can be summarized as follows. - The simulation results showed the difference in dominant heat removal mechanism. Conduction for helium, and convection for air considering Reynolds number distribution. - The temperature gradient inside the fuel assembly showed that in case of air, more effective heat mixing occurred compared to helium.

  19. Summary Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1.936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP) is conducted under the assumption the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. A cut away drawing of a typical cesium chloride (CsCI) capsule and the capsule property and geometry information are provided in Figure 1.1. Strontium fluoride (SrF{sub 2}) capsules are similar in design to CsCl capsules. Further details of capsule design, current state, and reference information are given later in this report and its references. Capsule production and life history is covered in WMP-16938, Capsule Characterization Report for Capsule Dry Storage Project, and is briefly summarized in Section 5.2 of this report.

  20. Gas storage in "dry water" and "dry gel" clathrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Benjamin O; Wang, Weixing; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2010-03-02

    "Dry water" (DW) is a free-flowing powder prepared by mixing water, hydrophobic silica particles, and air at high speeds. We demonstrated recently that DW can be used to dramatically enhance methane uptake rates in methane gas hydrate (MGH). Here, we expand on our initial work, demonstrating that DW can be used to increase the kinetics of formation of gas clathrates for gases other than methane, such as CO(2) and Kr. We also show that the stability of the system toward coalescence can be increased via the inclusion of a gelling agent to form a "dry gel", thus dramatically improving the recyclability of the material. For example, the addition of gellan gum allows effective reuse over at least eight clathration cycles without the need for reblending. DW and its "dry gel" modification may represent a potential platform for recyclable gas storage or gas separation on a practicable time scale in a static, unmixed system.

  1. A present status for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bang, K. S.; Lee, J. C.; Park, H. Y.; Seo, K. S

    2003-04-01

    National policy for management of a spent nuclear fuel does not establish in Korea yet. A storage capacity of a storage pool that is to store the spent nuclear fuel will be exceeded an amount of accumulation from the first Woljin nuclear power plant in 2007. Therefore it is necessary that dry storage facility is secured to store safely the spent nuclear fuel on site of the nuclear power plant until national policy for a back-end spent nuclear fuel cycle is established. In order to store safely spent nuclear fuel, it is important that the present status and technology on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel is looked over. Therefore, the present status on dry storage of spent nuclear fuel was analyzed so as to develop dry storage system and choose a proper dry storage method domestic.

  2. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  3. Managing aging effects on dry cask storage systems for extended long-term storage and transportation of used fuel - rev. 0

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chopra, O.K.; Diercks, D.; Fabian, R.; Ma, D.; Shah, V.; Tam, S.W.; Liu, Y. (Decision and Information Sciences); ( EVS); ( NE)

    2012-07-06

    The cancellation of the Yucca Mountain repository program in the United States raises the prospect of extended long-term storage (i.e., >120 years) and deferred transportation of used fuel at operating and decommissioned nuclear power plant sites. Under U.S. federal regulations contained in Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) 72.42, the initial license term for an Independent Spent Fuel Storage Installation (ISFSI) must not exceed 40 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) at the expiration of the license term upon application by the licensee for a period not to exceed 40 years. Application for ISFSI license renewals must include the following: (1) Time-limited aging analyses (TLAAs) that demonstrate that structures, systems, and components (SSCs) important to safety will continue to perform their intended function for the requested period of extended operation; and (2) a description of the aging management program (AMP) for management of issues associated with aging that could adversely affect SSCs important to safety. In addition, the application must also include design bases information as documented in the most recent updated final safety analysis report as required by 10 CFR 72.70. Information contained in previous applications, statements, or reports filed with the Commission under the license may be incorporated by reference provided that those references are clear and specific. The NRC has recently issued the Standard Review Plan (SRP) for renewal of used-fuel dry cask storage system (DCSS) licenses and Certificates of Compliance (CoCs), NUREG-1927, under which NRC may renew a specific license or a CoC for a term not to exceed 40 years. Both the license and the CoC renewal applications must contain revised technical requirements and operating conditions (fuel storage, surveillance and maintenance, and other requirements) for the ISFSI and DCSS that address aging effects that

  4. Development of dry storage technology of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maruoka, Kunio [Mitsubishi Heavy Industries Ltd., Yokohama (Japan). Nuclear Energy Systems Engineering Center; Murakami, Kazuo; Yokoyama, Takeshi; Natsume, Tomohiro; Irino, Mitsuhiro

    1998-07-01

    The increasing demand for storage of spent fuel assemblies generated by commercial nuclear power plants is the urgent subject to solve. The dry storage system is as economically more advantageous than the pool storage system, and so, Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, Ltd. has developed the metal storage cask suited to small and medium storage capacity under 2000MTU - 3000MTU. For large scale capacity, the new `Mitsubishi Vault Storage System` has been developed, and it provides a safe and economical solution. Technical study concerning cooling ability was performed. (author)

  5. Standard guide for evaluation of materials used in extended service of interim spent nuclear fuel dry storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 Part of the total inventory of commercial spent nuclear fuel (SNF) is stored in dry cask storage systems (DCSS) under licenses granted by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). The purpose of this guide is to provide information to assist in supporting the renewal of these licenses, safely and without removal of the SNF from its licensed confinement, for periods beyond those governed by the term of the original license. This guide provides information on materials behavior under conditions that may be important to safety evaluations for the extended service of the renewal period. This guide is written for DCSS containing light water reactor (LWR) fuel that is clad in zirconium alloy material and stored in accordance with the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), at an independent spent-fuel storage installation (ISFSI). The components of an ISFSI, addressed in this document, include the commercial SNF, canister, cask, and all parts of the storage installation including the ISFSI pad. The language of t...

  6. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  7. A Well Established System For The Dry Storage Of Spent Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skrzyppek, Juergen; Kim, Josef Du-III [SMART Power Company, Essen (Germany)

    2015-05-15

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fur Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF the CASTOR and the CONSTOR cask type. While the CASTOR type is optimized for high thermal loads which allows loading after extremely short cooling times and/or high burn-up of the SNF the CONSTOR type is cost optimized for the cost-efficient storage of large quantities of cooler SNF. By now almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. In Germany alone, more than 1000 CASTOR casks are stored with individual storage periods of up to 30 years. Taking into account the additional casks that have to be manufactured, loaded and stored during the final years of the German Nuclear Phase-Out, there will be 2000 casks by GNS in operation worldwide. The presentation will give an overview over several national and international projects and show the bandwidth of customized solutions by GNS.

  8. Combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system for solar-thermal steam-electric power plants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guyer, E.C.; Bourne, J.G.; Brownell, D.L.; Rose, R.M.

    1979-02-28

    The thermal performance and economics of the combined thermal storage pond and dry cooling tower waste heat rejection system concept for solar-thermal steam-electric plants have been evaluated. Based on the computer simulation of the operation of southwest-sited solar-thermal plants, it has been determined that the combined pond-tower concept has significant cost and performance advantages over conventional dry cooling systems. Use of a thermal storage pond as a component of the dry cooling system allows a significant reduction in the required dry cooling heat exchange capacity and the associated parasitic power consumption. Importantly, it has been concluded that the combined pond-tower dry cooling system concept can be employed to economically maintain steam condensing temperatures at levels normally achieved with conventional evaporative cooling systems. An evaluation of alternative thermal storage pond design concepts has revealed that a stratified vertical-flow cut-and-fill reservoir with conventional membrane lining and covering would yield the best overall system performance at the least cost.

  9. Evolution of spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Standring, Paul Nicholas [International Atomic Energy Agency, Vienna (Austria). Div. of Nuclear Fuel Cycle and Waste Technology; Takats, Ferenc [TS ENERCON KFT, Budapest (Hungary)

    2016-11-15

    Around 10,000 tHM of spent fuel is discharged per year from the nuclear power plants in operation. Whilst the bulk of spent fuel is still held in at reactor pools, 24 countries have developed storage facilities; either on the reactor site or away from the reactor site. Of the 146 operational AFR storage facilities about 80 % employ dry storage; the majority being deployed over the last 20 years. This reflects both the development of dry storage technology as well as changes in politics and trading relationships that have affected spent fuel management policies. The paper describes the various approaches to the back-end of the nuclear fuel cycle for power reactor fuels and provides data on deployed storage technologies.

  10. Large solar heating system with seasonal storage for buld drying in Lisse, the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bokhoven, T.P.; Geus, A.C. de

    1996-01-01

    Within IEA Task 14 (Advanced Solar Systems) of the IEA Solar Heating and Cooling Programme a working group was established dealing with large advanced solar energy systems (the Large Systems Working group). The goal of this working group was to generate a common base of experiences for the design an

  11. Methane storage in dry water gas hydrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weixing; Bray, Christopher L; Adams, Dave J; Cooper, Andrew I

    2008-09-03

    Dry water stores 175 v(STP)/v methane at 2.7 MPa and 273.2 K in a hydrate form which is close to the Department of Energy volumetric target for methane storage. Dry water is a silica-stabilized free-flowing powder (95% wt water), and fast methane uptakes were observed (90% saturation uptake in 160 min with no mixing) as a result of the relatively large surface-to-volume ratio of this material.

  12. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y. [Korea Hydraulic and Nuclear Power Company, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349.

  13. Thermal Analysis of a Dry Storage Concept for Capsule Dry Storage Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    JOSEPHSON, W S

    2003-09-04

    There are 1,936 cesium (Cs) and strontium (Sr) capsules stored in pools at the Waste Encapsulation and Storage Facility (WESF). These capsules will be moved to dry storage on the Hanford Site as an interim measure to reduce risk. The Cs/Sr Capsule Dry Storage Project is conducted under the assumption that the capsules will eventually be moved to the repository at Yucca Mountain, and the design criteria include requirements that will facilitate acceptance at the repository. The storage system must also permit retrieval of capsules in the event that vitrification of the capsule contents is pursued. The Capsule Advisory Panel (CAP) was created by the Project Manager for the Hanford Site Capsule Dry Storage Project (CDSP). The purpose of the CAP is to provide specific technical input to the CDSP; to identify design requirements; to ensure design requirements for the project are conservative and defensible; to identify and resolve emerging, critical technical issues, as requested; and to support technical reviews performed by regulatory organizations, as requested. The CAP will develop supporting and summary documents that can be used as part of the technical and safety bases for the CDSP. The purpose of capsule dry storage thermal analysis is to: (1) Summarize the pertinent thermal design requirements sent to vendors, (2) Summarize and address the assumptions that underlie those design requirements, (3) Demonstrate that an acceptable design exists that satisfies the requirements, (4) Identify key design features and phenomena that promote or impede design success, (5) Support other CAP analyses such as corrosion and integrity evaluations, and (6) Support the assessment of proposed designs. It is not the purpose of this report to optimize or fully analyze variations of postulated acceptable designs. The present evaluation will indicate the impact of various possible design features, but not systematically pursue design improvements obtainable through analysis

  14. Nondestructive Examination Guidance for Dry Storage Casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suffield, Sarah R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hirt, Evelyn H. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Suter, Jonathan D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Lareau, John P. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Zhuge, Jing Wei [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Moran, Traci L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ramuhalli, Pradeep [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    In this report, an assessment of NDE methods is performed for components of NUHOMS 80 and 102 dry storage system components in an effort to assist NRC staff with review of license renewal applications. The report considers concrete components associated with the horizontal storage modules (HSMs) as well as metal components in the HSMs. In addition, the report considers the dry shielded canister (DSC). Scope is limited to NDE methods that are considered most likely to be proposed by licensees. The document, ACI 349.3R, Evaluation of Existing Nuclear Safety-Related Concrete Structures, is used as the basis for the majority of the NDE methods summarized for inspecting HSM concrete components. Two other documents, ACI 228.2R, Nondestructive Test Methods for Evaluation of Concrete in Structures, and ORNL/TM-2007/191, Inspection of Nuclear Power Plant Structure-Overview of Methods and Related Application, supplement the list with additional technologies that are considered applicable. For the canister, the ASME B&PV Code is used as the basis for NDE methods considered, along with currently funded efforts through industry (Electric Power Research Institute [EPRI]) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) to develop inspection technologies for canisters. The report provides a description of HSM and DSC components with a focus on those aspects of design considered relevant to inspection. This is followed by a brief description of other concrete structural components such as bridge decks, dams, and reactor containment structures in an effort to facilitate comparison between these structures and HSM concrete components and infer which NDE methods may work best for certain HSM concrete components based on experience with these other structures. Brief overviews of the NDE methods are provided with a focus on issues and influencing factors that may impact implementation or performance. An analysis is performed to determine which NDE methods are most applicable to specific

  15. Improved Food Drying and Storage Training Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweig, Peter R.; And Others

    This manual is intended to serve as a guide for those who are helping future Peace Corps volunteers to acquire basic food drying and storage skills. Included in the guide are lesson outlines and handouts for use in each of the 30 sessions of the course. Representative topics discussed in the individual sessions are scheduling, solar dryers,…

  16. Dry Well Storage Facility conceptual design study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-02-01

    The Dry Well Storage Facility described is assumed to be located adjacent to or near a Spent Fuel Receiving and Packaging Facility and/or a Packaged Fuel Transfer Facility. Performance requirements, quality levels and codes and standards, schedule and methods of performance, special requirements, quality assurance program, and cost estimate are discussed. Appendices on major mechanical equipment and electric power requirements are included.

  17. Structural Sensitivity of Dry Storage Canisters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klymyshyn, Nicholas A.; Karri, Naveen K.; Adkins, Harold E.; Hanson, Brady D.

    2013-09-27

    This LS-DYNA modeling study evaluated a generic used nuclear fuel vertical dry storage cask system under tip-over, handling drop, and seismic load cases to determine the sensitivity of the canister containment boundary to these loads. The goal was to quantify the expected failure margins to gain insight into what material changes over the extended long-term storage lifetime could have the most influence on the security of the containment boundary. It was determined that the tip-over case offers a strong challenge to the containment boundary, and identifies one significant material knowledge gap, the behavior of welded stainless steel joints under high-strain-rate conditions. High strain rates are expected to increase the material’s effective yield strength and ultimate strength, and may decrease its ductility. Determining and accounting for this behavior could potentially reverse the model prediction of a containment boundary failure at the canister lid weld. It must be emphasized that this predicted containment failure is an artifact of the generic system modeled. Vendor specific designs analyze for cask tip-over and these analyses are reviewed and approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Another location of sensitivity of the containment boundary is the weld between the base plate and the canister shell. Peak stresses at this location predict plastic strains through the whole thickness of the welded material. This makes the base plate weld an important location for material study. This location is also susceptible to high strain rates, and accurately accounting for the material behavior under these conditions could have a significant effect on the predicted performance of the containment boundary. The handling drop case was largely benign to the containment boundary, with just localized plastic strains predicted on the outer surfaces of wall sections. It would take unusual changes in the handling drop scenario to harm the containment boundary, such as

  18. Existing Condition Analysis of Dry Spent Fuel Storage Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ning; XU Lan; HAO Jian-sheng

    2016-01-01

    As in some domestic nuclear power plants, spent fuel pools near capacity, away-from-reactor type storage should be arranged to transfer spent fuel before the pool capacity is full and the plants can operate in safety. This study compares the features of wet and dry storage technology, analyzes the actualities of foreign dry storage facilities and then introduces structural characteristics of some foreign dry storage cask. Finally, a glance will be cast on the failure of away-from-reactor storage facilities of Pressurized Water Reactor(PWR)to meet the need of spent-fuel storage. Therefore, this study believes dry storage will be a feasible solution to the problem.

  19. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  20. Heat Transfer Modeling of Dry Spent Nuclear Fuel Storage Facilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.Y.

    1999-01-13

    The present work was undertaken to provide heat transfer model that accurately predicts the thermal performance of dry spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. One of the storage configurations being considered for DOE Aluminum-clad Spent Nuclear Fuel (Al-SNF), such as the Material and Testing Reactor (MTR) fuel, is in a dry storage facility. To support design studies of storage options a computational and experimental program has been conducted at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The main objective is to develop heat transfer models including natural convection effects internal to an interim dry storage canister and to geological codisposal Waste Package (WP). Calculated temperatures will be used to demonstrate engineering viability of a dry storage option in enclosed interim storage and geological repository WP and to assess the chemical and physical behaviors of the Al-SNF in the dry storage facilities. The current paper describes the modeling approaches and presents the computational results along with the experimental data.

  1. Safety aspects of dry spent fuel storage and spent fuel management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Botsch, Wolfgang; Smalian, Silva; Hinterding, Peter [TUV NORD EnSys Hannover, GmbH and Co. KG, Hanover (Germany); Volzke, Holger; Wolff, Dietmar; Kasparek, Eva-Maria [BAM Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing, Berlin (Germany)

    2013-07-01

    As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the storage of spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high-level radioactive waste (HLW) must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects like safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, nuclear criticality safety and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more obvious. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, present the licensing process for sites and casks and inform about spent nuclear fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields. All safety relevant issues like safe enclosure, shielding, removal of the decay heat or behavior of cask and building under accident conditions are checked and validated with state-of-the-art methods and computer codes before the license approval. It is shown how dry storage systems can ensure the compliance with the mentioned safety criteria over a long storage period. Exemplarily, the process of licensing, erection and operation of selected German dry storage facilities is presented. (authors)

  2. Corrosion assessment of dry fuel storage containers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graves, C.E.

    1994-09-01

    The structural stability as a function of expected corrosion degradation of 75 dry fuel storage containers located in the 200 Area Low-Level Waste Burial Grounds was evaluated. These containers include 22 concrete burial containers, 13 55-gal (208-l) drums, and 40 Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) transport/storage casks. All containers are buried beneath at least 48 in. of soil and a heavy plastic tarp with the exception of 35 of the EBR-II casks which are exposed to atmosphere. A literature review revealed that little general corrosion is expected and pitting corrosion of the carbon steel used as the exterior shell for all containers (with the exception of the concrete containers) will occur at a maximum rate of 3.5 mil/yr. Penetration from pitting of the exterior shell of the 208-l drums and EBR-II casks is calculated to occur after 18 and 71 years of burial, respectively. The internal construction beneath the shell would be expected to preclude containment breach, however, for the drums and casks. The estimates for structural failure of the external shells, large-scale shell deterioration due to corrosion, are considerably longer, 39 and 150 years respectively for the drums and casks. The concrete burial containers are expected to withstand a service life of 50 years.

  3. Demonstrating the Safety of Long-Term Dry Storage - 13468

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCullum, Rod [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW, Washington, DC, 20004 (United States); Brookmire, Tom [Dominion Energy, 5000 Dominion Boulevard Glen Allen, VA 23060 (United States); Kessler, John [Electric Power Research Institute, 1300 West W.T. Harris Boulevard, Charlotte, NC 28262 (United States); Leblang, Suzanne [Entergy, 1340 Echelon Parkway, Jackson, MS 39211 (United States); Levin, Adam [Exelon, 4300 Winfield Road, Warrenville, IL 60555 (United States); Martin, Zita [Tennessee Valley Authority, 1101 Market Street, Chattanooga, TN 37402 (United States); Nesbit, Steve [Duke Energy, 550 South Tryon Street, Charlotte, NC 28202 (United States); Nichol, Marc [Nuclear Energy Institute, 1201 F St. NW Washington DC, 2004 (United States); Pickens, Terry [Xcel Energy, 414 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, MN 55401 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    Commercial nuclear plants in the United States were originally designed with the expectation that used nuclear fuel would be moved directly from the reactor pools and transported off site for either reprocessing or direct geologic disposal. However, Federal programs intended to meet this expectation were never able to develop the capability to remove used fuel from reactor sites - and these programs remain stalled to this day. Therefore, in the 1980's, with reactor pools reaching capacity limits, industry began developing dry cask storage technology to provide for additional on-site storage. Use of this technology has expanded significantly since then, and has today become a standard part of plant operations at most US nuclear sites. As this expansion was underway, Federal programs remained stalled, and it became evident that dry cask systems would be in use longer than originally envisioned. In response to this challenge, a strong technical basis supporting the long term dry storage safety has been developed. However, this is not a static situation. The technical basis must be able to address future challenges. Industry is responding to one such challenge - the increasing prevalence of high burnup (HBU) used fuel and the need to provide long term storage assurance for these fuels equivalent to that which has existed for lower burnup fuels over the past 25 years. This response includes a confirmatory demonstration program designed to address the aging characteristics of HBU fuel and set a precedent for a learning approach to aging management that will have broad applicability across the used fuel storage landscape. (authors)

  4. Massive Storage Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dan Feng; Hai Jin

    2006-01-01

    To accommodate the explosively increasing amount of data in many areas such as scientific computing and e-Business, physical storage devices and control components have been separated from traditional computing systems to become a scalable, intelligent storage subsystem that, when appropriately designed, should provide transparent storage interface, effective data allocation, flexible and efficient storage management, and other impressive features. The design goals and desirable features of such a storage subsystem include high performance, high scalability, high availability, high reliability and high security. Extensive research has been conducted in this field by researchers all over the world, yet many issues still remain open and challenging. This paper studies five different online massive storage systems and one offline storage system that we have developed with the research grant support from China. The storage pool with multiple network-attached RAIDs avoids expensive store-and-forward data copying between the server and storage system, improving data transfer rate by a factor of 2-3 over a traditional disk array. Two types of high performance distributed storage systems for local-area network storage are introduced in the paper. One of them is the Virtual Interface Storage Architecture (VISA) where VI as a communication protocol replaces the TCP/IP protocol in the system. VISA's performance is shown to achieve better than that of IP SAN by designing and implementing the vSCSI (VI-attached SCSI) protocol to support SCSI commands in the VI network. The other is a fault-tolerant parallel virtual file system that is designed and implemented to provide high I/O performance and high reliability. A global distributed storage system for wide-area network storage is discussed in detail in the paper, where a Storage Service Provider is added to provide storage service and plays the role of user agent for the storage system. Object based Storage Systems not only

  5. OVERVIEW OF CRITERIA FOR INTERIM WET & DRY STORAGE OF RESEARCH REACTOR SPENT NUCLEAR FUEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sindelar, R.; Vinson, D.; Iyer, N.; Fisher, D.

    2010-11-03

    Following discharge from research reactors, spent nuclear fuel may be stored 'wet' in water pools or basins, or it may be stored 'dry' in various configurations including non-sealed or sealed containers until retrieved for ultimate disposition. Interim safe storage practices are based on avoiding degradation to the fuel that would impact functions related to safety. Recommended practices including environmental controls with technical bases, are outlined for wet storage and dry storage of aluminum-clad, aluminum-based research reactor fuel. For wet storage, water quality must be maintained to minimize corrosion degradation of aluminum fuel. For dry storage, vented canister storage of aluminum fuel readily provides a safe storage configuration. For sealed dry storage, drying must be performed so as to minimize water that would cause additional corrosion and hydrogen generation. Consideration must also be given to the potential for radiolytically-generated hydrogen from the bound water in the attendant oxyhydroxides on aluminum fuel from reactor operation for dry storage systems.

  6. Fuel storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donakowski, T.D.; Tison, R.R.

    1979-08-01

    Storage technologies are characterized for solid, liquid, and gaseous fuels. Emphasis is placed on storage methods applicable to Integrated Community Energy Systems based on coal. Items discussed here include standard practice, materials and energy losses, environmental effects, operating requirements, maintenance and reliability, and cost considerations. All storage systems were found to be well-developed and to represent mature technologies; an exception may exist for low-Btu gas storage, which could have materials incompatability.

  7. Basic Considerations for Dry Storage of Spent Nuclear Fuels and Revisited CFD Thermal Analysis on the Concrete Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noh, Jae Soo [ACT Co. Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Park, Younwon; Song, Sub Lee [BEES Inc., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeun Min [KAIST, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-10-15

    The integrity of storage facility and also of the spent nuclear fuel itself is considered very important. Storage casks can be located in a designated area on a site or in a designated storage building. A number of different designs for dry storage have been developed and used in different countries. Dry storage system was classified into two categories by IAEA. One is container including cask and silo, the other one is vault. However, there is various way of categorization for dry storage system. Dry silo and cask are usually classified separately, so the dry storage system can be classified into three different types. Furthermore, dry cask storage can be categorized into two types based on the type of the materials, concrete cask and metal cask. In this paper, the design characteristics of dry storage cask are introduced and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based thermal analysis for concrete cask is revisited. Basic principles for dry storage cask design were described. Based on that, thermal analysis of concrete dry cask was introduced from the study of H. M. Kim et al. From the CFD calculation, the temperature of concrete wall was maintained under the safety criteria. From this fundamental analysis, further investigations are expected. For example, thermal analysis on the metal cask, thermal analysis on horizontally laid spent nuclear fuel assemblies for transportation concerns, and investigations on better performance of natural air circulation in dry cask can be promising candidates.

  8. Spacecraft Energy Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Wilf; Hanks, James; Spina, Len; Havenhill, Doug; Gisler, Gary; Ginter, Steve; Brault, Sharon

    1997-01-01

    Flywheel Energy Storage Systems represent an exciting alternative to traditional battery storage systems used to power satellites during periods of eclipse. The increasing demand for reliable communication and data access is driving explosive growth in the number of satellite systems being developed as well as their performance requirements. Power on orbit is the key to this performance, and batteries are becoming increasingly unattractive as an energy storage media. Flywheel systems offer ve...

  9. Thermoelectric Powered Wireless Sensors for Dry-Cask Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstens, Thomas Alan

    This study focuses on the development of self-powered wireless sensors. These sensors can be used to measure key parameters in extreme environments; e.g., temperature monitoring for spent nuclear fuel during dry-cask storage. This study has developed a design methodology for these self-powered monitoring systems. The main elements that constitute this work consist of selecting and testing a power source for the wireless sensor, determination of the attenuation of the wireless signal, and testing the wireless sensor circuitry in an extreme environment. OrigenArp determined the decay heat and gamma/neutron source strength of the spent fuel throughout the service life of the dry-cask. A first principles analysis modeled the temperatures inside the dry-cask. A finite-element heat transfer code calculated the temperature distribution of the thermoelectric and heat sink. The temperature distributions determine the power produced by the thermoelectric. It was experimentally verified that a thermoelectric generator (HZ-14) with a DC/DC converter (Linear Technology LTC3108EDE) can power a transceiver (EmbedRF) at condition which represent prototypical conditions throughout and beyond the service life of the dry-cask. The wireless sensor is required to broadcast with enough power to overcome the attenuation from the dry-cask. It will be important to minimize the attenuation of the signal in order to broadcast with a small transmission power. To investigate the signal transmission through the dry-cask, CST Microwave Studio was used to determine the scattering parameter S2,1 for a horizontal dry-cask. Important parameters that can influence the transmission of the signal are antenna orientation, antenna placement, and transmission frequency. The thermoelectric generator, DC/DC converter, and transceiver were exposed to 60Co gamma radiation (exposure rate170.3 Rad/min) at the University of Wisconsin Medical Radiation Research Center. The effects of gamma radiation on the

  10. High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and Development Project, Final Test Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-02-27

    EPRI is leading a project team to develop and implement the first five years of a Test Plan to collect data from a SNF dry storage system containing high burnup fuel.12 The Test Plan defined in this document outlines the data to be collected, and the storage system design, procedures, and licensing necessary to implement the Test Plan.13 The main goals of the proposed test are to provide confirmatory data14 for models, future SNF dry storage cask design, and to support license renewals and new licenses for ISFSIs. To provide data that is most relevant to high burnup fuel in dry storage, the design of the test storage system must mimic real conditions that high burnup SNF experiences during all stages of dry storage: loading, cask drying, inert gas backfilling, and transfer to the ISFSI for multi-year storage.15 Along with other optional modeling, SETs, and SSTs, the data collected in this Test Plan can be used to evaluate the integrity of dry storage systems and the high burnup fuel contained therein over many decades. It should be noted that the Test Plan described in this document discusses essential activities that go beyond the first five years of Test Plan implementation.16 The first five years of the Test Plan include activities up through loading the cask, initiating the data collection, and beginning the long-term storage period at the ISFSI. The Test Plan encompasses the overall project that includes activities that may not be completed until 15 or more years from now, including continued data collection, shipment of the Research Project Cask to a Fuel Examination Facility, opening the cask at the Fuel Examination Facility, and examining the high burnup fuel after the initial storage period.

  11. Cooling Performance Evaluation of the Hybrid Heat Pipe for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    To evaluate the concept of the cooling device, 2-step CFD analysis was conducted for the cooling performance of hybrid heat pipe, which consists of single fuel assembly model and full scope dry cask model. As a passive cooling device of the metal cask for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, hybrid heat pipe was applied to DPC developed in Korea. Hybrid heat pipe is the heat pipe containing neutron absorber can be used as a passive cooling in nuclear application with both decay heat removal and control the reactivity. In this study, 2-step CFD analysis was performed to find to evaluate the heat pipe-based passive cooling system for the application to the dry cask. Only spent fuel pool cannot satisfy the demands for high burnup fuel and large amount of spent fuel. Therefore, it is necessary to prepare supplement of the storage facilities. As one of the candidate of another type of storage, dry storage method have been preferred due to its good expansibility of storage capacity and easy long-term management. Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant with passive cooling and neutron shielding materials was used instead of water in wet storage system. It is relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage. As short term actions for the limited storage capacity of spent fuel pool, it is considered to use dry interim/long term storage method to increase the capacity of spent nuclear fuel storage facilities. For 10-year cooled down spent fuel in the pool storage, fuel rod temperature inside metal cask is expected over 250 .deg. C in simulation. Although it satisfied the criteria that cladding temperature of the spent fuel should keep under 400 .deg. C during storage period, high temperature inside cask can accelerate the thermal degradation of the structural materials consisting metal cask and fuel assembly as well as limitation of the storage capacity of metal cask. In this paper, heat pipe-based cooling device for the dry storage cask was suggested for

  12. Delayed replantation after prolonged dry storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anita Rao

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Management of tooth avulsion in the permanent dentition often presents a challenge. Definitive treatment planning and consultation with specialists is seldom possible at the time of emergency treatment. Replantation of the avulsed tooth can restore esthetic appearance and occlusal function shortly after the injury. This article describes the management of a patient with an avulsed maxillary permanent incisor that had been air-dried for about 40 h. The replanted incisor retained its esthetic appearance and functionality 1 year after replantation, yet the long-term prognosis is not good because of progressive replacement root resorption.

  13. Advantages of dry hardened cask storage over wet storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, Luiz Sergio, E-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.b [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo (CTMSP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. da Qualidade

    2011-07-01

    Pools are generally used to store and maintain spent nuclear fuel assemblies for cooling, after removed from reactors. After three to five years stored in the pools, spent fuel can be reprocessed or sent to a final disposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or sent to another site waiting for future solution. Spent fuel can be stored in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear plant. If this storage were exclusively wet, at the installation decommissioning in the future, another solution for storage will need to be found. Today, after a preliminary cooling, the spent fuel assemblies can be removed from the pool and sent to dry hardened storage installations. This kind of storage does not need complex radiation monitoring and it is safer than wet storage. Brazil has two nuclear reactors in operation, a third reactor is under construction and they use wet spent fuel storage . Dry hardened casks use metal or both metal and concrete for radiation shielding and they are safe, especially during an earthquake. An earthquake struck Japan on March 11, 2011 damaging Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant. The occurrence of earthquakes in Brazil is very small but dry casks can resist to other events, including terrorist acts, better than pools. This paper shows the advantages of dry hardened cask storage in comparison with the wet storage (water pools) for spent nuclear fuel. (author)

  14. Heat release performance of heat storage water tank with phase-change material in solar drying system%太阳能干燥相变储热水箱的放热性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于海涛; 高建民; 陈瑶

    2015-01-01

    为降低传统干燥能耗,强化太阳能干燥用储热水箱的储放热能力,在普通储热水箱中添加了硬脂酸/膨胀石墨相变储热材料,研究了放热温差、储热单元体积对装置放热性能的影响。研究结果表明:相变储热水箱放热时间、放热量随着放热温差和储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加均有所提升,储热单元的添加对储热水箱的放热效果影响更为显著。放热效率则随着放热温差的增大而降低,随着储热水箱中储热单元体积的增加而显著提升;储热水箱中储热单元体积为35%时,相变储热水箱的放热时间比普通储热水箱最多提升了1.26倍,放热温度最大可提高8.7℃,热效率最多可提高22.56%。%Drying is an essential process for a large number of industrial and agricultural products. In order to reduce energy consumption of traditional drying, improve its utilization efficiency and strengthen the capacity of heat storage water tank for solar drying, the stearic acid/expanded graphite composite phase-change material (PCM) with melting point of 52.74℃ and latent heat of 169.90 J/g was added into the conventional heat storage water tank in this paper. The schematic structure of the solar drying system mainly consisted of solar collector, drying oven, heat storage water tank and phase-change thermal energy storage units. The effect of heat release temperature difference and heat storage unit volume on the heat release performance of the device was studied under the same heat release conditions. The total volume of the PCM containers in the heat storage water tank was 15%, 25% and 35%, respectively. The heat storage water tank was heated to 60, 65 and 75℃ by using solar collector in heat storage process. Then the heat storage water tank was used to provide heat for the drying oven, and the heat release process was finished when the temperature of drying oven was 40℃ . The results showed that the

  15. Interstitial hydrogen storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gell, H.A.

    1980-09-30

    A metal hydride fuel system is described that incorporates a plurality of storage elements that may be individually replaced to provide a hydrogen fuel system for combustion engines having a capability of partial refueling is presented.

  16. Extending dry storage of spent LWR fuel for 100 years.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Einziger, R. E.

    1998-12-16

    Because of delays in closing the back end of the fuel cycle in the U.S., there is a need to extend dry inert storage of spent fuel beyond its originally anticipated 20-year duration. Many of the methodologies developed to support initial licensing for 20-year storage should be able to support the longer storage periods envisioned. This paper evaluates the applicability of existing information and methodologies to support dry storage up to 100 years. The thrust of the analysis is the potential behavior of the spent fuel. In the USA, the criteria for dry storage of LWR spent fuel are delineated in 10 CFR 72 [1]. The criteria fall into four general categories: maintain subcriticality, prevent the release of radioactive material above acceptable limits, ensure that radiation rates and doses do not exceed acceptable levels, and maintain retrievability of the stored radioactive material. These criteria need to be considered for normal, off-normal, and postulated accident conditions. The initial safety analysis report submitted for licensing evaluated the fuel's ability to meet the requirements for 20 years. It is not the intent to repeat these calculations, but to look at expected behavior over the additional 80 years, during which the temperatures and radiation fields are lower. During the first 20 years, the properties of the components may change because of elevated temperatures, presence of moisture, effects of radiation, etc. During normal storage in an inert atmosphere, there is potential for the cladding mechanical properties to change due to annealing or interaction with cask materials. The emissivity of the cladding could also change due to storage conditions. If there is air leakage into the cask, additional degradation could occur through oxidation in breached rods, which could lead to additional fission gas release and enlargement of cladding breaches. Air in-leakage could also affect cover gas conductivity, cladding oxidation, emissivity changes, and

  17. Seismic Performance of Dry Casks Storage for Long- Term Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibarra, Luis [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States); Sanders, David [Univ. of Nevada, Reno, NV (United States); Yang, Haori [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States); Pantelides, Chris [Univ. of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT (United States)

    2016-12-30

    The main goal of this study is to evaluate the long-term seismic performance of freestanding and anchored Dry Storage Casks (DSCs) using experimental tests on a shaking table, as well as comprehensive numerical evaluations that include the cask-pad-soil system. The study focuses on the dynamic performance of vertical DSCs, which can be designed as free-standing structures resting on a reinforced concrete foundation pad, or casks anchored to a foundation pad. The spent nuclear fuel (SNF) at nuclear power plants (NPPs) is initially stored in fuel-storage pools to control the fuel temperature. After several years, the fuel assemblies are transferred to DSCs at sites contiguous to the plant, known as Interim Spent Fuel Storage Installations (ISFSIs). The regulations for these storage systems (10 CFR 72) ensure adequate passive heat removal and radiation shielding during normal operations, off-normal events, and accident scenarios. The integrity of the DSCs is important, even if the overpack does not breach, because eventually the spent fuel-rods need to be shipped either to a reprocessing plant or a repository. DSCs have been considered as a temporary storage solution, and usually are licensed for 20 years, although they can be relicensed for operating periods of up to 60 years. In recent years, DSCs have been reevaluated as a potential mid-term solution, in which the operating period may be extended for up to 300 years. At the same time, recent seismic events have underlined the significant risks DSCs are exposed. The consideration of DCSs for storing spent fuel for hundreds of years has created new challenges. In the case of seismic hazard, longer-term operating periods not only lead to larger horizontal accelerations, but also increase the relative effect of vertical accelerations that usually are disregarded for smaller seismic events. These larger seismic demands could lead to casks sliding and tipping over, impacting the concrete pad or adjacent casks. The casks

  18. Extended Dry Storage Signature Bench Scale Detector Conceptual Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rauch, Eric Benton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-02

    This report is the conceptual design of a detector based on research within the Extended Dry Storage Signature Development project under the DOE-­NE MPACT campaign. This is the second year of the project; from this year’s positive results, the next step is building a prototype and testing with real materials .

  19. Licensing of spent fuel dry storage and consolidated rod storage: A Review of Issues and Experiences

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, W.J.

    1990-02-01

    The results of this study, performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), respond to the nuclear industry's recommendation that a report be prepared that collects and describes the licensing issues (and their resolutions) that confront a new applicant requesting approval from the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) for dry storage of spent fuel or for large-scale storage of consolidated spent fuel rods in pools. The issues are identified in comments, questions, and requests from the NRC during its review of applicants' submittals. Included in the report are discussions of (1) the 18 topical reports on cask and module designs for dry storage fuel that have been submitted to the NRC, (2) the three license applications for dry storage of spent fuel at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs) that have been submitted to the NRC, and (3) the three applications (one of which was later withdrawn) for large-scale storage of consolidated fuel rods in existing spent fuel storage pools at reactors that were submitted tot he NRC. For each of the applications submitted, examples of some of the issues (and suggestions for their resolutions) are described. The issues and their resolutions are also covered in detail in an example in each of the three subject areas: (1) the application for the CASTOR V/21 dry spent fuel storage cask, (2) the application for the ISFSI for dry storage of spent fuel at Surry, and (3) the application for full-scale wet storage of consolidated spent fuel at Millstone-2. The conclusions in the report include examples of major issues that applicants have encountered. Recommendations for future applicants to follow are listed. 401 refs., 26 tabs.

  20. The Effects of Drying Methods, Packaging Atmosphere and Storage Time on Dried Pomegranate Aril Quality

    OpenAIRE

    GÖLÜKCÜ, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, an...

  1. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  2. Multiple-Angle Muon Radiography of a Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durham, J. Matthew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Guardincerri, Elena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morris, Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poulson, Daniel Cris [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bacon, Jeffrey Darnell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Morley, Deborah Jean [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Plaud-Ramos, Kenie Omar [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-23

    A partially loaded dry storage cask was imaged using cosmic ray muons. Since the cask is large relative to the size of the muon tracking detectors, the instruments were placed at nine different positions around the cask to record data covering the entire fuel basket. We show that this technique can detect the removal of a single fuel assembly from the center of the cask.

  3. Energy storage connection system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benedict, Eric L.; Borland, Nicholas P.; Dale, Magdelena; Freeman, Belvin; Kite, Kim A.; Petter, Jeffrey K.; Taylor, Brendan F.

    2012-07-03

    A power system for connecting a variable voltage power source, such as a power controller, with a plurality of energy storage devices, at least two of which have a different initial voltage than the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. The power system includes a controller that increases the output voltage of the variable voltage power source. When such output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a first one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the first one of the energy storage devices. The controller then causes the output voltage of the variable voltage power source to continue increasing. When the output voltage is substantially equal to the initial voltage of a second one of the energy storage devices, the controller sends a signal that causes a switch to connect the variable voltage power source with the second one of the energy storage devices.

  4. A study on safety analysis methodology in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Che, M. S.; Ryu, J. H.; Kang, K. M.; Cho, N. C.; Kim, M. S. [Hanyang Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-02-15

    Collection and review of the domestic and foreign technology related to spent fuel dry storage facility. Analysis of a reference system. Establishment of a framework for criticality safety analysis. Review of accident analysis methodology. Establishment of accident scenarios. Establishment of scenario analysis methodology.

  5. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Randy Bohachek; Charles Park; Bruce Wallace; Phil Winston; Steve Marschman

    2013-04-01

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  6. Viability of Existing INL Facilities for Dry Storage Cask Handling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bohachek, Randy; Wallace, Bruce; Winston, Phil; Marschman, Steve

    2013-04-30

    This report evaluates existing capabilities at the INL to determine if a practical and cost effective method could be developed for opening and handling full-sized dry storage casks. The Idaho Nuclear Technology and Engineering Center (INTEC) CPP-603, Irradiated Spent Fuel Storage Facility, provides the infrastructure to support handling and examining casks and their contents. Based on a reasonable set of assumptions, it is possible to receive, open, inspect, remove samples, close, and reseal large bolted-lid dry storage casks at the INL. The capability can also be used to open and inspect casks that were last examined at the TAN Hot Shop over ten years ago. The Castor V/21 and REA-2023 casks can provide additional confirmatory information regarding the extended performance of low-burnup (<45 GWD/MTU) used nuclear fuel. Once a dry storage cask is opened inside CPP-603, used fuel retrieved from the cask can be packaged in a shipping cask, and sent to a laboratory for testing. Testing at the INL’s Materials and Fuels Complex (MFC) can occur starting with shipment of samples from CPP-603 over an on-site road, avoiding the need to use public highways. This reduces cost and reduces the risk to the public. The full suite of characterization methods needed to establish the condition of the fuel exists and MFC. Many other testing capabilities also exist at MFC, but when those capabilities are not adequate, samples can be prepared and shipped to other laboratories for testing. This report discusses how the casks would be handled, what work needs to be done to ready the facilities/capabilities, and what the work will cost.

  7. Dry-fog controlled humidity system and its application in fruit & vegetable storage%干雾湿度控制系统的组建及果蔬贮藏保鲜应用试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟祥春; 黄泽鹏; 毕方铖; 金文渊

    2016-01-01

    To keep fresh and quality of postharvest fruit & vegetable, it is the most important to provide storage environments with high relative humidity (RH). Currently in China, the two mainly used humidification methods are packaging with plastic membrane/bag and installing ultrasonic humidifier in the storage room. All these methods have different degree of disadvantages. In order to provide steady high RH and keep fresh for unpackaged fruits & vegetable under storage, a kind of dry-fog controlled humidifier system was designed and built. Main parts of the system are humidity sensor, Israeli made atomizerwith orifice size of5 mm, water purification system, air compress system, purified water storage tank, pressure regulation and controlling device, water and air transportation tubes, and micro-computer controlling terminal. Mists generated through the fogger had average particle diameters of 2-10μm, which can rapidly spread and integrate into surrounding environment air, providing RH as high as 90%-98%. The humidity sensor in the storage room can continually sense changes of humidity and transmit the signal to the micro-computer controlling terminal, then the controlling unit can automatically control on or off of the atomizer. So that RH in the storage room can keep at the setting point level, and this was demonstrated by RH monitor within 24 hours after system and responding efficiency tests. Application test and evaluation on fruit & vegetable fresh keeping was conducted, and the results showed that tested fruit & vegetable stored under dry-fog controlled humidifier had much less weight loss than those stored under natural RH condition, but at the same water content level as those packaged with plastic bag. In addition, storage time and shelf life of the tested fruit and vegetable exposed to the dry fog was doubled as compared to those stored in the natural RH condition. Overall sensory quality index of dry-fog exposed fruit and vegetable was also improved. Moreover

  8. MACSTOR{trademark}: Dry spent fuel storage for the nuclear power industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pare, F.E.; Pattantyus, P. [AECL Candu, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Hanson, A.S. [Transnuclear, Inc., Hawthorne, NY (United States)

    1993-12-31

    Safe storage of spent fuel has long been an area of critical concern for the nuclear power industry. As fuel pools fill up and re-racking possibilities become exhausted, power plant operators will find that they must ship spent fuel assemblies off-site or develop new on-site storage options. Many utility companies are turning to dry storage for their spent fuel assemblies. The MACSTOR (Modular Air-cooled Canister STORage) concept was developed with this in mind. Derived from AECL`s successful vertical loading, concrete silo program for storing CANDU nuclear spent fuel, MACSTOR was developed for light water reactor spent fuel and was subjected to full scale thermal testing. The MACSTOR Module is a monolithic, shielded concrete vault structure than can accommodate up to 24 spent fuel canisters. Each canister holds 12 PWR or 32 PWR previously cooled spent fuel assemblies with burn-up rates as high as 45,000 MWD/MTU. The structure is passively cooled by natural convection through an array of inlet and outlet gratings and galleries serving a central plenum where the (vertically) stored canisters are located. The canisters are continuously monitored by means of a pressure monitoring system developed by TNI. The MACSTOR system includes the storage module(s), an overhead gantry system for cask handling, a transfer cask for moving fuel from wet to dry storage and a cask transporter. The canister and transfer cask designs are based on Transnuclear transport cask designs and proven hot cell transfer cask technology, adapted to requirements for on-site spent fuel storage. This Modular Air Cooled System has a number of inherent advantages: efficient use of construction materials and site space; cooling is virtually impossible to impede; has the ability to monitor fuel confinement boundary integrity during storage; the fuel canisters may be used for both storage and transport and canisters utilize a flanged, ASME-III closure system that allows for easy inspection.

  9. Energy Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1996-01-01

    SatCon Technology Corporation developed the drive train for use in the Chrysler Corporation's Patriot Mark II, which includes the Flywheel Energy Storage (FES) system. In Chrysler's experimental hybrid- electric car, the hybrid drive train uses an advanced turboalternator that generates electricity by burning a fuel; a powerful, compact electric motor; and a FES that eliminates the need for conventional batteries. The FES system incorporates technology SatCon developed in more than 30 projects with seven NASA centers, mostly for FES systems for spacecraft attitude control and momentum recovery. SatCon will continue to develop the technology with Westinghouse Electric Corporation.

  10. Development of a rapid screening protocol for selection of strains resistant to spray drying and storage in dry powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reimann, S; Grattepanche, F; Baggenstos, C; Rezzonico, E; Berger, B; Arigoni, F; Lacroix, C

    2010-06-01

    An efficient screening method for selection of Bifidobacterium longum strains resistant to spray drying and storage was developed based on randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) for identification of the best survivors in mixed strains bacterial preparations. Three different primers were used to generate RAPD profiles of 22 B. longum strains. All strains were distinguished according to their RAPD profiles except for the strain NCC2705 and its H(2)O(2) resistant derivative variant. The 22 strains were grouped in 3 batches of 7, 7 and 8 strains and subjected to spray drying and storage at 30 and 37 °C under anaerobic conditions. Batch survival rates after spray drying reached 17.1±4.4%. Strains showing the highest prevalence and/or resistance to storage at 37 °C were selected from individual batches for subsequent spray drying and storage testing. After 67 days of storage, NCC572 was identified as the dominant strain in powder. The stability of strain NCC572 was confirmed by performing single spray drying and storage tests. Out of 22 B. longum strains, a robust strain was identified by combining RAPD with a simultaneous screening test for survival under spray drying and storage. The method allowed a fast screening of B. longum strains in mixture for resistance to spray drying and storage compared to traditional screening procedures carried out with individual strains, in the same conditions. This approach could be applied to other stress conditions.

  11. Assessment of xylanase activity in dry storage as a potential method of reducing feedstock cost.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, William A; Thompson, David N; Thompson, Vicki S; Radtke, Corey W; Carter, Brady

    2009-05-01

    Enzymatic preprocessing of lignocellulosic biomass in dry storage systems has the potential to improve feedstock characteristics and lower ethanol production costs. To assess the potential for endoxylanase activity at low water contents, endoxylanase activity was tested using a refined wheat arabinoxylan substrate and three commercial endoxylanases over the water activity range 0.21-1.0, corresponding to water contents of 5% to >60% (dry basis). Homogeneously mixed dry samples were prepared at a fixed enzyme to substrate ratio and incubated in chambers at a variety of fixed water activities. Replicates were sacrificed periodically, and endoxylanase activity was quantified as an increase in reducing sugar relative to desiccant-stored controls. Endoxylanase activity was observed at water activities over 0.91 in all enzyme preparations in less than 4 days and at a water activity of 0.59 in less than 1 week in two preparations. Endoxylanase activity after storage was confirmed for selected desiccant-stored controls by incubation at 100% relative humidity. Water content to water activity relationships were determined for three lignocellulosic substrates, and results indicate that two endoxylanase preparations retained limited activity as low as 7% to 13% water content (dry basis), which is well within the range of water contents representative of dry biomass storage. Future work will examine the effects of endoxylanase activity toward substrates such as corn stover, wheat straw, and switchgrass in low water content environments.

  12. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L. on its pungency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcin Horbowicz

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led to large losses - reaching 75% of pungency found in the onion taken to the process. Storage of the frozen onion caused further decrease its pungency. Decrease of pungency during drying was depended on temperature of the process. Low drying temperature (40 and 50°C, 20 hours caused only 15-20% decline of pungency. Higher temperature drying (60°C resulted in 50% losses of onion pungency.

  13. Conceptual design report for the ICPP spent nuclear fuel dry storage project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The conceptual design is presented for a facility to transfer spent nuclear fuel from shipping casks to dry storage containers, and to safely store those containers at ICPP at INEL. The spent fuels to be handled at the new facility are identified and overall design and operating criteria established. Physical configuration of the facility and the systems used to handle the SNF are described. Detailed cost estimate for design and construction of the facility is presented.

  14. ACR fuel storage analysis: finite element heat transfer analysis of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khair, K.; Baset, S.; Millard, J. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Mississauga, Ontario (Canada)

    2006-07-01

    Over the past decade Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) has designed and licensed air-cooled concrete structures used as above ground dry storage containers (MACSTOR) to store irradiated nuclear fuel from CANDU plants. A typical MACSTOR 200 module is designed to store 12,000 bundles in 20 storage cylinders. MACSTOR 200 modules are in operation at Gentilly-2 in Canada and at Cernavoda in Romania. The MACSTOR module is cooled passively by natural convection and by conduction through the concrete walls and roof. Currently AECL is designing the Advanced Candu Reactor (ACR) with CANFLEX slightly enriched uranium fuel to be used. AECL has initiated a study to explore the possibility of storing the irradiated nuclear fuel from ACR in MACSTOR modules. This included work to consider ways of minimizing footprint both in the spent fuel storage bay and in the dry storage area. The commercial finite element code ANSYS has been used in this study. The FE model is used to complete simulations with the higher heat source using the same concrete structural dimensions to assess the feasibility of using the MACSTOR design for storing the ACR irradiated fuel. This paper presents the results of the analysis. The results are used to confirm the possibility of using, with minimal changes to the design of the storage baskets and the structure, the proven design of the MACSTOR 200 containment to store the ACR fuel bundles with higher enrichment and burnup. This has thus allowed us to confirm conceptual feasibility and move on to investigation of optimization. (author)

  15. Nonlinear Ultrasonic Diagnosis and Prognosis of ASR Damage in Dry Cask Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qu, Jianmin [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Bazant, Zdenek [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Jacobs, Laurence [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Guimaraes, Maria [Electrical Power Research Institute, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Alkali-silica reaction (ASR) is a deleterious chemical process that may occur in cement-based materials such as mortars and concretes, where the hydroxyl ions in the highly alkaline pore solution attack the siloxane groups in the siliceous minerals in the aggregates. The reaction produces a cross-linked alkali-silica gel. The ASR gel swells in the presence of water. Expansion of the gel results in cracking when the swelling-induced stress exceeds the fracture toughness of the concrete. As the ASR continues, cracks may grow and eventually coalesce, which results in reduced service life and a decrease safety of concrete structures. Since concrete is widely used as a critical structural component in dry cask storage of used nuclear fuels, ASR damage poses a significant threat to the sustainability of long term dry cask storage systems. Therefore, techniques for effectively detecting, managing and mitigating ASR damage are needed. Currently, there are no nondestructive methods to accurately detect ASR damage in existing concrete structures. The only current way of accurately assessing ASR damage is to drill a core from an existing structure, and conduct microscopy on this drilled cylindrical core. Clearly, such a practice is not applicable to dry cask storage systems. To meet these needs, this research is aimed at developing (1) a suite of nonlinear ultrasonic quantitative nondestructive evaluation (QNDE) techniques to characterize ASR damage, and (2) a physics-based model for ASR damage evolution using the QNDE data. Outcomes of this research will provide a nondestructive diagnostic tool to evaluate the extent of the ASR damage, and a prognostic tool to estimate the future reliability and safety of the concrete structures in dry cask storage systems

  16. Terrestrial Energy Storage SPS Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandhorst, Henry W., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    Terrestrial energy storage systems for the SSP system were evaluated that could maintain the 1.2 GW power level during periods of brief outages from the solar powered satellite (SPS). Short-term outages of ten minutes and long-term outages up to four hours have been identified as "typical" cases where the ground-based energy storage system would be required to supply power to the grid. These brief interruptions in transmission could result from performing maintenance on the solar power satellite or from safety considerations necessitating the power beam be turned off. For example, one situation would be to allow for the safe passage of airplanes through the space occupied by the beam. Under these conditions, the energy storage system needs to be capable of storing 200 MW-hrs and 4.8 GW-hrs, respectively. The types of energy storage systems to be considered include compressed air energy storage, inertial energy storage, electrochemical energy storage, superconducting magnetic energy storage, and pumped hydro energy storage. For each of these technologies, the state-of-the-art in terms of energy and power densities were identified as well as the potential for scaling to the size systems required by the SSP system. Other issues addressed included the performance, life expectancy, cost, and necessary infrastructure and site locations for the various storage technologies.

  17. Solar Thermal Storage System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun A. Abhyankar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Increasing energy consumption, shrinking resources and rising energy costs will have significant impact on our standard of living for future generations. In this situation, the development of alternative, cost effective sources of energy has to be a priority. This project presents the advanced technology and some of the unique features of a novel solar system that utilizes solar energy for space heating and water heating purpose in residential housing and commercial buildings. The improvements in solar technology offers a significant cost reduction, to a level where the solar system can compete with the energy costs from existing sources. The main goal of the project is to investigate new or advanced solutions for storing heat in systems providing heating. which can be achieved using phase change material(PCM.A phase change material with a melting/solidification temperature of 50ºC to 60ºC is used for solar heat storage. When the PCM undergoes the phase change, it can absorb or release a large amount of energy as latent heat. This heat can be used for further applications like water heating and space heating purposes. Thus solar thermal energy is widely use

  18. Critical Analysis of Dry Storage Temperature Limits for Zircaloy-Clad Spent Nuclear Fuel Based on Diffusion Controlled Cavity Growth

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hayes, T.A.; Rosen, R.S.; Kassner, M.E.

    1999-12-01

    Interim dry storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) rods is of critical concern because a shortage of existing SNF wet storage capacity combined with delays in the availability of a permanent disposal repository has led to an increasing number of SNF rods being placed into interim dry storage. Safe interim dry storage must be maintained for a minimum of twenty years according to the Standard Review Plan for Dry Cask Storage Systems [1] and the Code of Federal Regulations, 10 CFR Part 72 [2]. Interim dry storage licensees must meet certain safety conditions when storing SNF rods to ensure that there is a ''very low probability (e.g. 0.5%) of cladding breach during long-term storage'' [1]. Commercial SNF typically consists of uranium oxide pellets surrounded by a thin cladding. The cladding is usually an {alpha}-zirconium based alloy know as ''Zircaloy''. In dry storage, the SNF rods are confined in one of several types of cask systems approved by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC). ''The cask system must be designed to prevent degradation of fuel cladding that results in a type of cladding breach, such as axial-splits or ductile fracture, where irradiated UO{sub 2} particles may be released. In addition, the fuel cladding should not degrade to the point where more than one percent of the fuel rods suffer pinhole or hairline crack type failure under normal storage conditions [1].'' The NRC has approved two models [3,4] for use by proposed dry storage licensees to determine the maximum initial temperature limit for nuclear fuel rods in dry storage that supposedly meet the above criteria and yield consistent temperature limits. Though these two models are based on the same fundamental failure theory, different assumptions have been made including the choice of values for material constants in the failure equation. This report will examine and compare the similarities and inconsistencies of these two models

  19. Effect of drying, freezing and storage of dried and frozen onion (Allium cepa L.) on its pungency

    OpenAIRE

    Marcin Horbowicz; Józef Bąkowski

    2013-01-01

    The paper contains results of studies of drying and freezing effects, as well as storage of dried and frozen onion on its pungency. The effect of onion bulbs preparation on pungency was estimated as well. The pungency measurements were based on determination of pyruvate produced enzymatically by alliinase. Storage at 20°C of skinned onion decreases sligthly pungency, however three weeks storage at 0-2°C did not change it. Other results indicate that freezing at -25°C, and followed thawing led...

  20. Rod internal pressure of spent nuclear fuel and its effects on cladding degradation during dry storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ju-Seong; Hong, Jong-Dae; Yang, Yong-Sik; Kook, Dong-Hak

    2017-08-01

    Temperature and hoop stress limits have been used to prevent the gross rupture of spent nuclear fuel during dry storage. The stress due to rod internal pressure can induce cladding degradation such as creep, hydride reorientation, and delayed hydride cracking. Creep is a self-limiting phenomenon in a dry storage system; in contrast, hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking are potential degradation mechanisms activated at low temperatures when the cladding material is brittle. In this work, a conservative rod internal pressure and corresponding hoop stress were calculated using FRAPCON-4.0 fuel performance code. Based on the hoop stresses during storage, a study on the onset of hydride reorientation and delayed hydride cracking in spent nuclear fuel was conducted under the current storage guidelines. Hydride reorientation is hard to occur in most of the low burn-up fuel while some high burn-up fuel can experience hydride reorientation, but their effect may not be significant. On the other hand, delayed hydride cracking will not occur in spent nuclear fuel from pressurized water reactor; however, there is a lack of confirmatory data on threshold intensity factor for delayed hydride cracking and crack size distribution in the fuel.

  1. Initial evaluation of dry storage issues for spent nuclear fuels in wet storage at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guenther, R J; Johnson, Jr, A B; Lund, A L; Gilbert, E R [and others

    1996-07-01

    The Pacific Northwest Laboratory has evaluated the basis for moving selected spent nuclear fuels in the CPP-603 and CPP-666 storage pools at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant from wet to dry interim storage. This work is being conducted for the Lockheed Idaho Technologies Company as part of the effort to determine appropriate conditioning and dry storage requirements for these fuels. These spent fuels are from 22 test reactors and include elements clad with aluminum or stainless steel and a wide variety of fuel materials: UAl{sub x}, UAl{sub x}-Al and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-Al cermets, U-5% fissium, UMo, UZrH{sub x}, UErZrH, UO{sub 2}-stainless steel cermet, and U{sub 3}O{sub 8}-stainless steel cermet. The study also included declad uranium-zirconium hydride spent fuel stored in the CPP-603 storage pools. The current condition and potential failure mechanisms for these spent fuels were evaluated to determine the impact on conditioning and dry storage requirements. Initial recommendations for conditioning and dry storage requirements are made based on the potential degradation mechanisms and their impacts on moving the spent fuel from wet to dry storage. Areas needing further evaluation are identified.

  2. CASTOR {sup ®} and CONSTOR {sup ®}. A well established system for the dry storage of spent fuel and high level waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wimmer, Hannes; Skrzyppek, Juergen; Koebl, Michael [GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH, Essen (Germany)

    2015-06-01

    The German company GNS Gesellschaft fuer Nuklear-Service mbH today looks back on more than 30 years of operational experience with dual-purpose casks for the transport and storage of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) from nuclear power plants and high level waste (HLW) from reprocessing. Following customer demands, GNS developed two different cask types for SNF. By now, almost 1,300 GNS-casks are in operation worldwide. This article gives an overview over several national and international projects and shows the bandwidth of customised solutions by GNS.

  3. Dry Cask Storage Characterization Project - Phase 1: CASTOR V/21 Cask Opening and Examination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bare, Walter Claude; Ebner, Matthias Anthony; Torgerson, Laurence Dale

    2001-08-01

    This report documents visual examination and testing conducted in 1999 and early 2000 at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) on a Gesellschaft für Nuklear Service (GNS) CASTOR V/21 pressurized water reactor (PWR) spent fuel dry storage cask. The purpose of the examination and testing is to develop a technical basis for renewal of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. The examination and testing was conducted to assess the condition of the cask internal and external surfaces, cask contents consisting of 21 Westinghouse PWR spent fuel assemblies from Dominion’s (formerly named Virginia Power) Surry Power Station and cask concrete storage pad. The assemblies have been continuously stored in the CASTOR cask since 1985. Cask exterior surface and selected fuel assembly temperatures, and cask surface gamma and neutron dose rates were measured. Cask external/internal surfaces, fuel basket components including accessible weldments, fuel assembly exteriors, and primary lid seals were visually examined. Selected fuel rods were removed from one fuel assembly, visually examined, and then shipped to Argonne National Laboratory for nondestructive, destructive, and mechanical examination. Cask interior crud samples and helium cover gas samples were collected and analyzed. The results of the examination and testing indicate the concrete storage pad, CASTOR V/21 cask, and cask contents exhibited sound structural and seal integrity and that long-term storage has not caused detectable degradation of the spent fuel cladding or the release of gaseous fission products between 1985 and 1999.

  4. Modeling the Survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7 During Fermentation, Drying, and Storage of a Soudjouk-Style Fermented Dry or Semi-Dry Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cases of foodborne illness have been linked to the consumption of fermented dry or semi-dry sausages (FDSS) contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7. The purpose of this study was to model the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during FDSS manufacturing and storage. Beef batter (20% fat) containing...

  5. Behavior of spent fuel and cask components after extended periods of dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kenneally, R. [U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Rockville, MD (United States); Kessler, J. [Electric Power Research Inst., Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated 10 CFR Part 72, Title 10, for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste outside reactor spent fuel pools. Part 72 currently limits the license term for an independent spent fuel storage installation to 20 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the Commission at or before the expiration of the license term. Applications for renewal of a license should be filed at least two years prior to the expiration of the existing license. In preparation for possible license renewal, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material and Safeguards, Spent Fuel Project Office, is developing the technical basis for renewals of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. An analysis of past performance of selected components of these systems is required as part of that technical basis. In the years 1980 through the early 1990, the Department of Energy (DOE) procured four prototype dry storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL): Castor-V/21, MC-10, TN-24P, and VSC-17. The primary purpose of the testing was to benchmark thermal and radiological codes and to determine the thermal and radiological characteristics of the casks. A series of examinations in 1999 and early 2000 to investigate the integrity of the Castor V/21 cask were undertaken. There is no evidence of significant degradation of the Castor V/21 cask systems important to safety from the time of initial loading of the cask in 1985 up to the time of testing in 1999. (author)

  6. Tribology of magnetic storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhushan, Bharat

    1992-01-01

    The construction and the materials used in different magnetic storage devices are defined. The theories of friction and adhesion, interface temperatures, wear, and solid-liquid lubrication relevant to magnetic storage systems are presented. Experimental data are presented wherever possible to support the relevant theories advanced.

  7. NDE to Manage Atmospheric SCC in Canisters for Dry Storage of Spent Fuel: An Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, Ryan M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Pardini, Allan F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cuta, Judith M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Adkins, Harold E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Casella, Andrew M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Qiao, Hong [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Larche, Michael R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Diaz, Aaron A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Doctor, Steven R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2013-09-01

    This report documents efforts to assess representative horizontal (Transuclear NUHOMS®) and vertical (Holtec HI-STORM) storage systems for the implementation of non-destructive examination (NDE) methods or techniques to manage atmospheric stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in canisters for dry storage of used nuclear fuel. The assessment is conducted by assessing accessibility and deployment, environmental compatibility, and applicability of NDE methods. A recommendation of this assessment is to focus on bulk ultrasonic and eddy current techniques for direct canister monitoring of atmospheric SCC. This assessment also highlights canister regions that may be most vulnerable to atmospheric SCC to guide the use of bulk ultrasonic and eddy current examinations. An assessment of accessibility also identifies canister regions that are easiest and more difficult to access through the ventilation paths of the concrete shielding modules. A conceivable sampling strategy for canister inspections is to sample only the easiest to access portions of vulnerable regions. There are aspects to performing an NDE inspection of dry canister storage system (DCSS) canisters for atmospheric SCC that have not been addressed in previous performance studies. These aspects provide the basis for recommendations of future efforts to determine the capability and performance of eddy current and bulk ultrasonic examinations for atmospheric SCC in DCSS canisters. Finally, other important areas of investigation are identified including the development of instrumented surveillance specimens to identify when conditions are conducive for atmospheric SCC, characterization of atmospheric SCC morphology, and an assessment of air flow patterns over canister surfaces and their influence on chloride deposition.

  8. Systems, distribution and storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altiparmakis, A.; Nygaard Rasmussen, C.; Pensini, A.; Marra, F.; Guang Ya Yang

    2012-11-15

    Energy storage is as yet somewhat unprofitable due to its high capital costs and the immaturity of the technology. However, it shows great promise because of its expected ability to cut costs, deal with issues of excess energy supply from intermittent renewable sources, and capture profits from price arbitrage in electricity and heat markets. (LN)

  9. Influence of drying and storage on lipid and carotenoid stability of the microalga Phaeodactylum tricornutum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryckebosch, Eline; Muylaert, Koenraad; Eeckhout, Mia; Ruyssen, Tony; Foubert, Imogen

    2011-10-26

    The influence of short-term storage and spray- and freeze-drying of fresh microalgal paste on the stability of lipids and carotenoids of Phaeodactylum tricornutum was investigated. Furthermore, the effects of storage time (14 and 35 days) and condition (vacuum packed vs non vacuum packed, -20 °C vs 4 °C vs 20 °C) after spray- and freeze-drying were studied. Total lipid content, free fatty acid content, carotenoid content and degree of lipid oxidation were measured. No effects of spray- and freeze-drying and subsequent storage were found on total lipid content, except for short-term storage of the fresh microalgal paste, which led to pronounced lipolysis and therefore a lower total lipid content. Freeze-dried microalgae were found to be more susceptible to lipolysis upon storage than spray-dried microalgae. On the other hand, spray-dried microalgae were more susceptible to oxidation than freeze-dried microalgae, possibly due to breakdown of protecting carotenoids upon spray-drying. Hardly any effect of storage condition was observed for any of the parameters tested.

  10. Drying and storage effects on poly(ethylene glycol) hydrogel mechanical properties and bioactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luong, P T; Browning, M B; Bixler, R S; Cosgriff-Hernandez, E

    2014-09-01

    Hydrogels based on poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) are increasingly used in biomedical applications because of their ability to control cell-material interactions by tuning hydrogel physical and biological properties. Evaluation of stability after drying and storage are critical in creating an off-the-shelf biomaterial that functions in vivo according to original specifications. However, there has not been a study that systematically investigates the effects of different drying conditions on hydrogel compositional variables. In the first part of this study, PEG-diacrylate hydrogels underwent common processing procedures (vacuum-drying, lyophilizing, hydrating then vacuum-drying), and the effect of this processing on the mechanical properties and swelling ratios was measured. Significant changes in compressive modulus, tensile modulus, and swelling ratio only occurred for select processed hydrogels. No consistent trends were observed after processing for any of the formulations tested. The effect of storage conditions on cell adhesion and spreading on collagen- and streptococcal collagen-like protein (Scl2-2)-PEG-diacrylamide hydrogels was then evaluated to characterize bioactivity retention after storage. Dry storage conditions preserved bioactivity after 6 weeks of storage; whereas, storage in PBS significantly reduced bioactivity. This loss of bioactivity was attributed to ester hydrolysis of the protein linker, acrylate-PEG-N-hydroxysuccinimide. These studies demonstrate that these processing methods and dry storage conditions may be used to prepare bioactive PEG hydrogel scaffolds with recoverable functionality after storage.

  11. Loss of selenium in drying and storage of agronomic plant species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Gunnar Gissel

    1970-01-01

    In two experiments with Se75, loss of selenium from agricultural species was noted during both drying and storage. The loss of selenium during drying was to some extent overshadowed by the influence of self-absorption caused by the water in the fresh material. The results showed that even plant...... material of non-indicator plantslose volatile selenium at drying temperatures of 60°C or higher, and in some cases even at temperatures below 60°C. The results also showed that storage as briquettes gives the lowest storage loss of selenium....

  12. PERFORMANCE OF A FORCED CONVECTION SOLAR DRIER INTEGRATED WITH GRAVEL AS HEAT STORAGE MATERIAL FOR CHILI DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. MOHANRAJ

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An indirect forced convection solar drier integrated with different sensible heat storage maternal has been developed and tested its performance for drying chili under the metrological conditions of Pollachi, India. The system consists of a flat plate solar air heater with heat storage unit, a drying chamber and a centrifugal blower. Drying experiments have been performed at an air flow rate of 0.25 kg/s. Drying of chili in a forced convection solar drier reduces the moisture content from around 72.8% (wet basis to the final moisture content about 9.1% in 24 h. Average drier efficiency was estimated to be about 21%. The specific moisture extraction rate was estimated to be about 0.87 kg/kWh.

  13. Solar Heating System with Building-Integrated Heat Storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heller, Alfred

    1996-01-01

    Traditional solar heating systems cover between 5 and 10% of the heat demand fordomestic hot water and comfort heating. By applying storage capacity this share can beincreased much. The Danish producer of solar heating systems, Aidt-Miljø, markets such a system including storage of dry sand heated...... by PP-pipe heat exchanger. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, and due to storage. Heat demand is reduced due to direct solar heating, due to storage and due to lower heat losses through the ground. In theory, by running the system flow backwards through the sand storage, active heating...... can be achieved.The objective of the report is to present results from measured system evaluation andcalculations and to give guidelines for the design of such solar heating systems with building integrated sand storage. The report is aimed to non-technicians. In another report R-006 the main results...

  14. Storage Area Networks and The High Performance Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hulen, H; Graf, O; Fitzgerald, K; Watson, R W

    2002-03-04

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a mature Hierarchical Storage Management (HSM) system that was developed around a network-centered architecture, with client access to storage provided through third-party controls. Because of this design, HPSS is able to leverage today's Storage Area Network (SAN) infrastructures to provide cost effective, large-scale storage systems and high performance global file access for clients. Key attributes of SAN file systems are found in HPSS today, and more complete SAN file system capabilities are being added. This paper traces the HPSS storage network architecture from the original implementation using HIPPI and IPI-3 technology, through today's local area network (LAN) capabilities, and to SAN file system capabilities now in development. At each stage, HPSS capabilities are compared with capabilities generally accepted today as characteristic of storage area networks and SAN file systems.

  15. Evaluation of safety margins during dry storage of CANDU fuel in MACSTOR/KN-400 module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, R.; Shill, R. [Atomic Energy Of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, K.-H.; Chung, S.-H.; Yoon, J.-H.; Choi, B.-I.; Lee, H.-Y.; Song, M.-J. [KHNP, Nuclear Environment Technology Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-03-15

    This paper covers an evaluation of the available safety margin against fuel bundle degradation during dry storage of CANDU spent fuel bundles in a MACSTOR/KN-400 module, considering normal, off-normal and postulated accidental conditions. (author)

  16. Evaluation of Corrosion of Aluminum Based Reactor Fuel Cladding Materials During Dry Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peacock, H.B. Jr.

    1999-10-21

    This report provides an evaluation of the corrosion behavior of aluminum cladding alloys and aluminum-uranium alloys at conditions relevant to dry storage. The details of the corrosion program are described and the results to date are discussed.

  17. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  18. Design requirements of a consolidating dry storage module for CANDU spent fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Yang, Ke Hyung; Choi, Byung Il; Lee, Heung Young [KHNP/NETEC, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-10-01

    This paper presents a technical description of design requirement document covers the requirements of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module, which is under development to densely accommodate CANDU spent fuels with more efficient way. The design requirement is for the module that will be constructed within a dry storage site after successfully licensed by the regulatory body. This temporary outdoor spent fuel dry storage facility provides for safe storage of spent nuclear fuel after it has been removed from the plant's storage pool after being allowed to decay for a period of at least 6 years. The MACSTOR/KN-400 module is being designed to the envelope of site environmental conditions encountered at the Wolsong station. The design requirements of MACSTOR/KN-400 module meets the requirements of the appropriate Codes and Standards for dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors such as lOCFR72, and Korea Atomic Energy Act and relevant technical standard.

  19. Neuro-fuzzy modeling to predict physicochemical and microbiological parameters of partially dried cherry tomato during storage: effects on water activity, temperature and storage time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Li, Yong; Zhou, Ruiyun; Chu, Dinh-Toi; Su, Lijuan; Han, Yongbin; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-10-01

    In the study, osmotically dehydrated cherry tomatoes were partially dried to water activity between 0.746 and 0.868, vacuum-packed and stored at 4-30 °C for 60 days. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) was utilized to predict the physicochemical and microbiological parameters of these partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage. Satisfactory accuracies were obtained when ANFIS was used to predict the lycopene and total phenolic contents, color and microbial contamination. The coefficients of determination for all the ANFIS models were higher than 0.86 and showed better performance for prediction compared with models developed by response surface methodology. Through ANFIS modeling, the effects of storage conditions on the properties of partially dried cherry tomatoes were visualized. Generally, contents of lycopene and total phenolics decreased with the increase in water activity, temperature and storage time, while aerobic plate count and number of yeasts and molds increased at high water activities and temperatures. Overall, ANFIS approach can be used as an effective tool to study the quality decrease and microbial pollution of partially dried cherry tomatoes during storage, as well as identify the suitable preservation conditions.

  20. GPUs as Storage System Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Al-Kiswany, Samer; Ripeanu, Matei

    2012-01-01

    Massively multicore processors, such as Graphics Processing Units (GPUs), provide, at a comparable price, a one order of magnitude higher peak performance than traditional CPUs. This drop in the cost of computation, as any order-of-magnitude drop in the cost per unit of performance for a class of system components, triggers the opportunity to redesign systems and to explore new ways to engineer them to recalibrate the cost-to-performance relation. This project explores the feasibility of harnessing GPUs' computational power to improve the performance, reliability, or security of distributed storage systems. In this context, we present the design of a storage system prototype that uses GPU offloading to accelerate a number of computationally intensive primitives based on hashing, and introduce techniques to efficiently leverage the processing power of GPUs. We evaluate the performance of this prototype under two configurations: as a content addressable storage system that facilitates online similarity detectio...

  1. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy`s (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States [CIS]). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  2. Foreign experience on effects of extended dry storage on the integrity of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schneider, K.J.; Mitchell, S.J.

    1992-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of a survey of foreign experience in dry storage of spent fuel from nuclear power reactors that was carried out for the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM). The report reviews the mechanisms for degradation of spent fuel cladding and fuel materials in dry storage, identifies the status and plans of world-wide experience and applications, and documents the available information on the expected long-term integrity of the dry-stored spent fuel from actual foreign experience. Countries covered in this survey are: Argentina, Canada, Federal Republic of Germany (before reunification with the former East Germany), former German Democratic Republic (former East Germany), France, India, Italy, Japan, South Korea, Spain, Switzerland, United Kingdom, and the former USSR (most of these former Republics are now in the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS)). Industrial dry storage of Magnox fuels started in 1972 in the United Kingdom; Canada began industrial dry storage of CANDU fuels in 1980. The technology for safe storage is generally considered to be developed for time periods of 30 to 100 years for LWR fuel in inert gas and for some fuels in oxidizing gases at low temperatures. Because it will probably be decades before countries will have a repository for spent fuels and high-level wastes, the plans for expanded use of dry storage have increased significantly in recent years and are expected to continue to increase in the near future.

  3. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... filter system shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and...

  4. Electrochemical hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Digby Macdonald

    2010-08-09

    As the global need for energy increases, scientists and engineers have found a possible solution by using hydrogen to power our world. Although hydrogen can be combusted as a fuel, it is considered an energy carrier for use in fuel cells wherein it is consumed (oxidized) without the production of greenhouse gases and produces electrical energy with high efficiency. Chemical storage of hydrogen involves release of hydrogen in a controlled manner from materials in which the hydrogen is covalently bound. Sodium borohydride and aminoborane are two materials given consideration as chemical hydrogen storage materials by the US Department of Energy. A very significant barrier to adoption of these materials as hydrogen carriers is their regeneration from 'spent fuel,' i.e., the material remaining after discharge of hydrogen. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) formed a Center of Excellence for Chemical Hydrogen Storage, and this work stems from that project. The DOE has identified boron hydrides as being the main compounds of interest as hydrogen storage materials. The various boron hydrides are then oxidized to release their hydrogen, thereby forming a 'spent fuel' in the form of a lower boron hydride or even a boron oxide. The ultimate goal of this project is to take the oxidized boron hydrides as the spent fuel and hydrogenate them back to their original form so they can be used again as a fuel. Thus this research is essentially a boron hydride recycling project. In this report, research directed at regeneration of sodium borohydride and aminoborane is described. For sodium borohydride, electrochemical reduction of boric acid and sodium metaborate (representing spent fuel) in alkaline, aqueous solution has been investigated. Similarly to literature reports (primarily patents), a variety of cathode materials were tried in these experiments. Additionally, approaches directed at overcoming electrostatic repulsion of borate anion from the cathode, not

  5. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sari Farah Dina

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO286·(SiO2106]·264H2O as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very suitable for drying cocoa beans. During off-sunshine hours, humidity of air inside the drying chamber was lower than ambient because of the desiccant thermal storage. Drying times for intermittent directs sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorbent were 55 h, 41 h, and 30 h, respectively. Specific energy consumptions for direct sun drying, solar dryer integrated with adsorbent, and solar dryer integrated with absorber were 60.4 MJ/kg moist, 18.94 MJ/kg moist, and 13.29 MJ/kg moist, respectively. The main conclusion can be drawn here is that a solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage makes drying using solar energy more effective in term of drying time and specific energy consumption.

  6. PC-Cluster based Storage System Architecture for Cloud Storage

    CERN Document Server

    Yee, Tin Tin

    2011-01-01

    Design and architecture of cloud storage system plays a vital role in cloud computing infrastructure in order to improve the storage capacity as well as cost effectiveness. Usually cloud storage system provides users to efficient storage space with elasticity feature. One of the challenges of cloud storage system is difficult to balance the providing huge elastic capacity of storage and investment of expensive cost for it. In order to solve this issue in the cloud storage infrastructure, low cost PC cluster based storage server is configured to be activated for large amount of data to provide cloud users. Moreover, one of the contributions of this system is proposed an analytical model using M/M/1 queuing network model, which is modeled on intended architecture to provide better response time, utilization of storage as well as pending time when the system is running. According to the analytical result on experimental testing, the storage can be utilized more than 90% of storage space. In this paper, two parts...

  7. Viability of Two Freeze-dried Strains of Bifidobacterium Preparations at Various Temperatures during Prolonged Storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Peng; DU Li-hui; HUO Gui-cheng

    2005-01-01

    Viability of bifidobacteria in freeze-dried probiotic products at various temperatures during prolonged storage was assessed. Bifidobacterium longum and Bifidobacterium infantis were freeze-dried. The freeze-dried preparations were stored at -18,4, and 20℃. Cell counts were enumerated using BS agar at 37℃ for 48 h under anaerobic conditions at 0, 45 and 120 days. Storage at 20℃ showed the greatest decline in the viability of bifidobacteria, whereas that at -18℃ showed the least decrease.

  8. Effect of storage conditions on compaction behavior of two grades of spray-dried lactose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atassi, Faraj; Almaya, Ahmad; Aburub, Aktham

    2008-01-01

    In this work we examine the effect of storage conditions (moisture exposure) on the compression behavior of 2 grades of spray-dried lactose (Pharmatose DCL 11 and Pharmatose DCL 14) under 2 different circumstances. The first was to expose powder samples to moisture, then compress them. The second was to expose precompressed tablets to moisture. We clearly show that the effect of moisture exposure and amorphous content crystallization in spray-dried lactoses on compaction behavior depends on whether this moisture exposure takes place before or after compression. In addition, the impact of storage conditions depends on the grade of spray-dried lactose.

  9. Analysis of dose consequences arising from the release of spent nuclear fuel from dry storage casks.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durbin, Samuel G.; Morrow, Charles.

    2013-01-01

    The resulting dose consequences from releases of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) residing in a dry storage casks are examined parametrically. The dose consequences are characterized by developing dose versus distance curves using simplified bounding assumptions. The dispersion calculations are performed using the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System (MACCS2) code. Constant weather and generic system parameters were chosen to ensure that the results in this report are comparable with each other and to determine the relative impact on dose of each variable. Actual analyses of site releases would need to accommodate local weather and geographic data. These calculations assume a range of fuel burnups, release fractions (RFs), three exposure scenarios (2 hrs and evacuate, 2 hrs and shelter, and 24 hrs exposure), two meteorological conditions (D-4 and F-2), and three release heights (ground level 1 meter (m), 10 m, and 100 m). This information was developed to support a policy paper being developed by U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) staff on an independent spent fuel storage installation (ISFSI) and monitored retrievable storage installation (MRS) security rulemaking.

  10. Secure Repayable Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkharobi, T. M.

    This paper proposes a method to create a system that allows data to be stored in several locations in secure and reliable manner. The system should create several shares from the data such that only pre-specified subsets of these shares can be used to retrieve the original data. The shares then will be distributed to shareholders over a local and/or wide area network. The system should allow requesting some/all shares from shareholders and using them to rebuild the data.

  11. CO2 (dry ice) cleaning system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnett, Donald M.

    1995-03-01

    Tomco Equipment Company has participated in the dry ice (solid carbon dioxide, CO2) cleaning industry for over ten years as a pioneer in the manufacturer of high density, dry ice cleaning pellet production equipment. For over four years Tomco high density pelletizers have been available to the dry ice cleaning industry. Approximately one year ago Tomco introduced the DI-250, a new dry ice blast unit making Tomco a single source supplier for sublimable media, particle blast, cleaning systems. This new blast unit is an all pneumatic, single discharge hose device. It meters the insertion of 1/8 inch diameter (or smaller), high density, dry ice pellets into a high pressure, propellant gas stream. The dry ice and propellant streams are controlled and mixed from the blast cabinet. From there the mixture is transported to the nozzle where the pellets are accelerated to an appropriate blasting velocity. When directed to impact upon a target area, these dry ice pellets have sufficient energy to effectively remove most surface coatings through dry, abrasive contact. The meta-stable, dry ice pellets used for CO2 cleaning, while labeled 'high density,' are less dense than alternate, abrasive, particle blast media. In addition, after contacting the target surface, they return to their equilibrium condition: a superheated gas state. Most currently used grit blasting media are silicon dioxide based, which possess a sharp tetrahedral molecular structure. Silicon dioxide crystal structures will always produce smaller sharp-edged replicas of the original crystal upon fracture. Larger, softer dry ice pellets do not share the same sharp-edged crystalline structures as their non-sublimable counterparts when broken. In fact, upon contact with the target surface, dry ice pellets will plastically deform and break apart. As such, dry ice cleaning is less harmful to sensitive substrates, workers and the environment than chemical or abrasive cleaning systems. Dry ice cleaning system

  12. Hydrogen storage and generation system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dentinger, Paul M.; Crowell, Jeffrey A. W.

    2010-08-24

    A system for storing and generating hydrogen generally and, in particular, a system for storing and generating hydrogen for use in an H.sub.2/O.sub.2 fuel cell. The hydrogen storage system uses the beta particles from a beta particle emitting material to degrade an organic polymer material to release substantially pure hydrogen. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, beta particles from .sup.63Ni are used to release hydrogen from linear polyethylene.

  13. Memory Storage and Neural Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alkon, Daniel L.

    1989-01-01

    Investigates memory storage and molecular nature of associative-memory formation by analyzing Pavlovian conditioning in marine snails and rabbits. Presented is the design of a computer-based memory system (neural networks) using the rules acquired in the investigation. Reports that the artificial network recognized patterns well. (YP)

  14. Critical review of creep FRAPCON-3 model under dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    There is a general agreement that cladding creep rupture is the most likely and limiting failure mechanism of spent fuel in dry storage compared to other potential mechanisms, like stress corrosion cracking and/or delayed hydride cracking. Nevertheless, occurrence of creep rupture is very improbable since both decay heat and hoop stress tend to decrease throughout dry storage. In spite of this, the current trend to higher burn up levels needs further attention that ensures safe storage of spent fuel irradiated over 45 GWd/MTU. An extensive work has been carried out during the last four decades in the area of in-reactor creep modelling. Unfortunately, the in-reactor conditions are so different from those prevailing under dry storage, that all the experience gained cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner. On the other side, as creep tests simulating conditions throughout a 20-40 year dry storage are impractical, post-irradiation cladding creep behaviour has been modelled by means of time-temperature dependent laws developed on the basis of currently available zirconium alloys data. Additionally, some tests have been exploring the effect of irradiation, hydrogen distribution and material composition on the materials creep behaviour. Adaptation of fuel performance codes initially developed for normal and off-normal reactor operation is not an easy task either. Creep modelling is usually dependent of host codes because a good part of its validation and update has been carried out in an integral way, and as a consequence its independent performance assessment is not an easy task. This work examines the current capability of FRAPCON-3 to model creep behaviour under dry storage conditions. To do so, a review of its major fundamentals has been done and its range of applicability discussed. Once its main approximations and drawbacks have been identified, an attempt to overcome some of them has been intended by implementing an alternative expression for creep under

  15. Effect of liquid retentate storage on flavor of spray-dried whey protein concentrate and isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitson, M; Miracle, R E; Bastian, E; Drake, M A

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of holding time of liquid retentate on flavor of spray-dried whey proteins: Cheddar whey protein isolate (WPI) and Mozzarella 80% whey protein concentrate (WPC80). Liquid WPC80 and WPI retentate were manufactured and stored at 3°C. After 0, 6, 12, 24, and 48h, the product was spray-dried (2kg) and the remaining retentate held until the next time point. The design was replicated twice for each product. Powders were stored at 21°C and evaluated every 4 mo throughout 12 mo of storage. Flavor profiles of rehydrated proteins were documented by descriptive sensory analysis. Volatile components were analyzed with solid phase microextraction coupled with gas chromatography mass spectrometry. Cardboard flavors increased in both spray-dried products with increased retentate storage time and cabbage flavors increased in WPI. Concurrent with sensory results, lipid oxidation products (hexanal, heptanal, octanal) and sulfur degradation products (dimethyl disulfide, dimethyl trisulfide) increased in spray-dried products with increased liquid retentate storage time, whereas diacetyl decreased. Shelf stability was decreased in spray-dried products from longer retentate storage times. For maximum quality and shelf life, liquid retentate should be held for less than 12h before spray drying.

  16. Design of Tomato Drying System by Utilizing Brine Geothermal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afuar, W.; Sibarani, B.; Abdurrahman, G.; Hendrarsakti, J.

    2016-09-01

    Cultivation of tomato plants in Indonesia has been started since 1961.Tomatoes generally will rot in three days if left on storage. Moreover, low quality tomatoes have cheaper price. After harvested, tomatoes need to be treated by drying process so it can last longer. Energy for drying tomatoes can be obtained by utilizing heat from geothermal brine. Purpose of this research is to design a tomato drying system by extracting heat of geothermal brine from separator with certain flow rate to heat up water by using a heat exchanger. Furthermore, this water will be used to heat up the surrounding air which is circulated by blower system to heat up the tomatoes chamber. Tomatoes drying process needs temperature range of 50-70°C to evaporate water content from 95.7% to 26%. After that treatment, the tomatoes are expected to have better durability. The objective of this study is to determine the quantity of hot brine which is needed for drying tomatoes and to design a drying system so that tomatoes can last longer.

  17. INTEGRATED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEM MODEL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B

    2007-11-16

    Hydrogen storage is recognized as a key technical hurdle that must be overcome for the realization of hydrogen powered vehicles. Metal hydrides and their doped variants have shown great promise as a storage material and significant advances have been made with this technology. In any practical storage system the rate of H2 uptake will be governed by all processes that affect the rate of mass transport through the bed and into the particles. These coupled processes include heat and mass transfer as well as chemical kinetics and equilibrium. However, with few exceptions, studies of metal hydrides have focused primarily on fundamental properties associated with hydrogen storage capacity and kinetics. A full understanding of the complex interplay of physical processes that occur during the charging and discharging of a practical storage system requires models that integrate the salient phenomena. For example, in the case of sodium alanate, the size of NaAlH4 crystals is on the order of 300nm and the size of polycrystalline particles may be approximately 10 times larger ({approx}3,000nm). For the bed volume to be as small as possible, it is necessary to densely pack the hydride particles. Even so, in packed beds composed of NaAlH{sub 4} particles alone, it has been observed that the void fraction is still approximately 50-60%. Because of the large void fraction and particle to particle thermal contact resistance, the thermal conductivity of the hydride is very low, on the order of 0.2 W/m-{sup o}C, Gross, Majzoub, Thomas and Sandrock [2002]. The chemical reaction for hydrogen loading is exothermic. Based on the data in Gross [2003], on the order of 10{sup 8}J of heat of is released for the uptake of 5 kg of H{sub 2}2 and complete conversion of NaH to NaAlH{sub 4}. Since the hydride reaction transitions from hydrogen loading to discharge at elevated temperatures, it is essential to control the temperature of the bed. However, the low thermal conductivity of the hydride

  18. Study and Test of Cold Storage Heat Recovery Heat Pump Coupled Solar Drying Device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Li

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we design the recovery of a heat pump combined solar drying device. Then, with this device, drying experiments of aquatic product, tilapia, were conducted, indicating that the newly designed device functions are well in temperature adjusting and controlling performance and showing that drying time is closely related to energy consumption and drying conditions. Heat recovery heat pump combined solar energy drier can improve the drying quality of aquatic products, but also can greatly reduce the drying energy consumption, which provides theoretical support to the design and processing of heat recovery heat pump of refrigeration system coupled solar drying device.

  19. Compressed gas fuel storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wozniak, John J. (Columbia, MD); Tiller, Dale B. (Lincoln, NE); Wienhold, Paul D. (Baltimore, MD); Hildebrand, Richard J. (Edgemere, MD)

    2001-01-01

    A compressed gas vehicle fuel storage system comprised of a plurality of compressed gas pressure cells supported by shock-absorbing foam positioned within a shape-conforming container. The container is dimensioned relative to the compressed gas pressure cells whereby a radial air gap surrounds each compressed gas pressure cell. The radial air gap allows pressure-induced expansion of the pressure cells without resulting in the application of pressure to adjacent pressure cells or physical pressure to the container. The pressure cells are interconnected by a gas control assembly including a thermally activated pressure relief device, a manual safety shut-off valve, and means for connecting the fuel storage system to a vehicle power source and a refueling adapter. The gas control assembly is enclosed by a protective cover attached to the container. The system is attached to the vehicle with straps to enable the chassis to deform as intended in a high-speed collision.

  20. A study of thermal, structural and shielding safety analysis for dry storage of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, S. H. [Kyungpook Nationl Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-03-15

    As a replaced method for MRS, the dry storage has been intensively developed by the advanced countries of nuclear power technology. Currently, the domestic technology for the dry storage is also under development. In the present study, the developed technical standards for USNRC and its operation are summarized. Futhermore, the SAR for VECTRA's NUHOMES satisfied with DOE and NRC's requirements is inversely analyzed and combined with both USNRC's regulatory guide and LLNL's SARS. In the safety analysis of a dry storage, the principal design criteria which identifies the structural and mechanical safety criteria is investigated. Based on the design criteria, hypothetical accident analysis as well as off-normal operation analysis are investigated.

  1. Drying of Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. using a solar dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perapong Tekasakul

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available An indirect, natural convection, solar cabinet dryer incorporated with a backup thermal energy storage from wood combustion was designed and tested with the Thai herb, Rhinacanthus nasutus (Linn. Kurz. Most of Thai herbs are widely used as traditional medicine and drying is an initial step in the production process. Solar dryer with a biomass backup heating system is the most feasible solution to drying in Thailand. In this work, a 4 m x 5 m solar collector was used to absorb solar radiation for heating the incoming air during the daytime, while a biomass burner was used to supply heat when solar energy was not possible. Heat from fuelwood combustion was accumulated in the thermal storage system made of bricks, and was used to heat up the incoming air. Results showed that the herb was dried uniformly and the temperature inside the drying cabinet could be maintained above 50ºC for more than 10 hours. Thermal efficiency when using solar energy was 10.5%, but the value was less than 1% when using the heat from biomass burning. This resulted from the low moisture content of the products after being dried by the solar energy. The dryer is beneficial to the operators, particularly in southern Thailand, where continuous drying is required. This dryer is by no means limited to drying of the herb. Currently, four dryers of the same model have been used by farmer groups in southern Thailand for drying bananas, several types of herbs, fish, and other products. In economic consideration, its payback period is 5.5 years when compared with the LPG-equipped dryer. When the total cost and production capacity are considered, its payback period is about 6 years.

  2. Storage Allocation for Multi-Class Distributed Data Storage Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Roshandeh, Koosha Pourtahmasi; Noori, Moslem; Ardakani, Masoud; Tellambura, Chintha

    2017-01-01

    Distributed storage systems (DSSs) provide a scalable solution for reliably storing massive amounts of data coming from various sources. Heterogeneity of these data sources often means different data classes (types) exist in a DSS, each needing a different level of quality of service (QoS). As a result, efficient data storage and retrieval processes that satisfy various QoS requirements are needed. This paper studies storage allocation, meaning how data of different classes must be spread ove...

  3. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time.

  4. Spent-fuel dry-storage testing at E-MAD (March 1978-March 1982)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Unterzuber, R.; Milnes, R.D.; Marinkovich, B.A.; Kubancsek, G.M.

    1982-09-01

    From March 1978 through March 1982, spent fuel dry storage tests were conducted at the Engine Maintenance, Assembly and Disassembly (E-MAD) facility on the Nevada Test Site to confirm that commercial reactor spent fuel could be encapsulated and passively stored in one or more interim dry storage cell concepts. These tests were: electrically heated drywell, isolated and adjacent drywell, concrete silo, fuel assembly internal temperature measurement, and air-cooled vault. This document presents the test data and results as well as results from supporting test operations (spent fuel calorimetry and canister gas sampling).

  5. Effects of Lower Drying-Storage Temperature on the Ductility of High-Burnup PWR Cladding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Billone, M. C. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Burtseva, T. A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-08-30

    The purpose of this research effort is to determine the effects of canister and/or cask drying and storage on radial hydride precipitation in, and potential embrittlement of, high-burnup (HBU) pressurized water reactor (PWR) cladding alloys during cooling for a range of peak drying-storage temperatures (PCT) and hoop stresses. Extensive precipitation of radial hydrides could lower the failure hoop stresses and strains, relative to limits established for as-irradiated cladding from discharged fuel rods stored in pools, at temperatures below the ductile-to-brittle transition temperature (DBTT).

  6. APS storage ring vacuum system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemann, R.C.; Benaroya, R.; Choi, M.; Dortwegt, R.J.; Goeppner, G.A.; Gonczy, J.; Krieger, C.; Howell, J.; Nielsen, R.W.; Roop, B.; Wehrle, R.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Advanced Photon Source synchrotron radiation facility, under construction at the Argonne National Laboratory, incorporates a large ring for the storage of 7 GeV positrons for the generation of photon beams for the facility's experimental program. The Storage Ring's 1104 m circumference is divided into 40 functional sectors. The sectors include vacuum, beam transport, control, acceleration and insertion device components. The vacuum system, which is designed to operate at a pressure of 1 n Torr, consists of 240 connected sections, the majority of which are fabricated from an aluminum alloy extrusion. The sections are equipped with distributed NeG pumping, photon absorbers with lumped pumping, beam position monitors, vacuum diagnostics and valving. The details of the vacuum system design, selected results of the development program and general construction plans are presented. 11 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  7. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  8. Comparison of Dry Gas Seasonal Storage with CO2 Storage and Re-Use Potential

    OpenAIRE

    Killerud, Marie

    2013-01-01

    To make large-scale CO2 storage economic, many groups have proposed using CO2in EOR projects to create value for CO2 storage. However, CO2 EOR projectsgenerally require a large and variable supply of CO2 and consequently may requiretemporary storage of CO2 in geological formations. In order to store CO2 atoffshore sites as a source for CO2 EOR projects, the CO2 needs to be extractedfrom a storage site to a certain extent. Alternatively, CO2 EOR projects maybe developed alongside saline aquife...

  9. Combined solar collector and energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, R. N. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A combined solar energy collector, fluid chiller and energy storage system is disclosed. A movable interior insulated panel in a storage tank is positionable flush against the storage tank wall to insulate the tank for energy storage. The movable interior insulated panel is alternately positionable to form a solar collector or fluid chiller through which the fluid flows by natural circulation.

  10. Storage mite contamination of commercial dry dog food in south-eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibberson, C E; Vogelnest, L J

    2014-06-01

    To evaluate contamination of unopened and opened stored sources of commercial dry dog food by viable storage mites. Prospective laboratory and field study. Samples were collected from nine brands of previously unopened bags (new bags) of dry food and 20 field sources of stored dry food in homes in Sydney and Canberra, Australia. All samples were initially examined for the presence of mites using a stereo-binocular microscope and then placed in separate filter-paper-sealed containers. Field samples were incubated at an average temperature of 29°C and 78% relative humidity (RH) for 5 weeks and then at average 26°C/83% RH for 8 weeks. Paired new-bag samples were stored under room conditions (average 23°C/47% RH) and controlled incubator conditions (average 26°C/80% RH) for 6 weeks. All samples were thoroughly examined for mites, mite eggs and visible mould once weekly using a stereo-binocular microscope. Storage mites were not visualised in any of the field samples or in new-bag samples stored at room temperature. Storage mites, identified as Tyrophagus putrescentiae, were visualised in increasing numbers in seven of nine new-bag samples after incubation, with first mites and then eggs evident after 3 weeks of incubation. We confirmed the presence of viable storage mites in a range of previously unopened commercial dry dog foods in Australia and confirmed the possibility of heavy storage mite contamination for dry food stored under conditions of moderate temperature and high humidity. These findings have relevance to storage mite and/or dust mite sensitivity in canine atopic dermatitis. © 2014 Australian Veterinary Association.

  11. Modelling moisture content and dry matter loss during storage of logging residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbakk, Tore; Hoeiboe, Olav Albert (Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)); Dibdiakova, Janka (Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., Aas (Norway)); Nurmi, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-04-15

    To achieve optimal utilisation of logging residues for energy, it is important to know how different handling and storage methods affect fuel properties. The aim of this study was to model how the moisture content and dry matter losses of logging residues develop during storage. Logging residues were collected from five different stands of spruce and pine during different seasons of the year and stored in the same location. The logging residues were stored in covered piles of bundled residues and loose residues. Only minor differences were found in the moisture content profiles between piles of bundles and loose residues. Logging residues located in the centre of both types of piles had considerably lower moisture content than the outer parts. The moisture content significantly affected dry matter loss, with the highest dry matter losses being found in the samples with the least favourable drying conditions. The dry matter losses varied between 1 and 3% per month. Significantly higher dry matter losses were found in the spruce bundles than in the pine bundles. Seasoned logging residues had the lowest dry matter loss, while the logging residues harvested and piled in the autumn had the highest loss

  12. Protective coatings for the Ontario Power Generation Inc. dry storage container

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewak, R. [Kinectrics Inc., Toronto, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: richard.lewak@kinectrics.com; Ellsworth, B. [Ontario Power Generation Inc., Tiverton, Ontario (Canada)]. E-mail: brad.ellsworth@opg.com

    2006-07-01

    Ontario Power Generation (OPG), formerly Ontario Hydro, has been storing used CANDU fuel in the irradiated fuel bays (IFBs) at its nuclear generating stations since they began operation. As the IFBs began reaching capacity, the dry storage of previously cooled used fuel became an economically viable alternative to the construction of additional wet fuel bays and the OPG Dry Storage Container (DSC) was developed. The OPG DSC is a free standing reinforced concrete container, with an inner and outer carbon steel shell, for the storage and transportation of used CANDU fuel. The outer steel shell of the DSC is protected by an applied coating system to facilitate decontamination of the outer shell and to provide protective corrosion resistance. In 1990 a study was performed to determine the optimal commercial coating system to be considered as a protective coating on the DSC outer shell. An experimental program was undertaken to identify the optimal commercial coating system, which had the best decontamination characteristics as well as maximum resistance to abrasion, weathering and durability. A total of nine coating systems were selected for study, five epoxy coatings, three epoxy/polyurethane coatings, and one polyurethane coating. Sand blasted carbon steel coupons, similar to the DSC outer shell, were coated by the manufacturers and submitted for testing of the decontamination characteristics such as activity uptake, decontamination of the coating, and the activity 'sweating' phenomenon. Tests identified four commercially available pure epoxy and epoxy/polyurethane protective coating systems as being the most promising for the exterior of the DSC surface. Of these four, the coating system chosen for use on the DSC was an epoxy/polyurethane system. After a decade of use, however, several safety and environmental concerns centering on the isocyanate content present in the polyurethane and the Volatile Organic Component (VOC) content of the coating system have

  13. The application of mature dry storage technology and remote handling robotics to nuclear plant extension, clean-up and decommissioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blackwell, W.C. [GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Ltd., Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1997-08-01

    This paper reviews a mature dry storage technology developed by GEC ALSTHOM Engineering Systems Limited (GAES) which offers a passive, economical and licensable method of providing irradiated fuel storage capacity at operational nuclear power stations. The evolution of the modular vault dry store (MVDS) technology has taken place over 25 years of operational experience, culminating in a product which meets all of the concerns of licensing authorities regarding safety and fuel integrity. The application of remote handling robotics to nuclear fuel and active component handling as a routine process rather than as an intervention technique is also reviewed. The growth of the application of this technology is governed by several factors which include: statutory requirements, safety assurance, risk reduction and economic pressures. The availability of a mature MVDS technology with an evolving process-capable robotics technology opens up opportunities for exploring proven UK products. (Author).

  14. Safeguards-by-Design: Guidance for Independent Spent Fuel Dry Storage Installations (ISFSI)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Trond Bjornard; Philip C. Durst

    2012-05-01

    This document summarizes the requirements and best practices for implementing international nuclear safeguards at independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSIs), also known as Away-from- Reactor (AFR) storage facilities. These installations may provide wet or dry storage of spent fuel, although the safeguards guidance herein focuses on dry storage facilities. In principle, the safeguards guidance applies to both wet and dry storage. The reason for focusing on dry independent spent fuel storage installations is that this is one of the fastest growing nuclear installations worldwide. Independent spent fuel storage installations are typically outside of the safeguards nuclear material balance area (MBA) of the reactor. They may be located on the reactor site, but are generally considered by the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) and the State Regulator/SSAC to be a separate facility. The need for this guidance is becoming increasingly urgent as more and more nuclear power plants move their spent fuel from resident spent fuel ponds to independent spent fuel storage installations. The safeguards requirements and best practices described herein are also relevant to the design and construction of regional independent spent fuel storage installations that nuclear power plant operators are starting to consider in the absence of a national long-term geological spent fuel repository. The following document has been prepared in support of two of the three foundational pillars for implementing Safeguards-by-Design (SBD). These are: i) defining the relevant safeguards requirements, and ii) defining the best practices for meeting the requirements. This document was prepared with the design of the latest independent dry spent fuel storage installations in mind and was prepared specifically as an aid for designers of commercial nuclear facilities to help them understand the relevant international requirements that follow from a country’s safeguards agreement with

  15. Freeze-drying of HI-6-loaded recombinant human serum albumin nanoparticles for improved storage stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadparvar, Miriam; Wagner, Sylvia; Wien, Sascha; Worek, Franz; von Briesen, Hagen; Kreuter, Jörg

    2014-10-01

    Severe intoxications with organophosphates require the immediate administration of atropine in combination with acetyl cholinesterase (AChE) reactivators such as HI-6. Although this therapy regimen enables the treatment of peripheral symptoms, the blood-brain barrier (BBB) restricts the access of the hydrophilic antidotes to the central nervous system which could lead to a fatal respiratory arrest. Therefore, HI-6-loaded albumin nanoparticles were previously developed to enhance the transport across this barrier and were able to reactivate organophosphate-(OP)-inhibited AChE in an in vitro BBB model. Since HI-6 is known to be moisture-sensitive, the feasibility of freeze-drying of the HI-6-loaded nanoparticles was investigated in the present study using different cryo- and lyoprotectants at different concentrations. Trehalose and sucrose (3%, w/v)-containing formulations were superior to mannitol concerning the physicochemical parameters of the nanoparticles whereas trehalose-containing samples were subject of a prolonged storage stability study at temperatures between -20°C and +40°C for predetermined time intervals. Shelf-life computations of the freeze-dried HI-6 nanoparticle formulations revealed a shelf-life time of 18 months when stored at -20°C. The formulations' efficacy was proven in vitro by reactivation of OP-inhibited AChE after transport over a porcine brain capillary endothelial cell layer model.

  16. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    OpenAIRE

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib; Bin Che Ku Yahya Che Ku Mohammad Faizal; Jama Oumer Abduaziz

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the ...

  17. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  18. Size and molecular flexibility of sugars determine the storage stability of freeze-dried proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tonnis, W. F.; Mensink, M. A.; de Jager, A.; Maarschalk, K. van der Voort; Frijlink, H. W.; Hinrichs, W. L. J.

    2015-01-01

    Protein-based biopharmaceuticals are generally produced as aqueous solutions and stored refrigerated to obtain sufficient shelf life. Alternatively, proteins may be freeze-dried in the presence of sugars to allow storage stability at ambient conditions for prolonged periods. However, to act as a sta

  19. Formation dry-out and injectivity impairment during CO2 storage in saline aquifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roels, S.M.

    2015-01-01

    This research concerns the geological storage of CO2 and in particular injectivity impairment problems related to salt precipitation. Drying and salt precipitation in geological formations can have serious consequences for upstream operations in terms of injectivity and productivity. This can negati

  20. Evaluation of limiting mechanisms for long-term spent fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rashid, J. [ANATECH Research Corp., San Diego, CA (United States); Machiels, A. [EPRI, Palo Alto, CA (United States)

    2001-07-01

    Several failure mechanisms have been postulated that could become limiting for spent fuel in dry storage. These are: stress Corrosion Cracking (SCC), Delayed Hydride Cracking (DHC) and Creep Rupture (CR). These mechanisms are examined in some detail from two perspectives: their initial environments in which they were developed and applied, and in relation to their applicability to dry storage. Extrapolation techniques are used to transfer the mechanisms from their initial in-reactor and laboratory domains to out-of-reactor spent fuel dry storage environments. This transfer is accomplished both qualitatively where necessary and quantitatively when possible, with fracture toughness used as the transfer function. In this regard, the paper provides useful information on cladding fracture toughness estimates that recognize the specific physical conditions of the cladding, which would not be found elsewhere in the literature. The arguments presented in this paper confirm the general technical consensus that creep is the governing mechanism for spent fuel in long-term dry storage. (author)

  1. Effect of storage period and chemical treatment on sunflower parents lines seedling dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern agricultural production, high quality seed which germinates quickly and evenly in different environments is the main requirement for high yields. The research was carried out in the Laboratory for Seed Testing in Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Two cytoplasmic male sterile lines L-1 and L-2 were used for the research. Seed treatments with fungicides (benomil, metalaxyl and fludioxonil and insecticides (tiametoxam and imidacloprid were applied to evaluate effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedlings dry matter content. This treated seed was kept in a storage facility where all commercial seed is stored. The first assessment was done after the treatments and had been repeated every three months. Analysis of variance of the tested parameters showed statistically significant effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedling dry matter content in L-1 line. In line L-2, statistically significant effect of chemical treatment on seedling dry matter content was observed, whereas the effect of storage duration on seedlings dry matter content was highly significant. Double interactions were highly significant. .

  2. Solar-energy storage-systems analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leigh, R W

    1981-04-01

    Systems analysis activities at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) related to energy storage in solar applications are described, and the purpose, methods and, where available, the results of each study are summarized. Areas of investigation include storage of electrical and thermal energy in solar total energy systems, a theoretical investigation of the value of storage, and the national fuel displacement potential of semi-passive solar storage walls. Investigations of the cost effectiveness of a spectrum of passive solar storage devices and the value of several possible improvements in these devices constitutes BNL's contribution to the Solar Applications Analysis for Energy Storage (SAAES) project.

  3. Scale formation in deluged dry cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pratt, D.R.

    1976-05-01

    Deluging of air-cooled heat exchangers with water during warm periods holds the promise of increasing heat rejection capability and reducing the cost of dry cooling. One of the principal uncertainties in the use of the deluge concept is the tendency toward deposition of solids from the delugate. Small amounts of calcium carbonate scale may significantly reduce the cooling efficiency of a deluged system by reducing the heat transfer coefficient and interfering with delugate flow. Thus the question of delugate water quality is of major importance in evaluating scale formation and its effect on heat transfer in the deluged dry cooling system. The paper discusses, in relation to the deluged dry cooling system, the importance of scale prevention, the theory of scale formation and application of this theory to the deluged system, the problems of delugate evaporation, and delugate treatment required to prevent scaling.

  4. Property Prediction of Dry Common Carp (Cyprinus Carpio During Storage by Kinetic Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Lu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Common carp (Cyprinus carpio is an important food resource in European and Asian countries. Nowadays, common carp after drying process is appreciated by the transportation agency and food industry because of its low transportation cost. Changes of acid value (AV, total bacterial count (TBC, and peroxide value (PV were reported in this study. We found that the changes of AV, TBC and PV of dry common carp fitted the first order reaction model and the reaction energies of changes of AV, TBC, and PV during storage were 4.56 kJ/mol, 2.21 kJ/mol, and 2.33 kJ/mol, respectively. This study will provide theoretical knowledge to food factories relating with dry fish storage and transportation.

  5. Evaluating Storage Systems for Lustre

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oral, H. Sarp [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2015-08-20

    Storage systems are complex, including multiple subsystems and components. Sustained operations with top performance require all these subsystems and components working as expected. Having a detailed performance profile helps establishing a baseline. This baseline can be used for easier identification of possible future problems. A systematic bottom-to-top approach, starting with a detailed performance analysis of disks and moving up across layers and subsystems, provides a quantitative breakdown of each component's capabilities and bottlenecks. Coupling these low-level tests with Lustre-level evaluations will present a better understanding of performance expectations under different I/O workloads.

  6. Deployment of advanced MACSTOR dry spent fuel storage technology in Korea - A joint development program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cobanoglu, M. M.; Pattantyus, P. [Atomic Energy Canada Limited, Ottawa (Canada); Song, M. J.; Lee, H. Y. [KHNP/NETEC, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-04-15

    KHNP/NETEC's (K/N) and Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL) are undertaking to jointly develop a high capacity dry storage structure made of reinforced concrete that uses the MACSTOR storage module concept. This effort is based on AECL's experience and on the successful deployment of concrete canisters at Wolsong and on the deployment of air-cooled MACSTOR modules at the Gentilly 2 reactor in Canada. The proposed approach addresses the conditions specific to the Wolsong site: large yearly fuel throughput, space limitations and the need for an economical dry storage structure that can store lifetime spent fuel inventories expected from the four CANDU units. The selected configuration is a 4-row MACSTOR module with a capacity of 24,000 bundles stored in 400 baskets, each holding 60 spent fuel bundles. The module is thus termed MACSTOR/KN-400 and is expected to offer a repetitive storage density increase by a factor of approximately 3, compared to concrete canisters presently used. The four Wolsong units generate spent fuel bundles that, with the high capacity factors achieved, are in the order of 20,000 bundles or more per year. At all Korean nuclear facilities, space limitations dictate the need for storage structures having high storage density. Storage density increases have to be accomplished while maintaining safety parameters during the full term storage of nuclear fuel. During the early 1990's AECL has proceeded with the development of a 2-row MACSTOR storage module that offered a higher storage density and a more economical solution compared to the stand alone concrete canister used at Wolsong 1. These modules are in use at Gentilly since the mid 1990's and operate at a capacity of 200 baskets. The selection of a MACSTOR module with 4 rows of storage cylinders is the natural evolution of the already deployed configuration. It can be developed without additional thermal testing as the fuel is maintained within the existing licensing

  7. Acoustic emission detection with fiber optical sensors for dry cask storage health monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Bin; Bao, Jingjing; Yu, Lingyu; Giurgiutiu, Victor

    2016-04-01

    The increasing number, size, and complexity of nuclear facilities deployed worldwide are increasing the need to maintain readiness and develop innovative sensing materials to monitor important to safety structures (ITS). In the past two decades, an extensive sensor technology development has been used for structural health monitoring (SHM). Technologies for the diagnosis and prognosis of a nuclear system, such as dry cask storage system (DCSS), can improve verification of the health of the structure that can eventually reduce the likelihood of inadvertently failure of a component. Fiber optical sensors have emerged as one of the major SHM technologies developed particularly for temperature and strain measurements. This paper presents the development of optical equipment that is suitable for ultrasonic guided wave detection for active SHM in the MHz range. An experimental study of using fiber Bragg grating (FBG) as acoustic emission (AE) sensors was performed on steel blocks. FBG have the advantage of being durable, lightweight, and easily embeddable into composite structures as well as being immune to electromagnetic interference and optically multiplexed. The temperature effect on the FBG sensors was also studied. A multi-channel FBG system was developed and compared with piezoelectric based AE system. The paper ends with conclusions and suggestions for further work.

  8. Study on effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans

    OpenAIRE

    Sari Farah Dina; Himsar Ambarita; Farel H. Napitupulu; Hideki Kawai

    2015-01-01

    The main objective is to assess effectiveness of continuous solar dryer integrated with desiccant thermal storage for drying cocoa beans. Two type of desiccants were tested, molecular sieve 13× (Na86 [(AlO2)86·(SiO2)106]·264H2O) as an adsorbent type and CaCl2 as an absorbent type. The results revealed that during sunshine hours, the maximum temperature within the drying chamber varied from 40 °C to 54 °C. In average, it was 9–12 °C higher than ambient temperature. These temperatures are very ...

  9. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Areewan Kajorndech

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system in order to improve reliability and save energy costs by determining an optimal charging schedule of the energy storage system. Simulation results demonstrate the benefits of energy storage system applications under the different control strategies.

  10. OPTIMUM HEAT STORAGE DESIGN FOR SDHW SYSTEMS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shah, Louise Jivan; Furbo, Simon

    1997-01-01

    Two simulation models have been used to analyse the heat storage design’s influence on the thermal performance of solar domestic hot water (SDHW) systems. One model is especially designed for traditional SDHW systems based on a heat storage design where the solar heat exchanger is a built-in spiral...... of the tank design’s influence on the thermal performance of the systems is possible. By means of the calculations design rules for the two heat storage types are proposed....

  11. Microencapsulated PCM thermal-energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hawlader, M.N.A.; Uddin, M.S. [National Univ. of Singapore, Dept. of Chemical and Environmental Engineering, Singapore (Singapore); Khin, Mya Mya [National Univ. of Singapore, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Singapore (Singapore)

    2003-02-01

    The application of phase-change materials (PCM) for solar thermal-energy storage capacities has received considerable attention in recent years due to their large storage capacity and isothermal nature of the storage process. This study deals with the preparation and characterization of encapsulated paraffin-wax. Encapsulated paraffin particles were prepared by complex coacervation as well as spray-drying methods. The influence of different parameters on the characteristics and performance of a microencapsulated PCM in terms of encapsulation efficiency, and energy storage and release capacity has been investigated. The distribution of particle size and the morphology of microencapsulated PCM were analyzed by a scanning electron microscope (SEM). In the coacervation method, the optimum homogenizing time is 10 min and the amount of cross-linking agent is 6-8 mI. Results obtained from a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) show that microcapsules prepared either by coacervation or the spray-drying method have a thermal energy storage/release capacity of about 145-240 J/g. Hence, encapsulated paraffin wax shows a good potential as a solar-energy storage material. (Author)

  12. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Józef Paska; Mariusz Kłos; Paweł Antos; Grzegorz Błajszczak

    2012-01-01

    Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy), and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld). Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers an...

  13. Sustainable Irrigation Allocation Model for Dry and Wet Periods using Reservoir Storage and Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surianarayanan, S.; Suribabu, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The dry period agriculture is inevitable both for the farmers for their earning, and for the soil for its fertility by crop-rotation. In tropical countries like INDIA, dry period agriculture becomes difficult because of less (or) no rain fall. Hence a simple water balancing model for irrigation scheduling, using the measure “Volumetric Reliability” is prepared in this paper, with the storage and inflow of a reservoir both for the dry and wet periods. The case-study is done for a reservoir in INDIA with thirty one years of hydrological data(from 1982 to 2012). The objective of this paper is to prepare a simple water balance model taking 10 days periods of demand and supply for ID crop(Irrigated Dry crop, ground nut) with usage of volumetric reliability concept for the periods of deficiency and adoption of less water requirement crops to reduce the water-stress during critical periods of crop growth, and finally arrive at a feasible allocation schedule for the success of agriculture and the yield throughout the year both for wet and dry crops with the available storage on the start of irrigation for a particular year. The reservoir is divided for storages such as full, deficient and critical storages. The starting storage for the dry period from January is used after adequate allocation for wet crops, the quantity for riparian rights and for drinking water, for the sustainability. By the water-balancing, the time-series for thirty one years, it is found that for twenty two years the demand for the ID crops is satisfied with the storage in the reservoir, and in the remaining years of deficient inflows, for three years (1986,1996,2004)the demand is managed by using the safe reliability factor for demand which can nullify the deficit in demand for the whole supply period. But it is genuine to assure that the reduction in the amount of water for each 10 days periods should not exceed the survival limit of the crop. Necessary soil-moisture must be ensured in the crop

  14. Cosmic ray muon computed tomography of spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks

    CERN Document Server

    Poulson, D; Guardincerri, E; Morris, C L; Bacon, J D; Plaud-Ramos, K; Morley, D; Hecht, A

    2016-01-01

    Radiography with cosmic ray muon scattering has proven to be a successful method of imaging nuclear material through heavy shielding. Of particular interest is monitoring dry storage casks for diversion of plutonium contained in spent reactor fuel. Using muon tracking detectors that surround a cylindrical cask, cosmic ray muon scattering can be simultaneously measured from all azimuthal angles, giving complete tomographic coverage of the cask interior. This paper describes the first application of filtered back projection algorithms, typically used in medical imaging, to cosmic ray muon imaging. The specific application to monitoring spent nuclear fuel in dry storage casks is investigated via GEANT4 simulations. With a cylindrical muon tracking detector surrounding a typical spent fuel cask, the cask contents can be confirmed with high confidence in less than two days exposure. Similar results can be obtained by moving a smaller detector to view the cask from multiple angles.

  15. Retention of short chain fatty acids under drying and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey permeate was used as a substrate for the fermentation of Propionibacterium freudenreichi PS1 for the production of short chain fatty acids, components of the bio-aroma of Swiss cheese. The liquid bio-aroma was encapsulated by spray drying under different conditions of air inlet temperature and feed rate. A study was carried out on the stability of the bio-aroma during storage in laminated packages at 30 °C for 96 days using the product showing the greatest retention of acetic and propionic acids. The results showed that the best drying conditions were an air entrance temperature of 180 °C and a feed rate of 24 g/min resulting in particles with a smooth surface and few invaginations and micro-fissures. However, 72% of the acetic acid and 80% of the propionic acid were lost during storage showing that the wall material used was inadequate to guarantee product stability.

  16. Select Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Plant Design for Safeguards and Security by Design (SSBD) per Used Fuel Campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demuth, Scott Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Sprinkle, James K. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-26

    As preparation to the year-end deliverable (Provide SSBD Best Practices for Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant) for the Work Package (FT-15LA040501–Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage), the initial step was to select a generic dry-storage pilot plant design for SSBD. To be consistent with other DOE-NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCR&D) activities, the Used Fuel Campaign was engaged for the selection of a design for this deliverable. For the work Package FT-15LA040501–“Safeguards and Security by Design for Extended Dry Storage”, SSBD will be initiated for the Generic Dry-Storage Pilot Scale Plant described by the layout of Reference 2. SSBD will consider aspects of the design that are impacted by domestic material control and accounting (MC&A), domestic security, and international safeguards.

  17. Storage Stability of Dried Microsclerotia of the Biological Control Pathogen Mycoleptodiscus Terrestris

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-09-01

    periods (Coley-Smith and Cooke 1971), and when conditions are favorable they can germinate by the development of mycelium (myceliogenic germination), by...Because shelf life is a primary consideration of bioherbicide marketability, studies were undertaken to test efficacy of dried material after...various periods of cold storage. MATERIALS AND METHODS Fungal Inoculum. Stock cultures of Mt (NRRL #30559) were stored and plated as described in

  18. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  19. Pectin Methyl Esterase Activity Change in Intermediate Moisture Sun-Dried Figs after Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilek Demirbüker Kavak

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Intermediate moisture fruits can be obtained by rehydrating dried fruits. Intermediate moisture fruits are suitable for direct consumption compared to dry fruits and can be directly used in the production of various products such as bakery products, dairy products and candies. Aim of this study is to compare the pectin methyl esterase (PME activity of intermediate moisture figs which causes softening of the texture and to compare their microbial stability after 3 months storage period. For this purpose, dried figs were rehydrated in 30 and 80° C water until they reach 30% moisture content. Rehydrated samples were stored for 3 months at +4°C. Results showed that there was no statistically significant difference between the control samples and the samples rehydrated at 80°C according to the total viable counts. At the end of the storage period, results of residual PME activity in control samples was 24.1 μmol COOH min-1g-1, while it was found 17.4 μmol COOH min-1g-1 in samples rehydrated at 80°C. As a result rehydration conducted at 80°C provided 28% reduction in PME activity compared to the control samples rehydrated at 30°C, although it did not affect the microbial load significantly after storage.

  20. Storage stability of a commercial hen egg yolk powder in dry and intermediate-moisture food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, Qinchun; Fisher, Mary Catherine; Guo, Mufan; Labuza, Theodore P

    2013-09-11

    Quality loss in intermediate-moisture foods (IMF) such as high-protein nutrition bars (HPNB) in the form of hardening, nonenzymatic browning, and free amino group loss is a general concern for the manufacturers. To measure the extent of quality loss over time in terms of these negative attributes, through changing the ratio by weight between two commercial spray-dried hen egg powders, egg white (DEW) and egg yolk (DEY), the storage stability of 10 IMF systems (water activity (aw) ∼ 0.6) containing 5% glycerol, 10% shortening, 35% protein, and 50% sweetener (either maltitol or 50% high-fructose corn syrup/50% corn syrup (HFCS/CS)) were studied. Additionally, the storage stability of the DEY powder itself was investigated. Overall, during storage at different temperatures (23, 35, and 45 °C), the storage stability of DEY in dry and IMF matrices was mainly controlled by the coaction of three chemical reactions (disulfide bond interaction, Maillard reaction, and lipid oxidation). The results showed that by replacing 25% of DEW in an IMF model system with DEY, the rate of bar hardening was significantly lower than that of the models with only DEW at all temperatures due to the softening effect of the fat in DEY. Furthermore, the use of maltitol instead of HFCS/CS in all bar systems not only resulted in decreased hardness but also drastically decreased the change in the total color difference (ΔE*). Interestingly, there was no significant loss of free amino groups in the maltitol systems at any DEW/DEY ratio.

  1. Optimization of a solar-assisted drying system for drying bananas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smitabhindu, R. [Department of Industrial Engineering, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 (Thailand); Janjai, S. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, Silpakorn University, Nakhon Pathom 73000 (Thailand); Chankong, V. [Department of Electrical Engineering and Computer Science, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2008-07-15

    This paper presents a mathematical model for optimal design of a solar-assisted drying system for drying bananas. The optimization model consists of a simulation model of a solar-assisted drying system combined with an economic model. The simulation model is composed of two systems of differential equations: one for the collector and other for the drying cabinet. These systems of the differential equation were solved using the finite difference method. Values of the model parameters were determined experimentally. A computer program in FORTRAN was developed to simulate the performance of the drying system. The model was validated by comparing the simulation results with the experimental results and they were in good agreement. This simulation model was used for the optimization of the solar-assisted drying system. An economic model was formulated to calculate the annual drying cost. The optimization problem was defined as the optimization of the geometry and operational parameters of the drying system so as to minimize the drying cost per unit of dried product. Currently used collector area and the air recycle factor were considered as the parameters for basic mode of operation of the drying system. The adaptive pattern search technique was adopted to find the optimum values of the solar collector area and the recycle factor. The optimum values of the collector area and the recycle factor were found to be 26 m{sup 2} and 90%, respectively. The computer program developed in this study can be used to optimize similar drying systems. (author)

  2. Vitamins, fatty acids, and antioxidant capacity stability during storage of freeze-dried human milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano, Blanca; Castellote, Ana Isabel; Montes, Rosa; López-Sabater, M Carmen

    2014-09-01

    Although freezing is the most common method used to preserve human milk, nutritional and immunological components may be lost during storage. Freeze-drying could increase the shelf life of human milk, while preserving its original characteristics. Seventy-two samples of freeze-dried human milk were stored for different periods of time, up to a maximum of 3 months, at 4 °C or 40 °C. Vitamin C, tocopherols, antioxidant capacity, and fatty acids composition were analyzed. A new HILIC-UHPLC method improving vitamin C determination was also validated. Ascorbic acid and total vitamin C concentrations significantly decreased at both temperatures, while antioxidant capacity only decreased at 40 °C. Fatty acids composition and both γ-tocopherol and δ-tocopherol contents remained unaltered. The stability after storage of freeze-dried milk was higher than that reported for frozen or fresh milk indicating that freeze-drying is a promising option to improve the preservation of human milk in banks.

  3. Effect of spray drying and storage on the stability of bayberry polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Zhongxiang; Bhandari, Bhesh

    2011-12-01

    Bayberry juice was spray dried with maltodextrin (DE 10) as a carrier and then stored under different temperature and water activities (aw). The retention of the total phenolic content (TPC) and total anthocaynins (ACN) during the drying process were about 96% and 94%, respectively, suggesting spray drying was a satisfactory technique for drying heat sensitive polyphenols. Under an aw of 0.11-0.44, the TPC and ACN in bayberry powders decreased by about 6-8% and 7-27%, respectively, after 6months storage at 4°C; at 25°C for the same storage period the decreases were between 6-9% and 9-37%, respectively, while at 40°C the decreases were in the range 7-37% and 9-94%. The anthocyanin component was more readily degraded relative to other phenolic compounds. The results suggest that bayberry powder should be stored at less than 25°C and aw of 0.33, on account of greater polyphenol stability under such conditions.

  4. Energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Areewan Kajorndech; Dulpichet Rerkpreedapong

    2015-01-01

    Energy storage systems have been widely employed to attain several benefits, such as reliability improvement, stabilization of power systems connected with renewable energy resources, economic benefits and etc. To achieve the above objectives, the appropriate and effective control strategies for energy storage systems are needed to be developed. This research proposes energy storage system control strategies for power distribution systems equipped with a limited size of energy storage system ...

  5. Recent findings on the oxidation of UO{sub 2} fuel under nominally dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, P.; McEachern, R.J.; Sunder, S.; Wasywich, K.M.; Miller, N.H.; Wood, D.D

    1995-07-01

    This paper is an overview of fuel-storage demonstration experiments, supporting research on UO{sub 2} oxidation, and associated model development, in progress at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories. The work is being performed to determine the time/temperature limits for safe storage of irradiated CANDU fuel in dry air. The most significant recent experimental finding has been the detection of small quantities of U{sub 3}O{sub 8}, formed over periods of one to several years in a variety of experiments at 150-170 deg C. Another important trading is the slight suppression of U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation in SIMFUEL and other doped U0{sub 2} formulations. The development of a nucleation-and-growth model for U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation is discussed, along with available activation energy data. These provide a basis for predicting U{sub 3}O{sub 8} formation rates under dry-storage conditions, and hence optimizing fuel storage strategies. (author)

  6. Probabilistic risk assessment of aircraft impact on a spent nuclear fuel dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almomani, Belal, E-mail: balmomani@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sanghoon, E-mail: shlee1222@kmu.ac.kr [Department of Mechanical and Automotive Engineering, Keimyung University, Dalgubeol-daero 1095, Dalseo-gu, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Jang, Dongchan, E-mail: dongchan.jang@kaist.ac.kr [Department of Nuclear and Quantum Engineering, Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, 291 Daehak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 305-701 (Korea, Republic of); Kang, Hyun Gook, E-mail: kangh6@rpi.edu [Department of Mechanical, Aerospace and Nuclear Engineering, Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute, Troy, NY 12180 (United States)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • A new risk assessment frame is proposed for aircraft impact into an interim dry storage. • It uses event tree analysis, response-structural analysis, consequence analysis, and Monte Carlo simulation. • A case study of the proposed procedure is presented to illustrate the methodology’s application. - Abstract: This paper proposes a systematic risk evaluation framework for one of the most significant impact events on an interim dry storage facility, an aircraft crash, by using a probabilistic approach. A realistic case study that includes a specific cask model and selected impact conditions is performed to demonstrate the practical applicability of the proposed framework. An event tree analysis of an occurred aircraft crash that defines a set of impact conditions and storage cask response is constructed. The Monte-Carlo simulation is employed for the probabilistic approach in consideration of sources of uncertainty associated with the impact loads onto the internal storage casks. The parameters for representing uncertainties that are managed probabilistically include the aircraft impact velocity, the compressive strength of the reinforced concrete wall, the missile shape factor, and the facility wall thickness. Failure probabilities of the impacted wall and a single storage cask under direct mechanical impact load caused by the aircraft crash are estimated. A finite element analysis is applied to simulate the postulated direct engine impact load onto the cask body, and a source term analysis for associated releases of radioactive materials as well as an off-site consequence analysis are performed. Finally, conditional risk contribution calculations are represented by an event tree model. Case study results indicate that no severe risk is presented, as the radiological consequences do not exceed regulatory exposure limits to the public. This risk model can be used with any other representative detailed parameters and reference design concepts for

  7. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Wally, K.; Raber, T.N. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1995-09-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. The purpose of this project is to develop a platform for the engineering evaluation of hydrogen storage and delivery systems with an added focus on lightweight hydride utilization. Hybrid vehicles represent the primary application area of interest, with secondary interests including such items as existing vehicles and stationary uses. The near term goal is the demonstration of an internal combustion engine/storage/delivery subsystem. The long term goal is optimization of storage technologies for both vehicular and industrial stationary uses. In this project an integrated approach is being used to couple system operating characteristics to hardware development. A model has been developed which integrates engine and storage material characteristics into the design of hydride storage and delivery systems. By specifying engine operating parameters, as well as a variety of storage/delivery design features, hydride bed sizing calculations are completed. The model allows engineering trade-off studies to be completed on various hydride material/delivery system configurations. A more generalized model is also being developed to allow the performance characteristics of various hydrogen storage and delivery systems to be compared (liquid, activated carbon, etc.). Many of the features of the hydride storage model are applicable to the development of this more generalized model.

  8. The role of protein modifications in senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis during storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Loss of viability is one of the most important problems during starter culture production. Previous research has mostly focused on the production process of bacterial starters, but there are few studies about cellular protein deterioration causing cell defectiveness during storage. In the present study, we investigated the influence of storage temperature (−21, 4, 35°C) on the cellular protein modifications which may contribute to the senescence of freeze-dried Acetobacter senegalensis. Results Heterogeneous populations composed of culturable cells, viable but non-culturable cells (VBNC) and dead cells were generated when freeze-dried cells were kept at −21 and 4°C for 12 months whereas higher storage temperature (35°C) mainly caused death of the cells. The analysis of stored cell proteome by 2D-DiGE demonstrated a modified pattern of protein profile for cell kept at 4 and 35°C due to the formation of protein spot trains and shift of Isoelectric point (pI). Quantification of carbonylated protein by ELISA showed that the cells stored at 4 and 35°C had higher carbonylated protein contents than fresh cells. 2D-DiGE followed by Western blotting also confirmed the carbonylation of cellular proteins involved in translation process and energy generation. The auto-fluorescent feature of cells kept at 35°C increased significantly which may be an indication of protein glycation during storage. In addition, the percentage of cellular unsaturated fatty acid and the solubility of cellular proteins decreased upon storage of cells at higher temperature suggesting that peroxidation of fatty acids and possibly protein lipidation and oxidation occurred. Conclusions High storage temperature induces some deteriorative reactions such as protein oxidation, lipidation and glycation which may cause further protein modifications like pI-shift, and protein insolubility. These modifications can partly account for the changes in cell viability. It can also be deduced

  9. Antioxidant and Sensorial Properties of Polyfloral Honey with Dried Apricots after One Year of Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Vulić

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Total phenol (TPh and flavonoid (TFd contents, antioxidant and sensorial properties of polyfloral (PH, and polyfloral honey after one year of storage (PHs with dried apricots (20, 30, and 40% were evaluated. In comparison to honey, TPh increased 1.86 times for PH40. After storage time, TPh of PH40s increased slightly lower (1.77 times, compared to PHs. TFd slightly increased, approximately 3.23-fold, from PH to PH40, while PHs showed increase of 5.15-fold for PH40s. Antioxidant activity increased with increasing concentration of apricots in honey. EC50OH varied from 3.36 for PH to 2.29 mg/mL for PH40 and from 3.48 for PHs to 2.68 mg/mL for PH40s; EC50DPPH ranged from 30.60 for PH to 14.95 mg/mL for PH40 and from 31.22 for PHs to 17.43 mg/mL for PH40s; RP0.5 ranged from 66.37 for PH to 31.83 mg/mL for PH40 and from 67.99 for PHs to 35.03 mg/mL for PH40s. Statistical analysis suggested that TPh and TFd were associated with antioxidant activity and colour. Sensory parameters, before and after storage, indicated very good sensory qualities. Phenolic composition, antioxidant capacity, and sensory properties were promoted after addition of dried apricots and these parameters stayed improved, since antioxidant compounds present in dried apricots aided in maintenance of honey properties along one year of storage.

  10. Survival of Salmonella during Drying of Fresh Ginger Root (Zingiber officinale) and Storage of Ground Ginger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gradl, Dana R; Sun, Lingxiang; Larkin, Emily L; Chirtel, Stuart J; Keller, Susanne E

    2015-11-01

    The survival of Salmonella on fresh ginger root (Zingiber officinale) during drying was examined using both a laboratory oven at 51 and 60°C with two different fan settings and a small commercially available food dehydrator. The survival of Salmonella in ground ginger stored at 25 and 37°C at 33% (low) and 97% (high) relative humidity (RH) was also examined. To inoculate ginger, a four-serovar cocktail of Salmonella was collected by harvesting agar lawn cells. For drying experiments, ginger slices (1 ± 0.5 mm thickness) were surface inoculated at a starting level of approximately 9 log CFU/g. Higher temperature (60°C) coupled with a slow fan speed (nonstringent condition) to promote a slower reduction in the water activity (aw) of the ginger resulted in a 3- to 4-log reduction in Salmonella populations in the first 4 to 6 h with an additional 2- to 3-log reduction by 24 h. Higher temperature with a higher fan speed (stringent condition) resulted in significantly less destruction of Salmonella throughout the 24-h period (P ginger. During storage at 97% RH, the maximum aw values were 0.85 at 25°C and 0.87 at 37°C; Salmonella was no longer detected after 25 and 5 days of storage, respectively, under these conditions. At 33% RH, the aw stabilized to approximately 0.35 at 25°C and 0.31 at 37°C. Salmonella levels remained relatively constant throughout the 365-day and 170-day storage periods for the respective temperatures. These results indicate a relationship between temperature and aw and the survival of Salmonella during both drying and storage of ginger.

  11. Seasonal energy storage - PV-hydrogen systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leppaenen, J. [Neste Oy/NAPS (Finland)

    1998-10-01

    PV systems are widely used in remote areas e.g. in telecommunication systems. Typically lead acid batteries are used as energy storage. In northern locations seasonal storage is needed, which however is too expensive and difficult to realise with batteries. Therefore, a PV- battery system with a diesel backup is sometimes used. The disadvantages of this kind of system for very remote applications are the need of maintenance and the need to supply the fuel. To overcome these problems, it has been suggested to use hydrogen technologies to make a closed loop autonomous energy storage system

  12. Downsized superconducting magnetic energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, David N.

    Scaled-down superconductive magnetic energy storage systems (DSMES) and superconductive magnetic energy power sources (SMEPS) are proposed for residential, commercial/retail, industrial off-peak and critical services, telephone and other communication systems, computer operations, power back-up/energy storages, power sources for space stations, and in-field military logistics/communication systems. Recent advances in high-Tc superconducting materials technology are analyzed. DSMES/SMEPS concepts are presented, and design, materials, and systems requirements are discussed. Problems ar identified, and possible solutions are offered. Comparisons are made with mechanical and primary and secondary energy storage and conversion systems.

  13. Freeze-drying of HESylated IFNα-2b: Effect of HESylation on storage stability in comparison to PEGylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebner, Robert; Bergmann, Sarah; Hey, Thomas; Winter, Gerhard; Besheer, Ahmed

    2015-11-10

    A comparison of lyophilized PEGylated and HESylated IFNα was carried out to investigate the influence of protein conjugation, lyoprotectants as well as storage temperature on protein stability. Results show that PEG tends to crystallize during freeze-drying, reducing protein stability upon storage. In contrast, HESylation(®) drastically improved the stability over PEGylation by remaining totally amorphous during lyophilization, with and without lyoprotectants while providing a high glass transition temperature of the freeze-dried cakes.

  14. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  15. Energy Storage and Smart Energy Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henrik; Østergaard, Poul Alberg; Connolly, David

    2016-01-01

    It is often highlighted how the transition to renewable energy supply calls for significant electricity storage. However, one has to move beyond the electricity-only focus and take a holistic energy system view to identify optimal solutions for integrating renewable energy. In this paper......, an integrated cross-sector approach is used to determine the most efficient and least-cost storage options for the entire renewable energy system concluding that the best storage solutions cannot be found through analyses focusing on the individual sub-sectors. Electricity storage is not the optimum solution...... to integrate large inflows of fluctuating renewable energy, since more efficient and cheaper options can be found by integrating the electricity sector with other parts of the energy system and by this creating a Smart Energy System. Nevertheless, this does not imply that electricity storage should...

  16. Transient response of latent heat storage in greenhouse solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Toksoy, M.; Cengel, Y.A.

    1986-01-01

    A latent heat storage system with two different stacking configurations and air bafflings was designed and constructed as an integrated part of the greenhouse solar system (solar barn). Commercial cylindrical storage rods were used as the primary storage elements. The results showed that the designed latent storage systems demonstrated significantly higher compact storage capacity than water or rock storage and that the ring-baffled storage unit performed better than the cross-baffled storage unit.

  17. Water uptake, priming, drying and storage effects inCassia excelsa Schrad seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeller H.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The aims of this study were to evaluate the effects of osmotic potential on the water uptake curvein Cassia excelsa seeds and use the results to analyze the effects of dehydration and storage on primed seed germination. Seeds were imbibed in distillad water and polyethylene glicol (PEG 6000 osmotic solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa, at 20ºC. The radicle emergence and seed moisture content were evaluated at 6-hour intervals during 240 hours. Afterwards, seeds were primed in distillad water and PEG 6000 solutions at -0.2, -0.4, and -0.6 MPa for 48, 72, 96, and 168 hours at 20ºC, followed by air drying and storage for 15 days at 5ºC. The lower the osmotic potential, the higher the time required for priming. The osmoconditioning yields benefits with PEG solutions at 0.0 and -0.2 MPa; seed improvements were maintained during storage for 15 days at 5ºC, but were reverted by seed drying.

  18. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed under different drying methods to promote storage stability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, So'bah; Shamsul Anuar, Mohd; Saleena Taip, Farah; Shamsudin, Rosnah; M, Siti Roha A.

    2017-05-01

    The effects of two drying methods, oven and microwave drying on the effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy of rambutan seed were studied. Effective moisture diffusivity and activation energy are the main indicators used for moisture movement within the material. Hence, it is beneficial to determine an appropriate drying method to attain a final moisture content of rambutan seed that potentially could be used as secondary sources in the industry. An appropriate final moisture content will provide better storage stability that can extend the lifespan of the rambutan seed. The rambutan seeds were dried with two drying methods (oven and microwave) at two level of the process variables (oven temperature; 40°C and 60°C and microwave power; 250W and 1000W) at constant initial moisture contents. The result showed that a higher value of effective moisture diffusivity and less activation energy were observed in microwave drying compared to oven drying. This finding portrays microwave drying expedites the moisture removal to achieve the required final moisture content and the most appropriate drying method for longer storage stability for rambutan seed. With respect to the process variables; higher oven temperatures and lower microwave powers also exhibit similar trends. Hopefully, this study would provide a baseline data to determine an appropriate drying method for longer storage period for turning waste to by-products.

  19. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  20. Mathematical and computational modeling simulation of solar drying Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathematical modeling of solar drying systems has the primary aim of predicting the required drying time for a given commodity, dryer type, and environment. Both fundamental (Fickian diffusion) and semi-empirical drying models have been applied to the solar drying of a variety of agricultural commo...

  1. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  2. Storage of solid propellants in a dry environment. [mechanical properties resulting from long term exposure to aerospace environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udlock, D. E.

    1978-01-01

    Storage of solid propellants in either a dry or a vacuum environment causes a significantly greater increase in the propellants' modulus and maximum tensile strength than does ambient storage. It is postulated that these physical property changes can be attributed to the effect trace amount of moisture has on the bond between the propellants' binder and oxidizer.

  3. HORIZONTAL AUTOMATED STORAGE AND RETRIEVAL SYSTEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Stanisław Tutak

    2017-03-01

    The final stage of the project was to verify the activities of the designed solutions based on tests on a prototype of the storage device. More precisely, it was tested on a machine prepared for a particular customer and a chosen configuration system, which is a combination of the triune manipulator of vertical storage controlled in an open loop.

  4. Energy storage for power systems

    CERN Document Server

    Ter-Gazarian, Andrei

    2011-01-01

    The supply of energy from primary sources is not constant and rarely matches the pattern of demand from consumers. Electricity is also difficult to store in significant quantities. Therefore, secondary storage of energy is essential to increase generation capacity efficiency and to allow more substantial use of renewable energy sources that only provide energy intermittently. Lack of effective storage has often been cited as a major hurdle to substantial introduction of renewable energy sources into the electricity supply network.This 2nd edition, without changing the existing structure of the

  5. Common criteria among States for storage and use of dried blood spot specimens after newborn screening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Petrini

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Biological samples collected in biobanks are a resource with significant research potential. The Italian Joint Group cNB - cNBBSV (National committee of Bioethics - National committee for Biosecurity, Biotechnologies and Life Sciences published a document reporting recommendations on storage and use of dried blood spot (DBS and on the development of a National Network of Regional Newborn Screening Repositories for collection of residual DBS. Several ethical questions (about consent, possible use of genetic information, unanticipated possible usages for research purposes rise from residual newborn screening specimens collections. Moreover, legal and ethical controversies are accentuated by the conflicts between the interests of sample donors, biobank holders, researchers and the public. To overcome these difficulties the identification of a few criteria for storage and research usage of DBS is crucial.

  6. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  7. Condensed milk storage and evaporation affect the flavor of nonfat dry milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Curtis W; Drake, MaryAnne

    2016-12-01

    Unit operations in nonfat dry milk (NFDM) manufacture influence sensory properties, and consequently, its use and acceptance in ingredient applications. Condensed skim milk may be stored at refrigeration temperatures for extended periods before spray drying due to shipping or lack of drying capacity. Currently, NFDM processors have 2 options for milk concentration up to 30% solids: evaporation (E) or reverse osmosis (RO). The objective of this study was to determine the effect of condensed milk storage and milk concentration method (E vs. RO) on the flavor of NFDM and investigate mechanisms behind flavor differences. For experiment 1, skim milk was pasteurized and concentrated to 30% solids by E or RO and then either stored for 24h at 4°C or concentrated to 50% solids by E and spray dried immediately. To investigate mechanisms behind the results from experiment 1, experiment 2 was constructed. In experiment 2, pasteurized skim milk was subjected to 1 of 4 treatments: control (no E), heated in the evaporator without vacuum, E concentration to 30% solids, or E concentration to 40% solids. The milks were then diluted to the same solids content and evaluated. Volatile compounds were also measured during concentration in the vapor separator of the evaporator. Sensory properties were evaluated by descriptive sensory analysis and instrumental volatile compound analysis was conducted to evaluate volatile compounds. Interaction effects between storage and method of concentration were investigated. In experiment 1, E decreased sweet aromatic flavor and many characteristic milk flavor compounds and increased cardboard and cooked flavors in NFDM compared with RO. Liquid storage increased cardboard flavor and hexanal and octanal and decreased sweet aromatic flavors and vanillin concentration. Results from experiment 2 indicated that the characteristic milk flavors and their associated volatile compounds were removed by the vapor separator in the evaporator due to the heat and

  8. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L.; Malinowski, M.E.; Wally, K. [Sandia National Lab., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a newly developed fuel cell vehicle hydride storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. An experimental test facility, the Hydride Bed Testing Laboratory (HBTL) has been designed and fabricated. The development of this facility and its use in storage system development will be reviewed. These two capabilities (analytical and experimental) form the basis of an integrated approach to storage system design and development. The initial focus of these activities has been on hydride utilization for vehicular applications.

  9. Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tugurlan, Maria; Tuffner, Francis K; Chassin, David P.

    2016-09-13

    Thermal energy storage devices, systems, and thermal energy storage device monitoring methods are described. According to one aspect, a thermal energy storage device includes a reservoir configured to hold a thermal energy storage medium, a temperature control system configured to adjust a temperature of the thermal energy storage medium, and a state observation system configured to provide information regarding an energy state of the thermal energy storage device at a plurality of different moments in time.

  10. Effects of Different Drying Methods and Storage Time on Free Radical Scavenging Activity and Total Phenolic Content of Cosmos Caudatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mediani, Ahmed; Abas, Faridah; Tan, Chin Ping; Khatib, Alfi

    2014-05-07

    The present study was conducted to determine the effect of air (AD), oven (OD) and freeze drying (FD) on the free radical scavenging activity and total phenolic content (TPC) of Cosmos caudatus and the effect of storage time by the comparison with a fresh sample (FS). Among the three drying methods that were used, AD resulted in the highest free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) (IC50 = 0.0223 mg/mL) and total phenolic content (27.4 g GAE/100 g), whereas OD produced the lowest scavenging activity and TPC value. After three months of storage, the dried samples showed a high and consistent free radical scavenging activity when compared to stored fresh material. The drying methods could preserve the quality of C. caudatus during storage and the stability of its bioactive components can be maintained.

  11. Water-storage-tube systems. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemker, P.

    1981-12-24

    Passive solar collection/storage/distribution systems were surveyed, designed, fabricated, and mechanically and thermally tested. The types studied were clear and opaque fiberglass tubes, metal tubes with plastic liners, and thermosyphoning tubes. (MHR)

  12. Biodigester as an energy storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges Neto, M.R.; Lopes, L.C.N. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Sertao Pernambucano (IFSertao-PE), Petrolina, PE (Brazil)], Emails: rangel@cefetpet.br; Pinheiro Neto, J.S.; Carvalho, P.C.M. [Federal University of Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. of Electrical Engineering], Emails: neto@tbmtextil.com.br, carvalho@dee.ufc.br; Silveira, G.C.; Moreira, A.P.; Borges, T.S.H. [Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology of Ceara (IFCE), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil)], Emails: gcsilveira@cefet-ce.br, apmoreira@ifce.edu.br, thatyanys@yahoo.com.br

    2009-07-01

    Electricity supply for rural and remote areas is becoming an increasing priority to developing countries. The high initial cost of renewable energy based unities usually needs an energy storage system; due its operational and even replacement cost contributes to a higher final cost. The choice of energy storage systems depends on the sort and size of adopted power supply. This paper has a main goal to introduce a renewable energy based storage system weakly explored in Brazil: biogas from anaerobic digestion. It also brings a review of the main energy storage systems applied to electrical energy generation. As reference an experiment with an adapted Indian digester of 5 m{sup 3} that produced nearly 2m{sup 3} of biogas daily. The obtained biogas met the consumption of at least 4 typical Brazilian low income households with installed load of 500 W each and was enough to replace the use of 420 Ah lead-acid batteries. (author)

  13. Effect of storage and drying temperature on the gelation behavior and structural characteristics of sericin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jo, Yoon Nam; Park, Byung-Dae; Um, In Chul

    2015-11-01

    Owing to unique properties, including the wound healing effect, sericin gel and films have attracted significant attention in the biomedical and cosmetic fields. The structural characteristics and properties of sericin gels and films are especially important owing to their effect on the performance of sericin in biomedical and cosmetic applications. In the present study, the effect of temperature on the gelation behavior, gel disruption, and sol-gel transition of sericin was examined using rheometry. In addition, the effect of the drying temperature on the structural characteristics of the sericin film was determined via Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The strength of the sericin gel increased and the gelation process was prolonged with decreasing storage temperatures. FTIR and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) results also revealed that the crystallinity and the thermal decomposition temperature of the sericin film increased with decreasing drying temperature. The sericin gels were disrupted at a storage time of 40min when they were stored at temperatures higher than 50°C, and the corresponding gel strength decreased with increasing temperature. Furthermore, the thermo-reversible nature of gel-sol transition of sericin was confirmed by rheological and FTIR measurements.

  14. A concept of an electricity storage system with 50 MWh storage capacity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Józef Paska

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Electricity storage devices can be divided into indirect storage technology devices (involving electricity conversion into another form of energy, and direct storage (in an electric or magnetic fi eld. Electricity storage technologies include: pumped-storage power plants, BES Battery Energy Storage, CAES Compressed Air Energy Storage, Supercapacitors, FES Flywheel Energy Storage, SMES Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage, FC Fuel Cells reverse or operated in systems with electrolysers and hydrogen storage. These technologies have diff erent technical characteristics and economic parameters that determine their usability. This paper presents two concepts of an electricity storage tank with a storage capacity of at least 50 MWh, using the BES battery energy storage and CAES compressed air energy storage technologies.

  15. Transient response of latent heat storage in greenhouse solar system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, B.K.; Cengel, Y.A.; Toksoy, M.

    1983-06-01

    A latent heat storage system with two different stacking configurations and air bafflings was designed and constructed as an integrated part of the greenhouse solar system. Commercial cylindrical storage rods were used as the primary storage elements. The results showed that the latent storage system performed significantly better than water or rock storage.

  16. Optimal Storage Allocation for Wireless Cloud Caching Systems with a Limited Sum Storage Capacity

    OpenAIRE

    Hong, Bi; Choi, Wan

    2016-01-01

    In wireless cloud storage systems, the recovery failure probability depends on not only wireless channel conditions but also storage size of each distributed storage node. For an efficient utilization of limited storage capacity and the performance characterization of allocation strategies, we asymptotically analyze the recovery failure probability of a wireless cloud storage system with a sum storage capacity constraint for both high SNR regime and low SNR regime. Then, we find the optimal s...

  17. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  18. Compact inductive energy storage pulse power system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    K, Senthil; Mitra, S; Roy, Amitava; Sharma, Archana; Chakravarthy, D P

    2012-05-01

    An inductive energy storage pulse power system is being developed in BARC, India. Simple, compact, and robust opening switches, capable of generating hundreds of kV, are key elements in the development of inductive energy storage pulsed power sources. It employs an inductive energy storage and opening switch power conditioning techniques with high energy density capacitors as the primary energy store. The energy stored in the capacitor bank is transferred to an air cored storage inductor in 5.5 μs through wire fuses. By optimizing the exploding wire parameters, a compact, robust, high voltage pulse power system, capable of generating reproducibly 240 kV, is developed. This paper presents the full details of the system along with the experimental data.

  19. Energy storage in future power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Claus Nygaard; Østergaard, Jacob; Divya, K. C.

    2011-01-01

    Most sources of renewable power are characterised by uncontrollable and chaotic variations in power output. We here look at how energy storage may benefit renewable power generation by making it available in periods with little or no intermittent generation and thereby prevent additional...... conventional generation form being used. In addition to this, one of the strongest concerns in relation to renewable power is the instability in the electric power system that it may introduce as a result of large and relatively fast power fluctuations. An additional benefit of energy storage is therefore its...... of renewable energy. Meanwhile, the insurance of power system stability through reduction of power gradients is of major importance even at lower penetration levels and some form of energy storage therefore seems unavoidable. A variety of technologies are available for storage of energy in the power system...

  20. Influence of modified blanching treatments on inactivation of Salmonella during drying and storage of carrot slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dipersio, Patricia A; Kendall, Patricia A; Yoon, Yohan; Sofos, John N

    2007-08-01

    Documented outbreaks of human illness associated with consumption of minimally processed produce have increased in recent years. This study evaluated the influence of modified treatments on inactivation of Salmonella during preparation, home-type dehydration (60 degrees C, 6h) and storage of carrot slices. Inoculated (five strains, 7.8 log cfu/g) slices were subjected to the following treatments: (i) untreated control, (ii) steam blanching (88 degrees C, 10 min), (iii) water blanching (88 degrees C, 4 min), (iv) blanching in a 0.105% citric acid solution (88 degrees C, 4 min), or (v) blanching in a 0.21% citric acid solution (88 degrees C, 4 min), dried for 6h at 60 degrees C (140 degrees F), and stored for up to 30 d. Bacterial populations were reduced by 3.8-4.1, 4.6-5.1 and 4.2-4.6 log cfu/g immediately following steam, water or citric acid blanching, respectively. After 6h of dehydration, total reductions were 1.6-1.7 (control), 4.0-5.0 (steam blanched), 4.1-4.6 (water blanched) and 4.9-5.4 (blanched in citric acid solution) log cfu/g. Populations continued to decrease throughout storage, but were still detectable by direct plating at 30 d on all samples except for those blanched in 0.21% citric acid. Results suggest that blanching carrot slices, particularly blanching in 0.21% citric acid, before drying should enhance inactivation of Salmonella during home-type dehydration and storage.

  1. Seismic Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Consolidated Dry Storage Module for CANDU Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Gon; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Heung Young [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Sup; Jeong, In Su; Kim, Jong Soo [KONES Co., Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been developed as an effective alternative to the existing stand alone concrete canister for dry storage of CANDU spent fuel. The structure is a concrete monolith of 21.67 m long and 12.66 m wide and has a height equal to 7.518 m including the bottom slab. Inside of the concrete module are built 40 storage cylinders accommodating ten 60- bundle dry storage baskets, which are suspended from the top slab and eventually constrained at 10 cm above the bottom slab with horizontal seismic restraints. The main cooling process of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module is by air convection through air inlets and outlets. The civil design parameters, with respect to meteorological and seismic loads applied to the module are identical to those specified for the Wolsung CANDU 3 and 4 plants except for local geologic characteristics. As per USNRC SRP Section 3.7.2 and current US practices, Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI) effect shall be considered for all structures not supported by a rock or rock-like soil foundation materials. An SSI is a very complicated phenomenon of the structure coupled with the soil medium that is usually semi-infinite in extent and highly nonlinear in its behavior. And the effect of the SSI is noticeable especially for stiff and massive structures resting on relatively soft ground. Thus the SSI effect has to be considered in the seismic design of MACSTOR/KN-400 module resting on soil medium. The scope of the this paper is to carry out a seismic SSI analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module, in order to show how much the SSI gives an effect on the structural responses by comparing with the fixed-base analysis.

  2. Security for cloud storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yang, Kan

    2014-01-01

    Cloud storage is an important service of cloud computing, which offers service for data owners to host their data in the cloud. This new paradigm of data hosting and data access services introduces two major security concerns. The first is the protection of data integrity. Data owners may not fully trust the cloud server and worry that data stored in the cloud could be corrupted or even removed. The second is data access control. Data owners may worry that some dishonest servers provide data access to users that are not permitted for profit gain and thus they can no longer rely on the servers

  3. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  4. NID dry desulfurization system -- An update

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahman, S.; Bengtsson, S.

    1998-07-01

    The development of ABB's low cost flue gas desulfurization (FGD) system has been reported in various papers during 1997. The system combines low cost and simple operation with very good performance and is targeted especially for the emerging markets in Asia and East Europe. This method is capable of achieving 90+% SO{sub 2} removal, irrespective of sulphur content in the fuel. The system is further easy to retrofit at existing sites; it has a minimum space requirement. An important feature of the dry FGD technology, sometimes not highlighted enough, is the fact that particulate collection of fly ash is facilitated by the FGD system at no extra capital charge. The flue gas temperature after a DFGD system also often allows the flue gas to be passed on to an existing stack without reheat. ``NID'' is an acronym for ``Novel Integrated Desulfurization'', indicative of the innovative nature of this FGD technology enabled by the integration of several subfunctionalities into one unit. The first two commercial plants were installed by the Polish power company Elektrownia Laziska. These full scale units were commissioned during 1996. A third unit at a diesel power station in Finland is at the time of writing in the commissioning stage.

  5. Storage and distribution system for multimedia information

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tokumichi

    1994-06-01

    Recent advances in technologies such as digital signal processing, LSI devices and storage media have led to an explosive growth in multimedia environment. Multimedia information services are expected to provide an information-oriented infrastructure which will integrate visual communication, broadcasting and computer services. International standardizations in video/audio coding accelerate permeation of these services into society. In this paper, from trends of R & D and international standardization in video coding techniques, an outline is given of a storage and distribution system for multimedia information, and a summary of the requirements of digital storage media.

  6. Review of Magnetic Flywheel Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prince Owusu-Ansah

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study studies an overview of magnetic flywheel energy storage system. Energy storage is an integral part of any critical power system, as this stored energy is used to offset interruptions in the power delivered system from either a utility or an on-site generator. Magnetic flywheel as mechanical batteries using composite rotor, magnetic support bearings as well as power electronics to store electrical energy to replace stone wheel and chemical batteries has resulted in high power and energy densities. Traditionally, capacitors are used for short term storage (µs-ms and filtering, chemical batteries are used for intermediate storage (min-h and diesel fuel is used for long-term storage (h-days. Electricity generated from renewable sources, which has shown remarkable growth worldwide, can rarely provide immediate response to demand as these sources do not deliver regular supply easily adjustable to consumption needs. Thus, the growth of this decentralization production means greater network load stability problems and requires energy storage, generally using lead acid batteries as a potential solution. Finally the integration of all subsystems optimally of the magnetic flywheel system has resulted in a mechanical battery which can supply more efficient, reliable and uninterrupted power to meet the ever increasing demand of industrial machinery and automobiles.

  7. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenung, Susan M. (Longitude 122 West, Menlo Park, CA)

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  8. Effects of the concrete crack on radiation shielding in spent fuel dry storage facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Chang Min

    2007-02-15

    rays in a concrete structure with collinear cracks. In the case of abnormal state, the effect of spalling due to reinforcement corrosion on the shielding performance is estimated by numerical analysis. And because dry storage system for PWR is not decided yet, these effects applied to MACSTOR-400. In case that cover thickness is under 10cm, it is estimated that spalling will be formed. Nevertheless, if the thickness of wall in MACSTOR-400 is 100cm, it is estimated that surface dose rate will be maintained below the radiation safety standards. Dose rate at Wolsung site boundary where MACSTOR-400 is located regarding the effect of concrete cracking was estimated. This estimation is based on experimental results as mentioned above. This estimation is based on experimental results. In order to estimate dose rate at site boundary, the radiological effect of other facility in same site and the effect due to arrangement is considered. It is estimated that the dose rate increasing due to cracking is up to 25%. It seems that the additional shielding effect due to the 'mutual shielding effect' will be expected about 55-60%. It is estimated that the contribution from NPPs to dose rate are the most dominant. Concrete silo has surface dose rate lower than that of MACSTOR, however, because the number of concrete silo is much more than MACSTOR, it is estimated that contribution from concrete silo is more that that of MACSTOR-400. Although operation time of NPPs, it is estimated that dose rate is maintained under criteria, regardless of crack formation. The results of this study can be applied to assess the surface dose rate of concrete shield for collinear crack, and not irregular cracks with bends. However, they may be used to establish a standard for radiological safety in shielding structures, especially shielding margin. This study does not consider buildup factor. In order to be used in the industrial fields, a study on the effect of cracking on buildup is required

  9. Effect of oven drying and storage on essential oil composition of clove (Syzygium aromaticum) from Toli-Toli

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murni, V. W.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Hastuti, L. T.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    The research about post-harvested clove is still limited especially in Indonesia, as the biggest producer of clove in the world. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of drying process and storage on the composition of essential oil of Indonesian clove originated from Toli-Toli. The essential oil of fresh and dried clove was obtained by steam distillation and the composition of the oil was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In all of the clove oil samples, eugenol was the major component, followed by caryophyllene and acetyleugenol. The drying method used was oven drying at 50°C until clove's moisture content reaches 13±1%. During the drying process, the content of phenylpropanoids such as eugenol, isoeugenol, and chavicol increased, while esters and monoterpenes decreased. The composition of clove oil was studied from dried clove after oven drying, then stored in the laboratory at room temperature for 4 months. There was slightly change on clove oil composition after 4 months of storage. The content of major components of clove like eugenol was higher while acetyleugenol was lower after 4 months of storage.

  10. Evaluation of safety margins during dry storage of CANDU fuel in MACSTOR/KN-400 module

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaudoin, R.; Shill, R. [Atomic Energy of Canada Limited, Montreal, Quebec (Canada); Lee, K.-H.; Chung, S.-H.; Yoon, J.-H.; Choi, B.-I.; Lee, H.-Y.; Song, M.-J. [KHNP, Nuclear Environment Technology Inst., Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-07-01

    This paper covers an evaluation of the available safety margin against fuel bundle degradation during dry storage of CANDU spent fuel bundles in a MACSTOR/KN-400 module, considering normal, off-normal and postulated accidental conditions. Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power (KHNP), in collaboration with Atomic Energy of Canada Limited (AECL), are developing a new module for the dry storage of spent fuel from the four CANDU 6 nuclear reactors at the Wolsong site in South Korea. The module provides the benefit of occupying significantly less area than the concrete canisters presently used. The modules are designed for a minimum service life of 50 years. During that period, the spent fuel bundles shall be safely stored. This imposes that failure of a fuel bundle element or unacceptable degradation of an existing defect (from reactor operation) does not occur during the dry storage period. The fuel bundles are stored in an air-filled fuel basket that releases 365 Watts on average and a maximum of 390 Watts when rare fuel loading conditions are postulated. In addition, specific accidental air flow cooling conditions are postulated that consist of 100% blockage of all air inlets on one side of the module. These conditions can generate a peak daily fuel temperature of up to 155{sup o}C during a reference hot summer day during the first year of operation. The fuel temperature decreases over the years and also fluctuates due to daily and seasonal temperature variations. At this temperature, fuel elements with intact Zircaloy sheathing will not experience damage. However, for the few fuel bundle elements that are non-leaktight (less than 1 per 37,000), some re-oxidation of UO{sub 2} into higher oxides such as U{sub 3}O{sub 7} / U{sub 4}O{sub 9} and U{sub 3}O{sub 8} will occur. This latter form of Uranium oxide is undesirable due to its lower density that results in a volumetric increase of the pellet that can overstress the fuel element sheathing. The level of fuel pellet

  11. Hydrogen Storage Technologies for Future Energy Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preuster, Patrick; Alekseev, Alexander; Wasserscheid, Peter

    2017-06-07

    Future energy systems will be determined by the increasing relevance of solar and wind energy. Crude oil and gas prices are expected to increase in the long run, and penalties for CO2 emissions will become a relevant economic factor. Solar- and wind-powered electricity will become significantly cheaper, such that hydrogen produced from electrolysis will be competitively priced against hydrogen manufactured from natural gas. However, to handle the unsteadiness of system input from fluctuating energy sources, energy storage technologies that cover the full scale of power (in megawatts) and energy storage amounts (in megawatt hours) are required. Hydrogen, in particular, is a promising secondary energy vector for storing, transporting, and distributing large and very large amounts of energy at the gigawatt-hour and terawatt-hour scales. However, we also discuss energy storage at the 120-200-kWh scale, for example, for onboard hydrogen storage in fuel cell vehicles using compressed hydrogen storage. This article focuses on the characteristics and development potential of hydrogen storage technologies in light of such a changing energy system and its related challenges. Technological factors that influence the dynamics, flexibility, and operating costs of unsteady operation are therefore highlighted in particular. Moreover, the potential for using renewable hydrogen in the mobility sector, industrial production, and the heat market is discussed, as this potential may determine to a significant extent the future economic value of hydrogen storage technology as it applies to other industries. This evaluation elucidates known and well-established options for hydrogen storage and may guide the development and direction of newer, less developed technologies.

  12. Anti- and pro-oxidative effect of fresh and freeze-dried vegetables during storage of mayonnaise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raikos, Vassilios; Neacsu, Madalina; Morrice, Philip; Duthie, Garry

    2015-12-01

    Mayonnaise was supplemented with vegetables (5 % w/w) and the effect of storage time at 4 °C on the oxidative stability of the dispersed phase was investigated. Results indicated that mayonnaise is prone to lipid oxidation during storage under refrigerator conditions. The type of vegetable used for mayonnaise reformulation was critical in inhibiting oxidation and followed the order beetroot > carrot ≈ onion with respect to antioxidant capacity. Broccoli induced a pro-oxidant effect and the rate of oxidation by the end of the storage period was 42 times higher compared with the control. The addition of beetroot, either fresh or freeze-dried, improved the oxidative stability of mayonnaise significantly. The process of freeze-drying affected adversely the ability of vegetables to decrease oil oxidation of the emulsions. This may reflect loss of important natural antioxidants during the drying procedure.

  13. Hydrogen storage and delivery system development: Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Handrock, J.L. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States)

    1996-10-01

    Hydrogen storage and delivery is an important element in effective hydrogen utilization for energy applications and is an important part of the FY1994-1998 Hydrogen Program Implementation Plan. This project is part of the Field Work Proposal entitled Hydrogen Utilization in Internal Combustion Engines (ICE). The goal of the Hydrogen Storage and Delivery System Development Project is to expand the state-of-the-art of hydrogen storage and delivery system design and development. At the foundation of this activity is the development of both analytical and experimental evaluation platforms. These tools provide the basis for an integrated approach for coupling hydrogen storage and delivery technology to the operating characteristics of potential hydrogen energy use applications. Results of the analytical model development portion of this project will be discussed. Analytical models have been developed for internal combustion engine (ICE) hybrid and fuel cell driven vehicles. The dependence of hydride storage system weight and energy use efficiency on engine brake efficiency and exhaust temperature for ICE hybrid vehicle applications is examined. Results show that while storage system weight decreases with increasing engine brake efficiency energy use efficiency remains relatively unchanged. The development, capability, and use of a recently developed fuel cell vehicle storage system model will also be discussed. As an example of model use, power distribution and control for a simulated driving cycle is presented. Model calibration results of fuel cell fluid inlet and exit temperatures at various fuel cell idle speeds, assumed fuel cell heat capacities, and ambient temperatures are presented. The model predicts general increases in temperature with fuel cell power and differences between inlet and exit temperatures, but under predicts absolute temperature values, especially at higher power levels.

  14. Modernizing the monitoring of Mass Storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Terrien, Alexandre

    2016-01-01

    The monitoring of a system is essential to ensure its efficiency. On a computer system, this monitoring is partly done via the analysis of log messages. The monitoring of CASTOR, a mass-storage system responsible for the storage of 150Pb of scientific data at CERN, was being done with tools developed by the IT-ST-FDO section. Those tools recently encountered some performance limitations due to the increase in the quantity of data produced by CERN's experiments. In this paper, I will describe how I managed to modernize CASTOR's monitoring tools by leveraging services centrally managed by CERN's IT department.

  15. The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-11-01

    Utility battery energy storage allows a utility or customer to store electrical energy for dispatch at a time when its use is more economical, strategic, or efficient. The UBS program sponsors systems analyses, technology development of subsystems and systems integration, laboratory and field evaluation, and industry outreach. Achievements and planned activities in each area are discussed.

  16. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  17. Designing Microporus Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alan C. Cooper

    2012-05-02

    An efficient, cost-effective hydrogen storage system is a key enabling technology for the widespread introduction of hydrogen fuel cells to the domestic marketplace. Air Products, an industry leader in hydrogen energy products and systems, recognized this need and responded to the DOE 'Grand Challenge' solicitation (DOE Solicitation DE-PS36-03GO93013) under Category 1 as an industry partner and steering committee member with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) in their proposal for a center-of-excellence on Carbon-Based Hydrogen Storage Materials. This center was later renamed the Hydrogen Sorption Center of Excellence (HSCoE). Our proposal, entitled 'Designing Microporous Carbons for Hydrogen Storage Systems,' envisioned a highly synergistic 5-year program with NREL and other national laboratory and university partners.

  18. Effect of rainfall seasonality on carbon storage in tropical dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, Tyler; Manzoni, Stefano; Feng, Xue; Menezes, Rômulo S. C.; Porporato, Amilcare

    2013-07-01

    seasonally dry conditions are typical of large areas of the tropics, their biogeochemical responses to seasonal rainfall and soil carbon (C) sequestration potential are not well characterized. Seasonal moisture availability positively affects both productivity and soil respiration, resulting in a delicate balance between C deposition as litterfall and C loss through heterotrophic respiration. To understand how rainfall seasonality (i.e., duration of the wet season and rainfall distribution) affects this balance and to provide estimates of long-term C sequestration, we develop a minimal model linking the seasonal behavior of the ensemble soil moisture, plant productivity, related C inputs through litterfall, and soil C dynamics. A drought-deciduous caatinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil is used as a case study to parameterize the model. When extended to different patterns of rainfall seasonality, the results indicate that for fixed annual rainfall, both plant productivity and soil C sequestration potential are largely, and nonlinearly, dependent on wet season duration. Moreover, total annual rainfall is a critical driver of this relationship, leading at times to distinct optima in both production and C storage. These theoretical predictions are discussed in the context of parameter uncertainties and possible changes in rainfall regimes in tropical dry ecosystems.

  19. The Feasibility of Cask "Fingerprinting" as a Spent-Fuel, Dry-Storage Cask Safeguards Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K P; Vanier, P; Forman, L; Caffrey, G; Wharton, J; Lebrun, A

    2005-07-27

    This report documents a week-long measurement campaign conducted on six, dry-storage, spent-nuclear-fuel storage casks at the Idaho National Laboratory. A gamma-ray imager, a thermal-neutron imager and a germanium spectrometer were used to collect data on the casks. The campaign was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the cask radiation signatures as unique identifiers for individual casks as part of a safeguards regime. The results clearly show different morphologies for the various cask types although the signatures are deemed insufficient to uniquely identify individual casks of the same type. Based on results with the germanium spectrometer and differences between thermal neutron images and neutron-dose meters, this result is thought to be due to the limitations of the extant imagers used, rather than of the basic concept. Results indicate that measurements with improved imagers could contain significantly more information. Follow-on measurements with new imagers either currently available as laboratory prototypes or under development are recommended.

  20. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. under Ambient Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g. Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05 declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality.

  1. Sunflower seedlings dry matter content as affected by chemical treatment and storage length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical treatment of seed is a common crop protection measure. In the case of sunflower seed, fungicides are used regularly and insecticides at an increasing rate. In some cases, sunflower hybrid seed not planted in the first year is planted in the second or even third year after production. Seed vigour decreases gradually over time, which negatively affects seed emergence and subsequent plant growth and development. Seed with high vigour is expected to germinate quickly, producing seedlings that grow fast and uniformly. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of seed chemical treatment and storage length on seedling dry matter content in different sunflower hybrids. The study included several variants with fungicide and pesticide treatments and an untreated control. In the case of the hybrid NS-H-111, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded in the control and directly after chemical treatment. In the case of the hybrid Sremac, the lowest value was recorded in seed treatment with benomyl+metalaxyl, highest in the treatments directly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months. In the case of the hybrid Šumadinac, highest values were recorded in the control and in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl, the lowest in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl+im idacloprid. Regarding the effect of different seed storage periods, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded shortly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months.

  2. Sodium and Lithium Storage Properties of Spray-Dried Molybdenum Disulfide-Graphene Hierarchical Microspheres

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalluri, Sujith; Seng, Kuok Hau; Guo, Zaiping; Du, Aijun; Konstantinov, Konstantin; Liu, Hua Kun; Dou, Shi Xue

    2015-07-01

    Developing nano/micro-structures which can effectively upgrade the intriguing properties of electrode materials for energy storage devices is always a key research topic. Ultrathin nanosheets were proved to be one of the potential nanostructures due to their high specific surface area, good active contact areas and porous channels. Herein, we report a unique hierarchical micro-spherical morphology of well-stacked and completely miscible molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) nanosheets and graphene sheets, were successfully synthesized via a simple and industrial scale spray-drying technique to take the advantages of both MoS2 and graphene in terms of their high practical capacity values and high electronic conductivity, respectively. Computational studies were performed to understand the interfacial behaviour of MoS2 and graphene, which proves high stability of the composite with high interfacial binding energy (-2.02 eV) among them. Further, the lithium and sodium storage properties have been tested and reveal excellent cyclic stability over 250 and 500 cycles, respectively, with the highest initial capacity values of 1300 mAh g-1 and 640 mAh g-1 at 0.1 A g-1.

  3. Performance and Storage Integrity of Dried Blood Spots for PCB, BFR and Pesticide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batterman, Stuart; Chernyak, Sergei

    2014-01-01

    Dried blood spots (DBS) can provide accurate and valuable estimates of exposure to environmental toxicants, and the use of information derived from archived newborn DBS information has enormous potential to open up new research on the impacts of early chemical exposure on disease. Broad application of DBS for the purpose of quantitative exposure estimation requires robust and validated methods. This study investigates the suitability of DBS analyses for population studies of exposure to three chemical groups: polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), brominated flame retardants (BFRs), and chlorinated pesticides. It examines background (matrix) contamination, recovery and extraction variability, sensitivity, and storage stability. DBS samples prepared using 50 μL of adult blood were analyzed by GC/MS, and method performance was confirmed by using certified materials and paired DBS-blood samples from six volunteers. Several of the target compounds and their degradation products have not been previously measured in DBS. All target compounds were detected in DBS samples collected from the volunteers. Sample DBS cards showed background contamination of several compounds. When stored at room temperature, target compounds, excluding PBDEs, were stable for up to one month. When refrigerated or frozen, stability was acceptable for all compounds up to one year, and multiyear storage appears acceptable at colder (e.g., −80 °C) temperatures. Multicompartment models may be used to estimate or correct for storage losses. Considering concentrations of contaminants for adults and children reported in the literature, and experimental values of detection limits and background contamination, DBS samples are suitable for quantifying exposures to many PCBs, BFRs and persistent pesticides. PMID:25058892

  4. 33 CFR 127.609 - Dry chemical systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) WATERFRONT FACILITIES WATERFRONT FACILITIES HANDLING LIQUEFIED NATURAL GAS AND LIQUEFIED HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Natural Gas Firefighting § 127.609 Dry chemical systems. (a)...

  5. Production of dry Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG preparations by spray drying and lyophilization in aqueous two-phase systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Leja

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Background. Drying is the oldest method of food preservation. It works by removing water from the food, which prevents the growth of microorganisms and decay. Moreover, spray or freeze drying is also used for the preservation of probiotic cultures. The aim of this study was to compare a survival rate of probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus during spray and freeze drying in ATPS. These results were also compared with survival rate of cells dried under the same conditions but suspended only in skim milk, 6% solution of PVP or 6% solution of dextran. Material and methods. The bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus GGwere suspended and spray or freeze dried in various types of aqueous two-phase emulsions: PVP/dextran, PEG4000/dextran and PEG8000/dextran. These emulsions consisted of different types of polymers and had varying ratio of polymers in dispersed (dextran and dispersing (PEG and PVP phases. Results. The research demonstrated that survival rate of bacteria directly after drying depended mainly on protective reagent, rather than on drying method. After 30-day-storage of the dried bacteria cell specimens, the highest survival rate was noted in case of freeze dried cells in milk. In case of spray drying the highest cell survival rate was observed when emulsion PVP3.6%/dextran2.4% was used as a drying medium. Conclusions. Finally, it has been found that cell survival rate was not strongly influenced by the storage temperature of the powder but it depended on the drying medium.  

  6. [Digital photograph storage systems in clinical dermatology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taberner, R; Contestí, T

    2010-05-01

    In recent years, digital photography has consolidated its role in clinical dermatology. In view of the quality and low cost of current equipment and the simplicity of digital storage, almost all dermatologists now use digital photography, which is also extremely versatile and readily applicable to teaching. However, to maximize its full potential, image retrieval must be available at any time and with the patient present. This requires a suitable storage system that may vary according to the characteristics of each center. Dermatologists must also find time to maintain and organize the digital archives. The present article describes current options in digital image storage and retrieval, ranging from multidepartmental picture archiving and communication systems at one end to image management freeware at the other, and also including dedicated dermatology software.

  7. Optimization of Korean crop storage insulation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jongho Yoon [Taejon National Univ. of Technology, Dept. of Architectural Engineering, Taejon (Korea); Euyjoon Lee [Korea Inst. of Energy Research, Passive Solar Research Team, Taejon (Korea); Krarti, Moncef [Colorado Univ., CEAE Dept., Boulder, CO (United States)

    2003-05-01

    With the increasing concerns with the quality and the safety of foods, several standards and guidelines have been developed to improve the design, construction and operation of storage warehouses. Several cool storage buildings have been constructed in Korea during the last decade. However, there are no specific standards or guidelines for energy use reduction in refrigerated structures. The main objective of this study is to determine the impact of various insulation systems on the total cooling load of the cool storage structures with particular consideration given to the product thermal mass to find optimal insulation thicknesses for each envelope component for various climatic locations in Korea. An energy analysis model was developed using the DOE-2.1E program. To determine the optimal configuration for the storage building insulation system, life cycle cost analysis was conducted. The selection of optimal insulation configuration for each climatic location is based on various criteria including cost and energy minimization. The results presented in this paper provide easy to use design guidelines to select the optimal insulation thickness for crop storage facilities in Korea. (Author)

  8. The potato dry rot causal agent and severity in Ardabil storages and the resistance of cultivars to the disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leila Khoshnevis

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Dry rot is one of the most important diseases of potato in storages. The aim of this study was to determine dry rot severity in potato storages of Ardabil, identify the disease causal agents and evaluate some potato cultivars resistance to the disease. Materials and methods: Totally 150 infected samples were collected from thirty nine studied storages in Ardabil. Dry rot severity and the prevalence of infected tubers were determined by surveying three 50 kg bags of potato in the storages. Fungi isolated and purified from the tubers with dry rot symptoms. A factorial design with four replications was applied in order to evaluate the reaction of five potato cultivars to four Fusarium species and determining the resistant one to dry rot. Potato tuber slices were inoculated by conidial suspension of Fusarium species. Four days after inoculation and maintaining in darkness and 25oC, the cultivars susceptibility was  identified. Results: Four species of Fusarium were identified as dry rot causal agents in Ardabil as follows: F. oxysporum, F. poae, F. solani and F. sporotrichioides. There was no significant difference between Fusarium species in pathogenicity. The reaction of cultivars to various Fusarium species was different. Boren had the lowest infection (12.5% and Sabalan showed the highest (98.87 %. Sabalan ،Khavaran ،Agria and hybrid line 3970093 displayed the highest susceptibility to various studied Fusarium species. Discussion and conclusion: Based on the results, Boren is introduced as the most resistant cultivar to Fusarium dry rot and Sabalan, Agria and hybrid line 3970093 as the susceptible ones.

  9. Macstor system for spent fuel storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pattantyus, P. (Atomic Energy of Canada Ltd., Montreal, PQ (Canada). Power Projects)

    1993-01-01

    In 1989, Transnuclear Inc. and AECL jointly developed the conceptual design for the Modular Aircooled Canister Storage System (Macstor) for LWR fuel. The development effort has proceeded to the completion of successful full-scale thermal testing. In 1990, AECL adapted the Macstor System approach for use with Candu fuel. The adapted design, called Canstor, has also successfully completed full-scale thermal testing, and the final system design has been completed. (author) 1 fig.

  10. The Effect of Storage and Extraction Methods on Amplification of Plasmodium falciparum DNA from Dried Blood Spots

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schwartz, A.; Baidjoe, A.Y.; Rosenthal, P.J.; Dorsey, G.; Bousema, T.; Greenhouse, B.

    2015-01-01

    Extraction and amplification of DNA from dried blood spots (DBS) collected in field studies is commonly used for detection of Plasmodium falciparum. However, there have been few systematic efforts to determine the effects of storage and extraction methods on the sensitivity of DNA amplification. We

  11. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  12. 78 FR 67348 - Invitation for Public Comment on Draft Test Plan for the High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-12

    ...: U.S. Department of Energy, C/O Melissa Bates, 1955 Freemont Ave., MS 1235, Idaho Falls, ID 83415..., 1955 Fremont Ave., Attn: Melissa Bates, Idaho Falls, ID, between 8 a.m. and 3:30 p.m. MT, Monday.... Melissa Bates, Contracting Officers Representative, High Burnup Dry Storage Cask Research and...

  13. A model on the effect of temperature and moisture on pollen longevity in air-dry storage environments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hong, T.D.; Ellis, R.H.; Buitink, J.; Walters, J.; Hoekstra, F.A.; Crane, J.

    1999-01-01

    Data on the survival of pollen ofTypha latifoliaL. stored for up to 261 d over seven different saturated salt solutions (providing 0.5 to 66% relative humidity) and six different constant temperatures (from −5 to +45 °C) were analysed to quantify the effect of air-dry storage environment on pollen l

  14. Development of a seasonal thermochemical storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cuypers, R.; Maraz, N.; Eversdijk, J.; Finck, C.J.; Henquet, E.M.P.; Oversloot, H.P.; Spijker, J.C. van 't; Geus, A.C. de

    2012-01-01

    In our laboratories, a seasonal thermochemical storage system for dwellings and offices is being designed and developed. Based on a thermochemical sorption reaction, space heating, cooling and generation of domestic hot water will be achieved with up to 100% renewable energy, by using solar energy a

  15. Optical Digital Image Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-03-18

    This could be accomplished even if the files were artificially determined. " Super files," composed of a number of files, could be artificially created...in order to expedite transfer through the scanning process. These " super files" could later be broken down into their actual component files. Another...hesitant about implementing an optical disk system. While Sandra Napier believed it "looks promising," she felt an optical disk replacement of microfilm

  16. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  17. Flywheel energy storage for electromechanical actuation systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hockney, Richard L.; Goldie, James H.; Kirtley, James L.

    1991-01-01

    The authors describe a flywheel energy storage system designed specifically to provide load-leveling for a thrust vector control (TVC) system using electromechanical actuators (EMAs). One of the major advantages of an EMA system over a hydraulic system is the significant reduction in total energy consumed during the launch profile. Realization of this energy reduction will, however, require localized energy storage capable of delivering the peak power required by the EMAs. A combined flywheel-motor/generator unit which interfaces directly to the 20-kHz power bus represents an ideal candidate for this load leveling. The overall objective is the definition of a flywheel energy storage system for this application. The authors discuss progress on four technical objectives: (1) definition of the specifications for the flywheel-motor/generator system, including system-level trade-off analysis; (2) design of the flywheel rotor; (3) design of the motor/generator; and (4) determination of the configuration for the power management system.

  18. Exascale Storage Systems the SIRIUS Way

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klasky, S. A.; Abbasi, H.; Ainsworth, M.; Choi, J.; Curry, M.; Kurc, T.; Liu, Q.; Lofstead, J.; Maltzahn, C.; Parashar, M.; Podhorszki, N.; Suchyta, E.; Wang, F.; Wolf, M.; Chang, C. S.; Churchill, M.; Ethier, S.

    2016-10-01

    As the exascale computing age emerges, data related issues are becoming critical factors that determine how and where we do computing. Popular approaches used by traditional I/O solution and storage libraries become increasingly bottlenecked due to their assumptions about data movement, re-organization, and storage. While, new technologies, such as “burst buffers”, can help address some of the short-term performance issues, it is essential that we reexamine the underlying storage and I/O infrastructure to effectively support requirements and challenges at exascale and beyond. In this paper we present a new approach to the exascale Storage System and I/O (SSIO), which is based on allowing users to inject application knowledge into the system and leverage this knowledge to better manage, store, and access large data volumes so as to minimize the time to scientific insights. Central to our approach is the distinction between the data, metadata, and the knowledge contained therein, transferred from the user to the system by describing “utility” of data as it ages.

  19. Rapid Framing Mass Storage System on the Internet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    Mass storage system is now very important for storing huge volume of data in many application system such as VOD systems, electronic library, scientific computation and so on. Besides the storage device and network devices, the real performance of mass storage system is greatly influenced by the connection way between the host and storage system. Here we propose a new design of mass storage system by promoting the storage devices' functions and involving them directly into data delivering. It can easily meet the demands both for capacity and I/O bandwidth in those applications, and has better service quality and performance compared with the traditional system in delivering mass data over network.

  20. Monitoring a petabyte scale storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakken, Jon; Berman, Eileen; Huang, Chih-Hao; Moibenko, Alexander; Petravick, Don; Zalokar, Michael; /Fermilab

    2004-12-01

    Fermilab operates a petabyte scale storage system, Enstore, which is the primary data store for experiments' large data sets. The Enstore system regularly transfers greater than 15 Terabytes of data each day. It is designed using a client-server architecture providing sufficient modularity to allow easy addition and replacement of hardware and software components. Monitoring of this system is essential to insure the integrity of the data that is stored in it and to maintain the high volume access that this system supports. The monitoring of this distributed system is accomplished using a variety of tools and techniques that present information for use by a variety of roles (operator, storage system administrator, storage software developer, user). Essential elements of the system are monitored: performance, hardware, firmware, software, network, data integrity. We will present details of the deployed monitoring tools with an emphasis on the different techniques that have proved useful to each role. Experience with the monitoring tools and techniques, what worked and what did not will be presented.

  1. Storage monitoring systems for the year 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nilsen, C.; Pollock, R.

    1997-12-31

    In September 1993, President Clinton stated the US would ensure that its fissile material meet the highest standards of safety, security, and international accountability. Frequent human inspection of the material could be used to ensure these standards. However, it may be more effective and less expensive to replace these manual inspections with virtual inspections via remote monitoring technologies. To prepare for this future, Sandia National Laboratories has developed several monitoring systems, including the Modular Integrated Monitoring System (MIMS) and Project Straight-Line. The purpose of this paper is to describe a Sandia effort that merges remote monitoring technologies into a comprehensive storage monitoring system that will meet the near-term as well as the long-term requirements for these types of systems. Topics discussed include: motivations for storage monitoring systems to include remote monitoring; an overview of the needs and challenges of providing a storage monitoring system for the year 2000; an overview of how the MIMS and Straight-Line can be enhanced so that together they create an integrated and synergistic information system by the end of 1997; and suggested milestones for 1998 and 1999 to assure steady progress in preparing for the needs of 2000.

  2. Heat transfer characteristics of current primary packaging systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibler, Susanne; Gieseler, Henning

    2012-11-01

    In the field of freeze-drying, the primary packaging material plays an essential role. Here, the packaging system not only contains and protects the drug product during storage and shipping, but it is also directly involved in the freeze-drying process itself. The heat transfer characteristics of the actual container system influence product temperature and therefore product homogeneity and quality as well as process performance. Consequently, knowledge of the container heat transfer characteristics is of vital importance for process optimization. It is the objective of this review article to provide a summary of research focused on heat transfer characteristics of different container systems for pharmaceutical freeze-drying. Besides the common tubing and molded glass vials and metal trays, more recent packaging solutions like polymer vials, LYOGUARD® trays, syringes, and blister packs are discussed. Recent developments in vial manufacturing are also taken into account.

  3. Multi-criteria decision analysis of concentrated solar power with thermal energy storage and dry cooling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Sharon J W

    2013-12-17

    Decisions about energy backup and cooling options for parabolic trough (PT) concentrated solar power have technical, economic, and environmental implications. Although PT development has increased rapidly in recent years, energy policies do not address backup or cooling option requirements, and very few studies directly compare the diverse implications of these options. This is the first study to compare the annual capacity factor, levelized cost of energy (LCOE), water consumption, land use, and life cycle greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of PT with different backup options (minimal backup (MB), thermal energy storage (TES), and fossil fuel backup (FF)) and different cooling options (wet (WC) and dry (DC). Multicriteria decision analysis was used with five preference scenarios to identify the highest-scoring energy backup-cooling combination for each preference scenario. MB-WC had the highest score in the Economic and Climate Change-Economy scenarios, while FF-DC and FF-WC had the highest scores in the Equal and Availability scenarios, respectively. TES-DC had the highest score for the Environmental scenario. DC was ranked 1-3 in all preference scenarios. Direct comparisons between GHG emissions and LCOE and between GHG emissions and land use suggest a preference for TES if backup is require for PT plants to compete with baseload generators.

  4. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugene Freeman

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems. The paper discusses the basic drivers for energy storage and provides brief descriptions of the various energy storage technologies available. The information summarizes current technical tradeoffs with different storage approaches and identifies issues surrounding deployment of large scale energy storage systems.

  5. Thermal modeling of a vertical dry storage cask for used nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Jie, E-mail: jieli@anl.gov; Liu, Yung Y., E-mail: yyliu@anl.gov

    2016-05-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Thermal performance of a 3-D vertical dry cask under various conditions has been numerically studied by using ANSYS/FLUENT code. • The simulation was validated by comparing the results against data obtained from the temperature measurements of a commercial cask. • The results indicated that the basket with higher thermal conductivity dissipates decay heat out of the cask more efficiently than that with a lower thermal conductivity (aluminum composite vs. stainless steel). A heavier cooling gas is also helpful to enhance heat transfer via enhanced natural convection (N{sub 2} vs. He). • Coolant release from the fuel canister results in temperature change of the canister external surfaces. The simulation shows that such a change is large enough and detectable, which can provide a mechanism for leak detection by continuously monitoring this temperature change at the top center of the canister surface. • Partial blockage of the cask air inlets affects the temperature profiles marginally for both the fuel canister and those components inside. In contrast, fully blocked air inlets will lead to remarkable increases of the component temperatures. - Abstract: Thermal modeling of temperature profiles of dry casks has been identified as a high-priority item in a U.S. Department of Energy gap analysis. In this work, a three-dimensional model of a vertical dry cask has been constructed for computer simulation by using the ANSYS/FLUENT code. The vertical storage cask contains a welded canister for 32 Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) used-fuel assemblies with a total decay heat load of 34 kW. To simplify thermal calculations, an effective thermal conductivity model for a 17 × 17 PWR used (or spent)-fuel assembly was developed and used in the simulation of thermal performance. The effects of canister fill gas (helium or nitrogen), internal pressure (1–6 atm), and basket material (stainless steel or aluminum alloy) were studied to

  6. Multi personal computer storage system: solution of sea capacity PACS storage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Objective According to the characteristics of digital medicine and the demands of digitized management in hospitals, we established a storage system that is affordable, highly expandable, and reliable. Methods The multi personal computer storage system (MPCSS) was constructed using hardware and software. The image data were archived from major servers to storage personal computers (PCs) by using Neusoft-picture archiving and communication system (PACS) and backed up on storage PCs. We simulated data loss on storage PCs and then restored the data. We also expanded the storage system to enlarge its capacity. Results The average transfer rate from MPCSS was 27.7 MB/s, and the average cost for this system was $74/GB. In the testing stage, only 6 of 187 instances of data retrieval (from 100 patients) failed. Conclusion The MPCSS is much less expensive than other high capacity systems or devices. It is feasible and suitable for digital image storage.

  7. Final Report: Hydrogen Storage System Cost Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Brian David [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Houchins, Cassidy [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); Huya-Kouadio, Jennie Moton [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States); DeSantis, Daniel A. [Strategic Analysis Inc., Arlington, VA (United States)

    2016-09-30

    The Fuel Cell Technologies Office (FCTO) has identified hydrogen storage as a key enabling technology for advancing hydrogen and fuel cell power technologies in transportation, stationary, and portable applications. Consequently, FCTO has established targets to chart the progress of developing and demonstrating viable hydrogen storage technologies for transportation and stationary applications. This cost assessment project supports the overall FCTO goals by identifying the current technology system components, performance levels, and manufacturing/assembly techniques most likely to lead to the lowest system storage cost. Furthermore, the project forecasts the cost of these systems at a variety of annual manufacturing rates to allow comparison to the overall 2017 and “Ultimate” DOE cost targets. The cost breakdown of the system components and manufacturing steps can then be used to guide future research and development (R&D) decisions. The project was led by Strategic Analysis Inc. (SA) and aided by Rajesh Ahluwalia and Thanh Hua from Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) and Lin Simpson at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL). Since SA coordinated the project activities of all three organizations, this report includes a technical description of all project activity. This report represents a summary of contract activities and findings under SA’s five year contract to the US Department of Energy (Award No. DE-EE0005253) and constitutes the “Final Scientific Report” deliverable. Project publications and presentations are listed in the Appendix.

  8. Characterization of physical and viscoelastic properties of polymer films for coating applications under different temperature of drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perfetti, G; Jansen, K M B; Wildeboer, W J; van Hee, P; Meesters, G M H

    2010-01-15

    The increasing tendency to enhance consumer products with added functionality is leading to ever more complex products. Nowadays more and more particulate products are coated to give the product specific functionalities. An appropriate approach is needed to be able to satisfy customer's requirements. In this work, three reference well-known coating agents, namely two grades of hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and one polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) were selected and investigated. Aqueous solutions of such polymers were obtained and viscosity and shear stress were measured function of shear rate, temperature and polymer concentration. The viscosities of the solutions appear to be mainly shear rate independent, they clearly show Newtonian behaviour. Drying and storage conditions influence on morphology and structure of the cast films were evaluated using scanning electron microscope (SEM). Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) experiments were carried out on HPMC and PVA cast films to assess the viscoelastic properties over wide temperature-frequency range. The time-temperature superposition principle was used to determine the shift factor, aT, and to compose a master curve. Magnitudes and profiles of storage modulus, E', loss modulus, E'', and tan delta master curves are discussed with relation to drying and storage conditions. No impact of drying temperature on the polymer properties was observed whereas the effect of storage temperature resulted to be relevant in terms of shifts in glass transition temperature and, only partially, changes in the magnitudes of E' and E''.

  9. Study and Test of Cold Storage Heat Recovery Heat Pump Coupled Solar Drying Device

    OpenAIRE

    Min Li; Xiao-Qiang Jiang; Bao-Chuan Wu

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we design the recovery of a heat pump combined solar drying device. Then, with this device, drying experiments of aquatic product, tilapia, were conducted, indicating that the newly designed device functions are well in temperature adjusting and controlling performance and showing that drying time is closely related to energy consumption and drying conditions. Heat recovery heat pump combined solar energy drier can improve the drying quality of aquatic products, but also can gr...

  10. Hydrogen storage systems from waste Mg alloys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pistidda, C.; Bergemann, N.; Wurr, J.; Rzeszutek, A.; Møller, K. T.; Hansen, B. R. S.; Garroni, S.; Horstmann, C.; Milanese, C.; Girella, A.; Metz, O.; Taube, K.; Jensen, T. R.; Thomas, D.; Liermann, H. P.; Klassen, T.; Dornheim, M.

    2014-12-01

    The production cost of materials for hydrogen storage is one of the major issues to be addressed in order to consider them suitable for large scale applications. In the last decades several authors reported on the hydrogen sorption properties of Mg and Mg-based systems. In this work magnesium industrial wastes of AZ91 alloy and Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy are used for the production of hydrogen storage materials. The hydrogen sorption properties of the alloys were investigated by means of volumetric technique, in situ synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) and calorimetric methods. The measured reversible hydrogen storage capacity for the alloys AZ91 and Mg-10 wt.% Gd are 4.2 and 5.8 wt.%, respectively. For the Mg-10 wt.% Gd alloy, the hydrogenated product was also successfully used as starting reactant for the synthesis of Mg(NH2)2 and as MgH2 substitute in the Reactive Hydride Composite (RHC) 2LiBH4 + MgH2. The results of this work demonstrate the concrete possibility to use Mg alloy wastes for hydrogen storage purposes.

  11. Mechanical Engineering Refrigeration Systems for Cold Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1981-10-01

    LEVELK NAVFAC-DM -3.4 OCTOBER 1981 ,T O MECHANICAL ENGINEERING let REFRIGERATION SYSTEMS FOR COLD STORAGE * ,DESIGN MANUAL 3.4 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC...NUMBERNAVFAC DM3. 4- TITLE (and Subtlte) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED NAVFAC Design Manual DM-3.4 Design Criteria Mechanical Engineering Final...U S.Navy I Naval Facilities Engineering Command I r DT I, - - __ IM, *r 3i 3.4-v MECHANICAL ENGINEERING DESIGN MANUALS Chapter superseded DM Number

  12. Analysis of the storage system in the selected company

    OpenAIRE

    BÄUML, Vítězslav

    2014-01-01

    The main aim of the thesis is an analysis the stock system and storage system of a selected company with the focus on material and information flow, storage processes, logistics costs and related logistics indexes.

  13. File Assignment Policy in Network Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CaoQiang; XieChang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Network storage increase capacity and scalability of storage system, data availability and enables the sharing of data among clients. When the developing network technology reduce performance gap between disk and network, however,mismatched policies and access pattern can significantly reduce network storage performance. So the strategy of data place ment in system is an important factor that impacts the performance of overall system. In this paper, the two algorithms of file assignment are presented. One is Greed partition that aims at the load balance across all NADs (Network Attached Disk). The other is Sort partition that tries to minimize variance of service time in each NAD. Moreover, we also compare the performance of our two algorithms in practical environment. Our experimental results show that when the size distribution (load characters) of all assigning files is closer and larger, Sort partition provides consistently better response times than Greedy algorithm. However, when the range of all assigning files is wider, there are more small files and access rate is higher, the Greedy algorithm has superior performance in compared with the Sort partition in off-line.

  14. Failure Analysis of Storage Data Magnetic Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ortiz–Prado A.

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper shows the conclusions about the corrosion mechanics in storage data magnetic systems (hard disk. It was done from the inspection of 198 units that were in service in nine different climatic regions characteristic for Mexico. The results allow to define trends about the failure forms and the factors that affect them. In turn, this study has analyzed the causes that led to mechanical failure and those due to deterioration by atmospheric corrosion. On the basis of the results obtained from the field sampling, demonstrates that the hard disk failure is fundamentally by mechanical effects. The deterioration by environmental effects were found in read-write heads, integrated circuits, printed circuit boards and in some of the electronic components of the controller card of the device, but not in magnetic storage surfaces. There fore, you can discard corrosion on the surface of the disk as the main kind of failure due to environmental deterioration. To avoid any inconvenience in the magnetic data storage system it is necessary to ensure sealing of the system.

  15. File Assignment Policy in Network Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Cao Qiang; Xie Chang-sheng

    2003-01-01

    Network storage increase capacity and scalability of storage system, data availability and enables the sharing of data among clients. When the developing network technology reduce performance gap between disk and network, however, mismatched policies and access pattern can significantly reduce network storage performance. So the strategy of data placement in system is an important factor that impacts the performance of overall system. In this paper, the two algorithms of file assignment are presented. One is Greed partition that aims at the load balance across all NADs (Network Attached Disk). The other is Sort partition that tries to minimize variance of service time in each NAD. Moreover, we also compare the performance of our two algorithms in practical environment. Our experimental results show that when the size distribution (load characters) of all assigning files is closer and larger, Sort partition provides consistently better response times than Greedy algorithm. However, when the range of all assigning files is wider, there are more small files and access rate is higher, the Greedy algorithm has superior performance in compared with the Sort partition in off-line.

  16. High Performance Drying System Using Absorption Temperature Amplifier

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishimura, Nobuya; Nomura, Tomohiro; Yabushita, Akihiro; Kashiwagi, Takao

    A computer simulation has been developed on transient drying process in order to predict the dynamic thermal performance of a new superheated steam drying system using an absorption type temperature amplifier as a steam superheater. A feature of this drying system is that one can reuse the exhausted superheated stream conventionally discharged from the dryer as a driving heat source for the generator in this heat pump. But in the transient drying process, the evaporation of moisture sharply decreases. Accordingly, it is hardly expected to reuse an exhausted superheated steam as heating source for the generator. 80 the effects of this exhausted superheated steam and of changes in hot water and the cooling water temperatures were mainly investigated checking whether this drying system can be driven directly by the low level energy of sun or waste heat. Furthermore, the system performances of this drying system were evaluated on a qualitative-basis by using the exergy efficiency. The results show that, under the transient drying conditions, the temperature boost of superheated steam is possible at a high temperature and thus the absorption type temperature amplifier can be an effective steam superheater system.

  17. Modeling of convective drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels in a fixed bed drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balbay Asım

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of Pistachio kernels (PKs with initial moisture content of 32.4% (w.b was investigated as a function of drying conditions in a fixed bed drying system. The drying experiments were carried out at different temperatures of drying air (40, 60 and 80°C and air velocities (0.05, 0.075 and 0.1 m/s. Several experiments were performed in terms of mass of PKs (15g and 30g using a constant air velocity of 0.075 m/s. The fit quality of models was evaluated using the determination coefficient (R2, sum square error (SSE and root mean square error (RMSE. Among the selected models, the Midilli et al model was found to be the best models for describing the drying behavior of PKs. The activation energies were calculated as 29.2 kJ/mol and effective diffusivity values were calculated between 1.38 and 4.94x10-10 m2/s depending on air temperatures.

  18. Optimal two-class-based storage in a live-cube compact storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N. Zaerpour (Nima); Y. Yu (Yugang); M.B.M. de Koster (René)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractLive-cube compact storage systems realize high storage space utilization and high throughput, due to full automation and independent movements of unit loads in three-dimensional space. Applying an optimal two-class-based storage policy where high-turnover products are stored at locations

  19. Craniomandibular System and Postural Balance after 3-Day Dry Immersion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loïc Treffel

    Full Text Available The objective of the study was to determine the influence of simulated microgravity by exposure to dry immersion on the craniomandibular system. Twelve healthy male volunteers participated in a 3-day dry immersion study. Before and immediately after exposure we measured maximal bite force using piezoresistive sensors. The mechanical properties of the jaw and cervical muscles were evaluated before, during, and after dry immersion using MyotonPRO. Because recent studies reported the effects of jaw motor activity on the postural stability of humans, stabilometric measurements of center of pressure were performed before and after dry immersion in two mandibular positions: rest position without jaw clenching, and intercuspidal position during voluntary teeth clenching. Results revealed no significant changes of maximal bite force after dry immersion. All postural parameters were significantly altered by dry immersion. There were however no significant differences in stabilometric data according to mandibular position. Moreover the masseter tonicity increased immediately after the end of dry immersion period. Dry immersion could be used as a valid model for studying the effects of microgravity on human subjects. However, 3 days appear insufficient in duration to evaluate the effects of weightlessness on maximal bite force. Our research suggests a link between postural disturbance after dry immersion and masseter tonicity.

  20. The NOAO Data Lab virtual storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, Matthew J.; Fitzpatrick, Michael J.; Norris, Patrick; Mighell, Kenneth J.; Olsen, Knut; Stobie, Elizabeth B.; Ridgway, Stephen T.; Bolton, Adam S.; Saha, Abhijit; Huang, Lijuan W.

    2016-07-01

    Collaborative research/computing environments are essential for working with the next generations of large astronomical data sets. A key component of them is a distributed storage system to enable data hosting, sharing, and publication. VOSpace1 is a lightweight interface providing network access to arbitrary backend storage solutions and endorsed by the International Virtual Observatory Alliance (IVOA). Although similar APIs exist, such as Amazon S3, WebDav, and Dropbox, VOSpace is designed to be protocol agnostic, focusing on data control operations, and supports asynchronous and third-party data transfers, thereby minimizing unnecessary data transfers. It also allows arbitrary computations to be triggered as a result of a transfer operation: for example, a file can be automatically ingested into a database when put into an active directory or a data reduction task, such as Sextractor, can be run on it. In this paper, we shall describe the VOSpace implementations that we have developed for the NOAO Data Lab. These offer both dedicated remote storage, accessible as a local file system via FUSE, and a local VOSpace service to easily enable data synchronization.

  1. Development of Automotive Liquid Hydrogen Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krainz, G.; Bartlok, G.; Bodner, P.; Casapicola, P.; Doeller, Ch.; Hofmeister, F.; Neubacher, E.; Zieger, A.

    2004-06-01

    Liquid hydrogen (LH2) takes up less storage volume than gas but requires cryogenic vessels. State-of-the-art applications for passenger vehicles consist of double-wall cylindrical tanks that hold a hydrogen storage mass of up to 10 kg. The preferred shell material of the tanks is stainless steel, since it is very resistant against hydrogen brittleness and shows negligible hydrogen permeation. Therefore, the weight of the whole tank system including valves and heat exchanger is more than 100 kg. The space between the inner and outer vessel is mainly used for thermal super-insulation purposes. Several layers of insulation foils and high vacuums of 10-3 Pa reduce the heat entry. The support structures, which keep the inner tank in position to the outer tank, are made of materials with low thermal conductivity, e.g. glass or carbon fiber reinforced plastics. The remaining heat in-leak leads to a boil-off rate of 1 to 3 percent per day. Active cooling systems to increase the stand-by time before evaporation losses occur are being studied. Currently, the production of several liquid hydrogen tanks that fulfill the draft of regulations of the European Integrated Hydrogen Project (EIHP) is being prepared. New concepts of lightweight liquid hydrogen storage tanks will be investigated.

  2. Lithium batteries and other electrochemical storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    Glaize, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Lithium batteries were introduced relatively recently in comparison to lead- or nickel-based batteries, which have been around for over 100 years. Nevertheless, in the space of 20 years, they have acquired a considerable market share - particularly for the supply of mobile devices. We are still a long way from exhausting the possibilities that they offer. Numerous projects will undoubtedly further improve their performances in the years to come. For large-scale storage systems, other types of batteries are also worthy of consideration: hot batteries and redox flow systems, for example.

  3. 40 CFR 280.230 - Operating an underground storage tank or underground storage tank system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... underground storage tank or underground storage tank system. (a) Operating an UST or UST system prior to...) Operating an UST or UST system after foreclosure. The following provisions apply to a holder who, through..., the purchaser must decide whether to operate or close the UST or UST system in accordance...

  4. Costs and cost algorithms for dry cooling tower systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ard, P.A.; Henager, C.H.; Pratt, D.R.; Wiles, L.E.

    1976-09-01

    Costs were obtained and cast models prepared for the major components beyond the turbine exhaust flange of a dry cooling system using either water or ammonia as the intermediate heat exchange fluid. (LCL)

  5. Identification of Components or Fractions Associated with Adverse Changes in Freeze Dried Chicken and Pork during Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-06-01

    of glucose by yeast fermentation . Food Techmol. 9: 290 (1955). 12 Fleming, I. E. and H. F. Pegler. The determination of glucose in the pre.- ence of...Amerine et al., 1965). 17 Osman, 0. A. H. and R. E. Morse. Preparation and storage characteristics of freeze dried sausages . I. Formulation and...processing of comminuted sausages (frankfurters). Food Technol. 14: 37 (Abstract) (1960). 1Amerine, M. A., R. M. Pangborn, and E. P. Roessler. Principles of

  6. Nuclear Hybrid energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, M.; Sabharwall, P.; Yoon, S. J.; Bragg-Sitton, S. B.; Stoot, C.

    2014-07-01

    Without growing concerns in reliable energy supply, the next generation in reliable power generation via hybrid energy systems is being developed. A hybrid energy system incorporates multiple energy input source sand multiple energy outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these combined systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilization because stored excess energy is used later to meet peak energy demands. With high thermal energy production the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct thermal properties. This paper discusses the criteria for efficient energy storage and molten salt energy storage system options for hybrid systems. (Author)

  7. Compartmentalized storage tank for electrochemical cell system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piecuch, Benjamin Michael (Inventor); Dalton, Luke Thomas (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A compartmentalized storage tank is disclosed. The compartmentalized storage tank includes a housing, a first fluid storage section disposed within the housing, a second fluid storage section disposed within the housing, the first and second fluid storage sections being separated by a movable divider, and a constant force spring. The constant force spring is disposed between the housing and the movable divider to exert a constant force on the movable divider to cause a pressure P1 in the first fluid storage section to be greater than a pressure P2 in the second fluid storage section, thereby defining a pressure differential.

  8. Listeria monocytogenes presence during fermentation, drying and storage of Petrovská klobása sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Mitrović, R.; Lakićević, B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated at the time of consumption with high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Although strategies to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE products are critical for reducing the incidence of human listeriosis, this pathogen is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. The aims of the present study were to investigate the occurrence, presence and elimination of L. monocytogenes in Petrovská klobása sausage during processing, fermentation, drying and storage. L. monocytogenes, which was detected at the beginning of the production cycle, disappeared before day 30. The pathogen decline was much faster in those sausages which were dried in controlled, industrial conditions than in those dried applying the traditional, household technique.

  9. Feasibility study in aspect of thermal integrity on the dry storage expansion options for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.; Song, M. J. [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, K. S. [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    In order to expand the capability of the CANDU spent fuel dry storage facilities of the at Wolsong, the alternative concepts based on MACSTOR are suggested to replace with existing concrete silo of Wolsong. For this, the feasibility of its design changes from original MACSTOR is examined in term of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic. In this study, the configuration of the module was conceptually changed from its original 2 rows to 3 and 4 rows for review. Under normal operation, the results of heat transfer and thermal hydraulic shows that storage module can feasibly accomodate four rows of storage cylinders within allowable range in terms of maximum allowable temperature of the fuel basket.

  10. Experimental Evaluation of Sugar Cane Bagasse Storage in Bales System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Lois-Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available An experimental evaluation was carried out on three bagasse storage piles with the following characteristics: wetbaled raw bagasse, wet baled depithed bagasse and pre-dried baled depithed bagasse. In each of these formerlymentioned alternatives, the storage time influence was analyzed on temperature profile, humidity behavior,granulometry and morphology, with and without mechanical treatment, solubility in hot water, NaOH and alcoholbenzeneextractives. In the same way, the behavior of brightness in mechanical pulps produced from stored bagassewas studied. Storage losses were calculated for each alternative on the basis of obtained results and it wasdemonstrated that pre-dried bagasse as compared with wet bagasse storage, yields lower losses and betterconservation of its characteristics.

  11. Impact of Storage Technologies upon Power System Losses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DULAU Lucian Ioan

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the main characteristics of storage technologies. The most important storage technologies are the batteries, hydrogen, pumped hydro, flywheels, compressed air, super-capacitors and superconducting magnetic devices. The storage technologies can be classified based on the function principle into electrochemical, mechanical and electromagnetic devices. The storage systems can also be classified based on their capacity to store power into short and long term devices. A power flow analysis is performed for the situation with and without a storage unit. The storage unit is inserted into the IEEE 14 bus test system.

  12. Inulin sugar glasses preserve the structural integrity and biological activity of influenza virosomes during freeze-drying and storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Jonge, Jørgen; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; Wilschut, Jan; Huckriede, Anke; Frijlink, Henderik W.

    2007-01-01

    Influenza virosomes are reconstituted influenza virus envelopes that may be used as vaccines or as carrier systems for cellular delivery of therapeutic molecules. Here we present a procedure to generate influenza virosomes as a stable dry-powder formulation by freeze-drying (lyophilization) using an

  13. Simulation of Flywheel Energy Storage System Controls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Truong, Long V.; Wolff, Frederick J.; Dravid, Narayan

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents the progress made in the controller design and operation of a flywheel energy storage system. The switching logic for the converter bridge circuit has been redefined to reduce line current harmonics, even at the highest operating speed of the permanent magnet motor-generator. An electromechanical machine model is utilized to simulate charge and discharge operation of the inertial energy in the flywheel. Controlling the magnitude of phase currents regulates the rate of charge and discharge. The resulting improvements are demonstrated by simulation.

  14. An energy storage and regeneration system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2006-01-01

    caverns. When the energy demand exceeds the power production capacity of the plant, the stored gases are burned and the thermal energy is converted into electricity in gas turbine generators. The regenerated electrical power is then used to supplement the output of the electric power plant to meet......  The present invention relates to a method and a system for storing excess energy produced by an electric power plant during periods of lower energy demand than the power plant production capacity. The excess energy is stored by hydrolysis of water and storage of hydrogen and oxygen in underground...... the higher level of energy demand....

  15. On Locality in Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Rawat, Ankit Singh

    2012-01-01

    This paper studies the design of codes for distributed storage systems (DSS) that enable local repair in the event of node failure. This paper presents locally repairable codes based on low degree multivariate polynomials. Its code construction mechanism extends work on Noisy Interpolating Set by Dvir et al. \\cite{dvir2011}. The paper presents two classes of codes that allow node repair to be performed by contacting 2 and 3 surviving nodes respectively. It further shows that both classes are good in terms of their rate and minimum distance, and allow their rate to be bartered for greater flexibility in the repair process.

  16. [The determination of the urea content in cow's milk with the help of the dry chemical system Reflotron].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staudacher, G

    1989-01-01

    The dry chemistry laboratory unit "Reflotron" (Boehringer Mannheim) is tested for its efficacy in the determination of urea in dairy milk with the test Urea. It gives reliable results. The system is easy to handle. The storage of milk is of no influence on the level of urea.

  17. Energy Storage Systems as a Compliment to Wind Power

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieling, Jared D.; Niederriter, C. F.; Berg, D. A.

    2006-12-01

    As Gustavus Adolphus College prepares to install two wind turbines on campus, we are faced with the question of what to do with the excess electricity that is generated. Since the College pays a substantial demand charge, it would seem fiscally responsible to store the energy and use it for peak shaving, instead of selling it to the power company at their avoided cost. We analyzed six currently available systems: hydrogen energy storage, flywheels, pumped hydroelectric storage, battery storage, compressed air storage, and superconducting magnetic energy storage, for energy and financial suitability. Potential wind turbine production is compared to consumption to determine the energy deficit or excess, which is fed into a model for each of the storage systems. We will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each of the storage systems and their suitability for energy storage and peak shaving in this situation.

  18. Cell viability of microencapsulated Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis under freeze-drying, storage and gastrointestinal tract simulation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shamekhi, Fatemeh; Shuhaimi, Mustafa; Ariff, Arbakariya; Manap, Yazid A

    2013-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to improve the survival of Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 10140 during freeze-drying process by microencapsulation, using a special pediatric prebiotics mixture (galactooligosaccharides and fructooligosaccharides). Probiotic microorganisms were encapsulated with a coat combination of prebiotics-calcium-alginate prior to freeze-drying. Both encapsulated and free cells were then freeze-dried in their optimized combinations of skim milk and prebiotics. Response surface methodology (RSM) was used to produce a coating combination as well as drying medium with the highest cell viability during freeze-drying. The optimum encapsulation composition was found to be 2.1 % Na-alginate, 2.9 % prebiotic, and 21.7 % glycerol. Maximum survival predicted by the model was 81.2 %. No significant (p > 0.05) difference between the predicted and experimental values verified the adequacy of final reduced models. The protection ability of encapsulation was then examined over 120 days of storage at 4 and 25 °C and exposure to a sequential model of infantile GIT conditions including both gastric conditions (pH 3.0 and 4.0, 90 min, 37 °C) and intestinal conditions (pH 7.5, 5 h, 37 °C). Significantly improved cell viability showed that microencapsulation of B. lactis 10140 with the prebiotics was successful in producing a stable symbiotic powdery nutraceutical.

  19. Economic Analysis of using Above Ground Gas Storage Devices for Compressed Air Energy Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Jinchao; ZHANG Xinjing; XU Yujie; CHEN Zongyan; CHEN Haisheng; TAN Chunqing

    2014-01-01

    Above ground gas storage devices for compressed air energy storage (CAES) have three types:air storage tanks,gas cylinders,and gas storage pipelines.A cost model of these gas storage devices is established on the basis of whole life cycle cost (LCC) analysis.The optimum parameters of the three types are determined by calculating the theoretical metallic raw material consumption of these three devices and considering the difficulties in manufacture and the influence of gas storage device number.The LCCs of the three types are comprehensively analyzed and compared.The result reveal that the cost of the gas storage pipeline type is lower than that of the other two types.This study may serve as a reference for designing large-scale CAES systems.

  20. Electric utility applications of hydrogen energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-10-15

    This report examines the capital cost associated with various energy storage systems that have been installed for electric utility application. The storage systems considered in this study are Battery Energy Storage (BES), Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) and Flywheel Energy Storage (FES). The report also projects the cost reductions that may be anticipated as these technologies come down the learning curve. This data will serve as a base-line for comparing the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen energy storage (HES) systems in the electric utility sector. Since pumped hydro or compressed air energy storage (CAES) is not particularly suitable for distributed storage, they are not considered in this report. There are no comparable HES systems in existence in the electric utility sector. However, there are numerous studies that have assessed the current and projected cost of hydrogen energy storage system. This report uses such data to compare the cost of HES systems with that of other storage systems in order to draw some conclusions as to the applications and the cost-effectiveness of hydrogen as a electricity storage alternative.

  1. Heat storage system adapted for incongruently melting heat storage materials and congruently melting heat storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenfelder, J.L.

    1980-12-30

    A heat storage article adapted for prevention of stratification of incongruently melting heat storage materials, such as eutectic salts, and adapted for use with congruently melting heat storage materials, such as paraffins. The article is comprised of a concrete stone composition, a certain portion of which is comprised of metallic heat transfer materials in order to increase heat transfer through the concrete structure. The concrete structure has an internal cavity which is filled with either the eutectic salt material or the paraffin material.

  2. Storage System Design Scheme in Virtualization Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Si Zhen-yu

    2012-01-01

    In order to improve resource utilization, it is necessary to integrate storage and data, and the emergence of cloud computing makes it possible. This paper analyzed the study of virtualization and cloud computing, proposed a new scheme based on virtualization, and established a shared storage platform, which made a good complement and perfected the centralized storage platform.

  3. Battery Energy Storage Technology for power systems-An overview

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chandrashekhara, Divya K; Østergaard, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    the present status of battery energy storage technology and methods of assessing their economic viability and impact on power system operation. Further, a discussion on the role of battery storage systems of electric hybrid vehicles in power system storage technologies had been made. Finally, the paper...... suggests a likely future outlook for the battery technologies and the electric hybrid vehicles in the context of power system applications....

  4. Novel Multipin Electrode Cap System for Dry Electroencephalography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiedler, P; Pedrosa, P; Griebel, S; Fonseca, C; Vaz, F; Supriyanto, E; Zanow, F; Haueisen, J

    2015-09-01

    Current usage of electroencephalography (EEG) is limited to laboratory environments. Self-application of a multichannel wet EEG caps is practically impossible, since the application of state-of-the-art wet EEG sensors requires trained laboratory staff. We propose a novel EEG cap system with multipin dry electrodes overcoming this problem. We describe the design of a novel 24-pin dry electrode made from polyurethane and coated with Ag/AgCl. A textile cap system holds 97 of these dry electrodes. An EEG study with 20 volunteers compares the 97-channel dry EEG cap with a conventional 128-channel wet EEG cap for resting state EEG, alpha activity, eye blink artifacts and checkerboard pattern reversal visual evoked potentials. All volunteers report a good cap fit and good wearing comfort. Average impedances are below 150 kΩ for 92 out of 97 dry electrodes, enabling recording with standard EEG amplifiers. No significant differences are observed between wet and dry power spectral densities for all EEG bands. No significant differences are observed between the wet and dry global field power time courses of visual evoked potentials. The 2D interpolated topographic maps show significant differences of 3.52 and 0.44% of the map areas for the N75 and N145 VEP components, respectively. For the P100 component, no significant differences are observed. Dry multipin electrodes integrated in a textile EEG cap overcome the principle limitations of wet electrodes, allow rapid application of EEG multichannel caps by non-trained persons, and thus enable new fields of application for multichannel EEG acquisition.

  5. Storage facilities of spent nuclear fuel in dry for Mexican nuclear facilities; Instalaciones de almacenamiento de combustible nuclear gastado en seco para instalaciones nucleares mexicanas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salmeron V, J. A.; Camargo C, R.; Nunez C, A.; Mendoza F, J. E.; Sanchez J, J., E-mail: juan.salmeron@cnsns.gob.mx [Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias, Dr. Jose Ma. Barragan No. 779, Col. Narvarte, 03020 Mexico D. F. (Mexico)

    2013-10-15

    In this article the relevant aspects of the spent fuel storage and the questions that should be taken in consideration for the possible future facilities of this type in the country are approached. A brief description is proposed about the characteristics of the storage systems in dry, the incorporate regulations to the present Nuclear Regulator Standard, the planning process of an installation, besides the approaches considered once resolved the use of these systems; as the modifications to the system, the authorization periods for the storage, the type of materials to store and the consequent environmental impact to their installation. At the present time the Comision Nacional de Seguridad Nuclear y Salvaguardias (CNSNS) considers the possible generation of two authorization types for these facilities: Specific, directed to establish a new nuclear installation with the authorization of receiving, to transfer and to possess spent fuel and other materials for their storage; and General, focused to those holders that have an operation license of a reactor that allows them the storage of the nuclear fuel and other materials that they possess. Both authorizations should be valued according to the necessities that are presented. In general, this installation type represents a viable solution for the administration of the spent fuel and other materials that require of a temporary solution previous to its final disposal. Its use in the nuclear industry has been increased in the last years demonstrating to be appropriate and feasible without having a significant impact to the health, public safety and the environment. Mexico has two main nuclear facilities, the nuclear power plant of Laguna Verde of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) and the facilities of the TRIGA Reactor of the Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares (ININ) that will require in a future to use this type of disposition installation of the spent fuel and generated wastes. (Author)

  6. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BRISBIN, S.A.

    1999-06-17

    This document provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. This document identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This document also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  7. Environmental Factors' Consideration at Industrial Transportation Organization in the «Seaport - Dry port» System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravev, Dmitri; Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr

    2016-11-01

    Currently, container shipping development is directly associated with an increase of warehouse areas for containers' storage. One of the most successful types of container terminal is an intermodal terminal called a dry port. Main pollution sources during the organization of intermodal transport are considered. A system of dry port parameters, which are recommended for the evaluation of different scenarios for a seaport infrastructure development at the stage of its strategic planning, is proposed in this paper. The authors have developed a method for determining the optimal values of the main dry port parameters by simulation modeling in the programming software Any- Logic. Dependencies thatwere obtained as a result of modeling experiments prove the adequacy of main selected dry port parameters for the effective scenarios' evaluation of throughput and handling capacity at existing seaports at the stage of strategic planning and a rational dry port location, allowed ensuring the improvement of the ecological situation in a port city.

  8. Object-based Storage Integration within the ATLAS DDM system

    CERN Document Server

    Garonne, Vincent; The ATLAS collaboration

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we'll talk about our experiences with different data storage technologies within the ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, and in particular about object-based storage. Object-based storage differs in many points from traditional file system storage and offers a highly scalable, simple and most common storage solution for the cloud. First, we describe the needed changes in the Rucio software to integrate this technology, then we present for which use cases we have evaluated them. Finally, we conclude by reporting the results, performances and the potential future by exploiting more of their specificities and features, like metadata support.

  9. Information storage capacity of discrete spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Yoshida, Beni

    2011-01-01

    What is the limit of information storage capacity of discrete spin systems? To answer this question, we study classical error-correcting codes which can be physically realized as the energy ground space of gapped local Hamiltonians. For discrete spin systems on a D-dimensional lattice governed by local frustration-free Hamiltonians, the following bound is known to hold; $kd^{1/D}\\leq O(n)$ where k is the number of encodable logical bits, d is the code distance, and n is the total number of spins in the system. Yet, previously found codes were far below this bound and it remained open whether there exists an error-correcting code which saturates the bound or not. Here, we give a construction of local spin systems which saturate the bound asymptotically with $k \\sim O(L^{D-1})$ and $d \\sim O(L^{D-\\epsilon})$ for an arbitrary small $\\epsilon> 0$ where L is the linear length of the system. Our model borrows an idea from a fractal geometry arising in Sierpinski triangle.

  10. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R.; Cho, K. J.; Ferraris, John; Balkus, Ken; Chabal, Yves; Gnade, Bruce; Rotea, Mario; Vasselli, John

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. Significant accomplishments are detailed in each section. Those particularly noteworthy include: • Transition metal silicate cathodes with 2x higher storage capacity than commercial cobalt oxide cathodes were demonstrated. • MnO₂ nanowires, which are a promising replacement for RuO₂, were synthesized • PAN-based carbon nanofibers were prepared and characterized with an energy density 30-times higher than current ultracapacitors on the market and comparable to lead-acid batteries • An optimization-based control strategy for real-time power management of battery storage in wind farms was developed and demonstrated. • PVDF films were developed with breakdown strengths of > 600MVm⁻¹, a maximum energy density of approximately 15 Jcm⁻³, and an average dielectric constant of 9.8 (±1.2). Capacitors made from these films can support a 10-year lifetime operating at an electric field of 200 MV m⁻¹. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  11. Quality assessment of electroencephalography obtained from a "dry electrode" system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slater, Jeremy D; Kalamangalam, Giridhar P; Hope, Omotola

    2012-07-15

    This study examines the difference in application times for routine electroencephalography (EEG) utilizing traditional electrodes and a "dry electrode" headset. The primary outcome measure was the time to interpretable EEG (TIE). A secondary outcome measure of recording quality and interpretability was obtained from EEG sample review by two blinded clinical neurophysiologists. With EEG samples obtained from 10 subjects, the average TIE for the "dry electrode" system was 139s, and for the conventional recording 873s (pdry electrode" system can be applied with more than an 80% reduction in the TIE while still obtaining interpretable EEG.

  12. Dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with inulin and corn oil: physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menegas, Léia Zenaide; Pimentel, Tatiana Colombo; Garcia, Sandra; Prudencio, Sandra Helena

    2013-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of oil content reduction and the addition of inulin as a partial oil substitute on the physicochemical, microbiological, and textural characteristics and acceptability during the storage (4 °C for 45 days) of dry-fermented chicken sausage produced with corn oil. Reducing the oil content did not influence the characteristics evaluated but tended to produce sausage with a dark reddish coloration. The addition of inulin did not change the physicochemical and microbiological parameters or the acceptability of the products, but resulted in an altered texture profile and a tendency toward lighter and less reddish coloration, similar to products with standard oil content. Fermented chicken sausages produced with standard amounts of corn oil, reduced amounts of corn oil, and inulin as a partial oil replacement remained stable without a significant loss of physical, chemical, microbiological, or sensory attributes during storage at 4 °C for 45 days.

  13. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baranauskiene, Renata; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, Jurate; Venskutonis, Rimantas P

    2007-04-18

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies of peppermint EO were higher for all n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSAN)-modified starches as compared to those of hydrolyzed starches (dextrins). The compositions of pure, emulsified, and encapsulated peppermint EOs in different matrices were quite similar; however, some changes in the percentages of some individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO droplets depends on the water activity, and the leakage of aromas from encapsulated powder products during storage increased with increasing water activity.

  14. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A. [Sandia National Lab., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K. [R.K. Sen & Associates, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  15. Energy storage systems program report for FY1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1997-05-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective energy storage systems as a resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage systems for stationary applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1996.

  16. Numerical analysis of temperature and flow effects in a dry, one-dimensional aquifer used for compressed air energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, G.C.; Wiles, L.E.; Loscutoff, W.V.

    1979-02-01

    A detailed description of the method of analysis and the results obtained for an investigation of the hydrodynamic and thermodynamic response of a model of a dry porous media reservoir used for compressed air energy storage (CAES) is presented. Results were obtained from a one-dimensional simulation of the cycling of heated air to and from a radial flow field surrounding a single well in a porous rock. It was assumed that the performance of the bulk of the reservoir could be characterized by the performance of a single well.

  17. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  18. Effects of Dry Storage and Resubmersion of Oysters on Total Vibrio vulnificus and Total and Pathogenic (tdh+/trh+) Vibrio parahaemolyticus Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinsey, Thomas P; Lydon, Keri A; Bowers, John C; Jones, Jessica L

    2015-08-01

    Vibrio vulnificus (Vv) and Vibrio parahaemolyticus (Vp) are the two leading causes of bacterial illnesses associated with raw shellfish consumption. Levels of these pathogens in oysters can increase during routine antifouling aquaculture practices involving dry storage in ambient air conditions. After storage, common practice is to resubmerge these stored oysters to reduce elevated Vv and Vp levels, but evidence proving the effectiveness of this practice is lacking. This study examined the changes in Vv and in total and pathogenic (thermostable direct hemolysin gene and the tdh-related hemolysin gene, tdh+ and trh+) Vp levels in oysters after 5 or 24 h of dry storage (28 to 32°C), followed by resubmersion (27 to 32°C) for 14 days. For each trial, replicate oyster samples were collected at initial harvest, after dry storage, after 7 days, and after 14 days of resubmersion. Oysters not subjected to dry storage were collected and analyzed to determine natural undisturbed vibrio levels (background control). Vibrio levels were measured using a most-probable-number enrichment followed by real-time PCR. After storage, vibrio levels (excluding tdh+ and trh+ Vp during 5-h storage) increased significantly (P 0.1) from levels in background oysters after 14 days of resubmersion, regardless of dry storage time. These data demonstrate that oyster resubmersion after dry storage at elevated ambient temperatures allows vibrio levels to return to those of background control samples. These results can be used to help minimize the risk of Vv and Vp illnesses and to inform the oyster industry on the effectiveness of routine storing and resubmerging of aquaculture oysters.

  19. Modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period chilled storage of dry-cured Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parra, V; Viguera, J; Sánchez, J; Peinado, J; Espárrago, F; Gutierrez, J I; Andrés, A I

    2010-04-01

    Dry-cured Iberian ham slices were stored under vacuum and under four different modified atmospheres (60/40=60%N(2)+40%CO(2); 70/30=70%N(2)+30%CO(2); 80/20=80%N(2)+20%CO(2); argon=70%argon+30%CO(2)) at 4+/-1 degrees C during 120 days. Gas composition, moisture content, pH, colour, pigment content, and lipid stability were measured, as well as sensory and microbial analysis were carried out throughout storage. A loss of intensity of red colour (a(*)-values) was observed during storage in ham slices (P0.05). Slices of ham packed in 40%CO(2) (60/40) and 30%CO(2) (70/30) showed lower a(*)-values than the rest of the batches after 60 days (P0.05). TBARs values showed an upward trend during the storage of packaged slices (P0.05) throughout storage under refrigeration and packed either in vacuum or in modified atmospheres. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case.

  20. High pressure processing for dark-firm-dry beef: effect on physical properties and oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utama, Dicky Tri; Lee, Seung Gyu; Baek, Ki Ho; Chung, Woon Si; Chung, In Ae; Jeon, Jung Tae; Lee, Sung Ki

    2017-01-01

    Objective Study on the application of high pressure processing (HPP) for dark-firm-dry (DFD) beef was conducted to observe whether HPP has any impact on physical properties and to evaluate oxidative deterioration during refrigerated storage under vacuum. Methods The longissimus lumborum muscles obtained from Friesian Holstein steers (33±0.5 months old) with 24-h postmortem pH higher than 6.0 were vacuum-packed and subjected to pressurization at 200, 400, and 600 MPa for 180 s at 15°C±2°C; the samples were then stored for 9 days at 4°C±1°C and compared with control (0.1 MPa). Results HPP increased meat pH by 0.1 to 0.2 units and the tenderness of cooked DFD beef significantly with no significant effects on meat texture profile. The stability of meat pH was well maintained during refrigerated storage under vacuum. No clear effects were found on the activity of catalase and superoxide dismutase, however, glutathione peroxidase activity was significantly reduced by high pressure. HPP and storage time resulted in aroma changes and the increasing amount of malondialdehyde and metmyoglobin relative composition. Conclusion Although the increasing amount of malondialdehyde content, metmyoglobin formation and aroma changes in HPP-treated samples could not be avoided, HPP at 200 MPa increased L* and a* values with less discoloration and oxidative deterioration during storage. PMID:27383811

  1. The influence of dry matter, applied heat treatment and storage period on the viscosity of stirred yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denin-Đurđević Jelena D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Skim milk powder reconstituted to 8.44% TS, 9.65% TS and 10.84% TS respectively was used for investigation. Untreated milk and milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min and 90ºC/10 min, respectively, were used for the investigation. Milk was inoculated with 2.5% of yogurt culture (containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the ratio 1:1 at 43ºC. Samples were incubated until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were immediately cooled to 4ºC and held at that temperature during 14 days. Acid casein gel was stirred after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. Measurements were done at 30 rpm during 2 min, at 20ºC. According to the investigation, it could be concluded that both applied heat treatment and dry matter content influence viscosity of stirred yogurt. Viscosity increases when dry matter content increases. The smallest viscosity had yogurt produced from untreated milk with 8.44% TS, while samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS had the highest viscosity. Applied heat treatments had significant influence on viscosity of yogurt gained by stirring of acid casein gels after 7 and 14 days of storage. Stirred yogurt produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min had a higher viscosity than samples produced from milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min. Storage period influenced average viscosity of stirred yogurt. Samples of stirred yogurt produced from milk with 8.44% TS showed a decrease of average viscosity during storage regardless of the applied heat treatment of milk. The highest average viscosity had samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS.

  2. A strategy for load balancing in distributed storage systems

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Distributed storage systems are critical to the operation of the WLCG. These systems are not limited to fulfilling the long term storage requirements. They also serve data for computational analysis and other computational jobs. Distributed storage systems provide the ability to aggregate the storage and IO capacity of disks and tapes, but at the end of the day IO rate is still bound by the capabilities of the hardware, in particular the hard drives. Throughput of hard drives has increased dramatically over the decades, however for computational analysis IOPS is typically the limiting factor. To maximize return of investment, balancing IO load over available hardware is crucial. The task is made complicated by the common use of heterogeneous hardware and software environments that results from combining new and old hardware into a single storage system. This paper describes recent advances made in load balancing in the dCache distributed storage system. We describe a set of common requirements for load balan...

  3. Key-value Storage Systems (and Beyond with Python

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Web application developers often use RDBMS systems such as MySql or PostgreSql but there are many other types of databases out there. Key-value storage, schema and schema-less document storage, and column-oriented DBMS systems abound. These kind of database systems are becoming more popular when developing scalable web applications but many developers are unsure how to integrate them into their projects. This talk will focus on the key-value class of data storage systems, weigh the strengths and drawbacks of each and discuss typical use cases for key value storage.

  4. Robo-line storage: Low latency, high capacity storage systems over geographically distributed networks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Randy H.; Anderson, Thomas E.; Ousterhout, John K.; Patterson, David A.

    1991-01-01

    Rapid advances in high performance computing are making possible more complete and accurate computer-based modeling of complex physical phenomena, such as weather front interactions, dynamics of chemical reactions, numerical aerodynamic analysis of airframes, and ocean-land-atmosphere interactions. Many of these 'grand challenge' applications are as demanding of the underlying storage system, in terms of their capacity and bandwidth requirements, as they are on the computational power of the processor. A global view of the Earth's ocean chlorophyll and land vegetation requires over 2 terabytes of raw satellite image data. In this paper, we describe our planned research program in high capacity, high bandwidth storage systems. The project has four overall goals. First, we will examine new methods for high capacity storage systems, made possible by low cost, small form factor magnetic and optical tape systems. Second, access to the storage system will be low latency and high bandwidth. To achieve this, we must interleave data transfer at all levels of the storage system, including devices, controllers, servers, and communications links. Latency will be reduced by extensive caching throughout the storage hierarchy. Third, we will provide effective management of a storage hierarchy, extending the techniques already developed for the Log Structured File System. Finally, we will construct a protototype high capacity file server, suitable for use on the National Research and Education Network (NREN). Such research must be a Cornerstone of any coherent program in high performance computing and communications.

  5. Didactic model of the high storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Świder

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: The continuous progress in Computer Integrated Manufacturing (CIM field with automatic storing systems is broadening the range of education process for engineers in future. This document describes the newest didactic station integrated witch a Modular Production System (MPS model [1, 2, 3]. It is a module of high storage. This arrangement is the perfect didactic item for students.Design/methodology/approach: The main reason, why the laboratory position, we have mentioned, has been created is brodening the students knowlegde’s range. To achive this task the warehouse has been made from really industrial elements. All manipulator’s axis were building from different types of transmissions. Findings: During the work with warehouse there has been prepared the new algorithm which controlls the linear drive. Besides that there has been created brand new standards in engineers education, which are based on the described warehouse. Research limitations/implications: The main target of the didactic activity of Institute of Engineering Processes Automation and Integrated Manufacturing Systems is broden the loboratory base. That’s the reason why now there already has been building another laboratory position, which is based on Fanuc manipulator.Practical implications: The algorithm of Pneu-Stat steering hasn’t been finished yet, but when it has been done it can be used in industrial aplicationsOriginality/value: This paper describes the new didactic station with innovational steering algorithm [4, 5].

  6. Impact of different cryoprotectants on the survival of freeze-dried Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus casei/paracasei during long-term storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jofré, A; Aymerich, T; Garriga, M

    2015-01-01

    The production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried probiotic/starter cultures is of paramount importance for the food industry. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of glucose, lactose, trehalose, and skim milk applied alone or combined upon the survival of potentially probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677 and L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 during freeze-drying and after 39 weeks of storage at 4 and 22 °C. Immediately after freeze-drying, the percentage of survivors was very high (≥ 94%) and only slight differences were observed among strains and cryoprotectants. In contrast, during storage, survival in the dried state depended on the cryoprotectant, temperature and strain. For all the protectants assayed, the stability of the cultures was remarkably higher when stored under refrigeration (4 °C). Under these conditions, skim milk alone or supplemented with trehalose or lactose showed the best performance (reductions ≤ 0.9 log units after 39 weeks of storage). The lowest survival was observed during non-refrigerated storage and with glucose and glucose plus milk; no viable cells left at the end of the storage period. Thus, freeze-drying in the presence of appropriate cryoprotectants allows the production of long shelf-life highly concentrated dried cultures ready for incorporation in high numbers into food products as starter/potential probiotic cultures.

  7. Fuel Aging in Storage and Transportation (FAST): Accelerated Characterization and Performance Assessment of the Used Nuclear Fuel Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDeavitt, Sean [Texas A & M Univ., College Station, TX (United States)

    2016-08-02

    This Integrated Research Project (IRP) was established to characterize key limiting phenomena related to the performance of used nuclear fuel (UNF) storage systems. This was an applied engineering project with a specific application in view (i.e., UNF dry storage). The completed tasks made use of a mixture of basic science and engineering methods. The overall objective was to create, or enable the creation of, predictive tools in the form of observation methods, phenomenological models, and databases that will enable the design, installation, and licensing of dry UNF storage systems that will be capable of containing UNF for extended period of time. The project was divided four distinct, yet synergistic, technical mission areas (TMAs), as summarized below. The key technical results and findings from each of the TMAs are summarized in Sections 2 through 5. Technical Mission Area 1: Low Temperature Creep This mission focused on the low temperature creep of UNF cladding that may be enabled by decay heat from fission products and stresses from internal pressures. The major objectives were (1) to obtain data using highly oxidized/hydrided tubing under relevant stresses and temperatures, (2) to characterize and translate that data to enable input to FRAPCON and other codes that may be modified to predict UNF behavior in dry storage, and (3) to formulate atomistic simulations to better understand long term creep behavior. Technical Mission Area 2: Hydrogen Behavior and Delayed Hydride Cracking This mission focused on the characterization and understanding of delayed hydride cracking (DHC) in spent Zircaloy cladding. The DHC mechanism is generally attributed to local hydride precipitation at stress risers present on the surface of the cladding. Samples with low and high hydrogen loadings were prepared and studiedusing various methods. Technical Mission Area 3: UNF Canister Corrosion This mission was focused on recognized gaps in understanding mechanisms relevant to the

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Electrical System Design Description

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-05-01

    This system design description (SDD) provides a technical explanation of the design and operation of the electrical system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF). This SDD also identifies the requirements, and the basis for the requirements and details on how the requirements have been implemented in the design and construction of the facility. This SDD also provides general guidance for the surveillance, testing, and maintenance of this system.

  9. Energy storage systems: power grid and energy market use cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Komarnicki Przemysław

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Current power grid and market development, characterized by large growth of distributed energy sources in recent years, especially in Europa, are according energy storage systems an increasingly larger field of implementation. Existing storage technologies, e.g. pumped-storage power plants, have to be upgraded and extended by new but not yet commercially viable technologies (e.g. batteries or adiabatic compressed air energy storage that meet expected demands. Optimal sizing of storage systems and technically and economically optimal operating strategies are the major challenges to the integration of such systems in the future smart grid. This paper surveys firstly the literature on the latest niche applications. Then, potential new use case and operating scenarios for energy storage systems in smart grids, which have been field tested, are presented and discussed and subsequently assessed technically and economically.

  10. Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems: Molten Salt Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. Sabharwall; M. Green; S.J. Yoon; S.M. Bragg-Sitton; C. Stoots

    2014-07-01

    With growing concerns in the production of reliable energy sources, the next generation in reliable power generation, hybrid energy systems, are being developed to stabilize these growing energy needs. The hybrid energy system incorporates multiple inputs and multiple outputs. The vitality and efficiency of these systems resides in the energy storage application. Energy storage is necessary for grid stabilizing and storing the overproduction of energy to meet peak demands of energy at the time of need. With high thermal energy production of the primary nuclear heat generation source, molten salt energy storage is an intriguing option because of its distinct properties. This paper will discuss the different energy storage options with the criteria for efficient energy storage set forth, and will primarily focus on different molten salt energy storage system options through a thermodynamic analysis

  11. A Structural Analytic Evaluation of a Connote Pad In a Spent Fuel Dry Storage Cask

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dong Hak; Seo, Ki Seog; Lee, Ju Chan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Yeon Do; Cho, Chun Hyung; Lee, Dae Ki [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-06-15

    A spent fuel storage cask is required to prove the safety of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. A hypothetical accidental drop condition means that a canister is assumed to be a lee drop on to a pad of the storage cask during loading it into a storage cask. A pad of the storage cask absorbs shock to maintain the structural integrities of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. In this paper a finite element analysis for various pad structures was carried out to improve the structural integrity of a canister under a hypothetical accidental drop condition. A pad of a storage cask was designed a steel structure with concrete. The 1/4 height of a pad was modified with a structure composed of a steel and a polyurethane foam as a impact limiter. The effect of a shape of a steel structure was studied. The effects of the thickness of a steel structure and the density of a polyurethane foam was also studied.

  12. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Stack Air Sampling System Qualification Tests

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glissmeyer, John A.

    2001-01-24

    This report documents tests that were conducted to verify that the air monitoring system for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility ventilation exhaust stack meets the applicable regulatory criteria regarding the placement of the air sampling probe, sample transport, and stack flow measurement accuracy.

  13. Energy storage management system with distributed wireless sensors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farmer, Joseph C.; Bandhauer, Todd M.

    2015-12-08

    An energy storage system having a multiple different types of energy storage and conversion devices. Each device is equipped with one or more sensors and RFID tags to communicate sensor information wirelessly to a central electronic management system, which is used to control the operation of each device. Each device can have multiple RFID tags and sensor types. Several energy storage and conversion devices can be combined.

  14. Intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juliano, Thomas M.; Meegoda, Jay N.

    2002-02-01

    The objectives of this research project are to identify, demonstrate, and validate intelligent systems for conveyance and storage infrastructure that will enable effective, affordable, real-time, remote measurement, analysis, and reporting of their structural health. Specifically, the project involves testing and validating smart pipes, which could indicate locations of structurally weak areas, i.e., where leaks are likely to occur, and the location of existing leaks for corrective action. During the initial phase of this project an extensive literature search was conducted to identify technologies that could potentially be used in intelligent systems. Although the search was primarily focused on new emerging smart technologies, consideration was also given to innovative uses of established structural monitoring or testing technologies. Four emerging technologies that can potentially locate structurally weak areas and predict incipient leaks were identified: electrically conducting composite pipes, electrochemistry-based corrosion sensors, instrumented cathodic protection, and distributed piezoelectric sensors. Also identified was an innovative use of acoustic emission techniques to track deterioration in pre-stressed concrete pipes by monitoring energy releases from breaking corroded pre-stressing wires. A review of each of these technologies is presented. During the next phase of the program one or more of these technologies will be tested and evaluated further.

  15. Effect of sulphur forms on colour and residue of sulphur during the storage at drying grapes by sulphur

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Boztepe Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Turkey is the world leader in the manufacture and export of seedless raisins. Requirement of golden bleached raisins is increasing in food Industry of especially cake, bread and pastry year by year. In this research, the lowest residual value and the practical realization of such production was intended to determine by drying grapes with application of sulphur. In this case, sulphur residue and colour situations were determined during 12-mounth-storage according to sulphur forms. In this study sulphur studies were applied by Vitis Vinifera cv. “Sultani Çekirdeksiz” with Na2S2O5, which is liquid source of sulphur and SO2, which is gas source of sulphur. SO2 application were studied during 3, 6 and 8 hours and liquid form of sulphur is Na2S2O5 that was used during by 10, 20 and 30 minutes. Applications were prepared with 3 replicates which contain 20 kg fresh grape in each replicate. In conclusion, changes in dried grape have been identified in point of colour (chroma and hue and the sulphur content was determined according to sulphur forms in packing. Gas form of sulphur (SO2 which was applied 3 hours, gave the best result during 12-mounth-storage for colour and sulphur residue.

  16. Reliability-oriented energy storage sizing in wind power systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qin, Zian; Liserre, Marco; Blaabjerg, Frede;

    2014-01-01

    Energy storage can be used to suppress the power fluctuations in wind power systems, and thereby reduce the thermal excursion and improve the reliability. Since the cost of the energy storage in large power application is high, it is crucial to have a better understanding of the relationship...... between the size of the energy storage and the reliability benefit it can generate. Therefore, a reliability-oriented energy storage sizing approach is proposed for the wind power systems, where the power, energy, cost and the control strategy of the energy storage are all taken into account....... With the proposed approach, the computational effort is reduced and the impact of the energy storage system on the reliability of the wind power converter can be quantified....

  17. Comparison of systemic and intramammary dry cow treatments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Andres Contreras B.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To compare four different dry cow treatments (DCT and establish their effectiveness in reducing intramammary infections (IIM. Materials and methods. DCTs included systemic tylosin (12g alone or accompanied by cefapirine intramammary infusions and or an internal teat sealant. A total number of 278 cows at the end of lactation period were randomly assigned to one of 4 dry cow treatment groups: CESE Group (n=89, intramammary cephapirin and teat sealant. TYCESE Group (n=84, intramammary cephapirin, tylosin 12 g intramuscular and teat sealant. TYSE Group (n=86, 12 g intramuscular tylosin and teat sealant; TY Group (n=76 12 g intramuscular tylosin only. Milk samples for culture were collected at dry-off and 1 and 2 weeks after calving. Somatic cell counts (SCC were taken from Dairy Herd Improvement Association (DHI tests at dry-off, and the first two test days after calving. Results. Bacteria cure rate for Gram-positive intramammary infections (IMI for TYCESE group was 93.6%, CESE group 78.9%, TYSE group 88.2%, and TY group 78.1%. All four groups showed a decrease in the SCC upon the first and second test after calving. Conclusions. The use of systemic tylosin in combination with intramammary antibiotics increased DCT effectiveness improving the Gram-positive cure rate IMI. Furthermore, systemic tylosin alone plus teat sealant is as effective as cephapirin plus teat sealant when used as DCT.

  18. A Checkpoint Storage System for Desktop Grid Computing

    CERN Document Server

    Kiswany, Samer Al; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S

    2007-01-01

    Checkpointing is an indispensable technique to provide fault tolerance for long-running high-throughput applications like those running on desktop grids. In these environments, a checkpoint storage system can offer multiple benefits: reduce the load on a traditional file system, offer high-performance through specialization, and, finally, optimize checkpoint data management by taking into account application semantics. Such a storage system can present a unifying abstraction to checkpoint operations, while hiding the fact that there are no dedicated resources to store the checkpoint data. This paper presents a dedicated checkpoint storage system for desktop grid environments. Our solution uses scavenged disk space from participating desktops to build an inexpensive storage space, offering a traditional file system interface for easy integration with checkpointing applications. This paper presents the architecture of our checkpoint storage system, key write optimizations for high-speed I/O, support for increme...

  19. Body heat storage during intermittent work in hot–dry and warm–wet environments

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Stapleton, Jill M; Wright, Heather E; Hardcastle, Stephen G; Kenny, Glen P

    2012-01-01

    We examined heat balance using an American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists threshold limit value allocated exercise protocol in hot–dry (HD; 46 °C, 10% relative humidity (RH)) and warm–wet (WW; 33 °C, 60% RH...

  20. Carbohydrate storage and light requirements of tropical moist and dry forest tree species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, L.; Kitajima, K.

    2007-01-01

    In many plant communities, there is a negative interspecific correlation between relative growth rates and survival of juveniles. This negative correlation is most likely caused by a trade-off between carbon allocation to growth vs. allocation to defense and storage. Nonstructural carbohydrates (NSC

  1. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program report for FY93

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1994-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. In this capacity, Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contract development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility-energy-storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1993.

  2. System Specification for Immobilized High-Level Waste Interim Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    CALMUS, R.B.

    2000-12-27

    This specification establishes the system-level functional, performance, design, interface, and test requirements for Phase 1 of the IHLW Interim Storage System, located at the Hanford Site in Washington State. The IHLW canisters will be produced at the Hanford Site by a Selected DOE contractor. Subsequent to storage the canisters will be shipped to a federal geologic repository.

  3. Remote search for gamma sources at the dry storage unit 3A in Andreeva bay and the determination of their dose rates during activities for improvement to the radiological environment

    OpenAIRE

    Ivanov Kirill E.; Varnavin Anatoly P.; Korolev Andrey V.; Stepennov Boris S.; Sukhoruchkin Andrey K.; Teterin Yury A.; Teterin Anton Yu.; Kharitonov Vladimir V.; Selishev Valery A.; Fedoseenkov Alexander N.; Krasnoshekov Alexander N.; Kosnikov Alexander S.; Kostikov Dmitry A.

    2012-01-01

    The remotely controlled replacement of the concrete covering of the spent fuel dry storage unit 3A with a new iron horizontal biological shielding was carried out during works aimed at the improvement of the radiological environment at the NWC “SevRAO” - Branch of FSUE “RosRAO”, Andreeva Bay, Murmansk Region. Video control systems, a BROKK robotic manipulator, HIAB manipulator crane, gamma detectors of the ASCRO radiation monitoring system, and a CARTOGAM gamma camera were employed. A C...

  4. The CMS event builder and storage system

    CERN Document Server

    Bauer, Gerry; Behrens, Ulf; Biery, Kurt; Brett, Angela; Branson, James; Cano, Eric; Cheung, Harry; Ciganek, Marek; Cittolin, Sergio; Coarasa, Jose Antonio; Deldicque, Christian; Dusinberre, Elizabeth; Erhan, Samim; Fortes Rodrigues, Fabiana; Gigi, Dominique; Glege, Frank; Gomez-Reino, Robert; Gutleber, Johannes; Hatton, Derek; Klute, Markus; Laurens, Jean-François; Loizides, Constantin; Lopez Perez, Juan Antonio; Meijers, Frans; Meschi, Emilio; Meyer, Andreas; Mommsen, Remigius K; Moser, Roland; O'Dell, Vivian; Oh, Alexander; Orsini, Luciano; Patras, Vaios; Paus, Christoph; Petrucci, Andrea; Pieri, Marco; Racz, Attila; Sakulin, Hannes; Sani, Matteo; Schieferdecker, Philipp; Schwick, Christoph; Serrano Margaleff, Josep Francesc; Shpakov, Dennis; Simon, Sean; Sumorok, Konstanty; Zanetti, Marco

    2010-01-01

    The CMS event builder assembles events accepted by the first level trigger and makes them available to the high-level trigger. The event builder needs to handle a maximum input rate of 100\\,kHz and an aggregated throughput of 100\\,GB/s originating from approximately 500 sources. This paper presents the chosen hardware and software architecture. The system consists of 2 stages: an initial pre-assembly reducing the number of fragments by one order of magnitude and a final assembly by several independent readout builder (RU-builder) slices. The RU-builder is based on 3 separate services: the buffering of event fragments during the assembly, the event assembly, and the data flow manager. A further component is responsible for handling events accepted by the high-level trigger: the storage manager (SM) temporarily stores the events on disk at a peak rate of 2\\,GB/s until they are permanently archived offline. In addition, events and data-quality histograms are served by the SM to online monitoring clients. We disc...

  5. A solar heating system with annual storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzari, F.; Raffellini, G.

    1981-07-01

    A solar heated house with long term storage capability, built in Trento, Italy, is described. The one story house was built from modular components and has a total heated volume of 1130 cu m. Flat plate solar collectors with a water-antifreeze medium are located beneath the lawn, and six cylindrical underground tanks holding 130 cu m of water heated by thermal energy from the collectors are situated under the garden. The house walls have an 8 cm cavity filled with 5 cm of formaldehyde foam, yielding a heat transmission (U) of 0.37 W/sq m/deg C. The roof and ceilings are insulated with fiberglass and concrete, producing U-values of 0.46 W/sq m/deg C and 0.57 W/sq m/deg C, respectively. Heat pumps using 6 kW move thermal energy between the house and the tanks. Direct hot water heating occurs in the summer, and direct home heating when the stored water temperature exceeds 32 C. A computer model was developed which traces the annual heat flow and it is shown that the system supplies all heating requirements for the house, with electrical requirements equal to 20 percent of the annual house needs.

  6. Genetic analysis and association of simple sequence repeat markers with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Benard; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Alajo, Agnes; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N; Owusu-Mensah, Eric; Carey, Edward E; Mwanga, Robert O M; Yencho, G Craig

    2017-03-01

    Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between 'New Kawogo' × 'Beauregard'. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H(2)) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = -0.59, P content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future.

  7. Grid Converters for Stationary Battery Energy Storage Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trintis, Ionut

    to hours, rated at MW and MWh, battery energy storage systems are suitable and ecient solutions. Grid connection of the storage system can be done at dierent voltage levels, depending on the location and application scenario. For high power and energy ratings, increase in the battery and converter voltage...... was realized for a 100 kW active rectier to be used in a 6 kV battery energy storage test bench. In the second part, dierent solutions for power converters to interface energy storage units to medium voltage grid are given. A new modular multilevel converter concept is introduced, where the energy storage......-voltage 100 kW bidirectional grid converter, to be used in a high voltage battery energy storage test bench. The control structure proved to be stable without damping. The converter was tested in the test bench and the experimental results are presented. Multilevel converters are replacing the classical two...

  8. Comparative analysis of the efficiencies of hydrogen storage systems utilising solid state H storage materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lototskyy, M., E-mail: mlototskyy@uwc.ac.za [South African Institute for Advanced Materials Chemistry, Faculty of Natural Sciences, University of the Western Cape, Private Bag X17, Bellville 7535 (South Africa); Yartys, V.A., E-mail: volodymyr.yartys@ife.no [Institute for Energy Technology, P.O. Box 40, Kjeller NO-2027 (Norway); Norwegian University of Science and Technology, Trondheim NO-7491 (Norway)

    2015-10-05

    Highlights: • Performance evaluation of H stores with various solid H storage materials was done. • Volumetric and gravimetric H storage densities and energy consumption were evaluated. • Effects of H storage containment and heat exchanger were estimated. • Pressure–temperature conditions of H storage strongly affect the overall performance. • Material’s packing density influences safety of operation and efficiency of H stores. - Abstract: Evaluation of the performances of hydrogen storage systems accommodating solid H storage materials should include characteristics on their reversible hydrogen storage capacity, operating pressures and temperatures, packing densities, and heat effects of hydrogen uptake and release. We have conducted a performance evaluation of the systems accumulating 5 kg of hydrogen in a containment of cylindrical geometry filled with a solid H storage material including such hydrides and reactive hydride composites as AlH{sub 3}, MgH{sub 2}, “low-temperature” (inter)metallic hydrides, NaAlH{sub 4}, Na{sub 3}AlH{sub 6}, LiBH{sub 4} + MgH{sub 2}, and MOFs. The analysis yielded gravimetric and volumetric H storage capacities, and energy efficiencies of hydrogen stores. We conclude that the weight efficiency of hydrogen stores, apart from the gravimetric H storage capacity of the material, is greatly affected by its packing density, and by the pressure–temperature conditions which determine type and dimensions of the containment. The materials with low heat effects of H exchange, operating close to the ambient conditions, should be targeted in the course of the development of new hydrogen stores as offering the best energy efficiency of their operation.

  9. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K. [SENTECH, Inc., Bethesda, MD (United States)

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  10. Energy storage systems - Characteristics and comparisons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, H. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300 allee des Ursulines, Que. (Canada); Anti Icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boulevard de l' Universite, Que. (Canada); Ilinca, A. [Wind Energy Research Laboratory (WERL), Universite du Quebec a Rimouski, 300 allee des Ursulines, Que. (Canada); Perron, J. [Anti Icing Materials International Laboratory (AMIL), Universite du Quebec a Chicoutimi, 555 boulevard de l' Universite, Que. (Canada)

    2008-06-15

    Electricity generated from renewable sources, which has shown remarkable growth worldwide, can rarely provide immediate response to demand as these sources do not deliver a regular supply easily adjustable to consumption needs. Thus, the growth of this decentralized production means greater network load stability problems and requires energy storage, generally using lead batteries, as a potential solution. However, lead batteries cannot withstand high cycling rates, nor can they store large amounts of energy in a small volume. That is why other types of storage technologies are being developed and implemented. This has led to the emergence of storage as a crucial element in the management of energy from renewable sources, allowing energy to be released into the grid during peak hours when it is more valuable. The work described in this paper highlights the need to store energy in order to strengthen power networks and maintain load levels. There are various types of storage methods, some of which are already in use, while others are still in development. We have taken a look at the main characteristics of the different electricity storage techniques and their field of application (permanent or portable, long- or short-term storage, maximum power required, etc.). These characteristics will serve to make comparisons in order to determine the most appropriate technique for each type of application. (author)

  11. Modeling leaks from liquid hydrogen storage systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winters, William Stanley, Jr.

    2009-01-01

    This report documents a series of models for describing intended and unintended discharges from liquid hydrogen storage systems. Typically these systems store hydrogen in the saturated state at approximately five to ten atmospheres. Some of models discussed here are equilibrium-based models that make use of the NIST thermodynamic models to specify the states of multiphase hydrogen and air-hydrogen mixtures. Two types of discharges are considered: slow leaks where hydrogen enters the ambient at atmospheric pressure and fast leaks where the hydrogen flow is usually choked and expands into the ambient through an underexpanded jet. In order to avoid the complexities of supersonic flow, a single Mach disk model is proposed for fast leaks that are choked. The velocity and state of hydrogen downstream of the Mach disk leads to a more tractable subsonic boundary condition. However, the hydrogen temperature exiting all leaks (fast or slow, from saturated liquid or saturated vapor) is approximately 20.4 K. At these temperatures, any entrained air would likely condense or even freeze leading to an air-hydrogen mixture that cannot be characterized by the REFPROP subroutines. For this reason a plug flow entrainment model is proposed to treat a short zone of initial entrainment and heating. The model predicts the quantity of entrained air required to bring the air-hydrogen mixture to a temperature of approximately 65 K at one atmosphere. At this temperature the mixture can be treated as a mixture of ideal gases and is much more amenable to modeling with Gaussian entrainment models and CFD codes. A Gaussian entrainment model is formulated to predict the trajectory and properties of a cold hydrogen jet leaking into ambient air. The model shows that similarity between two jets depends on the densimetric Froude number, density ratio and initial hydrogen concentration.

  12. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  13. Distributed Energy Systems with Wind Power and Energy Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Korpås, Magnus

    2004-01-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy s...

  14. Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de juçara Drying and storage of euterpe edulis seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cibele Chalita Martins

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de verificar o efeito da secagem parcial e do armazenamento sobre a germinação e vigor de sementes de Euterpe edulis obtidas em três épocas de produção, o lote 1 foi colhido em 10 plantasmatriz (PM, em 02/99; o lote 2 em 15 PM, em 04/00; e o lote 3 em 11 PM, em 08/00. Os frutos foram despolpados e as sementes, colocadas para secar por zero, 20 e 40 h (três sublotes, em câmara seca (temperatura de 27 ºC e umidade relativa de 35%. Os três sublotes foram armazenados a 10 ºC, em sacos plásticos (20 mm de espessura fechados. Durante o armazenamento, a qualidade das sementes foi avaliada a cada seis semanas, por 30 semanas, por meio das seguintes determinações: teor de água (105±3 ºC/24 h, porcentagem de germinação e vigor (primeira contagem e índice de velocidade de germinação. O aumento do tempo de secagem resultou em sementes com teor de água decrescente, em torno de 14 a 21% dos valores iniciais, que se mantiveram praticamente inalterados durante o armazenamento. A germinação e vigor das sementes foram prejudicados pela secagem parcial e pelo aumento do tempo de armazenamento, de forma diferenciada entre as épocas de produção, e ambas as características dependem das condições climáticas vigentes durante o desenvolvimento e maturação das sementes.The objective of this research was to verify the effects of partial drying and storage duration on the germination and vigor of three E. edulis seed lots developed under different weather conditions. Mature fruits were harvested in the palm collection from the Instituto Agronômico, located in Ubatuba, SP., forming three seed lots. Seeds from ten plants were harvested on 02/99 and constituted the Seed lot 1; seed lot 2 was composed of seeds of fifteen plants collected in 04/00, whereas seeds from eleven plants harvested on 08/00 composed seed lot 3. The fruits were depulped and the seeds were dried for 0, 20 and 40 hours, using a drying chamber regulated at

  15. Evaluation of Dried Storage of Platelets and RBC for Transfusion: Lyophilization and Other Dehydration Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    1991-01-31

    storage as a transfusion resource for combat casualty care. The work is being carried out at three collaborating medical centers: in Greenville, NC...optimization of stabilization procedures currently underway will likely verify a patentable preparation protocol. As an interinstitutional agreement is...conditions). These modified para-plts are being evaluated in the collaborating laboratories. Results are not yet consistent, but encouraging. Whether or not

  16. Investigation of impact of storage conditions on Hypericum perforatum L. dried total extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Halil Koyu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Hypericum perforatum L. (Hypericaceae has been widely prescribed for mild to moderate depression following the release of promising results in clinical trials. However, it is known that its constituents may be affected by milieu. The stability complexities of the constituents of H. perforatum have gained interest in recent years. The aim of the present study was to examine the impact of storage conditions on H. perforatum total extract simultaneously under different storage conditions. Temperature, humidity, and light conditions were evaluated. Comparative analyses of methanol extracts were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography-diode array detection for chlorogenic acid, rutin, hyperoside, isoquercitrin, quercitrin, quercetin, amentoflavone, pseudohypericin, hyperforin, and hypericin. Analysis and extraction were performed using a validated method. The fluctuation of the constituents of the plant extract has been demonstrated. Among these components, chlorogenic acid was the most stable. Hyperforin, hypericin, and pseudohypericin were more stable than the flavonoids at −20°C, in the 6th month. As estimated, decay was lowest at −20°C and highest at 40°C–75% relative humidity for the analyzed constituents. Except for hyperforin, light protection decreased the breakdown of components within 4 months. However, at the 6th month, equivalent changes were seen for all constituents. Degradation of the constituents at −20°C indicates the importance of stability tests in analysis studies covering time and storage conditions.

  17. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.

  18. Circuits and signal conditioning for a peanut-drying monitoring system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Post-harvest processes at peanut buying points and other peanut grading facilities have a direct impact on the quality of the product. Peanut drying is an essential task for safe peanut storage. The rate at which peanuts are dried can also affect the flavor and milling qualities. Current peanut dryi...

  19. Prototype of a magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plant, David P.; Kirk, J. A.; Anand, D. K.

    1989-01-01

    The authors describe recent progress in the development of a 500-Wh magnetically suspended flywheel stack energy storage system. The design of the system and a critical study of the noncontacting displacement transducers and their placement in the stack system are discussed. The storage system has been designed and constructed and is currently undergoing experimental analysis. The results acquired from the noncontacting displacement transducer study show that currently available transducers will not function as desired and that further research is essential.

  20. Development of a direct contact ice storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier, R. [Chicago Bridge & Iron Company, Plainfield, IL (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The program described involves the design, construction, and performance testing of a Direct Freeze Thermal Energy Storage System. Task 1 (Design) has been completed; and Task 2 (construction) is in progress, with equipment procurements presently underway. Once constructed, the system will undergo extensive laboratory performance testing and analysis, followed by an assessment of the system`s cost effectiveness. This study will advance the understanding and development of the direct freeze concept, which offers inherent benefits for thermal energy storage.

  1. Control system design for robotic underground storage tank inspection systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiebel, G.R.

    1994-09-01

    Control and data acquisition systems for robotic inspection and surveillance systems used in nuclear waste applications must be capable, versatile, and adaptable to changing conditions. The nuclear waste remediation application is dynamic -- requirements change as public policy is constantly re-examined and refocused, and as technology in this area advances. Control and data acquisition systems must adapt to these changing conditions and be able to accommodate future missions, both predictable and unexpected. This paper describes the control and data acquisition system for the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System that is being developed for remote surveillance and inspection of underground storage tanks at the Hanford Site and other US Department of Energy (DOE) sites. It is a high-performance system which has been designed for future growth. The priority mission at the Hanford site is to retrieve the waste generated by 50 years of production from its present storage and process it for final disposal. The LDUA will help to gather information about the waste and the tanks it is stored in to better plan and execute the cleanup mission.

  2. NASA Langley Research Center's distributed mass storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pao, Juliet Z.; Humes, D. Creig

    1993-01-01

    There is a trend in institutions with high performance computing and data management requirements to explore mass storage systems with peripherals directly attached to a high speed network. The Distributed Mass Storage System (DMSS) Project at NASA LaRC is building such a system and expects to put it into production use by the end of 1993. This paper presents the design of the DMSS, some experiences in its development and use, and a performance analysis of its capabilities. The special features of this system are: (1) workstation class file servers running UniTree software; (2) third party I/O; (3) HIPPI network; (4) HIPPI/IPI3 disk array systems; (5) Storage Technology Corporation (STK) ACS 4400 automatic cartridge system; (6) CRAY Research Incorporated (CRI) CRAY Y-MP and CRAY-2 clients; (7) file server redundancy provision; and (8) a transition mechanism from the existent mass storage system to the DMSS.

  3. Effect of starter culture, spice mix and storage time and temperature on biogenic amine content of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Komprda, T; Smělá, D; Pechová, P; Kalhotka, L; Stencl, J; Klejdus, B

    2004-08-01

    Two types of dry fermented sausage differing in spicing mixture and the diameter (low content of red pepper+diameter 80 mm, H-sausage; high content of red pepper+diameter 55 mm, P-sausage, respectively) were produced in parallel with two different starter cultures (Pediococcus pentosaceus+Staphylococcus carnosus, B-samples and S. carnosus+Staphylococcus xylosus+Lactobacillus farciminis, F-samples, respectively). The sausages were ripened 21 days and subsequently stored 91 days at the room temperature. Concentration of both most abundant amines, putrescine and tyramine (y; mg/kg DM) increased significantly (P<0.01) in HB-sausage during ripening (x; days): y=2.5+18.13x-0.3144x(2) (R(2)=0.99) and y=0.7+8.17x-0.1130x(2) (R(2)=0.99), and also during storage: y=127.3+5.123x (R(2)=0.79) and y=26.0+3.211x (R(2)=0.74), respectively. At the end of ripening, putrescine (247 mg/kg DM) and tyramine (123 mg/kg DM) content in the HB-sausage was higher (P<0.05) than in the PB-sausage (12 and 9 mg/kg DM, respectively), concentration of either of these amines was negligible (1 mg/kg DM) in either type of F-inoculated sausage. Both starter culture and sausage type influenced significantly (P<0.001) both putrescine and tyramine content in the sausage; starter accounted for 57% and 55% of total variability in putrescine and tyramine content, respectively. Due to the significant (P<0.05) increase of total aerobic counts in the HB-sausage between the end of ripening and the 7th day of storage, followed by the significant (P<0.01) increase of the sum of total biogenic amines between the end of ripening (425 mg/kg DM) and the end of storage (1029 mg/kg DM), the storage of the dry fermented sausages at the room temperature should not be recommended.

  4. Physicochemical properties and storage stability of lutein microcapsules prepared with maltodextrins and sucrose by spray drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuang, Pengqun; Zhang, Hongchao; Bajaj, Poonam R; Yuan, Qipeng; Tang, Juming; Chen, Shulin; Sablani, Shyam S

    2015-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the physicochemical properties of lutein microcapsules. Nine types of lutein microcapsules were prepared in order to determine their encapsulation efficiency and yield. Results show that lutein microcapsules with maltodextrin M040 and sucrose at the weight ratio of 3:1 (designated as M040:1) had the highest encapsulation efficiency (90.1%) among the lutein microcapsules, as well as a higher encapsulation yield (90.4%). The onset glass transition temperatures (Tgi ) and the surface dents of the lutein microcapsules decreased as the dextrose equivalent value of maltodextrin and the weight ratio of sucrose increased. Enthalpy relaxation experiments were conducted for the lutein microcapsules M040:1 at (Tgi - 5) , (Tgi - 10), and (Tgi - 15) °C, and the obtained data were fitted to the Kohlrausch-Williams-Watts model. Results show that the mean relaxation time (τ) (316 h) of M040:1 lutein microcapsules aged at (Tgi - 15) °C was greater than the τ (161 h) at (Tgi - 10) °C and τ (60.5 h) at (Tgi - 5) °C. Effects of temperature and oxygen transmission rates for package film on the storage stability of M040:1 lutein microcapsules were also investigated. Findings show that rates of lutein degradation and color change increased by an order of magnitude as storage temperature (4 to 97 °C) and oxygen transmission rate of the package film (0.018 to 62.8 cc/m(2) day) increased. These results suggest that lutein is highly unstable and susceptible to thermal and oxidative degradations. However, microencapsulation with appropriate wall materials of higher relaxation time and high oxygen barrier packaging can increase the storage life.

  5. Power-reduction techniques for data-center storage systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bostoen, Tom; Mullender, Sape; Berbers, Yolande

    2013-01-01

    As data-intensive, network-based applications proliferate, the power consumed by the data-center storage subsystem surges. This survey summarizes, organizes, and integrates a decade of research on power-aware enterprise storage systems. All of the existing power-reduction techniques are classified a

  6. Global distribution of grid connected electrical energy storage systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katja Buss

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This article gives an overview of grid connected electrical energy storage systems worldwide, based on public available data. Technologies considered in this study are pumped hydroelectric energy storage (PHES, compressed air energy storage (CAES, sodium-sulfur batteries (NaS, lead-acid batteries, redox-flow batteries, nickel-cadmium batteries (NiCd and lithium-ion batteries. As the research indicates, the worldwide installed capacity of grid connected electrical energy storage systems is approximately 154 GW. This corresponds to a share of 5.5 % of the worldwide installed generation capacity. Furthermore, the article gives an overview of the historical development of installed and used storage systems worldwide. Subsequently, the focus is on each considered technology concerning the current storage size, number of plants and location. In summary it can be stated, PHES is the most commonly used technology worldwide, whereas electrochemical technologies are increasingly gaining in importance. Regarding the distribution of grid connected storage systems reveals the share of installed storage capacity is in Europe and Eastern Asia twice as high as in North America.

  7. Overall control and monitoring systems for pumped storage plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stepinski, B.; Cvetko, H.

    1982-01-01

    Experience and technical innovations in power plant engineering have resulted in continuous improvements of operation control, availability and safety of pumped storage plants. Process control is constantly improved as new developments are made in equipment and systems engineering. Plant control concepts with increasingly complex automation hierarchy are described by which pumped storage processes can be controlled optimally, reliably, and automatically.

  8. The influence of different polymers on viability of Bifidobacterium lactis 300b during encapsulation, freeze-drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pop, Oana Lelia; Brandau, Thorsten; Schwinn, Jens; Vodnar, Dan Cristian; Socaciu, Carmen

    2015-07-01

    Seven different types of natural polymers namely hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose (Na-CMC), microcrystalline cellulose (MCC), starch BR-07, starch BR-08, dextrin and pullulan were used in order to develop the optimal formula for the entrapment of Bifidobacterium lactis 300B in Ca-alginate based granules. Laminar flow drip casting with Brace-Encapsulator was used in order to prepare the granules. The results showed that alginate/pullulan and alginate/HPMC formulation provide high protection for the bacterial strain used for encapsulation. These two formulations were further used to obtain freeze dried granules, for which the viability in time and at different temperatures was tested. The final results showed a higher viability than the level of the therapeutic minimum (>10(7) CFU/g) after 15 days of storage. Other parameters like entrapment efficiency, production rate, sphericity, flowability were also discussed.

  9. The use of dried blood spot samples in the diagnosis of lysosomal storage disorders--current status and perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reuser, Arnold J; Verheijen, Frans W; Bali, Deeksha; van Diggelen, Otto P; Germain, Dominique P; Hwu, Wuh-Liang; Lukacs, Zoltan; Mühl, Adolf; Olivova, Petra; Piraud, Monique; Wuyts, Birgit; Zhang, Kate; Keutzer, Joan

    2011-01-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) methods are currently available for identification of a range of lysosomal storage disorders (LSDs). These disorders are generally characterized by a deficiency of activity of a lysosomal enzyme and by a broad spectrum of phenotypes. Diagnosis of LSD patients is often delayed, which is of particular concern as therapeutic outcomes (e.g. enzyme replacement therapy) are generally more favorable in early disease stages. Experts in the field of LSDs diagnostics and screening programs convened and reviewed experiences with the use of DBS methods, and discuss the diagnostic challenges, possible applications and quality programs in this paper. Given the easy sampling and shipping and stability of samples, DBS has evident advantages over other laboratory methods and can be particularly helpful in the early identification of affected LSD patients through neonatal screening, high-risk population screening or family screening.

  10. Flavor retention of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) essential oil spray-dried in modified starches during encapsulation and storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baranauskiene, R.; Bylaite, Egle; Zukauskaite, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of different commercial modified food starch carrier materials on the flavor retention of the essential oil (EO) of peppermint (Mentha piperita L.) during spray drying and storage was evaluated. The obtained results revealed that the emulsification and encapsulation efficiencies...... of peppermint EO were higher for all n-octenyl succinic anhydride (OSAN)-modified starches as compared to those of hydrolyzed starches (dextrins). The compositions of pure, emulsified, and encapsulated peppermint EOs in different matrices were quite similar; however, some changes in the percentages of some...... individual compounds were observed. Larger differences in the compositions of surface oils from various encapsulation products were obtained. Flavor components were released at different rates by each of the encapsulated products. The aroma binding capacity of different modified starch matrices to lock EO...

  11. Prefeasibility study on compressed air energy storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmahgary, Yehia; Peltola, Esa; Sipila, Kari; Vaatainen, Anne

    1991-08-01

    A prefeasibility study on Compressed Air Energy Storage (CAES) systems is presented. The costs of excavating rock caverns for compressed air storage and those for forming suitable storage caverns in existing mines were estimated, and this information was used to calculate the economics of CAES. An analysis of the different possible systems is given following a review of literature on CAES. This was followed by an economic analysis which comprised two separate systems. The first consisted of conventional oil fueled gas turbine plants provided with CAES system. In the second system wind turbines were used to run the compressors which are used in charging the compressed air storage cavern. The results of the current prefeasibility study confirmed the economic attractiveness of the CAES in the first system. Wind turbines still seem, however, to be too expensive to compete with coal power plants. More accurate and straightforward results could be obtained only in a more comprehensive study.

  12. Effects of shifting seasonal rainfall patterns on net primary productivity and carbon storage in tropical seasonally dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohr, T.; Manzoni, S.; Feng, X.; Menezes, R.; Porporato, A. M.

    2013-12-01

    Although seasonally dry ecosystems (SDEs), identified by prolonged drought followed by a short, but intense, rainy season, cover large regions of the tropics, their biogeochemical response to seasonal rainfall and soil carbon (C) sequestration potential are not well characterized. Both productivity and soil respiration are positively affected by seasonal soil moisture availability, creating a delicate balance between C deposition through litterfall and C losses through heterotrophic respiration. As climate change projections for the tropics predict decreased annual rainfall and increased dry season length, it is critical to understand how variations in seasonal rainfall distributions control this balance. To address this question, we develop a minimal model linking the seasonal behavior of the ensemble soil moisture, plant productivity, the related soil C inputs through litterfall, and soil C dynamics. The model is parameterized for a case study from a drought-deciduous caatinga ecosystem in northeastern Brazil. Results indicate that when altering the seasonal rainfall patterns for a fixed annual rainfall, both plant productivity and soil C sequestration potential are largely, and nonlinearly, dependent on wet season duration. Moreover, total annual rainfall plays a dominant role in describing this relationship, leading at times to the emergence of distinct optima in both primary production and C sequestration. Examining these results in the context of climate-driven changes to wet season duration and mean annual precipitation indicate that the initial hydroclimatic regime of a particular ecosystem is an important factor to predict both the magnitude and direction of the effects of shifting seasonal distributions on productivity and C storage. Although highly productive ecosystems will likely experience declining C storage with predicted climate shifts, those currently operating well below peak production can potentially see improved C stocks with the onset of

  13. Long term storage of dry versus frozen RNA for next generation molecular studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Seelenfreund

    Full Text Available The standard method for the storage and preservation of RNA has been at ultra-low temperatures. However, reliance on liquid nitrogen and freezers for storage of RNA has multiple downsides. Recently new techniques have been developed for storing RNA at room temperature utilizing desiccation and are reported to be an effective alternative for preserving RNA integrity. In this study we compared frozen RNA samples stored for up to one year to those which had been desiccated using RNAstable (Biomatrica, Inc., San Diego, CA and stored at room temperature. RNA samples were placed in aliquots and stored after desiccation or frozen (at -80°C, and were analyzed for RNA Integrity Number (RIN, and by qPCR, and RNA sequencing. Our study shows that RNAstable is able to preserve desiccated RNA samples at room temperature for up to one year, and that RNA preserved by desiccation is comparable to cryopreserved RNA for downstream analyses including real-time-PCR and RNA sequencing.

  14. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  15. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY99

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES,JOHN D.

    2000-06-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to develop cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications in collaboration with academia and industry. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1999.

  16. Building and managing high performance, scalable, commodity mass storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lekashman, John

    1998-01-01

    The NAS Systems Division has recently embarked on a significant new way of handling the mass storage problem. One of the basic goals of this new development are to build systems at very large capacity and high performance, yet have the advantages of commodity products. The central design philosophy is to build storage systems the way the Internet was built. Competitive, survivable, expandable, and wide open. The thrust of this paper is to describe the motivation for this effort, what we mean by commodity mass storage, what the implications are for a facility that performs such an action, and where we think it will lead.

  17. Quantum information storage and state transfer based on spin systems

    CERN Document Server

    Song, Z

    2004-01-01

    The idea of quantum state storage is generalized to describe the coherent transfer of quantum information through a coherent data bus. In this universal framework, we comprehensively review our recent systematical investigations to explore the possibility of implementing the physical processes of quantum information storage and state transfer by using quantum spin systems, which may be an isotropic antiferromagnetic spin ladder system or a ferromagnetic Heisenberg spin chain. Our studies emphasize the physical mechanisms and the fundamental problems behind the various protocols for the storage and transfer of quantum information in solid state systems.

  18. Efficiency improvement for wind energy pumped storage systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forcos, A.; Marinescu, C.; Teodorescu, Remus

    2011-01-01

    Integrating wind energy into the grid may raise stability problems. Solutions for avoiding these situations are studied and energy storage methods are suitable for balancing the energy between the wind turbine and grid. In this paper, an autonomous wind turbine pumped storage system is presented....... The focus of this paper is to improve the efficiency of this system, which is small at low power levels. The driving motorpump group of the storage system is the key point presented in this paper for efficiency improving. Two control methods, experimentally implemented for induction machine are presented...

  19. Energy Storage Systems Program Report for FY98

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1999-04-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Power Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1998.

  20. Energy storage systems program report for FY97

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1998-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Energy Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to collaborate with industry in developing cost-effective electric energy storage systems for many high-value stationary applications. Sandia National Laboratories is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of energy storage components and systems. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1997. 46 figs., 20 tabs.

  1. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  2. Specific systems studies of battery energy storage for electric utilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhil, A.A.; Lachenmeyer, L. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jabbour, S.J. [Decision Focus, Inc., Mountain View, CA (United States); Clark, H.K. [Power Technologies, Inc., Roseville, CA (United States)

    1993-08-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. As a part of this program, four utility-specific systems studies were conducted to identify potential battery energy storage applications within each utility network and estimate the related benefits. This report contains the results of these systems studies.

  3. Utility battery storage systems program report for FY 94

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1995-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the US Department of Energy`s Office of Energy Management. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1994.

  4. Quality of osmotically pre-treated and vacuum dried pineapple cubes on storage as influenced by type of solutes and packaging materials

    OpenAIRE

    Paul, Prodyut Kumar; Ghosh, Swapan Kumar; Singh, Dhananjay Kumar; Bhowmick, Nilesh

    2012-01-01

    The quality and stability of osmotically pre-treated and subsequently vacuum dried pineapple cubes using three different solutes and packed in three different types of packaging materials on storage was evaluated. The experiment was laid out in completely randomized block design with two factors and three replications for each treatment. Treatment combinations were considered as one factor and storage interval as another factor. Pineapple cubes stored in glass bottle showed very little percen...

  5. Thermochemical heat storage - system design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Trausel, F.; Finck, C.J.; Vliet, L.D. van; Cuypers, R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical materials (TCMs) are a promising solution for seasonal heat storage, providing the possibility to store excess solar energy from the warm season for later use during the cold season, and with that all year long sustainable energy. With our fixed bed, vacuum reactors using zeolite as T

  6. Thermochemical heat storage - system design issues

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, A.J. de; Trausel, F.; Finck, C.J.; Vliet, L.D. van; Cuypers, R.

    2014-01-01

    Thermochemical materials (TCMs) are a promising solution for seasonal heat storage, providing the possibility to store excess solar energy from the warm season for later use during the cold season, and with that all year long sustainable energy. With our fixed bed, vacuum reactors using zeolite as

  7. Comparison of cask and drywell storage concepts for a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, D.E.

    1982-12-01

    The Department of Energy, through its Richland Operations Office is evaluating the feasibility, timing, and cost of providing a federal capability for storing the spent fuel, high-level wastes, and transuranic wastes that DOE may be obligated by law to manage until permanent waste disposal facilities are available. Three concepts utilizing a monitored retrievable storage/interim storage (MRS/IS) facility have been developed and analyzed. The first concept, co-location with a reprocessing plant, has been developed by staff of Allied General Nuclear Services. the second concept, a stand-alone facility, has been developed by staff of the General Atomic Company. The third concept, co-location with a deep geologic repository, has been developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory with the assistance of the Westinghouse Hanford Company and Kaiser Engineers. The objectives of this study are: to develop preconceptual designs for MRS/IS facilities: to examine various issues such as transportation of wastes, licensing of the facilities, and environmental concerns associated with operation of such facilities; and to estimate the life-cycle costs of the facilities when operated in response to a set of scenarios that define the quantities and types of waste requiring storage in specific time periods, generally spanning the years 1989 to 2037. Three scenarios are examined to develop estimates of life-cycle costs for the MRS/IS facilities. In the first scenario, the reprocessing plant is placed in service in 1989 and HLW canisters are stored until a repository is opened in the year 1998. Additional reprocessing plants and repositories are placed in service at intervals as needed to meet the demand. In the second scenario, the reprocessing plants are delayed in starting operations by 10 years, but the repositories open on schedule. In the third scenario, the repositories are delayed 10 years, but the reprocessing plants open on schedule.

  8. Sustainable Dry Land Management Model on Corn Agribusiness System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yulia Pujiharti

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at building model of dry land management. Dynamic System Analysis was used to build model and Powersim 2.51 version for simulating. The parameter used in model were fertilizer (urea, SP-36, ACL, productivity (corn, cassava, mungbean, soil nutrient (N, P, K, crop nutrient requirements (corn, cassava, mungbean, mucuna, price (corn, cassava, mungbeans corn flour, feed, urea, SP-36, KCl, food security credit, area planted of (maize, cassava, mungbean, area harvested of (maize, cassava, mungbean, (corn, cassava, mungbean production, wages and farmer income. Sustainable indicator for ecology aspect was soil fertility level, economic aspects were productivity and farmer income, and social aspects were job possibility and traditions. The simulation result indicated that sustainable dry land management can improve soil fertility and increase farmer revenue, became sustainable farming system and farmer society. On the other hand, conventional dry land management decreased soil fertility and yield, caused farmer earnings to decrease and a farm activity could not be continued. Fertilizer distribution did not fulfill farmer requirement, which caused fertilizer scarcity. Food security credit increased fertilizer application. Corn was processed to corn flour or feed to give value added.

  9. An Effective Cache Algorithm for Heterogeneous Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Li

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Modern storage environment is commonly composed of heterogeneous storage devices. However, traditional cache algorithms exhibit performance degradation in heterogeneous storage systems because they were not designed to work with the diverse performance characteristics. In this paper, we present a new cache algorithm called HCM for heterogeneous storage systems. The HCM algorithm partitions the cache among the disks and adopts an effective scheme to balance the work across the disks. Furthermore, it applies benefit-cost analysis to choose the best allocation of cache block to improve the performance. Conducting simulations with a variety of traces and a wide range of cache size, our experiments show that HCM significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art storage-aware cache algorithms.

  10. The architecture of the High Performance Storage System (HPSS)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teaff, D.; Coyne, B. [IBM Federal, Houston, TX (United States); Watson, D. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The rapid growth in the size of datasets has caused a serious imbalance in I/O and storage system performance and functionality relative to application requirements and the capabilities of other system components. The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) is a scalable, next-generation storage system that will meet the functionality and performance requirements of large-scale scientific and commercial computing environments. Our goal is to improve the performance and capacity of storage systems by two orders of magnitude or more over what is available in the general or mass marketplace today. We are also providing corresponding improvements in architecture and functionality. This paper describes the architecture and functionality of HPSS.

  11. Drying and storage of Eugenia involucrata DC. seeds Secagem e armazenamento de sementes de Eugenia involucrata DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angela Maria Maluf

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The physiological quality of seeds of native species is important to produce healthy saplings and therefore guarantee the success of programs to recover disturbed vegetation. This reinforces the necessity for investigating the physiological quality of those seeds. To evaluate the effects of different drying rates on the germination, moisture content and storability of Eugenia involucrata diaspores, mature fruits collected at Mogi Guaçu, SP, Brazil had their epi- and mesocarps removed by washing and were dried at 30, 40 or 50ºC until their water content was reduced from 57% (fresh diaspores to 13% (final drying, totaling six drying levels. In a second experiment, diaspores had their moisture content reduced from 57% to 49%, at 30ºC, totaling six drying levels (0h, 1h, 2h, 3h, 4h and 5h, and were kept for 180 days in plastic bags under cold storage. The drying rate had no effect on tolerance to desiccation by E. involucrata diaspores; water contents lower than 51% decreased both germinability and storability. Diaspores can be stored for up to 180 days as long as their water content is reduced to 53% and they are kept inside plastic bags under cold storage.O uso de sementes de espécies nativas de alta qualidade é fundamental nos programas de recomposição vegetal, o que fortalece a necessidade de se investigar o potencial fisiológico das mesmas. Esta pesquisa objetivou avaliar os efeitos da velocidade de secagem dos diásporos de Eugenia involucrata sobre a sua germinação e vigor, bem como as relações entre teor de água e capacidade de armazenamento. Foram colhidos frutos maduros em pomar instalado em Mogi Guaçu, SP (22º15-16'S, 47º8-12'W, que tiveram seu epicarpo e mesocarpo removidos por lavagem. A seguir, os diásporos (semente + endocarpo foram submetidos a secagem controlada a 30, 40 e 50ºC, com reduções progressivas do teor de água inicial de 57% para até 13%, obtendo-se seis níveis de secagem em cada temperatura. Em um

  12. Energy storage benefits and market analysis handbook : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eyer, James M. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA); Corey, Garth P.; Iannucci, Joseph J., Jr. (Distributed Utility Associates, Livermore, CA)

    2004-12-01

    This Guide describes a high level, technology-neutral framework for assessing potential benefits from and economic market potential for energy storage used for electric utility-related applications. In the United States use of electricity storage to support and optimize transmission and distribution (T&D) services has been limited due to high storage system cost and by limited experience with storage system design and operation. Recent improvement of energy storage and power electronics technologies, coupled with changes in the electricity marketplace, indicate an era of expanding opportunity for electricity storage as a cost-effective electric resource. Some recent developments (in no particular order) that drive the opportunity include: (1) states adoption of the renewables portfolio standard (RPS), which may increased use of renewable generation with intermittent output, (2) financial risk leading to limited investment in new transmission capacity, coupled with increasing congestion on some transmission lines, (3) regional peaking generation capacity constraints, and (4) increasing emphasis on locational marginal pricing (LMP).

  13. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages. PMID:27433100

  14. The Effects of Grape Seed Flour on the Quality of Turkish Dry Fermented Sausage (Sucuk) during Ripening and Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurt, Şükrü

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effects of grape seed flour on the physical-chemical properties, microbiological and sensory properties of Turkish dry fermented sausage, sucuk, was investigated. After the sausages produced with beef, beef fat, sheep tail fat and spices, they were ripened for 14 d. Then they were vacuum-packaged and stored for 80 d at 4℃. The effects of grape seed flour (GSF; 0%, 0.75%, 1.5%, 3%) on the physical-chemical properties (pH, moisture, fat, protein, free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acids, diameter reduction, ripening yield, instrumental colour), microbiological properties (total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, mould and yeast) and sensory properties of the sausages were investigated. Grape seed flour decreased moisture, TBA, diameter reduction, instrumental colour (a, b) values and sensory analysis scores during the ripening period; it also decreased TBA, instrumental colour (L, a, b) values, total aerobic mesophilic and lactic acid bacteria counts during the storage period. It was concluded that grape seed flour has a potential application as an additive in dry fermented sausages.

  15. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  16. Distributed energy systems with wind power and energy storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korpaas, Magnus

    2004-07-01

    The topic of this thesis is the study of energy storage systems operating with wind power plants. The motivation for applying energy storage in this context is that wind power generation is intermittent and generally difficult to predict, and that good wind energy resources are often found in areas with limited grid capacity. Moreover, energy storage in the form of hydrogen makes it possible to provide clean fuel for transportation. The aim of this work has been to evaluate how local energy storage systems should be designed and operated in order to increase the penetration and value of wind power in the power system. Optimization models and sequential and probabilistic simulation models have been developed for this purpose. Chapter 3 presents a sequential simulation model of a general wind hydrogen energy system. Electrolytic hydrogen is used either as a fuel for transportation or for power generation in a stationary fuel cell. The model is useful for evaluating how hydrogen storage can increase the penetration of wind power in areas with limited or no transmission capacity to the main grid. The simulation model is combined with a cost model in order to study how component sizing and choice of operation strategy influence the performance and economics of the wind-hydrogen system. If the stored hydrogen is not used as a separate product, but merely as electrical energy storage, it should be evaluated against other and more energy efficient storage options such as pumped hydro and redox flow cells. A probabilistic model of a grid-connected wind power plant with a general energy storage unit is presented in chapter 4. The energy storage unit is applied for smoothing wind power fluctuations by providing a firm power output to the grid over a specific period. The method described in the chapter is based on the statistical properties of the wind speed and a general representation of the wind energy conversion system and the energy storage unit. This method allows us to

  17. Application of nonlinear ultrasonics to inspection of stainless steel for dry storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ulrich, Timothy James II [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Anderson, Brain E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Remillieux, Marcel C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Le Bas, Pierre -Yves [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Pieczonka, Lukasz [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-09-22

    This report summarized technical work conducted by LANL staff an international collaborators in support of the UFD Storage Experimentation effort. The focus of the current technical work is on the detection and imaging of a failure mechanism known as stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in stainless steel using the nonlinear ultrasonic technique known as TREND. One of the difficulties faced in previous work is in finding samples that contain realistically sized SCC. This year such samples were obtained from EPRI. Reported here are measurements made on these samples. One of the key findings is the ability to detect subsurface changes to the direction in which a crack is penetrating into the sample. This result follows from last year's report that demonstrated the ability of TREND techniques to image features below the sample surface. A new collaboration was established with AGH University of Science and Technology, Krakow, Poland.

  18. Influence of small amorphous amounts in hydrophilic and hydrophobic APIs on storage stability of dry powder inhalation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller, Thorsten; Krehl, Regina; Schiewe, Jörg; Weiler, Claudius; Steckel, Hartwig

    2015-05-01

    The effects of different manufacturing methods to induce formation of amorphous content, changes of physico-chemical characteristics of powder blends and changes of aerodynamic properties over storage time (6months) analyzed with the Next Generation Impactor (NGI) are investigated. Earlier studies have shown that standard pharmaceutical operations lead to structural disorders which may influence drug delivery and product stability. In this investigation, fully amorphous drug samples produced by spray-drying (SD) and ball-milling (BM) as well as semi-crystalline samples (produced by blending and micronization) are studied and compared to fully crystalline starting material. The amorphous content of these hydrophilic and hydrophobic active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) was determined using a validated one-step DVS-method. For the conducted blending and micronization tests, amorphous amounts up to a maximum of 5.1% for salbutamol sulfate (SBS) and 17.0% for ciclesonide (CS) were measured. In order to investigate the impact of small amorphous amounts, inhalable homogenous powder mixtures with very high and low amorphous content and a defined particle size were prepared with a Turbula blender for each API. These blends were stored (6months, 45% RH, room temperature) to evaluate the influence of amorphous amounts on storage stability. The fine particle fraction (FPF: % of emitted dosehydrophobic CS a constantly increasing FPF (from 6% to >15%) over storage time for both types of blends was determined. Therefore, prolonged stability of amorphous parts and an incalculable behavior for CS blends are supposed, in contrast, SBS showed a controllable FPF after conditioning.

  19. Remote search for gamma sources at the dry storage unit 3A in Andreeva bay and the determination of their dose rates during activities for improvement to the radiological environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivanov Kirill E.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The remotely controlled replacement of the concrete covering of the spent fuel dry storage unit 3A with a new iron horizontal biological shielding was carried out during works aimed at the improvement of the radiological environment at the NWC “SevRAO” - Branch of FSUE “RosRAO”, Andreeva Bay, Murmansk Region. Video control systems, a BROKK robotic manipulator, HIAB manipulator crane, gamma detectors of the ASCRO radiation monitoring system, and a CARTOGAM gamma camera were employed. A CARTOGAM gamma camera was used in all stages of the work involving high radiation levels for the remote location of the most dangerous gamma radiation sources and the evaluation of their dose rates. Gamma detectors of the ASCRO radiation monitoring system were located at several spots of the dry storage unit 3A in order to control the radiation situation. The use of the ASCRO and CARTOGAM has allowed us to avoid unauthorized exposure of the staff involved in the operations at the dry storage unit 3A site.

  20. Safety aspects of long-term dry interim storage of type-B spent fuel and HLW transport casks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolff, D.; Probst, U.; Voelzke, H.; Droste, B.; Roedel, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Materialforschung und -pruefung (BAM), Berlin (Germany)

    2004-07-01

    Based on the German decision to minimise transports of spent fuel casks between nuclear power plants, reprocessing plants and central storage facilities several on-site storage facilities have been licensed till the end of 2003. Because of the large amount of type-B transport casks which are going to be used for long-term interim storage the question of time limited type-B license maintenance during the storage period of up to 40 years has been discussed under different aspects. This paper describes present technical aspects of the discussion. A main aspect of transport cask qualification for interim storage is the long-term behaviour of the metallic seal lid system. Concerning this results from current experimental long-term tests with metallic ''Helicoflex''-seals in which pool water is enclosed are presented. The test series has been performed by the Federal Institute for Materials Research and Testing (BAM) on behalf of the Federal Office for Radiation Protection (BfS) since 2001. Finally, the paper presents a German concept for an authorities' and technical experts' exchange of experience, know-how and state of the art referring to cask dispatch in nuclear facilities. BAM has taken over a central role in this so-called ''co-ordinating institution for cask dispatching information'' (''KOBAF'') which contains an online data base and a technical working group meeting twice a year. The goal is to keep comparable technical standards for all nuclear sites and storage facilities which are going to load and dispatch casks of the same or similar types under the responsibility of different German state governments for the next decades.

  1. Bulk energy storage increases United States electricity system emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hittinger, Eric S; Azevedo, Inês M L

    2015-03-03

    Bulk energy storage is generally considered an important contributor for the transition toward a more flexible and sustainable electricity system. Although economically valuable, storage is not fundamentally a "green" technology, leading to reductions in emissions. We model the economic and emissions effects of bulk energy storage providing an energy arbitrage service. We calculate the profits under two scenarios (perfect and imperfect information about future electricity prices), and estimate the effect of bulk storage on net emissions of CO2, SO2, and NOx for 20 eGRID subregions in the United States. We find that net system CO2 emissions resulting from storage operation are nontrivial when compared to the emissions from electricity generation, ranging from 104 to 407 kg/MWh of delivered energy depending on location, storage operation mode, and assumptions regarding carbon intensity. Net NOx emissions range from -0.16 (i.e., producing net savings) to 0.49 kg/MWh, and are generally small when compared to average generation-related emissions. Net SO2 emissions from storage operation range from -0.01 to 1.7 kg/MWh, depending on location and storage operation mode.

  2. Seismic Structure-Soil-Structure Interaction Analysis of a Consolidated Dry Storage Module for CANDU Spent Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Young Gon; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Kim, Sung Hwan; Yang, Ke Hyung; Lee, Heung Young; Cho, Chun Hyung [Korea Hydro and Nuclear Power Co., Ltd., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Kyu Sup; Jeong, In Su [KONES Corporation, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2005-07-01

    The MACSTOR/KN-400 module has been developed as an effective alternative to the existing stand alone concrete canister for dry storage of CANDU spent fuel. The structure is a concrete monolith of 21.67 m long and 12.66 m wide and has a height equal to 7.518 m including the bottom slab. Inside the concrete module consists of 40 storage cylinders accommodating ten 60-bundle dry storage baskets, which are suspended from the top slab and eventually restrained at 10 cm above the bottom slab with horizontal seismic restraints. The main cooling process of the MACSTOR/KN-400 module shall be by air convection through air inlets and outlets. The civil design parameters, with respect to meteorological and seismic loads applied to the module are identical to those specified for the Wolsung CANDU 3 and 4 plants, except for local site characteristics required for soilstructure interaction (SSI) analysis. It is required for the structural integrity to fulfill the licensing requirements. As per USNRC SRP Section 3.7.2, it shall be reviewed how to consider the phenomenon of coupling of the dynamic response of adjacent structures through the soil, which is referred to as structure-soil-structure interaction (SSSI). The presence of closely spaced multiple structural foundations creates coupling between the foundations of individual structures . Some observations of the actual seismic response of structures have indicated that SSSI effects do exist, but they are generally secondary for the overall structural response motions. SSSI effects, however, may be important for a relatively small structure which is to be close to a relatively large structure, while they may be generally neglected for overall structural response of a large massive structure, such as nuclear power plant. As such the scope of the present paper is to carry out a seismic SSSI analysis in case of the MACSTOR/KN- 400 module, in order to investigate whether or not SSSI effect shall be included in the overall seismic

  3. 30 CFR 75.1101-12 - Equivalent dry-pipe system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Equivalent dry-pipe system. 75.1101-12 Section... Equivalent dry-pipe system. Where water sprinkler systems are installed to protect main and secondary belt conveyor drives and freezing temperatures prevail, an equivalent dry-pipe system may be installed. ...

  4. System for deflection measurements of floating dry docks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorbachev, Alexey A.; Pantyushin, Anton V.; Serikova, Mariya G.; Korotaev, Valery V.; Timofeev, Aleksandr N.

    2015-05-01

    In this paper we introduce a system for deflection measurement of floating dry docks. The system contains two measurement channels observing opposite directions of the dock. It also includes set of reference marks, an industrial computer and a display. Each channel contains CMOS camera with long focal-length lens. Reference marks are implemented as IR LED arrays with 940 nm working wavelength for better performance within bad weather conditions (e.g. fog, rain, high humidity etc.). In the paper we demonstrate results of an analysis of different optical schemes for coupling the oppositely directed channels of the measurement unit and show that the scheme with two image sensors with separated lenses is an optimal option, because it allows usage of nonequidistant location of reference marks and demonstrates the least value of parasitic shift caused by rotations of the measuring unit. The developed system was tested both on specially-designed setup and in real infrastructure of a floating dry dock. The conducted tests proved that a measuring error of the system is smaller than +/- 1.5 mm within the measurement range of +/- 150 mm when deflection of 100 m dock is measured. Obtained results showed that the system demonstrates an ability to work in a harsh environment including poor weather conditions.

  5. Effective Data Backup System Using Storage Area Network Solution

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    PROF. OLIVER OSUAGWA

    2015-06-01

    Jun 1, 2015 ... Abstract. One of the most crucial benefits of the computer system is its ability to manage data send to it for ... Keywords: Backup, Storage area network, Data, Effective and Data loss ... network can use existing communication.

  6. Agency Secure Image And Storage Tracking System (ASIST)

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — Agency Secure Image and Storage Tracking System (Missions): is a Documentum-based user interface developed and maintained by the USAID OCIO (formerly IRM) to improve...

  7. Energy storage for electrical systems in the USA

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eugene Freeman; Davide Occello; Frank Barnes

    2016-01-01

    Energy storage is becoming increasingly important as renewable generation sources such as Wind Turbine and Photo Voltaic Solar are added to the mix in electrical power generation and distribution systems...

  8. Mutlifunctional Fibers for Energy Storage in Advanced EVA Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The overall objective of the Phase II effort is to demonstrate prototype multifunctional EVA system power patches that integrate energy storage into advanced space...

  9. Rebuilding for Array Codes in Distributed Storage Systems

    CERN Document Server

    Wang, Zhiying; Bruck, Jehoshua

    2010-01-01

    In distributed storage systems that use coding, the issue of minimizing the communication required to rebuild a storage node after a failure arises. We consider the problem of repairing an erased node in a distributed storage system that uses an EVENODD code. EVENODD codes are maximum distance separable (MDS) array codes that are used to protect against erasures, and only require XOR operations for encoding and decoding. We show that when there are two redundancy nodes, to rebuild one erased systematic node, only 3/4 of the information needs to be transmitted. Interestingly, in many cases, the required disk I/O is also minimized.

  10. Secado y almacenamiento de semillas de mandarino 'Cleopatra' Drying and storage of 'Cleopatra' mandarin seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angel Villegas-Monter

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available Los objetivos del trabajo fueron evaluar el efecto del tratamiento con productos químicos y contenido de humedad en la conservación de semillas de mandarino 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan. Semillas con 14,7% de humedad tratadas con cuatro funguicidas y 8-hidroxiquinoleina, fueron almacenadas a 4±2°C durante un año, al igual que tres lotes de semillas con 5,0%, 14,7% y 26,8% de humedad, tratadas con y sin 8-hidroxiquinoleina. Se evaluó la germinación y emergencia al inicio del experimento, a los seis y 12 meses de almacenamiento. En la prueba con productos químicos, el almacenamiento de semillas con 14,7% de humedad sólo fue viable hasta los seis meses, con mayores porcentajes de germinación y emergencia (59,3% y 54,0%, respectivamente, mientras que, en las semillas sin tratamiento químico fue de 33,3% y 27,3%, respectivamente. En relación con el contenido de humedad de las semillas, a los seis meses de almacenamiento se obtuvo mayor emergencia de plántulas (63,6% y 58,0% en semillas con 26,8% y 5%, mientras que a los 12 meses, las semillas con 5%, de humedad tuvieron 75,6% de emergencia.The objetives of this work were to evaluate the effect of the treatment with chemical products and the humidity content for conservation of seeds of 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni Hort ex Tan. Seeds with 14.7% of moisture content were treated with four fungicides and 8-hydroxyquinoline and stored at 4±2°C for one year. Three groups of seeds with 5.0, 14.7% and 26.8% of moisture content were stored as above. Germination and emergence were evaluated at the beginning of the two experiments, at six and twelve months of storage. In the test with chemical products, storage of seeds with 14.7% of moisture content was possible only for six months, with higher percentages of germination and emergence (59.3% and 54.0%, respectively, while in seeds without chemical treatment percentages of germination and emergence were about 33.3% and 27

  11. Energy Storage Management in Grid Connected Solar Photovoltaic System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidhya M.E

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The penetration of renewable sources in the power system network in the power system has been increasing in the recent years. One of the solutions being proposed to improve the reliability and performance of these systems is to integrate energy storage device into the power system network. This paper discusses the modeling of photo voltaic and status of the storage device such as lead acid battery for better energy management in the system. The energy management for the grid connected system was performed by the dynamic switching process.

  12. Use of compressed-air storage systems; Einsatz von Druckluftspeichersystemen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cyphely, I.; Rufer, A.; Brueckmann, Ph.; Menhardt, W.; Reller, A.

    2004-07-01

    This final report issued by the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) looks at the use of compressed air as a means of storing energy. Historical aspects are listed and compressed-air storage as an alternative to current ideas that use electrolysis and hydrogen storage is discussed. The storage efficiency advantages of compressed-air storage is stressed and the possibilities it offers for compensating the stochastic nature of electricity production from renewable energy sources are discussed. The so-called BOP (Battery with Oil-hydraulics and Pneumatics) principle for the storage of electricity is discussed and its function is described. The advantages offered by such a system are listed and the development focus necessary is discussed.

  13. Developing a Model for a CHP System with Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Abunku

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available A model for a Combined Heat and Power (CHP system developed using Matlab is presented in this project. The model developed includes sub-models of Internal Combustion Engine (ICE and generator, electrical and thermal storage systems, and power converters (rectifier and inverter. The model developed is able to simulate the performance of a CHP system when supplying user load. The battery electrical storage system is modelled and used as the electrical storage for this project, and the water storage tank is modelled and used as thermal storage. The project presents the model developed, and the results of the analysis done on the model. The model considered only heat from engine cooling, which is used to heat water to supply the DHW (District Hot Water needs of the user. The results show that by the addition of storage to the CHP system, the overall system efficiency is increased by 32% indicating that the model developed is reliable, and the project is a feasible one

  14. Entropy, pricing and macroeconomics of pumped-storage systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios; Mamassis, Nikos; Koutsoyiannis, Demetris; Efstratiadis, Andreas

    2014-05-01

    We propose a pricing scheme for the enhancement of macroeconomic performance of pumped-storage systems, based on the statistical properties of both geophysical and economic variables. The main argument consists in the need of a context of economic values concerning the hub energy resource; defined as the resource that comprises the reference energy currency for all involved renewable energy sources (RES) and discounts all related uncertainty. In the case of pumped-storage systems the hub resource is the reservoir's water, as a benchmark for all connected intermittent RES. The uncertainty of all involved natural and economic processes is statistically quantifiable by entropy. It is the relation between the entropies of all involved RES that shapes the macroeconomic state of the integrated pumped-storage system. Consequently, there must be consideration on the entropy of wind, solar and precipitation patterns, as well as on the entropy of economic processes -such as demand preferences on either current energy use or storage for future availability. For pumped-storage macroeconomics, a price on the reservoir's capacity scarcity should also be imposed in order to shape a pricing field with upper and lower limits for the long-term stability of the pricing range and positive net energy benefits, which is the primary issue of the generalized deployment of pumped-storage technology. Keywords: Entropy, uncertainty, pricing, hub energy resource, RES, energy storage, capacity scarcity, macroeconomics

  15. Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-03-01

    This Monitored Retrievable Storage System Requirements Document (MRS-SRD) describes the functions to be performed and technical requirements for a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility subelement and the On-Site Transfer and Storage (OSTS) subelement. The MRS facility subelement provides for temporary storage, at a Civilian Radioactive Waste Management System (CRWMS) operated site, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in an NRC-approved Multi-Purpose Canister (MPC) storage mode, or other NRC-approved storage modes. The OSTS subelement provides for transfer and storage, at Purchaser sites, of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) contained in MPCs. Both the MRS facility subelement and the OSTS subelement are in support of the CRWMS. The purpose of the MRS-SRD is to define the top-level requirements for the development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. These requirements include design, operation, and decommissioning requirements to the extent they impact on the physical development of the MRS facility and the OSTS. The document also presents an overall description of the MRS facility and the OSTS, their functions (derived by extending the functional analysis documented by the Physical System Requirements (PSR) Store Waste Document), their segments, and the requirements allocated to the segments. In addition, the top-level interface requirements of the MRS facility and the OSTS are included. As such, the MRS-SRD provides the technical baseline for the MRS Safety Analysis Report (SAR) design and the OSTS Safety Analysis Report design.

  16. FPGA-based prototype storage system with phase change memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Gezi; Chen, Xiaogang; Chen, Bomy; Li, Shunfen; Zhou, Mi; Han, Wenbing; Song, Zhitang

    2016-10-01

    With the ever-increasing amount of data being stored via social media, mobile telephony base stations, and network devices etc. the database systems face severe bandwidth bottlenecks when moving vast amounts of data from storage to the processing nodes. At the same time, Storage Class Memory (SCM) technologies such as Phase Change Memory (PCM) with unique features like fast read access, high density, non-volatility, byte-addressability, positive response to increasing temperature, superior scalability, and zero standby leakage have changed the landscape of modern computing and storage systems. In such a scenario, we present a storage system called FLEET which can off-load partial or whole SQL queries to the storage engine from CPU. FLEET uses an FPGA rather than conventional CPUs to implement the off-load engine due to its highly parallel nature. We have implemented an initial prototype of FLEET with PCM-based storage. The results demonstrate that significant performance and CPU utilization gains can be achieved by pushing selected query processing components inside in PCM-based storage.

  17. Security System in United Storage Network and Its Implementation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄建忠; 谢长生; 韩德志

    2005-01-01

    With development of networked storage and its applications, united storage network (USN) combined with network attached storage (NAS) and storage area network (SAN) has emerged. It has such advantages as high performance, low cost, good connectivity, etc. However the security issue has been complicated because USN responds to block I/O and file I/O requests simultaneously. In this paper, a security system module is developed to prevent many types of atl~cks against USN based on NAS head.The module not only uses effective authentication to prevent unauthorized access to the system data, but also checks the data integrity.Experimental results show that the security module can not only resist remote attacks and attacks from those who has physical access to the USN, but can also be seamlessly integrated into underlying file systems, with little influence on their performance.

  18. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.; Hagstroem, M.; Lund, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Advanced Energy Systems

    1998-10-01

    The main technical constraint in solar energy systems which operate around the year is the lack of suitable long-term energy storage. Conventional solutions to overcome the problem of seasonal storage in PV power systems are to use oversized batteries as a seasonal energy storage, or to use a diesel back-up generator. However, affordable lead-acid batteries are not very suitable for seasonal energy storage because of a high self-discharge rate and enhanced deterioration and divergence of the single cells during prolonged periods of low state of charge in times of low irradiation. These disadvantages can be avoided by a back-up system, e.g. a diesel generator, which car supply energy to the loads and charge the battery to the full state of charge to avoid the above mentioned disadvantages. Unfortunately, diesel generators have several disadvantages, e.g. poor starting reliability, frequent need for maintenance and noise

  19. Underground storage systems for high-pressure air and gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beam, B. H.; Giovannetti, A.

    1975-01-01

    This paper is a discussion of the safety and cost of underground high-pressure air and gas storage systems based on recent experience with a high-pressure air system installed at Moffett Field, California. The system described used threaded and coupled oil well casings installed vertically to a depth of 1200 ft. Maximum pressure was 3000 psi and capacity was 500,000 lb of air. A failure mode analysis is presented, and it is shown that underground storage offers advantages in avoiding catastrophic consequences from pressure vessel failure. Certain problems such as corrosion, fatigue, and electrolysis are discussed in terms of the economic life of such vessels. A cost analysis shows that where favorable drilling conditions exist, the cost of underground high-pressure storage is approximately one-quarter that of equivalent aboveground storage.

  20. Polysaccharide benefits dry storage survival of the biocontrol agent Pseudomonas fluorescens S11:P:12 effective against several maladies of stored potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pseudomonas fluorescens S11:P:12 (NRRL B-21133) is a biological control agent able to suppress several storage maladies of potatoes including sprouting, Fusarium dry rot incited by Gibberella pulicaris, pink rot incited by Phytophthora erythroseptica, and late blight incited by Phytophthora infestan...

  1. An information management system for a spent nuclear fuel interim storage facility.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finch, Robert J.; Chiu, Hsien-Lang (Taiwan Power Co., Taipei, 10016 Taiwan); Giles, Todd; Horak, Karl Emanuel; Jow, Hong-Nian (Jow International, Kirkland, WA)

    2010-12-01

    We describe an integrated information management system for an independent spent fuel dry-storage installation (ISFSI) that can provide for (1) secure and authenticated data collection, (2) data analysis, (3) dissemination of information to appropriate stakeholders via a secure network, and (4) increased public confidence and support of the facility licensing and operation through increased transparency. This information management system is part of a collaborative project between Sandia National Laboratories, Taiwan Power Co., and the Fuel Cycle Materials Administration of Taiwan's Atomic Energy Council, which is investigating how to implement this concept.

  2. The analysis of thermal calculation for air stove drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing calculation of heat for a coal-fired hot-blast furnace. By utilizing the standard method of heat calculation for boilers, considering the relation between the theoretical combustion temperature and the excess air coefficient of the boiler, combining some operational parameters of a coal-fired powder hot-blast furnace, the heat calculation of iron ore concentrating dry combustion on a coal-fired hot stove is discussed. It is used to prevent coke and optimize combustion. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of flue gas recirculation systems. The conclusion will show the practical applications of this.

  3. Experimental study on drying kinetic of cassava starch in a pneumatic drying system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suherman, Kumoro, Andri Cahyo; Kusworo, Tutuk Djoko

    2015-12-01

    The aims of this study are to present the experimental research on the drying of cassava starch in a pneumatic dryer, to describe its drying curves, as well as to calculate its thermal efficiency. The effects of operating conditions, namely the inlet air temperature (60-100 °C) and solid-gas flow rate ratio (Ms/Mg 0.1-0.3) were studied. Heat transfer is accomplished through convection mechanism in a drying chamber based on the principle of direct contact between the heated air and the moist material. During the drying process, intensive heat and mass transfer between the drying air and the cassava starch take place. In order to meet the SNI standards on solid water content, the drying process was done in two cycles. The higher the temperature of the drying air, the lower the water content of the solids exiting the dryer. Thermal efficiency of the 2nd cycle was found to be lower than the 1st cycle.

  4. ACCEPTABILITY ENVELOPE FOR METAL HYDRIDE-BASED HYDROGEN STORAGE SYSTEMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hardy, B.; Corgnale, C.; Tamburello, D.; Garrison, S.; Anton, D.

    2011-07-18

    The design and evaluation of media based hydrogen storage systems requires the use of detailed numerical models and experimental studies, with significant amount of time and monetary investment. Thus a scoping tool, referred to as the Acceptability Envelope, was developed to screen preliminary candidate media and storage vessel designs, identifying the range of chemical, physical and geometrical parameters for the coupled media and storage vessel system that allow it to meet performance targets. The model which underpins the analysis allows simplifying the storage system, thus resulting in one input-one output scheme, by grouping of selected quantities. Two cases have been analyzed and results are presented here. In the first application the DOE technical targets (Year 2010, Year 2015 and Ultimate) are used to determine the range of parameters required for the metal hydride media and storage vessel. In the second case the most promising metal hydrides available are compared, highlighting the potential of storage systems, utilizing them, to achieve 40% of the 2010 DOE technical target. Results show that systems based on Li-Mg media have the best potential to attain these performance targets.

  5. Replantation after extended dry storage of avulsed permanent incisors: report of a case.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobankara, Funda Kont; Ungor, Mete

    2007-08-01

    A 15-year-old boy lost his maxillary right and left central incisor teeth in a bicycle accident. He was referred to our clinic 1 week after the injury. The crown-root integrities of both the teeth were not damaged. Although the teeth were stored under dry conditions for 1 week, reimplantation of the teeth was planned to retain the teeth in the mouth for as long a period as possible because of the patient's age. Following the debridement and sterilization of root surfaces in 2.5% NaOCl, root canals were prepared and filled with calcium hydroxide. Then, about 2 mm of the apexes were resected to ensure that the roots easily seated in the alveolar socket and the prepared cavities in root ends were obturated with the amalgam. The teeth were placed into their respective sockets and splinted temporarily. The root canal therapy was completed 5 weeks later. Ankylosis was observed radiographically after 10 months. The patient is now 23 years old and he is still able to use both the central incisors functionally. However, there is a pink appearance on the cervical buccal surface of left central incisor because of progressive replacement resorption. In this case, the new treatment plan is to perform a permanent restoration with dental implants following the extraction of both teeth. Even though the long-term prognosis is uncertain, this treatment technique has provided an advantage for the patient in his adolescent period by maintaining the height of alveolar bone and making the provision of an aesthetically acceptable permanent restoration at a later age possible.

  6. Metal cask RT-5000 for the dry storage and transportation of spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vorobyov, A.I.; Kazeev, V.G.; Krayev, V.S.; Shcherbina, A.N.; Churikov, Y.I. [All-Russian Research Inst. of Technical Physics, Snezhinsk (Russian Federation)

    2003-05-01

    Presentation of new-type cask, developed at RFNC-VNIITF, is in the article. The prototype model of the shipping cask was subjected to tests imitating normal shipment conditions (free fall, pressing, and impact) and to tests imitating emergency situation during shipment (a drop from the 9-m height onto a pin is replaced by acceleration of the shipping cask at a guide rail of the rocket-catapult installation (RCI), a 1-m drop onto a pin, heat tests a 30-minutes fire at the temperature of for 8500 C, submergence to the depth of 15 and 200 meters). After each test the hermeticity preservation is examined. Parallel with the real testing, a mathematical simulation of physical processes induced by the corresponding tests was conducted at the RFNC-VNIITF. The required parameters obtained from the tests are used to calibrate the calculation methods. As a result it has been possible to obtain a good agreement between the results of calculations and experiments; this will allow the mathematic simulation to be used wider. The advantage of the RT-5000 metal cask in comparison with metal-concrete analogs are as follows: SFA are placed into the RT-5000 entirely without cutting into two bunches of fuel elements; the expensive hot doom is not required for automatic cutting the SFA and for loading the bunches of fuel elements into intermediate cases; the possibility remains to transport the RT-5000 without reloading SFA after 50-year storage, although this is a problem for the metal-concrete casks.

  7. Microwave drying for safe storage and improved nutritional quality of green gram seed (Vigna radiata).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pande, Ranjana; Mishra, H N; Singh, M N

    2012-04-11

    The present study describes the effect of the microwave-heating method on disinfestations and physico characteristics, viz., grain size, grain hardness, and nutritional quality, of the stored green gram seed. It has been observed that the use of the microwave-heating method not only prolongs the storage duration of the green gram seed but also enhances its nutritional quality. The effect of independent parameters, viz., microwave power level and time of exposure, on the moisture content, insect mortality, color, and antinutrient factor (phyic acid) was optimized using response surface methodology (RSM), with the optimized value for power of 808 W and time at 80 s. The optimally treated green gram seed has 8.9% moisture, 99.5% insect mortality, 2.22 Δa* (green color of seed), and 591.79 mg/100 g of antinutrient factor (phytic acid). The grain size (geometric mean diameter, D(m)) of the control (untreated) sample was 3.75 mm, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 3.99 mm. The grain hardness of the control sample was 3.31 kg, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 1.305 kg. In vitro protein digestibility (IVPD) of the control (untreated) sample was 83 ± 0.289%, and that of the microwave-treated sample using optimum conditions was 85 ± 0.296%. These values are significantly difference (p microwave treatment resulted in a non-significant (p microwave heating not only increases the insect mortality but also reduces the moisture content and antinutritional factor (phytic acid), while the natural green color of the seed is not affected much. This study provides a novel and environmentally safe technique and increase in the nutritive quality.

  8. Evaluation of maximum allowable temperature inside basket of dry storage module for CANDU spent fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Kyung Ho; Yoon, Jeong Hyoun; Chae, Kyoung Myoung; Choi, Byung Il; Lee, Heung Young; Song, Myung Jae [Nuclear Environment Technology Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Gyu Seong [Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-10-01

    This study provides a maximum allowable fuel temperature through a preliminary evaluation of the UO{sub 2} weight gain that may occur on a failed (breached sheathing) element of a fuel bundle. Intact bundles would not be affected as the UO{sub 2} would not be in contact with the air for the fuel storage basket. The analysis is made for the MACSTOR/KN-400 to be operated in Wolsong ambient air temperature conditions. The design basis fuel is a 6-year cooled fuel bundle that, on average has reached a burnup of 7,800 MWd/MTU. The fuel bundle considered for analysis is assumed to have a high burnup of 12,000 MWd/MTU and be located in a hot basket. The MACSTOR/KN-400 has the same air circuit as the MACSTOR and the air circuit will require a slightly higher temperature difference to exit the increased heat load. The maximum temperature of a high burnup bundle stored in the new MACSTOR/KN-400 is expected to be about 9 .deg. C higher than the fuel temperature of the MACSTOR at an equivalent constant ambient temperature. This temperature increase will in turn increase the UO{sub 2} weight gain from 0.06% (MACSTOR for Wolsong conditions) to an estimated 0.13% weight gain for the MACSTOR/KN-400. Compared to an acceptable UO{sub 2} weight gain of 0.6%, we are thus expecting to maintain a very acceptable safety factor of 4 to 5 for the new module against unacceptable stresses in the fuel sheathing. For the UO{sub 2} weight gain, the maximum allowable fuel temperature was shown by 164 .deg. C.

  9. The Redox Flow System for solar photovoltaic energy storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Odonnell, P.; Gahn, R. F.; Pfeiffer, W.

    1976-01-01

    The interfacing of a Solar Photovoltaic System and a Redox Flow System for storage was workable. The Redox Flow System, which utilizes the oxidation-reduction capability of two redox couples, in this case iron and titanium, for its storage capacity, gave a relatively constant output regardless of solar activity so that a load could be run continually day and night utilizing the sun's energy. One portion of the system was connected to a bank of solar cells to electrochemically charge the solutions, while a separate part of the system was used to electrochemically discharge the stored energy.

  10. Autothermal hydrogen storage and delivery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pez, Guido Peter [Allentown, PA; Cooper, Alan Charles [Macungie, PA; Scott, Aaron Raymond [Allentown, PA

    2011-08-23

    Processes are provided for the storage and release of hydrogen by means of dehydrogenation of hydrogen carrier compositions where at least part of the heat of dehydrogenation is provided by a hydrogen-reversible selective oxidation of the carrier. Autothermal generation of hydrogen is achieved wherein sufficient heat is provided to sustain the at least partial endothermic dehydrogenation of the carrier at reaction temperature. The at least partially dehydrogenated and at least partially selectively oxidized liquid carrier is regenerated in a catalytic hydrogenation process where apart from an incidental employment of process heat, gaseous hydrogen is the primary source of reversibly contained hydrogen and the necessary reaction energy.

  11. AnalyzeThis: An Analysis Workflow-Aware Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Hyogi [ORNL; Kim, Youngjae [ORNL; Vazhkudai, Sudharshan S [ORNL; Tiwari, Devesh [ORNL; Anwar, Ali [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Butt, Ali R [Virginia Tech, Blacksburg, VA; Ramakrishnan, Lavanya [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL)

    2015-01-01

    The need for novel data analysis is urgent in the face of a data deluge from modern applications. Traditional approaches to data analysis incur significant data movement costs, moving data back and forth between the storage system and the processor. Emerging Active Flash devices enable processing on the flash, where the data already resides. An array of such Active Flash devices allows us to revisit how analysis workflows interact with storage systems. By seamlessly blending together the flash storage and data analysis, we create an analysis workflow-aware storage system, AnalyzeThis. Our guiding principle is that analysis-awareness be deeply ingrained in each and every layer of the storage, elevating data analyses as first-class citizens, and transforming AnalyzeThis into a potent analytics-aware appliance. We implement the AnalyzeThis storage system atop an emulation platform of the Active Flash array. Our results indicate that AnalyzeThis is viable, expediting workflow execution and minimizing data movement.

  12. Ceph, a distributed storage system for scientific computing

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2013-01-01

    Ceph is a distributed storage system designed to providing high performance and reliability at scales of up to thousands of storage nodes. The system is based on a distributed object storage layer call RADOS that provides durability, availability, efficient data distribution, and rich object semantics. This storage can be consumed directly via an object-based interface, or via file, block, or REST-based object services that are built on top of it. Clusters are composed of commodity components to provide a reliable storage service serving multiple use-cases. This seminar will cover the basic architecture of Ceph, with a focus on how each service can be consumed in a research and infrastructure environment. About the speaker Sage Weil, Founder and current CTO of Inktank Inc, is the creator of the Ceph project. He originally designed it as part of his PhD research in Storage Systems at the University of California, Santa Cruz. Since graduating, he has continued to refine the system with the goal of providi...

  13. Lessons Learned from the Puerto Rico Battery Energy Storage System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BOYES, JOHN D.; DE ANA, MINDI FARBER; TORRES, WENCESLANO

    1999-09-01

    The Puerto Rico Electric Power Authority (PREPA) installed a distributed battery energy storage system in 1994 at a substation near San Juan, Puerto Rico. It was patterned after two other large energy storage systems operated by electric utilities in California and Germany. The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program at Sandia National Laboratories has followed the progress of all stages of the project since its inception. It directly supported the critical battery room cooling system design by conducting laboratory thermal testing of a scale model of the battery under simulated operating conditions. The Puerto Rico facility is at present the largest operating battery storage system in the world and is successfully providing frequency control, voltage regulation, and spinning reserve to the Caribbean island. The system further proved its usefulness to the PREPA network in the fall of 1998 in the aftermath of Hurricane Georges. The owner-operator, PREPA, and the architect/engineer, vendors, and contractors learned many valuable lessons during all phases of project development and operation. In documenting these lessons, this report will help PREPA and other utilities in planning to build large energy storage systems.

  14. Development of Control System for Keropok Keping Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leman Muhammad Naim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This research is focused on the development of a control system for the keropok keping drying machine by using programmable logic controller (PLC as the controller. The control panel and human machine interface (HMI were developed for the machine. Experimental study was conducted to validate the HMI speed data by the control panel speed display. The evaluation of the duty cycle (% and current flow (amp effect to the motor and fan speed were also conducted. The results showed that around 1 - 30 % and 1 - 3 % differences of the speed readings were recorded by the HMI for the motor and fan respectively. The percentage difference needs to be controlled as small as possible to ensure the HMI speed readings are more accurate. The linearity of the current flow curve to all duty cycle can be observed. The flow (amp increases when the speed of dryer motor and fan increases. The development of the control system is expected to improve the operation of the keropok keping drying machine.

  15. Triple-Layer Plastic Bags Protect Dry Common Beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) Against Damage by Acanthoscelides obtectus (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) During Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutungi, C; Affognon, H D; Njoroge, A W; Manono, J; Baributsa, D; Murdock, L L

    2015-10-01

    Fumigated dry common beans (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) that were artificially infested with Acanthoscelides obtectus Say, and others that were not artificially infested, were stored in hermetic triple-layer PICS (Lela Agro, Kano, Nigeria) or woven polypropylene (PP) bags for 6 mo at ambient laboratory temperature conditions of 22.6 ± 1.9°C and 60.1 ± 4.3% relative humidity. In an additional trial, beans contained in PP bags were treated with Actellic Super dust before introducing A. obtectus. Moisture content, number of live adult A. obtectus, seed damage, weight loss, and seed germination were determined at monthly intervals. At 6 mo, beans stored in PICS bags retained higher moisture than those stored in PP bags, but in all treatments the moisture level remained below that recommended for safe storage of beans. In the PICS bags, proliferation of A. obtectus did not proceed and at 6 mo, beans stored in these bags did not have insect-inflicted seed damage or weight loss. In contrast, seed damage and weight loss in PP bags exceeded economic threshold after 1 mo in the absence of Actellic Super dust (Syngenta Crop protection AG, Basle, Switzerland), and after 2 mo in the presence of it. Germination of beans stored in PP bags decreased greatly whereas the beans stored in PICS bags did not show reduced germination. Chemical free storage of common beans in PICS bags protects them against damage by A. obtectus.

  16. Storage functions for dissipative linear systems are quadratic state functions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Trentelman, Harry L.; Willems, Jan C.

    1997-01-01

    This paper deals with dissipative dynamical systems. Dissipative dynamical systems can be used as models for physical phenomena in which energy exchange with their environment plays a role. In a dissipative dynamical system, the book-keeping of energy is done via the supply rate and a storage functi

  17. Overview of a flywheel stack energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kirk, James A.; Anand, Davinder K.

    1988-01-01

    The concept of storing electrical energy in rotating flywheels provides an attractive substitute to batteries. To realize these advantages the critical technologies of rotor design, composite materials, magnetic suspension, and high efficiency motor/generators are reviewed in this paper. The magnetically suspended flywheel energy storage system, currently under development at the University of Maryland, consisting of a family of interference assembled rings, is presented as an integrated solution for energy storage.

  18. Comparison of selected metals content in Cambodian striped snakehead fish (Channa striata) using solar drying system and open sun drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basri, Dayang Fredalina; Abu Bakar, Nur Faizah; Fudholi, Ahmad; Ruslan, Mohd Hafidz; Saroeun, Im

    2015-01-01

    The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS) and open sun drying (OSD). The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr) were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  19. Comparison of Selected Metals Content in Cambodian Striped Snakehead Fish (Channa striata Using Solar Drying System and Open Sun Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dayang Fredalina Basri

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The content of 12 elements in Cambodian dried striped snakehead fish was determined using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The present study compares the level of the trace toxic metals and nutritional trace elements in the fish processed using solar drying system (SDS and open sun drying (OSD. The skin of SDS fish has lower level of As, Pb, and Cd compared to the OSD sample. As such, the flesh of the fish accumulated higher amount of toxic metals during OSD compared to SDS. However, arsenic was detected in both samples within the safe limit. The nutritional elements (Fe, Mn, Mg, Se, Mo, Cu, Ni, and Cr were higher in the skin sample SDS fish compared to OSD fish. These beneficial metals were not accumulated in the flesh sample SDS fish demonstrating lower level compared to drying under conventional system. The reddish coloration of the SDS fish was due to the presence of high Cu content in both the skin and flesh samples which possibly account for no mold formation 5 days after packaging. As conclusion, drying of Cambodian C. striata using solar-assisted system has proven higher content of the nutritious elements compared to using the conventional system despite only slight difference in the toxic metals level between the two systems.

  20. Thermal energy storage with liquid-liquid systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santana, E.A.; Stiel, L.I. [Polytechnic Univ., Brooklyn, NY (United States)

    1989-03-01

    The use of liquid-liquid mixtures for heat and cool storage applications has been investigated. Suitable mixtures exhibit large changes in the heat of mixing above and below the critical solution temperature of the system. Analytical procedures have been utilized to determine potential energy storage capabilities of systems with upper or lower critical solution temperatures. It has been found that aqueous systems with lower critical solution temperatures in a suitable range can result in large increases in the effective heat capacity in the critical region. For cool storage with a system of this type, the cooling process results in a transformation from two liquid phases to a single phase. Heats of mixing have been measured with a flow calorimeter system for a number of potential mixtures, and the results are summarized.

  1. Proceedings of the DOE chemical energy storage and hydrogen energy systems contracts review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-02-01

    Sessions were held on electrolysis-based hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen production, hydrogen storage systems, hydrogen storage materials, end-use applications and system studies, chemical heat pump/chemical energy storage systems, systems studies and assessment, thermochemical hydrogen production cycles, advanced production concepts, and containment materials. (LHK)

  2. 29 CFR 1910.161 - Fixed extinguishing systems, dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... they are used. (2) The employer may not mix together dry chemical extinguishing agents of different... assure that the dry chemical supply is free of moisture which may cause the supply to cake or form...

  3. Dry Electrode Harness System For Wireless 12-LEAD ECG Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The dry-electrode harness is composed of a variety of components.  The harness interfaces with the human via a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) FDA cleared dry...

  4. Improved accounting of emissions from utility energy storage system operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denholm, Paul; Holloway, Tracey

    2005-12-01

    Several proposed utility-scale energy storage systems in the U.S. will use the spare output capacity of existing electric power systems to create the equivalent of new load-following plants that can rapidly respond to fluctuations in electricity demand and increase the flexibility of baseload generators. New energy storage systems using additional generation from existing plants can directly compete with new traditional sources of load-following and peaking electricity, yet this application of energy storage is not required to meet many of the Clean Air Act standards required of new electricity generators (e.g., coal- or gas-fired power plants). This study evaluates the total emissions that will likely result from the operation of a new energy storage facility when coupled with an average existing U.S. coal-fired power plant and estimates that the emission rates of SO2 and NOx will be considerably higher than the rate of a new plant meeting Clean Air Act standards, even accounting for the efficiency benefits of energy storage. This study suggests that improved emissions "accounting" might be necessary to provide accurate environmental comparisons between energy storage and more traditional sources of electricity generation.

  5. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  6. Storage Capacity Modeling of Reservoir Systems Employing Performance Measures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Issa Saket Oskoui

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Developing a prediction relationship for total (i.e. within-year plus over-year storage capacity of reservoir systems is beneficial because it can be used as an alternative to the analysis of reservoirs during designing stage and gives an opportunity to planner to examine and compare different cases in a fraction of time required for complete analysis where detailed analysis is not necessary. Existing relationships for storage capacity are mostly capable of estimating over-year storage capacity and total storage capacity can be obtained through relationships for adjusting over-year capacity and there is no independent relationship to estimate total storage capacity. Moreover these relationships do not involve vulnerability performance criterion and are not verified for Malaysia Rivers. In this study two different reservoirs in Southern part of Peninsular Malaysia, Melaka and Muar, are analyzed through a Monte Carlo simulation approach involving performance metrics. Subsequently the storage capacity results of the simulation are compared with those of the well-known existing equations. It is observed that existing models may not predict total capacity appropriately for Malaysian reservoirs. Consequently, applying the simulation results, two separate regression equations are developed to model total storage capacity of study reservoirs employing time based reliability and vulnerability performance measures.

  7. Seasonal heat storage in cogeneration systems; Saesongvaermelager i kraftvaermesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zinko, Heimo; Gebremedhin, Alemayehu

    2007-07-01

    There is a rising interest in Sweden for the use of cogeneration power plants in district heating networks, generating both electricity and heat in a coupled operation. This type of cogeneration needs, however, the existence of suitable heat loads. In this study we investigate the use of large long-term heat storages for the cases that the DH-load is not sufficient. For this purpose, the technology of long-term storages is also reviewed based on the know-how developed for solar heating plants at the end of 20th century. Long-term storages have been developed around the 1980s and 1990s. The storages have been built as pits in the ground or as caverns for the storage of hot water or as borehole storages and aquifers for heat storages in rock or ground material. In this report, the different techniques are described and operational experiences from Sweden and Germany are summarised. Furthermore, the storage costs for the different techniques are presented. In order to be of interest for application in cogeneration systems, it is necessary that the storage allows charging and discharging with high heat capacities. The most suitable storage type for that purpose is a rock cavern, which can be constructed in volumes up to millions of m3 water with reasonable costs, as demonstrated in the 1970s with strategic oil storages. Another interesting storage type is the borehole ground storage, as used in solar heating plants. However, in the application for cogeneration, this storage type must be further developed towards higher heat transfer rates. For the analysis of storage applications in cogeneration systems, a number of operational cases from real cogeneration systems in Enkoeping and in Linkoeping have been studied. Models have been developed for calculation in Excel and operational years have been simulated and economically evaluated with different storage sizes. The following basic systems have been analysed: a) System with biofuel-fired cogeneration and biofuel top

  8. Nanofibrillation of Dry Chitin Powder by Star Burst System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinsuke Ifuku

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Chitin nanofibers were prepared from dry chitin powder by nanofibrillation using a Star Burst instrument employing a high-pressure water jet system. FE-SEM micrographs showed that the nanofibers became thinner as the number of Star Burst passes increased. Fibrillation in an acidic condition made the chitin fibers thinner than those in a neutral condition. The transmittance spectra of chitin nanofiber/acrylic resin composites led us to the same conclusion. In addition, chitin nanofibers prepared by treatment consisting of five Star Burst passes in the neutral condition were thinner than the previously reported nanofibers. X-ray diffraction profiles showed that the Star Burst system did not damage the chitin nanofibers and did not reduce their crystallinity.

  9. Harvesting of short rotation coppice. Harvesting trials with a cut and storage system in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schweier, J.; Becker, G.

    2012-11-01

    Short rotation coppice (SRC) harvesting techniques are available in Germany, but broad experience and knowledge about machine performance and the related effective costs of harvesting operations are still missing. This information is crucial, as harvesting costs strongly influence the economic performance of the overall supply chain. Therefore, it was the aim of this study to collect and analyze productivity data of different harvesting systems for SRC. The combined cut and chip system on the one hand and the cut and storage system on the other hand were studied by literature review. Several studies analyze the combined cut and chip systems and the reported machine productivities showed great variations. The average was 30 green tons per scheduled machine hour (gt smh{sup -1}). Few studies are analysing the cut and storage system. They report that machines still are under development and that further research is needed. Therefore, time studies of harvesting operations using the cut and storage system were carried out. Five trials were performed with the harvesting machine 'Stemster MK III' developed by Nordic Biomass. The share of productive working time was 85% and the average productivity was 21 gt smh{sup -1}. These results were compared with values from the literature. Resulting harvesting costs were calculated per oven dry ton (Euro odt{sup -1}). The advantages and disadvantages of both harvesting systems are highlighted. (orig.)

  10. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S.; Williams, H. R.

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system; and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  11. Simulation of diurnal thermal energy storage systems: Preliminary results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Katipamula, S.; Somasundaram, S. [Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States); Williams, H.R. [Univ. of Alaska, Fairbanks, AK (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    1994-12-01

    This report describes the results of a simulation of thermal energy storage (TES) integrated with a simple-cycle gas turbine cogeneration system. Integrating TES with cogeneration can serve the electrical and thermal loads independently while firing all fuel in the gas turbine. The detailed engineering and economic feasibility of diurnal TES systems integrated with cogeneration systems has been described in two previous PNL reports. The objective of this study was to lay the ground work for optimization of the TES system designs using a simulation tool called TRNSYS (TRaNsient SYstem Simulation). TRNSYS is a transient simulation program with a sequential-modular structure developed at the Solar Energy Laboratory, University of Wisconsin-Madison. The two TES systems selected for the base-case simulations were: (1) a one-tank storage model to represent the oil/rock TES system, and (2) a two-tank storage model to represent the molten nitrate salt TES system. Results of the study clearly indicate that an engineering optimization of the TES system using TRNSYS is possible. The one-tank stratified oil/rock storage model described here is a good starting point for parametric studies of a TES system. Further developments to the TRNSYS library of available models (economizer, evaporator, gas turbine, etc.) are recommended so that the phase-change processes is accurately treated.

  12. Dry Eye and Corneal Langerhans Cells in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklós D. Resch

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Investigation of dry eye and corneal Langerhans cells (LCs in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE. Methods. Prospective consecutive case series of 27 SLE patients and 27 control subjects. Dry eye was evaluated by lid-parallel conjunctival folds (LIPCOF, Schirmer test, tear break-up time (TBUT, and ocular surface disease index (OSDI questionnaire. In vivo investigation of corneal LCs density and morphology (LCM was performed with confocal corneal microscopy (Heidelberg Retina Tomograph with Rostock Cornea Module. Results. Tear production and stability were pathological in SLE subjects compared to control (Schirmer: 8.45 ± 9.82 mm/5 min versus 11.67 ± 3.21 mm/5 min; TBUT: 6.86 ± 3.53 s versus 11.09 ± 3.37 s. OSDI was significantly greater in SLE patients (25.95 ± 17.92 than in controls (11.06 ± 7.18. Central LC density was greater in SLE patients (43.08 ± 48.67 cell/mm2 than in controls (20.57 ± 21.04 cell/mm2. There was no difference in the peripheral LC density (124.78 ± 165.39 versus 78.00 ± 39.51 cell/mm2. LCM was higher in SLE patients in the centre (1.43 ± 0.79 and in the periphery (2.89 ± 0.42 compared to controls (centre: 1.00 ± 0.69, periphery: 2.35 ± 0.54. Conclusions. Significant changes in dry eye parameters and marked increase of central LCs could be demonstrated in SLE patients. SLE alters not only the LC density but also the morphology, modifies corneal homeostasis, and might contribute to the development of dry eye.

  13. Validation of a Multiplex Tandem Mass Spectrometry Method for the Detection of Selected Lysosomal Storage Diseases in Dried Blood Spots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Graziela Schmitt Ribas PhD

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Background: Interest in screening methods for lysosomal storage diseases (LSDs has increased in recent years, since early diagnosis and treatment are essential to prevent or attenuate the onset of symptoms and the complications of these diseases. In the current work, we evaluated the performance of tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS for the detection of some LSDs, aiming the future use of this methodology for the screening of these disorders. Methods: Standard curves and quality control dried blood spots were assayed to evaluate the precision, linearity, and accuracy. A total of 150 controls were grouped according to age and subjected to measurement of lysosomal enzymes deficient in Niemann-Pick A/B, Krabbe, Gaucher, Fabry, Pompe, and Mucopolysaccharidosis type I diseases. Samples from 59 affected patients with a diagnosis of LSDs previously confirmed by fluorimetric methods were analyzed. Results: Data from standard calibration demonstrated good linearity and accuracy and the intra- and interassay precisions varied from 1.17% to 11.60% and 5.39% to 31.24%, respectively. Except for galactocerebrosidase and α- l -iduronidase, enzyme activities were significantly higher in newborns compared to children and adult controls. Affected patients presented enzymatic activities significantly lower compared to all control participants. Conclusion: Our results show that MS/MS is a promising methodology, suitable for the screening of LSDs, but accurate diagnoses will depend on its correlation with other biochemical and/or molecular analyses.

  14. Utility battery storage systems. Program report for FY95

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butler, P.C.

    1996-03-01

    Sandia National Laboratories, New Mexico, conducts the Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, which is sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy`s Office of Utility Technologies. The goal of this program is to assist industry in developing cost-effective battery systems as a utility resource option by 2000. Sandia is responsible for the engineering analyses, contracted development, and testing of rechargeable batteries and systems for utility energy storage applications. This report details the technical achievements realized during fiscal year 1995.

  15. FLYWHEEL ENERGY STORAGE SYSTEMS WITH SUPERCONDUCTING BEARINGS FOR UTILITY APPLICATIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dr. Michael Strasik; Mr. Arthur Day; Mr. Philip Johnson; Dr. John Hull

    2007-10-26

    This project’s mission was to achieve significant advances in the practical application of bulk high-temperature superconductor (HTS) materials to energy-storage systems. The ultimate product was planned as an operational prototype of a flywheel system on an HTS suspension. While the final prototype flywheel did not complete the final offsite demonstration phase of the program, invaluable lessons learned were captured on the laboratory demonstration units that will lead to the successful deployment of a future HTS-stabilized, composite-flywheel energy-storage system (FESS).

  16. Hydrogen based energy storage for solar energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vanhanen, J.P.; Hagstroem, M.T.; Lund, P.H. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland). Dept. of Engineering Physics and Mathematics; Leppaenen, J.R.; Nieminen, J.P. [Neste Oy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    Hydrogen based energy storage options for solar energy systems was studied in order to improve their overall performance. A 1 kW photovoltaic hydrogen (PV-H2) pilot-plant and commercial prototype were constructed and a numerical simulation program H2PHOTO for system design and optimisation was developed. Furthermore, a comprehensive understanding of conversion (electrolysers and fuel cells) and storage (metal hydrides) technologies was acquired by the project partners. The PV-H{sub 2} power system provides a self-sufficient solution for applications in remote locations far from electric grids and maintenance services. (orig.)

  17. A Cassette Based System for Hydrogen Storage and Delivery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Britton Wayne E.

    2006-11-29

    A hydrogen storage system is described and evaluated. This is based upon a cassette, that is a container for managing hydrogen storage materials. The container is designed to be safe, modular, adaptable to different chemistries, inexpensive, and transportable. A second module receives the cassette and provides the necessary infrastructure to deliver hydrogen from the cassette according to enduser requirements. The modular concept has a number of advantages over approaches that are all in one stand alone systems. The advantages of a cassette based system are discussed, along with results from model and laboratory testing.

  18. Design and Implementation of ZTE Object Storage System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Huabin Ruan; Xiaomeng Huang; Yang Zhou

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces the basic concepts and features of an obiect storage system. It also introduces some related standards, specifications, and implementations for several existing systems. ZTE' s Object Storage System (ZTE OSS) was designed by Tsinghua University and ZTE Corporation and is designed to manage large amounts of data. ZTE OSS has a scalable architecture, some open source components, and an efficient key-value database. ZTE OSS is easy to scale and highly reliable. Experiments show that ZTE OSS performs well with mass data and heavy

  19. Effect of the interaction between a low tyramine-producing Lactobacillus and proteolytic staphylococci on biogenic amine production during ripening and storage of dry sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, S; Izquierdo-Pulido, M; Vidal-Carou, M C

    2001-04-11

    The interaction between tyrosine-decarboxylase and proteolytic activities of a Lactobacillus curvatus and Staphylococcus xylosus, respectively, on biogenic amine production during the ripening and the storage of dry fermented sausages was investigated. Water content, pH, proteolysis parameters, microbial counts, and biogenic amine contents were monitored in spontaneously and starter fermented sausages. The use of proteolytic staphylococci as starter resulted in a higher content of non-protein nitrogen and total free amino acids. Tyramine was the main amine produced in all batches. However, tyrosine-decarboxylase activity of the L. curvatus starter strain was weak and yielded lower amounts of tyramine than those produced by the wild mioroflora in the control batch. Association between tyramine production and proteolysis could only be established in a defectively dried batch. Putrescine and cadaverine accumulation was efficiently reduced in the starter-mediated fermentation, in agreement with the lower development of enterobacteria. Phenylethylamine and tryptamine were only detected in the spontaneously fermented sausages, while histamine, spermine and spermidine did not vary during the ripening. Biogenic amine levels and related parameters showed significant changes during the storage of dry sausages depending on the temperature and the batch. As a general rule, changes in the pH, proteolysis, microbial counts, and biogenic amine contents were stronger at 19 degrees C than at 4 degrees C. The results suggest that refrigeration would be advisable for preventing further accumulation of biogenic amines during the storage of dry fermented sausages.

  20. Effect of Different Conditions of Growth and Storage on the Cell Counts of Two Lactic Acid Bacteria after Spray Drying in Orange Juice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joana Barbosa

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Consumers increasingly require innovative food products with health benefits. Thus, a dried orange juice incorporating probiotics could be a novel challenge. In this context, we investigated whether different sugars added to the culture media used for growth of two lactic acid bacteria contributed to their protection during spray drying in orange juice and subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature, light exposure and water activity. Cell viability during passage through simulated gastro-intestinal conditions was also investigated. Cells grown in culture medium containing fructose resulted in the worst survival rates during storage. High survival was observed for cells grown in the presence of lactose, followed by glucose. The survival of dried bacteria was enhanced at 4 °C, water activity of 0.03 and absence of daylight. For cells grown in standard culture medium and after 12 months of storage at 4 °C in orange juice powder (about 109 cfu/mL, there was a reduction of approximately 2 log-units for both lactic acid bacteria after gastro-intestinal tract passage simulation. Using the conditions of growth and storage investigated, it is possible to improve the survival rate of lactic acid bacteria and produce an orange juice powder with probiotic characteristics with shelf life of at least 12 months.

  1. Thermal energy storage for a space solar dynamic power system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faget, N. M.; Fraser, W. M., Jr.; Simon, W. E.

    1985-01-01

    In the past, NASA has employed solar photovoltaic devices for long-duration missions. Thus, the Skylab system has operated with a silicon photovoltaic array and a nickel-cadmium electrochemical system energy storage system. Difficulties regarding the employment of such a system for the larger power requirements of the Space Station are related to a low orbit system efficiency and the large weight of the battery. For this reason the employment of a solar dynamic power system (SDPS) has been considered. The primary components of an SDPS include a concentrating mirror, a heat receiver, a thermal energy storage (TES) system, a thermodynamic heat engine, an alternator, and a heat rejection system. The heat-engine types under consideration are a Brayton cycle engine, an organic Rankine cycle engine, and a free-piston/linear-alternator Stirling cycle engine. Attention is given to a system description, TES integration concepts, and a TES technology assessment.

  2. Space Station thermal storage/refrigeration system research and development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, W. G.; Karu, Z. S.

    1993-02-01

    Space Station thermal loading conditions represent an order of magnitude increase over current and previous spacecraft such as Skylab, Apollo, Pegasus III, Lunar Rover Vehicle, and Lockheed TRIDENT missiles. Thermal storage units (TSU's) were successfully used on these as well as many applications for ground based solar energy storage applications. It is desirable to store thermal energy during peak loading conditions as an alternative to providing increased radiator surface area which adds to the weight of the system. Basically, TSU's store heat by melting a phase change material (PCM) such as a paraffin. The physical property data for the PCM's used in the design of these TSU's is well defined in the literature. Design techniques are generally well established for the TSU's. However, the Space Station provides a new challenge in the application of these data and techniques because of three factors: the large size of the TSU required, the integration of the TSU for the Space Station thermal management concept with its diverse opportunities for storage application, and the TSU's interface with a two-phase (liquid/vapor) thermal bus/central heat rejection system. The objective in the thermal storage research and development task was to design, fabricate, and test a demonstration unit. One test article was to be a passive thermal storage unit capable of storing frozen food at -20 F for a minimum of 90 days. A second unit was to be capable of storing frozen biological samples at -94 F, again for a minimum of 90 days. The articles developed were compatible with shuttle mission conditions, including safety and handling by astronauts. Further, storage rack concepts were presented so that these units can be integrated into Space Station logistics module storage racks. The extreme sensitivity of spacecraft radiator systems design-to-heat rejection temperature requirements is well known. A large radiator area penalty is incurred if low temperatures are accommodated via a

  3. Progress in electrochemical storage for battery systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ford, F. E.; Hennigan, T. J.; Palandati, C. F.; Cohn, E.

    1972-01-01

    Efforts to improve electrochemical systems for space use relate to: (1) improvement of conventional systems; (2) development of fuel cells to practical power systems; and (3) a search for new systems that provide gains in energy density but offer comparable life and performance as conventional systems. Improvements in sealed conventional systems resulted in the areas of materials, charge control methods, cell operations and battery control, and specific process controls required during cell manufacture. Fuel-cell systems have been developed for spacecraft but the use of these power plants is limited. For present and planned flights, nickel-cadmium, silver-zinc, and silver-cadmium systems will be used. Improvements in nickel-cadmium batteries have been applied in medical and commercial areas.

  4. Energy: Systems for Control, Maintenance, and Storage. A Bibliography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Gerald, Comp.; McKane, Irving, Comp.

    This publication is a bibliography of available periodical literature on specific aspects of energy and today's technology. The Applied Science and Technology Indexes were searched for articles that related to these specific areas: (1) Energy control systems; (2) Maintenance of Energy Systems; and (3) Energy storage. The articles and papers…

  5. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  6. Monolithic natural gas storage delivery system based on sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hornbostel, Marc; Krishnan, Gopala N.; Sanjurjo, Angel

    2016-09-27

    The invention provides methods for producing a strong, light, sorbent-based storage/dispenser system for gases and fuels. The system comprises a porous monolithic material with an adherent strong impervious skin that is capable of storing a gas under pressure in a safe and usable manner.

  7. Hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schastlivtsev, A. I.; Nazarova, O. V.

    2016-02-01

    A hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine unit is considered that can be used in both nuclear and centralized power industries. However, it is the most promising when used for power-generating plants based on renewable energy sources (RES). The basic feature of the energy storage system in question is combination of storing the energy in compressed air and hydrogen and oxygen produced by the water electrolysis. Such a process makes the energy storage more flexible, in particular, when applied to RES-based power-generating plants whose generation of power may considerably vary during the course of a day, and also reduces the specific cost of the system by decreasing the required volume of the reservoir. This will allow construction of such systems in any areas independent of the local topography in contrast to the compressed-air energy storage gas-turbine plants, which require large-sized underground reservoirs. It should be noted that, during the energy recovery, the air that arrives from the reservoir is heated by combustion of hydrogen in oxygen, which results in the gas-turbine exhaust gases practically free of substances hazardous to the health and the environment. The results of analysis of a hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are presented. Its layout and the principle of its operation are described and the basic parameters are computed. The units of the system are analyzed and their costs are assessed; the recovery factor is estimated at more than 60%. According to the obtained results, almost all main components of the hydrogen-air energy storage gas-turbine system are well known at present; therefore, no considerable R&D costs are required. A new component of the system is the H2-O2 combustion chamber; a difficulty in manufacturing it is the necessity of ensuring the combustion of hydrogen in oxygen as complete as possible and preventing formation of nitric oxides.

  8. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-07-11

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  9. Dependable Benchmarking for Storage Systems in High-Energy Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Fleri Soler, Edward

    2017-01-01

    In high-energy physics, storage systems play a crucial role to store and secure very valuable data produced by complex experiments. The effectiveness and efficiency of data acquisition systems of such experiments depends directly on those of these storage systems. Coping with present day rates and reliability requirements of such experiments implies operating high-performance hardware under the best possible conditions, with a broad set of hardware and software parameters existing along the hierarchical levels, from networks down to drives. An extensive number of tests are required for the tuning of parameters to achieve optimised I/O operations. Current approaches to I/O optimisation generally consist of manual test execution and result taking. This approach lacks appropriate modularity, durability and reproducibility, attainable through dedicated testing facilities. The aim of this project is to conceive a user-friendly, dedicated storage benchmarking tool for the improved comparison of I/O parameters in re...

  10. Storage, transportation and disposal system for used nuclear fuel assemblies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scaglione, John M.; Wagner, John C.

    2017-01-10

    An integrated storage, transportation and disposal system for used fuel assemblies is provided. The system includes a plurality of sealed canisters and a cask sized to receive the sealed canisters in side by side relationship. The plurality of sealed canisters include an internal basket structure to receive a plurality of used fuel assemblies. The internal basket structure includes a plurality of radiation-absorbing panels and a plurality of hemispherical ribs generally perpendicular to the canister sidewall. The sealed canisters are received within the cask for storage and transportation and are removed from the cask for disposal at a designated repository. The system of the present invention allows the handling of sealed canisters separately or collectively, while allowing storage and transportation of high burnup fuel and damaged fuel to the designated repository.

  11. Preservation of the immunogenicity of dry-powder influenza H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine at elevated storage temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraedts, Felix; Saluja, Vinay; ter Veer, Wouter; Amorij, Jean-Pierre; Frijlink, Henderik W; Wilschut, Jan; Hinrichs, Wouter L J; Huckriede, Anke

    2010-06-01

    Stockpiling of pre-pandemic influenza vaccines guarantees immediate vaccine availability to counteract an emerging pandemic. Generally, influenza vaccines need to be stored and handled refrigerated to prevent thermal degradation of the antigenic component. Requirement of a cold-chain, however, complicates stockpiling and the logistics of vaccine distribution. We, therefore, investigated the effect of elevated storage temperatures on the immunogenicity of a pre-pandemic influenza A H5N1 whole inactivated virus vaccine. Either suspended in liquid or kept as a freeze-dried powder, vaccines could be stored for 1 year at ambient temperature (20 degrees C) with minimal loss of immunogenicity in mice. Elevation of the storage temperature to 40 degrees C, however, resulted in a significant loss of immunogenic potency within 3 months if vaccines were stored in liquid suspension. In sharp contrast, freeze-dried powder formulations were stable at 40 degrees C for at least 3 months. The presence of inulin or trehalose sugar excipients during freeze-drying of the vaccine proved to be critical to maintain its immunogenic potency during storage, and to preserve the characteristic Th1-type response to whole inactivated virus vaccine. These results indicate that whole inactivated virus vaccines may be stored and handled at room temperature in moderate climate zones for over a year with minimal decline and, if converted to dry-powder, even in hot climate zones for at least 3 months. The increased stability of dry-powder vaccine at 40 degrees C may also point to an extended shelf-life when stored at 4 degrees C. Use of the more stable dry-powder formulation could simplify stockpiling and thereby facilitating successful pandemic intervention.

  12. Optimization on drying conditions of a solar electrohydrodynamic drying system based on desirability concept.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalvand, Mohammad Jafar; Mohtasebi, Seyed Saeid; Rafiee, Shahin

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this article was to present a new drying method for agricultural products. Electrohydrodynamic (EHD) has been applied for drying of agricultural materials due to several advantages such as energy saving, low cost equipment, low drying temperatures, and superior material quality. To evaluate this method, an EHD dryer based on solar (photovoltaic) energy was designed and fabricated. Moreover, the optimum condition for the EHD drying of kiwi fruit was studied by applying the Box-Behnken design of response surface methodology. The desirability function was applied for optimization in case of single objective and multiobjective functions. By using the multiobjective optimization method, maximum desirability value of 0.865 was obtained based on the following: applied voltage of 15 kV, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1), without forced air stream, and finally a combination of 17 discharge electrodes (needles). The results indicated that increasing the applied voltage from 6 to 15 kV, moisture ratio (MR) decreased, though energy efficiency and energy consumption were increasing. On the other hand, field strength of 5.2 kV cm(-1) was the optimal point in terms of MR.

  13. Changes in physicochemical and microbiological properties of isoflavone-treated dry-cured sausage from sulfur-fed pork during storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Ji-Han; Pyun, Chang-Won; Hong, Go-Eun; Kim, Soo-Ki; Yang, Cheul-Young; Lee, Chi-Ho

    2014-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the physicochemical and microbiological properties of isoflavone-treated dry cured sausage from sulfur fed pork (0.3%) during storage at 15°C for 45 days. Groups were divided into three treatments: dry-cured sausages produced with pork fed general diet as the control group (CON), sulfur-fed pork (SUL) and isoflavone-(0.25%) treated sulfur-fed pork (ISO). Moisture content in all groups decreased dramatically from 55-57% to 10-11% during storage, whereas crude protein, crude fat, and ash content increased (P < 0.05). The ISO group showed excellent antioxidant effect compared to CON during storage. Redness and lightness of ISO was higher than that of CON during storage. VBN in the ISO group was significantly lower than that in the CON and SUL treatments during 30 and 45 days of storage (P < 0.05). A total plate count of ISO was significantly lower than that of CON at 45 days (P < 0.05). In this study, adding isoflavone to meat products indicated prevention of lipid oxidation and improved color stability in meat products.

  14. Utility Battery Storage Systems Program plan: FY 1994--FY 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    The Utility Battery Storage Systems Program, sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE), is addressing needed improvements so that the full benefits of these systems can be realized. A key element of the Program is the quantification of the benefits of batteries used in utility applications. The analyses of the applications and benefits are ongoing, but preliminary results indicate that the widespread introduction of battery storage by utilities could benefit the US economy by more than $26 billion by 2010 and create thousands of new jobs. Other critical elements of the DOE Program focus on improving the batteries, power electronics, and control subsystems and reducing their costs. These subsystems are then integrated and the systems undergo field evaluation. Finally, the most important element of the Program is the communication of the capabilities and benefits of battery systems to utility companies. Justifiably conservative, utilities must have proven, reliable equipment that is economical before they can adopt new technologies. While several utilities are leading the industry by demonstrating battery systems, a key task of the DOE program is to inform the entire industry of the value, characteristics, and availability of utility battery systems so that knowledgeable decisions can be made regarding future investments. This program plan for the DOE Utility Battery Storage Systems Program describes the technical and programmatic activities needed to bring about the widespread use of batteries by utilities. By following this plan, the DOE anticipates that many of the significant national benefits from battery storage will be achieved in the near future.

  15. Materials challenges in developing H{sub 2} storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cai, M. [General Motors Research and Development Center, Warren, MI (United States). Chemical Sciences and Materials Systems Laboratory

    2010-07-01

    The development of technically robust and commercially viable hydrogen/fuel cell propulsion technologies is a possible option for creating a sustainable transportation system. Examples of some of these technologies include hydrogen production from renewable energy sources; fuel cell propulsion using inexpensive, durable materials and designs; and practical, high energy density methods for storage of hydrogen both on-board vehicles and at fuel station facilities. Significant materials challenges for the scientific and engineering communities have been generated by the development of proton exchange membrane fuel cell/hydrogen propulsion technology. Several research and development efforts are pursuing a variety of onboard storage approaches, including compressed storage at different pressures, metal hydrides at high pressures, complex hydrides, and cryogenic storage either as a liquid or adsorbed onto porous substrates. This presentation described the results of recent research and development programs focused on hydrogen storage technologies conducted at General Motors. The presentation summarized the status, recent accomplishments and current performance gaps of hydrogen storage technologies for fuel cell applications.

  16. Structural factors of solar system cluster ground coupled storage rationalization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viktor V. Wysochin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The computational investigations of unsteady heat transfer in seasonal solar heat storage system were conducted. This storage system consists of nine ground heat exchangers. The investigations were made for periodical diurnal cycle charging during summer season. The heat exchanger is presented as vertical probe with concentric tubes arrangement. Aim: The aim of the work is the optimization of cluster ground coupled storage – the probes quantity in cluster, their lengths and interval – using high precision mathematical model. Materials and Methods: The mathematical model of conjugate solar system functioning and ground coupled storage involves differential equations describing the incoming and conversion of solar energy in solar collector. Also it includes the heat exchange in ground heat exchangers and three-dimensional soil mass. Results: The need of mutual influence accounting of the solar collector and the ground heat exchanger size ranges is shown. One more thing – capability of effectiveness improvement of the collector based on reasonable step size selection for cluster and selection of active heat exchangers quantity in requisite construction. Conclusions: The recommendations for organization of heat exchangers of the collector work are offered. The five-probe structure is the most effective one for cluster arrangement of seasonal heat storage. The recommended interval between probes is 4 meters.

  17. Regenerative flywheel energy storage system. Volume 1: Executive summary

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-06-01

    The development, fabrication, and test of a regenerative flywheel energy storage and recovery system for a battery/flywheel electric vehicle of the 3000 pound class are described. The vehicle propulsion system was simulated on a digital computer in order to determine the optimum system operating strategies and to establish a calculated range improvement over a nonregenerative, all electric vehicle. Fabrication of the inductor motor, the flywheel, the power conditioner, and the system control are described. Test results of the system operating over the SAE J227a Schedule D driving cycle are given and are compared to the calculated value. The flywheel energy storage system consists of a solid rotor, synchronous, inductor type, flywheel drive machine electrically coupled to a dc battery electric propulsion system through a load commutated inverter. The motor/alternator unit is coupled mechanically to a small steel flywheel which provides a portion of the vehicle's accelerating energy and regenerates the vehicle's braking energy.

  18. Entropy, pumped-storage and energy system finance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karakatsanis, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    Pumped-storage holds a key role for integrating renewable energy units with non-renewable fuel plants into large-scale energy systems of electricity output. An emerging issue is the development of financial engineering models with physical basis to systematically fund energy system efficiency improvements across its operation. A fundamental physically-based economic concept is the Scarcity Rent; which concerns the pricing of a natural resource's scarcity. Specifically, the scarcity rent comprises a fraction of a depleting resource's full price and accumulates to fund its more efficient future use. In an integrated energy system, scarcity rents derive from various resources and can be deposited to a pooled fund to finance the energy system's overall efficiency increase; allowing it to benefit from economies of scale. With pumped-storage incorporated to the system, water upgrades to a hub resource, in which the scarcity rents of all connected energy sources are denominated to. However, as available water for electricity generation or storage is also limited, a scarcity rent upon it is also imposed. It is suggested that scarcity rent generation is reducible to three (3) main factors, incorporating uncertainty: (1) water's natural renewability, (2) the energy system's intermittent components and (3) base-load prediction deviations from actual loads. For that purpose, the concept of entropy is used in order to measure the energy system's overall uncertainty; hence pumped-storage intensity requirements and generated water scarcity rents. Keywords: pumped-storage, integration, energy systems, financial engineering, physical basis, Scarcity Rent, pooled fund, economies of scale, hub resource, uncertainty, entropy Acknowledgement: This research was funded by the Greek General Secretariat for Research and Technology through the research project Combined REnewable Systems for Sustainable ENergy DevelOpment (CRESSENDO; grant number 5145)

  19. Comparison of modified atmosphere packaging and vacuum packaging for long period storage of dry-cured ham: effects on colour, texture and microbiological quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Esteban, Marta; Ansorena, Diana; Astiasarán, Iciar

    2004-05-01

    Slices of dry-cured hams (Biceps femoris muscle) were stored during 8 weeks under vacuum and modified atmospheres (100% N(2) and a mixture of 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2)) in order to study the modifications on colour, texture and microbial counts during that period. Lightness was found to be more stable when samples were stored with 20% CO(2) and 80% N(2) without statistical differences between vacuum and 100% N(2). A slight whiteness was observed in the vacuum packed samples. Yellowness increased during time in vacuum packed samples, although no differences were found among the three conditions at the end of the study. Redness values were not affected by time or by the packaging system. With regard to texture, values found for all samples were within the normal range for this type of products, although it was observed that modified atmosphere packaging preserved samples better from hardening than vacuum packaging. No safety problems were detected in relation to the microbial quality in any case. In general, no clear differences were found among the three packaging systems for colour, texture and microbial quality in the storage conditions studied.

  20. Specific outcomes of the research on the spent fuel long-term evolution in interim dry storage and deep geological disposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferry, C.; Poinssot, C.; Cappelaere, C.; Desgranges, L.; Jegou, C.; Miserque, F.; Piron, J. P.; Roudil, D.; Gras, J. M.

    2006-06-01

    This paper presents an overview of the main results of the French research on the long-term evolution of spent fuel. The behavior of the spent fuel rods in the various conditions likely to be encountered during dry storage and deep geological disposal, i.e., in a closed system, in air and in water were investigated. It appears that in a closed system the effects of helium production on the mechanical stability of grain boundaries remain the major unanswered question. In air, microscopic characterization of the UO2 oxidation leads to introduce a new phase in the classical oxidation scheme. The limiting step assumption on which the oxidation kinetics are based is only partially valid. In water, the effect of the alpha radiolysis which accelerates UO2 dissolution was demonstrated for anoxic conditions. However this effect could be counteracted by the environmental conditions, such as the presence of H2 produced by the container corrosion. The effects of the environmental parameters on the fuel matrix dissolution still need to be assessed.

  1. Electrical Energy Storage Systems Feasibility; the Case of Terceira Island

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Rodrigues

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The Azores Regional Government, through the Sustainable Energy Action Plan for the Azorean Islands, assumed that by the year 2018, 60% of electricity would be generated from renewable energy sources. Nevertheless, by increasing renewable energy sources share in the electricity mix, peak energy that exceeds grid capacity cannot be used unless when considering energy storage systems. Therefore, this article aims at determining, among batteries and Pumped Hydro Systems, the most cost-effective energy storage system to deploy in Terceira Island, along with geothermal, wind, thermal and bio waste energy, while considering demand and supply constraints. It is concluded that a pumped hydro system sited in Serra do Morião-Nasce Água is the best option for storage of the excess generated energy when compared with batteries. However, further studies should analyze environmental constraints. It is demonstrated that by increasing the storage power capacity, a pumped hydro system improves its cost efficiency when compared with batteries. It is also demonstrated that, to ensure quality, economic feasibility, reliability and a reduction of external costs, it is preferable to replace fuel-oil by wind to generate electricity up to a conceivable technical limit, while building a pumped hydro system, or dumping the excess peak energy generated.

  2. Solar Drying of Hazelnut by Three Different Types of System

    OpenAIRE

    Olgun, Hayati; RZAYEV, Perviz

    2000-01-01

    Hazelnut is the most important agricultural product of the Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey, and is exported to the world market dried and unshelled. The traditional sun drying process used by hazelnut farmers takes about 3 to 10 days depending on the weather conditions. If precipitation is high during the harvesting period, drying takes longer and causes the harvest to be spoilt. Although Turkey grows almost 75% of the world's hazelnuts, due to the current difficulties in th...

  3. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Alexandre Hugo; Radu Zmeureanu

    2012-01-01

    The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1) reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2) using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS softwar...

  4. Integrated Building Energy Systems Design Considering Storage Technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stadler, Michael; Marnay, Chris; Siddiqui, Afzal; Lai, Judy; Aki, Hirohisa

    2009-04-07

    The addition of storage technologies such as flow batteries, conventional batteries, and heat storage can improve the economic, as well as environmental attraction of micro-generation systems (e.g., PV or fuel cells with or without CHP) and contribute to enhanced demand response. The interactions among PV, solar thermal, and storage systems can be complex, depending on the tariff structure, load profile, etc. In order to examine the impact of storage technologies on demand response and CO2 emissions, a microgrid's distributed energy resources (DER) adoption problem is formulated as a mixed-integer linear program that can pursue two strategies as its objective function. These two strategies are minimization of its annual energy costs or of its CO2 emissions. The problem is solved for a given test year at representative customer sites, e.g., nursing homes, to obtain not only the optimal investment portfolio, but also the optimal hourly operating schedules for the selected technologies. This paper focuses on analysis of storage technologies in micro-generation optimization on a building level, with example applications in New York State and California. It shows results from a two-year research projectperformed for the U.S. Department of Energy and ongoing work. Contrary to established expectations, our results indicate that PV and electric storage adoption compete rather than supplement each other considering the tariff structure and costs of electricity supply. The work shows that high electricity tariffs during on-peak hours are a significant driver for the adoption of electric storage technologies. To satisfy the site's objective of minimizing energy costs, the batteries have to be charged by grid power during off-peak hours instead of PV during on-peak hours. In contrast, we also show a CO2 minimization strategy where the common assumption that batteries can be charged by PV can be fulfilled at extraordinarily high energy costs for the site.

  5. Design of a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Qi

    Solar thermal energy is taking up increasing proportions of future power generation worldwide. Thermal energy storage technology is a key method for compensating for the inherent intermittency of solar resources and solving the time mismatch between solar energy supply and electricity demand. However, there is currently no cost-effective high-capacity compact storage technology available (Bakker et al., 2008). The goal of this work is to propose a high temperature subsurface thermal energy storage (HSTES) technology and demonstrate its potential energy storage capability by developing a solar-HSTES-electricity generation system. In this work, main elements of the proposed system and their related state-of-art technologies are reviewed. A conceptual model is built to illustrate the concept, design, operating procedure and application of such a system. A numerical base model is built within the TOUGH2-EOS1 multiphase flow simulator for the evaluation of system performance. Additional models are constructed and simulations are done to identify the effect of different operational and geological influential factors on the system performance. Our work shows that when the base model is run with ten years operation of alternate injection and production processes - each for a month - with a thermal power input of 10.85 MW, about 83% of the injected thermal energy could be recovered within each working cycle from a stabilized HSTES system. After the final conversion into electrical energy, a relative (compared with the direct use of hot water) electricity generation efficiency of 73% is obtained. In a typical daily storage scenario, the simulated thermal storage efficiency could exceed 78% and the relative electricity generation efficiency is over 66% in the long run. In a seasonal storage scenario, these two efficiencies reach 69% and 53% respectively by the end of the simulation period of 10 years. Additional simulations reveal a thinner storage aquifer with a higher

  6. Management Methods In Sla-Aware Distributed Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darin Nikolow

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional data storage systems provide access to user’s data on the “besteffort” basis. While this paradigm is sufficient in many use cases it becomesan obstacle for applications with Quality of Service (QoS constraints. ServiceLevel Agreement (SLA is a part of the contract agreed between the serviceprovider and the client and contains a set of well defined QoS requirementsregarding the provided service and the penalties applied in case of violations.In the paper we propose a set of SLA parameters and QoS metrics relevantto data storage processes and the management methods necessary for avoidingSLA violations. A key assumption in the proposed approach is that the underlyingdistributed storage system does not provide functionality for resource orbandwidth reservation for a given client request.

  7. Efficient energy storage in liquid desiccant cooling systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hublitz, Astrid

    2008-07-18

    Liquid Desiccant Cooling Systems (LDCS) are open loop sorption systems for air conditioning that use a liquid desiccant such as a concentrated salt solution to dehumidify the outside air and cool it by evaporative cooling. Thermochemical energy storage in the concentrated liquid desiccant can bridge power mismatches between demand and supply. Low-flow LDCS provide high energy storage capacities but are not a state-of-the-art technology yet. The key challenge remains the uniform distribution of the liquid desiccant on the heat and mass transfer surfaces. The present research analyzes the factors of influence on the energy storage capacity by simulation of the heat and mass transfer processes and specifies performance goals for the distribution of the process media. Consequently, a distribution device for the liquid desiccant is developed that reliably meets the performance goals. (orig.)

  8. Recent Progress on Integrated Energy Conversion and Storage Systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Bin; Ye, Delai; Wang, Lianzhou

    2017-09-01

    Over the last few decades, there has been increasing interest in the design and construction of integrated energy conversion and storage systems (IECSSs) that can simultaneously capture and store various forms of energies from nature. A large number of IECSSs have been developed with different combination of energy conversion technologies such as solar cells, mechanical generators and thermoelectric generators and energy storage devices such as rechargeable batteries and supercapacitors. This review summarizes the recent advancements to date of IECSSs based on different energy sources including solar, mechanical, thermal as well as multiple types of energies, with a special focus on the system configuration and working mechanism. With the rapid development of new energy conversion and storage technologies, innovative high performance IECSSs are of high expectation to be realised for diverse practical applications in the near future.

  9. Chelonia: A self-healing, replicated storage system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerr Nilsen, Jon; Toor, Salman; Nagy, Zsombor; Read, Alex

    2011-12-01

    Chelonia is a novel grid storage system designed to fill the requirements gap between those of large, sophisticated scientific collaborations which have adopted the grid paradigm for their distributed storage needs, and of corporate business communities gravitating towards the cloud paradigm. Chelonia is an integrated system of heterogeneous, geographically dispersed storage sites which is easily and dynamically expandable and optimized for high availability and scalability. The architecture and implementation in term of web-services running inside the Advanced Resource Connector Hosting Environment Dameon (ARC HED) are described and results of tests in both local -area and wide-area networks that demonstrate the fault tolerance, stability and scalability of Chelonia will be presented. In addition, example setups for production deployments for small and medium-sized VO's are described.

  10. MARS: Microarray analysis, retrieval, and storage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scheideler Marcel

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Microarray analysis has become a widely used technique for the study of gene-expression patterns on a genomic scale. As more and more laboratories are adopting microarray technology, there is a need for powerful and easy to use microarray databases facilitating array fabrication, labeling, hybridization, and data analysis. The wealth of data generated by this high throughput approach renders adequate database and analysis tools crucial for the pursuit of insights into the transcriptomic behavior of cells. Results MARS (Microarray Analysis and Retrieval System provides a comprehensive MIAME supportive suite for storing, retrieving, and analyzing multi color microarray data. The system comprises a laboratory information management system (LIMS, a quality control management, as well as a sophisticated user management system. MARS is fully integrated into an analytical pipeline of microarray image analysis, normalization, gene expression clustering, and mapping of gene expression data onto biological pathways. The incorporation of ontologies and the use of MAGE-ML enables an export of studies stored in MARS to public repositories and other databases accepting these documents. Conclusion We have developed an integrated system tailored to serve the specific needs of microarray based research projects using a unique fusion of Web based and standalone applications connected to the latest J2EE application server technology. The presented system is freely available for academic and non-profit institutions. More information can be found at http://genome.tugraz.at.

  11. Assessment of flywheel energy storage for spacecraft power systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, G. E.; Studer, P. A.; Baer, D. A.

    1983-01-01

    The feasibility of inertial energy storage in a spacecraft power system is evaluated on the basis of a conceptual integrated design that encompasses a composite rotor, magnetic suspension, and a permanent magnet (PM) motor/generator for a 3-kW orbital average payload at a bus distribution voltage of 250 volts dc. The conceptual design, which evolved at the Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), is referred to as a Mechanical Capacitor. The baseline power system configuration selected is a series system employing peak-power-tracking for a Low Earth-Orbiting application. Power processing, required in the motor/generator, provides a potential alternative configurations that can only be achieved in systems with electrochemical energy storage by the addition of power processing components. One such alternative configuration provides for peak-power-tracking of the solar array and still maintains a regulated bus, without the expense of additional power processing components. Precise speed control of the two counterrotating wheels is required to reduce interaction with the attitude control system (ACS) or alternatively, used to perform attitude control functions. Critical technologies identified are those pertaining to the energy storage element and are prioritized as composite wheel development, magnetic suspension, motor/generator, containment, and momentum control. Comparison with a 3-kW, 250-Vdc power system using either NiCd or NiH2 for energy storage results in a system in which inertial energy storage offers potential advantages in lifetime, operating temperature, voltage regulation, energy density, charge control, and overall system weight reduction.

  12. Metal hydride-based thermal energy storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vajo, John J.; Fang, Zhigang

    2017-10-03

    The invention provides a thermal energy storage system comprising a metal-containing first material with a thermal energy storage density of about 1300 kJ/kg to about 2200 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; a metal-containing second material with a thermal energy storage density of about 200 kJ/kg to about 1000 kJ/kg based on hydrogenation; and a hydrogen conduit for reversibly transporting hydrogen between the first material and the second material. At a temperature of 20.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal is converted to the hydride. At a temperature of 0.degree. C. and in 1 hour, at least 90% of the metal hydride is converted to the metal and hydrogen. The disclosed metal hydride materials have a combination of thermodynamic energy storage densities and kinetic power capabilities that previously have not been demonstrated. This performance enables practical use of thermal energy storage systems for electric vehicle heating and cooling.

  13. dCache,a Distributed Storage Data Cahing System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MichaelErns; CharlesWaldman; 等

    2001-01-01

    This article is about a piece of middle ware,allowing to convert a dump tape based Tertiary Storage System into a multi petabyte random access device with thousands of channels.Using typical caching mechanisms,the software optimizes the access to the underlying Storage System and makes better use of possibly expensive drives and robots or allows to integrate cheap and slow devices without introducing unacceptable performance degadation.In addition,using the standard NFS2 protocol,the dCache provides a unique view into the storage repository,hiding the physical location of the file data,cached or tape only.Bulk data transfer is supported through the kerberized FTP protocol and a C-API,providing the posix file access semantics,Dataset staging and disk space management is performed invisibly to the data clients.The project is a DESY,Fermilab joint effort to overcome limitations in the usage of tertiary storage resources common to many HEP labs.The distributed cache nodes may range from high performance SGI machines to commodity CERN Linux-IDE like file server models.Different cache nodes are assumed to have different affinities to particular storage groups or file sets.Affinities may be defined manually or are calculated by the dCache based on topology considerations.Cache nodes may have different disk space management policies to match the large variety of applications from raw data to user analysis data pools.

  14. Viability tests of LIPI-MC mould collection in ampoule of L-drying preservation after one year of storage at 5ºC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MUHAMMAD ILYAS

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A study on viability test of several LIPI-MC mould isolates in ampoule of L-drying preservation after one year storage at 5º C had been conducted. In this study, cell survival level of 34 ampoules number from eight mould generas and 17 species had been counted. The objective of this study was to observe the survival or viability level of several mould isolates in ampoule L-drying preservation after one year storage at 5º C. The measurement of viability level was based on the average of colony forming unit density (CFU/ml. The result showed that there were seven mould isolates have hingh viabilitiy, 18 isolates have medium viabilitiy, two isolates have low viability, and five isolates have lost its viability.

  15. 75 FR 70241 - Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-17

    ... AGENCY Compatibility of Underground Storage Tank Systems With Biofuel Blends AGENCY: Environmental... tank (UST) compatibility requirement as it applies to UST systems storing gasoline containing greater... underground storage tank systems greater clarity in demonstrating compatibility of their tank systems...

  16. System-level modeling for geological storage of CO2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingqi; Oldenburg, Curtis M.; Finsterle, Stefan; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2006-04-24

    One way to reduce the effects of anthropogenic greenhousegases on climate is to inject carbon dioxide (CO2) from industrialsources into deep geological formations such as brine formations ordepleted oil or gas reservoirs. Research has and is being conducted toimprove understanding of factors affecting particular aspects ofgeological CO2 storage, such as performance, capacity, and health, safetyand environmental (HSE) issues, as well as to lower the cost of CO2capture and related processes. However, there has been less emphasis todate on system-level analyses of geological CO2 storage that considergeological, economic, and environmental issues by linking detailedrepresentations of engineering components and associated economic models.The objective of this study is to develop a system-level model forgeological CO2 storage, including CO2 capture and separation,compression, pipeline transportation to the storage site, and CO2injection. Within our system model we are incorporating detailedreservoir simulations of CO2 injection and potential leakage withassociated HSE effects. The platform of the system-level modelingisGoldSim [GoldSim, 2006]. The application of the system model is focusedon evaluating the feasibility of carbon sequestration with enhanced gasrecovery (CSEGR) in the Rio Vista region of California. The reservoirsimulations are performed using a special module of the TOUGH2 simulator,EOS7C, for multicomponent gas mixtures of methane and CO2 or methane andnitrogen. Using this approach, the economic benefits of enhanced gasrecovery can be directly weighed against the costs, risks, and benefitsof CO2 injection.

  17. Effect of fascia dry needling on non-specific thoracic pain - A proposed dry needling grading system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anandkumar, Sudarshan; Manivasagam, Murugavel

    2017-05-01

    This case report describes a 42-year-old female who presented with complaints of diffuse pain in her thoracic paraspinal region from T2 to T7. Physical examination revealed tenderness, increased turgor and restriction of her superficial fascia. A potential first time description of successful management utilizing fascia dry needling is described in this report with improvements noted in pain, range of motion, and functional activities. The patient was discharged from physiotherapy after four treatment sessions, and a follow-up after 3 months revealed that she was pain free and fully functional. A grading system (Sudarshan and Murugavel Dry Needling Grading Scale(©)) is proposed describing the various grades of dry needling to guide clinical reasoning and decision-making.

  18. Intelligent Storage System Based on Automatic Identification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kolarovszki Peter

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes RFID technology in conjunction with warehouse management systems. Article also deals with automatic identification and data capture technologies and each processes, which are used in warehouse management system. It describes processes from entering goods into production to identification of goods and also palletizing, storing, bin transferring and removing goods from warehouse. Article focuses on utilizing AMP middleware in WMS processes in Nowadays, the identification of goods in most warehouses is carried through barcodes. In this article we want to specify, how can be processes described above identified through RFID technology. All results are verified by measurement in our AIDC laboratory, which is located at the University of Žilina, and also in Laboratory of Automatic Identification Goods and Services located in GS1 Slovakia. The results of our research bring the new point of view and indicate the ways using of RFID technology in warehouse management system.

  19. Economic Optimization of Component Sizing for Residential Battery Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holger C. Hesse

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Battery energy storage systems (BESS coupled with rooftop-mounted residential photovoltaic (PV generation, designated as PV-BESS, draw increasing attention and market penetration as more and more such systems become available. The manifold BESS deployed to date rely on a variety of different battery technologies, show a great variation of battery size, and power electronics dimensioning. However, given today’s high investment costs of BESS, a well-matched design and adequate sizing of the storage systems are prerequisites to allow profitability for the end-user. The economic viability of a PV-BESS depends also on the battery operation, storage technology, and aging of the system. In this paper, a general method for comprehensive PV-BESS techno-economic analysis and optimization is presented and applied to the state-of-art PV-BESS to determine its optimal parameters. Using a linear optimization method, a cost-optimal sizing of the battery and power electronics is derived based on solar energy availability and local demand. At the same time, the power flow optimization reveals the best storage operation patterns considering a trade-off between energy purchase, feed-in remuneration, and battery aging. Using up to date technology-specific aging information and the investment cost of battery and inverter systems, three mature battery chemistries are compared; a lead-acid (PbA system and two lithium-ion systems, one with lithium-iron-phosphate (LFP and another with lithium-nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC cathode. The results show that different storage technology and component sizing provide the best economic performances, depending on the scenario of load demand and PV generation.

  20. Storage of energy in confined quantum systems

    OpenAIRE

    Malbouisson, A. P. C.

    2002-01-01

    Using the non-perturbative method of {\\it dressed} states introduced in previous publications [N.P.Andion, A.P.C. Malbouisson and A. Mattos Neto, J.Phys.{\\bf A34}, 3735, (2001); G. Flores-Hidalgo, A.P.C. Malbouisson, Y.W. Milla, Phys. Rev. A, {\\bf 65}, 063314 (2002)], we study the evolution of a confined quantum mechanical system embedded in a {\\it ohmic} environment. Our approach furnishes a theoretical mechanism to control inhibition of the decay of excited quantum systems in cavities, in b...

  1. Advanced Space Power Systems (ASPS): Advanced Energy Storage Systems Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The development of high specific energy devices will enable NASA’s future robotic and human-exploration missions.  The need for advances in energy storage...

  2. In-line near infrared spectroscopy during freeze-drying as a tool to measure efficiency of hydrogen bond formation between protein and sugar, predictive of protein storage stability

    OpenAIRE

    Mensink, Maarten A.; Van Bockstal, Pieter-Jan; Pieters, S; De Meyer, Laurens; Frijlink, Henderik W.; van der Voort Maarschalk, Kees; Hinrichs, Wouter L.J.; De Beer, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Sugars are often used as stabilizers of protein formulations during freeze-drying. However, not all sugars are equally suitable for this purpose. Using in-line near-infrared spectroscopy during freeze-drying, it is shown here that hydrogen bond formation during freeze-drying, under secondary drying conditions in particular, can be related to the preservation of the functionality and structure of proteins during storage. The disaccharide trehalose was best capable of forming hydrogen bonds wit...

  3. Wind energy management for smart grids with storage systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gasco, Manuel [Universidad de Alicante (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica; Rios, Alberto [Universidad Europea de Madrid (Spain). Area de Ingenieria Electrica

    2012-07-01

    Increasing integration of wind energy into the power system makes the optimal management of different situations that can occur more and more important. The objective of the present study is to replace the power necessary for electrical feed when the wind resources are not available, and to make a continuous demand tracking of the power. The energy storage systems treated in this study are as follows: a fuel cell, flywheel, pump systems and turbine systems, compressed air systems, electrochemical cells, electric vehicles, supercapacitors and superconductors. As a result the maximum benefit of the smart grid is achieved and it includes coexistence of the energy storage systems described and integrated in the numerous microgrids which can form the distribution grid. The current capacity is observed in order to be able to manage the wind generation for short periods of time. This way it is possible to plan the production which would be adjusted to the variations through these storage systems allowing the systems to maintain their constant programming for the base plants, adjusting the variations in these systems in the short term. (orig.)

  4. Recent advances in drying and dehydration of fruits and vegetables: a review

    OpenAIRE

    Sagar, V. R.; P Suresh Kumar

    2010-01-01

    Fruits and vegetables are dried to enhance storage stability, minimize packaging requirement and reduce transport weight. Preservation of fruits and vegetables through drying based on sun and solar drying techniques which cause poor quality and product contamination. Energy consumption and quality of dried products are critical parameters in the selection of drying process. An optimum drying system for the preparation of quality dehydrated products is cost effective as it shortens the drying ...

  5. Residential Solar-Based Seasonal Thermal Storage Systems in Cold Climates: Building Envelope and Thermal Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Hugo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The reduction of electricity use for heating and domestic hot water in cold climates can be achieved by: (1 reducing the heating loads through the improvement of the thermal performance of house envelopes, and (2 using solar energy through a residential solar-based thermal storage system. First, this paper presents the life cycle energy and cost analysis of a typical one-storey detached house, located in Montreal, Canada. Simulation of annual energy use is performed using the TRNSYS software. Second, several design alternatives with improved thermal resistance for walls, ceiling and windows, increased overall air tightness, and increased window-to-wall ratio of South facing windows are evaluated with respect to the life cycle energy use, life cycle emissions and life cycle cost. The solution that minimizes the energy demand is chosen as a reference house for the study of long-term thermal storage. Third, the computer simulation of a solar heating system with solar thermal collectors and long-term thermal storage capacity is presented. Finally, the life cycle cost and life cycle energy use of the solar combisystem are estimated for flat-plate solar collectors and evacuated tube solar collectors, respectively, for the economic and climatic conditions of this study.

  6. Cake: Enabling High-level SLOs on Shared Storage Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-07

    because the naïve consolidation strategy results in unmediated resource contention within the storage system. concerns itself only with fair sharing...NoSQL at Netflix . http://techblog.netflix.com/2011/01/ nosql-at-netflix.html. [26] V. Jacobson. Congestion avoidance and control. SIGCOMM Computer

  7. The concentration gradient flow battery as electricity storage system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond, Van W.J.; Saakes, M.; Porada, S.; Meuwissen, T.; Buisman, C.J.N.; Hamelers, H.V.M.

    2016-01-01

    Unlike traditional fossil fuel plants, the wind and the sun provide power only when the renewable resource is available. To accommodate large scale use of renewable energy sources for efficient power production and utilization, energy storage systems are necessary. Here, we introduce a scalable e

  8. Optical CDMA system using bacteriorhodopsin for optical data storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bae; Yang; Jin; Lee; Park

    1999-11-01

    An optical CDMA (code division multiple access) system for the optical data storage using bacteriorhodopsin (BR) is reported as an application of the BR materials. The desired signal of multiple input can be recorded and reconstructed by use of orthogonal codes. An experimental setup is proposed and demonstrated.

  9. Exploration and application of wet-discharging dry storage of phosphogypsum%磷石膏湿排干堆的探索和应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王光明; 曹绪勇

    2011-01-01

    Based on the disadvantages of wet-discharging wet storage and dry-discharging dry storage phosphogypsum commonly used in compound fertilizer enterprise, the wet-discharging dry storage of phosphogypsum is put forward, and its process operation and advantages are introduced, which evades effectively the high threshold and risk of tailings reservoir, improves the environment, decreases the cost of operation and maintenance, has the obvious superiority.%针对目前磷复肥企业磷石膏堆存常用的湿排湿堆及千排干堆方法所存在的诸多弊端,提出采用湿排干堆,并介绍其工艺运行情况及优势,有效规避了建设尾矿库的高门槛、高风险,改善了现场环境,降低了运行维护费用,优势明显。

  10. Electrical Energy Storage for Renewable Energy Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helms, C. R. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Cho, K. J. [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Ferraris, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Balkus, Ken [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Chabal, Yves [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Gnade, Bruce [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Rotea, Mario [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States); Vasselli, John [Univ. of Texas, Dallas, TX (United States)

    2012-08-31

    This program focused on development of the fundamental understanding necessary to significantly improve advanced battery and ultra-capacitor materials and systems to achieve significantly higher power and energy density on the one hand, and significantly lower cost on the other. This program spanned all the way from atomic-level theory, to new nanomaterials syntheses and characterization, to system modeling and bench-scale technology demonstration. This program not only delivered significant advancements in fundamental understanding and new materials and technology, it also showcased the power of the cross-functional, multi-disciplinary teams at UT Dallas and UT Tyler for such work. These teams are continuing this work with other sources of funding from both industry and government.

  11. Aquifer storage and recovery: recent hydrogeological advances and system performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliva, Robert G; Guo, Weixing; Missimer, Thomas M

    2006-12-01

    Aquifer storage and recovery (ASR) is part of the solution to the global problem of managing water resources to meet existing and future freshwater demands. However, the metaphoric "ASR bubble" has been burst with the realization that ASR systems are more physically and chemically complex than the general conceptualization. Aquifer heterogeneity and fluid-rock interactions can greatly affect ASR system performance. The results of modeling studies and field experiences indicate that more sophisticated data collection and solute-transport modeling are required to predict how stored water will migrate in heterogeneous aquifers and how fluid-rock interactions will affect the quality of stored water. It has been well-demonstrated, by historic experience, that ASR systems can provide very large volumes of storage at a lesser cost than other options. The challenges moving forward are to improve the success rate of ASR systems, optimize system performance, and set expectations appropriately.

  12. Ice Thermal Storage Systems for LWR Supplemental Cooling and Peak Power Shifting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haihua Zhao; Hongbin Zhang; Phil Sharpe; Blaise Hamanaka; Wei Yan; WoonSeong Jeong

    2010-06-01

    Availability of enough cooling water has been one of the major issues for the nuclear power plant site selection. Cooling water issues have frequently disrupted the normal operation at some nuclear power plants during heat waves and long draught. The issues become more severe due to the new round of nuclear power expansion and global warming. During hot summer days, cooling water leaving a power plant may become too hot to threaten aquatic life so that environmental regulations may force the plant to reduce power output or even temporarily to be shutdown. For new nuclear power plants to be built at areas without enough cooling water, dry cooling can be used to remove waste heat directly into the atmosphere. However, dry cooling will result in much lower thermal efficiency when the weather is hot. One potential solution for the above mentioned issues is to use ice thermal storage systems (ITS) that reduce cooling water requirements and boost the plant’s thermal efficiency in hot hours. ITS uses cheap off-peak electricity to make ice and uses those ice for supplemental cooling during peak demand time. ITS is suitable for supplemental cooling storage due to its very high energy storage density. ITS also provides a way to shift large amount of electricity from off peak time to peak time. Some gas turbine plants already use ITS to increase thermal efficiency during peak hours in summer. ITSs have also been widely used for building cooling to save energy cost. Among three cooling methods for LWR applications: once-through, wet cooling tower, and dry cooling tower, once-through cooling plants near a large water body like an ocean or a large lake and wet cooling plants can maintain the designed turbine backpressure (or condensation temperature) during 99% of the time; therefore, adding ITS to those plants will not generate large benefits. For once-through cooling plants near a limited water body like a river or a small lake, adding ITS can bring significant economic

  13. Miniaturized volume holographic optical data storage and correlation system with a storage density of 10 Gb/cm3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Liangcai; HE Qingsheng; WEI Haoyun; LIU Guodong; OUYANG Chuan; ZHAO Jian; WU Minxian; JIN Guofan

    2004-01-01

    The general idea of holographic optical data storage (HODS) is briefly introduced. Based on the recent advances of HODS, the key techniques and the challenges of HODS are discussed. Some new techniques are proposed to improve the system. A miniaturized volume holographic data storage and correlation system is presented. It can achieve a density of 10 Gb/cm3 and a fast correlation recognition rate of more than 2000 images per second. It shows the attracting potential advantages over other conventional storage methods in the information storage as well as information processing.

  14. Design of Mooring System for Oil Storage Vessels

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文龙; 谭家华

    2003-01-01

    The floating oil storage system has been proposed as a new facility for Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) in China. Mooring is one of the key technologies to ensure the safety, reliability, and performance of the oil storage system. This paper describes the concept, analysis, design and reliability of the mooring system. For mooring system design of these oil vessels, analysis is essential of the behavior of the vessel in connection with mooring facilities of nonlinear resilience. A nonlinear mathematical model for analyzing a moored vessel is established and solved. Some results of numerical simulations are presented. Assessment of the safety regarding the mooring system in terms of failure probability is carried out. Another simulation model for calculating the failure probability of the mooring system is proposed. The design parameters that have an influence on the characteristics of the failure probability have been identified. The simulation results show that the mooring system has an annual reliability value of 0.999998. The proposed simulation method is proved to be effective in quantitative evaluation of the safety of the mooring system for floating oil storage vessels.

  15. Nanostructural Materials for Energy Storage Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bronislaw Buczek

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess of carbonaceous monoliths used for adsorption cooling systems. The carbonaceous monoliths prepared from coal precursors are obtained. The porous structure of monoliths was evaluated on the basis of nitrogen adsorption-desorption data. The investigated monoliths have significantly developed microporous structure. The large specific area of carbonaceous monoliths (about 2000 m2/g and volume of micropores are observed. Methanol adsorption isotherms and heat of wetting using methanol was determined. Results show that monoliths materials are high adsorption capacity of methanol and heat of wetting, which can improve of heat exchange and efficiency in processes of refrigeration and air conditioning.

  16. A Rewritable, Random-Access DNA-Based Storage System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabatabaei Yazdi, S. M. Hossein; Yuan, Yongbo; Ma, Jian; Zhao, Huimin; Milenkovic, Olgica

    2015-09-01

    We describe the first DNA-based storage architecture that enables random access to data blocks and rewriting of information stored at arbitrary locations within the blocks. The newly developed architecture overcomes drawbacks of existing read-only methods that require decoding the whole file in order to read one data fragment. Our system is based on new constrained coding techniques and accompanying DNA editing methods that ensure data reliability, specificity and sensitivity of access, and at the same time provide exceptionally high data storage capacity. As a proof of concept, we encoded parts of the Wikipedia pages of six universities in the USA, and selected and edited parts of the text written in DNA corresponding to three of these schools. The results suggest that DNA is a versatile media suitable for both ultrahigh density archival and rewritable storage applications.

  17. Hydrogen based energy storage for energy harvesting systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bretthauer, Christian

    2011-07-01

    This thesis presents the development of a novel type of silicon integrated alkaline fuel cell - electrolyser device as on-chip energy storage. The alkaline environment allows not only a facilitated water management compared to state-of-the-art acidic integrated fuel cell systems, it further allows the usage of non-precious metal catalysts and hydrogen storage materials, for the first time. Additionally, a button cell shaped version of the accumulator is presented that incorporates a photoactive SrTiO{sub 3} ceramic for solar recharge. The solar charging mechanism is shown to be inherently self-regulating such that the cell depicts essentially a Micro Hydrogen Economy including energy conversion, energy management and energy storage in a single device. (orig.)

  18. Simulation and optimization of energy systems for in-bin drying of canola grain (rapeseed)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schoenau, G.J.; Arinze, E.A.; Sokhansanj, S. [Saskatchewan Univ., Saskatoon, SK (Canada). College of Engineering

    1995-01-01

    Energy utilization systems optimization and management strategies for in-bin drying of canola were investigated by using a validated computer simulation model and typical weather data for a prairie location in North America. The use of different energy systems, including natural gas, propane, electricity, solar energy, and combined natural gas and solar energy for drying grain within 15 days with airflow rates of 0.5-2m{sup 3}/min t, initial grain moisture contents of 13, 16 and 19%, and three harvest dates in August, September and October, was simulated for 10% and 8% moisture contents average-dry and through-dry policies. The drying systems were optimized by considering the total annual cost of a drying system within set bounds of drying time ({<=}15 days) and spoilage index (SI < 1.0). Continuous fan operation with 1.5-2m{sup 3}/min t ambient air with about 9-26 MJ/t fan energy consumption was required to dry canola grain to 10% and 8% average-dry and through-dry moisture contents in 15 days or less August at 19% initial moisture content or less. Supplemental heat, by raising the ambient temperature by 5-10{sup o}C, maintaining the plenum temperature at 20{sup o}C and solar heating, must be applied to successfully dry the product in September and October. Solar heating for drying was found to be more cost effective than other supplemental heat systems provided a well designed flat-plate solar collector for air heating can be found for use in locations with good solar energy availability. Heating the drying air with natural gas or propane was the cost effective for situations where the use of conventional energy systems is preferable to renewable energy sources in grain drying operation. (Author)

  19. Integrating STATCOM and Battery Energy Storage System for Power System Transient Stability: A Review and Application

    OpenAIRE

    Arindam Chakraborty; Musunuri, Shravana K.; Anurag K. Srivastava; Kondabathini, Anil K.

    2012-01-01

    Integration of STATCOM with energy storage devices plays an imperative role in improving the power system operation and control. Significant research has been done in this area for practical realization of benefits of the integration. This paper, however, pays particular importance to the performance improvement for the transients as is achievable by STATCOM with battery-powered storage systems. Application of STATCOM with storage in regard to intermittent renewable energy sources such as win...

  20. High Performance Storage System Scalability: Architecture, Implementation, and Experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watson, R W

    2005-01-05

    The High Performance Storage System (HPSS) provides scalable hierarchical storage management (HSM), archive, and file system services. Its design, implementation and current dominant use are focused on HSM and archive services. It is also a general-purpose, global, shared, parallel file system, potentially useful in other application domains. When HPSS design and implementation began over a decade ago, scientific computing power and storage capabilities at a site, such as a DOE national laboratory, was measured in a few 10s of gigaops, data archived in HSMs in a few 10s of terabytes at most, data throughput rates to an HSM in a few megabytes/s, and daily throughput with the HSM in a few gigabytes/day. At that time, the DOE national laboratories and IBM HPSS design team recognized that we were headed for a data storage explosion driven by computing power rising to teraops/petaops requiring data stored in HSMs to rise to petabytes and beyond, data transfer rates with the HSM to rise to gigabytes/s and higher, and daily throughput with a HSM in 10s of terabytes/day. This paper discusses HPSS architectural, implementation and deployment experiences that contributed to its success in meeting the above orders of magnitude scaling targets. We also discuss areas that need additional attention as we continue significant scaling into the future.