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Sample records for dry period

  1. Economic comparison of a sixty day dry period with no dry period on Dutch dairy farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heeren, J.A.H.; Steeneveld, W.; Berentsen, P.B.M.

    2014-01-01

    In the Netherlands it is general practice that dairy cows have a dry period of six to eight weeks. Research, however, shows that omission of the dry period avoids the negative energy balance after calving with its potential negative effects on metabolic disorders, infectious diseases, and fertility.

  2. Climatology and forest decay - stresses caused by dry periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Havlik, D.

    1991-01-01

    In the discussion of forest decline in the Eighties, stresses due to dry weather is often named as a secondary cause. The concept of 'climatological dry periods' is introduced in this article and applied to records for the Basel and Aachen regions. The time distribution of dry periods of different length and different water deficiency (40 mm, 60 mm, 100 mm) is analyzed. In the case of the Basel data, the dry periods are related to the 'forest damage caused by draught' recorded for the Basel region since 1930. The results support the theory that increasingly larger and more frequent dry periods with water shortage have contributed significantly to forest damage in the last 15 years. Apart from the 'dry stress' itself, also the enhanced production of photooxidants is a damaging mechanism. (orig.) [de

  3. Effects of dry period length on clinical mastitis and other major clinical health disorders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Enevoldsen, Carsten; Sørensen, J.T.

    1992-01-01

    Four, 7-, and 10-wk dry periods were randomly assigned to 366 dairy cows in eight herds. A multiple polytomous logistic regression analysis was conducted with the objective to reveal possible important effects of the dry period on the risk of contracting major clinical health disorders. Several...... complex statistical interactions were revealed. Complications around and after drying off occurred least frequently at 7-wk dry periods. There was little evidence of an effect of the dry period on the risk of clinical mastitis and other severe clinical disorders around and after calving. With short...... like milk yield at drying off and previous mastitis are much more important predisposing factors....

  4. Effects of drying method, storage period and carbon: nitrogen ratio ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Taghwo

    2012-12-03

    Dec 3, 2012 ... African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology Vol. 6(12), pp. .... Drying method 2 (method 2) involved air drying field- fresh soil ... then packed in polyethylene bags and stored at -10°C until inorganic N extraction ...

  5. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    OpenAIRE

    Randi A. Black; Peter D. Krawczel

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Pasture and freestall systems offer benefits and consequences during lactation but have not been investigated during the dry period. The effect of pasture or confined systems during the dry period on behaviour and milk quality was investigated. Freestall housing resulted in more resting behaviour and less locomotor activity during the dry period compared to pastured cows. At calving, freestall housed cows performed fewer lying bouts and less locomotor activity compared to pastu...

  6. Controlling Subclinical Mastitis by Antibiotic Application during Dry Period of Dairy Cow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imas Sri Nurhayati

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Prevention of mastitis is essential, as one of the efforts to control disease in dairy cow. Dry period has implications to understand the mastitis and its control strategies. The udder is very susceptible to be infected both at the beginning and towards the end of dry period. This is linked to physiological changes in udder. Treatment with antibiotics during the dry period can reduce new infection about 82% and has several advantages. The success rate of subclinical mastitis treatment is much higher (80-90% compared to the treatment during lactation (30-40%; the doses of antibiotic can be higher and safer, due to its retention time in udder becomes longer; the risk of antibiotic contamination in milk can be avoided because the udder is not milked. Antibiotic application during dry period is the best way to treat subclinical and chronic mastitis. Treatment during dry period is a specific mastitis control for intramammary infection to avoid economic losses.

  7. Factors in Dry Period Associated with Intramammary Infection and Subsequent Clinical Mastitis in Early Postpartum Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kansuda Leelahapongsathon

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine cow characteristics and farm management factors during the dry period associated with early postparturient intramammary infection (IMI and subsequent clinical mastitis (CM. Data were collected three times: before drying off (P1, during the dry period (P2, and 5 to 14 days after calving (P3, using questionnaires and farm investigation. Milk samples were aseptically collected for bacterial identification at P1 and P3. Factors associated with IMI and CM were analyzed using multiple logistic regression models. The final model showed that IMI in early postpartum was significantly associated with full insertion of dry cow antibiotic, dry cows in barns with a combination of tie and free stalls, body condition score (BCS in dry period and after calving, and milk yield before drying off. For IMI cows, factors significantly associated with clinical expression of mastitis were having daily barn cleaning, teat disinfected with alcohol before administration of dry cow therapy, BCS before drying off, milk yield before drying off, and days in milk at drying off. In conclusion, both cow and farm management factors are associated with the IMI rate and subsequent expression of clinical signs of mastitis in early postpartum cows.

  8. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  9. Rainfall measurement using cell phone links: classification of wet and dry periods using geostationary satellites

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Delden, A.J.; van het Schip, T.I.; Overeem, Aart; Leijnse, Hidde; Uijlenhoet, Remko; Meirink, J.F.

    2017-01-01

    Commercial cellular telecommunication networks can be used for rainfall estimation by measur- ing the attenuation of electromagnetic signals transmitted between antennas from microwave links. However, as the received link signal may also decrease during dry periods, a method to separate wet and dry

  10. Impact of dietary plane of energy during the dry period on lipoprotein parameters in the transition period in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, A; Mann, S; Nydam, D V; Overton, T R; Behling-Kelly, E

    2016-02-01

    The high energy demands of dairy cows during the transition period from late gestation into early lactation can place them at an increased risk for the development of metabolic and infectious diseases. Modification of the dry period diet has been investigated as a preventive means to minimize the detrimental aspects of metabolic shifts during the transition period. Studies investigating the impact of dry period diet on lipid parameters during the transition period have largely focused on markers of lipolysis and ketogenesis. Total cholesterol declines during the periparturient period and increases in early lactation. The impact total energy in the dry period diet has on the ability of the cow to maintain total serum cholesterol, as well as its natural high-density lipoprotein-rich status, during this metabolically challenging window is not clear. The impact of lipoproteins on inflammation and immune function may have a clinical impact on the cow's ability to ward off production-related diseases. In this study, we hypothesized that the provision of adequate, but not excessive, total metabolizable energy, would better allow the cow to maintain total cholesterol and a higher relative proportion of HDL throughout the transition period. Cows were allocated to one of three dry period dietary treatment groups following a randomized block design. Total serum triglycerides, cholesterol and lipoprotein fractions were measured on a weekly basis from approximately 7 weeks pre-calving to 6 weeks post-calving. The cows on the high energy diet maintained total serum cholesterol as compared to the cows provided a lower energy diet, but there was no significant increase in the LDL fraction of lipoproteins between diet treatment groups. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of shortening the dry period of dairy cows on milk production, energy balance, health, and fertility: A systemtic review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Drift, van der S.G.A.; Cermáková, J.; Kemp, B.

    2013-01-01

    A dry period of 6–8 weeks for dairy cows is generally thought to maximise milk production in the next lactation. However, the value of such a long dry period is increasingly questioned. In particular, shortening the dry period shifts milk production from the critical period after calving to the

  12. Effect of dry period length on milk production in subsequent lactation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, J.T.; Enevoldsen, Carsten

    1991-01-01

    , two treatments were compared within herd. Compared with a 7-wk planned dry period, a 3-wk decrease lowered the level of milk production by 2.8 kg of 4% FCM/d in the first 84 d of the subsequent lactation, whereas a 3-wk increase raised the level of milk production by .5 kg/d. In the first 168 d......The effect of planned dry period lengths of 4, 7, and 10 wk on subsequent lactational yield was estimated with 366 cows in an experiment in which dry period was manipulated independently of milk yield prior to drying off. In two herds, all three treatments were compared within herd; in six herds...... of the subsequent lactation, the difference between 4-wk and 7-wk planned dry periods was 2.7 kg/d, and the difference between 7- and 10-wk periods was .4 kg/d. There was no indication of interaction among planned dry period length and lactation number, days open in previous lactation, previous milk yield, breed...

  13. Hydrological long-term dry and wet periods in the Xijiang River basin, South China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Fischer

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, hydrological long-term dry and wet periods are analyzed for the Xijiang River basin in South China. Daily precipitation data of 118 stations and data on daily discharge at Gaoyao hydrological station at the mouth of the Xijiang River for the period 1961–2007 are used. At a 24-month timescale, the standardized precipitation index (SPI-24 for the six sub-basins of the Xijiang River and the standardized discharge index (SDI-24 for Gaoyao station are applied. The monthly values of the SPI-24 averaged for the Xijiang River basin correlate highly with the monthly values of the SDI-24. Distinct long-term dry and wet sequences can be detected.

    The principal component analysis is applied and shows spatial disparities in dry and wet periods for the six sub-basins. The correlation between the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins and the first principal component score shows that 67% of the variability within the sub-basins can be explained by dry and wet periods in the east of the Xijiang River basin. The spatial dipole conditions (second and third principal component explain spatiotemporal disparities in the variability of dry and wet periods. All sub-basins contribute to hydrological dry periods, while mainly the northeastern sub-basins cause wet periods in the Xijiang River. We can also conclude that long-term dry events are larger in spatial extent and cover all sub-basins while long-term wet events are regional phenomena.

    A spectral analysis is applied for the SPI-24 and the SDI-24. The results show significant peaks in periodicities of 11–14.7 yr, 2.8 yr, 3.4–3.7 yr, and 6.3–7.3 yr. The same periodic cycles can be found in the SPI-24 of the six sub-basins but with some variability in the mean magnitude. A wavelet analysis shows that significant periodicities have been stable over time since the 1980s. Extrapolations of the reconstructed SPI-24 and SDI-24 represent the continuation of observed significant periodicities

  14. Dry period management and optimization of post-partum reproductive management in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gumen, A; Keskin, A; Yilmazbas-Mecitoglu, G; Karakaya, E; Wiltbank, Mc

    2011-09-01

    Dry period and early post-partum management are decisive factors for fertility in lactating dairy cows. Previous studies have shown that decreased dry matter intake (DMI) and increased non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) negatively affect fertility and subsequent milk production. The traditional dry period decreases DMI prior to parturition, resulting in a decrease in energy intake. A negative energy balance increases NEFA concentration, and increased NEFA may impair the immune system, especially by decreasing neutrophil function prior to parturition. Earlier studies have shown that post-partum health disorders, including retained placenta and metritis, were correlated with periparturient neutrophil function. In addition, decreased DMI is also linked to a reduced body condition score (BCS) in dairy cows. These events in the periparturient period negatively affect fertility. Some manipulation, such as shortening the dry period, may be a solution to increased DMI in the periparturient period, preventing post-partum disorders and subsequent fertility issues. This article aims to explain the effects of shortening the dry period on reproduction and early post-partum treatments to improve fertility. In addition, timed artificial insemination protocols will be discussed for use during the post-partum period to improve fertility in dairy cows. © 2011 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Dry period plane of energy: Effects on glucose tolerance in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Duplessis, M; Wakshlag, J J; Overton, T R; Cummings, B P; Nydam, D V

    2016-01-01

    Overfeeding energy in the dry period can affect glucose metabolism and the energy balance of transition dairy cows with potential detrimental effects on the ability to successfully adapt to early lactation. The objectives of this study were to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on glucose tolerance and on resting concentrations of blood glucose, glucagon, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) in the peripartum period. Cows entering second or greater lactation were enrolled at dry-off (57 d before expected parturition) into 1 of 3 treatment groups following a randomized block design: cows that received a total mixed ration (TMR) formulated to meet but not exceed energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, controlled energy); cows that received a TMR supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements during the dry period (n=28, high energy); and cows that were fed the same diet as the controlled energy group for the first 28 d, after which the TMR was formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements until calving (n=28, intermediate energy). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) with rapid administration of 0.25 g of glucose/kg of body weight were performed 28 and 10d before expected parturition, as well as at 4 and 21 d after calving. Area under the curve for insulin and glucose, maximal concentration and time to half-maximal concentration of insulin and glucose, and clearance rates were calculated. Insulin resistance (IR) indices were calculated from baseline samples obtained during IVGTT and Spearman rank correlations determined between IVGTT parameters and IR indices. Treatment did not affect IVGTT parameters at any of the 4 time points. Correlation between IR indices and IVGTT parameters was generally poor. Overfeeding cows energy in excess of predicted requirements by approximately 50% during the entire dry period resulted in decreased postpartum basal plasma glucose and

  16. Comparison between Serum and Saliva Biochemical Constituents in Dairy Cows during Lactation and Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahmoud R. Abd Ellah

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to compare serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period in dairy cows. Also, the present study evaluated for the first time the salivary biochemical constituents in dairy cows. The study was carried out using 45 healthy multiparous Holstein cows maintained in dairy farms located in Morioka city (Iwate prefecture, Japan. Cows were classified into groups based on the month of lactation. Serum, saliva and milk samples were collected and analyzed. Data were statistically analyzed and the variation in serum and salivary biochemical constituents during lactation and dry period were discussed. From the present study, it could be concluded that the 1st month of lactation has the highest levels for serum free fatty acids (FFA, β- Hydroxy butyric acid (BHBA and aceto Acetic acid (ACAC. The dry period has the highest serum glucose level and the lowest serum FFA, BHBA and aspartate aminotransferase levels. Both serum and salivary FFA showed the highest value during the 1st month of lactation. Saliva contains a high level of gamma glutamyl transferase. The level of ammonia in saliva is higher than its serum level during all months of lactation and dry period. Most of the biochemical constituents in saliva change in different way from serum during lactation and dry period. Milk protein/fat ratio of 0.7 may be not indicative for subclinical ketosis.

  17. [Effect of antecedent dry weather period on urban storm runoff pollution load].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li-qing; Yin, Cheng-qing; Kong, Ling-li; He, Qing-ci

    2007-10-01

    Twelve storm events were surveyed at Shilipu catchment in Wuhan City through three-year monitoring regime. The flow discharges, total suspended solids (TSS), chemical oxygen demand (COD), total nitrogen (TN), and total phosphorus (TP) in runoff were measured to study the mechanism of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The relationship between the event pollution load and the antecedent dry weather period was identified to discuss the influence of the urban surface sanitation management, operation of sewer pipe maintenance and rainfall characteristics on the urban stormwater runoff pollution. It was found that the antecedent dry weather period and runoff amount were the important determining factors in the generation of urban stormwater runoff pollution. The event pollution load was positively correlated to the antecedent dry weather period between two rainfall events (R2 = 0.95, p pollution loads. The best regression equation to estimate pollution load for storm events was developed based on the antecedent dry weather period and runoff depth. Source control including improving urban street sweeping activities and operation of sewer pipe maintenance should be made to reduce the amount of available pollutant over the dry days. It is important alternative to control urban stormwater runoff pollution for Hanyang District.

  18. Effect of cooling heat-stressed dairy cows during the dry period on insulin response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, S; Thompson, I M; Monteiro, A P A; Hayen, M J; Young, L J; Dahl, G E

    2012-09-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period affects hepatic gene expression and adipose tissue mobilization during the transition period. In addition, it is postulated that HT may alter insulin action on peripheral tissues. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of cooling heat-stressed cows during the dry period on insulin effects on peripheral tissues during the transition period. Cows were dried off 46 d before expected calving and assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT (n = 16) or cooling (CL, n = 16). During the dry period, the average temperature-humidity index was 78, but CL cows were cooled with sprinklers and fans, whereas HT cows were not. After calving, all cows were housed and managed under the same conditions. Rectal temperatures were measured twice daily (0730 and 1430 h) and respiration rate recorded 3 times weekly during the dry period. Dry matter intake was recorded daily from dry-off to 42 d relative to calving (DRC). Body weight and body condition score were measured weekly from dry-off to 42 DRC. Milk yield and composition were recorded daily to 42 wk postpartum. Glucose tolerance tests (GTT) and insulin challenges (IC) were performed at dry-off, -14, 7, and 28 DRC in a subset of cows (HT, n = 8; CL, n = 8). Relative to HT, CL cows had lower rectal temperatures (39.3 vs. 39.0°C) in the afternoon and respiration rate (69 vs. 48 breath/min). Cows from the cooling treatment tended to consume more feed than HT cows prepartum and postpartum. Compared with HT, CL cows gained more weight before calving but lost more weight and body condition in early lactation. Cows from the cooling treatment produced more milk than HT cows (34.0 vs. 27.7 kg/d), but treatments did not affect milk composition. Treatments did not affect circulating insulin and metabolites prepartum, but CL cows had decreased glucose, increased nonesterified fatty acid, and tended to have lower insulin concentrations in plasma postpartum compared with HT cows. Cooling prepartum HT cows did not

  19. Transcriptomic impacts of rumen epithelium induced by butyrate infusion in dairy cattle in dry period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Transcriptomics and bioinformatics are utilized to accelerate our understanding of regulation in rumen epithelial transcriptome of cattle in the dry period induced by butyrate infusion. Butyrate, as an essential element of nutrients, is an HDAC inhibitor that can alter histone acetylation and methyl...

  20. Relationship between metabolism and ovarian activity in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Soede, N.M.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to evaluate the effects of dry period length on ovarian activity in cows fed a lipogenic or a glucogenic diet within 100 days in milk (DIM) and to determine relationships between ovarian activity and energy balance and metabolic status in early lactation.

  1. Relationships between uterine health and metabolism in dairy cows with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.; Soede, N.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on ovarian activity, uterine health status, pregnancy rate, and days open in dairy cows in the second subsequent lactation after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments. The

  2. Cow characteristics and their association with production performance with different dry period lengths

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W; van Knegsel, A T M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; Vernooij, J C M; Hogeveen, H

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance of dairy cows in early lactation. Both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation compared with a conventional DP length of 60d. Some

  3. Can patients with Parkinson's disease use dry powder inhalers during off periods?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Luinstra, M.; Rutgers, A.W.F.; Dijkstra, H.; Grasmeijer, F.; Hagedoorn, P.; Vogelzang, J.M.J.; Frijlink, H.W.; De Boer, A.H.

    2015-01-01

    Because of its rapid onset of action, pulmonary administration of levodopa is an interesting alternative to oral administration for the rescue treatment of Parkinson's disease patients in an off period. We studied the ability of Parkinson's disease patients to operate a dry powder inhaler (DPI)

  4. Effect of nutritional immunomodulation and heat stress during the dry period on subsequent performance of cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabris, Thiago F; Laporta, Jimena; Corra, Fabiana N; Torres, Yazielis M; Kirk, David J; McLean, Derek J; Chapman, J D; Dahl, Geoffrey E

    2017-08-01

    Heat stress in dairy cows during the dry period impairs milk yield in the next lactation. Feeding OmniGen-AF (OG; Phibro Animal Health Corp., Teaneck, NJ) to lactating cows during heat stress may increase dry matter intake (DMI) and lowers respiration rate (RR) and rectal temperature (RT), but the effects in dry cows are not known. We hypothesized that OG supplementation before, during, and after the dry period (approximately 160 d total) would overcome the effects of heat stress and improve cow performance in the next lactation. Cows were randomly assigned to OG or control (placebo) treatments for the last 60 d in milk (DIM), based on mature-equivalent milk yield in the previous lactation. Cows were dried off 45 d before expected calving and randomly assigned to heat stress (HT) or cooling (CL) treatments. Thus, cows received dietary supplementation during late lactation before they were exposed to either CL or HT. After dry-off, treatment groups included heat stress with placebo (HT, only shade, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 17), HT with OG supplementation (HTOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 19), cooling with placebo (CL, shade, fans, and soakers, 56 g/d of placebo, n = 16), and CL with OG supplementation (CLOG, 56 g/d of OG, n = 11). After parturition, all cows were kept under the same CL system and management, and all cows continued to receive OG or control treatment until 60 DIM. Cooling cows during the dry period reduced afternoon RT (CL vs. HT; 38.9 ± 0.05 vs. 39.3 ± 0.05°C) and RR (CL vs. HT; 45 ± 1.6 vs. 77 ± 1.6 breaths/min). Respiration rate was also decreased by OG supplementation under HT conditions (HTOG vs. HT; 69.7 ± 1.6 vs. 77.2 ± 1.6 breaths/min). An interaction was observed between OG supplementation and HT; HTOG cows tended to have lower morning RT compared with HT cows. During the dry period, OG reduced DMI relative to control cows. Birth weight was greater in calves from CL cows (CL vs. HT; 40.6 ± 1.09 vs. 38.7 ± 1.09 kg). No differences were detected

  5. Administration of antibiotics to ewes at the beginning of the dry-period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petridis, Ioannis G; Fthenakis, George C

    2014-02-01

    The objective of the present paper is to review the significance of administration of antibiotics at the end of a lactation period/beginning of the dry-period in ewes. During the stage of active involution, there is an increased risk of new mastitis cases and recrudescence of subclinical infections that had occurred during the previous lactation period. The main pathogens involved in the so-called 'dry-period mastitis' are coagulase-negative staphylococci. The principle of antibiotic administration at the end of a lactation period involves the intramammary infusion of a preparation to both mammary glands of ewes in the flock. Although a variety of products is licensed for administration in ewes, preferably the product for administration should be selected on the results of susceptibility testing of bacteria to be isolated from samples from ewes in the flock. In many clinical studies from around the world, performed in dairy- or mutton-production flocks, administration of antimicrobial agents at the end of a lactation period has been found beneficial in curing intramammary infections present at cessation of a lactation period, as well as in minimising the risk for intramammary infections during the dry-period. In dairy flocks, there are also benefits from increase in milk yield and decrease flock bulk milk mean somatic cell counts during the subsequent lactation period. Antibiotic administration at drying-off may be performed to all animals in a flock ('complete') or only to those considered to be infected ('selective'). In all cases, after administration of the antibiotic, definite and complete cessation of the lactation period is essential for success of the procedure. Moreover, maintenance of the prescribed withdrawal periods is essential to safeguard public health. The procedure should always be applied as part of a strategic udder health management plan in a flock; implementation improves the welfare of animals and affords significant financial benefits to the

  6. Existence of Stick-Slip Periodic Solutions in a Dry Friction Oscillator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Qun-Hong; Chen Yu-Ming; Qin Zhi-Ying

    2011-01-01

    The stick-slip behavior in friction oscillators is very complicated due to the non-smoothness of the dry friction, which is the basic form of motion of dynamical systems with friction. In this paper, the stick-slip periodic solution in a single-degree-of-freedom oscillator with dry friction is investigated in detail. Under the assumption of kinetic friction being the Coulomb friction, the existence of the stick-slip periodic solution is considered to give out an analytic criterion in a class of friction systems. A two-parameter unfolding diagram is also described. Moreover, the time and states of motion on the boundary of the stick and slip motions are semi-analytically obtained in a single stick-slip period. (general)

  7. Sustainable Irrigation Allocation Model for Dry and Wet Periods using Reservoir Storage and Inflow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Surianarayanan, S.; Suribabu, C. R.; Ramakrishnan, K.

    2017-07-01

    The dry period agriculture is inevitable both for the farmers for their earning, and for the soil for its fertility by crop-rotation. In tropical countries like INDIA, dry period agriculture becomes difficult because of less (or) no rain fall. Hence a simple water balancing model for irrigation scheduling, using the measure “Volumetric Reliability” is prepared in this paper, with the storage and inflow of a reservoir both for the dry and wet periods. The case-study is done for a reservoir in INDIA with thirty one years of hydrological data(from 1982 to 2012). The objective of this paper is to prepare a simple water balance model taking 10 days periods of demand and supply for ID crop(Irrigated Dry crop, ground nut) with usage of volumetric reliability concept for the periods of deficiency and adoption of less water requirement crops to reduce the water-stress during critical periods of crop growth, and finally arrive at a feasible allocation schedule for the success of agriculture and the yield throughout the year both for wet and dry crops with the available storage on the start of irrigation for a particular year. The reservoir is divided for storages such as full, deficient and critical storages. The starting storage for the dry period from January is used after adequate allocation for wet crops, the quantity for riparian rights and for drinking water, for the sustainability. By the water-balancing, the time-series for thirty one years, it is found that for twenty two years the demand for the ID crops is satisfied with the storage in the reservoir, and in the remaining years of deficient inflows, for three years (1986,1996,2004)the demand is managed by using the safe reliability factor for demand which can nullify the deficit in demand for the whole supply period. But it is genuine to assure that the reduction in the amount of water for each 10 days periods should not exceed the survival limit of the crop. Necessary soil-moisture must be ensured in the crop

  8. Influence of the harvesting time, temperature and drying period on basil (Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luiz S. Carvalho Filho

    Full Text Available Ocimum basilicum L. essential oil with high concentration of linalool is valuable in international business. O. basilicum essential oil is widely used as seasoning and in cosmetic industry. To assure proper essential oil yield and quality, it is crucial to determine which environmental and processing factors are affecting its composition. The goal of our work is to evaluate the effects of harvesting time, temperature, and drying period on the yield and chemical composition of O. basilicum essential oil. Harvestings were performed 40 and 93 days after seedling transplantation. Harvesting performed at 8:00 h and 12:00 h provided higher essential oil yield. After five days drying, the concentration of linalool raised from 45.18% to 86.80%. O. basilicum should be harvested during morning and the biomass dried at 40ºC for five days to obtain linalool rich essential oil.

  9. Assessment of the Potential Occurrence of Dry Period in the Long Term for Pahang State, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Othman Ahmad Saifuddin

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The interference of climate circulation and continuous rising of surface temperature every year has caused the atmosphere composition change which gives serious impact to water resource management. Pahang is among of the affected states by El Nino that hit Malaysia in recent years which led to water depletion at several water plants. Based on the current situation, this study focuses on 1 simulate the average rain pattern using statistical downscaling; 2 identify the severity index and dry duration occurrence in the catchment area. Predicting potential changes in the climate events is important to evaluate the level of climate change in the critical region. Therefore, the integration of Statistical Downscaling Model (SDSM and Standard Precipitation Index (SPI have been conducted to study the potential occurrence of the dry period due to climate change for year 2020s and year 2050s. The results reveal that the dry condition is high during the mid-year. The lowest SPI value is estimated to reach -2.2 which can be classified as extreme. The potential dry period is expected to increase 2.5% and 3.3% in 2020 and 2050, respectively.

  10. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood mineral status around calving

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M

    2003-01-01

    This article summarizes the results obtained in 6 separate studies concerned with the effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on blood calcium, magnesium and phosphorus status around calving. The experiments were conducted on 5 different farms, and comprised a total of 117 cows. Two...... of the experiments (exp. 5 and 6) were conducted under extensive farming conditions whereas the rest (exp. 1-4) were conducted on intensively driven farms. All cows included in the experiments had completed at least 2 lactations. The cows were allocated as either untreated control cows or zeolite treated...... experimental cows according to expected date of calving and parity. The experimental cows were fed between 0.5 and 1.0 kg of zeolite A per day during the last 2 to 4 weeks of the dry period. Blood samples were drawn on the day of calving and day one and two after calving (all experiments), three weeks before...

  11. Udder health of dairy cows fed different dietary energy levels after a short or no dry period without use of dry cow antibiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Dijkstra, J.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2018-01-01

    Reports on the effects of length of dry period (DP) on udder health of cows that were not treated with dry cow antibiotics are scarce. Additionally, the effects of a reduced dietary energy level for cows with a 0-d DP on udder health have not yet been studied. The aims of this study were (1) to

  12. Effect of dry period length on the effect of an intramammary teat sealant on the risk of mastitis in cattle treated with antibiotics at drying off.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laven, R A; Balcomb, C C; Tulley, W T; Lawrence, K E

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate, under farm conditions, the use of a teat sealant in addition to whole herd dry cow antibiotic therapy on the risk of clinical mastitis in dairy cattle at pasture, and to evaluate the impact of dry period length on that risk and the impact of the teat sealant on that risk. Dairy cows in three herds which used routine whole herd antibiotic therapy were randomly assigned to receive either treatment with an internal teat sealant (n=322) or no additional treatment (n=313) at drying-off between March and May 2010. All clinical mastitis cases during the dry period and to the end of the subsequent lactation were recorded by farm staff; factors affecting risk of clinical mastitis were then analysed using a Cox proportional hazards model. Median duration of the dry period was 112 days with >25% of cows having a dry period >130 days. The incidence risk of mastitis during lactation for cows treated with teat sealant was 9.9 (95% CI=6.9-13.7) cases per 100 cows compared with 17.9 (95% CI=13.8-22.6) cases per 100 cows for cows treated with antibiotic alone. The addition of a teat sealant to dry cow antibiotic therapy decreased the risk of clinical mastitis only in the first 33 days after calving (Hazard risk 0.24 (95% CI=0.12-0.48)). Length of dry period did not significantly affect the risk of clinical mastitis, or the effect of adding teat sealant to dry cow antibiotic therapy on the risk of clinical mastitis. In these herds where, based on the mastitis history, whole herd antibiotic therapy had been recommended, the use of a teat sealant significantly reduced the risk of clinical mastitis. This effect was limited to the first 33 days after calving; subsequently there was no significant effect of treatment. There was no effect of dry period length on risk of clinical mastitis, nor any significant interaction with treatment. Combination therapy with teat sealant and antibiotic was effective under New Zealand conditions in herds using whole

  13. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Randi A. Black

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined on: (1 lying behaviour and activity; (2 feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3 intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14 or pasture ( n = 14 using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d, lying bouts (bouts/d, steps (steps/d and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum, close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum, calving (calving date and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum. Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less

  14. A Case Study of Behaviour and Performance of Confined or Pastured Cows During the Dry Period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Randi A; Krawczel, Peter D

    2016-07-13

    The objectives of this study were to determine the effect of the dry cow management system (pasture or confined) on: (1) lying behaviour and activity; (2) feeding and heat stress behaviours; (3) intramammary infections, postpartum. Non-lactating Holstein cows were assigned to either deep-bedded, sand freestalls ( n = 14) or pasture ( n = 14) using rolling enrollment. At dry-off, cows were equipped with an accelerometer to determine daily lying time (h/d), lying bouts (bouts/d), steps (steps/d) and divided into periods: far-off (60 to 15 d prepartum), close-up (14 to 1 d prepartum), calving (calving date) and postpartum (1 to 14 d postpartum). Respiration rates were recorded once weekly from dry off to calving from 1300 to 1500 h. Feeding displacements were defined as one cow successfully displacing another from the feed bunk and were recorded once per week during the 2 h period, immediately after feeding at 800 h. Pastured cows were fed a commercial dry cow pellet during far-off and total mixed ration during close-up, with free access to hay and grazing. Freestall housed cows were fed a total mixed ration at far-off and close-up. Cows housed in freestalls were moved to a maternity pen with a mattress at commencement of labour. Pastured cows calved in pasture. After calving, all cows were commingled in a pen identical to the freestall housing treatment. Cows housed in freestalls laid down for longer during far-off and close-up periods, had fewer lying bouts during the calving period and took fewer steps throughout the study period when compared to pastured cows. Freestall housed cows experienced more displacements after feeding than did pastured cows. Respiration rates increased with an increasing temperature humidity index, more in pastured cows than in freestall housed cows. Pastured cows altered their lying behaviour and activity, suggesting a shift in time budget priorities between pastured and confined dry cows. Pastured cows also experienced less aggression

  15. Effect of dry period length and dietary energy source on energy balance, milk yield, and milk composition of dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Jorjong, S.; Fievez, V.; Kemp, B.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period length and dietary energy source in early lactation on milk production, feed intake, and energy balance (EB) of dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (60 primiparous and 108 multiparous) were randomly assigned to dry period

  16. The impact of controlled nutrition during the dry period on dairy cow health, fertility and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beever, David E

    2006-12-01

    Average dairy herd fertility is declining, with more serves per successful conception, extended calving intervals and increased culling due to failure to rebreed, all adding significant costs to milk production. Genetics, management and nutrition have all contributed to this decline in fertility; the paper focuses primarily on nutritional issues. The extent of body condition loss after calving and its possible impact on fertility is considered, with evidence that this phenomenon is common in many herds irrespective of average milk yields. Body tissue mobilisation after calving increases the flux of non-esterified fatty acids to the liver and pathways of fatty acid metabolism are considered. Particular attention is given to the effects of high plasma non-esterified fatty acid levels on fat accumulation in liver cells and possible impacts on nitrogen and glucose metabolism. Current nutritional practices with early lactation cows which aim to stimulate milk yield and peak milk production but have been shown to exacerbate body condition loss, are reviewed. The paper also considers cow health issues during the peri-parturient period and how these may affect milk yield and fertility. It is concluded that current feeding practices for dry cows, with the provision of increasing amounts of the lactation ration during the Close-up period to accustom the rumen microbes and offset the expected reduction in feed intake as pregnancy reaches term, have largely failed to overcome peri-parturient health problems, excessive body condition loss after calving or declining fertility. From an examination of the energy and protein requirements of dry cows, it is suggested that current Close-up feeding practices can lead to luxury intakes of nutrients that can increase fat deposition in the viscera and the liver. Under such conditions, metabolism of nutrients by the cow may be compromised. In contrast, limited feeding throughout the whole dry period has been shown to prevent many of the

  17. [Use of semisynthetic penicillin in the treatment of infectious mastitis in cows during the dry period].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasil', M; Federic, F

    1990-03-01

    During two years in a herd of dairy cows with an average number of 94 cows the effects on infection level were investigated of single nonselective antibiotics treatment of cow's udder in the dry period. The treatment influenced favourably the results of complex periodic three-months examinations: --level of infection with infectious mastitis was reduced from 38.3% to 9.8%; --occurrence of clinical forms of mastitis dropped from 17.4% to 5.9%;--occurrence of NK-test positive reactions decreased from 55.8% to 21.8%. An investigation into therapeutic efficiency of three intramammary preparations revealed the highest total therapeutic effect of Stapenor retard (Bayer, FRG)--93.2%; Syntarpene 500 (Polfa, Poland) had the total therapeutic efficiency of 92.6% and the efficiency of Oxaclene foam (Spofa, CSSR) made 86.5%. The results demonstrate good efficiency of the method because the levels of mastitis infection in the herd were positively influenced, and excellent therapeutic efficiency of semisynthetic penicillins containing intramammary preparations used for mastitis treatment of dairy cows in the dry period.

  18. Mesoscale storm and dry period parameters from hourly precipitation data: program documentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorp, J.M.

    1984-09-01

    Wet deposition of airborne chemical pollutants occurs primarily from precipitation. Precipitation rate, amount, duration, and location are important meteorological factors to be considered when attempting to understand the relationship of precipitation to pollutant deposition. The Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) has conducted studies and experiments in numerous locations to collect data that can be incorporated into theories and models that attempt to describe the complex relationship between precipitation occurrence and chemical wet desposition. Model development often requires the use of average rather than random condition as input. To provide mean values of storm parameters, the task, Climatological Analysis of Mesoscale Storms, was created as a facet of the Environmental Protection Agency's related-service project, Precipitation Scavenging Module Development. Within this task computer programs have been developed at PNL which incorporate hourly precipitation data from National Weather Service stations to calculate mean values and frequency distributions of precipitation periods and of the interspersed dry periods. These programs have been written with a degree of flexibiity that will allow user modification for applications to different, but similar, analyses. This report describes in detail the rationale and operation of the two computer programs which produce the tables of average and frequency distributions of storm and dry period parameters from the precipitation data. A listing of the programs and examples of the generated output are included in the appendices. 3 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  19. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Chuanqi; Li, Xiaoli; Shao, Yongni; He, Yong

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb*) and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR) models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS) and successive projections algorithm (SPA) were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR]) were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp) of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs) ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  20. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  1. Efficacy of an internal teat seal associated with a dry cow intramammary antibiotic for prevention of intramammary infections in dairy cows during the dry and early lactation periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívio R. Molina

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to evaluate the use of an internal dry period teat seal containing bismuth subnitrate (Teatseal®, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA associated with a long-acting cloxacilin preparation (Orbenin® Extra dry cow, Zoetis®, Florham Park, Nova Jersey, USA, in preventing new infections during the dry-off and early postpartum period. A total of 150 Holstein cows (average production of 9,000 kg of milk per lactation, with four functional udder quarters without clinical mastitis was included in the study. All animals were dried-off 60 days before the expected calving date. Two teats positioned diagonal-contralaterally received only dry cow antibiotic, control group C (n=300 and the other two teats, treatment group T (n=300 received dry cow antibiotic and infusion with an internal teat seal. Data from SCC variable were transformed by log base-10 transformation. Duncan’s test was used accepting 5% as the level of statistical significance. The occurrence of intramammary infection (IMI and chronicity rate, and frequency of microorganisms isolated at drying and immediately postpartum in teats of group C and group T were evaluated using a non-parametric Chi-square Test, accepting 10% as the statistical significance level. There was a decrease in the occurrence of new infections in the early postpartum in cows which the sealant was used (C=19.6%, T=11.4%. In the postpartum period, Gram-negative bacteria were isolated from 16 teats in C and seven in T. The greatest reduction was observed for Escherichia coli (8 vs 1 in group T. There was no effect using the internal sealant on the frequency of isolation of environmental Streptococus. The use of sealant reduced the prevalence of subclinical mastitis cows between drying-off and the early postpartum period (C=51% versus T=42% and resulted in a lower somatic cell count (SCC in the treatment group when compared with the control group (T=1,073x103, C=1,793x103. The use of

  2. Effect of maternal dry period length on colostrum immunoglobulin content and natural and specific antibody titers in calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Vries Reilingh, de G.; Nieuwland, M.G.B.; Remmelink, G.J.; Parmentier, H.K.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective was to study the effect of dry period length in dairy cows on immunoglobulin content and natural antibodies (NAb) titers in colostrum, growth, and plasma natural and specific antibody titers in plasma of calves. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were randomly assigned to 3 dry

  3. Dry soil diurnal quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222Rn concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tommasone Pascale, F.; De Francesco, S.; Carbone, P.; Cuoco, E.; Tedesco, D.

    2014-01-01

    222 Rn concentrations have been monitored during the dry season in August 2009 and August 2010, in a reworked alluvial-pyroclastic soil of the Pietramelara Plain, in Southern Italy, with the aim of determining the role of atmospheric factors in producing the quasi-periodic oscillations in soil 222 Rn concentrations reported in the literature. In this study we present the results of a detailed analysis and matching of soil 222 Rn concentrations, meteorological and solar parameters where the observed oscillations feature a characteristic behavior with second order build-up and depletion limbs, separated by a daily maximum and minimum. All these features are clearly shown to be tied to sunrise and sunset timings and environmental radiative flux regimes. Furthermore, a significant, and previously unreported, second order correlation (r 2  = 0.73) between daily maximum hourly global radiation and the daily range of soil 222 Rn concentrations has been detected, allowing estimates of the amplitude of these oscillations to be made from estimated or measured solar radiation data. The correlation has been found to be valid even in the presence of persistent patchy daytime cloudiness. In this case a daytime prolongation of the night-time build up stage and an attenuation or even suppression of daytime depletion is observed (a previously unreported effect). Neither soil cracking, nor precipitation, both suggested in some studies as causative factors for these oscillations, during the dry season appear to be necessary in explaining their occurrence. We also report the results of an artificial shading experiment, conducted in August 2009, that further support this conclusion. As soil 222 Rn concentrations during the dry season show a characteristic daily cycle, radon monitoring in soils under these conditions necessarily has to be gauged to the timings of the daily maximum and minimum, as well as to the eventual occurrence of cloudiness and to its related effects, in order to

  4. Cow, farm, and management factors during the dry period that determine the rate of clinical mastitis after calving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Green, M J; Bradley, A J; Medley, G F; Browne, W J

    2007-08-01

    The purpose of the research was to investigate cow characteristics, farm facilities, and herd management strategies during the dry period to examine their joint influence on the rate of clinical mastitis after calving. Data were collected over a 2-yr period from 52 commercial dairy farms throughout England and Wales. Cows were separated for analysis into those housed for the dry period (8,710 cow-dry periods) and those at pasture (9,964 cow-dry periods). Multilevel models were used within a Bayesian framework with 2 response variables, the occurrence of a first case of clinical mastitis within the first 30 d of lactation and time to the first case of clinical mastitis during lactation. A variety of cow and herd management factors were identified as being associated with an increased rate of clinical mastitis and these were found to occur throughout the dry period. Significant cow factors were increased parity and at least one somatic cell count > or = 200,000 cells/mL in the 90 d before drying off. A number of management factors related to hygiene were significantly associated with an increased rate of clinical mastitis. These included measures linked to the administration of dry-cow treatments and management of the early and late dry-period accommodation and calving areas. Other farm factors associated with a reduced rate of clinical mastitis were vaccination with a leptospirosis vaccine, selection of dry-cow treatments for individual cows within a herd rather than for the herd as a whole, routine body condition scoring of cows at drying off, and a pasture rotation policy of grazing dry cows for a maximum of 2 wk before allowing the pasture to remain nongrazed for a period of 4 wk. Models demonstrated a good ability to predict the farm incidence rate of clinical mastitis in a given year, with model predictions explaining over 85% of the variability in the observed data. The research indicates that specific dry-period management strategies have an important

  5. Supplementation of Nellore young bulls on Marandu grass pastures in the dry period of the year

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella de Toledo Piza Roth

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate performance and daytime ingestive behavior of 84 Nellore young bulls in the post-weaning phase kept on Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu pastures during the dry season. Treatments were protein mineral supplementation (1 g/kg body weight and protein+energy mineral supplementation (3 g/kg body weight. The experimental area comprised 12 paddocks in a total area of 27.36 ha, divided in two blocks of six paddocks each, having three replications per treatment in each block, with 42 animals/treatment. The data were subjected to variance analysis with repeated measures over time via procedure PROCMIXED of SAS (Statistical Analysis System, version 9.0 and means were compared by the Tukey test at 5% probability. The initial average weight of animals was 204.8 kg; final weights were 260.9 and 276.9 kg for animals that received protein and protein+energy supplement, respectively. The forage availability, sward height and stocking rate values did not differ with supplementation, but they showed difference between the experimental periods. The average time spent grazing during daylight of animals fed protein+energy supplement was shorter as compared with those which consumed protein supplement. Animals kept under the same pasture conditions during the dry season show better performance when they receive protein+energy supplement than protein supplement.

  6. Short communication: Effect of heat stress on markers of autophagy in the mammary gland during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlgemuth, S E; Ramirez-Lee, Y; Tao, S; Monteiro, A P A; Ahmed, B M; Dahl, G E

    2016-06-01

    Heat stress (HT) during the dry period compromises mammary gland (MG) growth, thus negatively affecting subsequent milk yield. Cooling during the late dry period, when mammary tissue proliferates, is a common management practice. However, it neglects MG involution during the early dry period, a process that is accomplished by both apoptosis and autophagy. Our objective was to evaluate the effect of HT on MG autophagy during the early dry period. Holstein cows were dried off ~45d before expected calving and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: HT or cooling (CL). All cows were housed in the same free stall barn during the dry period, but only the stall area for CL cows was equipped with soakers and fans. Rectal temperature and respiration rate were measured daily during the dry period. Mammary gland biopsies were collected from each cow 3d before dry-off and on d 3, 7, 14, and 22±2 after dry-off. Autophagy in the MG was determined by measuring protein expression of 2 autophagic markers, autophagy-related protein 7 and microtubule-associated protein light chain 3 (LC3). The average temperature-humidity index during the dry period was 77.7, which indicated that HT and CL cows were exposed to significant heat stress. However, the cooling system effectively alleviated heat strain in CL cows by decreasing the rectal temperature (39.0 vs. 39.4°C) and respiration rate (47.3 vs. 71.2 breaths per minute) relative to HT cows. Protein expression of autophagy-related protein 7, a marker for early autophagosome formation, did not change within or between groups. In contrast, protein expression of LC3-II, a marker of autophagosomes, and its precursor LC3-I showed a dynamic expression pattern in MG from CL cows during the early dry period. Relative to HT cows, MG from CL cows displayed higher expression of LC3-I and LC3-II on d 7 and lower expression of LC3-II on d 14 and 22 after dry-off. Collectively, our data provide a possible mechanistic explanation for the impairment of

  7. Events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and peripartum as risk factors for early lactation mastitis in cows receiving 2 different intramammary dry cow therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinedo, P J; Fleming, C; Risco, C A

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the association between mastitis events occurring during the previous lactation, the dry period, and the peripartum period on the incidence of early lactation mastitis in cows receiving ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin as intramammary dry cow antibiotic therapy. Cows (n=402) from 2 large dairy farms in Central Florida were enrolled in the study at the time of dry-off processing and were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 dry cow therapies: ceftiofur hydrochloride or penicillin dihydrostreptomycin. Composite milk samples were collected at dry-off and after calving for bacteriological examination and somatic cell count. Peripartal health disorders were monitored during the first 30 d of lactation and included calving difficulty, metritis, ketosis, and left displaced abomasum. Milk production and individual somatic cell scores (SCS) were recorded monthly by the Dairy Herd Improvement Association. The main outcome variables were the risk of clinical mastitis during the first 30 and 60 d of lactation, and the risk of subclinical mastitis at the first 2 monthly Dairy Herd Improvement Association tests after calving (up to 70 d in milk). Additionally, the SCS and the presence of mastitis pathogens in milk at dry-off and at calving were analyzed. Explanatory variables consisted of events occurring during the previous lactation, at dry-off and during the dry period, at calving, and within the first 30 d after calving. Multiple events occurring during the previous lactation had a significant effect on the incidence of mastitis in the subsequent lactation. These events included low milk yield, intermediate lactation length, clinical mastitis, and lactation SCS average. Similarly, intramammary infections with environmental bacteria at dry-off increased the chances of clinical mastitis the first month after calving. Dry-off therapy had a significant effect on mastitis incidence; cows treated with ceftiofur

  8. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, J.C.; Gross, J.J.; Dorland, van H.A.; Remmelink, G.J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and

  9. Relationships between uterine health and metabolism in dairy cows with different dry period lengths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Soede, N M; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    The first objective of this study was to evaluate effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on ovarian activity, uterine health status, pregnancy rate, and days open in dairy cows in the second subsequent lactation after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments. The second objective was to determine relationships of uterine health status with ovarian activity, milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in dairy cows. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n = 167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0-, 30-, or 60-d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic diet) for 2 subsequent lactations. Milk samples were collected three times a week. At least two succeeding milk samples with concentration of progesterone ≥2 ng/mL were used to indicate the occurrence of luteal activity. Vaginal discharge was scored in wk 2 and 3 after calving to evaluate uterine health status and cows were classified as having a healthy uterine environment [HU, vaginal discharge score (VDS) = 0 or 1 in both wk 2 and 3], a recovering uterine environment (RU, VDS = 2 or 3 in wk 2 and VDS = 0 or 1 in wk 3), or a non-recovering uterine environment (NRU, VDS = 2 or 3 in wk 3). Cows were monitored for milk yield, dry matter intake (DMI), and blood was sampled weekly to determine metabolic status from calving to wk 3 postcalving. Dry period length was not related with uterine health status in early lactation, pregnancy rate, or days open in dairy cows. Independent of DP length, feeding a glucogenic diet shortened the interval from calving to onset of luteal activity (25.3 vs. 31.0 d, P = 0.04), but decreased pregnancy rate compared with a more lipogenic diet (68.2 vs. 78.1 d, P = 0.03). In the first 3 wk after calving, cows with a NRU had lower milk yield (36.8 vs. 36.8 vs. 32.4 kg for cows with a HU, RU, or NRU, respectively; P cows with a HU or RU. Cows with a RU had lower plasma glucose and insulin concentrations than

  10. Occurrence Probabilities of Wet and Dry Periods in Southern Italy through the SPI Evaluated on Synthetic Monthly Precipitation Series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available The present article investigates dry and wet periods in a large area of the Mediterranean basin. First, a stochastic model was applied to a homogeneous database of monthly precipitation values of 46 rain gauges in five regions of southern Italy. In particular, after estimating the model parameters, a set of 104 years of monthly precipitation for each rain gauge was generated by means of a Monte Carlo technique. Then, dry and wet periods were analyzed through the application of the standardized precipitation index (SPI over 3-month and 6-month timespan (short-term and 12-month and 24-month period (long-term. As a result of the SPI application on the generated monthly precipitation series, higher occurrence probabilities of dry conditions than wet conditions have been detected, especially when long-term precipitation scales are considered.

  11. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Association between body energy content in the dry period and post-calving production disease status in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G L; Friggens, N C; Ashworth, C J; Chagunda, M G G

    2017-09-01

    The transition from gestation to lactation is marked by significant physiological changes for the individual cow such that disease incidence is highest in early lactation. Around the time of calving, cows rely on mobilisation of body energy reserves to fill the energy deficit created by an increase in nutrient demands at a time of restricted feed intake. It is well established that monitoring of body energy reserves in lactation is an important component of herd health management. However, despite their influence on future health and productivity, monitoring of body energy reserves in the dry period is often sparse. Further, there is increasing concern that current dry off management is inappropriate for modern cattle and may influence future disease risk. This study aimed to identify candidate indicators of early lactation production disease from body energy data collected in the dry period and production data recorded at the time of dry off. Retrospective analysis was performed on 482 cow-lactations collected from a long-term Holstein-Friesian genetic and management systems project, the Langhill herd in Scotland. Cow-lactations were assigned to one of four health groups based on health status in the first 30 days of lactation. These four groups were as follows: healthy, reproductive tract disorders (retained placenta and metritis), subclinical mastitis and metabolic disorders (ketosis, hypocalcaemia, hypomagnesaemia and left displaced abomasum). ANOVA, employing a GLM was used to determine effects for the candidate indicator traits. Cows which were diagnosed with a reproductive tract disorder in the first 30 days of lactation experienced a significantly greater loss in body energy content, body condition score and weight in the preceding dry period than healthy cows. The rate of change in body energy content during the first 15 days of the dry period was -18.26 MJ/day for cows which developed reproductive tract disorder compared with +0.63 MJ/day for healthy cows

  13. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  14. The effect of dry period length and postpartum level of concentrate on milk production, energy balance, and plasma metabolites of dairy cows across the dry period and in early lactation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, T.J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period (DP) improves energy balance (EB) in early lactation because of a reduction in milk yield. Lower milk yield results in lower energy demands and requires less energy intake. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of DP length and concentrate level

  15. Facing unprecedented drying of the Central Andes? Precipitation variability over the period AD 1000–2100

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neukom, Raphael; Salzmann, Nadine; Huggel, Christian; Rohrer, Mario; Calanca, Pierluigi; Acuña, Delia; Christie, Duncan A; Morales, Mariano S

    2015-01-01

    Projected future trends in water availability are associated with large uncertainties in many regions of the globe. In mountain areas with complex topography, climate models have often limited capabilities to adequately simulate the precipitation variability on small spatial scales. Also, their validation is hampered by typically very low station density. In the Central Andes of South America, a semi-arid high-mountain region with strong seasonality, zonal wind in the upper troposphere is a good proxy for interannual precipitation variability. Here, we combine instrumental measurements, reanalysis and paleoclimate data, and a 57-member ensemble of CMIP5 model simulations to assess changes in Central Andes precipitation over the period AD 1000–2100. This new database allows us to put future projections of precipitation into a previously missing multi-centennial and pre-industrial context. Our results confirm the relationship between regional summer precipitation and 200 hPa zonal wind in the Central Andes, with stronger Westerly winds leading to decreased precipitation. The period of instrumental coverage (1965–2010) is slightly dryer compared to pre-industrial times as represented by control simulations, simulations from the past Millennium, ice core data from Quelccaya ice cap and a tree-ring based precipitation reconstruction. The model ensemble identifies a clear reduction in precipitation already in the early 21st century: the 10 year running mean model uncertainty range (ensemble 16–84% spread) is continuously above the pre-industrial mean after AD 2023 (AD 2028) until the end of the 21st century in the RCP2.6 (RCP8.5) emission scenario. Average precipitation over AD 2071–2100 is outside the range of natural pre-industrial variability in 47 of the 57 model simulations for both emission scenarios. The ensemble median fraction of dry years (defined by the 5th percentile in pre-industrial conditions) is projected to increase by a factor of 4 until 2071

  16. Dry period cooling ameliorates physiological variables and blood acid base balance, improving milk production in murrah buffaloes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aarif, Ovais; Aggarwal, Anjali

    2016-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the impact of evaporative cooling during late gestation on physiological responses, blood gas and acid base balance and subsequent milk production of Murrah buffaloes. To investigate this study sixteen healthy pregnant dry Murrah buffaloes (second to fourth parity) at sixty days prepartum were selected in the months of May to June and divided into two groups of eight animals each. One group of buffaloes (Cooled/CL) was managed under fan and mist cooling system during dry period. Group second buffaloes (Noncooled/NCL) remained as control without provision of cooling during dry period. The physiological responses viz. Rectal temperature (RT), Respiratory rate (RR) and Pulse rate were significantly ( P Milk yield, FCM, fat yield, lactose yield and total solid yield was significantly higher ( P < 0.05) in cooled group of Murrah buffaloes.

  17. Atmospheric circulation over the Bolivian Altiplano during dry and wet periods and extreme phases of the Southern Oscillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuille, M.

    1999-11-01

    The atmospheric circulation over the Bolivian Altiplano during composite WET and DRY periods and during HIGH and LOW index phases of the Southern Oscillation was investigated using daily radiosonde data from Antofagasta (Chile), Salta (Argentina), Lima (Peru) and La Paz (Bolivia), daily precipitation data from the Bolivian/Chilean border between 18° and 19°S and monthly NCEP (National Centers for Environmental Prediction) reanalysis data between 1960 and 1998. In austral summer (DJF) the atmosphere during WET periods is characterized by easterly wind anomalies in the middle and upper troposphere over the Altiplano, resulting in increased moisture influx from the interior of the continent near the Altiplano surface. The Bolivian High is intensified and displaced southward. On the other hand, westerly winds usually prevail during DRY summer periods, preventing the moisture transport from the east from reaching the western Altiplano. Precipitation tends to be deficient over the western Bolivian Altiplano during LOW index summers and above average during HIGH and LOW+1 summers, but the relation is weak and statistically insignificant. LOW summers feature broadly similar atmospheric circulation anomalies as DRY periods and can be regarded as an extended DRY period or as a summer with increased occurrence of DRY episodes. HIGH summers, and to a lesser degree LOW+1 summers, are characterized by broadly opposite atmospheric characteristics, featuring a more pronounced Bolivian High located significantly further south, and easterly wind anomalies over the Altiplano. In winter (JJA) precipitation events are rare; these are associated with increased northerly and westerly wind components, reduced pressure and temperature, and increased specific humidity over the entire Altiplano. Atmospheric circulation anomalies during LOW periods are less pronounced in austral winter (JJA) than in summer, but generally feature similar changes (increased temperatures and a vertically

  18. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kok, Akke; Middelaar, van Corina E.; Mostert, Pim F.; Knegsel, van Ariëtte T.M.; Kemp, Bas; Boer, de Imke J.M.; Hogeveen, Henk

    2017-01-01

    Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable

  19. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, N.; Chen, J.; Ferrari, A.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Kemp, B.; Parmentier, H.K.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Trevisi, E.

    2017-01-01

    Negative energy balance in dairy cows in early lactation has been associated with increased inflammation and oxidative stress in these cows. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of dry period (DP) length and dietary energy source on inflammatory biomarkers and oxidative stress

  20. Comments to "Analysis of constant rate period of spray drying of slurry" by Liang et al., 2001

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Kåre; Jensen, Anker Degn; Sloth, Jakob

    2006-01-01

    In the study by Liang et al. [2001. Analysis of constant rate period of spray drying of slurry. Chemical Engineering Science 56, 2205-2213] the Darcy flow of liquid through a pore system of primary particles to the surface of a slurry droplet was applied for the constant rate period. Steep primary...... particle concentration gradients inside -25 mu m droplets with a primary particle size of 0.2 mu m were observed. Unfortunately, the boundary condition at the droplet surface for the parabolic second-order PDE did not conserve the solid mass in the droplet, and the plots for the primary particle...

  1. Fluorescent bioaerosol particle, molecular tracer, and fungal spore concentrations during dry and rainy periods in a semi-arid forest

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. I. Gosselin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Bioaerosols pose risks to human health and agriculture and may influence the evolution of mixed-phase clouds and the hydrological cycle on local and regional scales. The availability and reliability of methods and data on the abundance and properties of atmospheric bioaerosols, however, are rather limited. Here we analyze and compare data from different real-time ultraviolet laser/light-induced fluorescence (UV-LIF instruments with results from a culture-based spore sampler and offline molecular tracers for airborne fungal spores in a semi-arid forest in the southern Rocky Mountains of Colorado. Commercial UV-APS (ultraviolet aerodynamic particle sizer and WIBS-3 (wideband integrated bioaerosol sensor, version 3 instruments with different excitation and emission wavelengths were utilized to measure fluorescent aerosol particles (FAPs during both dry weather conditions and periods heavily influenced by rain. Seven molecular tracers of bioaerosols were quantified by analysis of total suspended particle (TSP high-volume filter samples using a high-performance anion-exchange chromatography system with pulsed amperometric detection (HPAEC-PAD. From the same measurement campaign, Huffman et al. (2013 previously reported dramatic increases in total and fluorescent particle concentrations during and immediately after rainfall and also showed a strong relationship between the concentrations of FAPs and ice nuclei (Huffman et al., 2013; Prenni et al., 2013. Here we investigate molecular tracers and show that during rainy periods the atmospheric concentrations of arabitol (35.2 ± 10.5 ng m−3 and mannitol (44.9 ± 13.8 ng m−3 were 3–4 times higher than during dry periods. During and after rain, the correlations between FAP and tracer mass concentrations were also significantly improved. Fungal spore number concentrations on the order of 104 m−3, accounting for 2–5 % of TSP mass during dry periods and 17–23 % during rainy

  2. Correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandão, Rita K C; de Carvalho, Gleidson G P; Silva, Robério R; Dias, Daniel L S; Mendes, Fabrício B L; Lins, Túlio O J D'A; Pereira, Maria M S; Guimarães, Joanderson O; Tosto, Manuela S L; Rufino, Luana M de A; de Araujo, Maria L G M L

    2018-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the correlation between production performance and feeding behavior of steers reared on pasture during the rainy-dry transition period. Twenty-two ½ Holstein-Zebu crossbred steers at an average age of 10 months and with an average initial body weight of 234.5 ± 16.0 kg were distributed in a completely randomized design with two types of supplementation and eleven replications. Pearson's linear correlation analysis was performed between behavioral variables and weight gain and feed conversion. Correlation coefficients were tested by the t test. The time expended feeding at the trough was positively correlated (P correlated (P correlated (P correlation (P < 0.05) between feed efficiency in dry matter and neutral detergent fiber and ADG. Feeding behavior characteristics have little association with the production performance of cattle on pasture receiving mineral or energy-protein supplementation.

  3. Behavior of spent fuel and cask components after extended periods of dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kenneally, R.; Kessler, J.

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) promulgated 10 CFR Part 72, Title 10, for the independent storage of spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste outside reactor spent fuel pools. Part 72 currently limits the license term for an independent spent fuel storage installation to 20 years from the date of issuance. Licenses may be renewed by the Commission at or before the expiration of the license term. Applications for renewal of a license should be filed at least two years prior to the expiration of the existing license. In preparation for possible license renewal, the NRC Office of Nuclear Material and Safeguards, Spent Fuel Project Office, is developing the technical basis for renewals of licenses and Certificates of Compliance for dry storage systems for spent nuclear fuel and high-level radioactive waste at independent spent fuel storage installation sites. An analysis of past performance of selected components of these systems is required as part of that technical basis. In the years 1980 through the early 1990, the Department of Energy (DOE) procured four prototype dry storage casks for testing at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL): Castor-V/21, MC-10, TN-24P, and VSC-17. The primary purpose of the testing was to benchmark thermal and radiological codes and to determine the thermal and radiological characteristics of the casks. A series of examinations in 1999 and early 2000 to investigate the integrity of the Castor V/21 cask were undertaken. There is no evidence of significant degradation of the Castor V/21 cask systems important to safety from the time of initial loading of the cask in 1985 up to the time of testing in 1999. (author)

  4. Effects of Rainfall-Induced Topsoil Structure Changes on Root-Zone Moisture Regime during the Dry Period

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Feng; Chen, Jiazhou; Lin, Lirong

    2018-01-01

    Rainfall erosion and subsequent intermittent drought are serious barriers for agricultural production in the subtropical red soil region of China. Although it is widely recognized that rainfall-induced soil structure degradation reduced soil water storage and water-holding capacity, the effects of variation of the rainfall-induced topsoil structure on the subsequent soil water regime during the dry period is still rarely considered. The objective of this study was to ascertain the way of rainfall-induced topsoil structure changes on the subsequent soil water regime during the dry period. In a three-year-long experiment, six practices (CK, only crop; SM, straw mulching; PAM, polyacrylamide surface application; B, contour Bahia-grass strip; SPAM, straw mulching and polyacrylamide surface application; and BPAM, contour Bahia-grass strip and polyacrylamide surface application) were conducted at an 8° farmland with planting summer maize resulting in different topsoil structure and root-zone moisture, to establish and reveal the quantitatively relationship between the factors of topsoil structure and soil drought. Rainfall erosion significantly increased the soil crust coverage, and decreased the WSA 0.25, 0-30 mm soil porosity and mean pore size. There was no significant difference during the raining stage of root-zone water storage between CK and other practices. An index of soil drought intensity ( I) and degree ( D) was established using soil water loss rate and soil drought severity. The larger value of I means a higher rate of water loss. The larger value of D means more severe drought. During the dry period, I and D were significantly higher in CK than in other practices. I and D had significantly positively correlation with the crust size and crust coverage, and negatively with WSA 0.25, 15-30 mm soil porosity and mean pore size. Among of soil structure factors, the soil porosity had the largest effect on I and D. The rainfall-induced topsoil structure changes

  5. Effects of dry period length on production, cash flows and greenhouse gas emissions of the dairy herd: A dynamic stochastic simulation model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akke Kok

    Full Text Available Shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows improves metabolic health in early lactation and reduces management transitions for dairy cows. The success of implementation of these strategies depends on their impact on milk yield and farm profitability. Insight in these impacts is valuable for informed decision-making by farmers. The aim of this study was to investigate how shortening or omitting the dry period of dairy cows affects production and cash flows at the herd level, and greenhouse gas emissions per unit of milk, using a dynamic stochastic simulation model. The effects of dry period length on milk yield and calving interval assumed in this model were derived from actual performance of commercial dairy cows over multiple lactations. The model simulated lactations, and calving and culling events of individual cows for herds of 100 cows. Herds were simulated for 5 years with a dry period of 56 (conventional, 28 or 0 days (n = 50 herds each. Partial cash flows were computed from revenues from sold milk, calves, and culled cows, and costs from feed and rearing youngstock. Greenhouse gas emissions were computed using a life cycle approach. A dry period of 28 days reduced milk production of the herd by 3.0% in years 2 through 5, compared with a dry period of 56 days. A dry period of 0 days reduced milk production by 3.5% in years 3 through 5, after a dip in milk production of 6.9% in year 2. On average, dry periods of 28 and 0 days reduced partial cash flows by €1,249 and €1,632 per herd per year, and increased greenhouse gas emissions by 0.7% and 0.5%, respectively. Considering the potential for enhancing cow welfare, these negative impacts of shortening or omitting the dry period seem justifiable, and they might even be offset by improved health.

  6. Born dry in the photoevaporation desert: Kepler's ultra-short-period planets formed water-poor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Eric D.

    2017-11-01

    Recent surveys have uncovered an exciting new population of ultra-short-period (USP) planets with orbital periods less than a day. These planets typically have radii ≲1.5 R⊕, indicating that they likely have rocky compositions. This stands in contrast to the overall distribution of planets out to ∼100 d, which is dominated by low-density sub-Neptunes above 2 R⊕, which must have gaseous envelopes to explain their size. However, on the USP orbits, planets are bombarded by intense levels of photoionizing radiation and consequently gaseous sub-Neptunes are extremely vulnerable to losing their envelopes to atmospheric photoevaporation. Using models of planet evolution, I show that the rocky USP planets can easily be produced as the evaporated remnants of sub-Neptunes with H/He envelopes and that we can therefore understand the observed dearth of USP sub-Neptunes as a natural consequence of photoevaporation. Critically however, planets on USP orbits could often retain their envelopes if they are formed with very high-metallicity water-dominated envelopes. Such water-rich planets would commonly be ≳2 R⊕ today, which is inconsistent with the observed evaporation desert, indicating that most USP planets likely formed from water-poor material within the snow-line. Finally, I examine the special case of 55 Cancri e and its possible composition in the light of recent observations, and discuss the prospects for further characterizing this population with future observations.

  7. Morphological adaptation of rumen papillae during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/314000550; Bannink, A.; Geurts, I. A L; Schonewille, J. T.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/185364306; Gort, G.; Dijkstra, J.

    2016-01-01

    Knowledge of the morphological adaptation of rumen papilla, which plays an important role in volatile fatty acid absorption, in dry and early lactation dairy cattle is limited. Therefore, macro- and microscopic changes in papilla morphology during the dry period and lactation and the effect of rate

  8. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  9. Effect of Parenteral Antioxidant Supplementation During the Dry Period on Postpartum Glucose Tolerance in Dairy Cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abuelo, A; Alves-Nores, V; Hernandez, J; Muiño, R; Benedito, J L; Castillo, C

    2016-05-01

    Exacerbated postparturient insulin resistance (IR) has been associated with several pathologic conditions in dairy cattle. Oxidative stress (OS) plays a causative role in IR in humans, and an association, but not direct relationship, between OS and IR recently has been reported in transition dairy cattle. Supplementation with antioxidants shortly before calving improves glucose tolerance after parturition in dairy cattle. Ten late-pregnant Holstein cows entering their 2nd to 5th lactation. Randomized placebo-controlled trial: 15 ± 2 days before expected calving, the treatment group received an injection of DL-alpha-tocopheryl acetate at a dosage of 6 mg/kg body weight (BW) and 0.06 mg/kg BW of sodium selenite, and the control group was injected with isotonic saline. During the first week after calving, both groups underwent glucose tolerance testing (0.25 g glucose/kg BW). Commercial assays were used to quantify the concentrations of glucose, insulin, nonesterified fatty acids (NEFA), beta-hydroxybutyrate, and markers of redox status in blood. Data were analyzed using the Mann-Whitney U-test (α = 0.05). Supplemented cows showed a lower risk for OS, as reflected by a lower OS index (P = .036), different areas under the curve for the concentrations of glucose (P insulin (P = .043), and NEFA (P = .041), more rapid elimination rates (P = .080, insulin sensitivity after calving, thereby suggesting the role of OS in the development of IR in cattle and the potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation in minimizing the consequences of negative energy balance. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine.

  10. Grain-boundary oxidation of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hocking, W.H.; Behnke, R.; Duclos, A.M.

    1995-01-01

    The grain-boundary chemistry of used CANDU fuel exposed to dry air at 150 degrees C for a prolonged period has been investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). High degrees of surface oxidation have been determined using the chemical-shift effects for the uranium photoelectron emission, but these must be largely restricted to thin films. The observed distribution of segregated fission products implies an absence of major fuel restructuring and SEM examinations revealed mainly subtle changes in the UO 2 grain structure. These findings are consistent with metallographic evidence of pervasive grain-boundary attack, despite only slight bulk alteration of the fluorite-lattice structure. (author)

  11. Separation of dry and wet periods from regular weather station data for the analysis of wind erosion risk

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naeini, Mohammadali Saremi; Fister, Wolfgang; Heckrath, Goswin Johann

    importance, soil moisture content is often ignored in the analysis of wind data for wind erosion studies. The main reason most probably being the lack of soil moisture sensors in conventional climate stations. Soil moisture at a given point in time is determined by rain (e.g. rainfall amount, duration......), climate (e.g. air temperature, solar radiation, evaporation) and soil (e.g. infiltration rate, adhesion). The purpose of this study is to overcome the lack of soil moisture data for wind erosion risk assessment by developing a method to estimate the soil wetness based on easy available weather data......, such as daily precipitation, hourly/sub hourly ambient air temperature and hourly/sub hourly relative humidity. This new method was used to identify periods of wet and dry soil moisture conditions of a time series from 20 weather stations in Denmark. The length of the time series varied between 8 to 37 years...

  12. The late Holocene dry period: multiproxy evidence for an extended drought between 2800 and 1850 cal yr BP across the central Great Basin, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mensing, Scott A.; Sharpe, Saxon E.; Tunno, Irene; Sada, Don W.; Thomas, Jim M.; Starratt, Scott W.; Smith, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    Evidence of a multi-centennial scale dry period between ∼2800 and 1850 cal yr BP is documented by pollen, mollusks, diatoms, and sediment in spring sediments from Stonehouse Meadow in Spring Valley, eastern central Nevada, U.S. We refer to this period as the Late Holocene Dry Period. Based on sediment recovered, Stonehouse Meadow was either absent or severely restricted in size at ∼8000 cal yr BP. Beginning ∼7500 cal yr BP, the meadow became established and persisted to ∼3000 cal yr BP when it began to dry. Comparison of the timing of this late Holocene drought record to multiple records extending from the eastern Sierra Nevada across the central Great Basin to the Great Salt Lake support the interpretation that this dry period was regional. The beginning and ending dates vary among sites, but all sites record multiple centuries of dry climate between 2500 and 1900 cal yr BP. This duration makes it the longest persistent dry period within the late Holocene. In contrast, sites in the northern Great Basin record either no clear evidence of drought, or have wetter than average climate during this period, suggesting that the northern boundary between wet and dry climates may have been between about 40° and 42° N latitude. This dry in the southwest and wet in the northwest precipitation pattern across the Great Basin is supported by large-scale spatial climate pattern hypotheses involving ENSO, PDO, AMO, and the position of the Aleutian Low and North Pacific High, particularly during winter.

  13. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression of dairy cows in early lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Gross, J J; van Dorland, H A; Remmelink, G J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2015-02-01

    In a prior study, we observed that cows with a 0-d dry period had greater energy balance and lower milk production compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period in early lactation. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of dry period length on metabolic status and hepatic gene expression in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in early lactation. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 3×2 factorial design with 3 dry period lengths (n=56, 55, and 56 for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry, respectively) and 2 early lactation diets (n=84 and 83 for glucogenic and lipogenic diet, respectively). Cows were fed a glucogenic or lipogenic diet from 10d before the expected calving date and onward. The main ingredient for a glucogenic concentrate was corn, and the main ingredients for a lipogenic concentrate were sugar beet pulp, palm kernel, and rumen-protected palm oil. Blood was sampled weekly from 95 cows from wk 3 precalving to wk 8 postcalving. Liver samples were collected from 76 cows in wk -2, 2, and 4 relative to calving. Liver samples were analyzed for triacylglycerol concentrations and mRNA expression of 12 candidate genes. Precalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had greater plasma β-hydroxybutyrate, urea, and insulin concentrations compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Postcalving, cows with a 0-d dry period had lower liver triacylglycerol and plasma nonesterified fatty acids concentrations (0.20, 0.32, and 0.36mmol/L for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively), greater plasma glucose, insulin-like growth factor-I, and insulin (24.38, 14.02, and 11.08µIU/mL for 0-, 30-, and 60-d dry period, respectively) concentrations, and lower hepatic mRNA expression of pyruvate carboxylase, compared with cows with a 30- or 60-d dry period. Plasma urea and β-hydroxybutyrate concentrations were greater in cows fed a lipogenic diet compared with cows fed a glucogenic diet. In conclusion, cows with a 0-d dry period had

  14. REPRODUCTIVE AND METABOLIC RESPONSES IN EWES TO DIETARY PROTEIN SUPPLEMENT DURING MATING PERIOD IN DRY SEASON OF NORTHEAST BRAZIL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magda Rodrigues

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the effect of food supplements with different levels of protein on reproductive and metabolic response of ewes during the mating period. Forty-one ewes were supplemented during 43 days with amount protein to meet 1.0 (diet I; n = 14, 1.7 (diet II; n = 13 and 2.1 (diet III; n = 14 times the maintenance requirements. Dry matter (DM intake was higher (P < 0.01 in diet III when compared to diets I and II. Orts were lesser in diets II and III (P < 0.05 when compared to diet I. Intake of organic matter (OM, crude protein (CP and ether extract (EE was higher in diet III (P < 0.05, but NDF and ADF intake was superior in diet I (P < 0.05. In diet III, a higher frequency of female mated was observed (P < 0.05. The prolificity and twinning rate was higher in ewes of diet II (P < 0.05. Greater birth weight of lambs (P < 0.05 was verified in diet III. The progesterone levels were affected by diets II and III (P < 0.05. In conclusion, the supplementation of ewes with intermediate level of protein improves their reproductive response.

  15. Pedogenic calcite as evidence for an early Holocene dry period in the San Francisco Bay area, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borchardt, G.; Lienkaemper, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    Rainfall at the site of Union City, California, during early Holocene time appears to have been about half that of today, 470 mm/yr. We base this conclusion on detailed descriptions and particle-size analyses of 12 soil profiles and 1:20 scale logs of the fluvial stratigraphy in two 100-m-long, 5-m-deep excavations dug perpendicular to the axis of an alluvial fan along the Hayward fault. Subsidence and right-lateral movement along the fault allowed an offset stream to produce a nearly continuous alluvial record documented by 35 14C ages on detrital charcoal. Bk (calcitic) horizons in paleosols developed in the fan suggest that a relatively dry climatic period occurred from 10 to 7 ka (calendar-corrected ages). The pedogenic calcite exists primarily as vertically oriented filaments and fine, cavernous nodules formed at ped intersections. Soils and paleosols formed before 10 ka or since 7 ka did not have Bk horizons. Bk horizons that were buried suddenly at 7 ka were overlain by leached zones averaging 41 ?? 3 cm thick - about half the current depth of leaching.

  16. Effect of periodic wetting and drying on selective sorption of 137Cs by mixtures of soil and organomineral sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, V. E.; Maslova, K. M.; Stepina, I. A.

    2014-05-01

    The incubation of sandy soddy-podzolic soil with a three-component organomineral sorbent (OMS) on the basis of sapropel, neutralized hydrolysis lignin, and clay-salt slime under alternating wetting-drying (W-D) conditions for two years has increased the selective sorption of 137Cs by 2.5-5 times. The addition of 5% OMS increases the effect of periodic W-D cycles on the selective sorption of 137Cs compared to the addition of 10% OMS. The relationship between the 137Cs interception potential and the number of W-D cycles has been predicted on the basis of the additivity rule and under the assumption that this potential linearly depends on the number of W-D cycles. The predicted values of the 137Cs interception potential almost coincide with the experimental data for the mixtures of sandy soddy-podzolic soil with 10% OMS and are lower than the experimental values by 60% for the mixtures of soil with 10% OMS.

  17. The effect of zeolite A supplementation in the dry period on periparturient calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium homeostasis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Enemark, J M D

    2002-01-01

    One potential way of preventing parturient hypocalcemia in the dairy cow is to feed dry cow rations very low in calcium (......One potential way of preventing parturient hypocalcemia in the dairy cow is to feed dry cow rations very low in calcium (...

  18. Comparative transcriptome profiling of dairy goat microRNAs from dry period and peak lactation mammary gland tissues.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhuanjian Li

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: MicroRNAs (miRNAs are small noncoding RNA molecules that serve as important post-transcriptional gene expression regulators by targeting messenger RNAs for post-transcriptional endonucleolytic cleavage or translational inhibition. miRNAs play important roles in many biological processes. Extensive high-throughput sequencing studies of miRNAs have been performed in several animal models. However, little is known about the diversity of these regulatory RNAs in goat (Capra hircus, which is one of the most important agricultural animals and the oldest domesticated species raised worldwide. Goats have long been used for their milk, meat, hair (including cashmere, and skins throughout much of the world. RESULTS: In this study, two small RNA libraries were constructed based on dry period and peak lactation dairy goat mammary gland tissues and sequenced using the Illumina-Solexa high-throughput sequencing technology. A total of 346 conserved and 95 novel miRNAs were identified in the dairy goat. miRNAs expression was confirmed by qRT-PCR in nine tissues and in the mammary gland during different stages of lactation. In addition, several candidate miRNAs that may be involved in mammary gland development and lactation were found by comparing the miRNA expression profiles in different tissues and developmental stages of the mammary gland. CONCLUSIONS: This study reveals the first miRNAs profile related to the biology of the mammary gland in the dairy goat. The characterization of these miRNAs could contribute to a better understanding of the molecular mechanisms of lactation physiology and mammary gland development in the dairy goat.

  19. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, James J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  20. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoeij, van R.J.; Dijkstra, J.; Bruckmaier, R.M.; Gross, J.J.; Lam, Theo J.G.M.; Remmelink, G.J.; Kemp, B.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.

    2017-01-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source—glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)—and energy level—standard (std) or low—on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones

  1. Changes in ruminal volatile fatty acid production and absorption rate during the dry period and early lactation as affected by rate of increase of concentrate allowance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dieho, K.; Dijkstra, J.; Schonewille, J. T.; Bannink, A.

    The aim of the present experiment was to study changes in volatile fatty acid (VFA) production using an isotope dilution technique, and changes in VFA fractional absorption rate (k aVFA) using a buffer incubation technique (BIT) during the dry period and early lactation, as affected by the

  2. Effect of different dry period lengths on milk production and somatic cell count in subsequent lactation on commercial Dutch dairy herds.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Steeneveld, W.; Schukken, Y.H.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Hogeveen, H.

    2013-01-01

    Shortening the dry period (DP) has been proposed as a management strategy to improve energy balance in early lactation. It is well known that both shortening and complete omission of the DP reduces milk production in the subsequent lactations. In most of these studies milk production data were

  3. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kafilzadeh, F.; Piri, V.; Karami-Shabankareh, H.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30) were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5). Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01) in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively). While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09). The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001). Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01) for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period. (Author)

  4. Effects of feeding dry glycerol on milk production, nutrients digestibility and blood components in primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farokh Kafilzadeh

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the glucogenic property of glycerol supplementation in the dairy cow’s diet. Sixty primiparous cows (control, n=30, and glycerol supplemented, n=30 were used to measure milk yield and components, blood hormone and metabolite profiles, and body condition score. Feed intake and apparent total-tract digestibility were also measured using 10 primiparous cows (control, n=5, and glycerol supplemented, n=5. Dry glycerol was top dressed at 250 g/day/cow from parturition to 21 days postpartum. Average feed intake, milk yield and components were not affected by glycerol supplementation. Apparent total–tract digestibility of organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were not influenced by dry glycerol supplementation, but lipid digestibility was greater (p=0.01 in cows fed glycerol. The serum concentration of glucose and insulin tended to be higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p=0.1; p=0.06, respectively. While, serum concentrations of nonesterified fatty acids and β-hydroxybutyrate were not affected. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1 to 5 after calving (p=0.09. The glucogenic effect of glycerol did not affect milk yield during the first 3 weeks of lactation. However, daily milk yield during the 13 weeks recording period was higher in the glycerol-supplemented cows (28.5 vs. 30.3 kg, p<0.001. Percentages of cows cycling at the planned breeding date was greater (p=0.01 for cows fed dry glycerol. The results demonstrated that feeding dry glycerol as a glucogenic supply could be useful in saving body reserves and improving energy balance of primiparous Holstein dairy cows during the early postpartum period.

  5. Increases in soil water content after the mortality of non-native trees in oceanic island forest ecosystems are due to reduced water loss during dry periods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hata, Kenji; Kawakami, Kazuto; Kachi, Naoki

    2016-03-01

    The control of dominant, non-native trees can alter the water balance of soils in forest ecosystems via hydrological processes, which results in changes in soil water environments. To test this idea, we evaluated the effects of the mortality of an invasive tree, Casuarina equisetifolia Forst., on the water content of surface soils on the Ogasawara Islands, subtropical islands in the northwestern Pacific Ocean, using a manipulative herbicide experiment. Temporal changes in volumetric water content of surface soils at 6 cm depth at sites where all trees of C. equisetifolia were killed by herbicide were compared with those of adjacent control sites before and after their mortality with consideration of the amount of precipitation. In addition, the rate of decrease in the soil water content during dry periods and the rate of increase in the soil water content during rainfall periods were compared between herbicide and control sites. Soil water content at sites treated with herbicide was significantly higher after treatment than soil water content at control sites during the same period. Differences between initial and minimum values of soil water content at the herbicide sites during the drying events were significantly lower than the corresponding differences in the control quadrats. During rainfall periods, both initial and maximum values of soil water contents in the herbicided quadrats were higher, and differences between the maximum and initial values did not differ between the herbicided and control quadrats. Our results indicated that the mortality of non-native trees from forest ecosystems increased water content of surface soils, due primarily to a slower rate of decrease in soil water content during dry periods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dry period dietary energy level in dairy cattle on volume, concentrations of immunoglobulin G, insulin, and fatty acid composition of colostrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, S; Leal Yepes, F A; Overton, T R; Lock, A L; Lamb, S V; Wakshlag, J J; Nydam, D V

    2016-02-01

    The objective was to investigate the effect of different dry cow feeding strategies on the volume, concentration of IgG and insulin, as well as fatty acid composition of colostrum. Our hypothesis was that different dry period diets formulated to resemble current feeding practices on commercial dairy farms and differing in plane of energy would have an effect on IgG and insulin concentration, as well as composition of fatty acid of colostrum. Animals (n=84) entering parity 2 or greater were dried off 57 d before expected parturition and fed either a diet formulated to meet, but not greatly exceed energy requirements throughout the dry period (CON), or a higher energy density diet, supplying approximately 150% of energy requirements (HI). A third group received the same diet as group CON from dry-off until 29 d before expected parturition. After this time point, from 28 d before expected parturition until calving, they received a diet formulated to supply approximately 125% of energy requirements (I-med). Concentration of IgG and insulin in colostrum were measured by radial immunodiffusion and RIA, respectively. Composition of fatty acids was determined by gas-liquid chromatography. The IgG concentration was highest in colostrum of cows in group CON [96.1 (95% CI: 83.3-108.9) g/L] and lowest in group HI [72.4 (60.3-84.5) g/L], whereas insulin concentration was highest in group HI [1,105 (960-1,250) μU/mL] and lowest in group CON [853 (700-1,007) μU/mL]. Colostrum yield did not differ between treatments and was 5.9 (4.5-7.4), 7.0 (5.6-8.4), and 7.3 (5.9-8.7) kg in groups CON, I-med, and HI, respectively. A multivariable linear regression model showed the effect of dietary treatment group on IgG concentration was independent of the effect of dry matter. Cows in groups CON, I-med, and HI had an average colostral fat percentage of 5.0 (4.1-5.9), 5.6 (4.8-6.4), and 6.0 (5.2-6.8) and an average fat yield of 289 (196-380), 406 (318-495), and 384 (295-473) g, respectively

  7. Prevalence of bacterial agents isolated from clinical cases of bovine mastitis in the dry period and the determination of their antibiotic sensitivity in Tabriz, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samad Mosaferi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To determine the prevalence of mastitis-causing bacteria in the dry period and its antibiotic sensitivity. Methods: In this study, 852 dry cows were examined. A total of 30 cows with clinical mastitis symptoms were detected and their milk samples were collected. In order to purify the bacteria, brain heart infusion and blood agar media were applied and single colonies were used for Gram staining, oxidase and catalase testing, cultivating in O-F medium to determine the genus and species of bacteria. Then, antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the agar disk diffusion method. Results: The prevalence of isolated bacteria was 2.46%, in which coagulase positive Staphylococcus, coagulase negative Staphylococcus, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Streptococcus faecalis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas, Bacillus and yeast were (9/99%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (3/33%, (6/66%, (13/32%, (9/99% and (6/66%, respectively. After tests of antibiotic susceptibility, the most and the least sensitivity were reported to enrofloxacin and ampicillin respectively. Conclusions: This study indicated that Streptococcus dysgalactiae is the most commonly isolated bacteria with the greatest sensitivity to enrofloxacin and tetracycline which can be used to treat mastitis in the dry period in Tabriz.

  8. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  9. Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite A administration in the dry period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of a zeolite feed supplement on parturient calcium status and milk fever, two groups of dry cows were treated with either 1 kg of zeolite/d or none for 4 wk prepartum. At calving and d 1 and 2 after calving all cows were given 250 g of calcium carbonate as a drench, and a blood...... sample was taken. Serum calcium analysis revealed a greater calcium concentration in zeolite-treated cows. While three control cows contracted milk fever, necessitating intravenous calcium therapy, and six out of eight control cows experienced serum calcium levels below 2 mmol/L in one or more samples...... taken, none of the zeolite-treated cows contracted milk fever or experienced subclinical hypocalcemia....

  10. Air-side performance evaluation of three types of heat exchangers in dry, wet and periodic frosting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [Zhejiang Vocational College of Commerce, Hangzhou, Binwen Road 470 (China); Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hrnjak, P.S. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The performances of three types of heat exchangers that use the louver fin geometry: (1) parallel flow parallel fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PF{sup 2}), (2) parallel flow serpentine fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PFSF) and (3) round tube wave plate fin heat exchanger (RTPF) have been experimentally studied under dry, wet and frost conditions and results are presented. The parameters quantified include air-side pressure drop, water retention on the surface of the heat exchanger, capacity and overall heat transfer coefficient for air face velocity 0.9, 2 and 3 m/s, air humidity 70% and 80% and different orientations. The performances of three types of heat exchanger are compared and the results obtained are presented. The condensate drainage behavior of the air-side surface of these three heat exchanger types was studied using both the dip testing method and wind tunnel experiment. (author)

  11. Asymmetry of agricultural water consumption in arid regions during alternating decadal scale wet and dry periods: explanation using behavioral economics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Fuqiang

    2017-04-01

    Increase of human water consumption for agriculture and consequent degradation of the ecological environment is a common feature in many arid regions. Understanding the driving mechanisms behind this phenomenon is of critical importance for regional sustainable development. In this study, analyses of temporal patterns of human water consumption are carried out in three hyper-arid inland basins, i.e., Aral Sea Basin in Central Asia, and the Tarim and Heihe River Basins in Northwestern China. Multi-decadal time series of hydrological and human consumption data are divided into decadal sequences of wet and dry years. During the wet phases, the greater water availability inspires economic expansion and human water consumption experiences growth at a rate faster than that of incoming water. During the dry phases, however, the expanded economy (e.g., irrigation land expansion in an agriculture-based economy) has been managed to sustain or even to increase production by over-exploitation of water with sophisticated technologies. Inability to reduce human water consumption at a rate commensurate with the decrease of incoming water supply leads to serious ecosystem degradation. This asymmetric human water consumption response of society to decadal scale hydrologic variability can be explained in terms of prospect theory drawn from behavioral economics, which states that people tend to be risk averse when facing gains and show risk preference when facing losses. In the three socio-hydrological case studies, direct economic gain/loss has relatively low value but high certainty when compared to indirect economic loss/gain (such as environmental or sustainability loss/gain), which has high value but with high uncertainty. According to prospect theory, people tend to gain direct economic benefits at the expense of environmental degradation and at the risk of system collapse. The outcomes of this study have major implications for water resources management at long time scales

  12. Quality of Hancornia speciosa Gomes seeds in function of drying periods / Qualidade de sementes de Hancornia speciosa Gomes em função do tempo de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cosmo Rufino de Lima

    2010-07-01

    environment conditions for the following periods: 0 (without drying, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 hours. The evaluations were: water content, percentage of emergency, first count and index of emergency speed, as well as length and dry mass of seedlings. The experimental design was entirely randomized, with seven treatments and four replications of 25 seeds. The water content of seeds decreased of 56 to 12% after 144 hours of drying, the maximum emergence (73% occurred after 33 hours of drying, in the first count the highest percentage of emergence (67% were obtained after 16 hours of drying, the highest index of emergence speed (0.62 occurred after 21 hours of drying, the root length decreased linearly along the drying process, while there was greater shoot length (4.96 cm when the seeds were dried for 57 hours. The drying of H. speciosa seeds is recommended for 48 hours.

  13. Effects of feeding dry glycerol to primiparous Holstein dairy cows on follicular development, reproductive performance and metabolic parameters related to fertility during the early post-partum period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karami-Shabankareh, H; Kafilzadeh, F; Piri, V; Mohammadi, H

    2013-12-01

    This study examined the effects of dry glycerol supplementation on follicular growth, post-partum interval to first ovulation, concentration of serum metabolites and hormones related to fertility, body condition score (BCS) and body weight (BW) in primiparous Holstein dairy cows. Sixty primiparous Holstein dairy cows were randomly assigned to two groups (control: n = 30 and glycerol supplemented: n = 30). Dry glycerol (250 g/day/cow) was fed as a top dressing to the common lactating total mixed ration (TMR) from parturition to 21 days post-partum. Ovaries were examined four times using ultrasonography on days 13, 19, 25 and 36 post-partum to determine ovarian follicular growth. Concentration of serum metabolites and hormones was determined weekly. Body condition score was evaluated weekly from weeks 1 to 5 after parturition, and BWs were recorded three times on days 1, 11 and 21 during the experimental period. The cows fed dry glycerol had more large follicles (p cows. Days to the first ovulation (p = 0.06), days to first oestrus (p = 0.05), services per conception (p = 0.06) and days open (p = 0.004) were positively affected by dry glycerol supplementation. Serum concentration of glucose and insulin was higher in dry glycerol-supplemented cows (p = 0.1; p = 0.06, respectively). Feeding glycerol had no effect on mean serum concentrations of β-hydroxybutyrate, non-esterified fatty acids and IGF-1 during the experimental period. However, significant differences were observed at concentration of BHBA and IGF-1 (p = 0.02 and p = 0.04, respectively) between two groups on day 21 after calving. The cows in the glycerol-fed group had higher serum progesterone concentrations on days 33 (p = 0.007) and 36 (p = 0.004) after calving. Supplemented cows had lower body condition loss during weeks 1-5 after calving compared with the control cows (0.34 vs 0.41 BCS). In week 13 post-partum, the proportion of cycling cows was 83.3 and 69.9% for those which

  14. Consequences of dry period length and dietary energy source on physiological health variables in dairy cows and calves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mayasari, Nova

    2017-01-01

    During the transition period, dairy cows experience a negative energy balance (NEB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, while feed intake is limited. Severity of the NEB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious

  15. Bovine mastitis prevention: humoral and cellular response of dairy cows inoculated with lactic acid bacteria at the dry-off period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pellegrino, M; Berardo, N; Giraudo, J; Nader-Macías, M E F; Bogni, C

    2017-08-24

    The use of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in animal feed, constitute an alternative tool for bovine mastitis prevention. Previously, two LAB strains were isolated from bovine milk and selected for their probiotics properties. So far, immune response of inoculating LAB in bovine udders at dry-off period has not been investigated. The immunoglobulin isotype levels and memory cell proliferation in blood and milk of animals inoculated with Lactobacillus lactis subsp. lactis CRL1655 and Lactobacillus perolens CRL1724 at dry-off period was studied. Ten animals were inoculated intramammarily with 10 6 cells of each LAB (IG) and 2 animals used as control (NIG). Milk and blood samples were taken before inoculation and 1, 2, 4, 6, 12 and 24 h and 7 and 14 days after inoculation. Somatic cell count (SCC) in milk, the presence of bovine mastitis pathogens, the levels of antibodies and lymphocyte proliferation were determined. In the IG, the SCC was bovine mastitis pathogens after 24-48 h of incubation. In general, LAB inoculation increased the amount of IgG isotypes in blood and milk, and these antibodies were able to recognise Staphylococcus aureus epitopes. Lymphocytes proliferation was significantly higher in the IG at all time points assayed, following LAB or S. aureus stimulation. The lymphocytes of animals inoculated with LAB do not react in vitro to the presence of S. aureus antigen.. The results showed that probiotic microorganisms could be a natural and effective alternative in the prevention of bovine mastitis at dry-off period and act as immunomodulatory stimulating local and systemic defence lines.

  16. Mosquitoes of the Caatinga: 2. Species from periodic sampling of bromeliads and tree holes in a dry Brazilian forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marteis, Letícia Silva; Natal, Delsio; Sallum, Maria Anice Mureb; Medeiros-Sousa, Antônio Ralph; Corte, Roseli La

    2017-07-01

    The Caatinga is a dry tropical forest, located in the Brazilian semiarid region and rich in phytotelmata. This study investigated the culicid fauna of phytotelmata of the caatinga by sampling for 19 consecutive months aquatic immatures from tree holes and bromeliads. A total of 127L of water was taken from the plants, containing 6764 immature culicids of 16 species, of which 11 (69%) are undescribed and respond to 90% of the total abundance of the specimens collected. Epiphytic bromeliads harbor a large number of immature Culicidae, although terrestrial bromeliads are the most abundant and widely distributed in the region. The richness of culicid species was similar between terrestrial and epiphytic bromeliads and lower in habitats represented by tree hole phytotelmata. There was no similarity in the composition of culicid species that developed in bromeliads or tree holes. Temperature and humidity were the environmental parameters most strongly associated with the proportion of positive plants. The Caatinga has a great number of endemic species that remain unknown to science and many additional culicid species may await discovery from there. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  18. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum

  19. Photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14C assimilates in the winter wheat of late growing period in dry land

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Qing Huimin; Yu Guohua; Yin Xisheng; Zhan Shumin; Liu Xin

    1999-01-01

    The photosynthetic characteristics and distribution of 14 C assimilates of winter wheat in late growing period in the field of natural drought condition was studied. The results showed that photosynthetic rate of flag leaves was up to 14.24 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 , the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase (RUBpCase) activity of flag leaves in late growing period in field drought treatment was about 20∼23 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 ·g -1 dw when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.8∼-2.1 MPa. The photosynthetic rate of flag leaves of control was 15.15 μmol CO 2 ·m -2 ·s -1 . The RUBpCase activity was about 22∼25 μmol CO 2 ·min -1 · -1 ·g -1 dw in the field of irrigated condition when the water potential of flag leaves was about -1.65∼-1.8 MPa, indicating that the RUBpCase activity of flag leaves in drought condition was not a major limiting factor. The total distribution rate of 14 C assimilates of flag leaves, flag leaf sheath, flag leaf node and awn to grain in drought treatment was about 44.8%, and that of control was about 40.2%. The results also showed that in late growing period the proportion of 14 C assimilates to roots in the both drought and control treatment was similar, about 2.0%. But the amount of 14 C assimilates in the roots in the soil layer of 120∼200 cm was up to 8.34% of the total 14 C assimilates in the roots, however, that of control was only about 3.6%

  20. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Courdent, V.; Grum, M.; Munk-Nielsen, T.

    2017-01-01

    ). The specificity of this study is to optimize the energy consumption in IUDWS during low-flow periods by exploiting the electrical smart grid market (i.e. the actions are taken when no events are forecast). Furthermore, the results demonstrate the benefit of NWP neighbourhood post-processing methods to enhance......Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs......) during both wet and dry weather periods. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have significantly improved in recent years, having increased their spatial and temporal resolution. Finer resolution NWP are suitable for urban-catchment-scale applications, providing longer lead time than radar...

  1. Effects of Test Paper Drying and Reaction Periods on Silver Ion-Arsine Complex Colour Development for a Simple and Rapid Arsenic (V) Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khim, O.K.; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Abdul Ghapor Hussin; Mansor Ahmad; Ahmad Farid Mohd Azmi

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic is a toxic element that exists in different forms in nature and can be accumulated by various biota and environmental media. Current techniques for the environmental monitoring of arsenic are usually sophisticated, time consuming and inappropriate for on-site analyses. We are developing a simple and rapid colorimetric quantitative method based on a colour complex formed by silver ion impregnated on a filter paper with arsine gas produced from arsenic ion reduction by hydrogen generated from zinc and sulfamic acid reaction in the sample. In this report we describe effects of drying of the silver ion impregnated filter paper and exposing period of this test paper to the arsine gas. The data obtained are digitized and used to develop a model for arsenic (V) ion estimation. The study reveals that when 4.0 g of sulfamic acid and 2.0 g of zinc powder are used to reduce 50 ml of arsenic solution sample, the drying and exposure periods needed are 20 seconds and 10 minutes, respectively. The best fitted model that relates arsenic (V) concentration (Ac) and the red colour intensity value (R) is Ac =120.1 - 1.071R. This model can accurately estimate the arsenic (V) concentration from 0 to 100 μg/l. (author)

  2. Periods and dry environments in the seeds quality of Genipa americana L.Períodos e ambientes de secagem na qualidade de sementes de Genipa americana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riselane de Lucena Alcântara Bruno

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Genipa americana L. is a tropical tree belonging to Rubiaceae family, providing fruit that are consumed in natura and is being increasingly explored as raw material to liquor, wine, soft drink and also the use of white wood for making various products. The seeds drying this species can be made using natural and or artificial methods. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effects of natural drying, in different periods and ambient, in the physiological quality of Genipa americana seeds. Seeds were submitted to the determination of moisture content after processing and drying of each period (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 and 168 hours. To evaluate the effects of ambient (laboratory and greenhouse and drying periods were performed the following tests: emergence in greenhouse, emergence speed index, seedling length and dry weight. Drying seed genipa can be done in a greenhouse (temperature of 33°C with relative humidity of 70% for 24 hours or laboratory environment (temperature of 28°C with relative humidity of 75% for 48 hours without compromising the physiological quality.Genipa americana L. é uma árvore tropical, pertencente à família Rubiaceae, fornece frutos que são consumidos in natura e vem sendo explorada cada vez mais como matéria-prima de licor, vinho, refresco e também o uso da madeira branca para confecção de vários produtos. A secagem de sementes dessa espécie pode ser feita pelo método natural e/ou artificial. Dessa forma, este trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o efeito da secagem natural, em diferentes ambientes e períodos, na qualidade fisiológica das sementes de Genipa americana. As sementes foram submetidas à determinação do teor de água após o beneficiamento em cada período de secagem (0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144 e 168 horas. Para a avaliação do efeito dos ambientes (laboratório e ambiente telado e períodos de secagem foram realizados os seguintes testes: emergência em ambiente telado, índice de

  3. Effect of concentrate supplementation during the dry period on colostrum quality and effect of colostrum feeding regimen on passive transfer of immunity, calf health, and performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunn, A; Ashfield, A; Earley, B; Welsh, M; Gordon, A; McGee, M; Morrison, S J

    2017-01-01

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of (1) supplementing concentrates to multiparous Holstein cows during the dry period on colostral and milk immunoglobulin G (IgG) concentration; and (2) feeding calves colostrum at either 5 or 10% of their body weight (BW) on passive transfer of immunity, health, and performance. Holstein multiparous cows (n=37) were assigned to 1 of 2 nutritional treatments during an 8-wk dry period: (1) offered ad libitum grass silage only (GS) or (2) offered ad libitum access to the same grass silage plus concentrate [total mixed ration in a 75:25 dry matter (DM) ratio], providing a mean concentrate DM intake of 3.0kg/cow per day (GSC). Both treatment groups were offered identical levels of mineral and vitamin supplementation. Calves from these cows were weighed immediately after birth and fed either 5% (5BW) or 10% (10BW) of their BW in colostrum from their own dams within 2.5h of birth. Calves in the 10BW group received their second feed of colostrum from first-milking colostrum. Concentrate supplementation during the dry period had no effect on colostral IgG concentration, first-milking IgG yield, or fat, protein, and lactose contents. However, cows in GSC produced a greater mean milk yield over the first 8 milkings compared with cows in the GS group. Concentrate supplementation had no effect on calf BW or BW gain, serum IgG, or apparent efficiency of absorption (AEA) at 24h after birth. However, offspring from the GSC group had fewer cases of enteritis during the first 56d of life compared with offspring from the GS group. Calves in the 10BW group had greater mean serum IgG concentration for the first 3d following birth; however, at 24h after birth, we observed no treatment effect on AEA. The rate of enteritis was greater for calves in the 5BW treatment compared with 10BW. The colostrum-feeding regimen had no effect on BW gain or on the incidence of pneumonia among calf treatment groups. In conclusion, concentrate supplementation

  4. The roles of weather modification technology in mitigation of the peat fires during a period of dry season in Bengkalis, Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandhyavitri, A.; Perdana, M. A.; Sutikno, S.; Widodo, F. H.

    2018-02-01

    The annual peat fire disasters have suffered human life, deteriorated peat land ecosystems, and caused severe economic losses in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei, and Singapore during a period of 2014-2016. The objective of this study is to investigate to what extent the weather modification technology (WMT) may play its roles in increasing the precipitation rates in order to mitigate the peat fires disaster in Bengkalis, Riau Province, Indonesia. The study obtained the precipitation rates data from the tropical rainfall measuring mission (TRMM) satellite during the period of 2014, 2015 and 2016. The data then statistically analyzed using the Grads software package. While the process of WMT at the designated research location was evaluated together between the Artificial Rain Unit of BPPT (Agency for the Assessment and Application Technology), and the Engineering Faculty, University of Riau, 2016. The research showed that the WMT increased the rainfall rates during the dry season within the study area by 8% (520.7 mm to 557 mm) in the 3 months period (July 14 -October 6, 2016), and reducing significantly hotspots by 88.6% from 6.725 in 2014 to 770 in 2016. Hence, it confirmed that the application of technical WMT procedures may increase precipitation rates and reduce the number of hot spots in Bengkalis.

  5. Research of nitroxynil residues in bovine milk following a single administration in the dry period by ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Chirollo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Nitroxynil (NIT is a halogenated phenol used to control fascioliasis in cattle and sheep. The Commission Regulation EU No 37/2010 has established maximum residue limits for NIT in bovine and ovine muscle (400 μg kg−1, fat (200 μg kg−1, liver (20 μg kg−1 and kidney (400 μg kg−1, and more recently in bovine and ovine milk (20 μg kg−1. Thirty-five pregnant dairy cows were treated in this study with nitroxynil (340 mg/mL solution for injection at the recommended dose of 10 mg/kg body weight at the start of the dry period, i.e. 53 to 74 days before the expected calving. Calving occurred between 43 days and 79 days after treatment. The concentrations of NIT in the milk were monitored for up to 120 days after calving. NIT residues were extracted using acetonitrile; magnesium sulfate and sodium chloride were added to induce liquid-liquid partitioning and purified by dispersive solid phase extraction for clean-up. NIT was detected by ultra high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS in negative ionization mode. The highest concentrations of this drug were found in two animals at the first milking, 48 and 53 day post treatment with levels of 362 and 657 μg kg–1, respectively. NIT residues were below the limit of detection of the method (0.24 μg/kg–1 between 67 and 106 day post-treatment. Following calving, residues rapidly depleted in animals and were non-detectable from 10 to 38 days post-calving. In particular, in all animals milk resulted compliant (<20 μg/kg−1 three days post partum.

  6. A gain-loss framework based on ensemble flow forecasts to switch the urban drainage-wastewater system management towards energy optimization during dry periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courdent, Vianney; Grum, Morten; Munk-Nielsen, Thomas; Mikkelsen, Peter S.

    2017-05-01

    Precipitation is the cause of major perturbation to the flow in urban drainage and wastewater systems. Flow forecasts, generated by coupling rainfall predictions with a hydrologic runoff model, can potentially be used to optimize the operation of integrated urban drainage-wastewater systems (IUDWSs) during both wet and dry weather periods. Numerical weather prediction (NWP) models have significantly improved in recent years, having increased their spatial and temporal resolution. Finer resolution NWP are suitable for urban-catchment-scale applications, providing longer lead time than radar extrapolation. However, forecasts are inevitably uncertain, and fine resolution is especially challenging for NWP. This uncertainty is commonly addressed in meteorology with ensemble prediction systems (EPSs). Handling uncertainty is challenging for decision makers and hence tools are necessary to provide insight on ensemble forecast usage and to support the rationality of decisions (i.e. forecasts are uncertain and therefore errors will be made; decision makers need tools to justify their choices, demonstrating that these choices are beneficial in the long run). This study presents an economic framework to support the decision-making process by providing information on when acting on the forecast is beneficial and how to handle the EPS. The relative economic value (REV) approach associates economic values with the potential outcomes and determines the preferential use of the EPS forecast. The envelope curve of the REV diagram combines the results from each probability forecast to provide the highest relative economic value for a given gain-loss ratio. This approach is traditionally used at larger scales to assess mitigation measures for adverse events (i.e. the actions are taken when events are forecast). The specificity of this study is to optimize the energy consumption in IUDWS during low-flow periods by exploiting the electrical smart grid market (i.e. the actions are taken

  7. Consequences of dietary energy source and energy level on energy balance, lactogenic hormones, and lactation curve characteristics of cows after a short or omitted dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hoeij, R J; Dijkstra, J; Bruckmaier, R M; Gross, J J; Lam, T J G M; Remmelink, G J; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2017-10-01

    Omitting the dry period (DP) generally reduces milk production in the subsequent lactation. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of dietary energy source-glucogenic (G) or lipogenic (L)-and energy level-standard (std) or low-on milk production; energy balance (EB); lactogenic hormones insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and growth hormone (GH); and lactation curve characteristics between wk 1 and 44 postpartum in cows after a 0-d or 30-d DP. Cows (n = 110) were assigned randomly to 3 transition treatments: a 30-d DP with a standard energy level required for expected milk yield [30-d DP(std)], a 0-d DP with the same energy level as cows with a 30-d DP [0-d DP(std)], and a 0-d DP with a low energy level [0-d DP(low)]. In wk 1 to 7, cows were fed the same basal ration but the level of concentrate increased to 6.7 kg/d for cows fed the low energy level and to 8.5 kg/d for cows fed the standard energy level in wk 4. From wk 8 postpartum onward, cows received a G ration (mainly consisting of corn silage and grass silage) or an L ration (mainly consisting of grass silage and sugar beet pulp) with the same energy level contrast (low or std) as in early lactation. Cows fed the G ration had greater milk, lactose, and protein yields, lower milk fat percentage, greater dry matter and energy intakes, and greater plasma IGF-1 concentration compared with cows fed the L ration. Dietary energy source did not affect EB or lactation curve characteristics. In cows with a 0-d DP, the reduced energy level decreased energy intake, EB, and weekly body weight gain, but did not affect milk production or lactation curve characteristics. A 30-d DP resulted in a greater total predicted lactation yield, initial milk yield after calving, peak milk yield, energy intake, energy output in milk, days to conception [only when compared with 0-d DP(low)], plasma GH concentration [only when compared with 0-d DP(std)], and decreased weekly body weight gain compared with a 0-d DP. A

  8. Integrated dry NO{sub x}/SO{sub 2} emissions control system sodium-based dry sorbent injection test report. Test period: August 4, 1993--July 29, 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.A.; Shimoto, G.H.; Muzio, L.J. [Fossil Energy Research Corp., Laguna Hills, CA (United States); Hunt, T. [Public Service Co. of Colorado, Denver, CO (United States)

    1997-04-01

    The project goal is to demonstrate up to 70% reductions in NOx and SO{sub 2} emissions through the integration of: (1) down-fired low-NOx burners with overfire air; (2) Selective Non-Catalytic Reduction (SNCR) for additional NOx removal; and (3) dry sorbent injection and duct humidification for SO{sub 2} removal. This report documents the sixth phase of the test program, where the performance of dry sorbent injection with sodium compounds was evaluated as a SO{sub 2} removal technique. Dry sorbent injection was performed in-duct downstream of the air heater (ahead of the fabric filter), as well as at a higher temperature location between the economizer and air heater. Two sodium compounds were evaluated during this phase of testing: sodium sesquicarbonate and sodium bicarbonate. In-duct sodium injection with low levels of humidification was also investigated. This sixth test phase was primarily focused on a parametric investigation of sorbent type and feed rate, although boiler load and sorbent preparation parameters were also varied.

  9. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  10. [Effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage-consumption characteristics and wheat yield in dry-land soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dang, Jian You; Pei, Xue Xia; Zhang, Ding Yi; Wang, Jiao Ai; Zhang, Jing; Wu, Xue Ping

    2016-09-01

    Through a three-year field trail, effects of deep plowing time during the fallow period on water storage of 0-200 cm soil before sowing, water consumption of growth period, and growth and development of wheat were investigated. Results demonstrated that soil water storage (SWS) of the fallow period was influenced by deep plowing time, precipitation, and rainfall distribution. With postponing the time of deep plowing in the fallow period, SWS was increased firstly, and then decreased. SWS with deep plowing in early or middle of August was 23.9-45.8 mm more than that with deep plowing in mid-July. It would benefit SWS when more precipitation occurred in the fallow period or more rainfall was distributed in August and September. Deep plowing at a proper time could facilitate SWS, N and P absorption of wheat, and the number of stems before winter and the spike number. The yield of wheat with deep plowing in early or middle August was 3.67%-18.2% higher than that with deep plowing in mid-July, and it was positively correlated with water storage of 0-200 cm soil during the fallow period and SWS of each soil layer during the wheat growth period. However, this correlation coefficient would be weakened by adequate rainfall in spring, the critical growing period for wheat. The time of deep plowing mainly affected the water consumption at soil layer of 60-140 cm during wheat growth. Under current farming conditions of south Shanxi, the increased grain yield of wheat could be achieved by combining the measures of high wheat stubble and wheat straw covering for holding soil water and deep plowing between the Beginning of Autumn (August 6th) and the Limit of Heat (August 21st) for promoting soil water penetration characteristics to improve the number of stems before winter and spike.

  11. Changes in milk proteome and metabolome associated with dry period length, energy balance and lactation stage in post parturient dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lu, J.; Antunes Fernandes, E.C.; Páez Cano, A.E.; Vinitwatanakhun, J.; Boeren, S.; Hooijdonk, van A.C.M.; Knegsel, van A.T.M.; Vervoort, J.; Hettinga, K.A.

    2013-01-01

    The early lactation period of dairy cows, which produce high quantities of milk, is normally characterized by an insufficient energy intake to cover milk production and maintenance requirements. Mobilization of body reserves occurs to compensate this negative energy balance (NEB), and probably as a

  12. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  13. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  14. Influences of the alternation of wet-dry periods on the variability of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Dingyong; Wei, Shiqiang; Yan, Jinlong; Liang, Jian; Chen, Xueshuang; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Qilei; Lu, Song; Gao, Jie; Li, Lulu; Guo, Nian; Zhao, Zheng

    2018-04-26

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial driver of various biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. Thus, many lakes and streams have been investigated in the past several decades. However, fewer studies have sought to understand the changes in DOM characteristics in the waters of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) areas, which are the largest artificial reservoir areas in the world. Thus, a field investigation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) properties was conducted from 2013 to 2015 to track the spatial-temporal variability of DOM properties in the TGR areas. The results showed that the alternations of wet and dry periods due to hydrological management have a substantial effect on the quantity and quality of aquatic DOM in TGR areas. Increases in DOC concentrations in the wet period show an apparent "dilution effect" that decreases CDOM compounds with relatively lower aromaticity (i.e., SUVA 254 ) and molecular weight (i.e., S R ). In contrast to the obvious temporal variations of DOM, significant spatial variability was not observed in this study. Additionally, DOM showed more terrigenous characteristics in the dry period but weak terrigenous characteristics in the wet period. Furthermore, the positive correlation between SUVA 254 and CDOM suggests that the aromatic component controls the CDOM dynamics in TGR areas. The first attempt to investigate the DOM dynamics in TGR areas since the Three Gorges Dam was conducted in 2012, and the unique patterns of spatial-temporal variations in DOM that are highlighted in this study might provide a new insight for understanding the role of DOM in the fates of contaminants and may help in the further management of flow loads and water quality in the TGR area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Correlation of serum levels of T3 and T4 during the dry and postpartum periods with ovarian rebound in primiparous and multiparous cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    a Davasaztabrizi

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The thyroid gland is one of the major endocrine glands which plays an important role in vital balance of the body by secreting two hormones, T3 and T4. Because effects of these two hormones affect the activity of many body organs, in this survey the effects of these two hormones on the return of ovarian activity in Holstein cows were examined. For this purpose, 60 primiparous cows (having one pregnancy and 60 multiparous (having two or more pregnancies were considered for this survey. In both groups, the blood samples were taken 10 days before parturition and 10 to 20 days after parturition.  After centrifugation and serum separation, samples were stored at -20 o C. Afterwards in laboratory, T3 and T4 values were measured by using ELISA kit. The results indicate that the values of T3 and T4 in primiparous cows in the prenatal and postpartum period were more than multiparous cows (p

  16. Dairy cows affected by ketosis show alterations in innate immunity and lipid and carbohydrate metabolism during the dry off period and postpartum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanshi; Hailemariam, Dagnachew; Dervishi, Elda; Goldansaz, Seyed Ali; Deng, Qilan; Dunn, Suzanna M; Ametaj, Burim N

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this investigation was to search for alterations in blood variables related to innate immunity and carbohydrate and lipid metabolism during the transition period in cows affected by ketosis. One hundred multiparous Holstein dairy cows were involved in the study. Blood samples were collected at -8, -4, week of disease diagnosis (+1 to +3weeks), and +4weeks relative to parturition from 6 healthy cows (CON) and 6 cows with ketosis and were analyzed for serum variables. Results showed that cows with ketosis had greater concentrations of serum β-hydroxybutyric acid (BHBA), interleukin (IL)-6, tumor necrosis factor (TNF), serum amyloid A (SAA), and lactate in comparison with the CON animals. Serum concentrations of BHBA, IL-6, TNF, and lactate were greater starting at -8 and -4weeks prior to parturition in cows with ketosis vs those of CON group. Cows with ketosis also had lower DMI and milk production vs CON cows. Milk fat also was lower in ketotic cows at diagnosis of disease. Cows affected by ketosis showed an activated innate immunity and altered carbohydrate and lipid metabolism several weeks prior to diagnosis of disease. Serum IL-6 and lactate were the strongest discriminators between ketosis cows and CON ones before the occurrence of ketosis, which might be useful as predictive biomarkers of the disease state. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  18. LIMITATION OF SOIL RESPIRATION DURING DRY PERIOD

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pavelka, Marian; Janouš, Dalibor; Acosta, Manuel

    2003-01-01

    Roč. 16, - (2003), s. 47-52. ISBN 80-7157-297-7 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LN00A141; GA AV ČR IBS6087005 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z6087904 Keywords : moisture * Norway spruce * precipitation * respiration * soil CO2 efflux Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  19. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  20. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  1. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  2. Post-LASIK dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...

  3. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  4. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  5. Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Hogeveen, H; Maas, L; Lam, T J G M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as

  6. Avaliação do olho seco no pré e pós-operatório da blefaroplastia Evaluation of dry eye in the preoperative and postoperative period of blepharoplasty

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Gustavo de Melo Gonçalves de Lima

    2006-06-01

    the pre- and postoperative period. Regarding eyelid anatomy, alterations in palpebral fissure and excursion of the upper eyelid were observed that were statistically significant postoperatively. CONCLUSIONS: It is possible to state that the palpebral fissure alterations happen frequently in patients submitted to esthetic blepharoplasty. It was also possible to conclude, by this study, that the objective tests for dry eye evaluation, did not show significant alterations postoperatively, except for Schirmer II test.

  7. Effects of dry period length and dietary energy source on milk yield, energy balance, and metabolic status of dairy cows over 2 consecutive years: Effects in the second year.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, J; Remmelink, G J; Gross, J J; Bruckmaier, R M; Kemp, B; van Knegsel, A T M

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of dry period (DP) length on milk yield, energy balance (EB), and metabolic status in cows fed a lipogenic or glucogenic diet in the second year after implementation of DP and dietary treatments. Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (n=167) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 DP lengths (0, 30, or 60d) and 1 of 2 early lactation diets (glucogenic or lipogenic) for 2 consecutive years. Results of the first year were reported previously. In the second year, 19 cows in the 0-d DP group were attributed to a new group (0→67d DP) because these cows had a milk yield of cows with a 0-d or 0→67-d DP had greater body condition score (BCS) than cows with a 60-d DP. During the first 9wk, cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced 5.0 and 4.3kg less milk per day, respectively, but had similar EB compared with cows with a 60-d DP. Cows with a 0- or 30-d DP produced additional milk precalving, which could compensate milk yield losses in the first 9wk postcalving. Cows with a 0-d DP did not have milk yield losses or improve EB in the second year as much as in the first year. Cows with a 0-d DP had greater plasma insulin and insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) and lower liver triacylglycerol concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Cows with a 0→67-d DP had lower EB, and greater plasma free fatty acids (FFA) and β-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentrations than cows with other DP lengths. Feeding a glucogenic diet increased plasma glucose, IGF-I, and insulin concentrations, and decreased plasma FFA, BHB, and urea concentrations compared with a lipogenic diet, independent of DP length. In conclusion, omitting the DP or feeding a glucogenic diet improved metabolic status in early lactation of the second year after implementation of DP length and dietary treatments, although effects of omitting the DP were less pronounced in the second year than in the first year. The less pronounced improvement of EB in the second year was related

  8. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  9. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  10. Efeito do estradiol, dietas e duração do período seco sobre o consumo de matéria seca de vacas holandesas Effect of estradiol, diets and lenght of the dry period on feed intake of holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia De Fátima Andrade Correia Teixeira

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos de dietas aniônicas (DA e catiônicas (DC, associadas ou não ao uso de estradiol em dois períodos secos: período seco curto (30 dias (PSC e período seco regular (60 dias (PSR sobre o consumo de matéria seca (MS de 40 vacas Holandesas, nos períodos pré-parto (PREP e pós-parto (PP, distribuídas aleatoriamente em esquema fatorial 2x2+2. As dietas foram fornecidas por 21 dias no período pré-parto, após o qual, as vacas passaram a receber uma dieta de lactação. As DA não tiveram efeito sobre o consumo de MS no PREP; entretanto, resultaram em maior consumo quando comparadas à DC no pós-parto. Os contrastes entre tratamentos mostraram que DA fornecidas no PREP produziram aumento no consumo PP, PSR e no PSC associadas ao estradiol (P0,05. Quando se comparam dietas com estradiol associado ao PSC com as demais, as primeiras apresentaram menores consumos, o que significa que a utilização de estrógenos exógenos pode reduzir o consumo no pós-parto. Não foram observadas diferenças entre consumo no PSC sem estradiol quando comparado ao PSR. O número de dias que antecederam o parto produziram efeito cúbico sobre o consumo (PThe effects of anionic and cationic diets, associated or not with estradiol injection, and two dry periods (30 days and 60 days, were evaluated in dry matter intake in prepartum and postpartum. The trial was undertaken at Dairy Research Unit of Florida University, in Gainesville, USA. Forty Holstein cows were randomly assigned to the treatments in a factorial design: 1. anionic diet, 30 days dry period (AD30 2. cationic diet, 30 days dry period (CD30, 3. anionic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (AD30E 4. cationic diet, 30 days dry period plus estradiol (CD30E; 5.anionic diet, 60 days dry period (AD60; 6. cationic diet, 60 days dry period (CD60. After calving, a standard early lactation diet was fed to all cows for 21 days. The cows were under two different range of temperatures: up

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  13. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  14. Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamellas, which are defined as top layers of multilayer parquet and favourable to wood veneer can be dried in jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer due to short drying period. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface roughness on the drying speed of the veneer roller dryer. Quercus spp.

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  17. Drying Rate of Carbonate of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Aymara Ricardo-Riverón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the drying rate of carbonate of nickel was studied experimentally at the laboratory scale. The values of critical moisture are shown and the graphics: characteristic curve of drying rate and the moisture dependence of the time. Models ware obtained to estimate the slope of the constant - rate period and to the falling - rate period until the equilibrium humidity, in dependence of external factors: drying temperature, initial moisture and the pH of the slurry. The chemical composition of the carbonate didn't exercise effect statistically significant over the drying rate.

  18. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  19. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  20. Survivability of freeze-dried probiotic Pediococcus pentosaceus strains GS4, GS17 and Lactobacillus gasseri (ATCC 19992 during storage with commonly used pharmaceutical excipients within a period of 120 days

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur Bagad

    2017-10-01

    Conclusions: Commonly used excipients can be considered as a vehicle for delivering active principle in probiotic formulation and for sustaining the viability and stability of probiotic strains for a period of 120 d.

  1. Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    The main object of this study is to determine the drying behaviour and conditions of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples using both solar assisted and open sun drying. For each drying experiment, 100 g each of unshelled and shelled pistachio were used. The least-squares method was applied to find the drying curve equation of pistachio. During the experiments, shelf temperatures, weight loss of pistachio, moisture content of air, and distribution of solar radiation were measured; and presented depending on the drying time. Also, the mass shrinkage ratios of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples were determined, and the experimental uncertainty ratio was calculated as 15-16.5 per cent based on the experimental results. It was deduced that the shelled and unshelled pistachio samples in the solar assisted forced convection dryer were perfectly dried at temperatures of 50{+-}10degC in the time period of 6 h. Whereas, the samples in the open sun drying were not sufficiently dried at temperatures of 28{+-}4degC in the same time period. Hence, it is suggested that the pistachio samples with approximately 29.0 per cent of moisture are dried in the solar assisted convection dryer at 50{+-}10degC of temperature in the time period of approximately 6 h in order to protect from the negative climatic and environmental effects. However, it is not desirable to dry the pistachio samples in the open sun because of greater drying time, dirt, dust and harmful insects. (Author)

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  3. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  4. Essential oil yield and composition of ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe rhizomes after different drying periods Teor e composição de óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre (Zingiber officinale Roscoe após diferentes períodos de secagem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I.C.M Dabague

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginger production in Paraná State, Brazil, has predominated in Morretes Municipality, with around 300 ha cultivated area. The aim of this work was to evaluate the essential oil yield and composition of ginger rhizomes produced in Morretes and subjected to different drying periods at room temperature. Experimental design was completely randomized, in a 5x5 factorial arrangement, with four replicates (four plants each, five origins and five drying periods at room temperature (0, 15, 30, 45 and 60 days. The essential oil was extracted by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger-type device for 3h and the constituents were analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC/MS. The drying of ginger rhizomes at room temperature for up to 60 days decreased the essential oil yield in most origins. Geranial and neral levels were higher in all origins and as drying periods were longer. Geraniol and geranyl acetate levels decreased after drying in all origins, as well as eucalyptol, camphene, zingiberene and β-bisabolene in most origins.A produção de gengibre no Paraná concentra-se no município de Morretes, ocupando uma área de plantio de aproximadamente 300 ha. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o teor e a composição do óleo essencial de rizomas de gengibre produzidos em Morretes e submetidos a diferentes períodos de secagem em temperatura ambiente. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 5 x 5, com quatro repetições (quatro plantas por repetição, avaliando cinco procedências e cinco períodos de secagem a temperatura ambiente (0, 15, 30, 45 e 60 dias. As extrações de óleo essencial foram realizadas por hidrodestilação em aparelho graduado Clevenger durante três horas e a análise dos constituintes foi realizada por meio de cromatografia em fase gasosa acoplada à espectrometria de massas. A secagem de rizomas de gengibre em temperatura ambiente por até 60 dias resultou na diminuição de teores de

  5. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  6. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin

    2018-01-01

    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R 2 ), varience (S 2 ) and root mean square deviation (D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  7. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  8. Application of microwave to drying and blanching of tomatoes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ando, Y.; Orikasa, T.; Shiina, T.; Sotome, I.; Isobe, S.; Muramatsu, Y.; Tagawa, A.

    2010-01-01

    The applicability of microwave to the drying and blanching of tomatoes was examined. The changes of the drying rate and surface color were first measured and compared between drying by hot air (50degC) or microwave at three radiation powers. The drying rates using a microwave were higher than that using hot air. Both a constant-rate drying period and a falling-rate drying period were observed for each microwave radiation power. Compared to hot air drying, microwave drying resulted in an increase in lightness which is a preferable quality of tomatoes. Next, the changes in temperature, nutrients and surface color were measured and compared between blanching by microwave or boiling water. Microwave blanching required less time, resulted in higher retention of nutrients (ascorbic acid and lycopene) and caused less change in color in comparison with boiling water blanching. These results suggest that a microwave could be applied to drying and blanching tomatoes

  9. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  10. Solar Drying in Hot and Dry Climate of Jaipur

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Darshit; Agrawal, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to design, develop and to carry out detail experimentation and then analyze solar cabinet dryer. For these various types of solar dryer, their principles and design methods, modeling, drying temperature, efficiency, utilization of dryer and payback period were reviewed. In the present study, solar cabinet dryer is constructed at Mechanical Engineering Department, M.N.I.T, Jaipur, latitude (26.01° N). The measurement of solar intensity, temperatures, relative...

  11. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  13. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  14. Protein sources in suplements to bovines on pastur in the dry and transition between the dry and the rainy periods Fontes de proteína em suplementos para bovinos em pastejo nos períodos da seca e de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Oliveira Martins

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Supplements with different protein sources were evaluated during the dry season and between the dry and the rainy seasons. We used 20 animals, with 220 kg average body weight and 10 months old age, in five paddocks (2 ha, in a completely randomized design, with five treatments and four replicates. The supplements with 38% of crude protein (CP in the dry matter (DM basis were supplied daily at 0.5% of their weight. The treatments employed were supplements based on: soybean meal /wheat meal (SMWM, wheat meal/urea (WMUR, cottonseed meal 38% of CP (CM38, cottonseed meal 28% of CP/urea (CMU28, wheat meal, cottonseed meal 38% of CP/urea (WCMU, and mineral salt was present in all the supplements. The treatment CM38 allowed superior animal performance compared with the treatments SMWM, WMUR and CM28; the treatment WCMU was superior to the treatments WMUR and CM28. We also used five Holstein-zebu steers, 10 months old and initial weight of 170 kg, fistulated in the esophagus and rumen. These animals were grazing in five paddocks (0.3 ha each in a completely randomized design. The intake of neutral detergent fiber (NDF was superior in treatments of WMU and CM28 in relation to CM38 and WCMU; and the digestibility of DM obtained in SMWM and WMUR treatments were superior to those of CM38, CM28, and WCMU, and the digestibility of CP’s WMU was superior to those of CM38 and CM28.Suplementos múltiplos com diferentes fontes de proteína foram fornecidos a bovinos, na seca e transição seca/águas, com o objetivo de avaliar o desempenho. Foram utilizados 20 animais com peso vivo (PV médio de 220 kg e idade aproximada de 10 meses, em cinco piquetes de dois hectares cada, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. O fornecimento dos suplementos, que tinham aproximadamente 38 % de proteína bruta (PB na matéria seca (MS, foi diário, em nível de 0,5 % do PV. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de suplemento à base de

  15. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  16. Drying process in the formation of sol-gel derived TiO2 ceramic membrane

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kumar, K.N.P.; Kumar, K.N.P.; Zaspalis, V.T.; Zaspalis, V.T.; Keizer, Klaas; Burggraaf, Anthonie; Burggraaf, A.J.

    1993-01-01

    Accurate drying data for thin titania gel layers dried at 40°C and 20% relative humidity (RH) are given. The drying rate versus free moisture content diagram should show three regions as predicted by the classical drying theory. They are the constant rate period, the first falling rate period and

  17. Random-walk diffusion and drying of porous materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrafarin, M.; Faghihi, M.

    2001-12-01

    Based on random-walk diffusion, a microscopic model for drying is proposed to explain the characteristic features of the drying-rate curve of porous materials. The constant drying-rate period is considered as a normal diffusion process. The transition to the falling-rate regime is attributed to the fractal nature of porous materials which results in crossover to anomalous diffusion.

  18. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  19. Coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos e valores de aminoácidos digestíveis do milho submetido a diferentes temperaturas de secagem e períodos de armazenamento True digestibility of amino acids and digestible amino acids values of corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures and storage periods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Débora Cristine de Oliveira Carvalho

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos de amostras de milho submetidas a diferentes temperaturas de secagem (temperatura ambiente e secagem artificial a 80, 100 e 120°C e períodos de armazenamento (0, 60, 120 e 180 dias. A digestibilidade verdadeira dos aminoácidos foi determinada pelo método de "alimentação forçada" utilizando-se galos Leghorn adultos cecectomizados, alojados individualmente em baterias metálicas. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 4 × 4 (quatro temperaturas de secagem e quatro períodos de armazenamento com um galo por unidade experimental e oito repetições por temperatura de secagem e período de armazenamento. As perdas endógenas foram determinadas com galos em jejum. O aumento da temperatura de secagem ocasionou redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina + cistina e isoleucina e efeito quadrático sobre a digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina. Os maiores coeficientes de digestibilidade de metionina, treonina, lisina, triptofano e fenilalanina foram observados nas temperaturas 40, 25, 27, 32 e 40°C, respectivamente, obtidas por equação de regressão. Observou-se redução linear da digestibilidade de metionina e treonina com o tempo de armazenamento. A temperatura de secagem e o tempo de armazenamento dos grãos de milho reduzem a digestibilidade da maioria dos aminoácidos.The objective of this experiment was to determine the true digestibility (TD of amino acids from corn samples submitted to different drying temperatures (room temperature and artificial drying at 80, 100 and 120°C, and different storage periods (0, 60, 120 and 180 days. The TD of amino acids was determined by the forced feeding method using cecectomized adult Leghorn roosters, placed in individual cages. A 4 × 4 factorial arrangement was used (four drying temperatures and four storage periods, in a completely randomized design

  20. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  1. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.(A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  2. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  3. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  4. Problem Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... ovary syndrome. Read our information on PCOS for teens , and see your doctor if you think you may have PCOS. Major weight loss. Girls who have anorexia will often stop having periods. When to see ...

  5. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  6. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  7. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  8. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  9. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  10. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  11. Effects of drying temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Masayu, I.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots were investigated to determine the optimum temperature for drying of this herb. The roots were subjected to drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying kinetics data indicated that the drying rate increased with increase in temperature but decreased with time. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. Three established thin layer drying models include Page, Midili and Logarithmic were employed to describe the drying process. The Midili model was found as the best fitting model in representing the process. The quality of the products was evaluated by comparing the content of its active compound, eurycomanone, quantified using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The fastest drying process was achieved at 70°C, but UPLC results showed that the product suffered at 18% reduction in eurycomanone content as compared to the control. Based on the findings of this work, the optimum drying temperature for E. longifolia roots is 60°C.

  12. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  13. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  14. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  15. Blanching and drying period affect moisture loss and vitamin C ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-09-03

    Sep 3, 2008 ... 1) increase the palatability of product, 2) preserve the products, and 3) ... Harare is situated at an altitude of 1506 m ... record temperature inside each solar dryer and outside on the open ... the bags in boiling water for 4 min.

  16. Shortening or omitting the dry period in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chen, Juncai

    2016-01-01

    During early lactation, dairy cows typically experience negative energy balance (EB) caused by the high energy requirement for milk yield, which cannot be met by feed intake. Severity of negative EB has been associated with an increased incidence of metabolic disorders and infectious diseases,

  17. Características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. sob pastejo no período de seca Structural and morphological characteristics of Pennisetum sp. genotypes under grazing during the dry period

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de estudar características estruturais e morfológicas de cinco genótipos de Pennisetum sp. (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elefante B e Hexaplóide sob pastejo no período de seca na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Os genótipos foram manejados sob lotação rotacionada (44 dias de descanso e quatro dias de pastejo ao longo de dois ciclos de pastejo. Os dados foram analisados em delineamento experimental de blocos ao acaso com parcelas subdivididas (os genótipos representaram as parcelas e os ciclos de pastejo, as subparcelas e quatro repetições. Houve variação nas características estruturais e morfológicas de genótipos de Pennisetum sp. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B apresentaram maior densidade de lâmina foliar verde, menor porcentagem de material morto e maior densidade de perfilhos basais remanescentes e aéreos novos, com médias de 5,0±0,4 kg de MS/ha/cm, 33,0±0,2%, 22,0±0,2 e 146,0±0,4 perfilhos/m², respectivamente. O HV-241 apresentou alta participação de material morto em sua biomassa aérea (55,6±0,3%, o que pode ser atribuído à alta mortalidade de perfilhos (19,0±0,3 e 114,0±0,4 perfilhos basais e aéreos mortos/m², respectivamente. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B destacaram-se como promissores para utilização sob pastejo no período de seca. O genótipo HV-241, híbrido de capim-elefante com o milheto, foi mais afetado pelos efeitos do estresse hídrico no período seco do ano.The experiment was carried out to study structural and morphologic characteristics of five Pennisetum sp. genotypes (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elephant B and Hexaplóide under grazing during the dry period in Pernambuco Forest Zone. Genotypes were managed under rotational stocking (44 days of resting and four days of grazing period. The experimental design was randomized blocks in a split plot arrangement, and four replications. The genotypes represented the plots, and grazing

  18. TG-DSC method applied to drying characteristics of areca inflorescence during drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Fei; Wang, Hui; Huang, Yulin; Zhang, Yufeng; Chen, Weijun; Zhao, Songlin; Zhang, Ming

    2017-10-01

    In this study, suitability of eight drying models available in literature on defining drying characteristics of areca inflorescence has been examined by non-linear regression analysis using the Statistic Computer Program. The coefficient of determination ( R 2 ) and the reduced chi-square (χ2) are used as indicators to evaluate the best suitable model. According to the results, the Verma et al. model gave the best results for explaining the drying characteristics of areca inflorescence. The drying process could be divided into three periods: rising rate, constant rate and the falling rate period. Fick's second law can describe the moisture transport during the food drying process that takes place in the falling rate period. The values of effective diffusivity during the drying of areca inflorescence ranged from 2.756 × 10-7 to 6.257 × 10-7 m2/s and the activation energy was tested for 35.535 kJ/mol. The heat requirement of areca inflorescence at 40-60 °C was calculated from 50.57 to 60.50 kJ/kg during the drying process.

  19. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  20. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  1. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  4. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  5. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  6. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  8. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  9. MODELS OF HOURLY DRY BULB TEMPERATURE AND ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hourly meteorological data of both dry bulb temperature and relative humidity for 18 locations in Nigeria for the period 1995 to 2009 were analysed to obtain the mean monthly average and monthly hourly average of each of the two meteorological variables for each month for each location. The difference between the ...

  10. Spatial and temporal analysis of dry spells in Greece

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anagnostopoulou, Chr.; Maheras, P.; Karacostas, T.; Vafiadis, M.

    A spatio-temporal analysis of the dry spells that occur in the Greek area is carried out for an extended period of 40 years (1958-1997). The dry spells can be defined as a number of consecutive days with no rain. The number of days defines the length of the dry spells. The longest spells are identified in central (Cyclades) and the south-east Aegean Sea whereas dry spells with the minimum length are shown over the north-west of the Greek area that reflects the significance of the latitude and the topography. Negative Binomial Distribution and Markov Chains of second order have been used to fit the duration of the dry spells of different lengths. The study of the seasonal and annual distribution of the frequency of occurrence of dry spells revealed that the dry spells in Greece depict a seasonal character, while medium and long sequences are associated with the duration and hazards of drought.

  11. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  12. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  13. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  14. Management of Surface Drying Temperature to Increase Antioxidant Capacity of Thyme Leaf Extracts (Thymus vulgaris L.)

    OpenAIRE

    RODRIGUEZ CORTINA, JADER; Melo, E.C.; Mulet Pons, Antonio; Bon Corbín, José

    2014-01-01

    [EN] Thyme leaves are an important source of essential oils with antioxidant activity; these compounds are located in trichomes on the leaf surface. The drying conditions affect not only the drying time but also the antioxidant activity. In the literature, a drying temperature of 70 ºC appears to be the best for drying thyme leaves according to their antioxidant capacity. Considering drying periods at different temperature also could be quality beneficial. From these considerations, the goal ...

  15. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  16. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  17. Partial drying accelerates bacterial growth recovery to rewetting

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Meisner, Annelein; Leizeaga, Ainara; Rousk, Johannes

    2017-01-01

    , bacterial growth rates increase immediately in a linear fashion. In the Type 2 pattern, bacterial growth rates increase exponentially after a lag period. However, soils are often only partially dried. Partial drying (higher remaining moisture content before rewetting) may be considered a less harsh...

  18. Convective drying of chilies using a concentrating solar collector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hanif, M.; Khattak, M.K.; Aamir, M.

    2015-01-01

    A concentrating solar collector was developed for convective drying of green chilies by providing optimum drying environment. A temperature in the range of 45-65 degree C and relative humidity of less than 10% was observed during the drying period provided by the solar collector from 9.00 am to 5.00 pm. Different levels of drying temperature and air mass flow rates were tested to find their effect on drying time of the chilies. The experiment was laid out as a randomized complete block design with a factorial arrangement of the treatments consisting of 3 levels of temperature and 3 levels of air mass flow rate, replicated 3 times. Drying temperature and air mass flow rates effected the drying time significantly. The means comparison showed that minimum drying time of 17.96 h was recorded at high temperature of 65 degree C followed by a drying time of 20.27 and 21.43 h at temperatures of 55 and 45 degree C. The means of air mass flow rates showed that minimum drying time of 18.49 h was noted at high air mass flow rate of 3.50 kg min-1 followed by 20.32 and 20.86 h at air mass flow rates of 1.5 and 2.30 kg min-l. Chilies dried at temperature of 65 degree C and air mass flow rate of 3.5 kg min-1 showed an average drying rate of 0.02 g(H20)hrl cm-2as compared to the slow drying rates at 55 and 45 degree C. It was concluded that chilies must be dried at high temperature and high air mass flow rates to get on time quality dried chilies. (author)

  19. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  20. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  1. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  2. Essays on Dry Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Chandrakant (Gujar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDue to several reasons, currently the global supply chains are getting stretched further away into the hinterlands from the gateway seaports. This single fact enhances the importance of dry ports. It would not be against logic, to state that in coming times, as a result of ever-growing

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  4. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  5. Recuperação de matéria seca e composição química de silagens de gramíneas do gênero Cynodon submetidas a períodos de pré-emurchecimento Recovery of dry matter and chemical composition of Cynodon sp. stargrass silage under periods of pre-wilting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Paulo Souza Quaresma

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de períodos de pré-emurchecimento das gramíneas Estrela- Africana-Branca [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] e Tifton 85 (Cynodon sp. sobre algumas características de suas silagens. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado com dez tratamentos e três repetições. Os tratamentos foram dispostos em esquema fatorial 2x5, sendo duas gramíneas (Estrela-Africana-Branca e Tifton 85 e cinco períodos de pré-emurchecimento da forragem (0, 1, 2, 3 e 4 h. As gramíneas foram cortadas aos 50 dias de rebrotação e permaneceram ensiladas por 55 dias em silos experimentais. O pré-emurchecimento promoveu aumento no teor de matéria seca da forragem cortada e da silagem das gramíneas Tifton 85 e Estrela Africana Branca. Houve diminuição nos teores de N-amoniacal (N-NH3/N-total da silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca, a uma taxa de 1,66 unidade percentual por hora de pré-emurchecimento, mas não houve alteração nessa variável da silagem do capim-tifton 85. A silagem do capim-tifton 85 apresentou maior recuperação de matéria seca, maior teor de FDN e menor teor de proteína bruta do que a silagem do capim-estrela-africana-branca. O pH e o teor de FDA das silagens não foram influenciados pelo pré-emurchecimento.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of periods of pre-wilting of stargrass [Cynodon plectostachyus (K. Schum. Pilg.] and Tifton 85 bermudagrass (Cynodon sp. on some characteristics of their silage. Arandomized design with ten treatments and three replications was used. The treatments were arranged in a 2x5 factorial, two grasses (stargrass and Tifton 85 and five periods of pre-wilting of forage (0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 h. The grasses were harvested at 50 days regrowth and stored for 55 days in experimental silos. The pre-wilting caused an increase in dry matter content of forage and silage of both, Tifton 85 and stargrass. There was a decrease in the levels of ammonia-N (N-NH3/N

  6. Mathematical modeling of drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    OpenAIRE

    Tunde-Akintunde, T. Y.; Ogunlakin, G. O.

    2011-01-01

    In this study, drying characteristics of pretreated and untreated pumpkin were examined in a hot-air dryer at air temperatures within a range of 40–80 °C and a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drying was observed to be in the falling-rate drying period and thus liquid diffusion is the main mechanism of moisture movement from the internal regions to the product surface. The experimental drying data for the pumpkin fruits were used to fit Exponential, General exponential, Logarithmic, Page...

  7. Dry eye syndrome. Etiological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Silvia; Filip, M; Dragne, Carmen; Filip, A

    2003-01-01

    "Dry eye syndrome" is a common disorder of the tear film that results from inadequate tear production, excessive tear evaporation or abnormality in mucin or lipid components of the tear film. A number of 53 patients suffering from dry eye syndrome were followed up for a period of 18 months. The study group was heterogeneous, including a lot of conditions accompanied by dry eye syndrome: Syogren's syndrome, lupus erythematous, ocular rosacea, patients with systemic treatments with antidepressants, betablockers, diuretics, oral contraceptives, glaucomatous patients with topical beta-blockers, postmenopausal women, aging people, computer users and long-term contact lens wearers. The therapeutical options were dictated by the severity of the syndrome: substitution therapy, treatment of the underlying eyelid diseases, modifying of the environmental conditions and treatment of the complications in the most severe cases. The new pathological approach is innovative and it may provide a real therapeutical measure for this condition: topical A Cyclosporine and androgen drops.

  8. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bradley, N [National Nuclear Corporation, Risley, Warrington (United Kingdom); Ealing, C [GEC Energy Systems Ltd, Whetstone, Leicester (United Kingdom)

    1985-07-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility.

  9. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wahid, M.; Sattar, A.; Jan, M.; Ahmad, A.; Khan, I.

    1988-01-01

    Dried fruits are considered a major source of income and foreign exchange in many countries. The spoilage of dried fruits and nuts by insect infestation, colour deterioration and chemical changes during storage are the serious problems especially under humid tropical conditions. The present work was undertaken to study the effect of irradiation in combination with different modified storage environments on insect infestation as well as chemical and sensory quality indices. The affect of gamma radiation dose of 1 KGy and storage environments such as air vacuum and carbon dioxide on insect infestation of dry fruits and nuts. In the case of un-irradiated samples, insect infestation progressed throughout the storage period especially in those kept under air. The vacuum storage was found better in checking infestation followed by CO/sub/2 and air. (orig./A.B.)

  10. Interim dry fuel storage for magnox reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bradley, N.; Ealing, C.

    1985-01-01

    In the UK the practice of short term buffer storage in water ponds prior to chemical reprocessing had already been established on the early gas cooled reactors in Calder Hall. Thus the choice of water pond buffer storage for MGR power plants logically followed the national policy decision to reprocess. The majority of the buffer storage period would take place at the reprocessing plant with only a nominal of 100 days targeted at the station. Since Magnox clad fuel is not suitable for long term pond storage, alternative methods of storage on future stations was considered desirable. In addition to safeguards considerations the economic aspects of the fuel cycle has influenced the conclusion that today the purchase of a MGR power plant with dry spent fuel storage and without commitment to reprocess would be a rational decision for a country initiating a nuclear programme. Dry storage requirements are discussed and two designs of dry storage facilities presented together with a fuel preparation facility

  11. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  12. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  13. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  14. Replacement of soybean meal by treated castor meal in supplements for grazing heifer during the dry-rainy season period Substituição do farelo de soja por farelo de mamona tratado em suplementos para novilhas em pastejo no período de transição seca-águas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Barros

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of multiple supplement with different levels of castor meal (Ricinus communis L. treated with calcium oxide on intake, on the total apparent digestibility of dietary components, on the efficiency of microbial synthesis and on the performance of beef heifers grazing Brachiaria decumbens during the dry-rainy transition period. The experimental area was composed of five 2.5-ha paddocks with availability of potentially digestible dry matter of 2,858.4 kg/ha. It was used 25 Nellore heifers and 10 crossbred with predominance of Zebu breed heifers at 13 months of age and body weight of 210 ± 0.8 kg in a completely randomized experimental design. Supplements contained approximately 25% of crude protein (CP and they were formulated with 0; 33; 67 and 100% of castor meal replacing soybean meal. Daily weight gain was 366.1 g for animals in the control group and 439.7; 478.9; 556.3; and 493.9, respectively for those fed supplements with 100% of soybean meal and 33, 67 and 100% castor meal. There was no effect of treated castor meal levels on daily weight gain of the animals, which was higher in those animals fed supplements. Levels of castor meal had decreasing linear effect on intakes of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, ether extract (EE, digested dry matter and digestible neutral detergent fiver and on the intake of total digestible nutrients. Coefficients of apparent digestibility of DM, OM, CP, EE and non-fibrous carbohydrates were greater for animals under supplementation. Microbial efficiency, expressed in g of crude protein per kg of consumed TDN, did not differ among groups. Replacement of soybean meal by castor meal treated with calcium oxide does not harm animal performance.Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de suplementos múltiplos com diferentes níveis de farelo de mamona (Ricinus communis L. tratado com óxido de cálcio sobre o consumo, a digestibilidade aparente total de componentes da

  15. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  16. Drying characteristics of osmotically pretreated cranberries : Energy and quality aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grabowski, S.; Marcotte, M. [Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, St. Hyacinthe, PQ (Canada). Food Research and Development Centre; Poirier, M.; Kudra, T. [Natural Resources Canada, Varennes, PQ (Canada). CANMET Energy Technology Centre

    2002-06-01

    This paper presents the results of a study in which osmotically pretreated cranberries were dried. The osmotic treatment included dehydration and sugar infusion. The process involved pretreating halved cranberries in a standard osmotic solution followed by freeze-drying, vacuum-drying and air-drying in various dryers, such as cabinet-air-through, fluid bed, pulsed fluid bed, and vibrated fluid bed dryers. The intent was to identify the best drying technology. The comparison criteria selected were energy consumption and product quality. Product quality for freeze-dried berries was quantified based on anthocyanins content, rehydration ratio, color, and taste. Unit heat consumption could be used for selecting the drying method, as all other drying methods yielded similar but slightly lower quality products. The highest energy efficiency was obtained with the vibrated fluid bed and the pulsed fluid bed. It was noted that drying rates were reduced during the second drying period when sugar was infused into the cranberries during osmotic pretreatment, but the total energy consumption was reduced by osmotic dehydration. 22 refs., 1 tab., 5 figs.

  17. The effect of slicing type on drying kinetics and quality of dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Naghipour zadeh mahani

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Carrot is one of the most common vegetables used for human nutrition because of its high vitamin and fiber contents. Drying improves the product shelf life without addition of any chemical preservative and reduces both the size of package and the transport cost. Drying also aidsto reduce postharvest losses of fruits and vegetables especially, which can be as high as 70%. Dried carrots are used in dehydrated soups and in the form of powder in pastries and sauces. The main aim of drying agricultural products is decrease the moisture content to a level which allows safe storage over an extended period. Many fruits and vegetables can be sliced before drying.because of different tissue of a fruit or vegetable, cutting them in different direction and shape created different tissue slices. Due to drying is the exiting process of the moisture from internal tissue so different tissue slices caused different drying kinetics. Therefore, the study on effect of cutting parameters on drying is necessary. Materials and Methods: Carrots (Daucus carota L. were purchased from the local market (Kerman, Iran and stored in a refrigerator at 5°C. The initial moisture contents of the Carrot samples were determined by the oven drying method. The sample was dried in an oven at 105±2°C about 24 hours. The carrots cut by 3 models blade at 3 directions. The samples were dried in an oven at 70°C. Moisture content of the carrot slices were determined by weighting of samples during drying. Volume changes because of sample shrinkage were measured by a water displacement method. Rehydration experiment was performed by immersing a weighted amount of dried samples into hot water 50 °C for 30 min. In this study the effect of some cutting parameters was considered on carrot drying and the quality of final drying product. The tests were performed as a completely random design. The effects of carrot thickness at two levels (3 and 6 mm, blade in 3 models (flat blade

  18. Drying Characteristics and Water-soluble Polysaccharides Evaluation of Kidney Shape Ganoderma lucidum Drying in Air Circulation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prasetyo, D. J.; Jatmiko, T. H.; Poeloengasih, C. D.; Kismurtono, M.

    2017-12-01

    In this project, drying kinetic of kidney shape Ganoderma lucidum fruiting body in air circulation system was studied. The drying experiments were conducted at 40, 50 and 60°C with air flow rate of 1.3 ms-1. Samples were weighted periodically until no change in sample weight was recorded, and then the samples were analyzed for its moisture content. Four different thin-layer mathematical models (Newton, Page, Two-term, Midilli) were used and compare to evaluate the drying curves of kidney shape G. lucidum. The water-soluble polysaccharides were evaluated in order to find the best drying temperature condition. The results indicates that Midilli model was the fittest model to describe the characteristic of kidney shape G. lucidum in the air circulation drying system and temperature of 50°C was the best drying condition to get highest value of water-soluble polysaccharides.

  19. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  20. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  1. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L. with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis. The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min.

  2. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  3. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  4. Mathematical Modeling of Thin Layer Microwave Drying of Taro Slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vivek; Sharma, H. K.; Singh, K.

    2016-03-01

    The present study investigated the drying kinetics of taro slices precooked in different medium viz water (WC), steam (SC) and Lemon Solution (LC) and dried at different microwave power 360, 540 and 720 W. Drying curves of all precooked slices at all microwave powers showed falling rate period along with a very short accelerating period at the beginning of the drying. At all microwave powers, higher drying rate was observed for LC slices as compared to WC and SC slices. To select a suitable drying curve, seven thin-layer drying models were fitted to the experimental data. The data revealed that the Page model was most adequate in describing the microwave drying behavior of taro slices precooked in different medium. The highest effective moisture diffusivity value of 2.11 × 10-8 m2/s was obtained for LC samples while the lowest 0.83 × 10-8 m2/s was obtained for WC taro slices. The activation energy (E a ) of LC taro slices was lower than the E a of WC and SC taro slices.

  5. Drying of latex films and coatings: Reconsidering the fundamental mechanisms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiil, Søren

    2006-01-01

    The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast to previ......The two existing theories describing drying of latex films or coatings are reconsidered. Subsequently, a novel mathematical drying model is presented, the simulations of which can match and explain experimental drying rate data of two previous investigations with latex films. In contrast...... to previous model studies, but in agreement with observations, simulations suggest that during the falling rate period of the drying process of a latex film, a porous skin of partly coalesced latex particles is indeed formed, which limits transport of water vapour from the receding air-liquid interphase...... to the surface of the film. The value of the effective diffusion coefficient of water vapour in the dry and partly coalesced layer (7 x 10(-7) m(2)/s at 19-24 degrees C), the adjustable parameter of the model for the falling rate period, was found to be independent of initial wet film thickness (89-1322 mu m...

  6. A review of dry ports

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Roso; Kent Lumsden

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the previous research on the dry port concept and to review the world's existing dry ports, that is freight terminals that use the term ‘dry port’ in their name. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the concept by showing potential discrepancies or agreements between theory and practice. Starting from a literature review on the dry port concept, this article presents a review of existing dry ports in the world. A number of qualitativ...

  7. Evaluation of the use of dry cow antibiotics in low somatic cell count cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C. G M; Den Uijl, I. E M; Van Schaik, G.; Olde Riekerink, R. G M; Keurentjes, J. M.; Lam, T. J G M

    2014-01-01

    The goal of dry cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antibiotics has become questionable. This

  8. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  9. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  10. Specific energy consumption in microwave drying of garlic cloves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, G.P. [Department of Processing and Food Engineering, College of Technology and Agricultural Engineering, Udaipur 313 001, Rajasthan (India); Prasad, Suresh [Agricultural and Food Engineering Department, Indian Institute of Technology, Kharagpur 721 302 (India)

    2006-09-15

    The convective and microwave-convective drying of garlic cloves was carried out in a laboratory scale microwave dryer, which was developed for this purpose. The specific energy consumption involved in the two drying processes was estimated from the energy supplied to the various components of the dryer during the drying period. The specific energy consumption was computed by dividing the total energy supplied by amount of water removed during the drying process. The specific energy consumption in convective drying of garlic cloves at 70{sup o}C temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was estimated as 85.45MJ/kg of water evaporated. The increase in air velocity increased the energy consumption. The specific energy consumption at 40W of microwave power output, 70{sup o}C air temperature and 1.0m/s air velocity was 26.32MJ/kg of water removed, resulting in about a 70% energy saving as compared to convective drying processes. The drying time increased with increase in air velocity in microwave-convective drying process; a trend reverse to what was observed in convective drying process of garlic cloves. (author)

  11. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O.

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 o C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 o C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 o C to 80 o C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively.

  12. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  13. Kinetics and thermodynamic properties related to the drying of 'Cabacinha' pepper fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Hellismar W. da Silva; Renato S. Rodovalho; Marya F. Velasco; Camila F. Silva; Luís S. R. Vale

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study was to determine and model the drying kinetics of 'Cabacinha' pepper fruits at different temperatures of the drying air, as well as obtain the thermodynamic properties involved in the drying process of the product. Drying was carried out under controlled conductions of temperature (60, 70, 80, 90 and 100 °C) using three samples of 130 g of fruit, which were weighed periodically until constant mass. The experimental data were adjusted to different mathemati...

  14. Oral antioxidant therapy for marginal dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, K J; Patel, S; Aidoo, K E

    2001-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of an orally administered antioxidant dietary supplement for managing marginal dry eye. A prospective, randomised, placebo controlled trial with cross-over. Eye Clinic, Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University. Forty marginal dry eye sufferers composed of 30 females and 10 males (median age 53 y; range 38-69 y). Baseline assessments were made of tear volume sufficiency (thread test), tear quality (stability), ocular surface status (conjunctival impression cytology) and dry eye symptoms (questionnaire). Each subject was administered courses of active treatment, placebo and no treatment, in random order for 1 month each and results compared to baseline. Tear stability and ocular surface status were significantly improved following active treatment (Ptreatment (P>0.05). Absolute increase in tear stability correlated with absolute change in goblet cell population density. Tear volume was not improved following any treatment period and dry eye symptom responses were subject to placebo effect. Oral antioxidants improved both tear stability and conjunctival health, although it is not yet understood whether increased ocular surface health mediates increased tear stability or vice versa. This study was supported by a PhD scholarship funded by the Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland. Antioxidant supplements and placebos were kindly donated by Vitabiotics.

  15. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  16. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lahsasni, Siham; Kouhila, Mohammed; Mahrouz, Mostafa; Idlimam, Ali; Jamali, Abdelkrim

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 deg. C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 deg. C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m 3 /s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m 2 of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square (χ 2 ) of 4.6572 10 -5

  17. Thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel (Opuntia ficus indica)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lahsasni, S.; Mahrouz, M. [Unite de Chimie Agroalimentaire (LCOA), Faculte des Sciences Semlalia, Marrakech (Morocco); Kouhila, M.; Idlimam, A.; Jamali, A. [Ecole Normale Superieure, Marrakech (Morocco). Lab. d' Energie Solaire et Plantes Aromatiques et Medicinales

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents the thin layer convective solar drying and mathematical modeling of prickly pear peel. For these purposes, an indirect forced convection solar dryer consisting of a solar air collector, an auxiliary heater, a circulation fan and a drying cabinet is used for drying experiments. Moreover, the prickly pear peel is sufficiently dried in the ranges of 32 to 36 {sup o} C of ambient air temperature, 50 to 60 {sup o}C of drying air temperature, 23 to 34% of relative humidity, 0.0277 to 0.0833 m{sup 3}/s of drying air flow rate and 200 to 950 W/m{sup 2} of daily solar radiation. The experimental drying curves show only a falling drying rate period. The main factor in controlling the drying rate was found to be the drying air temperature. The drying rate equation is determined empirically from the characteristic drying curve. Also, the experimental drying curves obtained were fitted to a number of mathematical models. The Midilli-Kucuk drying model was found to satisfactorily describe the solar drying curves of prickly pear peel with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9998 and chi-square ({chi}{sup 2}) of 4.6572 10{sup -5}. (Author)

  18. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  19. Community Geothermal Technology Program: Experimental lumber drying kiln. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaman, D.; Irwin, B.

    1989-10-01

    Goals were to demonstrate feasibility of using the geothermal waste effluent from the HGP-A well as a heat source for a kiln operation to dry hardwoods, develop drying schedules, and develop automatic systems to monitor/control the geothermally heated lumber dry kiln systems. The feasibility was demonstrated. Lumber was dried in periods of 2 to 6 weeks in the kiln, compared to 18 months air drying and 6--8 weeks using a dehumidified chamber. Larger, plate-type heat exchangers between the primary fluid and water circulation systems may enable the kiln to reach the planned temperatures (180--185 F). However, the King Koa partnership cannot any longer pursue the concept of geothermal lumber kilns.

  20. The Physiological Suppressing Factors of Dry Forage Intake and the Cause of Water Intake Following Dry Forage Feeding in Goats — A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsunori Sunagawa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The goats raised in the barn are usually fed on fresh grass. As dry forage can be stored for long periods in large amounts, dry forage feeding makes it possible to feed large numbers of goats in barns. This review explains the physiological factors involved in suppressing dry forage intake and the cause of drinking following dry forage feeding. Ruminants consume an enormous amount of dry forage in a short time. Eating rates of dry forage rapidly decreased in the first 40 min of feeding and subsequently declined gradually to low states in the remaining time of the feeding period. Saliva in large-type goats is secreted in large volume during the first hour after the commencement of dry forage feeding. It was elucidated that the marked suppression of dry forage intake during the first hour was caused by a feeding-induced hypovolemia and the loss of NaHCO3 due to excessive salivation during the initial stages of dry forage feeding. On the other hand, it was indicated that the marked decrease in feed intake observed in the second hour of the 2 h feeding period was related to ruminal distension caused by the feed consumed and the copious amount of saliva secreted during dry forage feeding. In addition, results indicate that the marked decreases in dry forage intake after 40 min of feeding are caused by increases in plasma osmolality and subsequent thirst sensations produced by dry forage feeding. After 40 min of the 2 h dry forage feeding period, the feed salt content is absorbed into the rumen and plasma osmolality increases. The combined effects of ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality accounted for 77.6% of the suppression of dry forage intake 40 min after the start of dry forage feeding. The results indicate that ruminal distension and increased plasma osmolality are the main physiological factors in suppression of dry forage intake in large-type goats. There was very little drinking behavior observed during the first hour of the 2 h

  1. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  3. Dry deposition of gaseous oxidized mercury in Western Maryland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castro, Mark S; Moore, Chris; Sherwell, John; Brooks, Steve B

    2012-02-15

    The purpose of this study was to directly measure the dry deposition of gaseous oxidized mercury (GOM) in western Maryland. Annual estimates were made using passive ion-exchange surrogate surfaces and a resistance model. Surrogate surfaces were deployed for seventeen weekly sampling periods between September 2009 and October 2010. Dry deposition rates from surrogate surfaces ranged from 80 to 1512 pgm(-2)h(-1). GOM dry deposition rates were strongly correlated (r(2)=0.75) with the weekly average atmospheric GOM concentrations, which ranged from 2.3 to 34.1 pgm(-3). Dry deposition of GOM could be predicted from the ambient air concentrations of GOM using this equation: GOM dry deposition (pgm(-2)h(-1))=43.2 × GOM concentration-80.3. Dry deposition velocities computed using GOM concentrations and surrogate surface GOM dry deposition rates, ranged from 0.2 to 1.7 cms(-1). Modeled dry deposition rates were highly correlated (r(2)=0.80) with surrogate surface dry deposition rates. Using the overall weekly average surrogate surface dry deposition rate (369 ± 340 pg m(-2)h(-1)), we estimated an annual GOM dry deposition rate of 3.2 μg m(-2)year(-1). Using the resistance model, we estimated an annual GOM dry deposition rate of 3.5 μg m(-2)year(-1). Our annual GOM dry deposition rates were similar to the dry deposition (3.3 μg m(-2)h(-1)) of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at our site. In addition, annual GOM dry deposition was approximately 1/2 of the average annual wet deposition of total mercury (7.7 ± 1.9 μg m(-2)year(-1)) at our site. Total annual mercury deposition from dry deposition of GOM and GEM and wet deposition was approximately 14.4 μg m(-2)year(-1), which was similar to the average annual litterfall deposition (15 ± 2.1 μg m(-2)year(-1)) of mercury, which was also measured at our site. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  5. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  6. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  7. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  8. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  9. Analysis of Dry Spells in Southern Italy (Calabria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tommaso Caloiero

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A deficit in precipitation may impact greatly on soil moisture, snowpack, stream flow, groundwater, and reservoir storage. Among the several approaches available to analyze this phenomenon, one of the most applied is the analysis of dry spells. In this paper, an investigation of the spatial and temporal patterns of dry spells, in a region of southern Italy, has been carried out on a daily precipitation dataset. First, the frequency distributions of the sequences of dry days have been analyzed. Then, the regional areas most affected by dry events have been evaluated at annual and seasonal scale. Finally, the long-term trend of the dry spells has been estimated at annual and seasonal scale. Results show that the lower probabilities of long dry spells occur in the main reliefs of the region, while the highest values have been detected in the Ionian side. The spatial distribution of the mean and maximum length values of the dry spells evidenced a west–east gradient. The trend analysis mainly revealed a negative behavior in the duration of the dry spells at annual scale and a positive trend in the winter period.

  10. Dry Socket: Incidence, Clinical Features, and Predisposing Factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Babatunde O. Akinbami

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Dry socket is a global phenomenon. The purpose of the study was to investigate the incidence of dry socket in recent times in a Nigerian Tertiary Hospital. Methods. Patients who were referred for dental extractions were included in the study. The case files of patients were obtained and information retrieved included biodata, indication for extraction, number and type of teeth extracted, oral hygiene status, compliance to oral hygiene instructions, and development of dry socket. Results. One thousand, one hundred and eighty two patients with total of 1362 teeth extracted during the 4-year period of the study were analyzed, out of which 1.4% teeth developed dry socket. The mean age (SD was 35.2 (16.0 years. Most of the patients who presented with dry socket were in the fourth decade of life. Mandibular teeth were affected more than maxillary teeth. Molars were more affected. Retained roots and third molars were conspicuous in the cases with dry socket. Conclusion. The incidence of dry socket in our centre was lower than previous reports. Oral hygiene status, lower teeth, and female gender were significantly associated with development of dry socket. Treatment with normal saline irrigation and ZnO eugenol dressings allowed relief of the symptoms.

  11. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  12. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  13. Evolution of periodicity in periodical cicadas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Hiromu; Kakishima, Satoshi; Uehara, Takashi; Morita, Satoru; Koyama, Takuya; Sota, Teiji; Cooley, John R; Yoshimura, Jin

    2015-09-14

    Periodical cicadas (Magicicada spp.) in the USA are famous for their unique prime-numbered life cycles of 13 and 17 years and their nearly perfectly synchronized mass emergences. Because almost all known species of cicada are non-periodical, periodicity is assumed to be a derived state. A leading hypothesis for the evolution of periodicity in Magicicada implicates the decline in average temperature during glacial periods. During the evolution of periodicity, the determinant of maturation in ancestral cicadas is hypothesized to have switched from size dependence to time (period) dependence. The selection for the prime-numbered cycles should have taken place only after the fixation of periodicity. Here, we build an individual-based model of cicadas under conditions of climatic cooling to explore the fixation of periodicity. In our model, under cold environments, extremely long juvenile stages lead to extremely low adult densities, limiting mating opportunities and favouring the evolution of synchronized emergence. Our results indicate that these changes, which were triggered by glacial cooling, could have led to the fixation of periodicity in the non-periodical ancestors.

  14. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  15. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  16. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  17. Genótipos de capim-elefante sob pastejo no período de seca na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco: fatores relacionados à eficiência de pastejo Elephantgrass genotypes under grazing during the dry period in the Forest Zone of Pernambuco: factors related to grazing efficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcio Vieira da Cunha

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar fatores relacionados à eficiência de pastejo de cinco genótipos de Pennisetum sp. (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elefante B e Hexaplóide no período seco do ano na Zona da Mata de Pernambuco. Os genótipos foram manejados sob lotação rotacionada (44 dias de descanso e quatro dias de pastejo ao longo de dois ciclos de pastejo. Adotou-se delineamento experimental em blocos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas (os genótipos representaram as parcelas e os ciclos de pastejo, as subparcelas e quatro repetições. As massas de lâmina foliar total, verde e senescente pré-pastejo foram analisadas em seis repetições. O acúmulo e a eficiência de pastejo de lâmina foliar verde foram avaliados em delineamento em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B apresentaram maiores massas de lâmina foliar total (1.374 kg de MS/ha e verde pré-pastejo (737 kg de MS/ha e maior acúmulo (654 kg de MS/ha/44 dias e eficiência de pastejo de lâmina foliar verde (80%. No HV-241, a alta eficiência de pastejo (100% do acúmulo lâmina foliar verde esteve associada ao baixo acúmulo de lâmina foliar verde (155 kg de MS/ha/44 dias. A menor eficiência de pastejo foi observada no Hexaplóide (59% do acúmulo de lâmina foliar verde, possivelmente em virtude das altas perdas sob pastejo (30% da massa de lâmina foliar total pré-pastejo. A massa de lâmina foliar verde diminuiu mais acentuadamente até o segundo dia de pastejo, enquanto as perdas de lâmina foliar total foram maiores no 2º e 3º dias de pastejo. Os genótipos CE 08 A.D. e Elefante B têm potencial para serem utilizados em sistemas de lotação rotacionada na Zona da Mata pernambucana.The experiment was carried out to evaluate factors related to the grazing efficiency of five Pennisetum sp. genotypes (CE 08 A.D., Venezuela, HV-241, Elephant B and Hexaplóide during the dry period in the Forest Zone

  18. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  19. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  20. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  1. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  2. Development and Evaluation of Solar Tunnel Dryer for Commercial Fish Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohod, A. G.; Khandetod, Y. P.; Shrirame, H. Y.

    2014-01-01

    The local practice of drying fish in open sun drying poses problems such as high moisture content, uncontrolled drying and contamination. These problems can be avoided by proper use of improved methods such as the solar tunnel dryer, which results in faster drying of fish. The semi cylindrical walk-in type natural convection solar tunnel dryer, having drying area of 37.5 m2 was developed and evaluated for the drying of fish products in comparison with the conventional method of open sun drying. The experiments were conducted without fish and with fish to evaluate the performance of solar tunnel dryer. The average rise in temperature inside the solar tunnel dryer was found to be 11.24 °C and 18.29 °C over the ambient temperature during no load test in winter and summer respectively. The average 28 % saving in time was observed for selected fish drying using solar tunnel dryer over open sun drying method with average drying efficiency of 19 %. The economics was calculated for drying of prawns ( Parapaeneopsis stylifera) by solar tunnel dryer and open sun drying system on the basis of business as a whole. The economics of the solar tunnel dryer is presented in term of Net present worth, Benefit-Cost Ratio, Payback period, Profitability index and Internal rate of return. The pay back period for solar tunnel dryer was found to be 2.84 years.

  3. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  4. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  5. Mechanisms of bands and spirals formation during the drying of watery solutions of mercury (II) chloride with agar-agar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suarez-DomInguez, Edgardo Jonathan; Betancourt-Mar, Juvencio Alberto

    2005-01-01

    It is proposed two mechanisms to explain the formation of periodic and non periodic bands and spirals as thin films of gelatinous aqueous solutions of mercury (II) chloride are dried. The first mechanism supposes an homogeneous drying, where the height of the film decreases at constant rate, forming Liesegang bands. The second mechanism implies a non homogeneous drying where an evaporation front drives the formation of periodic bands and spirals

  6. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  7. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  8. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits. Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  9. The Aggregate Planning For Trucking Operation in Cikarang Dry Port

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dwi Puspita Sari Utami

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Cikarang Dry Port currently is the only dry port in Indonesia. This Dry Port has a role to connect or extend the Sea Port to the industrial areas located far from Sea Port. Thus, it creates a value added and also reduce costs. One of the operations done in Cikarang Dry Port is trucking operation. This research aims to examine the planning of 2014 trucking activity in Cikarang Dry Port to determine the right number of the truck that will be best occupied to manage all demands. The analysis begins with demand forecasting by using a moving average method of 12 months or one year period in 2013 which will be used as main information to develop the plans. There are three plans developed in this research. Based on the three plans, Plan A with minimum trucking plan with subcontracting is the most profitable which gives the highest profitability of Rp. 374,984,625. Recommendation for this research is using the current minimum number of 39 trucks rent with additional subcontracting when the demand is exceeding the capacity, thus, Cikarang Dry Port can occupy all demands and gain more profits.Keywords: Aggregate Planning; Scheduling; Trucking Operation; Moving Average; Cikarang Dry Port

  10. Drying on the germination and vigor of Crataeva tapia L. seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edna Ursulino Alves

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Crataeva tapia L. is a fruit native to the Brazilian savanna, the Caatinga, and is used in the production of soft drinks and other beverages. Given the importance of this species and the lack of knowledge about its seeds, this research aimed to evaluate the physiological quality of C. tapia L. seeds subjected to different environments and drying periods. Seeds were dried for the following time periods: 0 (no drying, 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 hours, in the laboratory environment (25°C and 90% RH and in a greenhouse (30°C and 80% RH. After the drying period, seeds from each of the treatments were used for determining the water content, germination, and vigor (using tests for emergence, first count of germination and emergence, rate of germination and emergence, length, and seedling dry weight. The experimental design was completely randomized and a factorial 2×6 scheme (local environment × drying periods was used with four replicate sets of seeds. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial regression using quadratic models. The germination and seed vigor reduced as the drying periods increased. For optimum results, the seeds of C. tapia L. must be dried in the laboratory for a period of 48 hours. In addition, their desiccation resistance was classified as intermediate.

  11. Dry Deposition from Sahara Sources Regions of Western Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Douaiba

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Sahara dust storms during March 2004 have attracted much attention from the dust-research community due to their intensity, wide coverage, and endurance. In the present work, the dry deposition mechanisms of mineral dust are analysed during an event on the 3 March 2004 over the Northwest African coast. This particular case was chosen based on the strong dry removal that occurred, rendering it ideal for examining the deposition processes. The simulation of synoptic conditions and dry deposition of four dust particles including clay, small silt, large silt, and sand was performed with Eta model, coupled with a desert dust cycle module. The results have been compared with surface data from weather stations in North Africa, data of dry metals from stations located in Gran Canaria, and various satellite images such as European Organization for the Exploitation of Meteorological Satellites and Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer for the period in question.

  12. Mathematical modeling of drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tunde-Akintunde, T Y; Ogunlakin, G O

    2013-08-01

    In this study, drying characteristics of pretreated and untreated pumpkin were examined in a hot-air dryer at air temperatures within a range of 40-80 °C and a constant air velocity of 1.5 m/s. The drying was observed to be in the falling-rate drying period and thus liquid diffusion is the main mechanism of moisture movement from the internal regions to the product surface. The experimental drying data for the pumpkin fruits were used to fit Exponential, General exponential, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli-Kucuk and Parabolic model and the statistical validity of models tested were determined by non-linear regression analysis. The Parabolic model had the highest R(2) and lowest χ(2) and RMSE values. This indicates that the Parabolic model is appropriate to describe the dehydration behavior for the pumpkin.

  13. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  14. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  15. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  16. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  17. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  18. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  19. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  20. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  1. Microwave blanching and drying characteristics of Centella asiatica (L.) urban leaves using tray and heat pump-assisted dehumidified drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trirattanapikul, W; Phoungchandang, S

    2014-12-01

    The appropriate stage of maturity of Centella asiatica (L.) Urban leaves was investigated. Mature leaves with large diameter contained high total phenolics and % inhibition. Microwave blanching for 30 s retained the highest total phenolics and the microwave blanching for 30 s and 45 s retained the highest % inhibition. Modified Henderson and Modified Chung-Pfost models showed the best fit to both fresh and blanched leaves for equilibrium moisture content, Xe = f(RHe, T) and equilibrium relative humidity, RHe = f(Xe, T), respectively. The Modified Page model was the most effective model in describing the leaf drying. All drying was in the falling rate period. The drying constant was related to drying air temperature using the Arrhenius model. Effective moisture diffusivities increased with increasing temperature and blanching treatments as well as dehumidification by heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer. The heat pump-assited dehumidified drying incorporated by the microwave blanching could reduce the drying time at 40 °C by 31.2 % and increase % inhibition by 6.1 %. Quality evaluation by total phenolics, % inhibition and rehydration ratio showed the best quality for C. asiatica leaves pretreated by microwave blanching and dried at 40 °C in heat pump-assisted dehumidified dryer.

  2. Desorption isotherms and mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of tomato

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belghith, Amira; Azzouz, Soufien; ElCafsi, Afif

    2016-03-01

    In recent years, there is an increased demand on the international market of dried fruits and vegetables with significant added value. Due to its important production, consumption and nutrient intake, drying of tomato has become a subject of extended and varied research works. The present work is focused on the drying behavior of thin-layer tomato and its mathematical modeling in order to optimize the drying processes. The moisture desorption isotherms of raw tomato were determined at four temperature levels namely 45, 50, 60 and 65 °C using the static gravimetric method. The experimental data obtained were modeled by five equations and the (GAB) model was found to be the best-describing these isotherms. The drying kinetics were experimentally investigated at 45, 55 and 65 °C and performed at air velocities of 0.5 and 2 m/s. In order to investigate the effect of the exchange surface on drying time, samples were dried into two different shapes: tomato halves and tomato quarters. The impact of various drying parameters was also studied (temperature, air velocity and air humidity). The drying curves showed only the preheating period and the falling drying rate period. In this study, attention was paid to the modeling of experimental thin-layer drying kinetics. The experimental results were fitted with four different models.

  3. Dry Orgasm (Orgasm without Discharge of Semen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Dry orgasm By Mayo Clinic Staff Dry orgasm occurs when a man reaches sexual climax but doesn't release (ejaculate) ... the thick, white fluid that carries sperm. Dry orgasm usually isn't harmful, but it can interfere ...

  4. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  5. Dry mouth and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  6. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  7. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  8. Dry dock gate stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktoberty; Widiyanto; Sasono, E. J.; Pramono, S.; Wandono, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The development of marine transportation needs in Indonesia increasingly opens national shipyard business opportunities to provide shipbuilding services to the shipbuilding vessels. That emphasizes the stability of prime. The ship's decking door becomes an integral part of the efficient place and the specification of the use of the asset of its operational ease. This study aims to test the stability of Dry Dock gate with the length of 35.4 meters using Maxsurf and Hydromax in analyzing the calculation were in its assessment using interval per 500 mm length so that it can get detail data toward longitudinal and transverse such as studying Ship planning in general. The test result shows dry dock gate meets IMO standard with ballast construction containing 54% and 68% and using fix ballast can produce GMt 1,924 m, tide height 11,357m. The GMt value indicates dry dick gate can be stable and firmly erect at the base of the mouth dry dock. When empty ballast produces GMt 0.996 which means dry dock date is stable, but can easily be torn down. The condition can be used during dry dock gate treatment.

  9. Effect of different scenarios for selective dry-cow therapy on udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; den Uijl, I E M; van Schaik, G; Riekerink, R G M Olde; Hogeveen, H; Lam, T J G M

    2016-01-01

    The goal of dry-cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antimicrobials has become questionable. In

  10. Effect of different scenarios for selective dry-cow therapy on udder health, antimicrobial usage, and economics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.; Uijl, den I.E.M.; Schaik, van G.; Riekerink, Olde R.G.M.; Hogeveen, H.; Lam, T.J.G.M.

    2016-01-01

    The goal of dry-cow therapy (DCT) is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections (IMI) by eliminating existing IMI at drying off and preventing new IMI from occurring during the dry period. Due to public health concerns, however, preventive use of antimicrobials has become questionable.

  11. Better lumber drying process with a non-greenhouse type solar kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, K C

    1979-01-01

    The preliminary study of using solar energy for lumber drying in NW Ontario is proven applicable and practical by the evidence of data collected. It was found that lumber seasoning using solar energy in the region is more favorable in the summer than in the winter. The most significant advantages of lumber drying with a solar kiln are: (1) low percentage of drying defect lumber produced; (2) higher strength properties of lumber produced; (3) unlimited sources of heat energy from the sun are available. The longer drying periods with a solar kiln as compared to a conventional steam kiln can be overcome by utilizing a supplemental heat system, e.g., wood residue burner to shorten the drying period. However, some improvements and modification of the existing kiln should be done in order to increase the efficiency of the lumber drying system.

  12. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  13. Microwave/vacuum drying treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Zongming; Zhang Yinsheng; Teng Hongdi; Zhu Chongde; Ge Lixin; Wang Jinliang

    1994-01-01

    The paper describes a microwave/vacuum drying process for the treatment of radioactively contaminated animal carcasses. The experiment demonstrated the feasibility of the process. The treatment process could completely remove the water from carcasses and effectively extend the preservation period. No radiological impact was found on workplace and environment

  14. Modelling the Drying Characteristics and Kinetics of Hot Air-Drying of Unblanched Whole Red Pepper and Blanched Bitter Leaf Slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Enahoro Agarry

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate the drying characteristics and kinetics of red pepper and bitter leaf under the influence of different drying temperatures. The drying experiments were carried out at dry bulb temperature of 35, 45, 55 and 75oC, respectively in an oven dryer. The results showed that as drying temperature increased, drying rate also increased and the drying time decreased. It was observed that un-sliced red pepper and sliced bitter leaf would dry within 2.5-12 h and 1.67-7 h, respectively at temperature ranging from 75 to 35oC. The drying of red pepper and bitter leaf was both in the constant and falling rate period. Four semi-empirical mathematical drying models (Newton, Page, Henderson and Pabis, and Logarithmic models were fitted to the experimental drying curves. The models were compared using the coefficient of determination (R^2 and the root mean square error (RMSE. The Page model has shown a better fit to the experimental drying data of red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively as relatively compared to other tested models. Moisture transport during drying was described by the application of Fick’s diffusion model and the effective moisture diffusivity was estimated. The value ranges from 15.69 to 84.79 × 10-9 m2/s and 0.294 to 1.263 × 10-9 m2/s for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. The Arrhenius-type relationship describes the temperature dependence of effective moisture diffusivity and was determined to be 37.11 kJ/mol and 32.86 kJ/mol for red pepper and bitter leaf, respectively. A correlation between the drying time and the heat transfer area was also developed.

  15. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  16. Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael

    2016-02-01

    Review of the etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), and the Cochrane Reviews and Trials in the last 10 years using the key words "dry eye disease," "dry eye syndrome," "dry eye and treatment." Primary sources were used to locate additional resources. Sixty-eight publications were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, book chapters, review articles, original research articles, and product prescribing information for the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of DED. DED is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders. Signs and symptoms of DED vary by patient, but may include ocular irritation, redness, itching, photosensitivity, visual blurring, mucous discharge, and decreased tear meniscus or break-up time. Symptoms improve with treatment, but the condition is not completely curable. Treatment includes reducing environmental causes, discontinuing medications that cause or worsen dry eye, and managing contributing ocular or systemic conditions. Most patients use nonprescription tear substitutes, and if these are not sufficient, other treatment is prescribed. These treatments include the ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine, punctal occlusion, eye side shields, systemic cholinergic agents, and autologous serum tears. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and current therapy for DED.

  17. Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regrowth period, season and harvesting frequency on the yield and nutritive value of Chloris gayana in the southern highlands of Tanzania. ... In vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolisable energy (ME) declined faster with increasing periods of growth in the early than in the late wet season. ME ranged ...

  18. Research of selection seeds drying in dense layer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Pavlov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available At the choice of the mode of safe drying of grain mass it is necessary to consider its heterogeneity on moisture content. It is an undesirable factor of which it is necessary to get rid. When increase in moisture inconstant the stability of grain mass at storage decreases, there is a danger of emergence of heating, the overall performance of dryers and other processing equipment decreases, energy costs for seeds production rise. To eliminate this shortcoming located in a grain layer or grain stream the dried-up product should be mixed carefully for the best uniformity. However not uniformity on individual moisture content of separate grains will remain. For its decrease combination of lying with material concitation is used. Researches were conducted in batch-operated laboratory machine. The humidified seeds of sugar beet were blowed-through with the drying agent speed of 0.5 m/s and temperature of 45 degrees Celsius. Moisture removal between concitations did not exceed 2.5 percent for selection seeds and 3.0 percent for ordinary ones. Duration of the periods between concitations can be determined in the analytical way. Thickness of a layer of seeds allowing drying without concitation decreases on square dependence on increase in moisture content. A contact moisture exchange between the damp and dried caryopsides for 30 min and more make it possibledrop-off in the unevenness of drying up to 0.5 percent.

  19. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romanato, L.S. [Centro Tecnologico da Marinha em Sao Paulo, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2468, 05508-900 Sao Paulo (Brazil); Rzyski, B.M. [IPEN/ CNEN-SP, 05508-000 Sao Paulo (Brazil)]. e-mail: romanato@ctmsp.mar.mil.br

    2006-07-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  20. Advantages on dry interim storage for spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romanato, L.S.; Rzyski, B.M.

    2006-01-01

    When the nuclear fuel lose its ability to efficiently create energy it is removed from the core reactor and moved to a storage unit waiting for a final destination. Generally, the spent nuclear fuel (SNF) remains inside concrete basins with water within the reactors facility for the radioactive activity decay. Water cools the generated heat and shields radioactivity emissions. After some period of time in water basins the SNF can be sent to a definitive deposition in a geological repository and handled as radioactive waste or to reprocessing installations, or still wait for a future solution. Meanwhile, SNF remains stored for a period of time in dry or wet installations, depending on the method adopted by the nuclear power plant or other plans of the country. In many SNF wet storage sites the capacity can be fulfilled very quickly. If so, additional area or other alternative storage system should be given. There are many options to provide capacity increase in the wet storage area, but dry storages are worldwide preferred since it reduces corrosion concerns. In the wet storage the temperature and water purity should be constantly controlled whereas in the dry storage the SNF stands protected in specially designed canisters. Dry interim storages are practical and approved in many countries especially that have the 'wait and see' philosophy (wait to see new technologies development). This paper shows the advantages of dry interim storages sites in comparison with the wet ones and the nowadays problems as terrorism. (Author)

  1. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  3. Dry eyes among information technology professionals in India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amaravathy Karuppaiah Brindha

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To perform the determination ofthe burden of dry eye syndrome among information technology(ITprofessionals and examine association of dry eye syndrome between various daily activities. METHODS: This was a pilot cross-sectional study conducted for a period of 3mo from October-December, 2013 in Chennai, South India. The study population was enrolled from three IT companies in a city in Chennai. The inclusion criteria consisted of individuals working in the IT industry at least for a period of 6mo, aged 18y or above and giving voluntary, written informed consent. Variable information was gathered by using series of questionnaires and ophthalmic assessment. Information about sociodemographic characteristics was also gathered. Schirmer's test was performed for ophthalmic assessment. All of the analysis was performed by using SPSS vs.16. RESULTS: About one fifth(n=36, 18%of the participants were suspected to have dry eyes, with mean age of 29y(SD=7, and majority of them being males, graduates/ postgraduates, single, living in extended families in urban areas. Windy environment significantly showed to aggravate redness(P=0.04and burning sensation of the eyes(P=0.000. Similarly, watching television significantly showed to aggravate gritty sensation(P=0.01and led to excess mucous in the eyes(P=0.02. CONCLUSION:Based on the results of our study, it can be concluded that the exposure to various daily activities such as watching television, using computer, reading, and use of air conditioning and windy environments(dry environmentswere associated with signs and symptoms of dry eyes. Also, watching television and windy environment were significantly positively correlated with some of the signs of dry eye. This study emphasizes the urgent need of multi-factorial approach including policy measures for addressing the burden of dry eye in population.

  4. Freeze-dried microarterial allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, J.; Hargrave, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts were implanted to bridge arterial defects using New Zealand White rabbits as the experimental model. Segments of artery from the rabbit ear and thigh were harvested and preserved for a minimum of 2 weeks after freeze-drying. These allografts, approximately 1 mm in diameter and ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length, were rehydrated and then implanted in low-pressure and high-pressure arterial systems. Poor patency was noted in low-pressure systems in both allografts and autografts, tested in 12 rabbits. In the high-pressure arterial systems, allografts that were freeze-dried and reconstituted failed in a group of 10 rabbits with an 8-week patency rate of 30 percent. Gamma irradiation in an effort to reduce infection and antigenicity of grafts after freeze-drying was associated with a patency rate of 10 percent at 8 weeks in this system in another group of 10 rabbits. Postoperative cyclosporin A therapy was associated with a patency rate of 22.2 percent in the high-pressure arterial system in a 9-rabbit group. Control autografts in this system in a group of 10 rabbits showed a 100 percent patency at 8 weeks. Microarterial grafts depend on perfusion pressure of the vascular bed for long-term patency. Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts do not seem to function well in lengths of 1 to 2.5 cm when implanted in a high-pressure arterial system. Freeze-dried arterial allografts are probably not antigenic

  5. The Periodic Pyramid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hennigan, Jennifer N.; Grubbs, W. Tandy

    2013-01-01

    The chemical elements present in the modern periodic table are arranged in terms of atomic numbers and chemical periodicity. Periodicity arises from quantum mechanical limitations on how many electrons can occupy various shells and subshells of an atom. The shell model of the atom predicts that a maximum of 2, 8, 18, and 32 electrons can occupy…

  6. Book Reviews in Periodicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ettelt, Harold J.

    All recent issues of periodicals found which contain indexed book reviews are listed in this compilation from Drake Memorial Library at the New York State University at Brockport. The periodicals are listed by 29 subject headings in this informal guide designed to be used at Drake Library. The number of reviews in the periodical in a recent year…

  7. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  8. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  9. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for Plants...

  10. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  11. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  12. Treatment of contact lens related dry eye with antibacterial honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Daniel; Albietz, Julie M; Tran, Huan; Du Toit, Cimonette; Li, Anita Hui; Yun, Tina; Han, Jee; Schmid, Katrina L

    2017-12-01

    Contact lens induced dry eye affects approximately 50% of contact lens wearers. The aim was to assess the effects of Manuka (Leptospermum sp.) honey eye drops (Optimel, Melcare, Australia) on dry eye in contact lens wearers. The safety of the honey eye drops in contact lens wear and contact lens wearers' compliance were also evaluated. Prospective, randomised, cross over study, examiner masked, pilot treatment trial. Twenty-four participants aged 20 to 55 years with contact lens related dry eye were recruited and randomised to two treatment groups; 20 completed the study. One group used Optimel eye drops twice a day for two weeks followed by conventional lubricant (Systane Ultra, Alcon) therapy for two weeks; the other group completed the treatments in the reverse order. Before and after each treatment dry eye symptomology, ocular surface inflammation, and tear quantity and quality were assessed. Participants completed a daily log detailing their usage of treatments and any issues. Dry eye symptoms improved significantly after Optimel treatment. Patients with more severe symptoms at baseline showed a greater improvement in symptoms. No significant differences were observed in the objective signs of dry eye; presumably because of the short treatment duration. Seventy-five% of contact lens wearers reported good adherence to Optimel treatment and 95% reported no issues using this product. Optimel Eye Drops reduce the symptoms of dry eye in contact lens wearers and are safe to use. A longer treatment period to assess the effect on clinical signs of dry eye is required. Copyright © 2017 British Contact Lens Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Declining trends of water requirements of dry season Boro rice in the north-west Bangladesh

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Acharjee, Tapos Kumar; Halsema, van Gerardo; Ludwig, Fulco; Hellegers, Petra

    2017-01-01

    The drought prone North-West Bangladesh is vulnerable to the impacts of climate change, particularly because of less water availability in the dry period and high water requirement for crop production. Improved understanding of recent changes in crop water demand in the dry season is important

  14. Changes in duration of dry and wet spells associated with air temperatures in Russia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Hengchun

    2018-03-01

    This study uses daily precipitation records from 517 Russian stations (1966-2010) to examine the relationships between continuous dry and wet day duration and surface air temperature for all four seasons. The study found that both mean and extreme durations of dry periods increase with air temperature at about 7.0% (0.24 day/°C) and 7.7% (0.86 day/°C) respectively, while those of wet periods decrease at about 1.3% (-0.02 day/°C) and 2.2% (-0.10 day/°C) respectively averaged over the entire study region during summer. An increase in the duration of dry periods with higher air temperature is also found in other seasons at locations with a mean seasonal air temperature of about -5 °C or higher. Opposite relationships of shorter durations of dry periods and longer wet periods associated with higher air temperature are observed over the northern part of the study region in winter. The changes in durations of both dry and wet periods have significant correlations with the changes in total dry and wet days but are about 2.5 times higher for dry periods and 0.5 times lower for wet periods. The study also found that locations with longer durations of dry periods experience faster rates of increase in air temperature, suggesting the likelihood of exacerbating drought severity in drier and/or warmer locations for all seasons.

  15. Blades Couple Dry Friction Connection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Radolfová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stick-slip dry friction * 3D friction characteristic * tangential contact stiffness * hysterezis loop * response curves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  16. THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Dey, Arjun; Cohen, Emma; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 μm) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 μm excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than ∼1 M sun yr -1 . This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  17. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  18. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  19. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  20. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  1. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets. Dileep Mampallil. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 123-134. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0123-0134 ...

  2. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  3. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  4. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  5. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  6. Painful menstrual periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menstruation - painful; Dysmenorrhea; Periods - painful; Cramps - menstrual; Menstrual cramps ... into two groups, depending on the cause: Primary dysmenorrhea Secondary dysmenorrhea Primary dysmenorrhea is menstrual pain that ...

  7. Middle Helladic Period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sarri, Kalliopi

    1999-01-01

    and their quality was improved considerably toward the end of this period. The profound cultural innovations of the Middle Helladic period were initially interpreted as a result of violent population movement and troubles provoked by the coming of the first Indo-European races. However, this matter does no more...... Helladic period is considered as a period of economic and social decline it was the time during which the mainland features merged with the insular influence, that is all the Aegean elements which led to the creation of the Mycenaean civilization were mixed in a creative way....

  8. Spent fuel storage - dry storage options and issues

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akins, M.J.

    2007-01-01

    The increase in the number of nuclear energy power generation facilities will require the ability to store the spent nuclear fuel for a long period until the host countries develop reprocessing or disposal options. Plants have storage pools which are closely associated with the operating units. These are excellent for short term storage, but require active maintenance and operations support which are not desirable for the long term. Over the past 25 years, dry storage options have been developed and implemented throughout the world. In recent years, protection against terrorist attack has become an increasing source of design objectives for these facilities, as well as the main nuclear plant. This paper explores the current design options of dry storage cask systems and examines some of the current design issues for above ground , in-ground, or below-ground storage of spent fuel in dry casks. (author)

  9. Developing new transportable storage casks for interim dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hayashi, K.; Iwasa, K.; Araki, K.; Asano, R.

    2004-01-01

    Transportable storage metal casks are to be consistently used during transport and storage for AFR interim dry storage facilities planning in Japan. The casks are required to comply with the technical standards of regulations for both transport (hereinafter called ''transport regulation'') and storage (hereafter called ''storage regulation'') to maintain safety functions (heat transfer, containment, shielding and sub-critical control). In addition to these requirements, it is not planned in normal state to change the seal materials during storage at the storage facility, therefore it is requested to use same seal materials when the casks are transported after storage period. The dry transportable storage metal casks that satisfy the requirements have been developed to meet the needs of the dry storage facilities. The basic policy of this development is to utilize proven technology achieved from our design and fabrication experience, to carry out necessary verification for new designs and to realize a safe and rational design with higher capacity and efficient fabrication

  10. On some periodicity effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sorokin, Sergey V.

    2015-01-01

    The talk is concerned with the modelling of wave propagation in and vibration of periodic elastic structures. Although analysis of wave-guide properties of infinite periodic structures is a well establish research subject, some issues have not yet been fully addressed in the literature. The aim o...

  11. The Living Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nahlik, Mary Schrodt

    2005-01-01

    To help make the abstract world of chemistry more concrete eighth-grade students, the author has them create a living periodic table that can be displayed in the classroom or hallway. This display includes information about the elements arranged in the traditional periodic table format, but also includes visual real-world representations of the…

  12. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  13. The effect of acoustic and solar energy on drying process of pistachios

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kouchakzadeh, Ahmad

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► In this research, accelerated drying of pistachios under open sun by applying power ultrasound was investigated. ► No constant falling rate period of drying was observed. ► By applying the 20 kHz ultrasound about 17 W/kg, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h. - Abstract: A new approach of ultrasound-assisted sun drying was tested in this study using a flat bed as product support and two extensional piezoelectric Bolt-clamped 20 kHz transducer elements. The mono layer of moist unshelled pistachios was dried under open sun by applying 500 and 1000 W power ultrasound. The results showed that the Page model was found to be the most suitable for describing drying curve of pistachios. But, the Logarithmic model was described to satisfactorily drying curve of pistachios for open sun method when the ultrasound power was turned off. By applying the ultrasound about 17 W/kg moist pistachios in thin layer, the drying period could be reduced to 4 h

  14. Dry cow therapy with a non-antibiotic intramammary teat seal - a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Crispie Fiona

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available Dry cow antibiotic therapy is used to eliminate existing intramammary infections and to prevent new infections in the dry period. It is implemented as part of a total management system known as the 'Five-Point Plan' for mastitis control. Recent public concerns over the widespread prophylactic use of antibiotics, coupled with an increasing interest in organic farming, have lead to a re-evaluation of the treatment of cows at drying-off. As a result, attention has focussed on the use of novel alternatives to antibiotic therapy at the end of lactation. One such therapy involves the application of a non-antibiotic bismuth-based intramammary teat seal designed for use in cows with low cell counts at the end of lactation. Like the keratin plug that forms naturally in teats of cows that have been dried-off, teat seal forms a physical barrier to invading pathogens. To date, a number of independent studies have shown that teat seal is as effective as traditional dry cow antibiotic products in preventing the occurrence of new infection during the dry period in cows with somatic cell counts of ≤200,000 cells ml-1 at drying-off. This paper reviews the efficacy of teat seal in preventing dry period mastitis in both conventional and organic dairying systems.

  15. Developing resilient green roofs in a dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razzaghmanesh, M; Beecham, S; Brien, C J

    2014-08-15

    Living roofs are an emerging green infrastructure technology that can potentially be used to ameliorate both climate change and urban heat island effects. There is not much information regarding the design of green roofs for dry climates and so the aim of this study was to develop low maintenance and unfertilized green roofs for a dry climate. This paper describes the effects of four important elements of green roofs namely slope, depth, growing media and plant species and their possible interactions in terms of plant growth responses in a dry climate. Sixteen medium-scale green roofs were set up and monitored during a one year period. This experiment consisted of twelve vegetated platforms and four non-vegetated platforms as controls. The design for the experiment was a split-split-plot design in which the factors Slope (1° and 25°) and Depth (100mm, 300 mm) were randomized to the platforms (main plots). Root depth and volume, average height of plants, final dry biomass and ground cover, relative growth rate, final dry shoot-root ratio, water use efficiency and leaf succulence were studied during a twelve month period. The results showed little growth of the plants in media type A, whilst the growth was significant in both media types B and C. On average, a 90% survival rate of plants was observed. Also the growth indices indicated that some plants can grow efficiently in the harsh environment created by green roofs in a dry climate. The root growth pattern showed that retained water in the drainage layer is an alternative source of water for plants. It was also shown that stormwater can be used as a source of irrigation water for green roofs during six months of the year at the study site. In summary, mild sloping intensive systems containing media type C and planted with either Chrysocephalum apiculatum or Disphyma crassifolium showed the best performance. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Periods and Nori motives

    CERN Document Server

    Huber, Annette

    2017-01-01

    This book casts the theory of periods of algebraic varieties in the natural setting of Madhav Nori’s abelian category of mixed motives. It develops Nori’s approach to mixed motives from scratch, thereby filling an important gap in the literature, and then explains the connection of mixed motives to periods, including a detailed account of the theory of period numbers in the sense of Kontsevich-Zagier and their structural properties. Period numbers are central to number theory and algebraic geometry, and also play an important role in other fields such as mathematical physics. There are long-standing conjectures about their transcendence properties, best understood in the language of cohomology of algebraic varieties or, more generally, motives. Readers of this book will discover that Nori’s unconditional construction of an abelian category of motives (over fields embeddable into the complex numbers) is particularly well suited for this purpose. Notably, Kontsevich's formal period algebra represents a to...

  17. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  18. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  19. Performance studies of solar tunnel dryer for drying aonla (Embilica Officinalis) pulp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seveda, M. S.

    2012-01-01

    A solar tunnel dryer was constructed and evaluated the performance for drying aonla pulp. The dryer consists of a transparent UV stabilized plastic covered solar collector cum drying unit. Evaluation parameters are air temperature, solar insolation, moisture content, relative humidity and airflow rate. A minimum of 111.18 m 2 solar collector area is required to dry a batch 1000 kg aonla pulp in 16 hours (two days drying period). The initial and final moisture content considered were 424.93 and 10.08% dry basis, respectively. It was observed that on an average 43 per cent of higher temperature was obtained in solar tunnel dryer over the ambient temperature. The results obtained during the test period denoted that the maximum gained energy occurred at 13 o'clock hour and then gradually declined since the maximum solar radiation occurred at this time. (author)

  20. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  1. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  2. Dexamethasone nanowafer as an effective therapy for dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coursey, Terry G; Henriksson, Johanna Tukler; Marcano, Daniela C; Shin, Crystal S; Isenhart, Lucas C; Ahmed, Faheem; De Paiva, Cintia S; Pflugfelder, Stephen C; Acharya, Ghanashyam

    2015-09-10

    Dry eye disease is a major public health problem that affects millions of people worldwide. It is presently treated with artificial tear and anti-inflammatory eye drops that are generally administered several times a day and may have limited therapeutic efficacy. To improve convenience and efficacy, a dexamethasone (Dex) loaded nanowafer (Dex-NW) has been developed that can release the drug on the ocular surface for a longer duration of time than drops, during which it slowly dissolves. The Dex-NW was fabricated using carboxymethyl cellulose polymer and contains arrays of 500 nm square drug reservoirs filled with Dex. The in vivo efficacy of the Dex-NW was evaluated using an experimental mouse dry eye model. These studies demonstrated that once a day Dex-NW treatment on alternate days during a five-day treatment period was able to restore a healthy ocular surface and corneal barrier function with comparable efficacy to twice a day topically applied dexamethasone eye drop treatment. The Dex-NW was also very effective in down regulating expression of inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, and IFN-γ), chemokines (CXCL-10 and CCL-5), and MMP-3, that are stimulated by dry eye. Despite less frequent dosing, the Dex-NW has comparable therapeutic efficacy to topically applied Dex eye drops in experimental mouse dry eye model, and these results provide a strong rationale for translation to human clinical trials for dry eye. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Lactic acid bacteria in dried vegetables and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Säde, Elina; Lassila, Elisa; Björkroth, Johanna

    2016-02-01

    Spices and dried vegetable seasonings are potential sources of bacterial contamination for foods. However, little is known about lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in spices and dried vegetables, even though certain LAB may cause food spoilage. In this study, we enumerated LAB in 104 spices and dried vegetables products aimed for the food manufacturing industry. The products were obtained from a spice wholesaler operating in Finland, and were sampled during a one-year period. We picked isolates (n = 343) for species identification based on numerical analysis of their ribotyping patterns and comparing them with the corresponding patterns of LAB type strains. We found LAB at levels >2 log CFU/g in 68 (65%) of the samples, with the highest counts detected from dried onion products and garlic powder with counts ranging from 4.24 to 6.64 log CFU/g. The LAB identified were predominantly Weissella spp. (61%) and Pediococcus spp. (15%) with Weissella confusa, Weissella cibaria, Weissella paramesenteroides, Pediococcus acidilactici and Pediococcus pentosaceus being the species identified. Other species identified belonged to the genera of Enterococcus spp. (8%), Leuconostoc spp. (6%) and Lactobacillus spp. (2%). Among the LAB identified, Leuconostoc citreum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides and W. confusa have been associated with food spoilage. Our findings suggest that spices and dried vegetables are potential sources of LAB contamination in the food industry. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Equipment selection for atmospheric drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P D; Bhattacharyya, S [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water management is a major factor in deciding the economics of the PHWRs. Hence it is necessary to have an efficient recovery system, for the heavy water vapour escaping from various process systems and maintain a dry atmosphere in the recovery areas. While the basic objective of the atmospheric drying system is to maximize recovery and to minimize stack losses, it is equally important to optimally design the system with due consideration to operational and maintenance aspects. At present, heavy water vapour recovery in the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is carried out by dryers of dual fixed bed design. While moving bed design could have some advantages, this has not been adopted so far because of the cumbersome mechanical design involved and special requirements for nuclear application. Developmental work done in this direction has resulted in compact alternative designs. In one of the designs, the change over from adsorption to regeneration is achieved by rotating the bed slowly. This concept is further refined in another alternative using a dessicant wheel. This paper contains brief equipment description of different designs; enumerates the design requirements of an atmospheric drying system for reactor building; describes steps for designing fixed bed type D{sub 2}O vapour recovery system, and highlights advances in dryer technology. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 ill.

  6. Enhanced Thermal Management System for Spent Nuclear Fuel Dry Storage Canister with Hybrid Heat Pipes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol

    2016-01-01

    Dry storage uses the gas or air as coolant within sealed canister with neutron shielding materials. Dry storage system for spent fuel is regarded as relatively safe and emits little radioactive waste for the storage, but it showed that the storage capacity and overall safety of dry cask needs to be enhanced for the dry storage cask for LWR in Korea. For safety enhancement of dry cask, previous studies of our group firstly suggested the passive cooling system with heat pipes for LWR spent fuel dry storage metal cask. As an extension, enhanced thermal management systems for the spent fuel dry storage cask for LWR was suggested with hybrid heat pipe concept, and their performances were analyzed in thermal-hydraulic viewpoint in this paper. In this paper, hybrid heat pipe concept for dry storage cask is suggested for thermal management to enhance safety margin. Although current design of dry cask satisfies the design criteria, it cannot be assured to have long term storage period and designed lifetime. Introducing hybrid heat pipe concept to dry storage cask designed without disrupting structural integrity, it can enhance the overall safety characteristics with adequate thermal management to reduce overall temperature as well as criticality control. To evaluate thermal performance of hybrid heat pipe according to its design, CFD simulation was conducted and previous and revised design of hybrid heat pipe was compared in terms of temperature inside canister

  7. Bioindicator demonstrates high persistence of sulfentrazone in dry soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Coradello Lourenço

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In sugarcane crop areas, the application of preemergence herbicides with long residual effect in the soil has been frequently necessary. The herbicide persistence in the soil must be high especially because of applications during the dry season of the year, after sugarcane harvest. This study aimed at estimating the sulfentrazone persistence and dissipation in dry soil using bioindicator. Five experiments were carried out, divided into two phases. In the first phase, three dose-response curves were adjusted to select the best bioindicator to be adopted in the second phase. Niger was adopted due to its lower sensibility to sulfentrazone. In the second phase, a new dose-response curve was carried out, with six doses of sulfentrazone, in order to standardize the bioindicator sensibility to sulfentrazone. At the end, another experiment with six periods of sulfentrazone persistence in dry clay soil was developed. Persistence periods were: 182, 154, 125, 98 and 30 days. The bioindicator was seeded at the application day in treated plots and control. In this experiment, the sulfentrazone dose applied was 800 g ha-1. Niger was considered a good species to estimate the sulfentrazone persistence in dry soil. The sulfentrazone phytotoxic activity was identified up to 182 days after application, and its average dissipation rate was 2.15 g ha-1 day-1, with half-life higher than 182 days.

  8. Mean-periodic functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos A. Berenstein

    1980-01-01

    Full Text Available We show that any mean-periodic function f can be represented in terms of exponential-polynomial solutions of the same convolution equation f satisfies, i.e., u∗f=0(μ∈E′(ℝn. This extends to n-variables the work of L. Schwartz on mean-periodicity and also extends L. Ehrenpreis' work on partial differential equations with constant coefficients to arbitrary convolutors. We also answer a number of open questions about mean-periodic functions of one variable. The basic ingredient is our work on interpolation by entire functions in one and several complex variables.

  9. The subtle attractions of dry vault storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Utilities in the United States of America, Scotland and Hungary have all adopted dry vault technology in their plans for spent fuel storage. This article looks at what makes dry storage an attractive option. (author)

  10. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  11. Convective drying of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.): Effect of experimental parameters on drying kinetics, color, shrinkage, and rehydration capacity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aral, Serdar; Beşe, Ayşe Vildan

    2016-11-01

    Thin layer drying characteristics and physicochemical properties of hawthorn fruit (Crataegus spp.) were investigated using a convective dryer at air temperatures 50, 60 and 70°C and air velocities of 0.5, 0.9 and 1.3m/s. The drying process of hawthorn took place in the falling rate period, and the drying time decreased with increasing air temperature and velocity. The experimental data obtained during the drying process were fitted to eleven different mathematical models. The Midilli et al.'s model was found to be the best appropriate model for explaining the drying behavior of hawthorn fruit. Effective moisture diffusion coefficients (Deff) were calculated by Fick's diffusion model and their values varied from 2.34×10(-10)m(2)/s to 2.09×10(-9)m(2)/s. An Arrhenius-type equation was applied to determine the activation energies. While the shrinkage decreased, the rehydration ratio increased with increasing air temperature and air velocity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Painful periods (dysmenorrhea) (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a normal cramping of the lower abdomen caused by hormone-induced uterine contractions before the period. Secondary dysmenorrhea may be caused by abnormal conditions such as ...

  13. Vaginal bleeding between periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003156.htm Vaginal bleeding between periods To use the sharing features ... this page, please enable JavaScript. This article discusses vaginal bleeding that occurs between a woman's monthly menstrual ...

  14. Super periodic potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Mohammd; Mandal, Bhabani Prasad

    2018-04-01

    In this paper we introduce the concept of super periodic potential (SPP) of arbitrary order n, n ∈I+, in one dimension. General theory of wave propagation through SPP of order n is presented and the reflection and transmission coefficients are derived in their closed analytical form by transfer matrix formulation. We present scattering features of super periodic rectangular potential and super periodic delta potential as special cases of SPP. It is found that the symmetric self-similarity is the special case of super periodicity. Thus by identifying a symmetric fractal potential as special cases of SPP, one can obtain the tunnelling amplitude for a particle from such fractal potential. By using the formalism of SPP we obtain the close form expression of tunnelling amplitude of a particle for general Cantor and Smith-Volterra-Cantor potentials.

  15. Establishing contract periods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huffman, F.C.

    1978-01-01

    The lead time for executing the Adjustable Fixed-Commitment (AFC) contract and exceptions which may be considered are discussed. The initial delivery period is also discussed. Delays, deferrals, and schedule adjustment charges are finally considered

  16. The Periodic Table CD.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banks, Alton J.; Holmes, Jon L.

    1995-01-01

    Describes the characteristics of the digitized version of The Periodic Table Videodisc. Provides details about the organization of information and access to the data via Macintosh and Windows computers. (DDR)

  17. Setting the Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saturnelli, Annette

    1985-01-01

    Examines problems resulting from different forms of the periodic table, indicating that New York State schools use a form reflecting the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry's 1984 recommendations. Other formats used and reasons for standardization are discussed. (DH)

  18. Supersymmetrically transformed periodic potentials

    OpenAIRE

    C, David J. Fernandez

    2003-01-01

    The higher order supersymmetric partners of a stationary periodic potential are studied. The transformation functions associated to the band edges do not change the spectral structure. However, when the transformation is implemented for factorization energies inside of the forbidden bands, the final potential will have again the initial band structure but it can have bound states encrusted into the gaps, giving place to localized periodicity defects.

  19. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    OpenAIRE

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan; Suresh Rama Chandran; Geetha Thirumalnesan; Nedumaran Doraisamy

    2011-01-01

    This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recove...

  20. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W. from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying. Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.

  1. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  2. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314

  3. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life

  4. Microwave wood strand drying: energy consumption, VOC emission and drying quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Du, G.; Zhang, Y. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop microwave drying technology for wood strand drying for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. The advantages of microwave drying included a reduction in the drying time of wood strands and a reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through a decrease in the thermal degradation of the wood material. Temperature and moisture content changes under different microwave drying conditions were investigated. The effects of microwave drying on VOC emissions were evaluated and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Microwave power input and the mass of drying materials in the microwave oven were found to have a dominant effect on drying quality. Results indicated that an increase in microwave power input and a decrease in sample weights resulted in high drying temperatures, short drying times and a high drying rate. The effect of microwave drying on the strand surfaces was also investigated. Different strand geometries and initial moisture content resulted in varying warm-up curves, but did not influence final moisture content. VOC emissions were quantified by comparing alpha-pinene concentrations. The microwave drying resulted in lower VOC emissions compared with conventional drying methods. It was concluded that the microwave drying technique provided faster strand drying and reduced energy consumption by up to 50 per cent. In addition, the surface wettability of wood strands dried with microwaves was better than with an industrial rotary drum drier. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  5. Nuclear spent fuel dry storage in the EWA reactor shaft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mieleszczenko, W.; Moldysz, A.; Hryczuk, A.; Matysiak, T.

    2001-01-01

    The EWA reactor was in operation from 1958 until February 1995. Then it was subjected to the decommissioning procedure. Resulting from a prolonged operation of Polish research reactors a substantial amount of nuclear spent fuel of various types, enrichment and degree of burnup have been accumulated. The technology of storage of spent nuclear fuel foresees the two stages of wet storing in a water pool (deferral period from tens to several dozens years) and dry storing (deferral period from 50 to 80 years). In our case the deferral time in the water environment is pretty significant (the oldest fuel elements have been stored in water for more than 40 years). Though the state of stored fuel elements is satisfactory, there is a real need for changing the storage conditions of spent fuel. The paper is covering the description of philosophy and conceptual design for construction of the spent fuel dry storage in the decommissioned EWA reactor shaft. (author)

  6. energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... a solar box dryer aided by a tracking device, and open air drying over an effective total drying time of 6 hours each day, for 5 days. ... cost in the use of modern dryers. Drying can be ..... speed, cloud cover and humidity respectively. 4.2 Solar ...

  7. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  8. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  9. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  10. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  11. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  12. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  13. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCluney, Kevin E; Sabo, John L

    2014-01-01

    Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively. In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying. Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles). However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the face of short-term drying. The long-term effects of drying

  14. Sensitivity and tolerance of Riparian arthropod communities to altered water resources along a drying river.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kevin E McCluney

    Full Text Available Rivers around the world are drying with increasing frequency, but little is known about effects on terrestrial animal communities. Previous research along the San Pedro River in southeastern AZ, USA, suggests that changes in the availability of water resources associated with river drying lead to changes in predator abundance, community composition, diversity, and abundance of particular taxa of arthropods, but these observations have not yet been tested manipulatively.In this study, we constructed artificial pools in the stream bed adjacent to a drying section of the San Pedro River and maintained them as the river dried. We compared pitfall trapped arthropods near artificial pools to adjacent control sites where surface waters temporarily dried. Assemblage composition changed differentially at multiple taxonomic levels, resulting in different assemblages at pools than at control sites, with multiple taxa and richness of carabid beetle genera increasing at pools but not at controls that dried. On the other hand, predator biomass, particularly wolf spiders, and diversity of orders and families were consistently higher at control sites that dried. These results suggest an important role for colonization dynamics of pools, as well as the ability of certain taxa, particularly burrowing wolf spiders, to withstand periods of temporary drying.Overall, we found some agreement between this manipulative study of water resources and a previous analysis of river drying that showed shifts in composition, changes in diversity, and declines in abundance of certain taxa (e.g. carabid beetles. However, colonization dynamics of pools, as well as compensatory strategies of predatory wolf spiders seem to have led to patterns that do not match previous research, with control sites maintaining high diversity, despite drying. Tolerance of river drying by some species may allow persistence of substantial diversity in the face of short-term drying. The long

  15. Safety Aspects of Long Term Spent Fuel Dry Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Botsch, Wolfgang; Smalian, S.; Hinterding, P.; Drotleff, H.; Voelzke, H.; Wolff, D.; Kasparek, E.

    2014-01-01

    As a consequence of the lack of a final repository for spent nuclear fuel (SF) and high level waste (HLW), long term interim storage of SF and HLW will be necessary. As with the storage of all radioactive materials, the long term storage of SF and HLW must conform to safety requirements. Safety aspects such as safe enclosure of radioactive materials, safe removal of decay heat, sub-criticality and avoidance of unnecessary radiation exposure must be achieved throughout the complete storage period. The implementation of these safety requirements can be achieved by dry storage of SF and HLW in casks as well as in other systems such as dry vault storage systems or spent fuel pools, where the latter is neither a dry nor a passive system. After the events of Fukushima, the advantages of passively and inherently safe dry storage systems have become more obvious. In Germany, dry storage of SF in casks fulfils both transport and storage requirements. Mostly, storage facilities are designed as concrete buildings above the ground; one storage facility has also been built as a rock tunnel. In all these facilities the safe enclosure of radioactive materials in dry storage casks is achieved by a double-lid sealing system with surveillance of the sealing system. The safe removal of decay heat is ensured by the design of the storage containers and the storage facility, which also secures to reduce the radiation exposure to acceptable levels. TUV and BAM, who work as independent experts for the competent authorities, inform about spent fuel management and issues concerning dry storage of spent nuclear fuel, based on their long experience in these fields. All relevant safety issues such as safe enclosure, shielding, removal of decay heat and sub-criticality are checked and validated with state-of-the-art methods and computer codes before the license approval. In our presentation we discuss which of these aspects need to be examined closer for a long term interim storage. It is shown

  16. New developments in dry spent fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonnet, C.; Chevalier, Ph.

    2001-01-01

    As shown in various new examples, HABOG facility (Netherlands), CERNAVODA (Candu - Romania), KOZLODUY (WWER - Bulgaria), CHERNOBYL ( RMBK - Ukraine), MAYAK (Spent Fuel from submarine and Icebreakers - Russia), recent studies allow to confirm the flexibility and performances of the CASCAD system proposed by SGN, both in safety and operability, for the dry storage of main kinds of spent fuel. The main features are: A multiple containment barrier system: as required by international regulation, 2 independent barriers are provided (tight canister and storage pit); Passive cooling, while the Fuel Assemblies are stored in an inert atmosphere and under conditions of temperature preventing from degradation of rod cladding; Sub-criticality controlled by adequate arrangements in any conditions; Safe facility meeting ICPR 60 Requirements as well as all applicable regulations (including severe weather conditions and earthquake); Safe handling operations; Retrievability of the spent fuel either during storage period or at the end of planned storage period (100 years); Future Decommissioning of the facility facilitated through design optimisation; Construction and operating cost-effectiveness. (author)

  17. Anomalías de circulación atmosférica en 500 y 1000 hpa asociada a la sequía producida en la Argentina durante enero de 2003 a marzo de 2004 Anomalies of the atmospheric circulation at 500 and 1000 hpa associated with the dry period in Argentina from january 2003 to march 2004

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adelia Perla Alessandro

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho se analisa e descreve a situação sinótica associada à precipitação e temperatura do território argentino durante o ano de 2003 e o primeiro trimestre de 2004. A escolha deste período obedece à falta de precipitações em pelo menos dez províncias argentinas, o que ocasionou grandes prejuízos econômicos no setor agropecuário. Com o intuito de determinar as causas deste déficit de precipitações foram analisados os campos médios de altura geopotencial nos níveis de 500 e 1000 hPa e suas anomalias. Em 2003, o déficit de precipitação se associa principalmente às anomalias de geopotencial no nível de 500 hPa, que mostram um fluxo dominante de SO que atravessa o país diagonalmente entre 45°S e 30°S. Em 1000 hPa o anticiclone subtropical do Atlântico se encontra enfraquecido, deslocado para o norte e afastado do continente, enquanto que o anticiclone subrtopical do Pacífico está mais intenso e deslocado para leste respeito da sua posição normal. No primeiro trimestre de 2004 a seca se deve principalmente à presença de uma crista no nível de 500 hPa posicionada no centro do país. As anomalias médias de temperatura do período considerado resultam positivas sobre toda a Argentina. Em 2003, essas anomalias se devem à contribuição do fluxo do N-NE desde o norte do país, à subsidência ocasionada pelo anticiclone do Pacífico mais deslocado para o interior do continente e a orografia. No primeiro trimestre de 2004 as anomalias se originam devido ao fluxo do norte e à freqüente circulação anticiclônica no Atlântico ao sul de 35°S.This paper analyzes and describes the synoptic situation associated with precipitation and temperature in Argentina during 2003 and the first quarter of 2004. The period was selected as during that time drought affected at least ten Argentine provinces, causing great agricultural and ranching losses. In order to find the causes of such rainfall deficit the mean and

  18. Zinder: a city running dry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T

    1993-01-01

    In the West African Sahel lies the old Hausa city of Zinder, Niger. Since the last few decades, it has constantly faced considerable population growth (19,300-119,8000 between 1960 and 1980) while its acute problems with the water supply are increasing. The dry regional climate compounds the problems. In the past, Zinder was a trade center between northern and sub-Saharan Africa as well as being the colonial capital of Niger (1911-26). Its economic and political position has fallen greatly with independence. Lower than average rainfall and the disastrous droughts of the 1970s and 1980s have seriously diminished the region's economic base, e.g., the average annual rainfall in 1930-60 was 535 mm, but by the 1980s, it was only 355 mm. Zinder sits on an elevated, rocky hill which is encircled by dry river valleys and there are no major permanent bodies of water in the vicinity. Impenetrable layers of stone prevent the digging of wells within the city, so the city depends on wells in nearby valleys. The reduced rainfall hinders replenishment of the aquifer, resulting in a drop in the availability of water for daily consumption from 6500 to 3500 sq m. Per capita water consumption in Zinder is much lower than the national average (55 1/day vs. about 100 1/day). The drought in 1992 caused per capita consumption to fall to 29 1/day, just barely above the minimal standards for private use in urban areas of 20 1/person/day. To further compound the problem, 20 villages in Zinder's environs, some villages with a population of 5000, people, rely on the same water system. Zinder serves as a refuge for the regional population in drought years and during the yearly dry season. Promised international financing cannot resolve Zinder's problems at a realistic cost.

  19. Impact of dry eye on work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.

  20. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  1. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  2. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  3. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  4. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive fuel elements is described. The cask has a cover which contains valved drain and purge passageways. These passageways are sealed by after purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal element

  5. Dry decontamination for tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao; Dan Guiping; Xie Yun

    2009-01-01

    To aim at decontamination of tritiated wastes, we have developed and fabricated a dry tritium decontamination system, which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination of various alloy by UV, ozone and heating. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination effect. With 3 h irradiation by 365 nm UV at 220 degree C, it has a decontamination rate of 99% to stainless steel surface. Ozone can more obviously improve decontamination effect when metal was heated. Ozone has a decontamination effect beyond 95% to stainless steel, aluminum and brass at 220 degree C. Tritium surface concentration of metal has a little increase after decontamination. (authors)

  6. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions

  7. Theoretical and practical aspects of aroma retention in spray drying and freeze drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, W.J.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.; Bruin, S.

    1994-01-01

    A review with 75 refs. on aroma loss in slab drying, spray drying and freeze drying. For many food products the presence of volatile aroma components is a prime quality feature. Upon drying part of these components may be lost, leading to unbalanced flavor patterns in the reconstituted product. The

  8. Modelling the drying kinetics of green peas in a solar dryer and under open sun

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sunil [Department of Mechanical Engineering, BRCM CET Bahal, Haryana–127028 (India); Varun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, NIT Hamirpur, (H.P.)–177005 (India); Sharma, Naveen [Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, IITR, (U.K.)–247667 (India)

    2013-07-01

    The drying kinetics of green peas was investigated in an indirect solar dryer and under open sun. The entire drying process took place exclusively in falling rate period. The constant rate period was absent from the drying curves. The rehydration capacity was also determined for peas dried in solar dryer and under open sun. The rehydration capacity of solar dried peas was found higher than open sun dried peas. The drying data obtained from experiments were fitted to eight different mathematical models. The performance of these models was examined by comparing the coefficient of correlation (R2), sum of squares error (SSE), mean squared error (MSE) and root mean square error (RMSE) between observed and predicted values of moisture ratios. Among these models, the thin layer drying model developed by Page showed good agreement with the data obtained from experiments for bottom tray. The Midilli et al. model has shown better fit to the experimental data for top tray and open sun than other models.

  9. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  10. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  11. Periodic table of elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fluck, E.; Heumann, K.G.

    1985-01-01

    Following a recommendation by the International Union for Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC), the groups of the periodic table shall be numbered from 1 to 18, instead of I to VIII as before. The recommendations has been approved of by the Committee on Nomenclature of the American Chemical Society. The new system abandons the distinction between main groups (a) and auxiliary groups (b), which in the past frequently has been the reason for misunderstandings between European and American chemists, due to different handling. The publishing house VCH Verlagsgesellschaft recently produced a new periodic table that shows the old and the new numbering system together at a glance, so that chemists will have time to get familiar with the new system. In addition the new periodic table represents an extensive data compilation arranged by elements. The front page lists the chemical properties of elements, the back page their physical properties. (orig./EF) [de

  12. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rojith Karandode Balakrishnan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This article aims at highlighting the importance of suspecting thyrotoxicosis in cases of recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis; especially in Asian men to facilitate early diagnosis of the former condition. A case report of a 28 year old male patient with recurrent periodic flaccid paralysis has been presented. Hypokalemia secondary to thyrotoxicosis was diagnosed as the cause of the paralysis. The patient was given oral potassium intervention over 24 hours. The patient showed complete recovery after the medical intervention and was discharged after 24 hours with no residual paralysis. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP is a complication of thyrotoxicosis, more common amongst males in Asia. It presents as acute flaccid paralysis in a case of hyperthyroidism with associated hypokalemia. The features of thyrotoxicosis may be subtle or absent. Thus, in cases of recurrent or acute flaccid muscle paralysis, it is important to consider thyrotoxicosis as one of the possible causes, and take measures accordingly.

  13. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacatalina, J V; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V; Mulet, A; Simal, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms −1 ), temperature (−10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm −3 ,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  14. The impact of dry-land sprint start training on the short track speed skating start.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haug, William B; Drinkwater, Eric J; Cicero, Nicholas J; Barthell, J Anthony; Chapman, Dale W

    2017-05-05

    This investigation sought to determine the effects of dry-land sprint start training on short track speed skating (STSS) start performance. Nine highly trained short track athletes completed a control period of normal STSS training followed by a four-week training intervention. Before and after the control and intervention periods, athletes performed three electronically timed dry-land and on-ice 14.43 m maximal sprint start efforts. The intervention consisted of two sprint sessions per week consisting of nine electronically timed 14.43 m dry-land sprint starts in addition to normal STSS training. The control period resulted in no substantial change in on-ice start performance (Mean Δ: -0.01 s, 95% Confidence Limits (CL): -0.08 to 0.05 s; Effect Size (ES): -0.05; Trivial) however, a small change was observed in dry-land start performance (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.02 s; ES: -0.49). Following brief specific dry-land sprint start training a small improvement was observed in both on-ice (Mean Δ: -0.07 s, 95% CL: -0.13 to -0.01 s; ES: -0.33) and dry-land (Mean Δ: -0.04 s, 95% CL: -0.09 to 0.00 s; ES: -0.29) start performance. This investigation suggests STSS start performance can be improved through a brief dry-land sprint start training program.

  15. Spent fuel behaviour during dry storage - a review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shivakumar, V.; Anantharaman, K.

    1997-09-01

    One of the strategies employed for management of spent fuel prior to their final disposal/reprocessing is their dry storage in casks, after they have been sufficiently cooled in spent fuel pools. In this interim storage, one of the main consideration is that the fuel should retain its integrity to ensure (a) radiological health hazard remains minimal and (b) the fuel is retrievable for down steam fuel management processes such as geological disposal or reprocessing. For dry storage of spent fuel in air, oxidation of the exposed UO 2 is the most severe of phenomena affecting the integrity of fuel. This is kept within acceptable limits for desired storage time by limiting the fuel temperature in the storage cask. The limit on the fuel temperature is met by having suitable limits on maximum burn-up of fuel, minimum cooling period in storage pool and optimum arrangement of fuel bundles in the storage cask from heat removal considerations. The oxidation of UO 2 by moist air has more deleterious effects on the integrity of fuel than that by dry air. The removal of moisture from the storage cask is therefore a very important aspect in dry storage practice. The kinetics of the oxidation phenomena at temperatures expected during dry storage in air is very slow and therefore the majority of the existing data is based on extrapolation of data obtained at higher fuel temperatures. This and the complex effects of factors like fission products in fuel, radiolysis of storage medium etc. has necessitated in having a conservative limiting criteria. The data generated by various experimental programmes and results from the on going programmes have shown that dry storage is a safe and economical practice. (author)

  16. Technique of solar drying the linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Andión Torres, Ronald; Espinosa Borges, Ruberlando; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Fuentes lombá, Osmay

    2017-01-01

    In Santiago of Cuba exists interest in the utilization of medicinal plants for the manufacture of flowed abstract and Tinturas, and this requires the dry product. At the present time this process is done in houses roofed. This product will be dried at 10 or 12 days. Having in account than in the Center of investigation of Solar Energy was developed a prototype of solar drier, which enables the drying of the anamu with the required quality, in this work is done a study, for the utilization of the aforementioned drier, for the drying of others medicinal plants. It is determine and evaluated experimentally a Procedure of drying of linden in this solar drier. The dry plants were sent to the UBPC La Rosita of medicinal plants, which manifested conformity with the obtained results, showing contentment with the quality of the dry product. (author)

  17. Dry well storage of spent LWBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Fielding, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, 50 dry wells were constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to temporarily store the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel. Over 400 dry wells of the same design are projected to be constructed in the next 5 yr at the ICPP to store unreprocessible fuels until a permanent repository becomes available. This summary describes the LWBR fuel storage dry wells and the enhancements made over the Peach Bottom fuel and Fermi blanket dry wells that have been in use for up to 4 yr. Dry well storage at the ICPP has historically been found to be a safe and efficient method of temporary fuel storage. The LWBR dry wells should be more reliable than the original dry wells and provide data not previously available

  18. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  19. Dry shrinkage characteristics of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Generation of cracks due to drying of compressed bentonite was observed by changing the initial water content to obtain shrinkage constants such as shrinkage limit and shrinking rate. As a result, generation of practically no cracks was observed when the initial water content of samples was below 13%. The volume change due to drying increased with the water content in the sample, and the shrinkage constants were found to depend on the initial water content. Further, the one-dimensional compression strength after drying was compared with that before drying in order to clarify the effect of cracks generated by drying on the mechanical strength. As a result, the dry sample with cracks proved to have large one-dimensional compression strength or E{sub 50} compared to wet samples, so that the mechanical strength was kept even after drying. (H. Baba)

  20. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  1. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  2. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Feldman, E.M.; Fisher, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program (PCDP). The program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the INEL Operating Contractor EG and G Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment is used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation is accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semiautomatic control system with operator involvement is utilized to conduct consolidation operations. During consolidation operations, data is taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software was completed in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations begins in May 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  3. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Fisher, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a Program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM Programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program. The Program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Operating Contractor, EGandG Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment will be used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SPSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation will be accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semi-automatic control system with operator involvement will be utilized to conduct consolidation operations. Special features have been incorporated in the design to allow crud collection and measurement of rod pulling forces. During consolidation operations, data will be taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software will complete in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations will begin in January 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  4. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  5. Empirical analysis of dry spells for agricultural applications in west Africa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sivakumar, M.V.K.

    1992-01-01

    Recurring droughts and decreased agricultural productivity during the last two decades in West Africa point to the need for a clearer understanding of the length of dry spells, their frequencies, and their probabilities. The simplest calculations of dry spells for general applications involve computation of the probabilities of maximum and conditional dry spells exceeding a user-specified threshold value from a given calendar date. For more precise applications in agriculture, it is important to consider the different periods after sowing a crop, since sowing dates in the semiarid West African regions vary from year to year. Using the specific definition of onset of rains in each year as the sowing date, the length of dry spells was calculated from the historical rainfall data. Probability distribution of time to the next wet day and the percentage frequencies of dry spells were computed for successive days after sowing (DAS) a crop. Dry-spell analysis showed a pronounced drop in the drought risk for cereal crops from the panicle initiation phase (20 DAS) to the flowering phase (60 DAS). The relationships between mean annual rainfall and average frequency of dry spells for the selected locations in West Africa showed distinct patterns and permit the prediction of the frequency of dry spells from annual rainfall totals. Applications of the dry-spell analysis for the choice of a crop/variety, supplemental irrigation, and crop water requirements have been described with examples

  6. Modelling and experimental validation of thin layer indirect solar drying of mango slices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dissa, A.O.; Bathiebo, J.; Kam, S.; Koulidiati, J. [Laboratoire de Physique et de Chimie de l' Environnement (LPCE), Unite de Formation et de Recherche en Sciences Exactes et Appliquee (UFR/SEA), Universite de Ouagadougou, Avenue Charles de Gaulle, BP 7021 Kadiogo (Burkina Faso); Savadogo, P.W. [Laboratoire Sol Eau Plante, Institut de l' Environnement et de Recherches Agricoles, 01 BP 476, Ouagadougou (Burkina Faso); Desmorieux, H. [Laboratoire d' Automatisme et de Genie des Procedes (LAGEP), UCBL1-CNRS UMR 5007-CPE Lyon, Bat.308G, 43 bd du 11 Nov. 1918 Villeurbanne, Universite Claude Bernard Lyon1, Lyon (France)

    2009-04-15

    The thin layer solar drying of mango slices of 8 mm thick was simulated and experimented using a solar dryer designed and constructed in laboratory. Under meteorological conditions of harvest period of mangoes, the results showed that 3 'typical days' of drying were necessary to reach the range of preservation water contents. During these 3 days of solar drying, 50%, 40% and 5% of unbound water were eliminated, respectively, at the first, second and the third day. The final water content obtained was about 16 {+-} 1.33% d.b. (13.79% w.b.). This final water content and the corresponding water activity (0.6 {+-} 0.02) were in accordance with previous work. The drying rates with correction for shrinkage and the critical water content were experimentally determined. The critical water content was close to 70% of the initial water content and the drying rates were reduced almost at 6% of their maximum value at night. The thin layer drying model made it possible to simulate suitably the solar drying kinetics of mango slices with a correlation coefficient of r{sup 2} = 0.990. This study thus contributed to the setting of solar drying time of mango and to the establishment of solar drying rates' curves of this fruit. (author)

  7. Periodically poled silicon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hon, Nick K.; Tsia, Kevin K.; Solli, Daniel R.; Khurgin, Jacob B.; Jalali, Bahram

    2010-02-01

    Bulk centrosymmetric silicon lacks second-order optical nonlinearity χ(2) - a foundational component of nonlinear optics. Here, we propose a new class of photonic device which enables χ(2) as well as quasi-phase matching based on periodic stress fields in silicon - periodically-poled silicon (PePSi). This concept adds the periodic poling capability to silicon photonics, and allows the excellent crystal quality and advanced manufacturing capabilities of silicon to be harnessed for devices based on χ(2)) effects. The concept can also be simply achieved by having periodic arrangement of stressed thin films along a silicon waveguide. As an example of the utility, we present simulations showing that mid-wave infrared radiation can be efficiently generated through difference frequency generation from near-infrared with a conversion efficiency of 50% based on χ(2) values measurements for strained silicon reported in the literature [Jacobson et al. Nature 441, 199 (2006)]. The use of PePSi for frequency conversion can also be extended to terahertz generation. With integrated piezoelectric material, dynamically control of χ(2)nonlinearity in PePSi waveguide may also be achieved. The successful realization of PePSi based devices depends on the strength of the stress induced χ(2) in silicon. Presently, there exists a significant discrepancy in the literature between the theoretical and experimentally measured values. We present a simple theoretical model that produces result consistent with prior theoretical works and use this model to identify possible reasons for this discrepancy.

  8. Hereditary periodic fever syndromes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    McDermott, MF; Frenkel, J

    Hereditary periodic fever syndromes are defined by recurrent attacks of generalised inflammation for which no infectious or auto-immune cause can be identified. For most of these disorders, the molecular basis has recently been elucidated. This has opened the prospect of novel therapeutic

  9. Almost periodic Schroedinger operators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellissard, J.; Lima, R.

    1984-01-01

    These lectures are devoted to recent developments in the theory of almost-periodic Schroedinger Operators. We specially describe the algebraic point of view, with applications to gap-labelling theorems. Particular models are also presented which exhibit various spectral properties. (orig.)

  10. Astrophysical implications of periodicity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muller, R.A.

    1988-01-01

    Two remarkable discoveries of the last decade have profound implications for astrophysics and for geophysics. These are the discovery by Alvarez et al., that certain mass extinctions are caused by the impact on the earth of a large asteroid or comet, and the discovery by Raup and Sepkoski that such extinctions are periodic, with a cycle time of 26 to 30 million years. The validity of both of these discoveries is assumed and the implications are examined. Most of the phenomena described depend not on periodicity, but just on the weaker assumption that the impacts on the earth take place primarily in showers. Proposed explanations for the periodicity include galactic oscillations, the Planet X model, and the possibility of Nemesis, a solar companion star. These hypotheses are critically examined. Results of the search for the solar companion are reported. The Deccan flood basalts of India have been proposed as the impact site for the Cretaceous impact, but this hypotheisis is in contradiction with the conclusion of Courtillot et al., that the magma flow began during a period of normal magnetic field. A possible resolution of this contradiction is proposed

  11. Periodic Table of Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Mike

    1998-01-01

    Presents an exercise in which an eighth-grade science teacher decorated the classroom with a periodic table of students. Student photographs were arranged according to similarities into vertical columns. Students were each assigned an atomic number according to their placement in the table. The table is then used to teach students about…

  12. A Modern Periodic Table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrenden-Harker, B. D.

    1997-01-01

    Presents a modern Periodic Table based on the electron distribution in the outermost shell and the order of filling of the sublevels within the shells. Enables a student to read off directly the electronic configuration of the element and the order in which filling occurs. (JRH)

  13. Crop Growing Periods and Irrigation Needs in Bahia State North ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Markov chain probabilities of days with dry and wet soil were computed for each decade of the year. Soil moisture averages and probabilities were used to determine the optimum crop growing periods at the stations. The amounts of supplementary irrigation necessary to maintain the soil moisture above selected levels ...

  14. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  15. Autologous serum eye drops for dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Qing; Angelina, Adla; Marrone, Michael; Stark, Walter J; Akpek, Esen K

    2017-01-01

    trials. We contacted investigators to ask for missing data. For both primary and secondary outcomes, we reported mean differences with corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for continuous outcomes. We did not perform meta-analysis owing to differences in outcome assessments across trials. Main results We identified five eligible RCTs (92 participants) that compared AS versus artificial tears or saline in individuals with dry eye of various origins (Sjögren’s syndrome-related dry eye, non-Sjögren’s syndrome dry eye, and postoperative dry eye induced by laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)). We assessed the certainty of evidence as low or very low because of lack of reporting of quantitative data for most outcomes and unclear or high risk of bias among trials. We judged most risk of bias domains to have unclear risk in two trials owing to insufficient reporting of trial characteristics, and we considered one trial to have high risk of bias for most domains. We judged the remaining two trials to have low risk of bias; however, these trials used a cross-over design and did not report data in a way that could be used to compare outcomes between treatment groups appropriately. Incomplete outcome reporting and heterogeneity among outcomes and follow-up periods prevented inclusion of these trials in a summary meta-analysis. Three trials compared AS with artificial tears; however, only one trial reported quantitative data for analysis. Low-certainty evidence from one trial suggested that AS might provide some improvement in participant-reported symptoms compared with artificial tears after two weeks of treatment; the mean difference in mean change in symptom score measured on a visual analogue scale (range 0 to 100, with higher scores representing worse symptoms) was −12.0 (95% confidence interval (CI) −20.16 to −3.84; 20 participants). This same trial found mixed results with respect to ocular surface outcomes; the mean difference in mean change in

  16. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniso, E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  17. The influence of rest period during the growing season on the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The material from exclusion cages was clipped at the end of the grazing period according to the grazing pattern of the adjacent area of the plot. These clippings were analyzed for crude protein, in vitro dry maller digestibility and acid detergent fibre content. The in vitro dry matter digestibility values were relatively normal.

  18. From dry to wet, 1988-97, North Dakota

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams-Sether, Tara

    1999-01-01

    Unusual climatic and hydrologic conditions continue to affect the people and resources of North Dakota. Above-average precipitation during 1993-97 caused flooding in parts of North Dakota, and damage to crops, roads, and homes led to tremendous economic losses and increased personal stress for the people of the State. However, the above-average precipitation also replenished diminished water supplies, produced bumper crops in some parts of the State, enhanced wildlife and fishery resources, and improved recreational activities such as fishing, camping, and boating. Thus, prolonged periods of above-average precipitation (wet periods) and the resulting hydrologic conditions can be beneficial and prosperous but also can be as disastrous and economically damaging as periods of drought (dry periods).

  19. Force convective solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents design and performance of V-groove back-pass solar collector for solar drying system. In this study three V-groove back-pass solar collector each with dimension of 4.6 m x 1.0 m x 0.15 m have been fabricated for solar drying system. An outdoor test at mean solar intensity for 600-800 Wm -2 by using 0.15m 3 s -1 of air flow rate which also been suggested by (Zeroul et al. 1994) was carried out at Solar Research Energy Park. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Analysis on the collector performance based on daily data was reported that the value of FR ) e and FRUL was 0.709 ± 0.001 and 5.89 ± 0.31 Wm -2o C -1 respectively with 60-70 o C of output temperature (Ruslan et al. 2001). The three V-groove collectors each with dimension 4.6 m x 0.15 m were connected in series array mounted on the roof of a solar assisted drying system. By using two electric fans of 85W and 2700 rpm each, the speed of air was regulated at 0.11 kgs -1 to 0.31 kgs -1 using a voltage regulator. Performance of the collector based on the thermal analysis showed that at mean daily solar radiation 700 Wm -2 , the output temperature of 52 o C to 73 o C could be achieved using 0.11-0.31 kgs -1 of flow rate. Thermal analysis also showed that the efficiencies of 45% to 61% could be obtains using the same flow rate and solar radiation. Analysis of daily data showed that for radiation from 300 Wm -2 to 1000 Wm -2 the power generated from the collector was within 1.5 kW to 8.9 kW. The study concluded that the levels of the levels of the solar radiation and flow rate used influenced the performance of the collector

  20. Near-Infrared Imaging for High-Throughput Screening of Moisture-Induced Changes in Freeze-Dried Formulations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Palou, Anna; Panouillot, Pierre Emanuel

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of freeze-dried biopharmaceutical formulations requires careful analysis of multiple quality attributes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of near-infrared (NIR) imaging for fast analysis of water content and related physical properties in freeze-dried formulations. Model f...... tool for formulation development of freeze-dried samples. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association J Pharm Sci....

  1. Effects of silk fibroin in murine dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Eun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Chan Hum; Yang, Jaewook

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of silk fibroin in a mouse model of dry eye. The experimental dry eye mouse model was developed using more than twelve-weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice exposing them to 30-40% ambient humidity and injecting them with scopolamine hydrobromide for 10 days. Tear production and corneal irregularity score were measured by the instillation of phosphate buffered saline or silk fibroin. Corneal detachment and conjunctival goblet cell density were observed by hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid Schiff staining in the cornea or conjunctiva. The expression of inflammatory markers was detected by immunohistochemistry in the lacrimal gland. The silk group tear production was increased, and corneal smoothness was improved. The corneal epithelial cells and conjunctival goblet cells were recovered in the silk groups. The expression of inflammatory factors was inhibited in the lacrimal gland of the silk group. These results show that silk fibroin improved the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland in the mouse model of dry eye. These findings suggest that silk fibroin has anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental models of dry eye.

  2. Dry groundwater wells in the western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perrone, D.; Jasechko, S.

    2017-10-01

    Declining groundwater levels are common in parts of the western US, but their impact on the ability of wells to pump groundwater is not known. Here we collate groundwater well records for the western United States and present the recorded locations, depths, and purposes of more than two million groundwater wells constructed between 1950 and 2015. We then use the well records to estimate the percentage of wells that were dry during the years 2013-2015. During the two year period, dry wells were concentrated in rural areas with high agricultural productivity, such as parts of the California Central Valley and the High Plains. Our results support anecdotal evidence that wells used for domestic purposes are more susceptible to drying than wells used for agricultural purposes throughout California’s Central Valley because the former tend to be shallower. However, this is not the case in all regions. Our findings suggest that declining groundwater levels are threatening drinking water reliability and agricultural productivity, and consequently, have key implications for both domestic and agricultural water security. Ongoing reductions to groundwater storage are drying groundwater wells in the western US, and this manifestation of water scarcity warrants innovative groundwater management transcending status quos.

  3. Studies on drying kinetics of olive foot cake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamlat, M. S.

    2002-06-01

    Full Text Available The olive foot cake is a very important by-product of olive oil industry since it can contain until 12 % of oil which can be extracted using solvent. The used solvent is often immiscible with water. This is the reason why its effect is limited by the moisture of olive foot cake making its drying imperative. In this paper, we present the behaviour of olive foot cake subjected to convective drying. The experimental results show that the drying rate versus moisture presents only one period of decreasing rate. The influence of the main parameters on drying kinetics is studied.El orujo es un importante subproducto de la industria del aceite de oliva ya que puede contener hasta el 12 % del aceite, el cual puede ser extraído usando un disolvente apropiado. El uso del disolvente es a menudo inmiscible con el agua. Esta es la razón por la que su efecto está limitado por la humedad del orujo, haciendo su secado imperativo. En este artículo se presenta el comportamiento del orujo sometido a un secado por convección. Los resultados experimentales mostraron que la velocidad de secado frente a la humedad, presenta un solo período de disminución de dicha velocidad. Se ha estudiado la influencia de los principales parámetros sobre la cinética de secado.

  4. Exploring Oven-drying Technique in Producing Pineapple Powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril John A. Domingo

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple puree and juice of 11 to 12 °Brix were used to obtain pineapple powder using oven-drying technique. Addition of maltodextrin in treatments 2 and 4 yielded good quality powder, however addition of sugar and maltodextrin in treatments 1 and 3 resulted to sticky product which was processed to pineapple leather. Treatment 2 composed of pineapple puree and maltodextrin resulted to significantly higher powder recovery compared with treatment 4 which composed of pineapple juice and maltodextrin. The solubility of pineapple powder improved as maltodextrin concentration is increased from 40.00 % to 60.00 %.Addition of maltodextrin also reduced stickiness of the final product. An instant pineapple powder of 5.47 and 5.33 % moisture content could be produced by oven-drying.This level of moisture content will prohibit bacterial growth in the pineapple powder but may have mold or yeast growth with increase storage period at environments with high humidity. Molds were observed on the 17th day at 89.00 % relative humidity as exhibited by the moisture sorption isotherm data. This suggests that appropriate packaging with moisture barrier is recommended for pineapple powder. This study showedthat by using appropriate ratio of juice, puree, and maltodextrin and appropriate oven drying conditions, a good oven-dried pineapple powder could be obtained.

  5. Effect of storage time on microbial quality of some spices and dried ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of storage time on the microbial quality of some spices and dried seasonings (SDS) (dawadawa, pepper, ginger, shrimp and fish powders) was studied over a 12-month period. Microbial load and profile of irradiated and unirradiated SDS were assessed at 0, 6 and 12-month periods. The range of total variable ...

  6. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreiro, J.E.; Arguelles, D.J.; Rams, H. Jr.

    1986-01-01

    A case of thyrotoxic periodic paralysis is reported in a Hispanic man with an unusual recurrence six weeks after radioactive iodine treatment. Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis has now been well characterized in the literature: it occurs primarily in Orientals with an overwhelming male preponderance and a higher association of specific HLA antigens. Clinical manifestations include onset after high carbohydrate ingestion or heavy exertion, with progressive symmetric weakness leading to flaccid paralysis of the extremities and other muscle groups, lasting several hours. If hypokalemia is present, potassium administration may help abort the attack. Although propranolol can be efficacious in preventing further episodes, the only definitive treatment is establishing a euthyroid state. The pathophysiology is still controversial, but reflects altered potassium and calcium dynamics as well as certain morphologic characteristics within the muscle unit itself

  7. Management of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemp, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    The management of dry eye disease (DED) encompasses both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, including avoidance of exacerbating factors, eyelid hygiene, tear supplementation, tear retention, tear stimulation, and anti-inflammatory agents. Artificial tears are the mainstay of DED therapy but, although they improve symptoms and objective findings, there is no evidence that they can resolve the underlying inflammation in DED. Topical corticosteroids are effective anti-inflammatory agents, but are not recommended for long-term use because of their adverse-effect profiles. Topical cyclosporine--currently the only pharmacologic treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for DED--is safe for long-term use and is disease-modifying rather than merely palliative. Treatment selection is guided primarily by DED severity. Recently published guidelines propose a severity classification based on clinical signs and symptoms, with treatment recommendations according to severity level.

  8. Model Stickiness in Spray Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas

    only slightly and then typically moved slightly away before either stopping with contact (sticky) or bouncing with no contact (non-sticky). Sticky particles had a large apparent contact angle, similar to what would be expected for a liquid with poor wetting properties. The velocity did not seem...... to change this much, although slight deformation was seen when the impact velocity was at the highest used values. The phenomenon did not appear to change noticeable when the droplet was dried in a high relative humidity environment. The qualitative difference observable between Teon and stainless steel...... was very limited. On Stainless steel the droplet seemed to wet slightly more after the initial impact while the contact area was constant for Teon. Modelling work was carried out to help understand the phenomenon, but also to investigate how the impact scaled for particle size. This was done using...

  9. Impact of spatially correlated pore-scale heterogeneity on drying porous media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borgman, Oshri; Fantinel, Paolo; Lühder, Wieland; Goehring, Lucas; Holtzman, Ran

    2017-07-01

    We study the effect of spatially-correlated heterogeneity on isothermal drying of porous media. We combine a minimal pore-scale model with microfluidic experiments with the same pore geometry. Our simulated drying behavior compares favorably with experiments, considering the large sensitivity of the emergent behavior to the uncertainty associated with even small manufacturing errors. We show that increasing the correlation length in particle sizes promotes preferential drying of clusters of large pores, prolonging liquid connectivity and surface wetness and thus higher drying rates for longer periods. Our findings improve our quantitative understanding of how pore-scale heterogeneity impacts drying, which plays a role in a wide range of processes ranging from fuel cells to curing of paints and cements to global budgets of energy, water and solutes in soils.

  10. Mathematical modeling of convective air drying of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Vega-Gálvez

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Drying kinetics of quinoa-supplemented feed for laboratory rats during processing at 50, 60, 70, 80 and 90ºC was studied and modeled in this work. Desorption isotherm was obtained at 60ºC giving a monolayer moisture content of 0.04 g water/g d.m. The experimental drying curves showed that drying process took place only in the falling rate period. Several thin-layer drying equations available in the literature were evaluated based on determination coefficient (r², sum squared errors (SSE and Chi-square (χ2 statisticals. In comparison to the experimental moisture values, the values estimated with the Logarithmic model gave the best fit quality (r² >0.994, SSE < 0.00015 and χ2 < 0.00018, showing this equation could predict very accurately the drying time of rat feed under the operative conditions applied.

  11. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  12. Drying Kinetics Analysis of Seaweed Gracilaria changii using Solar Drying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Ahmad Fudholi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Muhammad Yahya

    2012-01-01

    A solar drying system suitable for agricultural and marine products have been designed, constructed and evaluated under Malaysia climatic conditions. The solar drying system has been constructed and evaluated for the drying of seaweed Gracilaria changii. The initial and final moisture content of seaweed are 95 % (wet basis) and 10 % (product basis), respectively. The drying time was about 7 hours at average solar radiation of 593 W/ m 2 and air flow rate of 0.0613 kg/ s. Three different thin-layer drying models were compared with experimental data, during the drying of seaweed using the solar drying system at average temperature and humidity of about 50 degree Celsius and 20 %, respectively. The one with highest R2 and lowest MBE and RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. The study showed that the Page model was better fit to drying seaweed compared to the other models (Newton model, and Henderson and Pabis model). (author)

  13. Preservation of fruits and vegetables using solar dryers. A comparative study for solar and natural drying of grapes, figs, tomatoes and onions. IV. temperature measurements, calculating the generated energy and dryer efficiency during drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sehery, A.A.; Gallali, Y.M.; Shoshan, H.

    2000-01-01

    This study has taken four axis, first, design and construction of the dryer, secondly, microbial load determination, thirdly, chemical and sensory evaluation data. The results of these three parts were published earlier at the International Congress on Application of Solar and Renewable Energy, Food Science and Technology and World Renewable Energy Congress V, Cairo, Egypt, 1992, 1996 and Florence, Italy, 1998, respectively. The whole study was oriented towards comparing the solar (three modes, direct, indirect, and mixed) and natural drying. The fourth part of the study is dealing with some parameters affecting drying as temperature measurement, calculating the generated energy and the dryer efficiency during drying periods. Drying temperature is considered the most important factor in the drying operation, since the accuracy of temperature measurement gives the correct results and right indication for the approval of these scientific methods in the drying operation and the design of solar dryers. In this project, we depended on temperature measurements at different points by means of thermocouples fixed in the heat collector and the drying chamber. The average temperature outside the dryer ranged from 21-41 degree C. That of the heat collector were 40-75 degree C and those of the drying chamber were in the range of 40-73 degree C. The radiation measurements calculated depending on the results recorded by the solar center instruments from 5/8/95 - 16/10/95. The thermal energy existing from the heat collector to the drying chamber during the drying period was measured using the equation of Holland. From the investigation results, we can conclude that in all trials, solar drying was a more efficient method for drying all samples of fruits and vegetables, especially for grapes, figs and onion. Grapes dried using mixed mode from 83 % to 30 % moisture in 4 days at an average temperature of 55 degree C while natural drying reduced the moisture to 57% for the same period

  14. Combined electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yucai; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Yaxiang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the drying qualities of shrimp, a combination of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying (FD) is examined. The drying rate, the shrinkage, the rehydration ratio, and the sensory properties including the color and trimness of the dried products under different drying methods (including combination drying of EHD and FD, EHD drying and FD drying) are measured. Compared with FD and EHD drying alone, the combined process consumes less drying time, and the product processed by combined drying displays lower shrinkage, higher rehydration rate and better sensory qualities.

  15. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  16. Characterization of wet and dry deposition in the downwind of industrial sources in a dry tropical area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, R K; Agrawal, M

    2001-12-19

    An atmospheric deposition study was conducted in the downwind of Shaktinagar Thermal Power Plant (STPP), Renusagar Thermal Power Plant (RTPP), and Anpara Thermal Power Plant (ATPP), at Singrauli region, Uttar Pradesh (UP), India to characterize dry and wet deposition in relation to different pollution loading. During the study period, dry and wet depositions and levels of gaseous pollutants (SO2 and NO2) were estimated across the sites. Dry deposition was collected on a monthly basis and wet deposition on an event basis. Depositions were analyzed for pH, nitrate (NO3-), ammonium (NH4+), and sulphate (SO4(2-)) contents. Dry deposition rate both collected as clearfall and throughfall varied between 0.15 to 2.28 and 0.33 to 3.48 g m(-2) day(-1), respectively, at control and maximally polluted sites. The pH of dry deposition varied from 5.81 to 6.89 during winter and 6.09 to 7.02 during summer across the sites. During the rainy season, the mean pH of clear wet deposition varied from 6.56 to 7.04 and throughfall varied from 6.81 to 7.22. The concentrations of NO2 and SO2 pollutants were highest during the winter season. Mean SO2 concentrations varied from 18 to 75 g m(-3) at control and differently polluted sites during the winter season. The variation in NO2 concentrations did not show a pattern similar to that of SO2. The highest NO2 concentration during the winter season was 50 g m(-3), observed near RTPP. NO2 concentration did not show much variation among different sites, suggesting that the sources of NO2 emission are evenly distributed along the sites. The concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, and SO4(2-) ions in dry deposition were found to be higher in summer as compared to the winter season. In dry deposition (clearfall) the concentrations of NH4+, NO3-, and SO4(2-) varied from 0.13 to 1.0, 0.81 to 1.95, and 0.82 to 3.27 mg l(-1), respectively, during winter. In wet deposition (clearfall), the above varied from 0.14 to 0.74, 0.81 to 1.82, and 0.67 to 2.70 mg l(-1

  17. Drying kinetics of RDF: Experimental investigation and modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Słomka-Polonis Karolina

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study was performed to determine the drying characteristics of an oversized fraction of RDF alternative fuel using a laboratory scale hot air dryer at a variety air temperatures and a constant air velocity. For this research the industrial RDF was derived from a Regional Municipal Waste Treatment Facility near the city of Kraków, Poland. The samples of RDF were prepared in two forms: ovesized (unmodified condition and shreded in a two-drum crusher. In addition, the RDF was sorted into three groups of samples: paper, plastic, textiles. Each form of RDF and each group of samples were dried in hot air dryer at temperatures of 50, 70 i 90 °C and a constant air velocity of 1,5 [m·s-1]. The loss of the the samples mass were measured in a continues manner until the equilibrum moisture content was reached. The effective moisture diffusivity [m2·s-1] and activation energies [kJ·mol-1] was amounted. The analysis of the course of moisture content change concludes that that the drying of the RDF alternative fuel occured mainly in the II period of the process during which the transport of water content was carried out by diffusion. And, to a lesser extent, with the surface heat transfer in II period. Based on the calculated data there was a model determined which presented the best possible matching of the course of moisture content change.

  18. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  19. How to restore dry forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    AIDER is a Peruvian non-governmental organization working since 1992 on forest management activities, watershed management and urban forest management on tropical humid and dry forest at a national level. AIDER and the José Ignacio Távara Pasapera rural community have been working on dry forest management and recovery since 1992. This paper summarizes the activity of AIDER in the dry forests for the purpose of recovering degraded forest areas and conserve existing forests by developing sustai...

  20. Procedure for drying humidity-containing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a decontamination process for extracting impurities, in particular humidity and gases, from nuclear fuel rods before they are sealed and inserted into the reactor. The fuel rod, which has a small drilling hole, is placed in a low pressure container. The container is filled with a liquid drying agent which washes out the impurities. A dry inert gas (nitrogen, noble gases) is used for rinsing. Alcohols, ketones, methanol, acetone are named as drying agents. (UWI) [de

  1. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  2. The cascad spent fuel dry storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guay, P.; Bonnet, C.

    1991-01-01

    France has a wide variety of experimental spent fuels different from LWR spent fuel discharged from commercial reactors. Reprocessing such fuels would thus require the development and construction of special facilities. The French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) has consequently opted for long-term interim storage of these spent fuels over a period of 50 years. Comparative studies of different storage concepts have been conducted on the basis of safety (mainly containment barriers and cooling), economic, modular design and operating flexibility criteria. These studies have shown that dry storage in a concrete vault cooled by natural convection is the best solution. A research and development program including theoretical investigations and mock-up tests confirmed the feasibility of cooling by natural convection and the validity of design rules applied for fuel storage. A facility called CASCAD was built at the CEA's Cadarache Nuclear Research Center, where it has been operational since mid-1990. This paper describes the CASCAD facility and indicates how its concept can be applied to storage of LWR fuel assemblies

  3. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the proximate composition showed that the nutritional qualities of the dried eggs were retained during drying thus the drying temperature did not affect the quality of eggs. The moisture contents of the dried whole egg, dried egg yolk and dried egg white at the different temperatures range from 6.25 -7.23%, ...

  4. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šojić, Branislav V.; Petrović, Ljiljana S.; Mandić, Anamarija I.; Sedej, Ivana J.; Džinić, Natalija R.; Tomović, Vladimir M.; Jokanović, Marija R.; Tasić, Tatjana A.; Škaljac, Snežana B.; Ikonić, Predrag M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial) in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p

  5. Wood Decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora (Cyrillaceae) in Puerto Rican Dry and Wet Forests: A 13-year Case Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Juan A. Torres; Grizelle Gonzalez

    2005-01-01

    We studied the decomposition of Cyrilla racemiflora logs over a 13-yr period in tropical dry and wet forests in Puerto Rico. The mean mass loss, ratio of soft to hard wood, nutrient concentrations, and the diversity of wood-inhabiting organisms were greater in logs decomposing in the dry forest than in the wet forest. Termites were also more abundant in the logs...

  6. Control of dry season evapotranspiration over the Amazonian forest as inferred from observations at a southern Amazon forest site

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Negrón Juárez, R.I.; Hodnett, M.G.; Fu, R.; Goulden, M.L.; Randow, von C.

    2007-01-01

    The extent to which soil water storage can support an average dry season evapotranspiration (ET) is investigated using observations from the Rebio Jarú site for the period of 2000 to 2002. During the dry season, when total rainfall is less than 100 mm, the soil moisture storage available to root

  7. Polysheroidal periodic functions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Truskova, N.F.

    1985-01-01

    Separation of variables in the Helmholtz N-dimensional (N≥4) equation in polyspheroidal coordinate systems leads to the necessity of solving equations going over into equations for polyspheroidal periodic functions used for solving the two-centre problem in quantum mechanics, the three-body problem with Coulomb interaction, etc. For these functions the expansions are derived in terms of the Jacobi polynomials and Bessel functions. Their basic properties, asymptotics are considered. The algorithm of their computer calculations is developed. The results of numerical calculations are given

  8. Deciphering Periodic Methanol Masers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stecklum, Bringfried; Caratti o Garatti, Alessio; Henning, Thomas; Hodapp, Klaus; Hopp, Ulrich; Kraus, Alex; Linz, Hendrik; Sanna, Alberto; Sobolev, Andrej; Wolf, Verena

    2018-05-01

    Impressive progress has been made in recent years on massive star formation, yet the involved high optical depths even at submm/mm wavelengths make it difficult to reveal its details. Recently, accretion bursts of massive YSOs have been identified to cause flares of Class II methanol masers (methanol masers for short) due to enhanced mid-IR pumping. This opens a new window to protostellar accretion variability, and implies that periodic methanol masers hint at cyclic accretion. Pinning down the cause of the periodicity requires joint IR and radio monitoring. We derived the first IR light curve of a periodic maser host from NEOWISE data. The source, G107.298+5.639, is an intermediate-mass YSO hosting methanol and water masers which flare every 34.5 days. Our recent joint K-band and radio observations yielded first but marginal evidence for a phase lag between the rise of IR and maser emission, respectively, and revealed that both NEOWISE and K-band light curves are strongly affected by the light echo from the ambient dust. Both the superior resolution of IRAC over NEOWISE and the longer wavelengths compared to our ground-based imaging are required to inhibit the distractive contamination by the light echo. Thus, we ask for IRAC monitoring of G107 to cover one flare cycle, in tandem with 100-m Effelsberg and 2-m Wendelstein radio and NIR observations to obtain the first high-quality synoptic measurements of this kind of sources. The IR-maser phase lag, the intrinsic shape of the IR light curves and their possible color variation during the cycle allow us to constrain models for the periodic maser excitation. Since methanol masers are signposts of intermediate-mass and massive YSOs, deciphering their variability offers a clue to the dynamics of the accretion-mediated growth of massive stars and their feedback onto the immediate natal environment. The Spitzer light curve of such a maser-hosting YSO would be a legacy science product of the mission.

  9. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  10. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  11. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  12. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  13. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  14. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  15. Effects of feed in the dry period on fertility of dairy cows post partum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruip, T.A.M.; Meijer, G.A.L.; Rukkwamsuk, T.; Wensing, T.

    1998-01-01

    It has been hypothesized that the decrease in fertility of dairy cows is related to the increase in milk yield and associated with fatty liver and increased vulnerability for both infection and metabolic diseases. To elucidate the mechanisms behind this complex of health and reproductive problems an

  16. Using weather data to determine dry and wet periods relative to ethnographic records

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felzer, B. S.; Jiang, M.; Cheng, R.; Ember, C. R.

    2017-12-01

    Ethnographers record flood or drought events that affect a society's food supply and can be interpreted in terms of a society's ability to adapt to extreme events. Using daily weather station data from the Global Historical Climatology Network for wet events, and monthly gridded climatic data from the Climatic Research Unit for drought events, we determine if it is possible to relate these measured data to the ethnographic records. We explore several drought and wetness indices based on temperature and precipitation, as well as the Colwell method to determine the predictability, seasonality, and variability of these extreme indices. Initial results indicate that while it is possible to capture the events recorded in the ethnographic records, there are many more "false" captures of events that are not recorded in these records. Although extreme precipitation is a poor indicator of floods due to antecedent moisture conditions, even using streamflow for selected sites produces false captures. Relating drought indices to actual food supply as measured in crop yield only related to minimum crop yield in half the cases. Further mismatches between extreme precipitation and drought indices and ethnographic records may relate to the fact that only extreme events that affect food supply are recorded in the ethnographic records or that not all events are recorded by the ethnographers. We will present new results on how predictability measures relate to the ethnographic disasters. Despite the highlighted technical challenges, our results provide a historic perspective linking environmental stressors with socio-economic impacts, which in turn, will underpin the current efforts of risk assessment in a changing environment.

  17. The mycobiota of three dry-cured meat products from Slovenia

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonjak, Silva; Ličen, Mia; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    “milanense” was isolated from 21 items. The other penicillia were rarely isolated. Of the isolated and identified species, those that can produce mycotoxins are: A. versicolor, Penicillium brevicompactum, Penicillium chrysogenum, P. nordicum, and Penicillium polonicum. Their growth on dry-cured meat products......The surface mycobiota of three types of Slovenian dry-cured meat products were isolated from a total of 75 items of product that were sampled periodically during the drying/ripening stage of processing. The predominant filamentous fungal genus isolated was Penicillium. Eurotium spp., Aspergillus...

  18. Status of work at PNL supporting dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cunningham, M.E.; McKinnon, M.A.; Michener, T.E.; Thomas, L.E.; Thornhill, C.K.

    1992-01-01

    Three projects related to dry storage of light-water reactor spent fuel are being conducted at Pacific Northwest Laboratory. Performance testing of six dry storage systems (four metal casks and two concrete storage systems) has been completed and results compiled. Two computer codes for predicting spent fuel and storage system thermal performance, COBRA-SFS and HYDRA-II, have been developed and have been reviewed by the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission. Air oxidation testing of spent fuel was conducted from 1984 through 1990 to obtain data to support recommendations of temperature-time limits for air dry storage for periods up to 40 years

  19. Cancer in persons working in dry cleaning in the Nordic countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lynge, Elsebeth; Andersen, Aage; Rylander, Lars

    2006-01-01

    -cleaning workers identified from the 1970 censuses in Denmark, Norway, Sweden, and Finland. Dry-cleaning work in the Nordic countries during the period when tetrachloroethylene was the dominant solvent was not associated with an increased risk of esophageal cancer [rate ratio (RR) = 0.76; 95% confidence interval...... not found in women directly involved in dry cleaning. We found an excess risk of bladder cancer (RR = 1.44; 95% CI, 1.07-1.93) not associated with length of employment. The finding of no excess risk of esophageal cancer in Nordic dry cleaners differs from U.S. findings. Chance, differences in level...

  20. An industrial batch dryer simulation tool based on the concept of the characteristic drying curve

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kærn, Martin Ryhl; Elmegaard, Brian; Schneider, P.

    2013-01-01

    content in the material to be invariant in the airflow direction. In the falling-rate period, the concept of the Characteristic Drying Curve (CDC) is used as proposed by Langrish et al. (1991), but modified to account for a possible end-drying rate. Using the CDC both hygroscopic and non....... However, the tool may be used to analyze overall effects of inlet temperature, volume flow rate, geometry, infiltration etc. on the performance in terms of drying time, heat consumption and blower power....

  1. Thin layer convective air drying of wild edible plant (Allium roseum) leaves: experimental kinetics, modeling and quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben Haj Said, Leila; Najjaa, Hanen; Farhat, Abdelhamid; Neffati, Mohamed; Bellagha, Sihem

    2015-06-01

    The present study deals with the valorization of an edible spontaneous plant of the Tunisian arid areas: Allium roseum. This plant is traditionally used for therapeutic and culinary uses. Thin-layer drying behavior of Allium roseum leaves was investigated at 40, 50 and 60 °C drying air temperatures and 1 and l.5 m/s air velocity, in a convective dryer. The increase in air temperature significantly affected the moisture loss and reduced the drying time while air velocity was an insignificant factor during drying of Allium roseum leaves. Five models selected from the literature were found to satisfactorily describe drying kinetics of Allium roseum leaves for all tested drying conditions. Drying data were analyzed to obtain moisture diffusivity values. During the falling rate-drying period, moisture transfer from Allium roseum leaves was described by applying the Fick's diffusion model. Moisture diffusivity varied from 2.55 × 10(-12) to 8.83 × 10(-12) m(2)/s and increased with air temperature. Activation energy during convective drying was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation and ranged between 46.80 and 52.68 kJ/mol. All sulfur compounds detected in the fresh leaves were detected in the dried leaves. Convective air drying preserved the sulfur compounds potential formation.

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  3. The MAFF dry cloth collector programme for monitoring airborne radioactivity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McHugh, J.O.; Smith, B.D.; Hunt, G.J.; Thomas, R.E.G.

    1986-01-01

    The history of the MAFF airborne radioactivity monitoring programme and its current operation using dry cloth collectors are described. The detection system has become well established as a sensitive indicator of airborne radioactivity. Details of collector materials, deployment around the major UK nuclear establishments and procedures for radiometric analysis of cloths are given. Typical results for the period 1980-82 show that at most sites only nuclear weapons fallout was detected. The systems's usefulness is exemplified by its response to the release of I-131 from Sellafield in 1981; this release was of negligible radiological significance but was easily detected. The response of dry cloths to various sources of atmospheric radioactivity and factors affecting collection efficiency are discussed. (author)

  4. Cost of dry eye treatment in an Asian clinic setting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waduthantri, Samanthila; Yong, Siew Sian; Tan, Chien Hua; Shen, Liang; Lee, Man Xin; Nagarajan, Sangeetha; Hla, Mynt Htoon; Tong, Louis

    2012-01-01

    To estimate the cost and patterns of expenditure of dry eye treatment. We retrieved data on the type and cost of dry eye treatment in Singapore National Eye Centre from pharmacy and clinic inventory databases over a 2 year period (2008-2009) retrospectively. According to the type of treatment, data were sorted into 7 groups; meibomien gland disease (MGD) treatment, preservative free lubricant eye drops, preserved lubricant eye drops, lubricant ointments and gels, cyclosporine eye drops, oral supplements and non-pharmacological treatments/procedures. Each recorded entry was considered as one patient episode (PE). Comparisons in each group between two years were carried out using Pearson Chi-Square test. Significance level was set at alpha  =  0.05. Cost data from 54,052 patients were available for analysis. Total number of recorded PEs was 132,758. Total annual expenditure on dry eye treatment for year 2008 and 2009 were US$1,509,372.20 and US$1,520,797.80 respectively. Total expenditure per PE in year 2008 and 2009 were US$22.11 and US$23.59 respectively. From 2008 to 2009, there was a 0.8% increase in total annual expenditure and 6.69% increase in expenditure per PE. Pharmacological treatment attributes to 99.2% of the total expenditure with lubricants accounting for 79.3% of the total pharmacological treatment expenditure. Total number of units purchased in preservative free lubricants, cyclosporine eye drops and MGD therapy have increased significantly (pDry eye imposes a significant direct burden to health care expenditure even without considering indirect costs. Health care planners should be aware that these direct costs appear to increase over the time and more so for particular types of medications. Given the limitations of socio-economic data, true societal costs of Dry eye syndrome are likely to be much higher than estimated.

  5. Review of Current Criteria of Spent Fuel Rod Integrity during Dry Storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yang, Yong Sik; Kim, Sun Ki; Bang, Je Geon; Song, Kun Woo

    2006-01-01

    A PWR spent fuel has been stored in a wet storage pool in Korea. However, the amount of spent fuel is expected to exceed the capacity of a wet storage pool within 10∼15 years. From the early 1970's, a research on the PWR spent fuel dry storage started because the dry storage system has been economical compared with the wet storage system. The dry storage technology for Zircaloy-clad fuel was assessed and licensed in many countries such as USA, Canada, FRG and Switzerland. In the dry storage system, a clad temperature may be higher than in the wet storage system and can reach up to 400 .deg.. A higher clad temperature can cause cladding failures during the period of dry storage, and thus a dry storage related research has essentially dealt with the prevention of clad degradation. It is temperature and rod internal pressure that cause cladding failures through the mechanisms such as clad creep rupture, hydride re-orientation, and stress-corrosion cracking etc.. In this paper, the current licensing criteria are summarized for the PWR spent fuel dry storage system, especially on spent fuel rod integrity. And it is investigated that an application propriety of existing criteria to Korea spent fuel dry storage system

  6. Determining the Frequency of Dry Lake Bed Formation in Semi-Arid Mongolia From Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuta Demura

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available In the Mongolian Plateau, the desert steppe, mountains, and dry lake bed surfaces may affect the process of dust storm emissions. Among these three surface types, dry lake beds are considered to contribute a substantial amount of global dust emissions and to be responsible for “hot spots” of dust outbreaks. The land cover types in the study area were broadly divided into three types, namely desert steppe, mountains, and dry lake beds, by a classification based on Normalized Difference Water Index (NDWI calculated from MODIS Terra satellite images, and Digital Elevation Model (DEM. This dry lake beds extracting method using remote sensing offers a new technique for identifying dust hot spots and potential untapped groundwater in the dry lands of the Gobi region. In the study area, frequencies of dry lake bed formation were calculated during the period of 2001 to 2014. The potential dry lake area corresponded well with the length of the river network based on hydrogeological characterization (R2 = 0.77, p < 0.001. We suggest that the threshold between dry lake bed areas and the formation of ephemeral lakes in semi-arid regions is eight days of total precipitation.

  7. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  8. The human milk oligosaccharides are not affected by pasteurization and freeze-drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, Won-Ho; Kim, Jaehan; Song, Seunghyun; Park, Suyeon; Kang, Nam Mi

    2017-11-06

    Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) are known as important factors in neurologic and immunologic development of neonates. Moreover, freeze-drying seems to be a promising storage method to improve the processes of human milk banks. However, the effects of pasteurization and freeze-drying on HMOs were not evaluated yet. The purpose of this study is to analyze and compare the HMOs profiles of human milk collected before and after the pasteurization and freeze-drying. Totally nine fresh human milk samples were collected from three healthy mothers at the first, second, and third week after delivery. The samples were treated with Holder pasteurization and freeze-drying. HMOs profiles were analyzed by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) mass spectrometry and compared between samples collected before and after the treatments. Human milk samples showed significantly different HMO patterns between mothers. However, HMOs were not affected by lactation periods within 3 weeks after delivery (r 2  = 0.972-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying were found not to affect HMO patterns in a correlation analysis (r 2  = 0.989-0.999, p pasteurization and freeze-drying of donor milks. We hope that introducing freeze-drying to the human milk banks would be encouraged by the present study. However, the storage length without composition changes of HMOs after freeze-drying needs to be evaluated in the further studies.

  9. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  10. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet....../particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...

  11. Periodically modulated dark states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Yingying; Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Wenxian

    2018-04-01

    Phenomena of electromagnetically induced transparency (PEIT) may be interpreted by the Autler-Townes Splitting (ATS), where the coupled states are split by the coupling laser field, or by the quantum destructive interference (QDI), where the atomic phases caused by the coupling laser and the probe laser field cancel. We propose modulated experiments to explore the PEIT in an alternative way by periodically modulating the coupling and the probe fields in a Λ-type three-level system initially in a dark state. Our analytical and numerical results rule out the ATS interpretation and show that the QDI interpretation is more appropriate for the modulated experiments. Interestingly, dark state persists in the double-modulation situation where control and probe fields never occur simultaneously, which is significant difference from the traditional dark state condition. The proposed experiments are readily implemented in atomic gases, artificial atoms in superconducting quantum devices, or three-level meta-atoms in meta-materials.

  12. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  13. Efficacy of laser stimulation of the lacrimal gland and collagen punctual occlusion in the treatment of dry-eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    Switka-Wieclawska, Iwona; Kecik, Tadeusz; Ciszewska, Joanna

    1997-10-01

    In this study we would like to monitor the tear secretion during a 7 day period of temporary intracanalicular occlusion and laser stimulation of lacrimal gland in a small group of female suffering of dry eye syndrome.

  14. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions and tailored matrix formulations are required to avoid severe heat damage leading to loss in enzyme activity or reduced survival of bacteria. An overview is provided on the use of protective carbo...

  15. Malaria model with periodic mosquito birth and death rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dembele, Bassidy; Friedman, Avner; Yakubu, Abdul-Aziz

    2009-07-01

    In this paper, we introduce a model of malaria, a disease that involves a complex life cycle of parasites, requiring both human and mosquito hosts. The novelty of the model is the introduction of periodic coefficients into the system of one-dimensional equations, which account for the seasonal variations (wet and dry seasons) in the mosquito birth and death rates. We define a basic reproduction number R(0) that depends on the periodic coefficients and prove that if R(0)1 then the disease is endemic and may even be periodic.

  16. Energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy sources such as solar energy for drying purposes in a more effective and efficient way is inevitable for preservation of agricultural products in developing nations with inadequate access to electricity. This study investigates the effects of using a solar tracking device on the energy performance of drying ...

  17. OSCILLATING MODE OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkivich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of a chemical composition of tubers and green material of a topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus, high efficiency and ecological plasticity, profitability of growing, biotechnological potential of use enable to identify a topinambur as a of high-energy cultures of the future. High moisture of various topinambur parts, features of the mechanism of a heat and mass transfer set a problem of search of the new drying methods promoting to increase dehydration efficiency and produce a quality product. A method of calculation of duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying in a dense layer is worked out. The topinambur tubers cut on cubes with the side of 6 mm were taken as object of researches. Researches were conducted in the setting of various drying modes: two experiences at the oscillating mode with height of a material layer of 0.07 m and 0.17 m; and also as a check experiment was material drying at a constant temperature of the drying agent. Duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying was calculated on their basis of received curves of changes of moisture content at various modes of drying. Estimate indicators were confirmed with experimental data. Results of determination of duration of the oscillating modes of topinambur tubers drying proved that efficiency of the oscillating modes is 18 percent higher, than at control experiment.

  18. Assembly and method for drying a product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Bartels, P.V.; Djaeni, M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    The application relates to an assembly for drying a product, comprising at least on drying device and at least one adsorption device, in which the adsorption device is provided with regenerable adsorption material for extracting water from a gas and comprises a gas inlet and a gas outlet, and is

  19. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  20. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... filter system shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and...

  1. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  2. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage

  3. Dry Port Development: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BENTALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dry ports as nodes in multimodal transport have been expanded to decrease the mounting congestion on seaports. The principal objective of this study is to inspect how dry port researches have been conducted from different perspective. This paper tries to recap the existing researches that aimed to study dry port concept via a systematic review, to present a general overview of the researches on our relevant region and propose a classification for these researches. This paper present a systematic review of dry port that looks to illustrate the progress of researches on this area between 1986 and 2015, collecting researches on dry port concept and analyzing the main characteristics of the dry port development and their contribution to the multimodal transport. The results indicated that most dry port studies considerate the strategic level and concentrate in the Asian continent. Studies regarding other decision levels and continents have to be developed in further researches. Although the existing studies make a contribution in dry port concept, they allow gaps in terms of operational and tactical decision levels considering their limited geographical region.

  4. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  5. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  6. Novel dry forests in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Molina Colón; Ariel E. Lugo; Olga Ramos

    2011-01-01

    We report results of new research on (1) community composition of novel subtropical dry forests developing on abandoned pastures and agricultural fields in both private and protected public lands and (2) seed germination and growth rates of plantings of native tree species on degraded soils. We found that novel dry forests were dominated by introduced species, which...

  7. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...

  8. Microwave and hot air drying of garlic puree: drying kinetics and quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlter, Işıl; Akyıl, Saniye; Devseren, Esra; Okut, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Kaymak Ertekin, Figen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of hot air and microwave drying on drying kinetics and some quality characteristics such as water activity, color, optic index and volatile oil of garlic puree was investigated. Optic index representing browning of the garlic puree increased excessively with an increase in microwave power and hot air drying temperature. However, volatile oil content of the dried samples was decreased by increasing of temperature and microwave power. By increasing drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) and microwave power (180, 360 and 540 W), the drying time decreased from 8.5 h to 4 min. In order to determine the kinetic parameters, the experimental drying data were fitted to various semi-empirical models beside 2nd Fick's diffusion equation. Among them, the Page model gave a better fit for microwave-drying, while Logarithmic model gave a better fit for hot air drying. By increasing the microwave power and hot air drying temperature, the effective moisture diffusivity, De values ranged from 0.76×10-8 to 2.85×10-8 m2/s and from 2.21×10-10 to 3.07×10-10 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy was calculated as 20.90 kJ/mol for hot air drying and 21.96 W/g for microwave drying using an Arrhenius type equation.

  9. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  10. Scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinger, J Clay; DeLoss, Karen; Mian, Shahzad I

    2015-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome can be difficult to manage in severe or refractory cases. In patients in whom traditional treatments have limited efficacy, alternative treatments may be considered for dry eye syndrome, including scleral lenses. The present review summarizes the evidence regarding scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome. Scleral lenses have become a viable option for severe dry eye syndrome, and have been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated, with most reports citing improved visual acuity and relief of symptoms. Currently, there are 18 manufacturers of scleral lenses, although published reports on scleral lenses primarily focus on the BostonSight PROSE and the Jupiter Lens. Scleral lenses are efficacious and well tolerated for use in severe dry eye syndrome. Further research is needed to compare different sizes and types of lenses, and to standardize outcome measures.

  11. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  12. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  13. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  14. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. [Childhood periodic syndromes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuvellier, J-C; Lépine, A

    2010-01-01

    This review focuses on the so-called "periodic syndromes of childhood that are precursors to migraine", as included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders. Three periodic syndromes of childhood are included in the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders: abdominal migraine, cyclic vomiting syndrome and benign paroxysmal vertigo, and a fourth, benign paroxysmal torticollis is presented in the Appendix. The key clinical features of this group of disorders are the episodic pattern and intervals of complete health. Episodes of benign paroxysmal torticollis begin between 2 and 8 months of age. Attacks are characterized by an abnormal inclination and/or rotation of the head to one side, due to cervical dystonia. They usually resolve by 5 years. Benign paroxysmal vertigo presents as sudden attacks of vertigo, accompanied by inability to stand without support, and lasting seconds to minutes. Age at onset is between 2 and 4 years, and the symptoms disappear by the age of 5. Cyclic vomiting syndrome is characterized in young infants and children by repeated stereotyped episodes of pernicious vomiting, at times to the point of dehydration, and impacting quality of life. Mean age of onset is 5 years. Abdominal migraine remains a controversial issue and presents in childhood with repeated stereotyped episodes of unexplained abdominal pain, nausea and vomiting occurring in the absence of headache. Mean age of onset is 7 years. Both cyclic vomiting syndrome and abdominal migraine are noted for the absence of pathognomonic clinical features but also for the large number of other conditions to be considered in their differential diagnoses. Diagnostic criteria, such as those of the Second Edition of the International Classification of Headache Disorders and the North American Society for Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition, have made diagnostic approach and management easier. Their diagnosis

  16. Nonparametric Inference for Periodic Sequences

    KAUST Repository

    Sun, Ying; Hart, Jeffrey D.; Genton, Marc G.

    2012-01-01

    the periodogram, a widely used tool for period estimation. The CV method is computationally simple and implicitly penalizes multiples of the smallest period, leading to a "virtually" consistent estimator of integer periods. This estimator is investigated both

  17. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  18. Herbs drying using a heat pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Metwally, M.N.; Helali, A.B.; Shedid, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El Mattaria, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11718, Masaken El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work, a heat pump assisted dryer is designed and constructed to investigate the drying characteristics of various herbs experimentally. R134a is used as a working fluid in the heat pump circuit during the experimental work. Experiments have been conducted on Jew's mallow, spearmint and parsley. The effects of herb size, stem presence, surface load, drying air temperature and air velocity on the drying characteristics of Jew's mallow have been predicted. Experimental results show that a high surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2} yields the smallest drying rate, while the drying air with temperature of 55{sup o}C and velocity of 2.7m/s achieves the largest drying rate. A maximum dryer productivity of about 5.4kg/m{sup 2}h is obtained at the air temperature of 55{sup o}C, air velocity of 2.7m/s and dryer surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2}. It was found that small size herbs without stem need low specific energy consumption and low drying time. Comparison of the drying characteristics of different herbs revealed that parsley requires the lowest specific energy consumption (3684kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) followed by spearmint (3982kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) and Jew's mallow (4029kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}). Finally, dryer productivity has been correlated in terms of surface load, drying air velocity and drying air temperature. (author)

  19. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2018-02-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data ( R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy ( Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity ( Deff), thermal diffusivity ( α) and the rate constant of the best model ( k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  20. Trehalose and sorbitol alter the kinetic pattern of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase during drying in levitated microdroplets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenzen, Elke; Lee, Geoffrey

    2013-12-01

    A single-droplet acoustic levitator was used to determine the drying rate and the kinetics of inactivation of glutamate dehydrogenase in the presence of added trehalose or sorbitol. The solution was also spray dried under the same process condition of drying gas temperature on a bench-top machine. Both trehalose and sorbitol delay the point of onset of enzyme inactivation which lies after the critical point of drying. Both carbohydrates also reduce the apparent rate constant of inactivation calculated during the subsequent inactivation phase. The carbohydrates stabilise, therefore, the enzyme during droplet drying and particle formation mainly during the falling rate drying period. There is no difference between the stabilising effects of the two carbohydrates when examined as levitated single droplets. This suggests the importance of water replacement as a stabilising mechanism in the levitated droplets/particles. On spray drying, the trehalose stabilises the enzyme better than does the sorbitol at a drying gas (outlet) temperature of 60°C. This suggests glass formation with the trehalose but not the sorbitol during the very rapid drying process of small-atomised droplets in the spray dryer. © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.