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Sample records for dry matter partitioning

  1. Modelling fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Heuvelink, E.

    1999-01-01

    This paper discusses how fruit set, fruit growth and dry matter partitioning can be simulated by models where sink strength (assimilate demand) and source strength (assimilate supply) are the key variables. Although examples are derived from experiments on fruit vegetables such as tomato, sweet pepp

  2. Sink strength as a determinant of dry matter partitioning in the whole plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Dry matter partitioning is the end result of the flow of assimilates from source organs via a transport path to the sink organs. The dry matter partitioning among the sinks of a plant is primarily regulated by the sinks themselves. The effect of source strength on dry matter partitioning is often no

  3. Sink strength as a determinant of dry matter partitioning in the whole plant

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.

    1996-01-01

    Dry matter partitioning is the end result of the flow of assimilates from source organs via a transport path to the sink organs. The dry matter partitioning among the sinks of a plant is primarily regulated by the sinks themselves. The effect of source strength on dry matter partitioning is often no

  4. Dry matter and energy partitioning in plants under climatic stress

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bolhar-Nordenkampf, H.R.; Postl, W.F.; Meister, M.H.; Ledl, D.; Nemeth, K. [Univ. of Vienna (Austria). Inst. of Plant Physiology; Ludlow, M.M. [CSIRO, Brisbane (Australia). Div. of Tropical Crops and Pastures

    1996-12-31

    During ontogenesis plants distribute assimilates quite differently among their organs depending on the environmental conditions. In case of high sink capacity energetically cheap storing compounds such as carbohydrates and/or organic acids are formed, whereas during periods with low demand proteins and lipids may be accumulated. Besides ontogenesis, drought and increased CO{sub 2} are able to modify sink capacity and by this transients in the partitioning pattern of carbon are induced. Plants, well adapted to several dry seasons during the year are able to allocate carbon predominantly to below ground organs. During this period many leaves become senescent. In any case stems and remaining green leaves will loose dry matter and energy. With 80% of plants under investigation CO{sub 2} enrichment was shown to induce an enforced allocation of carbon to below ground organs. Roots and Rhizomes, beets and tubers act as a sink for the additionally fixed carbon. It was demonstrated that sink capacity is controlling photosynthetic activity. With respect to agricultural production, to ecosystems and to single plants, climatic change will modify productivity and plants distribution pattern as a consequence of quite different metabolic changes. These responses are depending on the effect of natural and anthropogenic stress factors on the use of enhanced CO{sub 2} and on the allocation of additionally formed assimilates.

  5. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  6. Interactive Effects of Sowing Date and Planting Density on Dry Matter Accumulation and Partitioning of Chicory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid MADANI

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chicory is considered one of the alternatives crops that can be used in crop rotation and contains many phytochemicals that can be used in medicine. In addition, lengthening the growing season by early sowing may increase root chicory yield potential, and thus increase its competitiveness with traditional crops. The objectives of the present study were to determine whether early sowing date risks can be decreased by higher sowing density and also to study the effect of sowing date and sowing density on dry matter accumulation and partitioning of chicory. Growing season did not affect any of the characteristics that were studied. Also plant density affected the flowers biomass, root biomass per plant and the respective yield together with the plant height and essence yield and total yield. The sowing date affected the leaf, flower and stem biomass on a plant basis. However, the interaction between plant density and sowing date affected the total biomass per plant, the flower biomass per plant, the root biomass per plant, the flower yield, the root yield and the essence yield. These results indicate that for higher production it is important to determine the right plant density and sowing date which can affect growth, dry matter accumulation and essence yield.

  7. Simulation of Leaf Area Development Based on Dry Matter Partitioning and Specific Leaf Area for Cut Chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.

    2003-01-01

    This work aims to predict time courses of leaf area index (LAI) based on dry matter partitioning into the leaves and on specific leaf area of newly formed leaf biomass (SLA(n)) for year-round cut chrysanthemum crops. In five glasshouse experiments, each consisting of several plant densities and plan

  8. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  9. Dry matter accumulation and seasonal partitioning in mature Opuntia ficus-indica (L. Mill. fruiting trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgia Liguori

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim of this study was to understand the allocation of biomass into different canopy and root components and to measure the stem area index and its partitioning by cladode functionality (age, for fruiting Opuntia ficus-indica (OFI Gialla trees, spaced 6x5 m apart and trained to a globe. The net primary productivity (NPP, calculated taking into account dry weight gain for above-ground vegetative components of OFI trees was 3.6 t C ha–1. Including the fruit component and 1st flush current-year cladodes, NPP of above-ground components becomes 12 t ha–1, equivalent to 5.4 t C ha–1. Current-year cladodes were the highest C sink (49% of total annual C fixed in the canopy, secondary growth accounted for 22% of C fixation and the fruit component for 29%. This study demonstrated that OFI trees, grown in a commercial fruit orchard, couple high productivity, in terms of fruit yield and harvest index, with relevant C fixed in the canopy.

  10. Nutrition, dry matter accumulation and partitioning and phosphorus use efficiency of potato grown at different phosphorus levels in nutrient solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adalton Mazetti Fernandes

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available High rates of phosphate fertilizers are applied to potato (Solanum tuberosum L., which may cause antagonistic interactions with other nutrients and limit crop yields when over-supplied. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the influence of phosphorus (P levels in nutrient solution on P use efficiency, nutritional status and dry matter (DM accumulation and partitioning of potato plants cv. Ágata. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. Treatments consisted of seven P levels in nutrient solution (0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 31, and 48 mg L-1. Plants were harvested after 28 days of growth in nutrient solution, and separated in roots, stems and leaves for evaluations. The treatment effects were analyzed by regression analysis. Phosphorus levels of up to 8 mg L-1 increased the root and shoot DM accumulation, but drastically decreased the root/shoot ratio of potato cv. Ágata. Higher P availability increased P concentration, accumulation and absorption efficiency, but decreased P use efficiency. Higher P levels increased the N, P, Mg, Fe, and Mn concentrations in roots considerably and decreased K, S, Cu, and Zn concentrations. In shoot biomass, N, P, K, and Ca concentrations were significantly increased by P applied in solution, unlike Mg and Cu concentrations. Although higher P levels (> 8 mg L-1 in nutrient solution increased P concentration, accumulation and absorption efficiency, the DM accumulation and partitioning of potato cv. Ágata were not affected.

  11. Dry matter partitioning and quality of Miscanthus, Panicum, and Saccharum genotypes in Arkansas, USA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The partitioning and quality of aboveground biomass have important ramifications for crop management and biomass conversion. In preliminary studies, small samples of Saccharum sp. x Miscanthus sp. hybrids exhibited stubble cold tolerance in west-central Arkansas, unlike Saccharum sp. x S. spontaneum...

  12. Nitrogen and dry-matter partitioning in soybean plants during onset of and recovery from nitrogen stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tolley-Henry, L.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1986-01-01

    The study tested the hypothesis that resupplying nitrogen after a period of nitrogen stress leads to restoration of the balance between root and shoot growth and normal functional activity. Nonnodulated soybean plants were grown hydroponically for 14 days with 1.0 mM NO3- in a complete nutrient solution. One set of plants was continued on the complete nutrient solution for 25 days; a second set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 25 days; and the third set was given 0.0 mM NO3- for 10 days followed by transfer to the complete solution with 1.0 mM NO3- for 15 days. In continuously nitrogen-stressed plants, emergence and expansion of main-stem and branch leaves were severely inhibited as low nitrogen content limited further growth. This was followed by a shift in partitioning of dry matter from the leaves to the roots, resulting in an initial stimulation of root growth and a decreased shoot:root ratio. Reduced nitrogen also was redistributed from the leaves into the stem and roots. When nitrogen stress was relieved, leaf initiation and expansion were renewed. With the restoration of the balance between root and shoot function, the shoot:root ratio and distribution of reduced nitrogen within the plant organs returned to levels similar to those of nonstressed plants.

  13. Partitioning and granulometric distribution of metal leachate from urban traffic dry deposition particulate matter subject to acidic rainfall and runoff retention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansalone, J; Ying, G

    2008-09-01

    Vehicular transportation coupled with urban hydrology is a significant source as well as vector of particulate matter (PM) and particulate-bound metal inventories in urban systems. This study examines the granulometric distribution of metals from dry deposition PM generated from 17 dryfall periods and equilibrium metal partitioning with runoff PM distribution from eight rainfall-runoff events at an urban inter-state watershed in Baton Rouge, LA. Dry deposition PM is a coarse non-uniform gradation with a d(50 m)=304 microm and a peak surface area at 106 microm. Results indicate acid rain is not a significant metal contributor to runoff but is capable of leaching metals from PM to runoff. Retained runoff partitioning resulted in particulate-bound predominance for As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Pb, and Zn while Ca and Mg remained predominately dissolved. The finer PM fraction (75 microm). This coarse fraction is also the most labile when exposed to acidic rainfall; generating up to 90% of the total metal mass leached from the entire PM gradation. Comparing dry deposition and runoff PM of equal mass and size gradation, retained runoff PM is enriched with metals (except Pb). Results indicate the labile coarse fraction of dry deposition PM can be a significant source of metal leaching while runoff PM (mobilized dry deposition PM) stored in a BMP can be metal-enriched with the potential for re-leaching or scour.

  14. Dry-Matter Partitioning,Yield and Leaf Nutrient Contents of Tomato Plants as Influenced by Shading at Different Growth Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU XIANZHAO; KANG SHAOZHONG; YI HUAPENG; ZHANG JIANHUA

    2003-01-01

    Pot-grown tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Maofen) was used to study the effects ofthree shading levels (0, 75% and 40%) for 8 days on dry matter partitioning, contents of nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P) and potassium (K) in leaves and yield at three growth stages (early flowering (EF), peakflowering (PF) and later flowering (LF)). Shading reduced the dry weight of root and stem tissues at the EFand PF stages, but the 40% shading increased root dry weight and stem dry weight by 43.2% and 21.6%,respectively, at the LF stage. The influence of shading on the dry weight of leaves was very small at mostgrowth stages. Shading had no effects on total leaf N, P and K contents at the EF and PF stages, showingthat N, P and K absorption were regulated by the carbon assimilation at these two stages. The leaf N, Pand K contents of 40% shaded plants at the LF stage were significantly increased. There were no obviousdifferences in leaf N and K contents between 75% and 40% shading treatments, but significant difference inleaf P contents was found between them at the LF stage. Shading significantly enhanced the fruit yield of40% shaded tomato plants at the LF stage, but failed to affect the fruit yield of shaded plants at the EFstage. These showed that tomato could grow well and a better yield could be obtained if some moderateshading (i.e., 40% shading) was applied at the LF stage at summer midday.

  15. [Coupling effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on cotton dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Pei-Ling; Zhang, Fu-Cang

    2013-02-01

    A field experiment with complete combination design was conducted to study the effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on the dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton plant. Three levels of irrigation (260, 200, and 140 mm) and of nitrogen fertilizer (270, 180, and 90 kg.hm-2) were installed. The cotton dry mass was the highest in treatments medium nitrogen/high water and high nitrogen/high water. As compared with that in high nitrogen/high water treatment, the nitrogen use efficiency for dry matter accumulation in medium nitrogen/high water treatment was increased by 34.0% -44.6%, with an average of 34.7% , while the water use efficiency was decreased by 6.4% -10.7%, averagely 10.2%. As for the nitrogen accumulation in cotton plant, the nitrogen use efficiency was the highest in medium nitrogen/high water treatment, and the water use efficiency was the highest in high nitrogen/medium water treatment. Compared with high nitrogen/high water treatment, medium nitrogen/high water treatment increased the nitrogen use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 29.0% -41.7%, but decreased the water use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 5.5%-14.0%. Among the treatments of coupling water and nitrogen of higher cotton yield, treatment medium nitrogen/high water had the higher cotton nitrogen recovery rate, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, and apparent use efficiency than the treatments high nitrogen/medium water and high nitrogen/high water, but no significant differences were observed in the nitrogen absorption ratio and nitrogen physiological efficiency. Treatment medium nitrogen/high water was most beneficial to the coupling effects of water and nitrogen under partitioning alternate drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization.

  16. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  17. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polania, Jose A.; Poschenrieder, Charlotte; Beebe, Stephen; Rao, Idupulapati M.

    2016-01-01

    Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW), canopy biomass, and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index, and pod harvest index) in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID) was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE). The main objectives were: (i) to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii) to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought) over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593, and BFS 67) were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass, and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into two

  18. Influence of High Temperature Stress on Net Photosynthesis, Dry Matter Partitioning and Rice Grain Yield at Flowering and Grain Filling Stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L Guo-hua; WU Yong-feng; BAI Wen-bo; MA Bao; WANG Chun-yan; SONG Ji-qing

    2013-01-01

    Climate change is recognized to increase the frequency and severity of extreme temperature events. At flowering and grain filling stages, risk of high temperature stress (HTS) on rice might increase, and lead to declining grain yields. A regulated cabinet experiment was carried out to investigate effects of high temperature stress on rice growth at flowering and grain-filling stages. Results showed that no obvious decrease pattern in net photosynthesis appeared along with the temperature rising, but the dry matter allocation in leaf, leaf sheath, culm, and panicle all changed. Dry weight of panicle decreased, and ratio of straw to total above ground crop dry weight increased 6-34%from CK, which might have great effects on carbon cycling and green house gas emission. Grain yield decreased significantly across all treatments on average from 15 to 73%. Occurrence of HTS at flowering stage showed more serious influence on grain yield than at grain filling stage. High temperature stress showed negative effects on harvest index. It might be helpful to provide valuable information for crop simulation models to capture the effects of high temperature stress on rice, and evaluate the high temperature risk.

  19. Effect of dietary net energy concentration on dry matter intake and energy partition in cows in mid-lactation under heat stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Fangquan; Xue, Bai; Song, Liangrong; Xiao, Jun; Ding, Siyan; Hu, Xiaofei; Bu, Dengpan; Yan, Tianhai

    2016-11-01

    This study aimed to determine the net energy requirement of Holstein cows in mid-lactation under heat stress. Twenty-five multiparous Holstein cows were randomly allocated to five groups corresponding to five isonitrogenous total mixed rations, with net energy for lactation (NEL ) content of 6.15 (NE-6.15), 6.36 (NE-6.36), 6.64 (NE-6.64), 6.95 (NE-6.95), 7.36 (NE-7.36) MJ/kg of dry matter (DM), respectively. Throughout the experimental period the average temperature humidity index at 07.00, 14.00 and 22.00 hours was 72.1, 88.7, and 77.6, respectively. DM intake decreased significantly with the elevated dietary NEL concentration. Fat corrected milk increased quadratically, and milk fat content and milk energy (MJ/kg) reached the greatest in the NE-6.95 group with increasing dietary NEL content. Strong correlations were found between dietary NEL content and: (i) DM intake; (ii) NEL intake; (iii) milk energy (El ); (iv) El /metabolizable energy intake (MEI); (v) El /NEL intake, as well as between NEL intake and fat corrected milk yield (FCM). The suitable net energy required for dairy cows producing 1 kg FCM ranged from 5.01 to 5.03 MJ, was concluded from the above-stated regressions. Correlation between heat production (HP) and MEI could be expressed as: Log (HP) = -0.4304 + 0.2963*MEI (n = 15, R(2)  = 0.99, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) = 0.18). Fasting HP was 0.3712 MJ/kg(0.75) when extrapolating MEI to zero.

  20. 光质对温室甜椒干物质生产和分配指数的影响%Effects of light quality on dry matter production and partitioning index of greenhouse sweet pepper

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨再强; 赵翔; 苏天星; 周志龙; 朱凯; 彭晓丹

    2012-01-01

    Taking sweet pepper cultivar Shujiao 13 as test material, a greenhouse experiment with different color (white, red, yellow, blue, green, and purple) plastic Films was conducted in 2010 to study the effects of light quality on the cultivar' s dry matter formation and its partitioning. In all treatments, the correlation between the dry matter production per unit area ( Wt) and the daily photosynthetic active radiation integral intercepted by plant canopy (PARi, MJ · m-2) was accorded with exponential function Wt = 22.07 ×e0.0054 λPARi. The plant total dry weight per unit area, fruit dry matter partitioning index (DMPI) , fruit harvest index ( HI) , and fruit yield per unit area were the highest under red film but the lowest under purple film, the stem DMPI was the highest under blue film but the lowest under red film, the leaf DMPI was obviously higher under blue, green, and purple films than under red and yellow films, whereas the shoot DMPI had no significant difference among the treatments. It was considered that red and yellow films could promote the dry matter accumulation and fruit growth, while purple and blue films had obvious inhibitory effects. This study could provide a decision-making support for the light quality selection and environment optimization for the sweet pepper cultivation in greenhouse.%为了研究不同光质对甜椒植株干物质生产与分配指数的影响,以甜椒茎有限生长品种“苏椒13号”为试验材料,于2010年计不同种彩色塑料薄膜(红、黄、蓝、绿、紫,白色为对照)试验.结果表明:不同光质处理的甜椒单位面积干物质生产量(W1)与冠层截获的太阳光合有效辐射日积分(daily photosynthetic active radiation integral,PARi,MJ·m-2)之间的模型为W1=22.07 ×e0.0054λPARi;单位面积植株总干重、果实的干物质分配指数、果实采收指数和单位面积果实产量均以红膜最高,紫膜最低;蓝膜的茎干物质分配指数最高,红膜最低;蓝

  1. Supersymmetric Gauge Theories with Matters, Toric Geometries and Random Partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Noma, Y

    2006-01-01

    We derive the relation between the Hilbert space of certain geometries under the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization and the perturbative prepotentials for the supersymmetric five-dimensional SU(N) gauge theories with massive fundamental matters and with one massive adjoint matter. The gauge theory with one adjoint matter shows interesting features. A five-dimensional generalization of Nekrasov's partition function can be written as a correlation function of two-dimensional chiral bosons and as a partition function of a statistical model of partitions. From a ground state of the statistical model we reproduce the polyhedron which characterizes the Hilbert space.

  2. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  3. Thermodynamics of phenanthrene partition into solid organic matter from water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Bao-liang; ZHU Li-zhong; TAO Shu

    2005-01-01

    The thermodynamic behavior of organic contaminants in soils is essential to develop remediation technologies and assess risk from alternative technologies. Thermodynamics of phenanthrene partition into four solids (three soils and a bentonite) from water were investigated. The thermodynamics parameters (Δ H, Δ G°, Δ S°, ) were calculated according to experimental data. The total sorption heats of phenanthrene to solids from water ranged from - 7.93 to - 17.1 kJ/mol, which were less exothermic than the condensation heat of phenanthrene-solid(i.e., - 18.6 k J/mol). The partition heats of phenanthrene dissolved into solid organic matter ranged from 23.1 to 32.2k J/mol, which were less endothermic than the aqueous dissolved heat of phenanthrene(i. e., 40.2 kJ/mol), and were more endothermic than the fusion heat of phenanthrene-solid (i. e., 18.6 kJ/mol). The standard free energy changes, Δ G°, are all negative which suggested that phenanthrene sorption into solid was a spontaneous process. The positive values of standard entropy changes,ΔS° , show a gain in entropy for the transfer of phenanthrene at the stated standard state. Due to solubility-enhancement of phenanthrene,the partition coefficients normalized by organic carbon contents decrease with increasing system temperature(i. e., In Koc = -0.284In S +9.82( n =4, r2 = 0.992)). The solubility of phenanthrene in solid organic matter increased with increasing temperatures. Transports of phenanthrene in different latitude locations and seasons would be predicted according to its sorption thermodynamics behavior.

  4. Dry matter production and partitioning of maize hybrids and dwarf unes at four plant populations Produção e distribuição de matéria seca de híbridos e linhagens anãs de milho em quatro populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in Ames, Iowa, USA, to compare dry matter accumulation patterns of maize genotypes contrasting in height and leafiness, and to test whether reduction in plant height an leaf number through the use of dwarfing genes or earliness can improve grain dry matter allocation. Five plant genotypes were tested: a full season hybrid adapted to central lowa (NK 4525, a short season hybrid adapted to northern Minnesota (C1070, and three dwarf lines (156-A, 302-E and I17- A. The dwarves contained, respectively, the homozygous, independent, recessive dwarfing genes d3, d1 and br2. Each genotype was sown at four plant populations: 25, 50, 75 and 100.000 plants. ha-1. Hybrids had the greatest rates of decrease in total biomass and grain dry matter per plant when population was increased, though they also had larger absolute values of these variables at any given density. Hybrids produced more grain dry matter per unit of leaf area, and a higher harvest index, regardless the plant population used. Reduction in plant height or leaf number did not improve maize efficiency in producing and partitioning dry matter to the grain.Este experimento foi conduzido em Ames, Iowa, Estados Unidos, tendo como objetivos comparar os padrões de produção e distribuição de matéria seca de genótipos de milho contrastantes quanto a estatura e número de folhas, e verificar se a redução nestas características, mediante a utilização de genes para nanismo ou cultivares precoces, pode aumentar a eficiência da planta em alocar matéria seca para a produção de grãos. Cinco genótipos foram testados: um híbrido de ciclo normal adaptado à região central de lowa (NK 4525, um híbrido de ciclo precoce adaptado à região norte do estado de Minnesota (C 1070, e três linhagens anãs (156-A, 302-E and 117-A, contendo os genes recessivos de nanismo d3, d1 and br2, respectivamente Cada genótipo foi semeado em quatro populações, equivalentes a 25

  5. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate;

    2016-01-01

    of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...

  6. Chemotaxis toward phytoplankton drives organic matter partitioning among marine bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smriga, Steven; Fernandez, Vicente I; Mitchell, James G; Stocker, Roman

    2016-02-09

    The microenvironment surrounding individual phytoplankton cells is often rich in dissolved organic matter (DOM), which can attract bacteria by chemotaxis. These "phycospheres" may be prominent sources of resource heterogeneity in the ocean, affecting the growth of bacterial populations and the fate of DOM. However, these effects remain poorly quantified due to a lack of quantitative ecological frameworks. Here, we used video microscopy to dissect with unprecedented resolution the chemotactic accumulation of marine bacteria around individual Chaetoceros affinis diatoms undergoing lysis. The observed spatiotemporal distribution of bacteria was used in a resource utilization model to map the conditions under which competition between different bacterial groups favors chemotaxis. The model predicts that chemotactic, copiotrophic populations outcompete nonmotile, oligotrophic populations during diatom blooms and bloom collapse conditions, resulting in an increase in the ratio of motile to nonmotile cells and in the succession of populations. Partitioning of DOM between the two populations is strongly dependent on the overall concentration of bacteria and the diffusivity of different DOM substances, and within each population, the growth benefit from phycospheres is experienced by only a small fraction of cells. By informing a DOM utilization model with highly resolved behavioral data, the hybrid approach used here represents a new path toward the elusive goal of predicting the consequences of microscale interactions in the ocean.

  7. Growth and dry-mass partitioning in tomato as affected by phosphorus nutrition and light

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, de C.C.; Marcelis, L.F.M.; Boogaard, van den R.; Lambers, H.

    2001-01-01

    We studied the effects of phosphorus (P) and light on the physiological and morphological components of growth of young tomato plants (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. cv. Capita). The importance of dry-mass partitioning and starch accumulation in explaining the effects of P limitation on growth was ex

  8. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunner Brink Nielsen, Glenn; Kjær, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... based model systems with known dry matter content. Dielectric spectra were measured with a large custom-made open-ended coaxial probe in the frequency interval from 0.01 GHz to 3 GHz. Both univariate linear models motivated by a two phase mixture model and cross-validated multivariate partial least...... squares regression (PLSR) models were applied to predict the dry matter content. Results showed that the PLSR models gave markedly better prediction of the dry matter content from the dielectric response in most of the investigated systems compared to the univariate linear models. The highest precision...

  9. Dynamics of dry matter synthesis during corn development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latković Dragana S.

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Effects of mineral nutrition and combinations of mineral and organic nutrients on the dynamics of vegetative mass development in corn have been examined in a long-term stationary trial. The dynamics was monitored per phenological stage and per plant part. The obtained results showed that the dynamics of dry matter accumulation changed in dependence of development stage and nutrition variant. Smallest gains in dry matter in all stages under study were obtained in the control variant. Highest gains were obtained in the variants which combined mineral nutrition and manuring. The smallest gain of dry matter, 7.22% of the dry matter accumulated at full maturity, was registered at the seven-leaf stage.

  10. Analysis on Dry Matter Production Characteristics of Super Hybrid Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Six middle-season indica hybrid rice combinations,including five super hybrid rice combinations with the high yield about 10.5 t/ha and a check hybrid rice combination Shanyou 63 with a yield potential about 9.5 t/ha,were used as materials to study the dry matter production characteristics.The super hybrid rice showed a high ability in dry matter production and accumulation and its yield enhanced with the increase of dry matter accumulation.The advantage period of dry matter production in the super hybrid rice was mainly at the middle and late growth stages compared with the check.The grain yield had no significant correlation with the dry matter accumulation before the elongation stage while had a significantly positive correlation with the dry matter accumulation from the elongation to maturity stages in super hybrid rice.There were more dry matter in vegetative organs at the heading stage in the super hybrid rice but its contribution to yield (apparent conversion percentage) was averagely 4.3 percent points lower than that in the check.For crop growth rate (CGR),the comparative advantage of super hybrid rice was at the middle and late stages,especially after flowering.Moreover,as the rising of leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area duration (LAD),CGR enhanced.The total LAD and the mean of LAD per day of super hybrid rice was about 14.79% and 10.31% higher than those of the check,respectively.The results indicate that the high yield of super hybrid rice mostly comes from the products of photosynthesis after heading,which is shown by the increased CGR at middle and later stages.It is suggested that LAD character might be used to better explain the advantage in the dry matter production of super hybrid rice than LAI.

  11. 膜下分区交替滴灌和施氮对棉花干物质累积与氮肥利用的影响%Coupling effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on cotton dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培岭; 张富仓

    2013-01-01

    A field experiment with complete combination design was conducted to study the effects of partitioning alternative drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization on the dry matter accumulation and nitrogen use efficiency of cotton plant. Three levels of irrigation (260, 200, and 140 mm) and of nitrogen fertilizer (270, 180, and 90 kg·hm-2) were installed. The cotton dry mass was the highest in treatments medium nitrogen/high water and high nitrogen/high water. As compared with that in high nitrogen/high water treatment, the nitrogen use efficiency for dry matter accumulation in medium nitrogen/high water treatment was increased by 34. 0% -44. 6% , with an average of 34.7% , while the water use efficiency was decreased by 6.4% -10.7% , aver-agely 10. 2%. As for the nitrogen accumulation in cotton plant, the nitrogen use efficiency was the highest in medium nitrogen/high water treatment, and the water use efficiency was the highest in high nitrogen/medium water treatment. Compared with high nitrogen/high water treatment, medium nitrogen/high water treatment increased the nitrogen use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 29.0% -41. 7% , but decreased the water use efficiency for cotton nitrogen accumulation by 5. 5% -14. 0%. Among the treatments of coupling water and nitrogen of higher cotton yield, treatment medium nitrogen/high water had the higher cotton nitrogen recovery rate, nitrogen agronomic efficiency, and apparent use efficiency than the treatments high nitrogen/medium water and high nitrogen/high water, but no significant differences were observed in the nitrogen absorption ratio and nitrogen physiological efficiency. Treatment medium nitrogen/high water was most beneficial to the coupling effects of water and nitrogen under partitioning alternate drip irrigation with plastic mulch and nitrogen fertilization.%设置高水(260 mm)、中水(200 mm)、低水(140 mm)3水平的灌水量和高氮(270 kg·hm-2)、中氮(180 kg·hm-2)

  12. Drying increases intracellular partitioning of amphiphilic substances into the lipid phase. Impact On membrane permeability and significance for desiccation tolerance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina; Hoekstra; Hemminga

    1998-11-01

    Previously we proposed that endogenous amphiphilic substances may partition from the aqueous cytoplasm into the lipid phase during dehydration of desiccation-tolerant organ(ism)s and vice versa during rehydration. Their perturbing presence in membranes could thus explain the transient leakage from imbibing organisms. To study the mechanism of this phenomenon, amphiphilic nitroxide spin probes were introduced into the pollen of a model organism, Typha latifolia, and their partitioning behavior during dehydration and rehydration was analyzed by electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy. In hydrated pollen the spin probes mainly occurred in the aqueous phase; during dehydration, however, the amphiphilic spin probes partitioned into the lipid phase and had disappeared from the aqueous phase below 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. During rehydration the probes reappeared in the aqueous phase above 0.4 g water g-1 dry weight. The partitioning back into the cytoplasm coincided with the decrease of the initially high plasma membrane permeability. A charged polar spin probe was trapped in the cytoplasm during drying. Liposome experiments showed that partitioning of an amphiphilic spin probe into the bilayer during dehydration caused transient leakage during rehydration. This was also observed with endogenous amphipaths that were extracted from pollen, implying similar partitioning behavior. In view of the fluidizing effect on membranes and the antioxidant properties of many endogenous amphipaths, we suggest that partitioning with drying may be pivotal to desiccation tolerance, despite the risk of imbibitional leakage.

  13. Role of Natural Organic Matter in Regulating the Partitioning of Fe(II, III) in Seawater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, L.; Chen, M.; Roberts, K.; Santschi, P. H.

    2008-12-01

    Iron (Fe) is an essential micronutrient and plays an important role in controlling ocean productivity and carbon cycling. Fe has been shown to be mostly complexed with dissolved organic matter in seawater. However, the interaction of Fe with natural organic matter and how the quality and quantity of organic matter affect the chemical speciation of Fe in seawater remain poorly understood. Controlled laboratory experiments have been conducted to examine the partitioning of Fe(II, III) between dissolved, colloidal and particulate phases using radiotracers, model organic compounds, and ultrafiltration. In natural seawater, Fe is mostly partitioned in the colloidal and particulate phases, resulting in a logKd value of 7.3 and a logKc of 6.1, respectively. On average, about 25% of dissolved Fe-55 was found in the complexation of Fe with DOM could depress the bioavailability of Fe in seawater, the resultant Fe reduction may significantly enhance its solubility and bioavailability to marine organisms.

  14. [Dry matter losses in mushroom (Lactarius rufus) by blanching].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurkela, R; Holmström, B

    1976-01-01

    According to recommended international standards edible fungi are blanched before salting and freezing. A study was conducted on the solution losses of Lactarius rufus due to blanching. Weight losses, changes of dry matter, raw fat, total nitrogen, amino nitrogen and ash contents as well as the pH value were determined when various methods of blanching were used. 3 min blanching at 95-100 degrees C was able to inactivate catalase and peroxydase while 6 min blanching was needed for inactivating polyphenoloxydase totally. After blanching there were 1/10 - 1/100 of spores left. During the 3 min blanching in water five times the quantity of mushrooms the losses of dry matter were about 10%; when doubling the quantity of blanching water the losses increased to 2-3 fold. The doubling of blanching time had no significant influence on the losses. The soluble dry matter content of blanched mushrooms was less than 50% of that of the fresh. Total nitrogen of fresh mushrooms was equal to that of the blanched but the amino nitrogen decreased to one tenth by blanching. The mineral element content of blanched mushrooms was about the half of that of the fresh. Blanching caused a slight decrease in the pH value. The necessity of the blanching of all edible fungi before freezing was discussed.

  15. Partitioning of ice nucleating particles: Which modes matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hande, Luke; Hoose, Corinna

    2017-04-01

    Ice particles in clouds have a large impact on cloud lifetime, precipitation amount, and cloud radiative properties through the indirect aerosol effect. Thus, correctly modelling ice formation processes is important for simulations preformed on all spatial and temporal scales. Ice forms on aerosol particles through several different mechanisms, namely deposition nucleation, immersion freezing, and contact freezing. However there is conflicting evidence as to which mode dominates, and the relative importance of the three heterogeneous ice nucleation mechanisms, as well as homogeneous nucleation, remains an open question. The environmental conditions, and hence the cloud type, have a large impact on determining which nucleation mode dominates. In order to understand this, simulations were performed with the COSMO-LES model, utilising state of the art parameterisations to describe the different nucleation mechanisms for several semi-idealised cloud types commonly occurring over central Europe. The cloud types investigated include a semi-idealised, and an idealised convective cloud, an orographic cloud, and a stratiform cloud. Results show that immersion and contact freezing dominate at warmer temperatures, and under most conditions, deposition nucleation plays only a minor role. In clouds where sufficiently high levels of water vapour are present at colder temperatures, deposition nucleation can play a role, however in general homogeneous nucleation dominates at colder temperatures. Since contact nucleation depends on the environmental relative humidity, enhancements in this nucleation mode can be seen in areas of dry air entrainment. The results indicate that ice microphysical processes are somewhat sensitve to the environmental conditions and therefore the cloud type.

  16. PAHs and organic matter partitioning and mass transfer from coal tar particles to water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benhabib, Karim; Simonnot, Marie-Odile; Sardin, Michel

    2006-10-01

    The coal tar found in contaminated soils of former manufactured gas plants and coking plants acts as a long-term source of PAHs. Organic carbon and PAH transfer from coal tar particles to water was investigated with closed-looped laboratory column experiments run at various particle sizes and temperatures. Two models were derived. The first one represented the extraction process at equilibrium and was based on a linear partitioning of TOC and PAHs between coal tar and water. The partition coefficient was derived as well as the mass of extractable organic matter in the particles. The second model dealt with mass transfer. Particle diffusion was the limiting step; organic matter diffusivity in the coal tar was then computed in the different conditions. A good consistency was obtained between experimental and computed results. Hence, the modeling of PAH migration in contaminated soils at the field scale requires taking into account coal tar as the source-term for PAH release.

  17. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  18. Cavitation in drying droplets of soft matter solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanlong; Doi, Masao; Ouyang, Zhongcan

    2014-08-29

    When a droplet of a soft matter solution is dried, cavities are often formed in the droplet, giving a hollow sphere in the end. A theoretical model is given for this phenomenon. It is shown that the formation of a gel-like layer (skin layer), which has a finite shear modulus, is essential for the phenomenon to take place. The condition for cavity formation (how it depends on the shear modulus and thickness of the skin layer), and the variation of the droplet volume and cavity volume after the cavity formation are examined.

  19. FEEDING VALUE OF GRASS SILAGES BASED ON DRY MATTER CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Total of 477 grass silage samples of different origin and quality were analysed by NIR spectroscopy to determine crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF, digestible organic matter (OM in the dry matter (DM (D-value, metabolizable energy (ME, pH value and the ammonium nitrogen (NH3-N. According to DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample, the samples were divided into 8 classes: (1> 228; (2 229-313; (3 314-398; (4 399-483; (5 484-568; (6 569-653; (7i 654-738; (8 0.005 in NDF and pH value. It was concluded that increased DM concentration in silage samples was not a result of –grass wilting before ensiling but of advanced grass maturity at harvest.

  20. Water source partitioning among trees growing on shallow karst soils in a seasonally dry tropical climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Querejeta, José Ignacio; Estrada-Medina, Héctor; Allen, Michael F; Jiménez-Osornio, Juan José

    2007-05-01

    The sources of water used by woody vegetation growing on karst soils in seasonally dry tropical regions are little known. In northern Yucatan (Mexico), trees withstand 4-6 months of annual drought in spite of the small water storage capacity of the shallow karst soil. We hypothesized that adult evergreen trees in Yucatan tap the aquifer for a reliable supply of water during the prolonged dry season. The naturally occurring concentration gradients in oxygen and hydrogen stable isotopes in soil, bedrock, groundwater and plant stem water were used to determine the sources of water used by native evergreen and drought-deciduous tree species. While the trees studied grew over a permanent water table (9-20 m depth), pit excavation showed that roots were largely restricted to the upper 2 m of the soil/bedrock profile. At the peak of the dry season, the delta(18)O signatures of potential water sources for the vegetation ranged from 4.1 +/- 1.1 per thousand in topsoil to -4.3 +/- 0.1 per thousand in groundwater. The delta(18)O values of tree stem water ranged from -2.8 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Talisia olivaeformis to 0.8 +/- 1 per thousand in Ficus cotinifolia, demonstrating vertical partitioning of soil/bedrock water among tree species. Stem water delta(18)O values were significantly different from that of groundwater for all the tree species investigated. Stem water samples plotted to the right of the meteoric water line, indicating utilization of water sources subject to evaporative isotopic enrichment. Foliar delta(13)C in adult trees varied widely among species, ranging from -25.3 +/- 0.3 per thousand in Enterolobium cyclocarpum to -28.7 +/- 0.4 per thousand in T. olivaeformis. Contrary to initial expectations, data indicate that native trees growing on shallow karst soils in northern Yucatan use little or no groundwater and depend mostly on water stored within the upper 2-3 m of the soil/bedrock profile. Water storage in subsurface soil-filled cavities and in the

  1. Distribuição da matéria seca e composição química das raízes, caule e folhas de goiabeira submetida a estresse salino Dry matter partitioning and mineral composition of roots, stems and leaves of guava grown under salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Gonçalves Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajavaL. a diferentes concentrações de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, com 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150 mM de NaCl, e colhidas com 30 e 50 dias após estresse, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinadas: matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea; e porcentagens de Na, Cl, K, Ca e Mg nas raízes, caule e folhas. O estresse salino reduziu a matéria seca total, e a relação parte aérea/raiz foi reduzida. O estresse causou um aumento nos níveis dos íons Na+ e Cl-, com maior acúmulo nas folhas, seguido das raízes. Os teores de Ca foram estáveis nas raízes, mas decresceram no caule e folhas. Os teores de K foram reduzidos, particularmente nas folhas. Ao contrário, os teores de Mg não foram afetados pela salinidade no caule e nas raízes, havendo, entretanto, redução nas folhas. O teor de Na apresentou relação direta com o de Cl e inversa com o de K nas raízes e folhas. O teor de Ca não variou com o de Na nas folhas, mas apresentou uma relação inversa nas raízes. O teor de Mg não variou com o de Na nas raízes e folhas.A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of studying the response of guava plants (Psidium guajavaL. to increasing levels of NaCl concentrations. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mM of NaCl, and harvested 30 and 50 days after saline stress in a complete randomized design. The following traits were studied: shoot, root and total plant dry matter and the percentage of Na, Cl, K, Ca and Mg in plant dry matter. Dry matter yield decreased when salinity increased. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the saline treatment. Salinity stress caused an increase in the levels of Na+ and Cl-. The highest ion accumulation was found in the leaves followed by the roots. The Ca levels were stable in the roots

  2. Membrane behavior as influenced by partitioning of amphiphiles during drying: a comparative study in anhydrobiotic plant systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golovina, Elena A; Hoekstra, Folkert A

    2002-03-01

    During cellular desiccation, reduction in volume can in principle cause amphiphilic compounds to partition from the cytoplasm into membranes, with structural perturbance as the result. Here, we studied the effect of partitioning of endogenous amphiphiles on membrane surface dynamics in desiccation-tolerant and -intolerant, higher and lower plant systems, using electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spin probe techniques. Labeling cells with the amphiphilic spin probe perdeuterated TEMPONE (PDT) enabled partitioning into the various phases to be followed. During drying, PDT molecules preferentially partitioned from the aqueous cytoplasm into the membrane surface and, at advanced stages of water loss, also into oil bodies. There was no specific partition behavior that could be correlated with lower/higher plants or with desiccation-tolerance. In vivo labeling with 5-doxylstearate (5-DS) enabled membrane surface fluidity to be characterized. In hydrated plants, the 5-DS spectra contained an immobile and a fluid component. The characteristics of the immobile component could not be specifically correlated with either lower or higher plants, or with desiccation tolerance. The relative contribution of the fluid component to the 5-DS spectra was higher in lower plants than in higher plants, but considerably decreased with drying in all desiccation-tolerant organisms. In contrast, the proportion of the fluid component in desiccation-sensitive wheat seedling root was higher than that in desiccation-tolerant wheat axis and considerably increased at the onset of water loss. We suggest that partitioning of amphipaths fluidize the membrane surface, but that in desiccation-tolerant systems the membranes are protected from excessive fluidization.

  3. Phase partitioning and solubility of iron in natural seawater controlled by dissolved organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Min; Wang, Wen-Xiong; Guo, Laodong

    2004-12-01

    The phase partitioning and solubility of Fe as well as its relationship with marine dissolved organic matter (DOM) in different natural seawater and phytoplankton cultures were examined using radiotracer and ultrafiltration techniques to better understand Fe biogeochemical cycling and its biological availability in the ocean. Fe solubility in seawaters was related to the filter's cutoff, with the Fe solubility in the Complexation of organic ligands with Fe appeared to be Fe-specific or Fe preferential. Our results highlight quantitatively the importance of DOM in controlling Fe solubility in seawater. Further studies are needed to elucidate the interrelationship between the biogeochemical cycles of Fe and the chemistry of DOM in the ocean.

  4. Microstructure and textural and viscoelastic properties of model processed cheese with different dry matter and fat in dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Černíková, Michaela; Nebesářová, Jana; Salek, Richardos Nikolaos; Řiháčková, Lada; Buňka, František

    2017-04-05

    The aim of this work was to examine the effect of a different dry matter (DM) contents (35 and 45% wt/wt) and fat in DM contents (40 and 50% wt/wt) on the textural and viscoelastic properties and microstructure of model processed cheeses made from real ingredients regularly used in the dairy industry. A constant DM content and constant fat in DM content were kept throughout the whole study. Apart from the basic chemical parameters, textural and viscoelastic properties of the model samples were measured and scanning electron microscopy was carried out. With increasing DM content, the rigidity of the products increased and the size of the fat globules in the model samples of the processed cheeses decreased. With increasing fat in DM content, the rigidity of the processed cheeses decreased and the size of the fat globules increased.

  5. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of lichens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Torstein H. Garmo

    1986-06-01

    Full Text Available The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of 45 samples of different species of lichen are reported. Mean content (g/100 g dry matter of the main nutrients was: crude protein 4.2, crude fat 3.2, crude fibre 16.6, ash 1.9, Ca 0.15, P 0.09, Mg 0.05, K 0.13, Na 0.035, S 0.07. The content of microminerals (mg/kg dry matter was: Cu 2.5, Mo 0.11, Zn 27.2, Se 0.12, Fe 898, Mn 154. The mean in vitro dry matter digestibility was 35%. However, the in vitro method do underestimate the dry matter digestibility of lichens. Stereocaulon spp. showed higher levels of crude protein, P, S, Cu and Mo than Cetraria spp. and Cladonia spp. Cetraria nivalis showed higher digestibility and contained more NFE, ash, Ca, Mg, but less crude fibre than Cladonia stellaris. Lichens contained less amounts of most nutrients compared with grasses (Fig. 1, exept for crude fat, NFE, Se and Fe.Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av lav.Abstract in Norwegian / Samandrag: Kjemisk innhald og in vitro fordøyelsesgrad av tørrstoffet er bestemt i 45 prøver av beitelav frå to stader i Sør-Noreg. Middel innhald (g/100g tørrstoff av følgjande næringsstoff var: protein 4.2, feitt 3.2, trevlar 16.6, oske 1.9, kalsium 0.15, fosfor 0.09, magnesium 0.05, kalium 0.13, natrium 0.035, svovel 0.07. Innhaldet (mg/kg tørrstoff av mikronæringsstoffa var: kopar 2.5, molybden 0.11, sink 27.2, selen 0.12, jern 898 og mangan 154. Den midlare fordøyelsesgraden av tørrstoffet i lav-prøvene var 35%, men in vitro fordøyelsesanalyser undervurderer fordøyelsesgraden av lav. Det var ein stor variasjon mellom dei ulike lavartane for dei fleste næringsstoffa og fordøyelsesgraden. Stereocaulon spp. inneheldt meir protein, fosfor, svovel, kopar og molybden enn Cetraria spp. og Cladonia spp. Gulskinn hadde høgare fordøyelsesgrad, og innehaldet av NFE, oske, kalsium og magnesium var høgre enn i kvitkrull, medan trevleinnhaldet var størst i kvitkrull. Lav inneheldt

  6. Comparisons of methods for in vitro dry matter digestibility of ruminant feeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brons, E.; Plaizier, J.C.

    2005-01-01

    Apparent in vitro dry matter digestibilities of selected ruminant feeds were determined with the DAISYII incubator (ADD, ANKOM Technology Corp., Macedon, NY) and the Tilley and Terry technique (ADTT). True in vitro dry matter digestibility was also determined with the DAISYII incubator (TDD). The AD

  7. Changes in dissolved organic matter during stream drying and rewetting

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Schiller, D.; Acuña, V.; Graeber, D.; Martí, E.; Ribot, M.; Sabater, S.; Timoner, X.; Tockner, K.

    2012-04-01

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a complex mixture of organic compounds, which represents an essential source of carbon (C) and nutrients in aquatic ecosystems. In addition, DOM can play a key ecological role by modifying the optical properties of waters, mediating the availability of metals and influencing trophic food web structure. While the effects of drying and rewetting on DOM dynamics in terrestrial soils is a well studied subject, less is known about its effects in aquatic ecosystems, especially in streams. This is an important gap of knowledge since temporary streams that naturally cease to flow are found worldwide. Moreover, many streams with perennial flow are currently facing flow intermittency due to the effects of water extraction or changes in land-use and climate. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of stream flow intermittency on the spatial and temporal variability of DOM. The study was performed in a 300-m long reach of the Fuirosos stream (Catalonia, NE Spain) during the drying (June to July) and rewetting (October to November) phases. We sampled at several points along the study reach every 3 to 4 days. We assessed DOM amount by measuring the concentration of dissolved organic C and nitrogen (N). We characterized DOM composition using spectroscopic measurements, size-exclusion chromatography and C:N stoichiometry. Results showed two markedly distinct biogeochemical shifts between the drying and the rewetting phases. During the transition from continuous to fragmented flow we observed an increase in the magnitude and spatial variability of DOM concentrations and DOM was dominated by compounds from aquatic origin. After flow recovery, we also observed a pronounced increase in DOM concentration, but during this hydrologic phase DOM was dominated by compounds of terrestrial origin. Taken together, these results emphasize the relevance of flow intermittency in regulating stream DOM dynamics not only in terms of its availability but

  8. Fruit dry matter concentration: a new quality metric for apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, John W; Harker, F Roger; Tustin, D Stuart; Johnston, Jason

    2010-12-01

    In the fresh apple market fruit must be crisp and juicy to attract buyers to purchase again. However, recent studies have shown that consumer acceptability could be further enhanced by improving taste. This study evaluates the use of fruit dry matter concentration (DMC) as a new fruit quality metric for apple. Fruit samples collected at harvest, in the two main fruit growing regions of New Zealand, showed a variation in mean fruit DMC from 130 to 156 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and with 'Scifresh' from 152 to 176 g kg(-1). Individual fruit DMC showed a larger range, from 108 to 189 g kg(-1) with 'Royal Gala' and from 125 to 201 g kg(-1) with 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC proved a more reliable predictor of total soluble solids after 12 weeks of air storage at 0.5 °C than TSS at harvest for both 'Royal Gala' and 'Scifresh'. Fruit DMC was also positively related to flesh firmness, although this relationship was not as strong as that seen with soluble solids and was more dependent on cultivar. Consumer studies showed that consumer preference was positively related to fruit DMC of 'Royal Gala' apples. Fruit DMC can therefore be measured before or at harvest, and be used to predict the sensory potential for the fruit after storage. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. PCDD/F and PCB water column partitioning examination using natural organic matter and black carbon partition coefficient models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Howell, Nathan L; Rifai, Hanadi S

    2016-04-01

    A 9-year water dataset from the Houston Ship Channel (HSC) was analyzed to understand partitioning in polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Total PCBs had more mass as dissolved (74%) whereas total PCDD/Fs did not (11%). Generally, the limited number of PCDD/Fs (only 2378 substituted) explained these differences though differences in chemical behavior beyond log K ow also likely influence partitioning. The particular fractionation seen in the HSC also seemed related to a wide variation in particulate organic carbon (POC)/dissolved organic carbon (DOC) ratio (0.42-180%). Published and unaltered linear free energy and linear solvation energy relationships for DOC, POC, and particulate black carbon (BC) resulted in predictions that were at best 27% (PCB) and 25% root-mean-square error (RMSE) (PCDD/F) partition fraction compared to observed (using estimated BC/POC fractions of 10 and 25%, respectively). These results show, at least in light of the uncertainties in this data (e.g., precise fraction of BC), that a 25% accuracy in model prediction of operationally dissolved or suspended fraction for any one PCB or PCDD/F congener is the best prediction that may be expected. It is therefore recommended that site-specific data be used to calibrate most any water column-partitioning model if it is to be expected to describe what actually occurs in field conditions.

  10. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  11. Predicting shifts in rainfall-runoff partitioning during multiyear drought: Roles of dry period and catchment characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saft, Margarita; Peel, Murray C.; Western, Andrew W.; Zhang, Lu

    2016-12-01

    While the majority of hydrological prediction methods assume that observed interannual variability explores the full range of catchment response dynamics, recent cases of prolonged climate drying suggest otherwise. During the ˜decade-long Millennium drought in south-eastern Australia significant shifts in hydrologic behavior were reported. Catchment rainfall-runoff partitioning changed from what was previously encountered during shorter droughts, with significantly less runoff than expected occurring in many catchments. In this article, we investigate the variability in the magnitude of shift in rainfall-runoff partitioning observed during the Millennium drought. We re-evaluate a large range of factors suggested to be responsible for the additional runoff reductions. Our results suggest that the shifts were mostly influenced by catchment characteristics related to predrought climate (aridity index and rainfall seasonality) and soil and groundwater storage dynamics (predrought interannual variability of groundwater storage and mean solum thickness). The shifts were amplified by seasonal rainfall changes during the drought (spring rainfall deficits). We discuss the physical mechanisms that are likely to be associated with these factors. Our results confirm that shifts in the annual rainfall-runoff relationship represent changes in internal catchment functioning, and emphasize the importance of cumulative multiyear changes in the catchment storage for runoff generation. Prolonged drying in some regions can be expected in the future, and our results provide an indication of which catchments characteristics are associated with catchments more susceptible to a shift in their runoff response behavior.

  12. Modelling moisture content and dry matter loss during storage of logging residues for energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Filbakk, Tore; Hoeiboe, Olav Albert (Dept. of Ecology and Natural Resource Management, Norwegian Univ. of Life Sciences, Aas (Norway)); Dibdiakova, Janka (Norwegian Forest and Landscape Inst., Aas (Norway)); Nurmi, Juha (Finnish Forest Research Inst., Kannus (Finland))

    2011-04-15

    To achieve optimal utilisation of logging residues for energy, it is important to know how different handling and storage methods affect fuel properties. The aim of this study was to model how the moisture content and dry matter losses of logging residues develop during storage. Logging residues were collected from five different stands of spruce and pine during different seasons of the year and stored in the same location. The logging residues were stored in covered piles of bundled residues and loose residues. Only minor differences were found in the moisture content profiles between piles of bundles and loose residues. Logging residues located in the centre of both types of piles had considerably lower moisture content than the outer parts. The moisture content significantly affected dry matter loss, with the highest dry matter losses being found in the samples with the least favourable drying conditions. The dry matter losses varied between 1 and 3% per month. Significantly higher dry matter losses were found in the spruce bundles than in the pine bundles. Seasoned logging residues had the lowest dry matter loss, while the logging residues harvested and piled in the autumn had the highest loss

  13. Effects of irrigation regimes and polymer on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    mansour

    2013-12-18

    Dec 18, 2013 ... Key words: Dry matter yield, forage sorghum, irrigation level, superabsorbent polymer. ... The leaf area index (LAI) of the crop at a particular growth stage ... physical and chemical properties of the soil are presented in Table. 1.

  14. Tympanoplasty: does dry or wet temporalis fascia graft matter?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, G B; Kumar, D; Aggarwal, K; Garg, S; Arora, R; Kumar, S

    2016-08-01

    To evaluate the success rate of dry and wet temporalis fascia grafts in type I underlay tympanoplasty. A prospective, randomised study was conducted. One hundred adult patients (males and females) with chronic suppurative otitis media (mucosal type) were divided into 2 groups of 50 each: one group underwent dry graft tympanoplasty and the other underwent wet graft tympanoplasty. Fibroblast count was calculated in dry and wet grafts. The dry graft and wet graft groups had overall surgical success rates of 82 and 90 per cent, respectively; this finding was not statistically significant. A statistically significant high fibroblast count was observed in wet grafts, but it did not correlate with surgical success. A dry or wet temporalis fascia graft does not influence the outcome of tympanoplasty type I.

  15. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  16. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    OpenAIRE

    2008-01-01

    This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola) grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil) as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha) of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphor...

  17. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total dissolve

  18. Doses de N e K no tomateiro sob estresse salino: II. Crescimento e partição de matéria seca Doses of N and K in tomato under saline stress: II. Plant development and dry matter partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio F. Blanco

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available A presença de certos nutrientes na solução do solo pode estimular o crescimento de plantas quando cultivadas sob estresse salino. Desenvolveu-se um estudo para avaliar a resposta do tomateiro, híbrido Facundo, a diferentes doses de N e K, sob irrigação com água salina. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em um ambiente protegido e os tratamentos se compunham da combinação de três doses de N (7,5; 15,0 e 22,5 g por planta e três doses de K (8, 16 e 24 gK2O por planta aplicados via fertirrigação por gotejamento, no esquema fatorial 3 x 3, com cinco repetições sendo que, à água de irrigação, também foram adicionados os sais cloreto de sódio e cloreto de cálcio para obtenção de condutividade elétrica da água de 9,5 dS m-1. A altura, o diâmetro da haste, a área foliar e o número de dias para o florescimento, não foram afetados pelas doses de N e K, havendo efeito das doses de K para matéria seca de haste+cachos e matéria seca total dentro das doses mais baixas de N. Concluiu-se que a aplicação de doses elevadas de N e K não contribuiu para o aumento da tolerância do tomateiro à salinidade.The presence of certain nutrients in soil solution can stimulate the growth of plants when cultivated under saline stress. A study was conducted to evaluate the response of tomato (hybrid Facundo to different doses of N and K under irrigation with saline water. The work was carried out in a greenhouse and the treatments consisted of the combination of three levels of N (7.5, 15.0 and 22.5 g per plant and three levels of K (8, 16 and 24 g K2O per plant applied by drip fertigation, in a 3 x 3 factorial scheme, with five replications. The salts sodium chloride and calcium chloride were also added to irrigation water for obtaining an electrical conductivity of the water of 9.5 dS m-1. Plant height, stem diameter, leaf area and the number of days for flowering were not affected by the levels of N and K, the levels of K affected the dry mass

  19. Influence of Acidification on the Partitioning of Steroid Hormones among Filtrate, Filter Media, and Retained Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Sonya M; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Mieritz, Mark G; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J

    2016-09-01

    Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid-preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples. The samples were filtered, and hormones were extracted from the filter and filtrate and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acidification did not influence the partitioning of hormones onto the filter media. For the majority of the hormones investigated in this study, the partitioning of hormones to the filter-retained particulate matter was not influenced by acidification. Acidification increased the partitioning of progesterone and melengestrol acetate onto the retained particulate matter (about 25% for both analytes). Incorporation of an isotopically labeled internal standard (ISTD) for progesterone accounted for the loss of progesterone to the filter-retained particulates and resulted in accurate concentrations of progesterone in the filtrate. The incorporation of an ISTD for melengestrol acetate, however, was unable to account for the loss of melengestrol acetate to the retained particulates and resulted in underestimations of melengestrol acetate in the filtrate. Our results indicate that the analysis of melengestrol acetate in acid preserved surface runoff samples should be conducted on the filter-retained particulates as well as the filtrate.

  20. Production response of lactating cows fed dried versus wet brewers' grain in diets with similar dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhiman, T R; Bingham, H R; Radloff, H D

    2003-09-01

    Twenty-four Holstein-Friesian dairy cows (20 intact and 4 fitted with rumen cannula) during early lactation (56 +/- 25.3 d in milk) were assigned to two treatments to determine intake and production responses to feeding dried and wet brewers' grain. There were two cows fitted with a rumen cannula in each treatment. Cows were fed a total mixed ration twice daily containing either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of the dietary dry matter (DM). The diet contained 47% forage and 53% concentrate. The experimental design was a replicated 2 x 2 Latin square with two periods of 5 wk each. First 2 wk in each period were considered as adaptation to diets and data from the last 3 wk were used for treatment comparisons. Dried and wet brewers' diets contained 68.0 and 66.5% DM, respectively. Feeding brewers' grain dry or wet to dairy cows had no influence on feed intake (25.6 vs. 25.1 kg/d), fat corrected milk yield (40.1 vs. 40.7 kg/d), milk composition and feed consumption. The pH, ammonia, total volatile fatty acids and molar ratios of volatile fatty acids in the rumen fluid were not different between treatments. Fatty acid composition of milk fat from cows fed diets containing dry or wet brewers' grain was identical, except C18:2 and C18:3 fatty acids were lower in milk fat from cows fed wet brewers' grain compared with dried brewers' grain. The results from the present study suggest that the performance of cows fed either dried or wet brewers' grain at 15% of dietary DM was similar when diets had the same DM. The average price for dried and wet brewers' grain in the United States from July 2001 to June 2002 was dollars 145.3 and dollars 96.9/metric tonne DM, respectively. Using wet instead of dried brewers' grain will save dollars 49/metric tonne minus the difference in storage costs. Wet brewers' grain can be fed to dairy cows in areas that are close to the brewery and provides nutritive value similar to the dried brewers' grain.

  1. Dry matter yield of improved alpine grasslands depending on climate conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vasile Mocanu

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Climate conditions in any land area have a direct influence on the productivity level of natural ecosystems and agroecosystems. To assess the yield per area unit, we took into account the amounts of dry matter depending on temperature (10C and precipitations (1 mm during vegetation. During the experimental period, the mean annual temperature during vegetation was 9430C, with variations between 7750C (1997 and 1,1750C (2012. This multiannual variation of the thermal constant also influenced the level of dry matter yield per 10C, which ranged between 2.14 kg DM/10C and 9.08 kg DM/10C. As for the amounts of precipitations, dry matter yield varied between 6.02 kg DM/1 mm (2002 and 29.11 kg DM/1 mm (2003.

  2. Plant water resource partitioning and isotopic fractionation during transpiration in a seasonally dry tropical climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Wispelaere, Lien; Bodé, Samuel; Hervé-Fernández, Pedro; Hemp, Andreas; Verschuren, Dirk; Boeckx, Pascal

    2017-01-01

    Lake Chala (3°19' S, 37°42' E) is a steep-sided crater lake situated in equatorial East Africa, a tropical semiarid area with a bimodal rainfall pattern. Plants in this region are exposed to a prolonged dry season, and we investigated if (1) these plants show spatial variability and temporal shifts in their water source use; (2) seasonal differences in the isotopic composition of precipitation are reflected in xylem water; and (3) plant family, growth form, leaf phenology, habitat and season influence the xylem-to-leaf water deuterium enrichment. In this study, the δ2H and δ18O of precipitation, lake water, groundwater, plant xylem water and plant leaf water were measured across different plant species, seasons and plant habitats in the vicinity of Lake Chala. We found that plants rely mostly on water from the short rains falling from October to December (northeastern monsoon), as these recharge the soil after the long dry season. This plant-available, static water pool is only slightly replenished by the long rains falling from February to May (southeastern monsoon), in agreement with the two water worlds hypothesis, according to which plants rely on a static water pool while a mobile water pool recharges the groundwater. Spatial variability in water resource use exists in the study region, with plants at the lakeshore relying on a water source admixed with lake water. Leaf phenology does not affect water resource use. According to our results, plant species and their associated leaf phenology are the primary factors influencing the enrichment in deuterium from xylem water to leaf water (ɛl/x), with deciduous species giving the highest enrichment, while growth form and season have negligible effects. Our observations have important implications for the interpretation of δ2H of plant leaf wax n-alkanes (δ2Hwax) from paleohydrological records in tropical East Africa, given that the temporal variability in the isotopic composition of precipitation is not

  3. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  4. Enzymatic Hydrolysis of biomasses having a high dry matter (DM) content

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2010-01-01

    The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring that the bio......The present invention relates to a process for liquefaction and saccharification of polysaccharide containing biomasses, having a relatively high dry matter content. The present invention combines enzymatic hydrolysis with a type of mixing relying on the principle of gravity ensuring...

  5. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased...

  6. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen;

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6...

  7. Effect of polymer and irrigation regimes on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ajl2

    2012-06-14

    Jun 14, 2012 ... The experimental design was a split-plot with two factors including four irrigation ... Key words: Dry matter yield, forage sorghum, growth analysis, ... one of the fundamental resources for the vital processes ... reduction of cell growth, cell wall synthesis, protein ... Some physical and chemical properties of.

  8. Effect of storage period and chemical treatment on sunflower parents lines seedling dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available In modern agricultural production, high quality seed which germinates quickly and evenly in different environments is the main requirement for high yields. The research was carried out in the Laboratory for Seed Testing in Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops in Novi Sad. Two cytoplasmic male sterile lines L-1 and L-2 were used for the research. Seed treatments with fungicides (benomil, metalaxyl and fludioxonil and insecticides (tiametoxam and imidacloprid were applied to evaluate effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedlings dry matter content. This treated seed was kept in a storage facility where all commercial seed is stored. The first assessment was done after the treatments and had been repeated every three months. Analysis of variance of the tested parameters showed statistically significant effects of chemical treatments and storage duration on seedling dry matter content in L-1 line. In line L-2, statistically significant effect of chemical treatment on seedling dry matter content was observed, whereas the effect of storage duration on seedlings dry matter content was highly significant. Double interactions were highly significant. .

  9. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  10. Factors associated with the allocation of carbohydrates to bunch dry matter production in oil palm.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Breure, C.J.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis reports on the factors relevant to the allocation of assimilates to oil palm bunch dry matter (DM) production, based on an extensive set of growth and yield records from experiments in Papua New Guinea and Malaysia.Basically, assimilates from gross assimilation of the canopy are first us

  11. Dry matter and macronutrient accumulation in fruits of Conilon coffee with different ripening cycles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fábio Luiz Partelli

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The period between anthesis and fruit ripening varies according to the Conilon coffee (Coffea canephora genotype. Therefore, the time of the nutritional requirements for fruit formation may differ, depending on the formation phase and the genotype, and may directly affect split application of fertilizer. The aim of this study was to quantify the accumulation of dry matter and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S at several stages in the fruit of the Conilon coffee genotype with different ripening cycles, which may suggest the need for split application of fertilizer in coffee. The experiment was carried out in the municipality of Nova Venecia, Espírito Santo, Brazil, throughout the reproductive cycle. The treatments were composed of four coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles. A completely randomised experimental design was used. with five replicates. Plagiotropic branches were harvested from flowering to fruit ripening at 28-day intervals to determine the dry matter of the fruits and the concentration and accumulation of the nutrients they contained. The behavior of dry matter and macronutrient accumulation during the study period was similar and increasing, but it differed among genotypes sampled in the same season. Early genotypes exhibited a higher speed of dry matter and nutrient accumulation. Split application of fertilizer should differ among coffee genotypes with different ripening cycles (early, intermediate, late and very late.

  12. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  13. Establishment of ANEDr model for evaluating absorbed-nitrogen effects on wheat dry matter production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Jiao; TAO Hong-bin; LIAO Shu-hua; WANG Pu

    2016-01-01

    Applying mathematic models to evaluate absorbed-N effects on dry matter production at different developmental stages would help determine proper nitrogen management according to crop demands and yield target. Two ifeld trials were car-ried out for establishing absorbed-N effects on dry matter production (ANEDr) model, using uniform design in 2010–2011 and 2012–2013 winter wheat growing seasons in Hebei Province, China. Another ifeld trial was carried out in 2010–2011 for model validation. Dry matter and N concentration in leaf and non-leaf organs were measured at setting, jointing, an-thesis, and maturity. Theory of best linear unbiased prediction (BLUP) was applied to analyse the N effects of leaf and non-leaf organs on dry matter production. Within ANEDr model, four N-affected phases at each stage were concerned, leaf absorbed-N effect before this stage, non-leaf organ absorbed-N effect before this stage,leaf absorbed-N effect at this stage, and non-leaf organ absorbed-N effect at this stage. In addition, developmental processes, genotype characters and temperature were three factors that determine each N effect. It was demonstrated that ANEDr model can precisely quantify absorbed-N effects on dry matter production with high correlation coefifcient (r=0.95). Comparing with other models, ANEDr model considered both leaf and non-leaf organs according to developmental processes of winter wheat, showed higher lfexibility and simplicity, thus could be applied to different environments, cultivars and crops after parameter adjustment.

  14. Variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield in some maize hybrids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SHUKRI FETAHU

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine variation of physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, for six maize hybrids (MH, it was set up a field trial on randomized complete block design (RCDB, with three replications, with 6 MH: BC38W, BC408, ZP434, NSSC444, ESP500 and LUCE, during the years 2010 and 2011 (Y, at Experimental Farm (EF, Faculty of Agriculture and Veterinary in Prishtina, located in geographical position: N 42º 38'97" and E 21º 08'45" and 570 MASL. Growth rate, biomass and dry matter of maize performance are depending from specific characteristics: maize hybrids (MH, environmental condition (EC and cropping system (CS. Information on silage maize yield can help silage growers and users, to choose hybrids that best fit their needs. The physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, were conducted according to the formula: (MH-6 x Y-2 x P4 x R3 =144 combinations. Hybrid selection for a specific location, suitable for the agro-ecological condition is one of the essential principles for improving yield for silage or grain, without increasing of cost of maize production. Means results for evaluated maize hybrids and parameters were: Absolute growth rate (AGRµ=5.43, crop growth rate (CGRµ=30.98, total plant biomass (TPBµ=585.39 g plant-1 and total dry matter (TDMµ=22.52 ton ha-1.The aim of this study was to determine physiological growth indices, biomass and dry matter yield, in suitable agro-ecological conditions of Kosovo. The obtained results were with wide range variability and high significant differences between hybrids and years on the level P, lower than 0.01.

  15. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11–4.28 and 4.78–7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52–3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48–4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26–9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield. PMID:28174589

  16. Effects of Insect-Proof Net Cultivation, Rice-Duck Farming, and Organic Matter Return on Rice Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Xu, Guochun; Wang, Qiangsheng; Hang, Yuhao

    2017-01-01

    Insect-proof net cultivation (IPN), rice-duck farming (RD), and organic matter return (OM) are important methods to realize sustainable development of rice production. A split-plot field experiment was performed to study the effects of IPN, RD, and OM on the rice yield, dry matter accumulation and N utilization. Results showed that compared to inorganic N fertilizer (IN), wheat straw return, and biogas residue return increased the rice yield by 2.11-4.28 and 4.78-7.67%, respectively, and also improved dry matter and N accumulation after the elongation stage (EG), dry matter and N translocation, and N recovery efficiency (NRE). These results attributed to an increase in leaf SPAD values and net photosynthetic rate (Pn) after the EG. Compared to conventional rice farming (CR), RD promoted the rice yield by 1.52-3.74%, and contributed to higher the leaf photosynthesis, dry matter and N accumulation, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. IPN decreased the intensity of sun radiation in the nets due to the coverage of the insect-proof nets, which declined the leaf Pn, dry matter accumulation and translocation, N absorption and translocation, and NRE compared to open field cultivation (OFC). The rice yield of IPN were 2.48-4.98% lower than that of OFC. Compared to the interaction between CR and IN, the interaction between RD and OM improved the rice yield by 5.26-9.33%, and increased dry matter and N accumulation after the EG, dry matter and N translocation, and NRE. These results indicated that OM, RD and the interaction between RD and OM could promote dry matter accumulation and N utilization, which was beneficial to improve the rice yield.

  17. Membrane behavior as influenced by partitioning of amphiphiles during drying : a comparative study in anhydrobiotic plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    During cellular desiccation, reduction in volume can in principle cause amphiphilic compounds to partition from the cytoplasm into membranes, with structural perturbance as the result. Here, we studied the effect of partitioning of endogenous amphiphiles on membrane surface dynamics in desiccation-t

  18. Solute based Lagrangian scheme in modeling the drying process of soft matter solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Fanlong; Luo, Ling; Doi, Masao; Ouyang, Zhongcan

    2016-02-01

    We develop a new dynamical model to study the drying process of a droplet of soft matter solutions. The model includes the processes of solute diffusion, gel-layer formation and cavity creation. A new scheme is proposed to handle the diffusion dynamics taking place in such processes. In this scheme, the dynamics is described by the motion of material points taken on solute. It is convenient to apply this scheme to solve problems that involve moving boundaries and phase changes. As an example, we show results of a numerical calculation for a drying spherical droplet, and discuss how initial concentration and evaporation rate affect the structural evolution of the droplet.

  19. PALATABILITY AND DRY MATTER INTAKE BY SHEEP FED CORN STOVER TREATED WITH DIFFERENT NITROGEN SOURCES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. ALI, J. P. FONTENOT1 AND V. G. ALLEN2

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A trial was conducted to measure the dry matter intake by sheep fed basal and basal + corn stover treated with different nitrogen sources. The diets were: 1 basal, 2 basal + untreated corn stover, 3 basal + 3% NH3-treated stover, 4 basal + 50% poultry litter treated stover, 5 basal + 5.8% urea-treated stover, and 6 basal + 5.8% urea + 10% cattle waste-treated stover. Thirty-six crossbred (1/2 Dorset x ¼ Finn x ¼ Rambouillet wethers were assigned according to the initial body weight into six equal blocks and the sheep within blocks were randomly allotted to the experimental diets. The animals were kept in individual pens with free access to feed and water. Dry matter intake was higher (P<0.01 for sheep fed the basal diet compared to other diets. Intake was higher (P<0.05 for sheep fed NH3- and urea treated corn stover diets, compared to untreated stover. Similarly, the intake was higher (P<0.01 for sheep fed 3% NH3 treated corn stover than urea treated stovers. In conclusion, ammonia treatment of corn stover was more effective in enhancing the dry matter intake by sheep than those fed urea or poultry litter-treated diets. Addition of cattle waste in urea treated stover tended to improve the palatability of corn stover over urea treatment alone, but the difference was non significant. Similarly, the treatment of corn stover with poultry litter did not improve dry matter intake or palatability compared to untreated control.

  20. DETERMINATION OF WATER AND DRY MATTER IN ORNAMENTAL TREES UNDER THE CLIMATIC CONDITIONS OF IASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmen Lamban

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents some results concerning the determination of water and dry matter through the quantitative gravimetric method in ornamental trees (leaves and branches of Juniperus, Thuja, Chamaecyparis, Picea, Pinus, Abies, Pseudotzuga genera, under the climatic conditions of Iasi. The purpose of carrying on this work is to see if moisture of vegetative part remains under normal limits. The success of propagation, planting, transplanting of woody plants is largely dependant on the presence of water.

  1. Balance between salt stress and endogenous hormones influence dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Tianyun; Li, Lingling; Wu, Yawen; Chen, Manxia; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2016-10-15

    Salinity is one of the most serious environmental stresses limiting agricultural production. Production of Jerusalem artichoke on saline land is strategically important for using saline land resources. The interaction between plant hormones and salinity stress in governing Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) growth is unclear. Jerusalem artichoke (variety Nanyu-1) was grown under variable salinity stress in the field, and a role of endogenous hormones [zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA)] in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers was characterized. Under mild salt stress (≤2.2gNaClkg(-1) soil), Nanyu-1 grew well with no significant alteration of dry matter distribution to stems and tubers. In contrast, under moderate salt stress (2.7gNaClkg(-1) soil), the distribution to stem decreased and to tubers decreased significantly. Mild salt stress induced sugar accumulation in tubers at the beginning of the tuber-expansion period, but significantly inhibited (i) transfer of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (ii) polymerization and accumulation of fructan during the tuber-expansion stage. Under different salinity stress, before the stolon growth, the ratio of IAA/ABA in leaves increased significantly and that of GA3/ABA increased slightly; during tuber development, these ratios continued to decrease and reached the minimum late in the tuber-expansion period. While, salt stress inhibited (i) underground dry matter accumulation, (ii) tuber dry matter accumulation efficiency, (iii) transport of non-reducing sugars to tubers, and (iv) fructan accumulation efficiency during the tuber-expansion period; these effects were accompanied by significantly decreased tuber yield with an increase in salinity. With soil salinity increasing, the synthesis of IAA and GA3 was inhibited in leaves and tubers, while ABA synthesis was stimulated. In brief, tuber yield would significantly decreased with the increase of salinity.

  2. [Effects of plant polysaccharide compound agents on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter of soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Wen-Bo; Song, Ji-Qing; Guo, Jin-Yi; Liu, Xing-Hai; Li, Ji-Hui

    2012-07-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of foliar spraying three compound agents [plant polysaccharides (P1), plant polysaccharides and 5-aminolevulinic acid (P2), and plant polysaccharides and 5-aminolevulinic acid and dimethylpiperidinium chloride (P3)] at the initial flowering stage of soybean on its leaf chlorophyll content, photosynthesis and transpiration, dry matter accumulation and allocation, and grain yield. Within 35 days after spraying the three compound agents, the leaf chlorophyll content had obvious increase, and its decreasing trend with plant growth had somewhat delay. Compared with the control, spraying P1 and P3 increased the leaf photosynthetic rate and water use efficiency by more than 13.2% and 10.3%, respectively. With the spraying of the three compound agents, the dry matter accumulation in aerial part increased, and the allocation of dry matter from leaf to pod was also enhanced, with the contribution of post-anthesis assimilates to grain yield increased by more than 17.1%. The 100-grain mass and the pods and seeds per plant increased significantly after spraying P1 and P3, but had no significant increase after spraying P2. The grain yield of soybean treated with the three compound agents increased by more than 5.9%, compared with the control. This study showed that the three plant polysaccharide compound agents could increase the leaf chlorophyll content, delay the leaf-senescence, improve the leaf photosynthetic capacity and water status, effectively control the dry matter accumulation and post-anthesis assimilates allocation, and increase the grain yield of soybean.

  3. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  4. [Effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation characteristics and yield of soybean in maize-soybean intercropping systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Liang; Yang, Wen-yu; Huang, Ni; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Yan-ling; Wang, Xiao-hui; Liu, Yang; Yan, Shou

    2015-08-01

    In order to explore the effects of maize plant types on dry matter accumulation and yield of soybean, a field experiment was conducted in 2013, including three maize-soybean relay strip intercropping systems. The relay strip intercropping systems were designed as soybean (Gongxuan 1) intercropped with Denghai 605 (RI1), Chuandan 418 (RI2) or Yayu 13 ( RI3), and the monocultured soybean was used as control. The results demonstrated that the dry matter accumulation rates of intercropped soybean in RI2 and RI3 treatments were lower than in RI1 treatment, and the leaf, stem and pod dry matter accumulation of intercropped soybean in RI1 treatment was 17.6%, 16.5% and 13.7% higher than that in RI2 treatment, and 34.6%, 33.1% and 28.4% higher than that in RI3 treatment, respectively. The distribution proportion of leaf and stem of intercropped soybean was in the order of RI1 > RI2 > RI3. However, the trend of the distribution proportion of pod was opposite. Compared with RI2 and RI3, the dry matter translocation amount, translocation proportion, contribution proportion of soybean vegetative organs to pod of soybean were improved in RI, treatment, and the pod per plant, seeds per plant, seeds per pod, yield per plant and yield of soybean in RI, were higher than RI2 and RI3 by 6.8%, 11.5%, 4.4%, 15.9%, 15.6% and 14.3%, 22.2%, 6.7%, 33.4%, 36.8%, respectively. The results showed that the yield was positively related with the accumulation rate of dry matter, dry matter translocation, dry matter translocation ratio and the contribution of dry matter accumulation, and these indices were highest in RI treatment. The results indicated that the compact maize relay intercropped with soybean could effectively regulate the dry matter accumulation, translocation and distribution, and improve the yield of soybean.

  5. Modeling water column partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls to natural organic matter and black carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Richard W; Di Toro, Dominic M; Farley, Kevin J; Phillips, Kathy L; Tomey, Cynthia

    2013-06-18

    High volume in situ surface water samples were collected from a tidal tributary of the Delaware Estuary using an Infiltrex sampling system equipped with a 1 μm particle filter and a XAD-2 resin column. Particulate and dissolved phase polychlorinated biphenyl (PCB) congeners were analyzed using high resolution gas chromatography/high resolution mass spectrometry to obtain detection levels in the femtograms per liter range. The data were fit to a four-phase equilibrium partitioning model including freely dissolved PCB, PCB bound to particulate organic carbon (POC), PCB bound to dissolved organic carbon (DOC), and PCB bound to black carbon (BC). Isotherms were assumed to be linear for POC and DOC and nonlinear for BC. The partition coefficient between BC and dissolved PCB was assumed to depend on the dihedral angle between the phenyl rings. Following parameter optimization, the correlation coefficient between the log of the modeled and measured apparent distribution coefficient Kp,app was 0.94, and the RMSE was 0.189 log units. Including BC in the model reduces the dissolved PCB phase concentration in the water column for all congeners, especially for the non-ortho and mono-ortho substituted congeners.

  6. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  7. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Masoni

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  8. [A simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yong-Yi; Li, Gang; An, Dong-Sheng; Luo, Wei-Hong

    2012-04-01

    Dry matter allocation and translocation is the base of the formation of appearance quality of ornamental plants, and strongly affected by water supply. Taking cut lily cultivar 'Sorbonne' as test material, a culture experiment of different planting dates and water supply levels was conducted in a multi-span greenhouse in Nanjing from March 2009 to January 2010 to quantitatively analyze the seasonal changes of the dry matter allocation and translocation in 'Sorbonne' plants and the effects of substrate water potential on the dry matter allocation indices for different organs (flower, stem, leaf, bulb, and root), aimed to define the critical substrate water potential for the normal growth of the cultivar, and establish a simulation model for predicting the dry matter allocation in cut lily plants under effects of substrate water potential. The model established in this study gave a good prediction on the dry mass of plant organs, with the coefficient of determination and the relative root mean square error between the simulated and measured values of the cultivar' s flower dry mass, stem dry mass, leaf dry mass, bulb dry mass, and root dry mass being 0.96 and 19.2%, 0.95 and 12.4%, 0.86 and 19.4%, 0.95 and 12.2%, and 0.85 and 31.7%, respectively. The critical water potential for the water management of cut lily could be -15 kPa.

  9. Use of neural image analysis methods in the process to determine the dry matter content in the compost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wojcieszak, D.; Przybył, J.; Lewicki, A.; Ludwiczak, A.; Przybylak, A.; Boniecki, P.; Koszela, K.; Zaborowicz, M.; Przybył, K.; Witaszek, K.

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this research was investigate the possibility of using methods of computer image analysis and artificial neural networks for to assess the amount of dry matter in the tested compost samples. The research lead to the conclusion that the neural image analysis may be a useful tool in determining the quantity of dry matter in the compost. Generated neural model may be the beginning of research into the use of neural image analysis assess the content of dry matter and other constituents of compost. The presented model RBF 19:19-2-1:1 characterized by test error 0.092189 may be more efficient.

  10. Yield and apparent dry matter and nitrogen balances for muskmelon in a long-term comparison between an organic and a conventional low input cropping system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michela Farneselli

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Nine-year yields and apparent balances of dry matter and nitrogen (N are reported for muskmelon cultivated in a long-term comparison trial between an organic and a conventional low input system in Central Italy. In every year, yield, above ground biomass and N accumulation of each cash crop, green manure and weeds, and the partitioning between marketable yield and crop residues were determined. Apparent dry matter and nitrogen balances were calculated at the end of each crop cycle by taking into account the amounts of dry matter and ex novo N supplied to the system as green manure legume Ndfa (i.e., an estimate of N derived from the atmosphere via symbiotic fixation and fertilisers, and those removed with marketable yield. Differences between systems varied across years. On average, organic muskmelon yielded 16% less than the conventional one, while the fruit quality was similar in the two cropping systems. Fruit ripening began one week later and it was more scaled than in the crop grown conventionally. This was the consequence of a slow initial growth of the organic crop, due to inadequate green manure N total supply or timing of N release. Moreover such a wide spaced crop (0.5 plants m–2, in rows 2 m apart was not efficient in intercepting N released from green manure biomass incorporated broadcast. Compared to the conventional crop management, the organic crop management resulted in much higher organic matter supply to the soil and in higher residual N after harvest. Thus, the choice of cultivating wheat just after melon to prevent postharvest residual N loss appears a key strategy especially in organic systems. Fall-winter green manure crops contributed to the self-sufficiency of the organic system by supplying muskmelon with either N absorbed from the soil or ex novo legume Ndfa.

  11. Pepper injury and partitioning response to ozone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bennett, J.P.; Oshima, R.J.; Lippert, L.F.

    1977-08-01

    Pepper plants (Capsicum annuum L.) grown in containers and exposed intermittently to 0.12 or 0.20 ppm ozone (O/sub 3/) while they grew to final yield, increased in plant height and total number of leaves in spite of the formation of chlorotic leaves. On an absolute basis, root, stem and leaf dry weights were not significantly affected by O/sub 3/, but fruit dry matter fell by as much as 54%. However, on a relative basis, dry matter partitioning to fruit was not constant and a significant alteration of the expected dry matter distribution was observed in the O/sub 3/ treatment. O/sub 3/ also significantly accentuated the inverse relationship between crown fruit and leaf production. A conceptual model for whole plant response to O/sub 3/ was developed.

  12. The partitioning behavior of persistent toxicant organic contaminants in eutrophic sediments: Coefficients and effects of fluorescent organic matter and particle size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Wei; Yang, Chen; Liu, Wenxiu; He, Qishuang; Wang, Qingmei; Li, Yilong; Kong, Xiangzhen; Lan, Xinyu; Xu, Fuliu

    2016-12-01

    In the shallow lakes, the partitioning of organic contaminants into the water phase from the solid phase might pose a potential hazard to both benthic and planktonic organisms, which would further damage aquatic ecosystems. This study determined the concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), organochlorine pesticides (OCPs), and phthalate esters (PAEs) in both the sediment and the pore water from Lake Chaohu and calculated the sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KD) and the organic carbon normalized sediment - pore water partition coefficient (KOC), and explored the effects of particle size, organic matter content, and parallel factor fluorescent organic matter (PARAFAC-FOM) on KD. The results showed that log KD values of PAHs (2.61-3.94) and OCPs (1.75-3.05) were significantly lower than that of PAEs (4.13-5.05) (p  PAHs (4.61-5.86) > OCPs (3.62-4.97). A modified MCI model can predict KOC values in a range of log 1.5 at a higher frequency, especially for PAEs. The significantly positive correlation between KOC and the octanol - water partition coefficient (KOW) were observed for PAHs and OCPs. However, significant correlation was found for PAEs only when excluding PAEs with lower KOW. Sediments with smaller particle sizes (clay and silt) and their organic matter would affect distributions of PAHs and OCPs between the sediment and the pore water. Protein-like fluorescent organic matter (C2) was associated with the KD of PAEs. Furthermore, the partitioning of PARAFAC-FOM between the sediment and the pore water could potentially affect the distribution of organic pollutants. The partitioning mechanism of PAEs between the sediment and the pore water might be different from that of PAHs and OCPs, as indicated by their associations with influencing factors and KOW.

  13. Size partitioning and mixing behavior of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in a South China estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenhao; Chen, Min; Guo, Laodong; Wang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-12-15

    The Jiulong River estuary, located in the southeastern China, suffered from metal pollution due to industrial effluent releases. Mixing of effluent and estuarine water may have significantly affected the size distribution of trace metals and their environmental fate. In the present study, colloidal size distribution of organic matter and selected metals were quantified using asymmetric flow field-flow fractionation (AF4) and ICP-MS. We demonstrated a dominance of dissolved metals in the 1-10kDa fraction, and metals such as Cu, Zn, Ni, Co, Pb, Cd and Mn were mostly regulated by terrestrial fulvic acid. The larger inorganic colloids played a limited role, although Fe reduction was likely to affect the size partitioning of colloidal Mn. The holding pond represented a source of trace metals and chromophoric and humic-like dissolved organic matter to the estuary. Scavenging or removal behavior became evident following the intermittent mixing, and the small sized colloidal organic complexes were responsible for binding and stabilizing trace metals. Variations in particle size distributions indicated different sources, fates and geochemical controls of the metals. Our results highlighted the impacts of both natural and anthropogenic processes on the transformation of trace metals among phases in this dynamic estuary system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Using spin polarised positive muons for studying guest molecule partitioning in soft matter structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniak, A; Dilger, H; Scheuermann, R; Tucker, I M; McKenzie, I; Vujosevic, D; Roduner, E

    2006-11-07

    Fully polarised positive muons substituted for protons in organic free radicals can be used as spin labels which reveal information about the structure, dynamics and environment of these radicals. In applications via the technique of avoided-level-crossing muon spin resonance (ALC-microSR), the positive muon has been used to study the partitioning of phenyl alcohols in lamellar phase colloidal dispersions of a cationic dichain surfactant. Here we describe the experimental technique which permits highly sensitive spectroscopy as previously demonstrated for surfactant mixtures. We also demonstrate its capability in the study of partitioning of cosurfactant molecules in surfactant bilayers in order to elucidate the main factors which contribute to cosurfactant ordering at interfaces. The technique takes advantage of the positive muon combining with an electron to a hydrogen-like atom that is called muonium. This atom attaches to a phenyl group, forming a cyclohexadienyl-type radical that contains the muon as a polarised spin label, providing an excellent probe even for very low phenyl alcohol concentrations. The position of one type of resonance, which on the basis of spectroscopic selection rules is denoted as Delta(0), is related to the solvent polarity of the radicals' environment. The results derived from Delta(0) measurements reveal a systematic trend where the increasing chain length of the phenyl alcohol results in a deeper immersion of the phenyl ring of the alcohol into the surfactant bilayer with the OH group anchored at the interface. In addition, the data suggest partial penetration of water molecules into the bilayer. Furthermore, data ensuing from a second resonance (called Delta(1), which is dependent upon the degree of confinement of the radical within the surfactant aggregate structure) indicates not only that the phenyl alcohol resides in an anisotropic environment, (i.e. that the host molecule is unable to undergo full 3-D reorientation on a

  15. In situ dry matter degradability of three tropical forages of green chopped and ensiled forms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.R. Cavalcante

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Dry matter (DM ruminal degradability of corn (Zea mays L., millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L. R. Br. and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench. was evaluated using in situ technique with samples in green chopped and ensiled forms. Two crossbred fistulated (live weight of 480kg dry cows participated. Samples of six grams in each forage were incubated in the rumen for 6, 24 and 96 hours. We estimated time zero (t0 washing the bags in water and it was used to calculate solubility. The experimental design followed a randomized block design with a split plot. We compared the average of DM through the SNK test at 5% probability. The results of disappearance (% of dry matter forages of green chopped and ensiled forms in 0, 6, 24 and 96 hours were respectively: millet (10,07, 14,50, 20,36, 47,86; 11,64, 15,69, 21,60, 33,37, corn (12,64, 20,08, 31,77, 68,11; 13,31, 20,97, 35,31, 67,33 and sorghum (10,20, 21,55, 26,56, 58,95; 10,07, 15,10, 24,89, 44,52. The potential degradation (% of silages was: millet (36,44, corn (81,18 and sorghum (51,30.

  16. The effect of cutting treatments on the dry matter production of Lolium perenne L. and Dactylis glomerata L.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pozo Ibanez, del M.

    1963-01-01

    The effect of cutting treatments on grass production was studied both in the field and in experiments under controlled conditions. Cutting limited the increase in dry matter for a certain time. Thereafter dry weight of plants continued to increase at the same proportional rate as in undisturbed plan

  17. A model describing the relationship between electrical conductivity and forage dry matter content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gilad Ashbell

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The correlation between dry matter (DM content, electrical conductivity (EC and ash content was found to be linear in grass and alfalfa during drying. While minerals in grass and alfalfa were very stable components during drying, their concentrations and EC increase accordingly; therefore, the EC value could serve as a measurement to determine DM content. Results indicated that EC measurement in grass and alfalfa during drying was simple, accurate, fast and easily repeatable, and could serve as an alternative method for DM determination.A correlação entre o conteúdo da matéria seca (MS, condutividade elétrica (CE e o conteúdo de cinza revelaram-se lineares na grama e na alfalfa durante a secagem. Os minerais presentes na grama e na alfalfa demonstraram ser componentes muito estáveis durante a secagem. Desta forma as concentrações de minerais e a CE poderiam ser utilizadas como parametros para determinação da MS. Os resultados indicaram que a determinação da CE na grama e na alfalfa durante a secagem era simples, exata, rápida e facilmente repetitível, e poderia ser utilizado como um método alternativo para a determinação de MS.

  18. Dry deposition of particulate matter at an urban forest, wetland and lake surface in Beijing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiakai; Zhu, Lijuan; Wang, Huihui; Yang, Yilian; Liu, Jiatong; Qiu, Dongdong; Ma, Wu; Zhang, Zhenming; Liu, Jinglan

    2016-01-01

    The dry deposition of particular matters from atmosphere to ecosystems is an undesirable consequence of this pollution while the deposition process is also influenced by different land use types. In current study, concentration of fine particles, coarse particles and meteorological data were collected during the daytime in an artificial forest, wetland and a water surface in the Beijing Olympic Park. Dry deposition velocity, fluxes and vegetation collection were calculated by different models and the results were compared. The results show: (1) the deposition velocity onto the forest canopy was higher than which onto the wetland and the water surface and the velocity varied in different seasons; (2) the fine particles deposited most in the winter while the coarse particles was in the spring; (3) the vegetation collection rates of fine particles were lower than coarse particles, and the forest collected more PMs than the wetland plants.

  19. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  20. Winter environmental effects on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Cesar Alves Fagundes

    1995-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to verify the association of environment and feed intake and also to measure the variation on dry-matter intake of stabled and unsheltered holstein cows, as a function of temperature decrease, during the winter in humid subtropical climate. The experiment was developed in Santa Maria, State of Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil, during July and August, 1986. There were used 12 Holstein cows with ration based on corn silage fed for "ad libitum" consumption, distributed in two sets: stabled cows and cows maintened in padlots. The experimental design was completely randomized. The daily dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows (0.095 ± 0.006 kg/kg0.75, was significantly different (P< 0.01 from the stabled ones (0.077 ± 0.005 kg/kg0.75. There was significant correlation (P < 0.05 among dry-matter intake of unsheltered cows and environmental temperature, air humidity, wind velocity and precipitation, with coefficients varying from -0.58 to 0.51 while the feed intake of stabled cows was only correlated significantly (P < 0.05 with the environmental temperature at 7 a.m. with coefficient of -0.27. These results show that feed intake of Holstein cows kept in padlots was higher than in stabled cows, due to lower environmental temperatures, as high as 0.36 kgDM/cow for each unit of air temperature decrease and for each unit of increase of relative humidity and wind velocity at 7 a.m. and 9 p.m., simultaneously.

  1. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  2. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  3. Effects of Limited Water Supply and Ridge Plotted Field on Soybean Yield and Dry Matter Accumulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jianghong; WEI Yongxia; WANG Chao

    2006-01-01

    The drought in spring leads to the lack of soil water, which influents sprout and bud of crops, which furthermore affects growth and yield of crops. Studying the technology integration of bed-irrigating sowing, the mending irrigation of seedling stage and the effect of water-saving of ridge plotted field, analyzing the finger of yield and dry matter accumulation, water-saving technology integration have good effects on water-saving, water storage and increasing moisture on soil and enhancement of soybean yield.

  4. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions: Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Luo; Fanlong, Meng; Junying, Zhang; Masao, Doi

    2016-07-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based Lagrangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided. Project supported by the National Natural Science of China (Grant Nos. 21434001, 51561145002, and 11421110001).

  5. Dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of sugarcane with different fertilizer rates of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective of determining the quantities of dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of the sugar cane fertilized with different phosphorus rates was carried out a in an experiment in blocks at random (8 treatments x 6 replications on a Chromic Vertisol. Five plants per plot at the 3rd replication and crop cycle were cut before harvesting. To the sugarcane top of the samples were determined the percentages of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; was carried out a count of sugarcane stalk in each plot to express the percentages in magnitudes of mass.An Analysis of Variance of simple classification and the test of multiple status of Duncan to 95 % of probability was executed. The yearly fertilizations with 50 and 25 kg ha-1 of phosphorus from the 1rst cycle and the application at the start of a cycle of 125 kg ha-1 showed the bigger dry matter contents and the second ratoons had the biggest influence in the matter production. It was appreciated that the influence of the crop cycle was bigger than that rates of phosphorus on the dry matter content. The rate of phosphorus and the crop cycle with bigger content of primary macroelements were those where the dry matter was in bigger quantities. In the interaction rates of phosphorus-crop cycle the bigger contents of phosphorus and potassium was obtained on the 2nd ratoon with yearly and to the start of crop cycle applications of phosphorus.

  6. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  7. Effect of a bacterial inoculum and additive on dry matter in situ degradability of sugarcane silage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jos A Reyes-Gutirrez; Oziel D Montaez-Valdez; Ramn Rodrguez-Macias; Mario Ruz-Lpez; Eduardo Salcedo-Prez; Cndido E Guerra-Medina

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of adding a bacterial inoculum and a handmade additive to sugarcane silage (SCS) on the in situ digestibility of dry matter (DM). The treatments were:T1) sugarcane silage (SCS) and T2) sugar-cane silage with 1%inoculum and 1%additive (SCS+). The bacterial inoculum consisted of 10.0%molasses, 1.0%yogurt, 5.0%chicken manure, 0.5%urea, and 83.0%water, and the additive was formulated with 1.0%urea, 0.1%ammonium sulfate, and 0.25%phosphorus. In situ dry matter digestibility (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped with ruminal ifstulas. Cows were fed with ensiled sugarcane supplemented with 1 kg of commercial concentrate. 5 g of ground sample for each sugarcane treatment were weighted in nylon bags and incubated for 4, 8, 12, 24, 48, and 72 h in a completely randomized design with six replicates. The DMD (%) was higher (P<0.05) for SCS+for al incubation times when compared with SCS. There were no differences in ruminal pH between the treatments for al the incubation times. The data suggested that the sugarcane silage with bacterial inoculum and additive could be an alternative for providing forage for ruminants during the season of low growth and quality grass.

  8. Effect of Phragmites japonicus harvest frequency and timing on dry matter yield and nutritive value.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Takashi S T; Irbis, Chagan; Kumagai, Hajime; Wang, Pengyun; Li, Kunzhi; Inamura, Tatsuya

    2017-02-01

    Phragmites is a cosmopolitan perennial emergent macrophyte that is distributed worldwide. In recent years, Phragmites has attracted attention for its potential use as roughage. Given the increasing demand for feed and the number of constructed wetlands (CWs) vegetated with Phragmites, Phragmites is expected to play an important role in roughage production. Thus, it is vital to understand the effects of harvest timing and frequency on dry matter yield, nutritive value, and nitrogen (N) removal to establish appropriate vegetation management. In two CWs in Southwest China, four treatments with different harvesting frequencies were evaluated in monospecific areas of P. japonicus. The four treatments included no harvest, single harvest at 6 months, two harvests at 2 and 4 months, and three harvests at 2, 4, and 6 months. A sharp decline in the total digestible nutrients (TDN) concentration and the rate of increase in dry matter (DM) yield was associated with the heading timings, and the seasonal variations in TDN were likely influenced by carbohydrate accumulation in the stems. The three harvest treatment contributed to substantially improve the N and DM yields without decreasing the nutritive value but negatively affected the growth in the following year. Therefore, not only the combinations of harvest timing and frequency but also other management practices, including partial harvesting, may be needed to optimize CW performance and roughage production.

  9. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  10. Effects of Soil Moisture on Dynamic Distribution of Dry Matter Between Winter Wheat Root and Shoot

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Xiao-yuan; LIU Xiao-ying; LUO Yuan-pei

    2003-01-01

    The dynamic relationship of dry matter accumulation and distribution between winter wheatroot and shoot was studied under different soil water conditions. The dry matter accumulation in root wasgreatly influenced by water stress, so as to the final root weight of the treatment with 40 % field moisturecapacity (FMC) was less than 1/4 of that of the treatment with 80 % FMC on average. Water stress duringthe 3-leaf stage to the tillering stage had the greatest influence on root, and the influence of water stressduring the jointing stage to the booting stage on shoot was greater than root. However, water stress duringthe tillering stage to the booting stage had a balanced effect on root and shoot, and the proportion of drymatter that distributed to root and shoot was almost the same after rewatering. Water recovery during thejointing stage to booting stage could promote R/S, but the increasing degree was related to the duration ofwater limitation. Soil water condition had the lowest effect on R/S during the flowering stage to the fillingstage and the maximal effect on R/S during the jointing stage to the heading stage, R/S of 40% FMCtreatment was 20.93 and 126.09 % higher than that of 60 % FMC and 80 % FMC treatments respectivelyat this period.

  11. Effect of soy on faecal dry matter content and excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grahofer, Alexander; Overesch, Gudrun; Nathues, Heiko; Zeeh, Friederike

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a soy diet on the excretion of Brachyspira hyodysenteriae in five farms with subclinically infected pigs. The effects on general health, faecal consistency and dry matter were analysed. In total, 200 pigs of different ages (group 1 feed ration was replaced by pure soy on two consecutive days. Faecal scores were used to determine faecal consistency and a microwave method to assess faecal dry matter content (FDMC). In age group 1, soy feeding resulted in a statistically significant decrease of the FDMC of 2.5 per cent compared with group C and in age group 2 in a significant increase of 2.2 per cent compared with group C at day 2. Overall seven (T: 5, C: 2) out of 597 faecal samples tested positive for B hyodysenteriae by PCR. In conclusion, a high soy diet applied over two days influenced the faecal consistency and the FDMC in growers, finishers and sows under field conditions. Further investigations with more sensitive diagnostic methods are needed to prove a potential influence of a high soy diet on the detection rate of B hyodysenteriae in subclinically infected herds. PMID:27239320

  12. Impact of environmental factors on fungal respiration and dry matter losses in wheat straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willcock; Magan

    2000-01-15

    An automatic electrolytic respirometer enabled replicated determinations of the respiration rates of individual fungi on sterile straw, and the mixed mycoflora of naturally contaminated wheat straw at different steady-state temperatures (10-30 degrees C) and water activities (a(w), 0.75-0.98) over periods of 8-14 days. Generally, the respiratory activity of individual spoilage fungi (Alternaria alternata, Cladosporium cladosporioides, Eurotium amstelodami, Fusarium culmorum and Penicillium aurantiogriseum) on sterile wheat straw increased linearly with increasing a(w) at 25 degrees C. The calculated maximum dry matter loss of wheat straw due to colonisation by individual species was about 10%, regardless of a(w). On naturally contaminated wheat straw fungal activity was also related to temperature and a(w), with maximum respiration at 30 degrees C and 0.98 a(w). At the lowest temperature examined, 10 degrees C, there was a slight lag prior to respiratory activity occurring. The respiratory activity was also significantly reduced (by half) when available water was reduced to 0.95-0.90 a(w). In contrast to the colonisation of sterile straw by individual species, the maximum dry matter loss caused by fungal deterioration of naturally contaminated wheat straw was 3.4% at 0.98 a(w) and 30 degrees C. The dominant fungal genera and species varied with a(w) and temperature. These results are discussed in relation to the storage of cereal straw without spoilage.

  13. Effects on Sucrose Metabolism,Dry Matter Distribution and Fruit Quality of Tomato Under Water Deficit

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QI Hong-yan; LI Tian-lai; ZHANG Jie; WANG Lei; CHEN Yuan-hong

    2003-01-01

    Four irrigation treatments were designed with 2, 4, 6 and 8 d intervals to irrigate, respectively. Watering was stopped when the reading of the moisture tension sensor reached zero. The results indicated that glucose and fructose content of tomato's fruit were increased but sucrose content was decreased with fruit growth and development. In different stages, carbohydrate content of tomato fruit in the treatment 3 was the highest, in the treatment 2 was higher, and in the other treatments was the lowest. SS(sucrose synthase) activity was decreased but SPS(sucrose phosphate synthase) activity was increased with development of tomato. SS and SPS activity were increased but acid invertase and neutral invertase activity of ripe stage were decreased under deficit irrigation. Glucose and fructose content were increased in leaves of tomato under water deficit.Soluble sugars, organic acid and the ratio of sugar/acid in tomato fruits were increased and dry matter accumulation of plant was enhanced under water deficit. But the growth of fruits upside the plant and its dry matter accumulation were badly affected under water stress.

  14. Pig slurry and nutrient accumulation and dry matter and grain yield in various crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cledimar Rogério Lourenzi

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig slurry (PS represents an important nutrient source for plants and using it as fertilizer makes greater nutrient cycling in the environment possible. The aim of this study was to assess how PS application over a period of years can affect grain yield, dry matter production and nutrient accumulation in commercial grain and cover crops. The experiment was carried out in an experimental area of the Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, in Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, from May 2000 to January 2008. In this period, 19 grain and cover crops were grown with PS application before sowing, at rates of 0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1. The highest PS rate led to an increase in nutrient availability over the years, notably of P, but also of nutrients that are potentially toxic to plants, especially Cu and Zn. The apparent recovery of nutrients by commercial grain and cover crops decreased with the increasing number of PS applications to the soil. Accumulated dry matter production of the crops and maize grain yield were highest at an annual application rate of 80 m³ ha-1 PS. However, common bean yield increased up to 20 m³ ha-1 PS, showing that the crop to be grown should be considered to define the application rate.

  15. Influence of cadmium on dry matter yield, micronutrient content and its uptake in some crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khurana, M P S; Jhanji, Shalini

    2014-09-01

    The study was conducted to evaluate the accumulation pattern of cadmium (Cd) and its tolerance in different crops grown on sewage irrigated soils with differentCd levels. Growth, yield, uptake and tolerance of maize, raya, berseem and spinach were assessed to different levels of Cd ranging from 0-40 mg kg(-1) soil. Significant reduction in dry matter yield in raya was observed at 20 mg Cd kg(-1) soil where as for other crops it was 10 mg Cd kg(-1) soil. The quadratic models seem to give the best description of variation in dry matter yield with Cd levels as revealed by significant coefficient of determination (R2 > or = 90). Cadmium content and uptake varied in the following order: raya > spinach > maize > berseem. Raya could tolerate high levels of Cd as compared to other crops. Conversely, berseem and maize which showed reduced ability to absorb or translocate Cd for genetic reasons compared to raya and spinach be preferred for growing on sewage irrigated soils or area having increased Cd-levels. The relationship of Cd with other micronutrients was variable.

  16. Partitioning of the pesticide trifluralin between dissolved organic matter and water using automated SPME-GC/MS

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2014-10-04

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to determine the equilibrium association constant for a pesticide, trifluralin (TFR), with dissolved organic matter (DOM). After optimization of the SPME method for the analysis of TFR, partition coefficients (K DOM) with three different sources of DOM were determined in buffered solutions at pH 7. Commercial humic acids and DOM fractions isolated from two surface waters were used. The values of log K DOMvaried from 4.3 to 5.8, depending on the nature of the organic material. A good correlation was established between log K DOMand DOM properties (as measured with the H/O atomic ratio and UV absorbance), in agreement with literature data. This is consistent with the effect of polarity and aromaticity for governing DOM-pollutant associations, regardless of the origin of DOM. This association phenomenon is relevant to better understand the behavior of pesticides in the environment since it controls part of pesticide leaching and fate in aquatic systems.

  17. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  18. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  19. Salinity and Alkaline pH of Irrigation Water Affect Marigold Plants: I. Growth and Shoot Dry Weight Partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marigold, is one of the most popular annual ornamental plants. Both the short-statured cultivars (Tagetes patula L.) and the taller cultivars (T. erecta L.) are used as container plants, in landscape and garden settings. Tagetes erecta varieties make excellent cut and dried flowers for the florist...

  20. Factors affecting dry matter intake and its prediction for Holstein cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Glamočić Dragan M.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Many factors affects dry matter intake (DMI. Individual theories based on physical fill of the reticulorumen, metabolic-feedback factors, or oxygen consumption have been proposed to determine and predict DMI (NRC, 2001. Prediction of DMI is fundamentally important in nutrition because it establishes the amount of nutrients available to an animal for health and production. Actual or accurately estimated DMI is important for the formulation of diets to prevent underfeeding or overfeeding of nutrients and to promote efficient nutrient use. Underfeeding of nutrients restricts production and can affect the health of an animal. Overfeeding of nutrients increases feed costs, can results in excessive excretion of nutrients into the environment, and at excessively high amounts may be toxic or cause adverse health effects. Several DMI prediction equations have been developed for use in the field, but only a few have been given in this paper.

  1. DRY MATTER YIELD OF DIFFERENT VARIETIES OF DACTYLIS GLOMERATA AND FESTUCA PRATENSIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Sosnowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to analyze yield variation of Dactylis glomerata and Festuca pratensis varieties grown on organic and mineral soil. This paper has drawn on two field experiments set up and carried out between 2010 and 2013. The experiment was conducted in two experimental stations: one in the Research Centre for Cultivar Testing in Krzyżewo and the other in the Experimental Stations for Variety Testing in Uhinin. The experiment in Krzyżewo was set up on ploughed soil, with spring barley as a forecrop. In Uhnin the experimental plots were located on peat meadow. The experimental plots were sown with varieties of Dactylis glomerata: Niva, Tukan, Amila, Crown Royale and with varieties of Festuca pratensis: Limosa, Pasja, Anturka, Amelka. The full exploitation of Dactylis glomerata varieties was due between 2012 and 2013, whereas for Festuca pratensis it was due between 2011 and 2012. In the experimental plots with the varieties of Dactylis glomerata the grass was harvested six times a year and chemical analysis of the biomass was done taking dry matter only from five cuts. The varieties of Festuca pratensis were harvested four times. Each year in the course of the experiment fresh and dry matter of each cut were weighed. The grass species and their varieties as well as the particular mowing and kind of soil where the grass was grown have an impact on the yield. On mineral soil the yield of Dactylis glomerata was higher than Festuca pratensis. On organic soil the yield of both species was similar. During the two years of experiment the highest yield among Festuca pratensis varieties was noted for Amelka whereas among varieties of Dactylis glomerata the yield was similar and differences were not statistically significant.

  2. Liming and phosphorus fertilization in soils under cerrado. 1. Dry matter accumulation and phosphorus uptake by sorghum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, L.F.S. (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Bahia. Centro Nacional de Pesquisa de Mandioca e Fruticultura); Fernandes, M.S.; Velloso, A.C.X. (Universidade Federal Rural do Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). Dept. de Solos); Castro, A.F. de (Empresa Brasileira de Pesquisa Agropecuaria, Rio de Janeiro. Servico Nacional de Levantamento e Conservacao de Solos)

    1983-07-01

    The effects of liming and phosphorus fertilizer (300 Kg P/sub 2/O/sub 5//ha) application on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by sorghum plants were studied under greenhouse conditions. Plants were grown in four Oxisols originally under cerrado vegetation. There was a positive correlation between P-fertilization and liming on dry matter accumulation and P-uptake by plants. The results showed that the main effect of liming in these soils was on the elimination of phytotoxicity, mainly due to exchangeable aluminum.

  3. The effect of harvest time, dry matter content and mechanical pretreatments on anaerobic digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis of miscanthus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Frydendal; Hjorth, Maibritt; Baby, Sanmohan;

    2016-01-01

    the highest methane yield and highest levels of enzymatically-accessible cellulose. The driest biomass gave the best effect from extrusion but with the highest energy consumption, whereas roller-milling was most efficient on wet biomass. The addition of water to the last harvest improved the effect of roller......Miscanthus x giganteus was harvested as both green and mature biomass and the dry matter content of the driest harvest was artificially decreased by adding water in two subsamples, giving a total of five dry matter contents. All five biomass types were mechanically pretreated by roller...

  4. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  5. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p vitro DM digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  6. Growth and Allocation of Dry Matter in Bean Seedlings Developed up to the Senescence of the Cotyledons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramón DÍaz-ruiz

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The allocation of dry matter in seedling of the common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. depends on the nutrient content in the cotyledons on principle of germination. The importance of these structures for the growth of the seedling ranges from the time of germination to the emergence of the seedling and the time when the simple leaves can realize photosynthesis. The objective of this research was to study and quantify the distribution of dry matter from the stage of germination until senescence of cotyledons during the seedling stage. Two experiments were conducted using the common bean variety Cacahuate-72, one in a greenhouse and another in growth chamber with a constant temperature of 25oC. To determine the dry weight of the structures sampling was carried out at different ages of the seedling. The stem accumulated more dry matter than the root, 56% and 44% respectively. The distribution of dry matter in the shoot structures was in the following order: simple leaves 60%, hypocotyl 25%, epicotyle 8%, petioles 5% and fi rst trifoliate leaf 2%. Root dry matter was distributed in the following order: secondary roots 46%, adventitious roots 42%, taproot 10% and tertiary roots 2%. The cotyledons exhausted its reserves of nutrients by the 18th day and they senesced at the same time. At the time of senescence of the cotyledons the hypocotyl structure was longer than the stem. Considering the root, secondary roots presented more length and were the most abundant in number. The input of fertilizer to the soil is necessary when cotyledons are beginning the process of senescence.

  7. Characterization of in situ nitrogen and fiber digestion and bacterial nitrogen contamination of hay crop forages preserved at different dry matter percentages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nocek, J E; Grant, A L

    1987-02-01

    Alfalfa, red clover, orchardgrass and timothy were harvested in the vegetative stage, wilted and stored as hay, or ensiled in small batch silos (20 kg) at 60, 40 or 20% (direct cut) dry matter and were analyzed for compositional differences. A ruminally cannulated lactating cow, consuming 50% of her dry matter intake from hay crop silage, was used to measure in situ dry matter, N, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance. Diaminopimelic acid was used as a bacterial marker to correct for bacterial N contamination for in situ residual N. Fibrous components tended to become concentrated as percent dry matter at preservation decreased, presumably associated with leaching of water solubles during storage. For most forages, as dry matter percentage of preservation decreased, water soluble dry matter and N increased, with a concomitant increase of ruminally nondigested dry matter. Specific trends in coefficients of digestion associated with forage type or preservation dry matter percentage were not observed for dry matter, N, neutral detergent fiber or acid detergent fiber. Correction for contamination by bacterial N decreased lag time in digestion and altered rates of N digestion compared with noncorrected rates. Linear and quadratic bacterial N contamination profiles were observed with time of ruminal incubation. Rate of digestion of N was highly correlated with fibrous component concentration, and to a lesser extent to rate of neutral and acid detergent fiber digestion. Dry matter percentage at preservation had a variable effect on ruminal digestion rate of dry matter and N, which varied with forage type and had no effect on neutral detergent and acid detergent fiber digestion rates. Correction for bacterial N contamination should be considered when establishing N digestion rates for forage by the in situ technique.

  8. Genetic Parameters for Dry Matter Intake at Different Lactation Stages among Primiparous Holstein, Jersey and Red Cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Bingjie; Løvendahl, Peter; Fikse, W F

    This study evaluated the genetic variation in Dry Matter Intake (DMI) at 6 lactation stages over the first 24 lactation weeks in a population including Holstein, Jersey and Red cows. In total, 830 primiparous cows from Sweden and Denmark were included. Genetic parameters were estimated based...

  9. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared...

  10. [Effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis and dry matter production of rice II -you 084 under different Planting densities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Bin; Lai, Shang-kun; Li, Pan-lin; Wang, Yun-xia; Zhu, Jian-guo; Yang, Lian-xin; Wang, Yu-long

    2015-01-01

    In order to investigate the effects of ozone stress on photosynthesis, dry matter production, non-structural carbohydrate and yield formation of rice, a free air ozone concentration enrichment (FACE) experiment was conducted. A super hybrid rice cultivar II-you 084 with 3 spacing levels, low plant density (LD, 16 hills per m2), medium (MD, 24 hills per m2) and high plant density (HD, 32 hills per m2), was grown in the field at current and elevated ozone concentrations (current × 1.5). The results were as follows: Elevated ozone significantly reduced leaf SPAD value of UI-you 084 by 6%, 11% and 13%, at 63, 77, and 86 days after transplanting, respectively. The declines in leaf net photosynthetic rate, stomatal conductance and transpiration rate at filling stage increased significantly on ozone stress over time. Ozone stress decreased dry matter production of rice by 46% from heading stage to plant maturity, thus reduced biomass yield by 25%. Elevated ozone decreased the concentration and accumulation of soluble carbohydrate and starch in stem of II-you 084 at jointing, heading and plant maturity, but significantly increased the dry matter transportation rate. No significant interaction was observed between ozone and planting density for photosynthesis, dry matter production and non-structural carbohydrate of rice. The above results indicated that elevated ozone reduced photosynthesis and growth of rice II-you 084 at late growth stage, which had no relationship with planting density.

  11. Abrupt changes in forage dry matter of one to three days affect intake and milk yield in lactating dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Our objective was to determine the effects of one-, two-, and three-day changes in forage dry matter (DM) on lactating cow performance and yield regardless of stage of lactation or parity. Data was compiled from two independent studies to predict overall cow performance. Study A (fall 2009) early la...

  12. The impact of drying on structure of sedimentary organic matter in wetlands: Probing with native and amended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zucheng; Liu, Zhanfei; Liu, Min; Xu, Kehui; Mayer, Lawrence M

    2016-10-15

    Wetland sediments undergo dry-wet cycles that may change their structural properties and affect geochemical behavior of associated organic compounds. In this study, we examined the effect of drying on particle size distributions and the rapid (24h) sorption reactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) with salt marsh sediments in Nueces Delta, South Texas. Drying reduced the fraction of fine particles in organically richer sediments, indicating structural rearrangement of organic matter and mineral aggregates. Among the 16 EPA priority PAHs examined, dried sediment preferentially released 1.0-7.5% of phenanthrene, fluoranthene and pyrene to added seawater (solid: water mass ratio of 1/100) - significantly greater than release from sediments maintained in the wet state. On the other hand, drying also increased the affinity of sedimentary organic matter (SOM) for experimentally amended (deuterated) phenanthrene relative to continually wet sediments. Further, deuterated phenanthrene was even more effectively retained when it was added to wet sediment that was subsequently dried and rewetted. These apparently contradictory results can be reconciled and explained by SOM having a heterogeneous distribution of hydrophobic and hydrophilic zones - e.g., a zonal model. We propose that drying changed the orientation of amphiphilic SOM, exposing hydrophobic zones and promoting the release of some of their native PAHs to water. Freshly amended PAHs were only able to penetrate into the surface hydrophobic zone and/or deeper but rapidly accessible ("kinetic") zone in wet sediments due to the brief adsorption contact time. Subsequent drying presumably then induced structural changes in SOM that isolated these amended PAHs in sites inaccessible to water exchange in the next rewetting. These results provide insights into structural changes of SOM upon drying, and help predict the fate of compounds such as organic contaminants during drought/flood oscillations.

  13. Dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass of sugarcane with different fertilizer rates of phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Alejandro Villazón Gómez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The research consisted of determining the quantities of dry matter and primary macroelements on the foliar biomass that contributes to the soil the sugarcane fertilized with different fertilizer rates of potassium in an experiment with a design in complete blocks at random (8 treatments x 6 repetitions on a Chromic Vertisol. Five plants were cut in the furrows 2 and 3 of the plots of the 3rd repetition before the harvest of each one of the four ratoons. To the sugarcane top of the samples were determined the percentages of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; was carried out a count of sugarcane stalk in each plot to express the percentages in magnitudes of mass. An analysis of variance of simple classification was executed and means were compared by Duncan test at 95 % of confidence. The treatment V was the one of bigger dry matter content, with 11.04 t ha-1. The 2nd ratoon showed the bigger dry matter content in the sugarcane tops, with 11.13 t ha-1. In the interactions the bigger influence of the sugarcane stubble phase on the dry matter can be appreciated. The treatment V was the one of bigger nutrient content, with 83, 16 and 197 kg of NPK, respectively. In the case of nitrogen the best interaction was the treatment V in the 3rd ratoon, in the phosphorus also the treatment V in the 2nd and 3rd ratoons and the treatment IV in the 4th ratoon, in potassium the interaction of the treatment V in the 2nd ratoon.

  14. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  15. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  16. Dry matter accumulation and mineral nutrition of arracacha in response to nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Augusto Magolbo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract:The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of nitrogen fertilization on the growth and yield of arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza, as well as on the plant's nutrient uptake, distribution, and removal. The experiment was carried out in a typical Oxisol, with sandy texture. A randomized complete block design was used, with four replicates. The treatments consisted of five N rates: 0, 50, 100, 200, and 400 kg ha-1. The plots were composed of three 8-m-length rows, spaced at 0.60 m between rows and 0.40 m between plants. The plants were harvested after an 8-month cycle. Nitrogen fertilization significantly increased the proportion of N and S accumulated in stems, and of Ca, Mg, Fe, and Mn in leaves. N supply increased Zn distribution to stems and leaves, whereas high N rates increased Cu allocation to stems more than to the rootstock. High N rates increase plant dry matter (DM production and nutrient uptake and removal, but do not result in the greatest yield due to the greater development of leaves and stems, and to the lower allocation of DM in storage roots.

  17. Sunflower seedlings dry matter content as affected by chemical treatment and storage length

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mrđa Jelena

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chemical treatment of seed is a common crop protection measure. In the case of sunflower seed, fungicides are used regularly and insecticides at an increasing rate. In some cases, sunflower hybrid seed not planted in the first year is planted in the second or even third year after production. Seed vigour decreases gradually over time, which negatively affects seed emergence and subsequent plant growth and development. Seed with high vigour is expected to germinate quickly, producing seedlings that grow fast and uniformly. The objective of this study was to assess the effects of seed chemical treatment and storage length on seedling dry matter content in different sunflower hybrids. The study included several variants with fungicide and pesticide treatments and an untreated control. In the case of the hybrid NS-H-111, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded in the control and directly after chemical treatment. In the case of the hybrid Sremac, the lowest value was recorded in seed treatment with benomyl+metalaxyl, highest in the treatments directly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months. In the case of the hybrid Šumadinac, highest values were recorded in the control and in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl, the lowest in seed treatment with fludioxonil+metalaxyl+im idacloprid. Regarding the effect of different seed storage periods, highest values of the studied characteristic were recorded shortly after chemical treatment and in seed stored for six months.

  18. Estimating the daily dry matter intake of Svalbard reindeer in late winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicholas Tyler

    1987-06-01

    Full Text Available Svalbard reindeer (Rangifer tarandus platyrhynchus store large reserves of subcutaneous fat during summer and autumn which, it has been suggested, might be sufficient to meet a substantial part of their energy requirements during winter. An alternative suggestion, however, is that fat is not their main source of energy after all and, moreover, that the principal role of their fat reserves is for enhancing reproductive success rather than for substituting for forage (Tyler, in press. Is it realistic to suggest that these high arctic herbivores could meet the greater part of their energy requirements in winter by feeding, given that the aerial biomass of available forage in Svalbard in late winter is very low? This question was investigated by using a simple model to predict what rate of food intake Svalbard reindeer would have to achieve to maintain energy balance in late winter. The results were surprisingly low: pregnant and nonpregnant females could mett their daily energy demands by consuming 3.1 and 1.7 g dry matter per grazing minute, respectively. This supports the suggestion that Svalbard reindeer could live principally off forage in winter.

  19. A k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model of an isothermal dry granular dense matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Chung

    2016-07-01

    The turbulent flow characteristics of an isothermal dry granular dense matter with incompressible grains are investigated by the proposed first-order k-{\\varepsilon} turbulence closure model. Reynolds-filter process is applied to obtain the balance equations of the mean fields with two kinematic equations describing the time evolutions of the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation. The first and second laws of thermodynamics are used to derive the equilibrium closure relations satisfying turbulence realizability conditions, with the dynamic responses postulated by a quasi-linear theory. The established closure model is applied to analyses of a gravity-driven stationary flow down an inclined moving plane. While the mean velocity decreases monotonically from its value on the moving plane toward the free surface, the mean porosity increases exponentially; the turbulent kinetic energy and dissipation evolve, respectively, from their minimum and maximum values on the plane toward their maximum and minimum values on the free surface. The evaluated mean velocity and porosity correspond to the experimental outcomes, while the turbulent dissipation distribution demonstrates a similarity to that of Newtonian fluids in turbulent shear flows. When compared to the zero-order model, the turbulent eddy evolution tends to enhance the transfer of the turbulent kinetic energy and plane shearing across the flow layer, resulting in more intensive turbulent fluctuation in the upper part of the flow. Solid boundary as energy source and sink of the turbulent kinetic energy becomes more apparent in the established first-order model.

  20. Selection of efficient wavelengths in NIR spectrum for determination of dry matter in kiwi fruit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cai Jianrong

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The feasibility of using efficient wavelengths in the near-infrared (NIR spectrum for the rapid determination of the dry matter (DM in kiwi fruit was investigated. Partial least squares (PLS, synergy interval PLS (siPLS and genetic algorithm siPLS (GA-siPLS were comparatively performed to calibrate regression models. The number of wavelengths and the number of PLS components were optimised as per the root mean square error of cross-validation (RMSECV in the calibration set. The performance of the final model was evaluated by the root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP and the correlation coefficient (r in the prediction set. Results indicate that the performance of GA-siPLS model is the best one compared to PLS and siPLS models. The optimal model was achieved with r = 0.9020 and RMSEP = 0.5315 in the prediction set. This work shows that it is feasible to determine DM in kiwi fruit using NIR spectroscopy and that GA-siPLS algorithm is most suitable in solving the problem of selection of efficient wavelengths.

  1. Temporal Stability of Sward Dry Matter and Nitrogen Yield Patterns in a Temperate Grassland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Hong-Wei; WANG Ke; J.S.BAILEY; C.JORDAN; A.WTTHERS

    2006-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to examine the spatial patterns of sward dry matter (DM) and nitrogen(N) yields in a grass silage field at first, second, and third cuts over a 3-year period; quantify their temporal stabilities with temporal stability maps; and assess the potential for site-specific management in each pasture-growing period using classified management maps. At cut 1, the spatial patterns of DM and N yields proved to be well defined and temporally stable and were likely to be due to differences in the net N mineralization rates across the field during spring. In contrast,at cut 2, the patterns of DM production were patchy and temporally unstable. It was concluded that, in principle, a simple site-specific approach to N fertilization would be possible in this field during spring at cut 1. At later harvests, the rationale for a site-specific approach to fertilizer management was less clear with logistics appearing to be more complex and less feasible.

  2. Skin formation in drying a film of soft matter solutions:Application of solute based Lagrangian scheme

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗凌; 孟凡龙; 张俊英; Masao Doi

    2016-01-01

    When a film of soft matter solutions is being dried, a skin layer often forms at its surface, which is a gel-like elastic phase made of concentrated soft matter solutions. We study the dynamics of this process by using the solute based La-grangian scheme which was proposed by us recently. In this scheme, the process of the gelation (i.e., the change from sol to gel) can be naturally incorporated in the diffusion equation. Effects of the elasticity of the skin phase, the evaporation rate of the solvents, and the initial concentration of the solutions are discussed. Moreover, the condition for the skin formation is provided.

  3. Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: Distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hissler, Christophe [Institut National Polytechnique (INP), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique de Toulouse (ENSAT), Laboratoire Agronomie Environnement Ecotoxicologie - AEE, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 32 607, Auzeville-Tolosane, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France)]. E-mail: christophe.hissler@ensat.fr; Probst, Jean-Luc [Institut National Polytechnique (INP), Ecole Nationale Superieure Agronomique de Toulouse (ENSAT), Laboratoire Agronomie Environnement Ecotoxicologie - AEE, Avenue de l' Agrobiopole, BP 32 607, Auzeville-Tolosane, 31326 Castanet-Tolosan Cedex (France)]. E-mail: jean-luc.probst@ensat.fr

    2006-11-15

    Total dissolved and total particulate Hg mass balances were estimated during one hydrological period (July 2001-June 2002) in the Thur River basin, which is heavily polluted by chlor-alkali industrial activity. The seasonal variations of the Hg dynamics in the aquatic environment were assessed using total Hg concentrations in bottom sediment and suspended matter, and total and reactive dissolved Hg concentrations in the water. The impact of the chlor-alkali plant (CAP) remains the largest concern for Hg contamination of this river system. Upstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases was principally controlled by the dissolved fraction due to snow melting during spring high flow, while during low flow, Hg was primarily adsorbed onto particulates. Downstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning is controlled by the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic ligands and by the total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations. Nevertheless, the particulate fluxes were five times higher than the dissolved ones. Most of the total annual flux of Hg supplied by the CAP to the river is transported to the outlet of the catchment (total Hg flux: 70 {mu}g m{sup -2} a{sup -1}). Downstream from the CAP, the bottom sediment, mainly composed of coarse sediment (>63 {mu}m) and depleted in organic matter, has a weak capacity to trap Hg in the river channel and the stock of Hg is low (4 mg m{sup -2}) showing that the residence time of Hg in this river is short.

  4. Effects of dry matter intake restriction on diet digestion, energy partitioning, phosphorus retention, and ruminal fermentation by beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, J H; Olson, K C; Schmidt, T B; Linville, M L; Alkire, D O; Meyer, D L; Rentfrow, G K; Carr, C C; Berg, E P

    2007-12-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of DMI restriction on diet digestion, ruminal fermentation, ME intake, and P retention by beef steers. In Exp. 1, twelve Angus x steers (average initial BW = 450 +/- 18 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at intake levels corresponding approximately to 100% (ad libitum, AL), 90% (IR90), or 80% (IR80) of ad libitum DMI. In Exp. 2, twelve crossbred steers (average initial BW = 445 +/- 56 kg) fitted with ruminal cannulae were randomly assigned to 1 of 2 diets that were formulated to promote a 1.6-kg ADG at AL or IR80. All diets delivered similar total NE, MP, Ca, and P per day. During both experiments, fecal DM output by IR80 was less (P /= 0.20) among treatments during both experiments, whereas P retention was similar (P >/= 0.46) among treatments during Exp. 1. Total VFA and the molar proportion of acetate of AL were greater (P fermentation patterns in finishing steers. Improvements in performance associated with programmed-feeding regimens of the type studied here do not appear to be related to changes in diet digestion or ME intake.

  5. Effect of management practices on mycorrhizal infection, growth and dry matter partitioning in field-grown bean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Alberto Rocha Oliveira

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available The experiment was carried out on unsterilized field soil with low phosphorus availability with the objective of examining the effect of cultural practices on mycorrhizal colonization and growth of common bean. The treatments were: three pre-crops (maize, wheat and fallow followed by three soil management practices ("ploughing", mulching and bare fallow without "ploughing" during the winter months. After the cultural practices, Phaseolus vulgaris cv. Canadian Wonder was grown in this soil. Fallowing and soil disturbance reduced natural soil infectivity. Mycorrhizal infection of the bean roots occurred more rapidly in the recently cropped soil than in the fallow soil. Prior cropping with a strongly mycorrhizal plant (maize increased infectivity even further.

  6. Embryo production in heifers with low or high dry matter intake submitted to superovulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollo, Marcos R; Monteiro, Pedro L J; Surjus, Ricardo S; Martins, Aline C; Ramos, Alexandre F; Mourão, Gerson B; Carrijo, Luiz H D; Lopes, Gláucio; Rumpf, Rodolfo; Wiltbank, Milo C; Sartori, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of feed intake on superovulatory response and embryo production of Nelore heifers. Pubertal heifers were kept in a feedlot and were submitted to the same diets, but with different levels of feed consumption: High (1.7 M; n = 20) or Low (0.7 M; n = 19) feed intake. Heifers in the 1.7 M treatment consumed 170% (2.6% of body weight [BW] in dry matter) and the 0.7 M heifers ate 70% (1.1% of BW in dry matter) of a maintenance diet. After 7 wk on these diets, heifers were treated with eight decreasing doses of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) given every 12 h, totaling 133 mg Folltropin (Folltropin-V; Bioniche Animal Health, Canada) per heifer. Seven d after AI, heifers had their uteri flushed and embryos were recovered and graded according to the International Embryo Technology Society standards. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX procedure of SAS and results are presented as least-squares means ± SEM (P < 0.05). At the onset of the FSH treatment (Day 0 of the protocol), 1.7 M heifers had greater body condition score (BCS), BW and serum insulin concentrations than 0.7 M heifers (4.1 ± 0.1 vs. 3.0 ± 0.1; 462.5 ± 10.1 vs. 382.7 ± 10.4 kg; and 14.3 ± 1.7 vs. 3.5 ± 0.8 μIU/mL, respectively). The 0.7 M heifers had more follicles ≥6 mm at the time of the last FSH (Day 7; 47.9 ± 6.4 vs. 23.5 ± 4.3 follicles), related to a better follicle superstimulatory response to FSH. Similarly, 0.7 M heifers had more corpora lutea at the time of embryo collection (33.6 ± 1.4 vs. 15.7 ± 0.9) than the 1.7 M heifers, which resulted in greater number of recovered embryos and ova (9.9 ± 0.7 vs. 6.7 ± 0.6) and viable embryos (5.3 ± 0.5 vs. 3.8 ± 0.4), despite having similar proportions of viable embryos (∼62%). A negative correlation between circulating insulin and follicle superstimulatory response to FSH was observed (r = -0.68). Therefore, we conclude that high feed intake, for a

  7. Inoculants for ensiling low-dry matter corn crop: a midlactation cow perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikkhah, A; Ghaempour, A; Khorvash, M; Ghorbani, G R

    2011-10-01

    In many regions, optimum dry matter (DM) content of corn crop pre-ensilage cannot be ensured for management, agronomical and climatic reasons. Under such conditions, corn crops are harvested at low DM, and are easily exposed to unfavourable fermentation pathways and plant spoilage and wastage. Thus, it is a major question for dairy agriculturists whether certain microbial inoculants application to low-DM corn crop pre-ensilage affects silage quality and cow performance. The objective was to determine effects of adding microbial inoculants to low-DM corn crop at ensiling on silage quality, rumen fermentation and milk production of eight Holstein cows fed the treated silages. Whole corn plant was harvested at milk stage of maturity with 204 g DM/kg of fresh crop, cut to a theoretical particle length of 2 cm, filled in 60 t bunker silos, and treated layer by layer with either no inoculant (control), inoculant 'E' (100 000 cfu/g of fresh crop) containing mainly Lactobacillus plantarum, inoculant 'B' (100 000 cfu) containing mainly Pediococcus pentosanus, Lactobacillus plantarum and Propionibacter freudenreichii or a mixture of inoculants 'E' and 'B' (200,000 cfu). Inoculants were mixed with water and sprayed on thin layers of corn chops layer by layer followed by rolling to ensure proper oxygen outage and even microbial distribution throughout the plants. Eight multiparous lactating Holstein cows at 100 ± 20.5 days in milk were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with four 20-day periods including 14 days of adaptation and 6 days of sampling. Dietary treatments were mixed rations containing corn silages with or without the inoculants. The basal diet contained 32.9% corn silage, 14.3% alfalfa hay and 52.8% concentrate on a DM basis. Inoculants did not affect silage pH or content of DM, CP, lactate, acetate, ash and total volatile fatty acids (VFA). Applying 'B' to corn crop resulted in higher water soluble carbohydrates (47.7 g/kg vs 29.8 g/kg) and lower

  8. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis......Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  9. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pakeman, Robin J

    2014-01-01

    This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary) productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  10. Leaf dry matter content predicts herbivore productivity, but its functional diversity is positively related to resilience in grasslands.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robin J Pakeman

    Full Text Available This paper addresses whether the ecosystem service of animal production from grasslands depends upon plant functional identity, plant functional diversity or if the resilience of production is a function of this diversity. Using the results of nine grazing experiments the paper shows that productivity is highly dependent on one leaf trait, leaf dry matter content, as well as rainfall. Animal (secondary productivity is not dependent on plant functional diversity, but the variability in productivity of grasslands is related to the functional diversity of leaf dry matter content. This and a range of independent studies have shown that functional diversity is reduced at high levels of grassland productivity, so it appears that there is a trade-off between productivity and the resilience of productivity in the face of environmental variation.

  11. Genetics of grass dry matter intake, energy balance, and digestibility in grazing irish dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, D P; Horan, B; O'Donovan, M; Buckley, F; Kennedy, E; McEvoy, M; Dillon, P

    2007-10-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters for grass dry matter intake (DMI), energy balance (EB), and cow internal digestibility (IDG) in grazing Holstein-Friesian dairy cows. Grass DMI was estimated up to 4 times per lactation on 1,588 lactations from 755 cows on 2 research farms in southern Ireland. Simultaneously measured milk production and BW records were used to calculate EB. Cow IDG, measured as the ratio of feed and fecal concentrations of the natural odd carbon-chain n-alkane pentatriacontane, was available on 583 lactations from 238 cows. Random regression and multitrait animal models were used to estimate residual, additive genetic and permanent environmental (co)variances across lactations. Results were similar for both models. Heritability for DMI, EB, and IDG across lactation varied from 0.10 [8 days in milk (DIM)] to 0.30 (169 DIM), from 0.06 (29 DIM) to 0.29 (305 DIM), and from 0.08 (50 DIM) to 0.45 (305 DIM), respectively, when estimated using the random regression model. Genetic correlations within each trait tended to decrease as the interval between periods compared increased for DMI and EB, whereas the correlations with IDG in early lactation were weakest when measured midlactation. The lowest correlation between any 2 periods was 0.10, -0.36, and -0.04 for DMI, EB, and IDG, respectively, suggesting the effect of different genes at different stages of lactations. Eigenvalues and associated eigenfunctions of the additive genetic covariance matrix revealed considerable genetic variation among animals in the shape of the lactation profiles for DMI, EB, and IDG. Genetic parameters presented are the first estimates from dairy cows fed predominantly grazed grass and imply that genetic improvement in DMI, EB, and IDG in Holstein-Friesian cows fed predominantly grazed grass is possible.

  12. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  13. Quantitative trait loci controlling cyanogenic glucoside and dry matter content in cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) roots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balyejusa Kizito, Elizabeth; Rönnberg-Wästljung, Ann-Christin; Egwang, Thomas; Gullberg, Urban; Fregene, Martin; Westerbergh, Anna

    2007-09-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is a starchy root crop grown in the tropics mainly by small-scale farmers even though agro-industrial processing is rapidly increasing. For this processing market improved varieties with high dry matter root content (DMC) is required. Potentially toxic cyanogenic glucosides are synthesized in the leaves and translocated to the roots. Selection for varieties with low cyanogenic glucoside potential (CNP) and high DMC is among the principal objectives in cassava breeding programs. However, these traits are highly influenced by the environmental conditions and the genetic control of these traits is not well understood. An S(1) population derived from a cross between two bred cassava varieties (MCOL 1684 and Rayong 1) that differ in CNP and DMC was used to study the heritability and genetic basis of these traits. A broad-sense heritability of 0.43 and 0.42 was found for CNP and DMC, respectively. The moderate heritabilities for DMC and CNP indicate that the phenotypic variation of these traits is explained by a genetic component. We found two quantitative trait loci (QTL) on two different linkage groups controlling CNP and six QTL on four different linkage groups controlling DMC. One QTL for CNP and one QTL for DMC mapped near each other, suggesting pleiotrophy and/or linkage of QTL. The two QTL for CNP showed additive effects while the six QTL for DMC showed additive effect, dominance or overdominance. This study is a first step towards developing molecular marker tools for efficient breeding of CNP and DMC in cassava.

  14. An improved grazed class method to estimate species selection and dry matter intake by cows at pasture

    OpenAIRE

    Bruno Martin; Giampiero Lombardi; Philippe Pradel,; Anne Farruggia; Mauro Coppa

    2011-01-01

    Research has recently focused on pasture species intake by ruminants due to their influence on animal product quality. A field-applicable method which investigates species intake and selection, was tested on two dairy cow grazing systems: continuous grazing on a highly-biodiverse pasture (C) and rotational grazing on a moderately-diverse sward (R). In addition to the grazed class method, which evaluates the percentage of grazed dry matter (DM) per species according to the residual height of t...

  15. Effects of Homofermentative Lactic Acid Bacterial Inoculants on the Fermentation and Aerobic Stability Characteristics of Low Dry Matter Corn Silages

    OpenAIRE

    SUCU, Ekin; FİLYA, İsmail

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effects of homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter corn silages. Corn was harvested at the milk stage. Inoculant-1188 (Pioneer®, USA; Inoculant A) and Maize-All (Alltech, UK; Inoculant B) were used as homofermentative lactic acid bacterial inoculants. Inoculants were applied to silages 1.5 x 106 colony forming units/g levels. Silages with no additive served as co...

  16. Comparison of yielding of button mushrooms carpophores of strains cultivated in Poland and dry matter content in them

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the studies was to compare yielding of Agaricus bisporus carpophores of strains, which were cultivated in Poland in previous years and nowadays, as well as dry matter content in them. The following old strains were investigated: ‘Hauser A6’, ‘Hauser A6.5’, ‘Somycel 11’, ‘Hauser A3.2’, ‘Somycel 53’, ‘Somycel 209’, ‘Somycel 91’ and ‘Hauser A8.8’. From among new strains ‘Amycel 29’, ‘SP-251’, ‘SP-252’, ‘Amycel 2200’, ‘SP-312’, ‘Italspawn F59’, ‘Polmycel 29’ and ‘Polmycel 31’ were tested. It was recorded that the yield of old strains varied from 17.3 to 23.7 kg·m-2. The biggest yield was given by ’Hauser A8.8’ strain. New strains gave the yield from 16.9 to 23.6 kg·m-2. The biggest yield of carpophores was obtained from ‘Amycel 2200’, ‘SP-251’, as well as ‘Polmycel 29’ strains. Dry matter content of old strains varied from8 to 9.6%. Three strains, i.e. ‘Hauser A6’, ‘Somycel 11’ and ‘Somycel 53’ were characterised by dry matter content of above 9%. Dry matter content of new A. bisporus strains was lower than of earlier cultivated strains and varied from 7.1 to 8.4%.

  17. Organic matter addition in organic farming – Impact on root development and yields in maize and cowpea over dry seasons

    OpenAIRE

    Sangakkara, Dr Ravi; Bandaranayake, Mr P; Dissanayake, Ms U; Gajanayake, Ms J

    2008-01-01

    Organic matter and its proper management are vital in tropical organic farming to maintain productivity. A field study thus placed rice straw or Gliricidia leaves on the soil surface or the material was incorporated into soil. The impact of these treatments on soil moisture, root development and yields of organically grown maize or cowpea were evaluated in an Asian dry season. Incorporation increased soil moisture retention in the soil and hence induced better root growth, culminating in high...

  18. Influence of Cropping System Intensity on Dry Matter Yield and Nitrogen Concentration in Different Parts of Soybean Plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klaudija Carović

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Two-year investigations were conducted within the three-year maize-soybean-wheat crop rotation with the aim to assess the influence of two cropping systems, conditionally marked as high-input and reduced-input systems, on soybean dry matter yield and nitrogen concentration in its different plant parts. The high-input system was characterized by: ploughing at 30-32 cm, fertilization with 80 kg N and 130 P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, weed control based on oxasulfuron and, if required, a corrective treatment with propachizafop and bentazone. The reduced-input system involved: ploughing at 20-22 cm, fertilization with a total of 40 kg N and 130 kg P2O5 and K2O kg ha-1, and only oxasulfuron-based weed control. Investigations involved two soybean genotypes: L 940596 and L 910631, vegetation group I. An identical monofactorial trial with four replications was set up in each cropping system. Cropping system intensity had a positive effect on leaf and stem dry matter mass in 2002, and on leaf and stem nitrogen concentration, whereas it had no effect on pod dry matter, seed yield and seed nitrogen concentrations in either year. The highest leaf dry matter was recorded in R4 development stage and that of stem and pod without seeds in R7 development stage. In both trial years, the highest nitrogen concentrations in leaf and stem were recorded in R1 development stage. In both trial years, higher pod nitrogen concentration was achieved in R4 development stage than in the R7 stage.

  19. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  20. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  1. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  2. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  3. Determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Harker, Roger; Triggs, Chris M; Gunson, Anne; Campbell, Rachel L; Jackman, Richard; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative importance of food quality attributes in determining consumer purchase intention is critical for robust assessment of economic opportunities for industry growth. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how conjoint analysis methodology that incorporates tasting of fruit can be used to collect such information. Three hundred Japanese consumers took part in research designed to measure the importance of dry matter (DM), size, and price of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa "Hayward" and Actinidia chinensis "Hort16A") for purchase intention. Measurement of consumer liking for kiwifruit of different DM content was a key first step. Liking increased as DM increased and was accompanied by increased purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. The size of kiwifruit presented to consumers varied from "small" to "extra large." Consumers liked "mid-sized" kiwifruit over "small" or "extra-large" kiwifruit. Despite these differences in liking, size was of little importance in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. Price was a very important factor in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability but was less important than DM content. As price increased, purchase likelihood/choice probability decreased. Beneath these general findings, heterogeneity existed. Some consumers placed more/less importance on the focal purchase drivers than suggested by the aggregate model. Overall, the results suggest that incentive schemes already implemented by industry should consider rewarding high-DM fruit more than fruit size.   This research has contributed to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry gaining a better understanding of the relative importance consumers place on DM, size, and price of kiwifruit and has resulted in changes to grower incentive schemes. The research approach presented forces consumer to tradeoff attributes of kiwifruit against each other and decide on how important two key quality attributes-DM and

  4. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim

    Full Text Available Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L. in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0-360 kg N ha(-1 using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W(-0.27 with W being SDM in t ha(-1, when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha(-1. However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha(-1, the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI and accumulated N deficit (Nand of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to -7.07 kg N ha(-1, respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China.

  5. Partitioning of hexachlorobenzene in a kaolin/humic acid/surfactant/water system: combined effect of surfactant and soil organic matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Wang, Lingling; Lu, Xiaohua; Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian

    2011-11-30

    Understanding the combined effect of soil organic matter (SOM) and surfactants on the partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/water systems is important to predict the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER). In the present study we investigate the partitioning of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) within a humic acid (HA)-coated kaolin/Triton X-100 (TX100)/water system, with special emphasis on the interaction between TX100 and HA, and their combined effect on HCB sorption. HA firstly enhanced then suppressed TX100 sorption to kaolin as the amounts of HA increased, while the addition of TX100 led to a consistent reduction in HA sorption. In the HA-coated kaolin/TX100/water system, TX100 played a primary role in enhancing desorption of HCB, while the role could be suppressed and then enhanced as HA coating amounts increased. Only at HA coating above 2.4%, dissolved HA outcompeted clay-bound HA for HCB partitioning, resulting in dissolved HA enhanced desorption. The presence of dissolved HA at these conditions further promoted the effectiveness of TX100 enhanced desorption. Despite a reduced TX100 sorption to clay was achieved due to the presence of dissolved HA, the effect on HCB desorption was comparatively slight. A reliable cumulative influence of HA and TX100 on HCB desorption was observed, although HCB desorption by HA/TX100 mixed was less than the sum of HA and TX100 individually. Our study suggests that for soils of high organic contents, the combined effect of SOM and surfactants on HOCs desorption can be applied to improve the performance of SER. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effect of dietary dry matter concentration on the sorting behavior of lactating dairy cows fed a total mixed ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller-Cushon, E K; DeVries, T J

    2009-07-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether addition of water to a high-moisture total mixed ration reduces feed sorting by dairy cattle. Twelve lactating Holstein cows, individually fed once per day, were tested on 2 diets in a crossover design with 21-d periods. Diets had the same dietary composition and differed only in dry matter content, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets were 1) dry (57.6% DM) and 2) wet (47.9% DM). Dry matter intake (DMI) and milk production were monitored for each animal for the last 7 d of both treatment periods. For the final 3 d of each period, milk samples were taken for composition analysis and fresh feed and orts were sampled for particle size analysis. The particle size separator had 3 screens (19, 8, and 1.18 mm) and a bottom pan, resulting in 4 fractions (long, medium, short, fine). Sorting was calculated as the actual intake of each particle size fraction expressed as a percentage of the predicted intake of that fraction. Contrary to the hypothesis, cows sorted the wet diet more extensively than the dry diet. Sorting of the dry diet was limited to a tendency to refuse short particles, whereas the wet diet was sorted against long particles and for short and fine particles. Water addition reduced DMI, neutral detergent fiber intake, and starch intake of cows on the wet diet. Increased sorting on the wet diet resulted in a tendency for decreased concentration of dietary neutral detergent fiber consumed and also resulted in increased starch concentration of the diet consumed. Milk production and components were unaffected by treatment. Our results suggest that water addition to high-moisture total mixed rations, containing primarily haylage and silage forage sources, may not be an effective method to reduce sorting. Furthermore, water addition may negatively affect DMI and encourage sorting, resulting in the consumption of a ration with different nutrient composition than intended.

  7. Influence of cyanobacteria on water activity and dry matter of muscles in the common carp (Cyprinus carpio L.) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss W.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Navratil, Lukas; Vlasek, Vaclav; Langova, Jitka; Palikova, Miroslava; Brabec, Tomas; Mares, Jan; Kopp, Radovan; Klima, Zdenek; Navratil, Stanislav

    2012-01-01

    Cyanobacteria are studied from the viewpoint of the issue of risks to water supply, agriculture and recreational activities for a long time. Cyanobacteria produce a wide range of substances which can be toxic and can influence the safety and quality of fish products. The aim of this study was to determine whether the diet with the content of cyanobacteria can affect the water activity and the dry matter of fish muscle and whether this diet can contribute significantly to the shelf life of fish muscles. Common carp (Cyprinus carpio) and rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were used in this study. Both fish species were divided into two groups. The first group of fish was fed with feed with cyanobacteria (3% of dry matter), the second group with feed without cyanobacteria. The water activity and the dry matter were monitored immediately after sampling of the fish muscle on day 7, 14 and 21 (carp) or on day 10, 20 and 30 (rainbow trout) and seven days after every sampling and cold storage (6-8 °C). Feed with the content of cyanobacteria significantly decreased the water activity in muscles of both fish species on day 21 (in carp) and on day 30 (in rainbow trout). The dry matter of fish muscle significantly increased on day 7 and 21 (in carp) and on day 10 and 30, but decreased on day 20 (in rainbow trout). The cold storage significantly influenced the dry matter only. While the dry matter was increased in the common carp (7 days of cold storage after sampling on days 14 and 21), the dry matter decreased in the rainbow trout (7 days of cold storage after sampling on day 10). The decrease of water activity was found only after longer exposure in the both exposed fish species. The dry matter was influenced far greater and was mostly increased in the both exposed fish species.

  8. Distribution coefficients (Kd) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takata, Hyoe; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. (90)Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. (90)Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater-sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater-sediment distribution coefficients, Kd (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment-water partitioning experiments. (85)Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined Kd values (Kd-ex) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in Kd-ex was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. Kd-ex values were used, along with the measured concentrations of (88)Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3-15.7% of the total (88)Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate Kd values for anthropogenic (90)Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment.

  9. 华北地区夏玉米干物质分配系数的模拟%Simulation on Dry Matter Distribution Coefficient for Summer Maize in North China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昊; 谭方颖; 王建林; 谭凯炎; 徐英; 王志伟

    2016-01-01

    temperature as the independent variable. The results showed that: (1) There were same dynamic change characteristics for dry matter distribution coefficient of maize from three stations. The dry matter distribution coefficient for leaves kept reducing from seedling process, and the dry matter distribution coefficient for stems increased at the beginning and then decreased with the maximum value occurring at tasseling stage. The dry matter partitioning coefficient for ears increased after the tasseling and reached 1 after 20 days, which meant the dry matter was no longer allocated to leaves and stems. (2) Both dry matter distribution coefficients for leaves and stems of summer maize in North China could be simulated by piecewise nonlinear model. The dry matter distribution coefficient for leaves was distinguished at 10-15 days after tasseling, which could be simulated by three times polynomial dynamic model before tasseling along with the development process, and became 0 after tasseling. The dry matter distribution coefficient for stems was distinguished at 20-25 days after tasseling, which could be simulated by four times polynomial dynamic model before tasseling along with the development process, and became 0 after tasseling. The dry matter distribution coefficient for ears could calculated by the sum of the dry matter distribution coefficient for leaves, stems and ears, which was 1. The results indicated that the simulation effect of dynamic model for dry matter distribution coefficient of summer maize was proficient in North China.

  10. Comparative growth, dry matter accumulation and photosynthetic rate of seven species of Eucalypt in response to phosphorus supply

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peng-fei Wu; Xiang-qing Ma; Mulualem Tigabu; Yong Huang; Li-li Zhou; Liping Cai; Xiao-long Hou; Per Christer Oden

    2014-01-01

    Plantations of eucalypts as short-rotation tree crops are rapidly expanding in tropical and sub-tropical regions, including southern China, where the soils are acidic and available phosphorus (P) is limited. We investigated seedling growth, dry matter accumulation, and the dynamics of photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll content of seven Eucalyptus spe-cies/hybrids (E. dunnii, E. grandis, E. grandis × E. camaldulensis, E. urophylla × E. camaldulensis, E. urophylla × E. tereticornis, E. grandis × E. tereticornis, E. urophylla × E. grandis) in response to different levels of P supply (0, 6, 12 and 18 mg⋅kg-1 KH2PO4). The photosynthetic rate and the chlorophyll content significantly declined as the P supply declined in almost a linear fashion for all species as the P stress period extended. In the absence of P supply, height growth of seedlings of all species was significantly impaired, while root collar diameter growth and whole plant dry matter accumulation was not affected by the level of P supply in most of the species. Significant inter-species variations in growth, dry matter accumulation and photosynthetic rate in response to P supply were detected. Eucalyptus dunnii had the lowest growth perform-ance across all levels of P supply while E. urophylla × E. tereticornis showed superior growth performance. From a practical point of view, E. urophylla × E. tereticornis is suggested as a candidate hybrid for planting on slightly P-deficient sites in southern China while E. dunnii, being a slow-growing species, is not suitable for short-rotation plantation. On plantation sites where severe P deficiency exists, P fertilization needs to be considered to boost rapid growth of seedlings so as to meet the man-agement objectives of short-rotation plantation.

  11. A New Curve of Critical Nitrogen Concentration Based on Spike Dry Matter for Winter Wheat in Eastern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ben; Ata-UI-Karim, Syed Tahir; Yao, Xia; Tian, YongChao; Cao, WeiXing; Zhu, Yan; Liu, XiaoJun

    2016-01-01

    Diagnosing the status of crop nitrogen (N) helps to optimize crop yield, improve N use efficiency, and reduce the risk of environmental pollution. The objectives of the present study were to develop a critical N (Nc) dilution curve for winter wheat (based on spike dry matter [SDM] during the reproductive growth period), to compare this curve with the existing Nc dilution curve (based on plant dry matter [DM] of winter wheat), and to explore its ability to reliably estimate the N status of winter wheat. Four field experiments, using varied N fertilizer rates (0–375 kg ha-1) and six cultivars (Yangmai16, Ningmai13, Ningmai9, Aikang58, Yangmai12, Huaimai 17), were conducted in the Jiangsu province of eastern China. Twenty plants from each plot were sampled to determine the SDM and spike N concentration (SNC) during the reproductive growth period. The spike Nc curve was described by Nc = 2.85×SDM-0.17, with SDM ranging from 0.752 to 7.233 t ha-1. The newly developed curve was lower than the Nc curve based on plant DM. The N nutrition index (NNI) for spike dry matter ranged from 0.62 to 1.1 during the reproductive growth period across the seasons. Relative yield (RY) increased with increasing NNI; however, when NNI was greater than 0.96, RY plateaued and remained stable. The spike Nc dilution curve can be used to correctly identify the N nutrition status of winter wheat to support N management during the reproductive growth period for winter wheat in eastern China. PMID:27732634

  12. N, P or K doses on the dry matter and crude protein yield in maize and sorghum for silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Júnior Melo Damian

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Maize and sorghum are the main raw materials in the production of silage for animal feed, with mineral fertilization being worthy of note when the goal is to increase gains in the amount and quality of the forage. This study aimed at evaluating the contribution of N, P or K doses to the dry matter and crude protein yield in maize and sorghum grown for silage. The experiments were carried out in a randomized block design, with four replications, during five successive crops of maize (three summer seasons and sorghum (two off-season. Five doses of N (0 kg ha-1, 50 kg ha-1, 100 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 200 kg ha-1, five doses of P2O5 (0 kg ha-1, 40 kg ha-1, 80 kg ha-1, 120 kg ha-1 and 160 kg ha-1 and five doses of K2O (0 kg ha-1, 30 kg ha-1, 60 kg ha-1, 90 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 were applied to each crop in the same experimental area. The N doses contributed to an increase in the crude protein yield in the five successive crops of maize and sorghum, together with an increase in dry matter and/or protein concentration. Crude protein increased 59.5-312.9 % for both crops. The soils used for the succession cropping system of maize and sorghum for silage had "very high" levels of P and K. Therefore, the P fertilization had no effect on the dry matter or crude protein yield in the first year of cultivation, similarly to the K fertilization during the five successive crop seasons.

  13. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  14. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...... into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...

  15. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China......, and decreased with 300 kg N ha−1. Net photosynthetic rate (P N) and the amount of accumulated dry matter distributed into grains showed the same response to N application as grain yield. Grain protein content increased with increasing N application rates. Moreover, based on further analysis of these results...

  16. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...... be applied for optimising the efficiency of current and future biogas plants, as well as in biorefinery contexts converting heterogeneous bioslurry, energy crops, and wastes into value-added products. Adding model transfer capabilities, it is indicated that handheld instrumentation can play a vital role...... in bringing NIR technology directly in the field, and onto the plant floor – the implications for reliable biogas NIR process monitoring and control are significant....

  17. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  18. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, Christer; Houmøller, Lars P.; Weisbjerg, Martin R.

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF...... calculated. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was examined for its ability to predict degradation parameters and to make a direct prediction of effective degradation from scans of the original samples of perennial ryegrass and orchardgrass. Prediction of effective degradation of the different feed...

  19. Impact of Applying Organic and Mineral Fertilisers on Dry Matter in Bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ileas toth

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Applying nitrogen fertilisers in legume species has been subjected to scientific research due to the efficacy of these fertilisers on yield (symbiotic atmospheric nitrogen fixation. In general, applying high rates of nitrogen fertilisers on legume species does not correlate directly with green matter production because these species take the necessary nitrogen from the atmosphere. This feature is specific also to bird’s-foot-trefoil, which fixes important amounts of atmospheric nitrogen during vegetation. This paper presents the impact of the interaction between organic and mineral fertilisers on bird’s-foot-trefoil within a bifactorial experiment. Differences in yield at both unilateral effect of the factors and at that of the interaction of the factors are statistically ensured. Keywords: common bird’s-foot-trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L., organic and mineral fertilisers, dry matter

  20. Production, partitioning and stoichiometry of organic matter under variable nutrient supply during mesocosm experiments in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Franz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ, are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test the impact of nutrient supply and nutrient stoichiometry on production, partitioning and elemental composition of dissolved (DOC, DON, DOP and particulate (POC, PON, POP organic matter, three nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted with natural microbial communities in shipboard mesocosms, during research cruises in the tropical waters of the southeast Pacific and the northeast Atlantic. Maximum accumulation of POC and PON was observed under high N supply conditions, indicating that primary production was controlled by N availability. The stoichiometry of microbial biomass was unaffected by nutrient N:P supply during exponential growth under nutrient saturation, while it was highly variable under conditions of nutrient limitation and closely correlated to the N:P supply ratio, although PON:POP of accumulated biomass generally exceeded the supply ratio. Microbial N:P composition was constrained by a general lower limit of 5:1. Channelling of assimilated P into DOP appears to be the mechanism responsible for the consistent offset of cellular stoichiometry relative to inorganic nutrient supply and nutrient drawdown, as DOP build-up was observed to intensify under decreasing N:P supply. Low nutrient N:P conditions in coastal upwelling areas overlying O2-deficient waters seem to represent a net source for DOP, which may stimulate growth of diazotrophic phytoplankton. These results demonstrate that microbial nutrient assimilation and

  1. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  2. Strain partitioning into dry and wet zones and the formation of Ca-rich myrmekite in syntectonic syenites: A case for melt-assisted dissolution-replacement creep under granulite facies conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Toni, G. B.; Bitencourt, M. F.; Nardi, L. V. S.

    2016-10-01

    The formation of Ca-rich myrmekites is described in syntectonic syenites crystallized and progressively deformed under granulite facies conditions. The syenites are found in high- and low-strain zones where microstructure and mineral composition are compared. Heterogeneously distributed water-rich, late-magmatic liquids were responsible for strain partitioning into dry and wet high-strain zones at outcrop scale, where contrasting deformation mechanisms are reported. In dry high-strain zones K-feldspar and clinopyroxene are recrystallized under high-T conditions. In wet high-strain zones, the de-stabilization of clinopyroxene and pervasive replacement of relatively undeformed K-feldspar porphyroclasts by myrmekite and subordinate micrographic intergrowths indicate dissolution-replacement creep as the main deformation mechanism. The reworking of these intergrowths is observed and is considered to contribute significantly to the development of the mylonitic foliation and banding. A model is proposed for strain partitioning relating a positive feedback between myrmekite-forming reaction, continuous inflow of late-magmatic liquids and dissolution-replacement creep in the wet zone at the expenses of original mineralogy preserved in the dry zones. Melt-assisted dissolution-replacement creep in syntectonic environments under granulite-facies conditions may extend the field of operation of dissolution-replacement creep, changing significantly the rheology of the lower continental crust.

  3. [Effects of controlled release nitrogen fertilizer application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Si, Dong-Xia; Cui, Zhen-Ling; Chen, Xin-Ping; Lü, Fu-Tang

    2014-06-01

    Effects of four controlled release nitrogen (N) fertilizers, including two kinds of polyester coated urea (Ncau, CRU) and phosphate (NhnP) and humic acid (NhnF) coated urea on assimilates accumulation and nitrogen balance of summer maize were investigated in a mode of one-time fertilization at the regional N recommended rate. The results showed that the N release curves of the two controlled release fertilizers CRU and Ncau matched well with the summer maize N uptake. Compared with the regional N recommendation rate, CRU could increase maize yield by 4.2% and Ncau could maintain the same yield level. CRU significantly increased the dry matter accumulation rate after anthesis of summer maize, but Ncau markedly increased the dry matter accumulated ratio before anthesis. Meanwhile, CRU could reduce the apparent N losses by 19 kg N x hm(-2) in the case of large precipitation. However, NhnF and NhnP caused the yield losses by 0.1%-8.9%, and enhanced the apparent N losses. Therefore, both CRU and Ncau with one-time fertilization could be a simplified alternative to the "total control, staging regulation" fertilization technique at the regional N recommended rate for summer maize production.

  4. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2017-02-01

    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA3) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA3 content and GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA3/ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic enzymes

  6. Effects of Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product on ruminal starch digestion are dependent upon dry matter intake for lactating cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, M S; Ying, Y

    2012-11-01

    This experiment was conducted to evaluate ruminal digestion responses to Saccharomyces cerevisiae fermentation product (SCFP) supplementation and to determine if responses are influenced by voluntary feed intake. Fifteen ruminally and duodenally cannulated Holstein cows with a wide range in preliminary dry matter intake (pDMI; 20.1 to 31.0 kg/d) measured during a 14-d preliminary period were used in a crossover design experiment. Treatments were SCFP and control (a mix of dry ground corn and soybean meal), top-dressed at the rate of 56 g/d per head. The base diet contained 28% NDF, 30% starch, and 16.5% CP and included corn silage, alfalfa silage, high-moisture corn, protein supplement, and a mineral and vitamin supplement. Treatment periods were 28 d, with the final 8d used for sample and data collection. Voluntary dry matter intake was determined during the last 4d of the preliminary period. Ruminal digestion kinetics were determined using the pool-and-flux method. Main effects of SCFP treatment and their interaction with pDMI were tested by ANOVA. An interaction was detected between SCFP treatment and pDMI for ruminal digestion rate of starch; SCFP increased the rate of starch digestion compared with the control for cows with pDMI below 26 kg/d and decreased it for cows with higher pDMI. This resulted in an interaction between treatment and pDMI for turnover rate of starch in the rumen and true and apparent ruminal starch digestibility because passage rate of starch from the rumen was not affected by treatment (mean=24.3%/h). Ruminal pH (mean=6.0), dry matter intake, milk yield and component percentages were not affected by treatment or its interaction with pDMI. Supplementation of SCFP reduced the rate of ruminal starch digestion for cows with higher feed intake, which could help stabilize the ruminal environment when large amounts of starch are consumed to support higher milk production.

  7. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  8. The influence of the strain, flush and size of carpophores on the yield and dry matter content of button mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach carpophores

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alina Kałużewicz

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the experiment was to obtain information about the yield quantity and quality of 16 cultivated strains of Agaricus bisporus. The ‘Somycel 516’ strain gave the highest yield, whereas the yield from the ‘Sylvan 130’ strain was the lowest. The ‘Hauser A1.5’ was characterised by the highest content of dry matter in all the three yield flushes. An equally high content of dry matter was in the first and second flush of the ‘Italspawn F 50’ strain and in the second flash of the strain ‘Italspawn F 62’. ‘Sylvan S100’, ‘Italspawn F 56’, ‘Irlandzka 501’, ‘Amycel 104’ and ‘Le Lion X13’ were the strains with the lowest content of dry matter in all of the three yield flushes. The size of the carpophores had significant influence on the dry matter content. In the all three flushes, the carpophores with diameter 4.6–5.5 cm were characterized by the lowest dry matter content.

  9. Genetic analysis and association of simple sequence repeat markers with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in sweetpotato.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yada, Benard; Brown-Guedira, Gina; Alajo, Agnes; Ssemakula, Gorrettie N; Owusu-Mensah, Eric; Carey, Edward E; Mwanga, Robert O M; Yencho, G Craig

    2017-03-01

    Molecular markers are needed for enhancing the development of elite sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam) cultivars with a wide range of commercially important traits in sub-Saharan Africa. This study was conducted to estimate the heritability and determine trait correlations of storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content in a cross between 'New Kawogo' × 'Beauregard'. The study was also conducted to identify simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers associated with these traits. A total of 287 progeny and the parents were evaluated for two seasons at three sites in Uganda and genotyped with 250 SSR markers. Broad sense heritability (H(2)) for storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content were 0.24, 0.68, 0.70 and 0.90, respectively. Storage root β-carotene content was negatively correlated with dry matter (r = -0.59, P content, while storage root yield was positively correlated with dry matter (r = 0.57, P = 0.029) and starch (r = 0.41, P = 0.008) content. Through logistic regression, a total of 12, 4, 6 and 8 SSR markers were associated with storage root yield, dry matter, starch and β-carotene content, respectively. The SSR markers used in this study may be useful for quantitative trait loci analysis and selection for these traits in future.

  10. Distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) of strontium and significance of oxides and organic matter in controlling its partitioning in coastal regions of Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takata, Hyoe, E-mail: takata@kaiseiken.or.jp; Tagami, Keiko; Aono, Tatsuo; Uchida, Shigeo

    2014-08-15

    The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident in March 2011 resulted in the release of large quantities of a long-lived radioactive strontium (i.e. {sup 90}Sr; half-life: 28.8 y) into the coastal areas of Japan. {sup 90}Sr release was dispersed and mixed into the water column, and will eventually be deposited into sediment. Because factors controlling seawater–sediment partitioning in the coastal marine environments are not fully understood, we developed seawater–sediment distribution coefficients, K{sub d} (L/kg), for Sr in coastal regions of Japan by means of sediment–water partitioning experiments. {sup 85}Sr was used as a radiotracer and conditions were designed to mimic the environmental systems of the sampling sites as closely as possible. Experimentally determined K{sub d} values (K{sub d-ex}) varied between 0.3 and 3.3 L/kg (mean, 1.4 L/kg), and the variation in K{sub d-ex} was attributed to the percentage of Sr in the exchangeable fraction in the sediment. K{sub d-ex} values were used, along with the measured concentrations of {sup 88}Sr, a stable naturally occurring Sr isotope in seawater and sediment, to estimate the concentrations of exchangeable Sr in the sediment. Estimates ranged from 2.1 to 24.3 μg/kg, or 1.3–15.7% of the total {sup 88}Sr concentration in the sediment. Significant correlations existed between the estimated concentrations of exchangeable Sr, and the organic matter and the oxide/hydrous oxide contents. When organic contents were greater than 0.38%, Sr binds to organic surface sites more strongly than to the other sites. Results indicate that binding of Sr to the surface of sedimentary particles was influenced by grain size, iron and manganese oxides, and organic matter. Furthermore, the information presented here could be useful to estimate K{sub d} values for anthropogenic {sup 90}Sr in sediment in the coastal marine environment. - Highlights: • K{sub d} for Sr were determined in Japanese coastal regions.

  11. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  12. Soil C:N stoichiometry controls carbon sink partitioning between above-ground tree productivity and soil organic matter in high fertility forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cotrufo, M.; Alberti, G.; Vicca, S.; Inglima, I.; Belelli-Marchesini, L.; Genesio, L.; Miglietta, F.; Marjanovic, H.; Martinez, C.; Matteucci, G.; Peressotti, A.; Petrella, L.; Rodeghiero, M.

    2013-12-01

    The release of organic compounds from roots is a key process influencing soil carbon (C) dynamics and nutrient availability in terrestrial ecosystems and is a process by which plants stimulate microbial activity and soil organic matter (SOM) mineralization thus releasing nitrogen (N) to sustain their gross and net primary production (GPP and NPP). Root inputs also contribute to soil organic matter (SOM) formation. In this study, we quantified the annual net root derived C input to soil (Net-Croot) across six high fertile forests using an in-growth core isotope technique. On the basis of Net-Croot, wood and coarse root biomass changes and eddy covariance data, we quantified net belowground C sequestration. This and GPP were inversely related to soil C:N, but not to climate or age. Because, at these high fertile sites, biomass growth did not change with soil C:N ratio, biomass growth-to-GPP ratio significantly increased with increasing soil C:N. This was true for both our six forest sites and for high fertile sites across a set of other 23 sites selected at global scale. We suggest that, at high fertile sites, the interaction between plant demand for nutrients, soil stoichiometry and microbial activity sustain higher ecosystem C-sink allocation to above ground tree biomass with increasing soil C:N ratio and that this clear and strong relationship can be used for modelling forest C sink partitioning between plant biomass and soil. When C:N is high, microbes have a low C use efficiency, respire more of the fresh C inputs by roots and prime SOM decomposition increasing N availability for tree uptake. Soil C sequestration would therefore decrease, whereas the extra N released during SOM decomposition can promote tree growth and ecosystem C sink allocation in aboveground biomass. Conversely, C is sequestered in soil when the low soil C:N promotes microbial C use efficiency and new SOM formation.

  13. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...... in ration composition and characteristics of maize silage. The dataset compiled for the study comprised 29 experiments with 96 dietary treatments, but for a number of parameters less observations were published and therefore used in the analyses. Enhanced aNDFom digestibility was associated with a decrease...

  14. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    in fifteen bulls, steers and heifers, respectively, fed a complete diet ad libitum. The diet was based on chopped straw formulated to secure physical regulation of feed intake. Total random variation of recorded VDMI corresponded to a coefficient of variation (CV) of 24.6%. Two thirds of this variation......The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was due to random day to day variation in VDMI. Random variation between weeks, random variation between animals and residual random variation corresponded to a CV of 3.6, 8.0 and 10.0%, respectively, and they explained 2.5, 12.2 and 18.8% of the total random variation. In the present experiment VDMI...

  15. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  16. Influence of management regime and harvest date on the forage quality of rangelands plants: the importance of dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bumb, Iris; Garnier, Eric; Bastianelli, Denis; Richarte, Jean; Bonnal, Laurent; Kazakou, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In spite of their recognized ecological value, relatively little is known about the nutritional value of species-rich rangelands for herbivores. We investigated the sources of variation in dry matter digestibility (DMD), neutral detergent fibre content (NDF) and nitrogen concentration (NC) in plants from species-rich Mediterranean rangelands in southern France, and tested whether the dry matter content (DMC) was a good predictor of the forage quality of different plant parts. Sixteen plant species with contrasting growth forms (rosette, tussock, extensive and stemmed-herb) were studied, representative of two management regimes imposed in these rangelands: (i) fertilization and intensive grazing and (ii) non-fertilization and moderate grazing. Among the 16 plant species, four species were found in both treatments, allowing us to assess the intraspecific variability in forage quality and DMC across the treatments. The components of nutritional value (DMD, NDF and NC) as well as the DMC of leaves, stems and reproductive plant parts, were assessed at the beginning of the growing season and at peak standing biomass. All components of nutritional value and DMC were affected by species growth form: rosettes had higher DMD and NC than tussocks; the reverse being found for NDF and DMC. As the season progressed, DMD and NC of the different plant parts decreased while NDF and DMC increased for all species. DMC was negatively related to DMD and NC and positively to NDF, regardless of the source of variation (species, harvest date, management regime or plant part). Path analysis indicated that NDF was the main determinant of DMD. Better assessment of forage quality in species-rich systems requires consideration of their growth form composition. DMC of all plant parts, which is closely related to NDF, emerged as a good predictor and easily measured trait to estimate DMD in these species-rich systems. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Annals of Botany Company.

  17. The influence of dry matter, applied heat treatment and storage period on the viscosity of stirred yogurt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denin-Đurđević Jelena D.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Skim milk powder reconstituted to 8.44% TS, 9.65% TS and 10.84% TS respectively was used for investigation. Untreated milk and milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min and 90ºC/10 min, respectively, were used for the investigation. Milk was inoculated with 2.5% of yogurt culture (containing Lactobacillus delbrueckii subsp. bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus in the ratio 1:1 at 43ºC. Samples were incubated until pH 4.6 was reached. Samples were immediately cooled to 4ºC and held at that temperature during 14 days. Acid casein gel was stirred after 1, 7 and 14 days of storage. Measurements were done at 30 rpm during 2 min, at 20ºC. According to the investigation, it could be concluded that both applied heat treatment and dry matter content influence viscosity of stirred yogurt. Viscosity increases when dry matter content increases. The smallest viscosity had yogurt produced from untreated milk with 8.44% TS, while samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS had the highest viscosity. Applied heat treatments had significant influence on viscosity of yogurt gained by stirring of acid casein gels after 7 and 14 days of storage. Stirred yogurt produced from milk heat treated at 90ºC/10 min had a higher viscosity than samples produced from milk heat treated at 85ºC/20 min. Storage period influenced average viscosity of stirred yogurt. Samples of stirred yogurt produced from milk with 8.44% TS showed a decrease of average viscosity during storage regardless of the applied heat treatment of milk. The highest average viscosity had samples produced from milk with 10.84% TS.

  18. Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Ercoli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night. Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.

  19. Accumulation of Dry Matter and Nitrogen in Durum Wheat During Grain Filling as Affected by Temperature and Nitrogen Rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Mariotti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Durum wheat (Triticum durum Desf. is commonly grown in mediterranean conditions, where temperature stress during grain filling can limit productivity. This study was conducted to assess the effect of optimal and too high temperature during grain filling on the patterns of accumulation of dry matter and N of durum wheat plants grown at different levels of N fertilization. Two durum wheat varieties, Appio and Creso, were grown in controlled environment conditions and in pots with three rates of nitrogen fertilizer (not applied, normal amount, and high amount and two air temperature regimes during grain filling (20/15 °C and 28/23 °C day/night. Results showed that the duration of the intervals between the main maturity stages within grain filling were both genotype-specific and temperature- dependent, while N rate did not modify the timing of grain development. The two genotypes responded to temperature by increasing the rate of development, but the thermal timing of development was unchanged with the two temperature regimes. The higher temperature reduced grain growth and increased N accumulation in grain. However, these effects were recorded only in fertilized plants. Nitrogen availability modified the growth of the plant during the whole cycle, in that increased N fertilizer at seeding resulted in a greater plant size at anthesis and in a greater accumulation rate of dry matter and N in grain during grain filling. Grain yield and kernel weight were better expressed at 20/15 °C, while grain protein concentration was favoured under the 28/23 °C temperature regime. Nitrogen fertilization increased the sensitivity of plants to high temperature. Thus, the role of N fertilization under heat stress may be more important than under optimal temperatures.

  20. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  1. Agronomic and nutritional evaluation of african star grass-based pastures (Cynodon nlemfuensis) in the region of Monteverde, Puntarenas, Costa Rica. I. Dry matter yield and phenology.

    OpenAIRE

    Villalobos, Luis; Arce, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Dry matter yield and phenology of african star grass (Cynodon nlemfuensis)- based pastures were evaluated in 4 commercial dairy farms nearby to the region of Monteverde (latitude 10°20’ N, longitude 84°50’ W, 800 to 1200 masl) every other month during a two-year period. Average dry matter yield and phenological stage were 4484 kg.ha-1.grazing-1 cycle and 7.36 green leaves per regrowth, respectively. Botanical composition of pastures was 86.81% african star grass, 2.52% other grasses, 1.39% le...

  2. Relationship between dry matter production and carbon dioxide absorption in seedlings of Scots pine (Pinus silvestris L. in their second vegetation season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Żelawski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Accumulation of dry matter in needles, lignified stems and roots during the second vegetation season was compared with seasonal changes in photosynthesis and respiration activities of the se organs. Whereas growth analysis concerned plants growing at nearly natural course of external conditions, gas exchange determinations were made at constant laboratory conditions. For comparison of dry matter production and photosynthetic ability of a plant new terms „assimilation capacity" and „efficiency of assimilation" were introduced as possible expressions of photosynthetic productivity. Two ecotypes of Scots pine originating from lowland and highland regions of the country exhibited slightly different pattern of the investigated characteristics.

  3. Dry matter and digesta particle size gradients along the goat digestive tract on grass and browse diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clauss, M; Fritz, J; Tschuor, A; Braun, U; Hummel, J; Codron, D

    2017-02-01

    Physical properties of the digesta vary along the ruminant digestive tract. They also vary within the forestomach, leading to varying degrees of rumen contents stratification in 'moose-type' (browsing) and 'cattle-type' (intermediate and grazing) ruminants. We investigated the dry matter concentration (DM) and the mean digesta particle size (MPS) within the forestomach and along the digestive tract in 10 goats fed grass hay or dried browse after a standardized 12-h fast, euthanasia and freezing in the natural position. In all animals, irrespective of diet, DM showed a peak in the omasum and an increase from caecum via colon towards the faeces and a decrease in MPS between the reticulum and the omasum. Both patterns are typical for ruminants in general. In the forestomach, there was little systematic difference between more cranial and more caudal locations ('horizontal stratification'), with the possible exception of large particle segregation in the dorsal rumen blindsac on the grass diet. In contrast, the typical (vertical) contents stratification was evident for DM (with drier contents dorsally) and, to a lower degree, for MPS (with larger particles dorsally). Although evident in both groups, this stratification was more pronounced on the grass diet. The results support the interpretation that differences in rumen contents stratification between ruminants are mainly an effect of species-specific physiology, but can be enhanced due to the diet consumed. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. Stabilization of Stormwater Biofilters: Impacts of Wetting and Drying Phases and the Addition of Organic Matter to Filter Media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramaniam, D. N.; Egodawatta, P.; Mather, P.; Rajapakse, J. P.

    2015-09-01

    Ripening period refers to a phase of stabilization in sand filters in water treatment systems that follow a new installation or cleaning of the filter. Intermittent wetting and drying, a unique property of stormwater biofilters, would similarly be subjected to a phase of stabilization. Suspended solids are an important parameter that is often used to monitor the stabilization of sand filters in water treatment systems. Stormwater biofilters, however, contain organic material that is added to the filter layer to enhance nitrate removal, the dynamics of which is seldom analyzed in stabilization of stormwater biofilters. Therefore, in this study of stormwater biofiltration in addition to suspended solids (turbidity), organic matter (TOC, DOC, TN, and TKN) was also monitored as a parameter for stabilization of the stormwater biofilter. One Perspex bioretention column (94 mm internal diameter) was fabricated with filter layer that contained 8 % organic material and fed with tapwater with different antecedent dry days (0-40 day) at 100 mL/min. Samples were collected from the outflow at different time intervals between 2 and 150 min and were tested for total organic carbon, dissolved organic carbon, total nitrogen, total Kjeldhal nitrogen, and turbidity. The column was observed to experience two phases of stabilization, one at the beginning of each event that lasted for 30 min, while the other phase was observed across subsequent events that are related to the age of filter.

  5. The repeated drying-wetting and freezing-thawing cycles affect only the active pool of soil organic matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenov, Vyacheslav; Zinyakova, Natalya; Tulina, Anastasiya

    2016-04-01

    The decrease in the content of soil organic carbon, particularly in active form, is one of the major problems of the 21st century, which is closely related to the disturbance of the biogeochemical carbon cycle and to the increase in the emission of carbon dioxide into the atmosphere. The main reasons for the SOM losses are the surplus of the SOM active pool losses due to mineralization, erosion, and infiltration over the input of fresh organic matter to the soil, as well as the changes in the soil conditions and processes due to natural and anthropogenic disturbing impacts. Experiments were carried out with mixed samples from the upper layers of soddy-podzolic soil, gray forest soil, and typical chernozems. Soil samples as controls were incubated after wetting for 150 days. The dynamics and cumulative production of C-CO2 under stable temperature (22°C) and moisture conditions were determined; the initial content of potentially mineralizable organic matter (C0) in the soil at the beginning of the incubation was then calculated to use these data as the control. Other soil samples were exposed in flasks to the following successive treatments: wetting →incubation → freezing → thawing → incubation →drying. Six repeated cycles of disturbing impacts were performed for 140 days of the experiment. After six cycles, the soil samples were incubated under stable temperature and moisture conditions for 150 days. The wetting of dried soils and the thawing of frozen soils are accompanied by the pulsed dynamics of the C-CO2 production with an abrupt increase in the rate of the C-CO2 emission within several days by 2.7-12.4 and 1.6-2.7 times, respectively, compared to the stable incubation conditions. The rate of the C-CO2 production pulses under each subsequent impact decreased compared to the preceding one similarly for all studied soils, which could be due to the depletion in potentially mineralizable soil organic matter (C0). The cumulative extra C-CO2 production by

  6. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri and Lactobacillus plantarum on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filya, I

    2003-11-01

    The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri, alone or in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation, aerobic stability, and ruminal degradability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages was studied under laboratory conditions. The inoculants were applied at 1 x 10(6) cfu/g. Silages with no additives served as control. After treatment, the chopped forages were ensiled in 1.5-L anaerobic jars. Three jars per treatment were sampled on d 2, 4, 8, 15, and 90. After 90 d of storage, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test lasting 5 d, in which CO2 production, as well as chemical and microbiological parameters, was measured to determine the extent of aerobic deterioration. At the end of the ensiling period (d 90), the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of acetic acid than the control and L. plantarum-inoculated silages. Therefore, yeast activity was impaired in the L. buchneri- and L. buchneri + L. plantarum-inoculated silages. As a result, L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, improved aerobic stability of the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages. The combination of L. buchneri and L. plantarum reduced ammonia N concentrations and fermentation losses in the silages compared with L. buchneri alone. However, L. buchneri, L. plantarum, and a combination of L. buchneri + L. plantarum did not effect in situ rumen dry matter, organic matters, or neutral detergent fiber degradability of the silages. The L. buchneri was very effective in protecting the low dry matter corn and sorghum silages exposed to air under laboratory conditions. The use of L. buchneri, alone or in combination with L. plantarum, as a silage inoculant can improve the aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages by inhibition of yeast activity.

  7. Comparison of three different wastewater sludge and their respective drying processes: Solar, thermal and reed beds - Impact on organic matter characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collard, Marie; Teychené, Benoit; Lemée, Laurent

    2016-06-09

    Drying process aims at minimising the volume of wastewater sludge (WWS) before disposal, however it can impact sludge characteristics. Due to its high content in organic matter (OM) and lipids, sludge are mainly valorised by land farming but can also be considered as a feedstock for biodiesel production. As sludge composition is a major parameter for the choice of disposal techniques, the objective of this study was to determine the influence of the drying process. To reach this goal, three sludges obtained from solar, reed beds and thermal drying processes were investigated at the global and molecular scales. Before the drying step the sludges presented similar physico-chemical (OM content, elemental analysis, pH, infrared spectra) characteristics and lipid contents. A strong influence of the drying process on lipids and humic-like substances contents was observed through OM fractionation. Thermochemolysis-GCMS of raw sludge and lipids revealed similar molecular content mainly constituted with steroids and fatty acids. Molecular changes were noticeable for thermal drying through differences in branched to linear fatty acids ratio. Finally the thermal drying induced a weakening of OM whereas the solar drying led to a complexification. These findings show that smooth drying processes such as solar or reed-beds are preferable for amendment production whereas thermal process leads to pellets with a high lipid content which could be considered for fuel production.

  8. Comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores of common mushroom (Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach strains belonging to types U1, intermediate and U3

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krzysztof Sobieralski

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the performed investigations was the comparison of yield and dry matter content of carpophores from selected strains of Agaricus bisporus (Lange Imbach belonging to three types. Differences within the yielding of different strains of several types, as well as following flushes of yielding were found. In type U1 the highest yield was obtained by ‘Le Lion X1’ (175 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate, in intermediate type - ‘Italspawn 56’ and ‘Sylvan 130’ (both 161 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate and in type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ and ‘Polmycel 23’ (194 and 192 g·kg-1 f.m. of substrate. It was found that the dry matter content depended both on the strain and the flush. The highest dry matter content was determined within the third flush. The highest content of dry matter in carpophores was determined in the following strains of mushrooms: type U1 - ‘Italspawn F50’ (8.5%, intermediate type - ‘Hauser A1.5’ (9.2% and type U3 - ‘Italspawn F62’ (8.3%.

  9. In-situ Ruminal Protein, Fiber, and Dry Matter Degradability of Legume Silages and Hays as Influenced by Protein-binding Polyphenols and Conditioning Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conditioning and conservation methods may alter polyphenol binding in forage legumes and the degradability of crude protein (CP), neutral detergent fiber (NDF) and dry matter (DM) in the rumen. In this study, alfalfa, birdsfoot trefoil with 6 or 15 g/kg condensed tannins (CT), and red clover with ~1...

  10. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  11. Studies on mycorrhizal inoculation on dry matter yield and root colonization of some medicinal plants grown in stress and forest soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandra, K K; Kumar, Neeraj; Chand, Gireesh

    2010-11-01

    Five medicinal plants viz. Abelmoschatus moschatus Linn., Clitoria tematea L., Plumbagozeylanica L., Psorolea corylifolia L. and Withania sominifera L. were grown in a polypot experiment in five soils representing coal mine soil, coppermine soil, fly ash, skeletal soil and forest soil with and without mycorrhizal inoculations in a completely randomized block design. Dry matter yield and mycorrhizal root colonization of plants varied both in uninoculated and inoculated conditions. The forest soil rendered highest dry matter due to higher yield of A. moschatus, P. zeylanica and P corylifolia while fly ash showed lowest dry matter without any inoculants. P. cematea were best in coalmine soil and W. sominifera in copper mine soil without mycorrhizal inoculation. The mycorrhiza was found to enhance the dry matter yield. This contributed minimum 0.19% to maximum up to 422.0% in different soils as compared to uninoculated plants. The mycorrhizal dependency was noticed maximum in plants grown in fly ash followed by coal mine soil, copper mine soil, skeletal soil and forest soil. The mycorrhizal response was increased maximum in W. sominifera due to survival in fly ash after inoculation followed by P corylifolia and P cematea. Percent root colonization in inoculated plant was increased minimum of 1.10 fold to maximum of 12.0 folds in comparison to un-inoculated plants . The native mycorrhiza fungi were also observed to colonize 4.0 to 32.0% roots in plants understudy. This study suggests that mycorrhizal inoculation increased the dry matter yield of medicinal plants in all soils under study. It also helps in survival of W. sominifera in fly ash.

  12. Dry matter production and distribution in three cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz cultivars during the second vegetative plant cycle

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    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out in Araruna County, State of Paraná, to understand the relationship between the total dry matter yield and its proportion allocated to the storage roots of cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz plants in the second vegetative cycle. The experimental design was a randomized complete block in split-plot scheme with four replications. The plots consisted of the Mico, IAC 13 and IAC 14 cultivars and the monthly harvesting dates were assessed in the sub-plots. The results showed that the Mico and IAC 13 cultivars were more efficient in allocating dry matter to the storage roots. The IAC 14 cultivar allocated a higher proportion of assimilates to stems compared with the other two cultivars. With regard to the influence of harvesting time, the lowest harvest indexes were observed in the periods of more intense vegetative growth. However, the highest carbohydrate proportions were allocated to the storage roots during periods of low vegetative growth.Com o objetivo de uma melhor compreensão da relação entre a produtividade total de massa seca e a proporção de alocação desta nas raízes tuberosas em plantas de mandioca, foi conduzido no município de Araruna-PR, um experimento em delineamento de blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com quatro repetições. Nas parcelas foram dispostas três cultivares (Mico, IAC 13 e IAC 14, e nas subparcelas dez épocas de colheita mensais, a partir do início do segundo ciclo vegetativo das plantas. As cultivares Mico e IAC 13 foram mais eficientes do que a IAC 14 em alocar massa seca nas raízes tuberosas, ao passo que esta última alocou maior proporção de massa seca em suas hastes. Em relação às épocas, os menores índices de colheita ocorreram em períodos de mais intenso crescimento vegetativo das plantas, ao passo que a maior proporção de carboidratos foi alocada nas raízes tuberosas em períodos de baixo crescimento vegetativo.

  13. An improved grazed class method to estimate species selection and dry matter intake by cows at pasture

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    Bruno Martin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Research has recently focused on pasture species intake by ruminants due to their influence on animal product quality. A field-applicable method which investigates species intake and selection, was tested on two dairy cow grazing systems: continuous grazing on a highly-biodiverse pasture (C and rotational grazing on a moderately-diverse sward (R. In addition to the grazed class method, which evaluates the percentage of grazed dry matter (DM per species according to the residual height of the plant grazed, further measurements were introduced to quantify DM consumption and selection index per species. Six and four representative species were studied in the C and R systems respectively. We found an exponential regression between the presence of a species and its contribution to the cattle’s daily intake (P<0.01. On the C plot, Festuca nigrescens showed the highest intake (6.2 kg DM/cow d, even if avoided. On the R plot, Taraxacum officinale was intensively consumed (6.1 kg DM/cow d, even cows do not express positive selection for the species, while Poaceae were avoided. Giving details on species consumption, the improved grazed class method may prove especially useful in non-experimental conditions in biodiverse sward to address grazing management to the consumption of species able to give specific characteristics to dairy products.

  14. Comparative study on the rumen microbial populations, hydrolytic enzyme activities and dry matter degradability between different species of ruminant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moon, Yea Hwang; Ok, Ji Un; Lee, Shin Ja; Ha, Jong Kyu; Lee, Sung Sill

    2010-12-01

    A comparative study among Korean native cow (Hanwoo), Holstein dairy cow, Korean native goat and crossbred sheep on the population and marker concentration of ruminal microbes, the activities of carboxymethylcellulase (CMCase), xylanase and amylase, and in situ dry matter (DM) degradability were conducted. Twelve ruminally cannulated animals, three of each species, were used. Animals were fed the same diet containing 40% formula feed and 60% rice straw at the level of 2.5% of body weight. Total viable microbial populations in the rumen fluid were significantly (P < 0.01) greater for bacteria and fungi in goat than those of Holstein. The protozoan population among ruminant species was the reverse from that of bacteria. The concentrations of 2,6-diaminopimelic acid and chitin as markers for bacteria and fungi in the rumen fluid, respectively, were highest in goat, which is in accordance with the above population data. The concentration of aminoethylphosphonic acid as marker of protozoa was highest in Hanwoo and lowest in sheep (P < 0.01). Goat had the highest (P < 0.01) activities of all the enzymes investigated among ruminants. In situ effective degradation of the DM of rice straw was approximately 19% higher in the rumen of goat compared with other animals.

  15. Effect of regrowth interval and a microbial inoculant on the fermentation profile and dry matter recovery of guinea grass silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, E M; Pereira, O G; Garcia, R; Ferreira, C L L F; Oliveira, J S; Silva, T C

    2014-07-01

    The objectives of this study were to characterize and quantify the microbial populations in guinea grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cultivar Mombasa) harvested at different regrowth intervals (35, 45, 55, and 65 d). The chemical composition and fermentation profile of silages (after 60 d) with or without the addition of a microbial inoculant were also analyzed. Before ensiling, samples of the plants were used for the isolation and identification of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the epiphytic microbiota. A 4 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments (4 regrowth intervals × with/without inoculant) was used in a completely randomized design with 3 replications. Based on the morphological and biochemical characteristics and the carbohydrate fermentation profile, Lactobacillus plantarum was found to be the predominant specie of LAB in guinea grass forage. Linear increases were detected in the dry matter (DM) content and concentrations of neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber, acid detergent insoluble nitrogen, and DM recovery as well as linear reductions in the concentrations of crude protein and NH3-N with regrowth interval. Additionally, linear reductions for gas and effluent losses in silages were detected with increasing regrowth interval. These results demonstrate that guinea grass plants harvested after 55 d of regrowth contain a LAB population sufficiently large to ensure good fermentation and increase the DM recovery. The use of microbial inoculant further enhanced the fermentation of guinea grass at all stages of regrowth by improving the DM recovery.

  16. Selection Signatures in Four Lignin Genes from Switchgrass Populations Divergently Selected for In Vitro Dry Matter Digestibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaeppler, Shawn M.; Vogel, Kenneth P.; Casler, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Switchgrass is undergoing development as a dedicated cellulosic bioenergy crop. Fermentation of lignocellulosic biomass to ethanol in a bioenergy system or to volatile fatty acids in a livestock production system is strongly and negatively influenced by lignification of cell walls. This study detects specific loci that exhibit selection signatures across switchgrass breeding populations that differ in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD), ethanol yield, and lignin concentration. Allele frequency changes in candidate genes were used to detect loci under selection. Out of the 183 polymorphisms identified in the four candidate genes, twenty-five loci in the intron regions and four loci in coding regions were found to display a selection signature. All loci in the coding regions are synonymous substitutions. Selection in both directions were observed on polymorphisms that appeared to be under selection. Genetic diversity and linkage disequilibrium within the candidate genes were low. The recurrent divergent selection caused excessive moderate allele frequencies in the cycle 3 reduced lignin population as compared to the base population. This study provides valuable insight on genetic changes occurring in short-term selection in the polyploid populations, and discovered potential markers for breeding switchgrass with improved biomass quality. PMID:27893787

  17. Stability and genotype by environment interaction of provitamin A carotenoid and dry matter content in cassava in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esuma, Williams; Kawuki, Robert Sezi; Herselman, Liezel; Labuschagne, Maryke Tine

    2016-01-01

    Efforts are underway to develop staple crops with improved levels of provitamin A carotenoids to help combat dietary vitamin A deficiency (VAD), which has afflicted the health of resource-poor people in the developing world. As a staple crop for more than 500 million people in sub-Saharan Africa, cassava enriched with provitamin A carotenoids could have a widespread nutritional impact. To this effect, 13 provitamin A clones were evaluated in a randomized complete block design in six environments to assess genotype by environment interaction (GEI) effects for total carotenoid (TCC) and dry matter content (DMC) in roots. Additive main effect and multiplicative interaction analysis showed significant variation among genotypes for TCC, DMC, fresh root weight and harvest index. Environmental effects were non-significant for TCC, but GEI effects were significantly large for all traits measured. There were significant temporal increments for all traits measured within 12 months after planting. TCC correlated negatively with DMC, illustrating an important challenge to overcome when developing provitamin A cassava varieties without compromising DMC, which is a major farmer-preference trait. Nonetheless, best performing genotypes were identified for TCC, DMC and FRW, and these could constitute genetic resources for advancement or developing breeding populations through hybridization. PMID:27436954

  18. Modulus of elasticity and dry-matter content of bovine claw horn affected by the changes of chronic laminitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinterhofer, Christine; Apprich, Veronika; Ferguson, James C; Stanek, Christian

    2007-11-01

    The mechanical properties of horn samples from 22 hind claws with chronic laminitis were determined in adult Austrian Fleckvieh cows. The resistance to deformation was quantified as the modulus of elasticity (E). Tension tests revealed mean E values of 520MPa for the dorsal wall, 243MPa for the abaxial wall, 339MPa for the axial wall and 97MPa for the sole. E tended to be lower in laminitic horn than in sound horn in all segments tested, with the difference being largest in the abaxial wall. The mean dry-matter content (DMC) of the laminitic claws was 75.8% in the dorsal wall, 75.86% in the abaxial wall, 71.15% in the axial wall and 69.28% in the sole. These values are generally comparable to those for sound claws except in the axial wall. Further, E and DMC were only correlated in the axial wall. Chronic laminitis leads to a low resistance of claw horn to mechanical insults in the dorsal wall, abaxial wall and sole, and to the loss of a correlation between the E and DMC in these segments. The reason for these alterations is therefore not increased ingress of moisture, but must be due to changes in the microstructure, biochemical components and/or horn formation by the diseased dermis.

  19. The Effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer and Conventional Complex Fertilizer on the Dry Matter Accumulation and the Yield in Winter Wheat

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    Guoqing Li

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In order to research the use ratio of controlled release fertilizer in winter wheat. So, the experiment about the effects of Controlled Release Fertilizer (CRF and Conventional Complex Fertilizer (CCF on the dry matter accumulation and the grain yield in winter wheat has studied with pots in the open field. The results indicated that the CRF improved the proportion of the number of effective tillers to the total number of tillers. And the mixture of the CRF and equivalent CCF have more improved the proportion of the dry root weight to the total dry matters of the after of wheat flowering stage than that of the CRF used alone (T1, T2, T3. The treatment T6 was more improved the accumulation of the dry matters of aerial part than others. And the weight gain of T6 after a thesis was higher than other treatments and the control treatment (CK. In the facts of grain number per spike, thousand grain weight and yield, the treatments of the mixture of the CRF and equivalent CCF (T4,T5,T6 were higher than that of the treatments of CRF used only (T1,T2,T3 and CK, in which the T6 was highest. So, we think that this treatment namely T6 was used fertilizers least and gained the highest yield of grain.

  20. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  1. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  2. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

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    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  3. Effect of corn preparation methods on dry-grind ethanol production by granular starch hydrolysis and partitioning of spent beer solids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamsal, B P; Wang, H; Johnson, L A

    2011-06-01

    Two corn preparation methods, rollermill flaking and hammermill grinding, were compared for efficient processing of corn into ethanol by granular starch hydrolysis and simultaneous fermentation by yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Corn was either ground in a hammermill with different size screens or crushed in a smooth-surfaced rollermill at different roller gap settings. The partitioning of beer solids and size distribution of solids in the thin stillage were compared. The mean particle diameter d(50) for preparations varied with set-ups and ranged between 210 and 340 μm for ground corn, and 1180-1267 μm for flaked corn. The ethanol concentrations in beer were similar (18-19% v/v) for ground and flaked preparations, however, ethanol productivity increased with reduced particle size. Roller versus hammermilling of corn reduced solids in thin stillage by 28%, and doubled the volume percent of fines (d(50) ∼ 7 μm)in thin stillage and decreased coarse (d(50) ∼ 122 μm) by half compared to hammermilling.

  4. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belanche, A; Weisbjerg, M R; Allison, G G; Newbold, C J; Moorby, J M

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total, 663 samples comprising 80 different feed types were analyzed. In situ DM and NDF degradabilities were determined as follows: effective degradability (ED), rumen soluble fraction (A), degradable but not soluble fraction (B), rate of degradation of the B fraction (C), and indigestible NDF (iNDF). Infrared spectra of dry samples were collected by attenuated total reflectance from 600 to 4000cm(-1). Feeds were randomly classified into 2 subsets of samples with representation of all feed types; one subset was used to develop regression models using partial least squares, and the second subset was used to conduct an external validation of the models. This study indicated that universal models containing all feed types and specific models containing concentrate feeds could provide only a relatively poor estimation of in situ DM degradation parameters because of compositional heterogeneity. More research, such as a particle size distribution analysis, is required to determine whether this lack of accuracy was due to limitations of the FTIR approach, or simply due to methodological error associated with the in situ method. This latter hypothesis may explain the low accuracy observed in the prediction of degradation rates if there was physical leakage of fine particles from the mesh bags used during in situ studies. In contrast, much better predictions were obtained when models were developed for forage feeds alone. Models for forages led to accurate predictions of DMA, DMB, NDFED, and NDF concentration (R(2)=0.91, 0.89, 0.85, and 0.79, standard error = 4.34, 5.97, 4.59, and 4.41% of DM, respectively), and could be used for screening of DMED, NDFC, and iNDF. These models relied on

  5. Short communication: The effects of dry matter and length of storage on the composition and nutritive value of alfalfa silage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, M C; Kung, L

    2016-07-01

    During the ensiling of feeds, various processes result in chemical changes that can affect their ultimate nutritive value at feed out. The primary objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of prolonged ensiling times on potential changes in in vitro digestibility of neutral detergent fiber (NDF-D) of alfalfa ensiled at about 33% [low dry matter (DM), LDM] or 45% (high DM, HDM) whole-plant DM. Alfalfa from the same field (direct chopped or wilted) was chopped with a conventional forage harvester set for a theoretical length of cut of 0.95 cm and ensiled in mini silos for 45, 180, 270, and 360 d. Fresh forages and silages were analyzed for nutrient content, fermentation end-products, and 30-h NDF-D. The pH of the fresh forages ranged from 6.1 to 6.2 and decreased to approximately 4.7 and 4.3 in HDM and LDM silages, respectively. Production of acids and alcohols were less in HDM compared with LDM as expected. Concentrations of soluble protein and NH3-N also increased with time of storage as expected but soluble protein was greater, whereas NH3-N was lower in HDM compared with LDM silage. The effect of length of storage and DM on hemicellulose and NDF concentrations were very small, whereas DM content at harvest tended to slightly increase the concentration of acid detergent fiber in HDM compared with LDM up to 270 d of storage. The NDF-D was greater in fresh forage compared with corresponding silages. However, time of storage between 45 and 360 d had no effect on the NDF-D of alfalfa silage, regardless of DM concentration at ensiling.

  6. [Effects of different tillage methods on photosynthetic characteristics, dry matter production and economic benefit of double cropping soybean].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Jiang-hua; Su, Li-li; Li, Ya-jie; Xu, Wen-xiu; Peng, Jiang-long

    2016-01-01

    In order to explore suitable mode of high yield cultivation of double cropping soybean after wheat under drip irrigation in northern Xinjiang, field trials were set in 2013-2014 to investigate physiological indices and agronomic traits of double cropping soybean under different tillage methods under drip irrigation. The results showed that leaf area index (LAI), chlorophyll content (SPAD), leaf net photosynthetic rate (Pn), transpiration rate (Tr) and stomatal conductance (g(s)) during the determination period under different tillage methods were in the order of tillage plus film covering (TP)> tillage (T)> rotary tillage (RT) > no-tillage (NT) , and the concentration of intercellular CO₂(Ci) was the opposite. LAI, SPAD, Pn, Tr, and g(s) of TP were higher than that with NT by 55.0%, 9.1%, 41.8%, 37.5% and 56.4%, respectively, and Ci was decreased by 22.1%. TP enhanced the photosynthetic efficiency of soybean and improved the ability of CO₂assimilation, consequently leading to the increase of soybean yield under TP compared to NT. The plant dry matter accumulation of TP treatment was improved greatly, with the pod number and seeds number per plant, 100-seed mass and yield of quadric sowing soybean being increased by 50.3%, 48.1%, 11.8% and 20.8% compared with that under NT, and the differences were significant. Therefore, the plastic film mulching combined with tillage under drip irrigation technology was suitable for double cropping soybean after wheat in northern Xinjiang under this experimental condition.

  7. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, M R; Lund, P; Hvelplund, T

    2007-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability was described in terms of immediately rumen soluble fraction (a fraction, for DM and CP only as NDF does not contain a soluble fraction), the degradable but not soluble faction (b fraction) and the rate of degradation of the b fraction (c value). Overall effective degradability of DM, CP and NDF was also calculated. Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy was examined for its ability to predict degradation parameters and to make a direct prediction of effective degradation from scans of the original samples of perennial ryegrass and orchardgrass. Prediction of effective degradation of the different feed fractions showed different accuracy. The coefficients of determination (R(2)) from regressions of predicted vs. measured effective degradation, using a cross-validation method, were 0.92 for DM, 0.78 for CP and 0.61 for NDF. The attempt to predict the degradation parameters (a, b and c) by NIRS was less successful as the coefficients of determination for the degradation parameters were low. Concentrations of CP and NDF in the original samples were predicted by using NIRS and the validated R(2) value was 0.98 for CP and 0.92 for NDF. It is concluded that using NIRS predictions from scans of original samples is a promising method to obtain values for the effective degradation of DM, CP and NDF in ruminant feeds, but that larger calibration sets are necessary for obtaining improved

  8. Effect of Phosphorus Fertilization to P Uptake and Dry Matter Accumulation in Soybean with Different P Efifciencies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AO Xue; GUO Xiao-hong; ZHU Qian; ZHANG Hui-jun; WANG Hai-ying; MA Zhao-hui; HAN Xiao-ri; ZHAO Ming-hui; XIE Fu-ti

    2014-01-01

    Phosphorus (P)is an essential element for plant growth and yield. Improving phosphorus use efficiency of crops could potentially reduce the application of chemical fertilizer and alleviate environmental damage. Soybean (Glycine max(L.) Merr.) is sensitive to phosphorus (P) in the whole life history. Soybean cultivars with different P efifciencies were used to study P uptake and dry matter accumulation under different P levels. Under low P conditions, the P contents of leaf in high P efifciency cultivars were greater than those in low P efifciency cultivars at the branching stage. The P accumulation in stems of high P efifciency cultivars and in leaves of low P efifciency cultivars increased with increasing P concentration at the branching stage. At the late podding stage, the P accumulation of seeds in high and low P efifciency cultivars were 22.5 and 26.0%, respectively; and at the mature stage were 69.8 and 74.2%, respectively. In average, the P accumulation in whole plants and each organ was improved by 24.4% in high P efifciency cultivars compared to low P efifciency cultivars. The biomass between high and low P efifciency cultivars were the same under extended P condition, while a signiifcant difference was observed at late pod iflling stage. At the pod setting stage, the biomass of high P efifciency cultivars were signiifcant greater (17.4%) than those of low P efficiency cultivars under high P condition. Meanwhile, under optimum growth conditions, there was little difference of biomass between the two types of cultivars, however, the P agronomic efifciency and P harvest index were signiifcant higher in high P efifciency cultivars than those in low P efifciency cultivars.

  9. Dry matter and water dynamics of wheat grains in response to source reduction at different phases of grain filling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia I Harcha

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Agreement that wheat (Triticum aestivum L. is scarcely limited by source of assimilates during grain fill has not been confirmed when source was drastically decrease in high yield potential environments. Dry matter (DM and water dynamics of growing grains being possibly able to explain grain weight (GW responses to source-sink ratios (S-Sratios in these conditions. Objectives were to evaluate response of GW to S-Sratios at different phases during grain fill, and relationship between DM and grain water content in response to different S-Sratios. Wheat was sown at field conditions during 20042005 and 2005-2006 growing seasons. Four S-Sratios were assessed: Control without S-Sratios modification (C, S-Sratios from anthesis (At +12 d to physiological maturity (ShAll, S-Sratios from At +12 d to first half of grain fill (Sh1st and from second half of grain fill to maturity (Sh2nd. Thousand grain weight (TGW, GW at individual positions (IGW, stabilized grain water content (SGWC and grain filling rate (GFR were measured. TGW sensitivity to S-Sratios varied according to length of treatment and its timing, i.e. ShAll, Sh1st, and Sh2nd treatments reduced TGW by 48%, 26%, and 22%, respectively. These reductions were little higher when IGW were evaluated in ShAll (i.e. 53% and Sh1st (i.e. 33% treatments and lower in Sh2nd (i.e. 12%. SGWC sensitivity was lower than that of IGW across S-Sratios (e.g. SIiau 27%, Shust 22%, and Sh2nd 5%. However, close association between IGW and SGWC (R² = 0.78, p < 0.001 and between GFR and SGWC (R² = 0.98, p ≤ 0.001 was found regardless of S-Sratios and seasons

  10. Associação entre isoenzimas e matéria seca em batata silvestre Isoenzymes and dry matter content in wild potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BEATRIZ HELENA GOMES ROCHA

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Clones de batata silvestre (Solanum spp. foram analisados quanto aos teores de matéria seca em tubérculos e isoenzimas de aspartato transaminase e isocitrato desidrogenase em folhas, com o objetivo de identificar associação entre estas características. Os resultados obtidos em uma amostra de 50 clones indicam grande variabilidade do teor de matéria seca. Clones de S. commersonii malmeanum apresentaram maior teor que os de S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri e de outros cuja espécie não foi identificada. Os padrões isoenzimáticos de folhas de 38 clones da amostra mostraram 15 variantes eletroforéticas de aspartato transaminase e sete de isocitrato desidrogenase. Comparações efetuadas através de tabelas de contingência 2 x 2, usando o teste de chi², com correção para continuidade, permitiram concluir que existe associação significativa entre o teor de matéria seca e as bandas de mobilidade relativa 1,00 de aspartato transaminase e de isocitrato desidrogenase.Wild potato clones (Solanum spp. were analysed for tuber dry matter content, leaf aspartate transaminase and leaf isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in order to identify association between these characteristics. The results indicate that there is great variability for dry matter content among 50 clones analysed. S. commersonii malmeanum clones had higher dry matter levels than S. commersonii commersonii, S. chacoense muelleri and the clones whose species were not identified. Fifteen aspartate transaminase and seven isocitrate dehydrogenase bands were observed in the gels of 38 clones. Tests of chi², using 2 x 2 contingency table, revealed a significant association between dry matter content and the bands of relative mobility 1.00 of both aspartate transaminase and isocitrate dehydrogenase isoenzymes.

  11. 干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆厌氧发酵产沼气的影响%Effect of Different Dry Matter Concentration on Dry Anaerobic Fermentation of Animal Manure and Straw

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石利军; 黄淼; 刘慧芬; 张伟玉

    2013-01-01

    In this paper anaerobic digestion of dairy manure and straw was conducted to produce biogas .Under the con-ditions of C/N=25-30 and T=36℃, five kinds of dry matter concentration of 20%, 15%, 10%, 5%and 2 .5%were tested to investigate the effect of dry matter concentration on anaerobic digestion .The result showed that first 30 days was the biogas production peak phase and VFA concentrations in the leachate were also high during the same period .When dry matter concentration increased , biogas production amount appeared larger fluctuation , and the concentrations of alka-linity and NH4+-N in the leachate also increased with higher organic loading rate .Among five kinds of dry matter con-centration 10% was more suitable for anaerobic digestion to produce biogas with total biogas production amount of 4710 mL after 30 days and volume biogas production rates of 0 .313 m3/m3 · d.These results could provide instructive meaning to the engineering application of dry anaerobic digestion .%  在发酵原料C/N=25~30,T=36℃的条件下,研究20%,15%,10%,5%和2.5%等5种干物质浓度对牛粪秸秆混合干式厌氧发酵产沼气性能的影响。实验结果表明:发酵前30 d 为产气高峰期,同时发酵渗滤液中的VFA浓度也较高;干物质浓度增加时,产气量波动增大,渗滤液中碱度和 NH4+-N 浓度升高,发酵装置的有机负荷率也较高;10%的干物质浓度产气效果最好,发酵前30d的累积产气量为4710mL,相应的容积产气率可以达到0.313m3/m3· d。实验得到的结果对牛粪秸秆混合发酵的实际应用具有一定的指导意义。

  12. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  13. [Effects of sulfur plus resin-coated controlled release urea fertilizer on winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jian-Guo; Zhou, Jie; Wang, Dong; Yu, Zhen-Wen; Zhang, Min; Hu, Zhi-Ying; Hou, Xiu-Tao

    2011-05-01

    A field experiment was conducted to study the effects of sulfur plus resin-coated urea fertilizer on the winter wheat dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield. Four treatments were installed, i.e., sulfur plus resin-coated urea (SRCU), resin-coated urea (RCU), sulfur-amended conventional urea (SU), and conventional urea (U). The coated urea fertilizers were applied as basal, and the conventional urea fertilizers were 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing. There were no significant differences in the plant dry matter accumulation and grain yield between treatments RCU and U. Under the conditions the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 43.2 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 91.4 kg x hm(-2), treatments SRCU and SU had no significant differences in the dry matter accumulation and allocation after anthesis and the grain yield, but the amount of the assimilates after anthesis allocated in grain, the grain-filling rate at mid grain-filling stage, the 1000-grain weight, and the grain yield in the two treatments were significantly higher than those in treatment RCU. When the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer was 105.1 mg x kg(-1) and the S application rate was 120 kg x hm(-2), the grain yield in treatment SRCU was significantly higher than that in treatment SU, but had no significant difference with that in treatments RCU and U. These results suggested that from the viewpoints of dry matter accumulation and allocation and grain yield, the nitrogen released from SRCU had the same regulation effect as the conventional urea 50% applied as basal and 50% applied as topdressing, while the regulation effect of the sulfur released from SRCU was controlled by the available S content in 0-20 cm soil layer. When the soil available S content was 43.2 mg x kg(-1), the released sulfur could promote the dry matter accumulation after anthesis and the grain-filling, and increase the grain yield significantly; when the soil available S

  14. Effects of band placement and nitrogen rate on dry matter accumulation, yield and nitrogen uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. SALO

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Adequate nitrogen (N nutrition is essential for producing high vegetable yields of good quality. Fertilizer N not taken up by the plants is, however, economically wasteful and can be lost to the environment. Therefore the efficient use of N fertilizer, involving accurate estimation of crop N demand, choice of application method and timing of N fertilization, is an important research area. The effects of band placement and rate of N fertilization on inorganic N in the soil and the dry matter accumulation, yield and N uptake of cabbage, carrot and onion were studied in a three-year field experiment between 1993 and 1995. The plants were sampled during the growing season to determine the dry matter accumulation and plant N concentration. The inorganic N in the soil was determined during the growing period and after harvest. The N uptake was 3.8 kg, 1.6 kg and 2.5 kg per ton of edible yield of cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. At the highest yield levels the N uptake including crop residues was 300 kg ha-1, 150 kg ha-1 and 120 kg ha-1 in cabbage, carrot and onion, respectively. In cabbage, almost 50% of N was in crop residues, whereas in carrot and onion only about 30% of N was in crop residues. Nitrogen uptake from non-fertilized soil varied from 29 to 160 kg ha-1, depending on the growing season and the crop. Cabbage and carrot utilised soil N efficiently, usually taking up more than 100 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. Onion, on the contrary, utilised soil N relatively poorly, usually less than 50 kg ha-1 from non-fertilized soil. The rate of N uptake was low with all crops in early summer. After one month, N uptake increased in cabbage and onion. This uptake continued until harvest, i.e. mid-August for onion and early September for cabbage. Nitrogen uptake by carrot started rapidly only two months after sowing and continued until harvest at the end of September. High N rates often resulted in high N concentrations and N uptakes, but

  15. Carbohydrate supplements and their effects on pasture dry matter intake, feeding behavior, and blood factors associated with intake regulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheahan, A J; Kay, J K; Roche, J R

    2013-01-01

    Supplementary feeds are offered to grazing dairy cows to increase dry matter (DM) and metabolizable energy (ME) intakes; however, offering feed supplements reduces pasture DM intake, a phenomenon known as substitution. The objective of the study was to investigate changes in blood factors associated with intake regulation in monogastric species in pasture-fed dairy cows supplemented with either a starch- or nonforage fiber-based concentrate. Fifteen multiparous Friesian × Jersey cross cows were assigned to 1 of 3 treatments at calving. Measurements were undertaken in wk 8 of lactation. Treatments were pasture only, pasture plus a starch-based concentrate (3.5 kg of DM/cow per day; STA), and pasture plus a nonforage fiber-based concentrate (4.4 kg of DM/cow per day). Pelleted concentrates were fed at an isoenergetic rate in 2 equal portions at a.m. and p.m. milkings. Measurements were undertaken to investigate differences in pasture DM intake, feeding behavior, and profiles of blood factors for 4h after a.m. and p.m. milkings, the periods of intensive feeding in grazing cows. Supplementing cows with STA concentrate reduced pasture DM intake to a greater extent than the fiber concentrate, although time spent eating did not differ between treatments. The blood factor response to feeding differed between the a.m. and p.m. feeding events. Blood factors associated with a preprandial or fasted state were elevated prefeeding in the a.m. and declined following feeding, whereas satiety factors increased. In comparison, the blood factor response to feeding in the p.m. differed, with responses to feeding delayed for most factors. Plasma ghrelin concentration increased during the p.m. feeding event, despite the consumption of feed and the positive energy state remaining from the previous a.m. feeding, indicating that environmental factors (e.g., sunset) supersede physiological cues in regulating feeding behavior. The greater reduction in pasture DM intake for the STA treatment

  16. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  17. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  18. Software Partitioning Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2001-05-29

    1 Software Partitioning Technologies Tim Skutt Smiths Aerospace 3290 Patterson Ave. SE Grand Rapids, MI 49512-1991 (616) 241-8645 skutt_timothy...Limitation of Abstract UU Number of Pages 12 2 Agenda n Software Partitioning Overview n Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Software Partitioning...Partition Level OS Core Module Level OS Timers MMU I/O API Layer Partitioning Services 6 Smiths Software Partitioning Technology n Smiths has developed

  19. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  20. The Partition Ensemble Fallacy Fallacy

    CERN Document Server

    Nemoto, K; Nemoto, Kae; Braunstein, Samuel L.

    2002-01-01

    The Partition Ensemble Fallacy was recently applied to claim no quantum coherence exists in coherent states produced by lasers. We show that this claim relies on an untestable belief of a particular prior distribution of absolute phase. One's choice for the prior distribution for an unobservable quantity is a matter of `religion'. We call this principle the Partition Ensemble Fallacy Fallacy. Further, we show an alternative approach to construct a relative-quantity Hilbert subspace where unobservability of certain quantities is guaranteed by global conservation laws. This approach is applied to coherent states and constructs an approximate relative-phase Hilbert subspace.

  1. Effect of Organic Based N Fertilizer on Dry Matter (Zea mays L., Ammonium and Nitrate Recovery in an Acid Soil of Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susilawati Kasim

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Exchangeable ammonium (NH4+ could be recovered by humic and fulvic acids from humic substances. The ability of these acids in fixing or retaining NH4+ has been demonstrated in many findings and reports. Both acids could affect the plant growth, nutrients uptake by enhancing photosynthesis rate and root growth among others. Thus, in this study, the effect of both acids (in liquid form on soil exchangeable NH4+, dry matter production and available nitrate (NO3- was investigated. Approach: Humic molecules were isolated using standard procedures, followed by liquid organic N fertilizers formulation. Organic based N fertilizers were applied to soil in pots at 10 Days After Planting (DAP and 28 DAP. Treated soils and plant parts were sampled at 54 DAP or at tasselling stage. Soil samples were analyzed for pH, ammonium and nitrate content. The plant samples were weighed to assess dry matter production. Results: Under acid condition, organic based liquid N fertilizers (fulvic acid or both, humic and fulvic acids increased accumulation of NH4+in soil. The presence of carboxylic groups in humic molecules increased NH4+ retention with increasing soil's stock labile carbon. However, low percentage of these acids reduced their full effect on dry matter production. The availability of nitrate was not statistically different for all treatments. Low soil pH could had reduced nitrification processes and simultaneously soil NO3- content. Conclusion: Liquid form of humic and/or fulvic acids could play an important role in enhancing urea efficiency. However, their contribution needs to be studied in detail in relation to humic molecules characteristics. This study had a potential in the development of liquid and foliar organic fertilizers.

  2. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  3. Productions of dry matter of oat plants / Acúmulo de matéria seca de plantas de aveia preta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João Nakagawa

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Three experiments were carried out in Botucatu, State of São Paulo, Brazil, to study the productions of dry matter of oat plants, cv. Comum, with sowing densities. The soil was a Terra Roxa Estruturada and Solo Litólito. The experimental design was a completely randomized blocks with three replication. The collection studied were eight, seven and six, starting at 21 days after emergence of seedlings (DAE. The evaluations were done at collection. The yield productions of dry matter of plants of the three experiments were observed at 126 DAE. The climatic conditions of each year had effects on productions of dry matter of plants. Stems were the main component of the total dry matter.O objetivo do presente trabalho foi avaliar o acúmulo de matéria seca de plantas de aveia preta, cultivar Comum, sob diferentes condições ambientais, em Botucatu-SP. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de épocas de coletas de plantas, iniciadas aos 21 dias após a emergência das plântulas (DAE, com intervalos de 21 dias. Por ocasião da coleta, para cada experimento, foram realizadas as determinações do peso das raízes, dos colmos, dos limbos e das bainhas das folhas, das raques das panículas, das sementes do colmo principal e dos perfilhos primários e secundários, e do peso da matéria seca total, todos em g/m2. As coletas de plantas de aveia preta realizadas aos 126 DAE favorecem maior acúmulo de matéria seca, nos três experimentos realizados. As condições ambientais interferem na época de colheita, afetando a produção de matéria seca das plantas. A maior contribuição no acúmulo de matéria seca total das plantas de aveia preta é proporcionada pelos colmos.

  4. Correcting the dry matter content of sugar beet silages as a substrate for biogas production; Die Korrektur des Trockensubstanzgehaltes von Zuckerruebensilagen als Substrat fuer Biogasanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strubelt, Cornelia [Blgg Deutschland GmbH (Germany). Analytiklabor fuer Landwirtschaft und Umwelt; Weissbach, Friedrich

    2008-11-15

    During the process of determining DM content in silages, volatile compounds (fermentation acids and alcohols) are lost. Therefore, the DM content measured in the conventional way has to be corrected afterwards. If that is not done, calculations on nutrient contents, as well as specific biogas yields will be false, causing experimental data to be misleading. Up to half of the organic matter of sugar beet silages can consist of volatile fermentation products. Without exact knowledge of the respective fermentation acid and alcohol content, conclusions about the substrate specific gas yield cannot be drawn. After equations to correct the dry matter content of maize silages and grass silage, an equation for DM correction for ensiled sugar beets silage is recommended here. (orig.)

  5. Anti-nutritional Factors and Ruminal Dry Matter and Crude Protein Degradability of Gamma and Microwave Irradiated Native Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sayyed roohollah ebrahimimahmoudabad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Native rapeseed (NRS is planted in some parts of Iran because of climatic condition. The consumption of NRS in animal nutrition is limited by anti-nutritional such as phytic acid and glucosinolate. Moreover, the protein of NRS is highly degraded by rumen microorganisms. Several processing methods have been used to enhance the nutritive value of whole oilseeds, including extrusion, roasting, toasting and Jet-Sploding. However, most heat processing methods adversely affect protein digestibility in the small intestine. Recently, other processing methods such as processing by gamma and microwave irradiation have been noticed. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (15, 30 and 45 kGy and microwave irradiation (800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min on ruminal dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability, in vitro CP digestibility, anti-nutritional factors (glucosinolate and phytic acid and chemical composition of NRS. Materials and Methods Chemical composition (DM, CP, EE and Ash of untreated and irradiated NRS was determined by AOAC methods. Then, sufficient water was added to the sample to increase the moisture content to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was completed by using a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 ºC. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.36 Gy/s. Another three samples (500 g each were subjected to microwave irradiation at a power of 800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min. Phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of untreated and irradiated samples were determined by standard methods. Degradation kinetics of DM or CP were determined according to in situ procedure. Six grams of untreated or irradiated NRS were incubated in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Taleshi bulls for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Bags were placed in the rumen just before the bulls were offered their first meal. After retrieval from the rumen, bags were thoroughly washed with tap water until the rinsing water was clear

  6. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    'Southafrica' ecotipes were groWn at root zone temperatures of 8, 15, 22 and 29°C under greenhouse conditions in Berlin, Germany. Two and a half L plastic pots and quartz sand as substrate were used. With rising rizosphere temperatures biomass production increased up to 22 and 29°C depending on plant organ and ecotype. The highest biomass accumulation achieved 'Colombia' at 29°C and 'Southafrica' at 22°C. At 8°C temperature low root and leaf dry matter were produced, while fruit producction was less affected. This indicates an adaptation to cold soils in the highlands. 22°C encouraged more the growth of main shoots while laterals had their optimum soil temperature at 29°C, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. The highest partitioning of dry matter of the Colombian ecotype to roots, leaves and fruits at 29°C is considered as an adaptation to the hot soils in the slopes exposed to the sun.

  7. Short communication: Varying dietary dry matter concentration through water addition: effect on nutrient intake and sorting of dairy cows in late lactation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fish, J A; DeVries, T J

    2012-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if feed sorting can be reduced and if nutrient consumption can be limited in late-lactation cows through water addition to a nutrient-dense total mixed ration (TMR) with a dry matter (DM) content greater than 60%. Twelve lactating Holstein cows (214.8±28.5 d in milk) were exposed to 2 diets in a crossover design with 28-d periods. Diets had the same ingredient composition and differed only in DM percentage, which was reduced by the addition of water. Treatment diets were (1) dry TMR (61.7% DM) and (2) wet TMR (51.9% DM). Dry matter intake and milk production (4% fat-corrected milk; FCM) were recorded for the last 14 d of each treatment period. For the final 4 d of each period, fresh feed and orts were sampled for particle size analysis and subsequent calculation of sorting activity (expressed as a percentage of predicted intake). Adding water to the diet tended to decrease the amount of DM in the fine particle fraction, increase starch concentration in the longer ration particles, and reduce starch concentration in the shortest ration particles. All cows sorted against long ration particles; the extent of this sorting did not differ between the dry and wet treatments (72.9 vs. 77.6%). There tended to be more sorting for fine ration particles on the dry diet compared with the wet (106.3 vs. 104.0%). Water addition had no effect on production, with similar DMI (27.9 vs. 26.5 kg/d), 4% FCM (28.7 vs. 27.6 kg/d), and efficiency of production (0.98 vs. 1.00 kg of 4% FCM/kg of DMI) between the dry and wet treatments. Adding water to a TMR with greater than 60% DM containing primarily haylage and corn silage forage sources may change ration particle DM distribution and particle starch content, possibly contributing to less sorting for the smallest ration particles. This research does not provide evidence that water addition to such a TMR can effectively limit DMI in late-lactation cows and, thus, improve efficiency of milk

  8. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA MATERIA SECA DURANTE LA ONTOGENIA DEL LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. A PLENA EXPOSICIÓN SOLAR EN EL BOSQUE HÚMEDO MONTANO BAJO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam BIOMASS PARTITIONING UNDER FULL SUNHINE LIGHT AT THE LOW MOUNTAIN RAIN FOREST OF EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Medina Cano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, con dos accesiones de lulo Solanum quitoense, de las variedades botánicas septentrionale, ‘NM’, con espinas y quitoense, ‘SV80’, sin espinas. El objetivo fue determinar la partición de la biomasa, para ambos materiales, bajo condiciones de plena exposición solar desde el transplante hasta los 364 días después de éste. La acumulación de materia seca en las plantas, en ambas poblaciones, se ajustó significativamente a modelos sigmoidales (PAn study, with the lulo Solanum quitoense botanical varieties septentrionale, accession ‘NM’, with thorns, and quitoense, accession ‘SV80’, thorneless, was carried out at Corpoica’s La Selva Research Station, Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The objective was to determine the biomass partitioning for both materials under full sunshine conditions from transplanting up to 364 days after transplanting. The plant dry matter accumulation for both materials adjusted closely to sigmoidal models (P<0.0001 for all the plant organs, with some differences between the studied populations. Thus, for total dry matter the logarithmic and longitudinal phases were evident for variety septentrionale but not the asymptotic one; in contrast, in quitoense all the model phases were clearly observed. Dry matter partitioning displayed a dynamic differential pattern throughout the ontogenic periods for both materials, with greater dry matter foliage accumulation at the onset of the growing period, followed by an increase in the partitioning to the stems at the beginning of the reproductive period, and stabilization during the productive stage. Also it was observed that the foliar dry matter accumulated during the vegetative period was redistributed, at the productive stage, between leaves, flowers and fruits. Significant allometric relationships were obtained between stem diameter and leaf dry matter, as well as between leaf dry matter and root dry

  9. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( interaction ( 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC increased N retention by 33% ( < 0.0001) and the response to RAC was similar in both corn-soybean meal-based and corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based diets. Tylosin phosphate tended to improve growth performance in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets but not in diets containing 30% DDGS; however, this response was not explained by changes in N balance or in energy digestibility.

  10. Microbial Community Responses to Increased Water and Organic Matter in the Arid Soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather N Buelow

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available The soils of the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica are an extreme polar desert, inhabited exclusively by microscopic taxa. This region is on the threshold of anticipated climate change, with glacial melt, permafrost thaw, and the melting of massive buried ice increasing liquid water availability and mobilizing soil nutrients. Experimental water and organic matter (OM amendments were applied to investigate how these climate change effects may impact the soil communities. To identify active taxa and their functions, total community RNA transcripts were sequenced and annotated, and amended soils were compared with unamended control soils using differential abundance and expression analyses. Overall, taxonomic diversity declined with amendments of water and organic matter. The domain Bacteria increased with both amendments while Eukaryota declined from 38% of all taxa in control soils to 8% and 11% in water and OM amended soils, respectively. Among bacterial phyla, Actinobacteria (59% dominated water-amended soils and Firmicutes (45% dominated OM amended soils. Three bacterial phyla (Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, and Firmicutes were primarily responsible for the observed positive functional responses, while eukaryotic taxa experienced the majority (27 of 34 of significant transcript losses. These results indicated that as climate changes in this region, a replacement of endemic taxa adapted to dry, oligotrophic conditions by generalist, copiotrophic taxa is likely.

  11. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  12. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maliki, Raphiou; Sinsin, Brice; Floquet, Anne; Cornet, Denis; Malezieux, Eric; Vernier, Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow) often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders' traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation) with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation). The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) using the general linear model (GLM) procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM) production (tubers, shoots), nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0-10 and 10-20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water) were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  13. Differences between the Bud End and Stem End of Potatoes in Dry Matter Content, Starch Granule Size, and Carbohydrate Metabolic Gene Expression at the Growing and Sprouting Stages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bailin; Zhang, Guodong; Murphy, Agnes; De Koeyer, David; Tai, Helen; Bizimungu, Benoit; Si, Huaijun; Li, Xiu-Qing

    2016-02-10

    Potatoes usually have the tuber bud end dominance in growth during tuber bulking and in tuber sprouting, likely using carbohydrates from the tuber stem end. We hypothesized that the tuber bud end and tuber stem end coordination in carbohydrate metabolism gene expression is different between the bulking dominance and sprouting dominance of the tuber bud end. After comparing the growing tubers at harvest from a green vine and the stage that sprouts just started to emerge after storage of tubers at room temperature, we found the following: (1) Dry matter content was higher in the tuber stem end than the tuber bud end at both stages. (2) The starch granule size was larger in the tuber bud end than in the tuber stem end. (3) The tuber bud end had higher gene expression for starch synthesis but a lower gene expression of sucrose transporters than the tuber stem end during tuber growing. (4) The tuber stem end at the sprouting stage showed more active gene expression in both starch degradation and resynthesis, suggesting more active export of carbohydrates, than the tuber bud end. The results indicate that the starch accumulation mechanism in the tuber bud end was different between field growing and post-harvest sprouting tubers and that tubers already increased dry matter and average starch granule sizes in the tuber bud end prior to the rapid growth of sprouts.

  14. Improving nutrient fixation and dry matter content of an ammonium-rich anaerobic digestion effluent by struvite formation and clay adsorption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estevez, Maria M; Linjordet, Roar; Horn, Svein J; Morken, John

    2014-01-01

    The anaerobic digestion (AD) of organic wastes that contain nitrogen leads to its mineralization, yielding a digestate rich in ammonium (NH(4)(+)), an important fertilizing nutrient. The applicability of AD digestate as fertilizer can be improved by fixating the nutrients and increasing its dry matter content. Methods for the fixation and recovery of the digestate's NH(4)(+) and possible also PO(4)(3-) include struvite precipitation and adsorption in clay materials such as bentonite. These techniques were tested in batch experiments employing the liquid fraction of a digestate originating from the AD of a substrate mix containing lignocellulose, cattle manure and fish industrial waste. The concentration of NH(4)(+)-N in this digestate was 2,300 mg L⁻¹. Struvite precipitation conditions at a molar ratio of 1.2:1:1 (Mg²⁺:NH(4)(+):PO(4)(3-)) and pH 9.5 were best in terms of simultaneous removal of NH(4)(+)-N (88%), PO(4)(3-) (60%) and soluble chemical oxygen demand (44%). Bentonite adsorption gave comparably high removal levels for NH(4)(+)-N (82%) and PO(4)(3-) (52%). Analysis of the precipitates' morphology and elemental composition confirmed their struvite and bentonite nature. Dry matter content was increased from 5.8% in the AD digestate to 27% and 22% in the struvite and bentonite sludges, respectively.

  15. On-farm evaluation of the effect of coffee pulp supplementation on milk yield and dry matter intake of dairy cows grazing tropical grasses in central Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedraza-Beltrán, Paulina; Estrada-Flores, Julieta G; Martínez-Campos, Angel R; Estrada-López, Isael; Rayas-Amor, Adolfo A; Yong-Angel, Gilberto; Figueroa-Medina, Marisol; Nova, Francisca Avilés; Castelán-Ortega, Octavio A

    2012-02-01

    Tropical grasses are the primary nutrient resource for cattle production in the tropics, and they provide low-cost nutrients to cattle. However, its production is constrained by seasonal changes and quality; hence, appropriate usage of relatively inexpensive agricultural by-products is important to profitable livestock production. The objective of the study was to evaluate the effect of supplementing coffee pulp to dairy cows grazing tropical grasses on milk yield and forage intake. Four multiparous crossed Holstein-Brown Swiss-Zebu cows of similar weight and milk yield were used. The effect of 10%, 15% and 20% inclusion of coffee pulp in dairy concentrates on milk yield and forage intake was analysed using a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Results showed that there were no significant effects (P > 0.05) in grass dry matter intake, milk yield, milk composition body weight and body condition score due to the inclusion of coffee pulp in the dairy concentrates. It is concluded that coffee pulp can be included at levels of 20% in the concentrate without compromising significantly (P > 0.05) milk yield, milk composition and grass dry matter intake. It also was concluded that cost of concentrate is reduced in 20% by the inclusion of coffee pulp.

  16. Short-term effects of early-season fire on herbaceous composition, dry matter production and soil fertility in Guinea savanna, Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oyedeji Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The ecological impact of fire regimes on plant diversity and soil fertility has become a subject of intense discussion, especially in savannas where recurring incidences are common. This study assessed the short-term effects of early-season fire on herbaceous composition, dry matter yield and soil fertility in the Guinea savanna belt of Nigeria. Data on ground cover, dry matter yield (DMY in plants and concentrations of C, N, P, K, Ca and Mg in soil were collected from 10 delineated subplots in the burned and unburned zones of four sites after annual wildfire had occurred. Ground cover was significantly higher in the burned zones, increasing progressively from January to April (dry season. Eleven herbaceous species in addition to 2 tree seedlings occurred and represented families of Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Fabaceae and Poaceae. Digitaria nuda, Brachiaria lata, Daniellia oliveri and Aeschynomene indica were limited to the burnt zones while Cyperus tuberosus, Mariscus alternifolius and Rottboellia cochinchinensis were restricted to the unburned zones. DMY ranged from 0.32 g m-2 (Desmodium tortuosum to 52.96 g m-2 (Megathyrsus maximus. Average biomass in the burned and unburned sites was 35.86 g m-2 and 28.42 g m-2, respectively. Soil C, N and P concentrations decreased (positive deterioration index - DI, while those of K, Ca and Mg improved (negative DI in the burned sites. Burning altered the growth (ground cover and composition of plant species in the short term, and could significantly influence soil nutrient dynamics in the long term, especially with recurring fire events.

  17. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyree, Michael C; Seiler, John R; Maier, Chris A; Johnsen, Kurt H

    2009-09-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology and biochemistry will be necessary. This study measured the response of biomass partitioning, light-saturated net photosynthesis (A(Sat)) and photosynthetic capacity to a range in soil fertility and fertilization between two contrasting Pinus taeda L. clone ideotypes: a 'narrow crown' clone (NC) that allocates more resources to stem growth and a 'broad crown' clone (BC) that allocates more resources to leaf area (LA). Under field conditions, we found consistent clone by environment (i.e., varying nutrient regimes) interactions in biomass as well as leaf physiology. Nutrient limitations induced by logging residue incorporation resulted in a 25% loss in stem growth in BC, while NC showed no response. We postulated that the decrease in BC was due to the differences in canopy architecture leading to a reduced canopy CO(2) assimilation, as well as to increased belowground maintenance costs associated with fine-root production. In contrast, N and P additions resulted in a 21% greater increase in stem volume in NC relative to BC. Fertilization increased A(Sat) temporarily in both clones, but A(Sat) eventually decreased below control levels by the end of the study. Although we found a clone by fertilization interaction in leaf physiology, the greatest genotype by environment interaction was found in the LA that appeared to have a greater influence than A(Sat) on growth. This research demonstrates the potential importance of selecting appropriate clonal material and silvicultural prescription when implementing site-specific silviculture to maximize productivity in intensively managed southern pine forests.

  18. A cross-section analysis of sedimentary organic matter in a mangrove ecosystem under dry climate conditions: The Somone estuary, Senegal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakho, Issa; Mesnage, Valérie; Copard, Yoann; Deloffre, Julien; Faye, Guilgane; Lafite, Robert; Niang, Isabelle

    2015-01-01

    Mangrove sediments are an important organic matter (OM) reservoir and play a major role in the carbon cycle. Since the 1990s, these ecosystems were subjected to numerous studies, in order to quantify the sedimentary sink for organic carbon (OC) and to characterize the organic matter sources, but remain poorly studied in Western Africa. The aim of our study is to quantify the organic carbon content and to identify the OM origin stored in the Somone mangrove sediments. Studied area is characterized by a (i) dry climate conditions with a higher rate of evaporation, (ii) lack of freshwater input by river, and (iii) tide dominated system. Here, we focus on physico-chemical properties of sediments (temperature, pH and redox), sediment grain size, water content, particulate organic carbon and dissolved organic carbon from a series of 40 cm-deep cores in four tidal contexts: mudflat, Rhizophora, and Avicennia mangroves and barren area. Results show that total organic carbon (TOC) contents range between 0.34 and 3.92 wt.% and are higher in sediments from mudflat and Rhizophora mangrove than in sediments from Avicennia mangrove and barren area. Indeed, sediments stored under Avicennia is subjected to suboxic conditions initiated by roots system and crabs bioturbation; while under Rhizophora and mudflat, local anoxic conditions are prevalent as suggest the negative Eh values and the occurrence of framboidal pyrites. Mangrove sediments of the Somone estuary contain an autochthonous lignocellulosic-derived organic matter. The youngest and stunted form of the Somone mangrove explains the low organic carbon content of sediments; where dry climate conditions limit the organic matter production by the mangrove forest. The shallow depth at which the organic matter of the former mudflat was found confirms that the Somone mangrove is subjected to a low sedimentation rate. This suggests that organic carbon burial depends on others processes than sedimentation. Then, in the Somone

  19. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  20. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  1. Crescimento, partição de matéria seca e retenção de Na+, K+ e Cl- em dois genótipos de sorgo irrigados com águas salinas Growth, dry mass partitioning, and Na+, K+, and Cl- retention by two sorghum genotypes irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Silva de Aquino

    2007-10-01

    and anatomical changes occurring in the whole-plant. This research aimed at evaluating ion retention, vegetative growth, and dry matter partitioning by two forage sorghum genotypes [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] irrigated with saline water. Selected seeds were sown in plastic pots containing 12 kg a sandy Argisol and grown under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was in completely randomized with treatments arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, consisting of two genotypes (CSF 18, sensitive and CSF 20, tolerant and five levels of increasing salinity (0.5, 2.0 , 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1, with four replicates. The treatments (salinity water application began five days after seeds emergence. On the forty-fourth day after the salt water applications began plants were harvested and evaluated for the following characteristics: dry mass production, dry mass partitioning, root distribution into pots, and Na+, K+ and Cl- contents. Salinity reduced leaf area and dry mass production of shoots and roots; the reduction in shoot growth was highest in the CSF 18 genotype. Salinity also altered carbon partitioning in both genotypes and caused an increase in source/sink ratio, which may contribute to plant acclimation to salt stress. Sorghum plants presented an efficient mechanism of Na+ retention, avoiding excessive accumulation in leaf tissues. However, this mechanism caused a certain dehydration degree in the leaves. Among the studied parameters, potassium leaf content and retention of sodium ions in the stem were highest in genotype CSF 20 (tolerant.

  2. Increasing dietary sugar concentration may improve dry matter intake, ruminal fermentation, and productivity of dairy cows in the postpartum phase of the transition period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Penner, G B; Oba, M

    2009-07-01

    The current study was undertaken to investigate the effect of feeding diets varying in sugar concentration to postpartum transition cows on productivity, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility. We hypothesized that the high-sugar diet would increase dry matter intake and lactation performance. The secondary objective was to characterize changes in ruminal fermentation and nutrient digestibility over the first 4 wk of lactation. Fifty-two Holstein cows, including 28 primiparous and 24 multiparous cows, 10 of which were previously fitted with a ruminal cannula, were assigned to the experimental diets containing either high sugar (HS = 8.4%) or low sugar (LS = 4.7%) immediately after calving, based on their expected calving date. Data and samples were collected on d 5.2 +/- 0.3, 12.2 +/- 0.3, 19.2 +/- 0.3, and 26.1 +/- 0.3 relative to parturition for wk 1, 2, 3, and 4 respectively. Cows fed HS had increased dry matter intake compared with those fed LS (18.3. vs. 17.2 kg/d). Further, cows fed HS sorted for particles retained on the pan of the Penn State Particle Size Separator to a greater extent than cows fed LS. Feeding HS tended to increase nadir (5.62 vs. 5.42), mean (6.21 vs. 6.06), and maximum pH (6.83 vs. 6.65). The duration (h/d) and area (pH x min/d) that ruminal pH was below pH 5.8 were not affected by treatment. Ruminal volatile fatty acid concentration and molar proportions of individual volatile fatty acids were not affected by treatment. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter, neutral detergent fiber, and starch were not affected by treatment, averaging 63.3, 65.2, 43.2, and 93.5%, respectively. Feeding HS decreased plasma glucose concentration compared with feeding LS (51.3 vs. 54.0 mg/dL), but concentration of plasma insulin was not affected by treatment, averaging 4.17 microIU/mL. Cows fed HS had higher concentrations of plasma beta-hydroxybutrate (17.5 vs. 10.5 mg/dL) and nonesterified fatty acids (344 vs. 280 microEq/L). Milk yield

  3. Abscisic acid root and leaf concentration in relation to biomass partitioning in salinized tomato plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovelli, Stella; Scopa, Antonio; Perniola, Michele; Di Tommaso, Teodoro; Sofo, Adriano

    2012-02-15

    Salinization is one of the most important causes of crop productivity reduction in many areas of the world. Mechanisms that control leaf growth and shoot development under the osmotic phase of salinity are still obscure, and opinions differ regarding the Abscisic acid (ABA) role in regulation of biomass allocation under salt stress. ABA concentration in roots and leaves was analyzed in a genotype of processing tomato under two increasing levels of salinity stress for five weeks: 100 mM NaCl (S10) and 150 mM NaCl (S15), to study the effect of ABA changes on leaf gas exchange and dry matter partitioning of this crop under salinity conditions. In S15, salinization decreased dry matter by 78% and induced significant increases of Na(+) and Cl(-) in both leaves and roots. Dry matter allocated in different parts of plant was significantly different in salt-stressed treatments, as salinization increased root/shoot ratio 2-fold in S15 and 3-fold in S15 compared to the control. Total leaf water potential (Ψ(w)) decreased from an average value of approximately -1.0 MPa, measured on control plants and S10, to -1.17 MPa in S15. In S15, photosynthesis was reduced by 23% and stomatal conductance decreased by 61%. Moreover, salinity induced ABA accumulation both in tomato leaves and roots of the more stressed treatment (S15), where ABA level was higher in roots than in leaves (550 and 312 ng g(-1) fresh weight, respectively). Our results suggest that the dynamics of ABA and ion accumulation in tomato leaves significantly affected both growth and gas exchange-related parameters in tomato. In particular, ABA appeared to be involved in the tomato salinity response and could play an important role in dry matter partitioning between roots and shoots of tomato plants subjected to salt stress.

  4. Mapping Clearances in Tropical Dry Forests Using Breakpoints, Trend, and Seasonal Components from MODIS Time Series: Does Forest Type Matter?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenneth Grogan

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Tropical environments present a unique challenge for optical time series analysis, primarily owing to fragmented data availability, persistent cloud cover and atmospheric aerosols. Additionally, little is known of whether the performance of time series change detection is affected by diverse forest types found in tropical dry regions. In this paper, we develop a methodology for mapping forest clearing in Southeast Asia using a study region characterised by heterogeneous forest types. Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS time series are decomposed using Breaks For Additive Season and Trend (BFAST and breakpoints, trend, and seasonal components are combined in a binomial probability model to distinguish between cleared and stable forest. We found that the addition of seasonality and trend information improves the change model performance compared to using breakpoints alone. We also demonstrate the value of considering forest type in disturbance mapping in comparison to the more common approach that combines all forest types into a single generalised forest class. By taking a generalised forest approach, there is less control over the error distribution in each forest type. Dry-deciduous and evergreen forests are especially sensitive to error imbalances using a generalised forest model i.e., clearances were underestimated in evergreen forest, and overestimated in dry-deciduous forest. This suggests that forest type needs to be considered in time series change mapping, especially in heterogeneous forest regions. Our approach builds towards improving large-area monitoring of forest-diverse regions such as Southeast Asia. The findings of this study should also be transferable across optical sensors and are therefore relevant for the future availability of dense time series for the tropics at higher spatial resolutions.

  5. 榛子果仁干物质与脂肪增长速率及积累规律的研究%Study of Dry Matter and Fat Increasing Rate and Accumulation Regularity of Hazelnut Kernel

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏丽红; 翟秋喜

    2011-01-01

    Hazelnut crossbreds were selected as the tested samples. Ambulatory monitoring method was utilized to study the content variation and increasing rate of kernel dry matter and fat. The results showed that for the three cultivars, dry matter and fat accumulation occurred mainly during the initial and middle stage of kernel development and dry matter and fat accumulation was simultaneous.%以杂种榛优良品系为试材,采用动态监测的方法,研究果仁发育过程中干物质和脂肪的含量变化及增长速率.结果表明,3种榛子品系果仁干物质及脂肪的累积主要在果仁发育的前期和中期,果仁干物质及脂肪的积累基本是同步进行的.

  6. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  7. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dongqing; Yang; Yongli; Luo; Yingli; Ni; Yanping; Yin; Weibing; Yang; Dianliang; Peng; Zhengyong; Cui; Zhenlin; Wang

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid(ABA)is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics.At blooming stage,plants of Wennong 6(a staygreen cultivar)and Jimai 20(control)were sprayed with10 mg L-1abscisic acid(ABA)for 3 days.The application of ABA significantly(P<0.05)increased grain filling rate,starch accumulation rate and content,remobilization of dry matters to kernels,and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars.Exogenous ABA markedly(P<0.05)increased grain yield at maturity,and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14%and 4.86%higher compared yield than the control.Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly(P<0.05)influenced by exogenous ABA,whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged.Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside(ZR)content 7 days after anthesis(DAA),and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid(IAA)and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin(GA3)content at 14 DAA,but increased GA3content from 21 to 35 DAA.The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  8. Seasonal variations in species diversity, dry matter and net primary productivity of herb layer of Quercus leucotrichophora-Pinus roxburghii mixed forest in Kumaun Himalaya, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mukesh Joshi; Y.S.Rawat; J.Ram

    2012-01-01

    Plant biomass,species diversity and net primary productivity are presented for herb layer of banj oak (Quercus leucotrichophora A.Camus)-chir pine (Pinus roxburghii Sarg.) mixed forest in Kumaun,central Himalaya,India.The species diversity declined from a maximum (3.56) in September to a minimum (2.11) in December.The monthly live shoots biomass exhibited a single peak growth pattern with highest live shoot biomass of 185 g·m-2 in August.The seasonal pattern showed that the maximum above-ground production (131 g·m-2) occurred during the rainy season and the minimum (1 g·m-2) during winter season.The below-ground production was maximum during winter season (84 g·m-2) and minimum during summer season (34 g·m-2).The annual net shoot production was 171 g·m-2 and total below-ground production was 165 g·m-2.Of the total input 61% was channeled to above-ground parts and 39% to below-ground parts.Transfer of live shoots to dead shoots compartments and that of dead shoots to litter compartments was 61% and 66%,respectively.The total dry matter disappearance was 61% of the total input within annual cycle.The herb layer showed a net accumulation of organic matter,indicating the seral nature of the community.

  9. Sorghum silage supplemented with crambe meal improves dry matter intake and milk production in crossbred Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    do Carmo Araújo, Saulo Alberto; Bicalho, Guilherme Pires; da Silva Rocha, Norberto; Bento, Cláudia Braga Pereira; Ortêncio, Marluci Olício

    2017-09-23

    We studied the feed intake and milk production of Holstein × Zebu crossbred cows fed sorghum silage diets and concentrates, with and without the addition of crambe meal. Using a change-over design for a total of 120 days, eight cows were fed two diets (concentrates + silages with and without crambe meal) in four 30-day periods, with four replications (animals). The crambe meal diet increased (P  0.05) for the milk composition between the treatments. Crambe meal as an additive in sorghum silage (100 g/kg in natural matter) showed a great potential for introduction in dairy farming as it substantially increases CP intake, does not reduce food intake, raises animal productivity, and does not affect milk composition.

  10. Effect of boron as an antidote on dry matter intake, nutrient utilization and fluorine balance in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) exposed to high fluoride ration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bharti, Vijay K; Gupta, Meenakshi; Lall, D

    2008-12-01

    It is well known that excessive accumulation of fluorides can exert toxic effects on various tissues and organs so as to severely damage the health and production of animals. The aim of this study was to determine beneficial effect of boron on nutrient utilization in buffalo calves exposed to high fluoride (F) ration. For this purpose, we used three groups of four male Murrah buffalo calves (body weight 98-100 kg, aged 6-8 month) each. Control animal was given only basal diet and concentrate mixture. However, treatment I animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, and F [as NaF, 60 ppm of dry matter (DM)]. The treatment II animals were fed basal diet, concentrate mixture, F (as NaF, 60 ppm of DM), and B (as sodium tetraborate, 140 ppm of DM). After 90 days of experimental feeding, a metabolism trial of 7 days duration was conducted to study the treatment effect on nutrient utilization of proximate nutrients, absorption, excretion, and retention of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, Cu, and F. Dietary F significantly (p matter intake and increased the apparent digestibility, absorption, and retention of F. However, boron supplementation significantly (p matter intake, fecal excretion, and percent of absorbed F excreted via urine. Apparent digestibility of proximate nutrients (viz. DM, crude protein, crude fiber, ether extract, and nitrogen free extract) was unaffected on either F or F+B treatment. However, absorption and excretion of N, Ca, P, Fe, Zn, and Cu were affected significantly (p < 0.05) on F or F+B treatment. These findings suggest that fluoride-containing diet for short duration has effect on nutrient utilization, and boron at 140-ppm dose level, in general, antagonized the absorption and retention of F and also improved the feed intake in buffalo calves.

  11. Partitioning CO2 effluxes from an Atlantic pine forest soil between endogenous soil organic matter and recently incorporated 13C-enriched plant material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez, Irene; Cabaneiro, Ana; González-Prieto, Serafín J

    2006-04-15

    Soil CO2 effluxes from recently added 13C-labeled phytomass versus endogenous soil organic matter (SOM) were studied in an acid soil from Atlantic pine forests (NW Spain). After several cultures to incorporate fresh 13C-enriched Lolium perenne to a Humic Cambisol with predominance of humus--Al over humus--Fe complexes, potential soil C mineralization was determined by laboratory aerobic incubation (84 days). Isotopic 13C analyses of SOM fractions were assessed to know in which organic compartments the 13C was preferentially incorporated. Although in the 13C-labeled soil the C mineralization coefficient totalized less than 3% of soil C, the 13C mineralization coefficient exceeded 14%, indicating a greater lability of the newly incorporated organic matter. Organic compounds coming from added phytomass showed a higher lability and contributed considerably to the total soil CO2 effluxes (52% of total soil CO2 evolved during the first decomposition stages and 27% at the end), even though added-C comprised less than 4% of total soil C. Good determination coefficients, when values of CO2--C released were fitted to a first-order double exponential kinetic model, support the existence of two C pools of different lability. Kinetic parameters obtained with this model indicated that phytomass addition augmented the biodegradability of the labile pool (instantaneous mineralization rate k increased from 0.07 d(-1) to 0.12 d(-1)) but diminished that of the recalcitrant pool (instantaneous mineralization rate h decreased from 2.7 x 10(-4) d(-1) to 1.6 x 10(-4) d(-1)). Consequently, the differentiation between both SOM pools increased, showing the importance of SOM quality on CO2 emissions from this kind of soil to the atmosphere.

  12. Evaluation of the factors affecting silage intake of dairy cows: a revision of the relative silage dry-matter intake index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huhtanen, P; Rinne, M; Nousiainen, J

    2007-06-01

    An evaluation of the factors affecting silage dry-matter intake (SDMI) of dairy cows was conducted based on dietary treatment means. The data were divided into six subsets based on the silage treatments used in the experiments: concentration of digestible organic matter in dry matter (D-value) influenced by the maturity of grass ensiled (n = 81), fermentation quality influenced by silage additives (n = 240), dry matter (DM) concentration influenced by wilting of grass prior to ensiling (W; n = 85), comparison of silages made from primary growth or regrowth of grass (n = 46), and replacement of grass silage with legume (L; n = 53) or fermented whole-crop cereal (WC; n = 37) silages. The data were subjected to the mixed model regression analysis. Both silage D-value and fermentation quality significantly affected SDMI. The average effects of D-value and total acid (TA) concentration were 17.0 g and - 12.8 per 1 g/kg DM, respectively. At a given D-value, silage neutral-detergent fibre (NDF) concentration tended to decrease SDMI. Silage TA concentration was the best fermentation parameter predicting SDMI. Adding other parameters into the multivariate models did not improve the fit and the slopes of the other parameters remained insignificant. Total NDF intake was curvilinearly related to silage D-value the maximum intake being reached at a D-value of 640 g/kg DM. Results imply that physical fill is not limiting SDMI of highly digestible grass silages and that both physical and metabolic factors constrain total DM intake in an interactive manner. Silage DM concentration had an independent curvilinear effect on SDMI. Replacing primary growth silage with regrowth, L or WC silages affected SDMI significantly, the response to regrowth silage being linearly decreasing and to L and WC quadratically increasing. The outcome of factors affecting SDMI was used to update the relative SDMI index as follows: SDMI index = 100+10 × [(D-value - 680) × 0.0170

  13. Subsoiling facilitating accumulation and transportation of dry matter and phosphorus of spring maize Subsoiling facilitating accumulation and transportation of dry matter and phosphorus of spring maize%深松促进春玉米干物质和磷素的积累与转运

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张瑞富; 杨恒山; 高聚林; 张玉芹; 王志刚; 范秀艳; 毕文波

    2016-01-01

    为研究深松对春玉米干物质和磷素积累与转运的影响。以郑单958和先玉335为供试品种,设旋耕(R)、深松+旋耕(S+R)2个处理,通过连续2年的田间定位试验。结果表明,S+R处理显著(P<0.05)提高2个品种春玉米的产量、吐丝期干物质和磷积累量、干物质和磷转运量,尤以郑单958表现明显;磷收获指数、磷吸收效率、磷肥偏生产力均表现为S+R处理高于R处理,其中郑单958磷收获指数、磷吸收效率处理间差异均达到显著水平(P<0.05),而先玉335处理间差异不显著。深松能促进春玉米干物质和磷的积累、转运,提高磷的收获指数、吸收效率和偏生产力,但不同玉米品种间存在显著的差异,郑单958产量和磷效率对深松更为敏感。该文可为春玉米高产高效栽培提供依据。%Years of small power mechanical shallow rotary tillage often lead to shallow top soil layer and thick plough pan in the root layer. In addition, available phosphorus (P) content is relatively low in calcareous soil, so the nutrient use efficiency of P is low, limiting the maize yield. Subsoiling is an effective mean to solve those issues. In this study, the effects of subsoiling on dry matter, P accumulation and transportation of spring maize were studied. Zhengdan 958 and Xianyu 335 were used as materials and 2 treatments (rotary tillage vs. subsoiling plus rotary tillage) were set through field experiments consecutively for 2 years. The results showed that under the subsoiling plus rotary tillage, the yields of the 2 varieties were increased, and the yield difference between the 2 treatments was significant (P<0.05); and the main reason was that the 1000-grain weight was increased, but grain number per spike and effective spike had no significant difference. From the point of view of yield, Zhengdan 958 was more sensitive to subsoiling plus rotary tillage than rotary tillage in 2 years. The leaf area

  14. Inspiratory flows through dry powder inhaler in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: age and gender rather than severity matters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L Pekka Malmberg

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available L Pekka Malmberg1, Paula Rytilä2, Pertti Happonen2, Tari Haahtela11Skin and Allergy Hospital, Helsinki University Central Hospital, Helsinki, Finland; 2Orion Corporation, Orion Pharma, Espoo, FinlandBackground: Dry powder inhalers (DPIs are inspiratory flow driven and hence flow dependent. Most patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD are elderly and have poor lung function. The factors affecting their inspiratory flows through inhalers are unclear.Objective: To study peak inspiratory flows (PIFs and their determinants through a DPI in COPD patients of varying age and severity.Methods: Flow-volume spirometry was performed in 93 COPD patients. Maximum PIF rates were recorded through an empty Easyhaler® (PIFEH; Orion Corporation, Espoo, Finland, a DPI that provides consistent dose delivery at inhalation rates through the inhaler of 28 L/min or higher.Results: The mean PIFEH was 54 L/min (range 26–95 L/min with a coefficient of variation of 7%. All but two patients were able to generate a flow of ≥28 L/min. In a general linear model, the independent determinants for PIFEH were age (P = 0.02 and gender (P = 0.01, and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1 expressed as percent predicted was not a significant factor. The regression model accounted only for 18% of the variation in PIFEH.Conclusion: In patients with COPD, age and gender are more important determinants of inspiratory flow through DPIs than the degree of expiratory airway obstruction. Most COPD patients with varying age and severity are able to generate inspiratory flows through the test inhaler that is sufficient for optimal drug delivery to the lower airways.Keywords: COPD, forced expiratory volume, peak inspiratory flow 

  15. Study of total dry matter and protein extraction from canola meal as affected by the pH, salt addition and use of zeta-potential/turbidimetry analysis to optimize the extraction conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerzhova, Alina; Mondor, Martin; Benali, Marzouk; Aider, Mohammed

    2016-06-15

    Total dry matter and proteins were differentially and preferentially extracted from canola meal (CM) under different conditions. The effect of the extraction medium pH, CM concentration and salt concentrations were found to have different influences on the extractability of total dry matter and proteins from CM. The pH of the extracting medium had the most significant effect. The maximal total dry matter (42.8±1.18%) extractability was obtained with 5% CM at pH 12 without salt addition, whereas the maximal for total protein (58.12±1.47%) was obtained with 15% CM under the same conditions. The minimal extractability for the dry matter (26.63±0.67%) was obtained with 5% CM at pH 10 without salt added and the minimal protein extractability was observed in a 10% CM at pH 10, in 0.01 NaCl. Turbidity and ζ-potential measurements indicated that pH 5 was the optimum condition for the highest protein extraction yield. SDS-PAGE analysis showed that salt addition contributes to higher solubility of canola proteins specifically cruciferin fraction, although it reduces napin extraction.

  16. Drying and rewetting of a loamy sand soil did not increase the turnover of native organic matter, but retarded the decomposition of added 14C-labelled plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magid, J.; Kjaergaard, C.; Gorissen, A.; Kuikman, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Drying and subsequent rewetting of soils has been recognized as an important process for accelerating the decomposition of soil organic matter. This effect has been attributed to (1) increasing solubility of humic substances (molecular level) (2), microbial death during desiccation and due to osmore

  17. Drying and rewetting of a loamy sand soil did not increase the turnover of native organic matter, but retarded the decomposition of added 14C-labelled plant material

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Magid, J.; Kjaergaard, C.; Gorissen, A.; Kuikman, P.J.

    1999-01-01

    Drying and subsequent rewetting of soils has been recognized as an important process for accelerating the decomposition of soil organic matter. This effect has been attributed to (1) increasing solubility of humic substances (molecular level) (2), microbial death during desiccation and due to

  18. Shoot Apex Demand Determines Assimilate and Nutrients Partitioning and Nutrient-uptake Rate in Tobacco Plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Our previous experiment revealed that apex-removed plants have larger root systems but a lower K+-uptake rates than intact tobacco plants.Since the apex is not only e center of growth and metabolism,but also an important place of auxin synthesis and export,the aims of this study were to distinguish whether the apex demand or auxin synthesized in the apex regulates assimilate and nutrients partitioning within plant,and to explain the reason for the lower K+-uptake rate of the apex-ramoved plant.In comparison with the control plant,covering the shoot apex with a black transparent plastic bag reduced net increases In dry matter and nutrients;however,the distribution of the dry matter and nutrients between shoot and roots and nutrient-uptake rates were not changed.Removal of the shoot apex shifted the dry mass and nutrients distributions to roots,and reduced the rate of nutrient uptake.Application of 1-naphthylacetic acid(NAA) could partly replace the role of the removed apex,stimulated assimilate and nutrient deposition into the treated tissue,and enhanced the reduced plasma membrane ATPase activity of roots to the control level.However,treatment of the apex-removed plants with NAA could not rescue the reduced nutrient uptake rate and the shifted assimilates and nutrients partitioning caused by excision of the apex.Higher nutrient uptake rate of the intact plants could not be explained by root growth parameters,such as total root surface area and number of root tips.The results from the present study indicate that strong apex demand determined assimilatas and nutrients partitioning and nutrient-uptake rate in tobacco(Nicotiana tabacum)plants.

  19. Accumulation of Dry Matter, Canopy Structure and Photosynthesis of Synthetic Hexaploid Wheat-Derived High-Yielding Varieties Grown in Sichuan Basin, China%人工合成小麦衍生品种的物质积累、冠层结构及群体光合特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汤永禄; 李朝苏; 吴晓丽; 吴春; 杨武云; 黄钢; 马孝玲

    2014-01-01

    significantly lower transmission coefficient for radiation penetration and higher Extinction coefficient than that of NSVs at mid-grain filling stage. SDVs displayed prominent canopy photosynthesis at anthesis and 20 d after anthesis and higher SPAD values of flag-and penultimate leaf during whole grain filling period. Grain yield showed a significant positive correlation with grain number per m2, SPAD values of flag-and penultimate leaf after flowering, and canopy photosynthesis at mid-grain filling stage.[Conclusion]Compared to NSVs, SDVs had higher grain number per m2 and kernel weight, higher crop growth rates at early stages and amount of accumulated dry matter with more partitioning to grain, relatively compact plant type with longer green-stayed period and higher capacity of canopy photosynthesis.%【目的】人工合成六倍体小麦(synthetic hexaploid wheat,SHW)具有较强的抗逆能力和高产潜力,研究SHW衍生品种的物质积累与分配、冠层结构与光合特性,为区域小麦遗传改良和产量提升奠定基础。【方法】2011-2013年在四川广汉市选择3个SHW衍生品种和5个非SHW衍生品种(普通小麦品种),测定主要生育阶段的物质积累与分配、开花灌浆阶段的冠层结构与光合参数。【结果】联合方差分析表明,产量和主要农艺性状均存在显著的年际、品种及其互作效应,且年际效应大于品种与互作效应。SHW衍生品种3年平均产量9163 kg·hm-2、19133粒/m2、千粒重47.5 g,分别比普通小麦品种高12.31%、5.31%和7.95%;其干物质积累速率,尤其是生育前期的干物质积累速率明显高于普通小麦品种,如播种-分蘖、分蘖-拔节的干物质积累速率分别比普通小麦品种高18.66%和20.46%,相应地主要生育阶段的干物质积累量、干物质转移量和转移贡献率也高于普通小麦品种。成熟期SHW衍生品种的叶片、穗轴(颖壳)、茎鞘干物质占成穗茎总干重

  20. Effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake, lactation performance and energy balance in multiparous Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Wenming; Tian, Yujia; Wang, Yajing; Simayi, Aminamu; Yasheng, Amingguli; Wu, Zhaohai; Li, Shengli; Cao, Zhijun

    2014-01-01

    Energy intake prepartum is critically important to health, milk performance, and profitability of dairy cows. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of reduced energy density of close-up diets on dry matter intake (DMI), lactation performance and energy balance (EB) in multiparous Holstein cows which were housed in a free-stall barn and fed for ad libitum intake. Thirty-nine dry cows were blocked and assigned randomly to three groups fed a high energy density diet [HD, n = 13; 6.8 MJ of net energy for lactation (NEL)/kg; 14.0% crude protein (CP) ], or a middle energy density diet (MD, n = 13; 6.2 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP), or a low energy density diet (LD, n = 13; 5.4 MJ NEL/kg; 14.0% CP) from d 21 before expected day of calving. After parturition, all cows were fed the same lactation diet to d 70 in milk (DIM). The DMI and NEL intake prepartum were decreased by the reduced energy density diets (P consumption for HD, MD and LD groups were 149.8%, 126.2% and 101.1% of their calculated energy requirements prepartum (P < 0.05), and 72.7%, 73.1% and 75.2% during the first 4 wk postpartum, respectively. In conclusion, the low energy density prepartum diet was effective in controlling NEL intake prepartum, and was beneficial in increasing DMI and milk yield, and alleviating negative EB postpartum.

  1. Superconformal indices and partition functions for supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gahramanov, I.B. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Humboldt-Universitaet, Berlin (Germany). Inst. fuer Physik; Vartanov, G.S. [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-12-15

    Recently there was a substantial progress in understanding of supersymmetric theories (in particular, their BPS spectrum) in space-times of different dimensions due to the exact computation of superconformal indices and partition functions using localization method. Here we discuss a connection of 4d superconformal indices and 3d partition functions using a particular example of supersymmetric theories with matter in antisymmetric representation.

  2. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  3. Growth and biomass partitioning of mulungu seedlings in response to phosphorus fertilization and mycorrhizal inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Sousa Leite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the initial growth and biomass partitioning of mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. seedlings under different rates of phosphorus in the presence and absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (FMA’s. A randomized blocks design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with four replicates and three plants per plot. Treatments consisted of five phosphorus rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg.Kg soil-1, using as source the superphosphate fertilizer, and presence or absence of FMA’s. At 98 days after sowing (DAS, shoot height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll index, leaf dry matter, stem dry matter, root dry matter, leaf area, Dickson quality index and height/stem diameter ratio were evaluated. The phosphorus rate of 200 mg.kg-1 proved to be the most efficient for production of Erythrina velutina seedlings, but with a significant reduction in the biological association of this plant with rhizobacteria. Biomass distribution within the different parts of the plants did not change with distinct rates of P, and there were no benefits in the use of FMA’s until 98 DAS.

  4. Effects of maize (Zea mays L.) silage feeding on dry matter intake and milk production of dairy buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, Yoshiaki; Thapa, Bhim B; Sharma, Mohan P; Sapkota, Maheshwor; Kumagai, Hajime

    2009-08-01

    To identify the effects of whole crop maize silage (MS) as a substitute for rice straw (RS) on feed intake and milk production of mid-late lactating buffalo and cattle in Tarai, Nepal, eight Murrah and eight Jersey-Hariana were fed the basal diet, RS (ad libitum) with concentrate (0.68% of bodyweight [BW] on a dry matter [DM] basis). A 4 x 4 Latin square design experiment was conducted in each animal species with graded levels of MS substitution for RS (0%, T1; 33%, T2; 67%, T3 and 100%, T4). The MS had higher digestibility and total digestible nutrient (TDN) than RS. The DM intake per BW of the both species was highest in T3. The substitution of MS for RS increased the crude protein intake and the TDN intake in the both species. Although the buffalo showed the highest milking performance in T4, the cattle showed no significant differences in their milking performance among the treatments. The substitution of MS for RS improved the feed intake and milk production in the buffalo. On the other hand, the milk yield was not raised in the cattle, though the feed intake was increased by the substitution.

  5. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENT ON DEGRADATION OF DRY MATTER AND FIBER OF UNTREATED AND UREA TREATED RICE STRAW IN THE RUMEN OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulistiani

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the degradation of dry matter (DM and neutral detergentfiber (NDF of urea untreated (URS and urea treated rice straw (TRS incubated in the rumen of sheepfed different diet. Three fistulated sheep were fed on urea-treated rice straw basal diet with threesupplemental treatment diets which consisted of control diet (T0 mulberry and molasses; mulberry,rice bran and urea (T1; and rice bran and urea (T2. Either URS or TRS was placed in nylon bags andincubated in the rumen at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Parameters recorded were degradation of DMand NDF, rumen pH, rumen ammonia. The results showed that DM degradability of URS of the diet T1was significantly lower than other diets. Similarly the URS degradability of rumen-insoluble fraction(b of DM and NDF of T1 diet was significantly lower than those of T0 and T2 diet. DM and NDFdegradability of URS was not affected by diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 wassignificantly higher than those T0, but still higher than critical ammonia concentration required forrumen microbial synthesis. These results suggest that different supplementations have no significanteffect on DM and NDF degradability of TRS.

  6. EFFECT OF DIFFERENT SUPPLEMENT ON DEGRADATION OF DRY MATTER AND FIBER OF UNTREATED AND UREA TREATED RICE STRAW IN THE RUMEN OF SHEEP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Yulistiani

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The study was conducted to investigate the degradation of dry matter (DM and neutral detergent fiber (NDF of urea untreated (URS and urea treated rice straw (TRS incubated in the rumen of sheep fed different diet. Three fistulated sheep were fed on urea-treated rice straw basal diet with three supplemental treatment diets which consisted of control diet (T0 mulberry and molasses; mulberry, rice bran and urea (T1; and rice bran and urea (T2. Either URS or TRS was placed in nylon bags and incubated in the rumen at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Parameters recorded were degradation of DM and NDF, rumen pH, rumen ammonia. The results showed that DM degradability of URS of the diet T1 was significantly lower than other diets. Similarly the URS degradability of rumen-insoluble fraction (b of DM and NDF of T1 diet was significantly lower than those of T0 and T2 diet. DM and NDF degradability of URS was not affected by diets. The rumen ammonia concentration of T1 and T2 was significantly higher than those T0, but still higher than critical ammonia concentration required for rumen microbial synthesis. These results suggest that different supplementations have no significant effect on DM and NDF degradability of TRS.

  7. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  8. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15 percent of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Foote, A P; Brown-Brandl, T M; Freetly, H C

    2015-01-01

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% on energy balance in finishing cattle diets were evaluated in 8 steers (BW = 503 kg) using a replicated Latin square design. Data were analyzed with the fixed effects of dietary treatment and period, and the random effects of square and steer within square were included in the model. Contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of GLY inclusion. Glycerin replaced dry-rolled corn (DRC) at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dietary DM. Dry matter intake decreased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. As a proportion of GE intake, fecal energy loss tended to decrease linearly (P 0.31) as a proportion of GE as GLY increased in the diet. Methane energy loss as a proportion of GE intake tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), decreasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and increasing thereafter. As a proportion of GE intake, ME tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.10), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY and then decreasing. As a proportion of GE intake, heat production increased linearly (P = 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Additionally, as a proportion of GE intake, retained energy (RE) tended to respond quadratically (P = 0.07), increasing from 0 to 10% GLY inclusion and decreasing thereafter. As a proportion of N intake, urinary and fecal N excretion increased linearly (P < 0.04) as GLY increased in the diet. Furthermore, grams of N retained and N retained as a percent of N intake both decreased linearly (P < 0.02) as GLY increased in the diet. Total DM digestibility tended (P < 0.10) to respond quadratically, increasing at a decreasing rate from 0 to 5% GLY inclusion. Overall, RE tended to decrease as GLY increased in the diet in conjunction with a decrease in N retention, which could indicate

  9. Effects of increasing milking frequency during the last 28 days of gestation on milk production, dry matter intake, and energy balance in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastani, R R; Del Rio, N Silva; Gressley, T F; Dahl, G E; Grummer, R R

    2007-04-01

    Forty-eight Holstein cows were used in a randomized block design to evaluate different dry period lengths and prepartum milking frequencies (MF) on subsequent milk production, milk composition, solids-corrected milk production, dry matter intake (DMI), and energy balance. Lactating cows, milked 2 times/d, began a 7-d covariate period 35 d prior to the expected calving date. Cows were milked 0 times/d (0x), 1 time/d (1x), and 4 times/d (4x) for the last 28 d of gestation. If milk production decreased to less than 0.5 kg/milking or 1 kg/d, milking via machine ceased; however, teat stimulation continued 1 or 4 times/d according to the treatment assignment. All cows were milked 2 times/d postpartum (wk 1 to 10). Prepartum DMI tended to be greater for 1x and 4x compared with 0x. Prepartum, cows milked 1x produced 17% less milk than cows milked 4x (5.9 and 7.1 kg/d, respectively). There were no differences in prepartum and postpartum body condition scores, body weights, and DMI. Postpartum milk production by cows following their third or greater gestation was greater for 0x and 4x compared with 1x. Postpartum milk production by cows following their second gestation was significantly decreased with increased MF (0x vs. 1x and 4x). Regardless of parity, postpartum solids-corrected milk was greater for 0x compared with 1x and 4x. Postpartum fat yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, with 1x being intermediate. Postpartum protein yield was greater for 0x vs. 4x, whereas 0x tended to have greater protein yield than 1x. Postpartum energy balance was greater for 1x and 4x relative to 0x. Continuous milking (1x and 4x) resulted in a loss of milk production in the subsequent lactation for cows following their second gestation; however, for cows following their third or greater gestation, increasing the MF from 1x to 4x in the last 28 d of gestation alleviated the loss in milk production.

  10. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    of 34.5 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized design with five treatments (byproducts and four replications. Dry matter intakes (DMI of byproducts of guava, passion fruit and melon by the animals were similar but higher than WIC byproduct. The highest crude protein intake (CPI (g/animal/day, g/BW0.75 was observed in passion fruit and melon byproducts, while WIC byproduct the lowest CPI. Guava byproduct showed the higher intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF and passion fruit byproduct showed the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM coefficient. Guava and WIC byproducts showed ADMS lower than the others. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP of passion fruit and melon byproducts were higher than the others byproducts. As for, the coefficients of apparent digestibility of NDF (ADNDF and ADF (ADADF, WIC and guava byproducts were lower while passion fruit byproduct showed ADNDF and ADADF higher than the others. No difference among evaluates byproducts for nitrogen balance was observed. Results showed that; pineapple, passion fruit and melon byproducts could be used in ruminant diets. However, WIC and guava byproducts showed low nutrient digestibility coefficients, restricting their use in ruminant diets.

  11. Disponibilidade de matéria seca em pastagens de capim-elefante irrigadas Availability dry matter in elephant-grass pastures irrigated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogério dos Santos Lopes

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar os efeitos da irrigação na disponibilidade de matéria seca em pastagens de capim-elefante, cv. Napier, foi conduzido um experimento durante dois anos no Setor de Agrostologia da UFV. A irrigação foi realizada por um sistema de aspersão convencional de média pressão, usando turno de rega variável. Observou-se que, nos dois períodos de seca abrangidos pelo experimento, a irrigação não conseguiu determinar diferenças significativas na disponibilidade de matéria seca do capim-elefante. Por outro lado, quando se avaliaram os resultados acumulados para os períodos de inverno e verão, a disponibilidade de forragem nos tratamentos sob irrigação foi sempre significativamente maior, em razão de a irrigação suprir e manter a umidade do solo em níveis suficientemente adequados para as forrageiras, quando as temperaturas mínimas não foram limitantes ao crescimento, eliminando os efeitos dos veranicos e permitindo manutenção da estabilidade da produção. Conclui-se que a irrigação realizada de forma eficiente e criteriosa pode ser mais uma alternativa, visando ao aumento da produção animal a pasto, pois permite significativos aumentos na produção forrageira, principalmente no verão, quando as temperaturas mínimas não foram limitantes ao desenvolvimento do capim-elefante.With the objective of evaluating the effects of the irrigation in the availability of dry matter in elephant-grass pastures, cv. Napier, an experiment was driven for two years in the Section of Agrostologia of UFV. The irrigation was accomplished by a system of conventional aspersion of medium pressure, using turn of watering variable. It was observed that, in the two drought periods embraced by the experiment, the irrigation didn't get to determine significant differences in the availability of dry matter of the elephant-grass. On the other hand, when the accumulated results were evaluated for the winter and summer periods, the

  12. The effects of Propionibacterium acidipropionici and Lactobacillus plantarum, applied at ensiling, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of low dry matter corn and sorghum silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filya, I; Sucu, E; Karabulut, A

    2006-05-01

    The aim of this work was to study the effects of applying a strain of Propionibacterium acidipropionici, with or without Lactobacillus plantarum, on the fermentation and aerobic stability characteristics of low dry matter (DM) corn (Zea mays L.) and sorghum (Sorghum bicolor L.) silages. Corn at the dent stage and sorghum at the flowering stage were harvested. Treatments comprised control (no additives), P. acidipropionici, L. plantarum and a combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum. Fresh forages were sampled prior to ensiling. Bacterial inoculants were applied to the fresh forage at 1.0 x 10(6) colony-forming units per gram. After treatment, the chopped fresh materials were ensiled in 1.5-l anaerobic glass jars equipped with a lid that enabled gas release only. Three jars per treatment were sampled on days 2, 4, 8, 16 and 60 after ensiling, for chemical and microbiological analysis. At the end of the ensiling period, 60 days, the silages were subjected to an aerobic stability test. The L. plantarum inoculated silages had significantly higher levels of lactic acid than the controls, P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum inoculated silages (Psilages. After the aerobic exposure test, the L. plantarum and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum had produced more CO2 than the controls and the silages inoculated with P. acidipropionici (Psilages had high levels of CO2 and high numbers of yeasts and molds in the experiment. Therefore, all silages were deteriorated under aerobic conditions. The P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum were not able to improve the aerobic stability of fast-fermenting silages, because they could not work well in this acidic environment. The results showed that P. acidipropionici and combination of P. acidipropionici and L. plantarum did not improve the aerobic stability of low DM corn and sorghum silages, which are prone to aerobic deterioration.

  13. Effects of Atmospheric CO2 Enrichment, Applied Nitrogen and Soil Moisture on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Uptake in Spring Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Spring wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv. Dingxi No. 8654) was treated with two concentrations of atmospheric COz (350 and 700 μmol mol-1), two levels of soil moisture (well-watered and drought) and five rates of nitrogen fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 mg kg-1 soil) to study the atmospheric CO2 concentration effect on dry matter accumulation and N uptake of spring wheat. The effects of CO2 enrichment on the shoot and total mass depended largely on soil nitrogen level, and the shoot and total mass increased significantly in the moderate to high N treatments but did not increase significantly in the low N treatment. Enriched CO2concentration did not increase more shoot and total mass in the drought treatment than in the well-watered treatment. Thus, elevated CO2 did not ameliorate the depressive effects of drought and nitrogen stress. In addition, root mass decreased slightly and root/shoot ratio decreased significantly due to CO2 enrichment in no N treatment under well-watered condition. Enriched CO2 decreased shoot N content and shoot and total N uptake; but it reduced root N content and uptake slightly. Shoot critical N concentration was lower for spring wheat grown at 700 μmol mol-1 CO2 than at 350 μmol mol-1 CO2 in both well-watered and drought treatments. The critical N concentrations were 16 and 19 g kg-1 for the well-watered treatment and drought treatment at elevated CO2 and 21 and 26 g kg-1 at ambient CO2, respectively. The reductions in the movement of nutrients to the plant roots through mass flow due to the enhancement in WUE (water use efficiency) and the increase in N use efficiency at elevated CO2 could elucidate the reduction of shoot and root N concentrations.

  14. Effects of feeding propylene glycol on dry matter intake, lactation performance, energy balance and blood metabolites in early lactation dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Q; Wang, C; Yang, W Z; Zhang, W W; Yang, X M; He, D C; Dong, K H; Huang, Y X

    2009-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate effects of feeding propylene glycol (PG) on feed intake, milk yield and milk composition, blood metabolites and energy balance in Holstein dairy cows from 1 to 63 days in milk. Thirty-two multiparous cows, blocked by lactation number, previous 305-day milk production and expected calving date, were arranged into four groups in a randomized block design. Treatments were: control, low PG, medium PG and high PG with 0, 150, 300 and 450 ml PG per cow per day, respectively. The supplement of food grade PG (0.998 g/g PG) was hand-mixed into the top one-third of the daily ration. Cows were fed ad libitum a total mixed ration consisting of forage and concentrate (50 : 50, dry matter basis). Feed intake, milk yield and milk components were not affected (P > 0.05) by PG supplementation. Overall, body weight (BW) loss tended (P < 0.08) to be linearly reduced, and energy status was linearly improved with increasing PG supplementation. Concentrations of glucose in plasma were higher for cows fed PG relative to control (55.6 v. 58.9 mg/dl) and linearly increased (P < 0.01) with increasing PG supplementation. Plasma concentrations of non-esterified fatty acids and beta-hydroxybutyrate were linearly increased, but urine acetoacetate concentration was quadratically changed with the highest for control diet and the lowest for 450 ml/day of PG. These results indicated that supplementation of PG in the early lactating cow diets had minimal effects on feed intake and milk production, but may potentially reduce contents of milk fat and milk protein. Supplementation of early lactating dairy cow diets with PG is beneficial in terms of improving energy status and reducing BW loss.

  15. Partitive descriptions in Korean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Keun Young Shin

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines Korean partitive constructions to investigate the typology of the partitive structure. In Korean, a quantifier precedes the nominal in a non-partitive, but it follows the nominal in a partitive. The relative order between a quantifier and its associated nominal indicates that a quantifier in Korean partitive does not function as a NP adjunct but takes a DP as its argument. I argue that Korean postnominal (floating quantifier constructions can be interpreted as partitives or pseudo-partitives/quantitatives because a postnominal (floating quantifier denoting a part-of relation can occur with a kind-denoting DP as well as a definite DP. I also propose that a quantifier denoting a part-of relation is associated with the argument of a verb via composition with a verbal predicate in the floating quantifier construction. This approach can provide an account for several idiosyncratic properties of floating quantifier constructions, which are difficult to capture under the assumption that a floating quantifier construction is derived by moving a quantifier away from its associated nominal. This article is part of the Special Collection: Partitives

  16. Acúmulo de massa seca em três cultivares de arroz irrigado com diferentes arquiteturas de plantas Dry matter accumulation by three flooded rice cultivars with different plant canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Planossolo da Unidade de Mapeamento Vacacaí, com o ohjetivo de estudar o acúmulo de massa seca nos diversos órgãos da planta de três cultivares de arroz irrigado (EEA 406, Bluebelle e BR-IRGA 409, utilizando-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A massa seca foi obtida em sete estádios fenológicos da cultura. Desconsiderando os grãos e panículas, a EEA 406 possui maior capacidade produtiva de fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos produtiva. Na maturação, a cultivar BR-IRGA 409 apresentou maior massa seca total, demonstrando maior capacidade de alocar assimilados nos grãos e maior eficiência de conversão de energia solar em fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos eficiente. Para as três cultivares, até a floração, o colmo acumulou a maior percentagem de massa seca sendo, a partir daí, substituído pelas panículas e grãos. O máximo acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes ocorreu por ocasião da floração, cerca de 80 dias após a emergência.This experiment was carried out in an Halbaqualf soil to study the dry matter accumulation of three flooded rice cultivars. A complete randomized block design was used, with tive replication. Plant dry matter was measured in seven different growth stages. The cultivar EEA 406 had a higherdry matter accumulation than the cultivar Bluebelle without including grain and panicle. At maturity, the BR-IRGA 409 cultivar showed higher total dry matter. This demonstrate a better capacity of this variety in alocating assimilates into grains a higher effíciency in converting solar energy into plant biomass. The Bluebelle had lower efficiency. The dry matter accumulation increased for the three varieties from seeding to flowering into colm and, from flowering to harvest into panicles and grain. The maximum dry matter accumulation in roots was observed at flowering, eighty days after emergency.

  17. Produção de matéria seca, valor nutritivo e a maturidade de Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. transvala Dry matter production, nutritive value and the maturity of Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. transvala

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Maluf Haddad

    1999-07-01

    Full Text Available Este experimento teve como objetivo avaliar a produção de matéria seca, a digestibilidade in vitro e a variação na composição químico-bromatológica e mineral do capim-Transvala (Digitaria decumbens Stent. cv. Transvala em função da idade de corte. O delineamento estatístico adotado foi inteiramente casualizado, com seis tratamentos e cinco repetições. Os tratamentos constaram de seis idades de corte, com intervalo de 10 dias entre cada corte, sendo que o primeiro corte foi realizado 20 dias após o corte de uniformização. A produção de matéria seca aumentou de forma linear (P The objective of this experiment was to evaluate dry matter production, in vitro dry matter digestibility, variability in chemical composition and in macro and micro mineral contents for Transvala digitgrass (Digitaria decumbens Stent., as related to the age at cutting. The experimental design was completely randomized, with six treatments, replicated five times. Treatments consisted of six cutting ages spaced 10 days apart, with the first cut made 20 days after staging. Dry matter production increased linearly (P < 0.05 with the age of the plant and in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein concentration decreased quadratically (P < 0.05. Conversely, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber concentrations increased quadratically (P < 0.05 with the age of the plant and the concentrations of the phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium and sulfur decreased quadratically (P < 0.05. Concentrations of copper and zinc decreased quadratically (P < 0.05, whereas that of manganese increased quadratically (P < 0.05. Results showed that the cutting age to be recommend should be between days 30 to 40, if a well balanced feeding material of high quality that would satisfy animal nutritional requeriments, is desired.

  18. Effects of trace quantity irrigation on yield, dry matter portioning and water use efficiency of spherical fennel grown in greenhouse%痕量灌溉对温室种植球茎茴香产量、干物质分配和水分利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸钧; 金基石; 杨春祥

    2014-01-01

    Trace quantity irrigation is a new irrigation technology based on soil capillary force principle and membrane filtering technology.A study was carried out to investigate the effects of trace quantity irrigation on crop yield,dry matter partitioning and water use efficiency of spherical fennel under greenhouse conditions.Drip irrigation was selected as control treatment.The results showed that yield and dry weight of edible part (bulb)and above-ground part (stem and leaf)were significantly higher under trace quantity irrigation than those under drip irrigation,while the total water consumption was significantly lower than that under the latter.Water use efficiency under trace quantity irrigation was 2.3 times as much as that under drip irrigation.%痕量灌溉是基于土壤毛细管力原理和膜过滤技术而发明的一种新的灌溉技术.以滴灌为对照处理,研究了温室条件下,痕量灌溉对球茎茴香(Foeniculum vulgare Mill.subsp.vulgare var. dulce (Mill.)Batt.)产量、干物质分配和水分利用率的影响.结果表明,痕量灌溉条件下球茎茴香球茎和地上部分(茎和叶)的鲜重和干物质重量显著高于滴灌条件下栽培的球茎茴香,且痕量灌溉的总耗水量显著低于滴灌.试验条件下采用痕量灌溉的水分利用率是滴灌的2.3倍.

  19. 不同类型玉米干物质积累及其在各器官的分配规律%Study on the Dry Matter Accumulation and Distributive Characteristics of Different Types of Corn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王婷; 桑志勤; 段震宇; 陈树宾

    2012-01-01

    [目的]挖掘青贮玉米品种高产潜力性状的途径,为青贮玉米高产优质栽培提供技术支持.[方法]试验以粮饲兼用型玉米、优质青贮玉米、多分蘖型青贮玉米为供试材料,研究其产量形成特点和干物质积累及其在各器官的分配规律[1-4].[结果](1)青贮玉米品种与粮饲兼用型玉米品种高产群体干物质积累动态随着生长发育进程均呈S形曲线变化.生育期间植株干物质积累量表现为:无分蘖型青贮玉米品种>粮饲兼用型玉米品种>有分蘖型玉米品种.(2)干物质和鲜重的积累速率:粮饲兼用型玉米干物质积累速率峰值出现在出苗后的92~111 d,为灌浆期;鲜重积累速率峰值则出现在苗后57~ 72 d,为大喇叭口期.无分蘖型青贮玉米品种干物质与鲜重的积累量及积累速率峰值均出现在苗后92~ 111 d,为灌浆期.分蘖型青贮玉米品种干物质最大积累速率出现在苗后111~128 d,鲜重最大积累速率出现在苗后57~ 72 d.(3)干物质在各器官中分配量大小因玉米品种类型不同而异,青贮玉米科多4号因生育期较长,在新疆石河子地区雌穗基本不能成熟,干物质主要分配在叶片和茎秆中;粮饲兼用型玉米品种干物质则主要分配在雌穗中.[结论]从植株干物质积累动态看出:对三种类型玉米的干物质生产情况比较,全生育期均以无分蘖青贮玉米品种的新饲玉10号干物质积累量最高,粮饲兼用型SC - 704次之,多分蘖青贮玉米科多4号最低.从干物质在各器官中的分配规律看出:干物质在各器官中的分配为雌穗>茎秆>叶片>苞叶>叶鞘.%[ Objective ] The experiment's aim was to provide scientific theoretical basis and technical guidance for the high - yield forage corn, and study the high yield potential. [ Method ] forage corn and compact corn were selected to study the dry matter accumulation and distributive characteristics. [ Result ] (1

  20. Combinatorics of set partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Mansour, Toufik

    2012-01-01

    Focusing on a very active area of mathematical research in the last decade, Combinatorics of Set Partitions presents methods used in the combinatorics of pattern avoidance and pattern enumeration in set partitions. Designed for students and researchers in discrete mathematics, the book is a one-stop reference on the results and research activities of set partitions from 1500 A.D. to today. Each chapter gives historical perspectives and contrasts different approaches, including generating functions, kernel method, block decomposition method, generating tree, and Wilf equivalences. Methods and d

  1. 木薯物质累积特征及其施肥效应%Characteristics of Dry Matter Accumulation and Effect of Fertilizer Applica-tion in Cassava

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄巧义; 唐拴虎; 陈建生; 张发宝; 解开治; 黄旭; 蒋瑞萍; 李苹

    2013-01-01

    The field trials were conducted at two sites nearby the Tropical Center to investigate the influence of variety and fer-tilization on dry matter formation and accumulation of cassava. Two varieties of newly developed SC5 and conventional SC205 were used with five fertilization treatments including NP (1.0:0.4:0), NK (1:0:1), PK (0:0.4:1.0), NPK (1.0:0.4:1.0) and CK (no fertilizer application). Results indicated that the dry matter accumulation patterns were similar for both varieties. From transplant-ing to early August, dry matter accumulation mainly allocated in above-ground parts. When tubes started rapidly growing from mid August, the allocation of dry matter accumulation was shifted from above-ground to underground parts, and there was a dif-ference between two varieties in accumulating velocity and distributing proportion of biomass. SC5 had larger crown with many earlier developing branches and leaves compared with SC205, resulting in more biomass accumulation in above-ground parts, thus reducing harvesting index. For fertilizer application, N was the most significant factor to increase dry matter, following K and P. Combining application of NPK (1.0:0.4:1.0) significantly enhanced accumulating velocity of dry matter and tube yields of cas-sava. There were some difference between two varieties in dry matter accumulation depended on NPK fertilizer application, and probably related to their nutrient demands and root developing level.%  以传统品种华南205及新育品种华南5号为材料,通过田间试验,研究了木薯生物量与产量累积规律,探讨了品种改良及施肥措施对木薯物质形成规律的影响.结果表明,不同品种生物量累积动态相似,生长前期生物量累积缓慢,且以地上部分为主,到8月中下旬块根快速生长,物质累积速率迅速提高,累积重心由地上部逐渐转移到地下部;不同品种间物质累积速率及分配比例有所差异,分枝早且多、茎

  2. The effect of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 or Lactobacillus plantarum MTD-1 on the fermentation and aerobic stability of corn silages ensiled at two dry matter contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, W; Schmidt, R J; McDonell, E E; Klingerman, C M; Kung, L

    2009-08-01

    Whole-plant corn was harvested at 33 (normal) and 41% (moderately high) dry matter (DM) and ensiled in quadruplicate 20-L laboratory silos to investigate the effects of Lactobacillus buchneri 40788 (LB) or L. plantarum MTD-1 (LP) alone, or in combination, on the fermentation and aerobic stability of the resulting silage. Aerobic stability was defined as the amount of time after exposure to air for the silage temperature to reach 2 degrees C above ambient temperature. The chopped forage was used in a 2 x 2 x 2 factorial arrangement of treatments: normal and moderately high DM contents, LB at 0 (untreated) or 4 x 10(5) cfu/g of fresh forage, and LP at 0 or 1 x 10(5) cfu/g. After 240 d of ensiling, corn silage harvested at the moderately high DM had higher pH, higher concentrations of ethanol, and more yeasts compared with the silage ensiled at the normal DM content. Inoculation with LB did not affect the concentration of lactic acid in silages with a moderately high DM, but decreased the concentration of lactic acid in the silage with normal DM. Higher concentrations of acetic acid were found in the silage treated with LB compared with those not treated with this organism. Inoculation with LP increased the concentration of lactic acid only in the silage with the normal DM content. The concentration of acetic acid was lower in silage treated with LP with a moderately high DM content, but greater in the silage treated with LP with the normal DM content when compared with silages without this inoculant. Appreciable amounts of 1,2-propanediol (average 1.65%, DM basis) were found in all silages treated with LB regardless of the DM content. The addition of L. buchneri increased the concentration of NH(3)-N in silages but the addition of L. plantarum decreased it. Aerobic stability was improved in all silages treated with LB, with greater aerobic stability occurring in the silage with moderately high DM compared with silage with normal DM content. Inoculation with LP had no

  3. Effects of an exogenous protease on the fermentation and nutritive value of corn silage harvested at different dry matter contents and ensiled for various lengths of time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Windle, M C; Walker, N; Kung, L

    2014-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of adding an experimental protease to corn plants harvested at different maturities on silage fermentation and in vitro ruminal starch digestibility (IVSD). Corn plants were harvested at maturities resulting in plants with 31 or 40% dry matter (DM). Plants were chopped, kernel processed, and treated with (1) only a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.5, 5% vol/wt of fresh forage), (2) buffer with protease to obtain a final concentration of 20mg of protease/kg of wet forage, and (3) buffer with protease to obtain a final concentration of 2,000 mg of protease/kg of wet forage. Treated forages (about 500 g) were ensiled in nylon-polyethylene pouches and stored between 21 and 23°C for 0, 45, 90, and 150 d. Data were analyzed as a 2 × 3 × 4 factorial arrangement of treatments, with the main effects of harvest DM, dose of protease, days of ensiling, and their interactions. The treatment with the highest dose of protease resulted in more robust fermentations across harvest DM with higher concentrations of lactic and acetic acids compared with untreated silage. Concentrations of soluble protein (% of crude protein) increased with time of ensiling, regardless of DM content at harvest. However, averaged over both harvest DM contents, it increased by 37% for silages treated with the high dose of protease compared with an average 11% increase for untreated silages and silage treated with the low dose of protease, between d 0 and 45. Averaged over both harvest DM contents, the concentration of soluble protein peaked in silages treated with the high dose of protease after 45 d of ensiling, whereas it peaked at d 90 in untreated silages and silage treated with the low dose of protease. Similar changes occurred in the concentration of NH3-N due to length of ensiling and treatment with protease. In fresh forages, the concentration of starch for early- and late-harvested forages was similar, but IVSD was lower in the latter

  4. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  5. SEVILLA and U.M. LUSTRIA. 2006. Changes in rumen ecosystem and feed dry matter degradability of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle through cross inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dicky Pamungkas

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available The research was done to identify changes in rumen ecosystem of buffalo which received rumen content of cattle. As much as three head of fistulated male buffaloes (live weight of 450-550 kg and three fistulated female cattle (live weight 250-380 kg were used. This experiment was done three stage as follows: pre-inoculation, inoculation and post-inoculation. In Pre-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken two hours before morning feeding and directly observed for pH rumen liquor, ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N and total volatile fatty acid (VFA. During the last three days of the first week of pre and post inoculation, the in situ dry matter digestibility was conducted. The samples were incubated for 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48, and 72 hours in the rumen of the experimental animals. Napier grass, leucaena, and wheat pollard were incubated separately in the nylon bags to determine DM digestibility. The cross inoculation (total of rumen content was done less than 10 minutes. In post-inoculation, the sample of rumen content was taken at two hours before morning feeding as long as two days of two weeks after inoculation. Changes in rumen ecosystem (pH, NH3-N and total VFA were tested by using Completely Randomized Design. Result showed that the transfer of rumen content from cattle to buffalo significantly reduced the pH level in the rumen of buffalo. However, it had no significant effect on the ammonia concentration in the rumen of buffalo and showed significantly decreased of bacteria but it was not affect on the total count of protozoa and fungi. The transfer of rumen content from cattle to buffalo significantly decreased the value of insoluble and potential digestible fraction of leucaena. The DM effective degradability of Napier grass was significantly increase (P<0.05 within outflow rate 0.02 and 0.04 h-1 after cross inoculation. In wheat pollard, a significantly decrease (P<0.05 was occurred when outflow rate was observed at 0.04, 0.06 and 0.08 h

  6. Dry Matter Production, Photosynthesis of Flag Leaves and Water Use in Winter Wheat Are Affected by Supplemental Irrigation in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Man, Jianguo; Shi, Yu; Yu, Zhenwen; Zhang, Yongli

    2015-01-01

    Winter wheat is threatened by drought in the Huang-Huai-Hai Plain of China, thus, effective water-saving irrigation practices are urgently required to maintain its high winter wheat production. This study was conducted from 2012 to 2014 to determine how supplemental irrigation (SI) affected soil moisture, photosynthesis, and dry matter (DM) production of winter wheat by measuring the moisture in 0-20 cm (W2), 0-40 cm (W3), and 0-60 cm (W4) soil profiles. Rainfed (W0) and local SI practice (W1, irrigation with 60 mm each at jointing and anthesis) treatments were designed as controls. The irrigation amount for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. The soil relative water content (SRWC) in 0-40 cm soil profiles at jointing after SI for W3 was significantly lower than that for W1 and W4 but higher than that for W2. W3 exhibited lower SRWC in 100-140 and 60-140 cm soil profiles at anthesis after SI and at maturity, respectively, but higher root length density in 60-100 cm soil profiles than W1, W2 and W4. Compared with W1, W2 and W4, photosynthetic and transpiration rates and stomatal conductance of flag leaves for W3 were significantly greater during grain filling, particularly at the mid and later stages. The total DM at maturity, DM in grain and leaves, post-anthesis DM accumulation and its contribution to grain and grain filling duration were higher for W3. The 1000-grain weight, grain yield and water use efficiency for W3 were the highest. Therefore, treatment of increasing SRWC in the 0-40 cm soil profiles to 65% and 70% field capacities at jointing and anthesis (W3), respectively, created a suitable soil moisture environment for winter wheat production, which could be considered as a high yield and water-saving treatment in Huang-Huai-Hai Plain, China.

  7. Leptin concentrations in finishing beef steers and heifers and their association with dry matter intake, average daily gain, feed efficiency, and body composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foote, A P; Tait, R G; Keisler, D H; Hales, K E; Freetly, H C

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to determine the association of circulating plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition measures of finishing beef steers and heifers and to determine if multiple sampling time points improve the associations of plasma leptin concentrations with production and body composition traits. Individual dry matter intake (DMI) and ADG were determined for 84 d using steers and heifers (n = 127 steers and n = 109 heifers). Blood was collected on day 0, day 42, and day 83 for determination of plasma leptin concentrations. Leptin concentrations were greater in heifers than those in steers on day 0 (P leptin concentrations increased in both sexes but were not different from each other on day 83. Leptin concentrations at all 3 time points and the mean were shown to be positively associated with DMI (P ≤ 0.006), whereas the mean leptin concentration explaining 8.3% of the variance of DMI. Concentrations of leptin at day 42, day 83, and the mean of all 3 time points were positively associated with ADG (P ≤ 0.011). Mean leptin concentration was negatively associated with gain:feed ratio and positively associated with residual feed intake (RFI), indicating that more efficient cattle had lower leptin concentrations. However, leptin concentrations explained very little of the variation in residual feed intake (≤ 3.2% of the variance). Leptin concentrations were positively associated with body fat measured by ultrasonography at the 12th rib and over the rump (P leptin concentration explaining 21.9% and 12.7% of the variance in 12th rib and rump fat thickness, respectively. The same trend was observed with carcass composition where leptin concentrations were positively associated with 12th rib fat thickness, USDA-calculated yield grade (YG), and marbling score (P ≤ 0.006) and mean leptin concentration explained 16.8, 18.2, and 4.6% of the variance for 12th rib fat thickness, yield grade, and marbling score, respectively

  8. Prediction and validation of residual feed intake and dry matter intake in Danish lactating dairy cows using mid-infrared spectroscopy of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shetty, N; Løvendahl, P; Lund, M S; Buitenhuis, A J

    2017-01-01

    The present study explored the effectiveness of Fourier transform mid-infrared (FT-IR) spectral profiles as a predictor for dry matter intake (DMI) and residual feed intake (RFI). The partial least squares regression method was used to develop the prediction models. The models were validated using different external test sets, one randomly leaving out 20% of the records (validation A), the second randomly leaving out 20% of cows (validation B), and a third (for DMI prediction models) randomly leaving out one cow (validation C). The data included 1,044 records from 140 cows; 97 were Danish Holstein and 43 Danish Jersey. Results showed better accuracies for validation A compared with other validation methods. Milk yield (MY) contributed largely to DMI prediction; MY explained 59% of the variation and the validated model error root mean square error of prediction (RMSEP) was 2.24kg. The model was improved by adding live weight (LW) as an additional predictor trait, where the accuracy R(2) increased from 0.59 to 0.72 and error RMSEP decreased from 2.24 to 1.83kg. When only the milk FT-IR spectral profile was used in DMI prediction, a lower prediction ability was obtained, with R(2)=0.30 and RMSEP=2.91kg. However, once the spectral information was added, along with MY and LW as predictors, model accuracy improved and R(2) increased to 0.81 and RMSEP decreased to 1.49kg. Prediction accuracies of RFI changed throughout lactation. The RFI prediction model for the early-lactation stage was better compared with across lactation or mid- and late-lactation stages, with R(2)=0.46 and RMSEP=1.70. The most important spectral wavenumbers that contributed to DMI and RFI prediction models included fat, protein, and lactose peaks. Comparable prediction results were obtained when using infrared-predicted fat, protein, and lactose instead of full spectra, indicating that FT-IR spectral data do not add significant new information to improve DMI and RFI prediction models. Therefore, in

  9. Fuzzy Partition Models for Fitting a Set of Partitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, A. D.; Vichi, M.

    2001-01-01

    Describes methods for fitting a fuzzy consensus partition to a set of partitions of the same set of objects. Describes and illustrates three models defining median partitions and compares these methods to an alternative approach to obtaining a consensus fuzzy partition. Discusses interesting differences in the results. (SLD)

  10. Bosonic Partition Functions

    CERN Document Server

    Kellerstein, M; Verbaarschot, J J M

    2016-01-01

    The behavior of quenched Dirac spectra of two-dimensional lattice QCD is consistent with spontaneous chiral symmetry breaking which is forbidden according to the Coleman-Mermin-Wagner theorem. One possible resolution of this paradox is that, because of the bosonic determinant in the partially quenched partition function, the conditions of this theorem are violated allowing for spontaneous symmetry breaking in two dimensions or less. This goes back to work by Niedermaier and Seiler on nonamenable symmetries of the hyperbolic spin chain and earlier work by two of the auhtors on bosonic partition functions at nonzero chemical potential. In this talk we discuss chiral symmetry breaking for the bosonic partition function of QCD at nonzero isospin chemical potential and a bosonic random matrix theory at imaginary chemical potential and compare the results with the fermionic counterpart. In both cases the chiral symmetry group of the bosonic partition function is noncompact.

  11. Carbon partitioning in photosynthesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melis, Anastasios

    2013-06-01

    The work seeks to raise awareness of a fundamental problem that impacts the renewable generation of fuels and chemicals via (photo)synthetic biology. At issue is regulation of the endogenous cellular carbon partitioning between different biosynthetic pathways, over which the living cell exerts stringent control. The regulation of carbon partitioning in photosynthesis is not understood. In plants, microalgae and cyanobacteria, methods need be devised to alter photosynthetic carbon partitioning between the sugar, terpenoid, and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways, to lower the prevalence of sugar biosynthesis and correspondingly upregulate terpenoid and fatty acid hydrocarbons production in the cell. Insight from unusual but naturally occurring carbon-partitioning processes can help in the design of blueprints for improved photosynthetic fuels and chemicals production.

  12. Effects of soil oven-drying on concentrations and speciation of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in soil solution extracts of sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Weak salt extracts can be used to assess the availability of trace metals for leaching and uptake by soil organisms and plants in soil. Before extraction, the International Organization for Standardization recommends to dry soils in an oven at a temperature of 40 °C. Effects of soil oven-drying on

  13. Effects of soil oven-drying on concentrations and speciation of trace metals and dissolved organic matter in soil solution extracts of sandy soils

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopmans, G.F.; Groenenberg, J.E.

    2011-01-01

    Weak salt extracts can be used to assess the availability of trace metals for leaching and uptake by soil organisms and plants in soil. Before extraction, the International Organization for Standardization recommends to dry soils in an oven at a temperature of 40 °C. Effects of soil oven-drying on d

  14. 水分胁迫对玉米杂交种萌发特性和干物质生产的影响%Effect of Water Stress on Germination Characteristic and Dry Matter Production of Maize Hybrids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    肖万欣; 赵海岩; 李明; 刘晶; 史磊; 常程; 张书萍; 汪经宏; 赵勐

    2011-01-01

    Germination characteristic at seedling stage and dry matter production and distribution in different parts under different water stress treatments of different maize hybrids through the growth season was studied in lab and greenhouse, the main results was that relative growth of germ and radicle, and storage matter transport rate of maize hybrids were downtrend, however, root cap ratio of that showed an increasing tendency with increasing of wa ter stress. Compare with other cultivars, relative growth of radicle and storage matter transport rate of Liaodan 539 were relative high at the same water stress treatment, increased rang of root cap ratio of Liaodan 539 was lager than that at normal water stress treatment(0 Mpa). Dry matter weight of different parts of maize hybrids at filling stage was ear > stem > leaf > leaf sheath > root > tassel. Compared with SS treatment, dry matter of stem decreased significantly,however,that of ear increased rapidly at CK treatment. Variation of vegetative organs/reproductive or gans dry matter ratio of Liaodan 527,Liaodan 539 and Liaodan 31 were lightly compared with other cultivars,among of them, vegetative organs/reproductive organs dry matter ratio of Liaodan 539 was relatively small. The ear dry mat ter distribution rate of Liaodan 539 was higher than that of other cultivars at different water stress treatment at filling stage,which had drought tolerant and high yield potential.%以不同玉米杂交种为试材,在实验室和温室通过设置不同水分胁迫处理,研究了供试品种萌发特性和各器官干物质生产与分配情况,主要研究结果如下,随着水分胁迫强度的增加,玉米杂交种胚芽、胚根相对生长量和储藏物质转运率均呈下降趋势,根冠比呈上升趋势.在同一水分胁迫处理下,和其他品种相比,辽单539胚根的相对生长量和储藏物质转运率均较高,根冠比比正常水分(0 MPa)处理提高幅度也较大.灌浆期,供试品种各器官干物

  15. Effects of Different Controlled-release Fertilizer Amount on Dry Matter Production and Grain Yield of Rice%控释肥用量对水稻干物质积累和产量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李贵勇; 夏琼梅; 龙瑞平; 朱海平; 杨从党; 高森; 栾鸭红; 资月娥; 常小详; 杨翠玲; 何兴林; 相罕章; 黄军

    2015-01-01

    本文研究了不同控释肥用量对水稻干物质积累及产量的影响。试验结果表明,随着控释肥用量的增加,水稻抽穗后干物质积累量和产量先增加后降低;参试籼稻在控释肥用量为600 kg/hm2时获得最高产,为12.20 t/hm2,比不施肥处理增产5.89 t/hm2,差异显著,其抽穗后干物质最大积累量为595.36 g/m2,肥料最大贡献率为48.23%;参试粳稻在控释肥施用量为750 kg/hm2时获得最高产,为9.33 t/hm2,比不施肥处理增产2.33 t/hm2,差异显著,其抽穗后干物质最大积累量为566.62 g/m2,肥料最大贡献率为25.00%;籼稻控释肥用量超过600 kg/hm2,粳稻控释肥用量超过750 kg/hm2,均不利于其后期干物质的积累和产量的提高。%Effects of different amount of controlled-release fertilizer(N-P-K=28-5-8) on the dry matter accumulation and grain yield of rice were studied in this paper. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation and yield increased first and then decreased after heading with increasing amounts of controlled-release fertilization. The yield of indica rice was highest (12.20 t/hm2) when the application of controlled-release fertilizer is 600 kg/hm2, with yield increasement of 5.89 t/hm2, the maximum dry matter accumulation after heading was 595.36 g/m2, and fertilizer contribution rate was 48.23% compared to no fertilizer treatment. The yield of japonica rice was highest (9.33 t/hm2) when the application of controlled-release fertilization is 750 kg/hm2, with yield increasement of 2.33 t/hm2, the maximum dry matter accumulation after heading was 566.62 g/m 2, and fertilizer contribution rate was 25.00%, compared to no fertilizer treatment. The controlled-release fertilization amount more than 600 kg/hm 2, the dry matter accumulation and grain yield of indica rice decreased. The controlled-release fertilization amount more than 750 kg/hm 2, the dry matter accumulation and grain yield of japonica rice

  16. Logistic rice model for dry matter and nutrient uptake Modelo logístico para fitomassa e extração de nutrientes para a cultura de arroz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel García y García

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation of cumulative dry matter can be represented by a sigmoidal curve and the temporal variation of nutrient uptake follows this characteristic shape. Therefore, modeling the temporal variation of cumulative dry matter allows estimating nutrient uptake along the crop cycle. The objective of this study was to propose a sine model to estimate dry matter and macronutrient uptake, and to estimate the moments of maximum N and K uptake rates for the rice crop. The field experiment was carried out on a wetland area of Piracicaba, SP, Brazil, consisting of an Humic Haplaquept. The chosen rice variety was IAC 103, a middle season cycle and high yield. Observed variables were dry matter of different plant parts (root, leaf and stem, and panicle and macronutrient contents per unit dry matter. A sine model was proposed for the cumulative variation of these variables, based on biological events that occurred during the crop cycle. The temporal variation of nutrient uptake was estimated and a lower accuracy was observed for K uptake. The maximum absorption rate for N and K was found at 56% of the relative development of the crop, corresponding to 60 days after emergence in this experiment. The proposed model presented a satisfactory behavior to define the order of magnitude of estimated dry matter and macronutrient uptake by the rice crop and maximum N and K uptake rates.A variação temporal do acúmulo de fitomassa seca pode ser representada por curva de tipo sigmoidal e a variação temporal do acúmulo de nutrientes acompanha essa forma característica. Conseqüentemente, a modelagem da variação temporal do acúmulo de fitomassa seca permite estimar a extração de nutrientes ao longo do ciclo da cultura. O objetivo do trabalho foi propor um modelo senoidal para estimar a fitomassa seca e extração de macronutrientes pela cultura de arroz, bem como determinar a época de máxima taxa de extração de N e K. O experimento foi conduzido

  17. 红稗干物质积累及生长发育规律的观察%Dry Matter Accumulation and Character of Growth and Development of Bacca sedge

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马光敏; 钱晓刚; 何增举; 姜文婷; 唐恒朋; 席亚楠

    2015-01-01

    To explore the reasonable technique of fertilization for superior yield and high quality in Bacca sedge, potted experiment was carried out to investigate its law of dry matter accumulation, as well as the char-acter of growth and development of this species. The results showed that the whole growing period of B. sedge lasted for 136 d, and the total number of leaves ranged from 25 to 28. The photosynthetic product accumula-tion of the whole plants demonstrated a trend of slow-fast-slow, the accumulation of dry matter before the jointing stage was little whereas showed a slow trend of increase after the jointing stage, and the dry matter accumulation was 0. 3 g/strain per day. The dry matter accumulation of whole plant characterized in a rapid growth from the jointing stage to the flowering period, and reached the peak at booting stage, whose accumu-lation of dry matter was 1. 14 g/strain. During the mature stage, the growth rate slowed down, and dry matter accumulation was 0. 55 g/strain Therefore, B. sedge thrived in the booting stage, and improvement of vegeta-tive mass in this stage was crucial for the elevation of production.%为探究红稗优质高产的合理施肥技术,通过盆栽试验进行了红稗干物质积累及生长发育规律的研究。试验结果表明:红稗全生育期136天,叶片数为25-28叶;红稗全株光合产物的累积量动态表现出慢-快-慢的特征,拔节期以前干物质积累少,进入拔节期后,呈现缓慢增长趋势,干物质日积累量为0.37 g/株;在拔节到抽穗扬花期干物质积累进入快速生长,达到整个生长发育的高峰期,孕穗期干物质日积累量达1.14 g/株;成熟期后生长速度减慢,干物质日积累量为0.55 g/株。通过试验可知,红稗在孕穗期处于旺盛生长时期,促进该时期营养体的积累有利于提高红稗产量。

  18. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  19. Dry matter and nutritional losses during aerobic deterioration of corn and sorghum silages as influenced by different lactic acid bacteria inocula.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabacco, E; Righi, F; Quarantelli, A; Borreani, G

    2011-03-01

    The economic damage that results from aerobic deterioration of silage is a significant problem for farm profitability and feed quality. This paper quantifies the dry matter (DM) and nutritional losses that occur during the exposure of corn and sorghum silages to air over 14 d and assesses the possibility of enhancing the aerobic stability of silages through inoculation with lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The trial was carried out in Northern Italy on corn (50% milk line) and grain sorghum (early dough stage) silages. The crops were ensiled in 30-L jars, without a LAB inoculant (C), with a Lactobacillus plantarum inoculum (LP), and with a Lactobacillus buchneri inoculum (LB; theoretical rate of 1 × 10(6) cfu/g of fresh forage). The pre-ensiled material, the silage at silo opening, and the aerobically exposed silage were analyzed for DM content, fermentative profiles, yeast and mold count, starch, crude protein, ash, fiber components, 24-h and 48-h DM digestibility and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradability. The yield and nutrient analysis data of the corn and sorghum silages were used as input for Milk2006 to estimate the total digestible nutrients, net energy of lactation, and milk production per Mg of DM. The DM fermentation and respiration losses were also calculated. The inocula influenced the in vitro NDF digestibility at 24h, the net energy for lactation (NE(L)), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM, whereas the length of time of air exposure influenced DM digestibility at 24 and 48 h, the NE(L), and the predicted milk yield per megagram of DM in the corn silages. The inocula only influenced the milk yield per megagram of DM and the air exposure affected the DM digestibility at 24h, the NE(L), and the milk yield per megagram of DM in the sorghum silages. The milk yield, after 14 d of air exposure, decreased to 1,442, 1,418, and 1,277 kg/Mg of DM for C, LB, and LP corn silages, respectively, compared with an average value of 1,568 kg of silage at

  20. Determinação da matéria seca e teores de macronutrientes em folhas de frutíferas usando diferentes métodos de secagem Determination of dry matter and macronutrient content in leaves of fruit trees using different drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nericlenes Chaves Marcante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar diferentes métodos de secagem de folhas para três diferentes frutíferas (maracujá, pêssego e abacate, com relação à determinação da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas recém expandida de três culturas, do pomar da fazenda de ensino e pesquisa da FCAV-UNESP, câmpus de Jaboticabal, no mês de janeiro de 2010, coletando-se para cada cultura 12 amostras com 25 folhas cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se por dois métodos de secagem, estufa de circulação de ar forçada regulada a uma temperatura de 70°C e o forno microondas (FMO. Avaliou-se a massa da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Os resultados sugerem que os dois métodos de secagem testados se assemelham na determinação de matéria seca e nos teores foliares de macronutrientes para as culturas análisadas, exceto os teores de cálcio na cultura do pêssego.The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods of drying of leaves for three different fruit (passion fruit, peach and avocado, with respect to the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients. Samples were collected from recently expanded leaves of three crops orchard Farm education and research FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal campus, in January 2010, by collecting 12 samples for each culture with 25 leaves. The treatments consisted of two drying methods, greenhouse circulation of air regulated to a temperature of 70°C and FMO. We evaluated the mass of dry matter and foliar nutrients. The results suggest that the two drying methods tested did not interfere in the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients to crops analyzed, except the calcium levels in peach.

  1. Partition Function of Spacetime

    CERN Document Server

    Makela, Jarmo

    2008-01-01

    We consider a microscopic model of spacetime, where spacetime is assumed to be a specific graph with Planck size quantum black holes on its vertices. As a thermodynamical system under consideration we take a certain uniformly accelerating, spacelike two-surface of spacetime which we call, for the sake of brevity and simplicity, as {\\it acceleration surface}. Using our model we manage to obtain an explicit and surprisingly simple expression for the partition function of an acceleration surface. Our partition function implies, among other things, the Unruh and the Hawking effects. It turns out that the Unruh and the Hawking effects are consequences of a specific phase transition, which takes place in spacetime, when the temperature of spacetime equals, from the point of view of an observer at rest with respect to an acceleration surface, to the Unruh temperature measured by that observer. When constructing the partition function of an acceleration surface we are forced to introduce a quantity which plays the ro...

  2. Partition density functional theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nafziger, Jonathan

    Partition density functional theory (PDFT) is a method for dividing a molecular electronic structure calculation into fragment calculations. The molecular density and energy corresponding to Kohn Sham density-functional theory (KS-DFT) may be exactly recovered from these fragments. Each fragment acts as an isolated system except for the influence of a global one-body 'partition' potential which deforms the fragment densities. In this work, the developments of PDFT are put into the context of other fragment-based density functional methods. We developed three numerical implementations of PDFT: One within the NWChem computational chemistry package using basis sets, and the other two developed from scratch using real-space grids. It is shown that all three of these programs can exactly reproduce a KS-DFT calculation via fragment calculations. The first of our in-house codes handles non-interacting electrons in arbitrary one-dimensional potentials with any number of fragments. This code is used to explore how the exact partition potential changes for different partitionings of the same system and also to study features which determine which systems yield non-integer PDFT occupations and which systems are locked into integer PDFT occupations. The second in-house code, CADMium, performs real-space calculations of diatomic molecules. Features of the exact partition potential are studied for a variety of cases and an analytical formula determining singularities in the partition potential is derived. We introduce an approximation for the non-additive kinetic energy and show how this quantity can be computed exactly. Finally a PDFT functional is developed to address the issues of static correlation and delocalization errors in approximations within DFT. The functional is applied to the dissociation of H2 + and H2.

  3. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  4. Distributed Evolutionary Graph Partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Sanders, Peter

    2011-01-01

    We present a novel distributed evolutionary algorithm, KaFFPaE, to solve the Graph Partitioning Problem, which makes use of KaFFPa (Karlsruhe Fast Flow Partitioner). The use of our multilevel graph partitioner KaFFPa provides new effective crossover and mutation operators. By combining these with a scalable communication protocol we obtain a system that is able to improve the best known partitioning results for many inputs in a very short amount of time. For example, in Walshaw's well known benchmark tables we are able to improve or recompute 76% of entries for the tables with 1%, 3% and 5% imbalance.

  5. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn.......3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro digestibility of NSP depends on the amount and type of NSP and degree of lignification in the feed ingredient. The NSP composition...

  6. Hydrologic transport and partitioning of phosphorus fractions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berretta, C.; Sansalone, J.

    2011-06-01

    SummaryPhosphorus (P) in rainfall-runoff partitions between dissolved and particulate matter (PM) bound phases. This study investigates the transport and partitioning of P to PM fractions in runoff from a landscaped and biogenically-loaded carpark in Gainesville, FL (GNV). Additionally, partitioning and concentration results are compared to a similarly-sized concrete-paved source area of a similar rainfall depth frequency distribution in Baton Rouge, LA (BTR), where in contrast vehicular traffic represents the main source of pollutants. Results illustrate that concentrations of P fractions (dissolved, suspended, settleable and sediment) for GNV are one to two orders of magnitude higher than BTR. Despite these differences the dissolved fraction ( f d) and partitioning coefficient ( K d) distributions are similar, illustrating that P is predominantly bound to PM fractions. Examining PM size fractions, specific capacity for P (PSC) indicates that the P concentration order is suspended > settleable > sediment for GNV, similarly to BTR. For GNV the dominant PM mass fraction is sediment (>75 μm), while the mass of P is distributed predominantly between sediment and suspended (<25 μm) fractions since these PM mass fractions dominated the settleable one. With respect to transport of PM and P fractions the predominance of events for both areas is mass-limited first-flush, although each fraction illustrated unique washoff parameters. However, while transport is predominantly mass-limited, the transport of each PM and P fraction is influenced by separate hydrologic parameters.

  7. New Aperture Partitioning Element

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, S.; Calef, B.; Williams, S.

    Postprocessing in an optical system can be aided by adding an optical element to partition the pupil into a number of segments. When imaging through the atmosphere, the recorded data are blurred by temperature-induced variations in the index of refraction along the line of sight. Using speckle imaging techniques developed in the astronomy community, this blurring can be corrected to some degree. The effectiveness of these techniques is diminished by redundant baselines in the pupil. Partitioning the pupil reduces the degree of baseline redundancy, and therefore improves the quality of images that can be obtained from the system. It is possible to implement the described approach on an optical system with a segmented primary mirror, but not very practical. This is because most optical systems do not have segmented primary mirrors, and those that do have relatively low bandwidth positioning of segments due to their large mass and inertia. It is much more practical to position an active aperture partitioning element at an aft optics pupil of the optical system. This paper describes the design, implementation and testing of a new aperture partitioning element that is completely reflective and reconfigurable. The device uses four independent, annular segments that can be positioned with a high degree of accuracy without impacting optical wavefront of each segment. This mirror has been produced and is currently deployed and working on the 3.6 m telescope.

  8. Partitions with Initial Repetitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    George E. ANDREWS

    2009-01-01

    A variety of interesting connections with modular forms, mock theta functions and Rogers-Ramanujan type identities arise in consideration of partitions in which the smaller integers are repeated as summands more often than the larger summands. In particular, this concept leads to new interpre-tations of the Rogers-Selberg identities and Bailey's modulus 9 identities.

  9. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  10. Effects of nitrogen fertilization strategies on nitrogen use efficiency in physiology, recovery, and agronomy and redistribution of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation in two typical rice cultivars in Zhejiang, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIE Wen-xia; WANG Guang-huo; ZHANG Qi-chun; GUO Hai-chao

    2007-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers'fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution(post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang.With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.

  11. Effects of nitrogen fertilization strategies on nitrogen use efficiency in physiology, recovery, and agronomy and redistribution of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation in two typical rice cultivars in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-xia; Wang, Guang-huo; Zhang, Qi-chun; Guo, Hai-chao

    2007-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution (post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang. With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.

  12. Effects of dietary glycerin inclusion at 0, 5, 10, and 15% of dry matter on energy metabolism and nutrient balance in finishing beef steers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Expansion of the biodiesel industry has increased the glycerin (GLY) supply. Glycerin is an energy-dense feed that can be used in ruminant species; however, the energy value of GLY is not known. Therefore, the effects of GLY inclusion at 0%, 5%, 10%, and 15% in dry-rolled corn (DRC)-based diets we...

  13. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  14. Effect of Soil texture on Photosynthetic traits and the deposition of Dry matter accumulation of peanut%土壤质地对花生光合特性及干物质积累分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾立华; 王月福; 陈安余; 冯锴

    2013-01-01

    The paper explored the effect of soil texture on photosynthetic traits and detribution of dry matter accumulation of peanut,in order to explicit the suitable soil texture appropriated for high-yielding peanut cultivation.The soil texture including Sandy soil,Clay and Loam,and the experiment were implemented in box plant method.The results showed that the early period of peanut growth and development is Sandy soil>Loam>Clay and the later period is Loam>Sandy soil>Clay on Leaf area per plant,Functional leaf chlorophyll content,Net photosynthetic rate and Distribution of dry matter accumulation of peanut.Sandy soil is in favor of early period of photosynthetic matter accumulation,Loam is in favor of whole period,and Clay is not conductive to the whole period.Loam is more suitable than Clay and Sandy soil on distribution ratio of peanut organ dry matter accumulation.Loam has a higher pod yield than Sandy soil and Clay.%为了明确适合花生生长获得高产的土壤类型,采用箱栽的方法,研究了不同质地土壤(砂土、壤土、粘土)对花生光合特性及干物质积累分配的影响.结果表明,花生单株叶面积、功能叶叶绿素SPAD值、净光合速率和植株总干物质重在生育前期表现为砂土>壤土>粘土,在生育后期则表现为壤土>砂土>粘土.砂土有利于花生前期光合物质积累,壤土则在整个生育期内均有利于花生光合物质积累,而粘土则在整个生育期内均不利于花生光合物质积累.壤土花生各器官干物质分配比例较粘土和砂土合理.壤土的荚果产量显著高于砂土和粘土.

  15. On partitions avoiding right crossings

    CERN Document Server

    Yan, Sherry H F

    2011-01-01

    Recently, Chen et al. derived the generating function for partitions avoiding right nestings and posed the problem of finding the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings. In this paper, we derive the generating function for partitions avoiding right crossings via an intermediate structure of partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossings and right nestings. We show that there is a bijection between partial matchings avoiding 2-right crossing and right nestings and partitions avoiding right crossings.

  16. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  17. The Fibonacci partition triangles

    CERN Document Server

    Fahr, Philipp

    2011-01-01

    In two previous papers we have presented partition formulae for the Fibonacci numbers motivated by the appearance of the Fibonacci numbers in the representation theory of the 3-Kronecker quiver and its universal cover, the 3-regular tree. Here we show that the basic information can be rearranged in two triangles. They are quite similar to the Pascal triangle of the binomial coefficients, but in contrast to the additivity rule for the Pascal triangle, we now deal with additivity along hooks, or, equivalently, with additive functions for valued translation quivers. As for the Pascal triangle, we see that the numbers in these Fibonacci partition triangles are given by evaluating polynomials. We show that the two triangles can be obtained from each other by looking at differences of numbers, it is sufficient to take differences along arrows and knight's moves.

  18. Generalised twisted partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Petkova, V B

    2001-01-01

    We consider the set of partition functions that result from the insertion of twist operators compatible with conformal invariance in a given 2D Conformal Field Theory (CFT). A consistency equation, which gives a classification of twists, is written and solved in particular cases. This generalises old results on twisted torus boundary conditions, gives a physical interpretation of Ocneanu's algebraic construction, and might offer a new route to the study of properties of CFT.

  19. BKP plane partitions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foda, Omar; Wheeler, Michael [Department of Mathematics and Statistics, University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010 (Australia)

    2007-01-15

    Using BKP neutral fermions, we derive a product expression for the generating function of volume-weighted plane partitions that satisfy two conditions. If we call a set of adjacent equal height-h columns, h > 0, an h-path, then 1. Every h-path can assume one of two possible colours. 2. There is a unique way to move along an h-path from any column to another.

  20. Hadamard partitioned difference families

    OpenAIRE

    Buratti, Marco

    2017-01-01

    We prove that every Hadamard difference set of order $u^2$ leads to a partitioned difference family of any order $v\\equiv4u^2$ (mod $8u^2$) and blocks of sizes $4u^2-2u$, $4u^2$ and $4u^2+2u$ provided that the maximal prime power divisors of $v\\over4u^2$ are all greater than $4u^2+2u$.

  1. PARTICIÓN DE MICROHÁBITATS ENTRE ESPECIES DE BUFONIDAE Y LEIUPERIDAE (AMPHIBIA: ANURA EN ÁREAS CON BOSQUE SECO TROPICAL DE LA REGIÓN CARIBE-COLOMBIA Microhábitat Partitioning Between Leiuperidae and Bufonidae Species (Amphibia: Anura in Tropical Dry Forest Areas in Colombian Caribbean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ARGELINA BLANCO TORRES

    Full Text Available RESUMEN Se analizó la partición de microhábitats de cinco especies de anuros pertenecientes a las familias Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, y Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops y Pseudopaludicola pusilla en seis localidades del Caribe colombiano con fragmentos de bosque seco tropical y diferentes usos de suelo. Se identificaron 29 microhábitats. Los más usados fueron charco de agua permanente de potreros con árboles (CPPA y potreros inundables sin árboles (PISA. La especie que mayor cantidad de microhábitats utilizó, fue E. pustulosus. No hubo especialistas en el uso de estos ambientes. Se presentaron diferencias en el uso de este recurso a escalas regional y local. La dinámica de uso de los microhábitats estuvo influenciada por las variaciones climáticas del bosque seco tropical. Existió partición de microhábitats como mecanismo de coexistencia en estas especies para época seca y no ocurre en época de lluvias.ABSTRACT We analyzed partitioning of microhábitats by five species of frogs in the families Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, R. granulosa, and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla in six different localities of the Colombian Caribean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhábitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA and flooded pastures without trees (PISA were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhábitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhábitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhábitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  2. GROWTH AND PARTITIONING OF ASSIMILATES IN TOMATO TREES DUE TO THE DIFFERENT KINDS OF MULCHING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GARDÊNIA SILVANA DE OLIVEIRA RODRIGUES

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is proposed to evaluate the growth of tomato plants grown in soil covered with different types of material. The experiment was conducted at WG Fruit Farm in Baraúna-RN during the period from July to November 2008. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with four replications. The treat- ments were arranged in split plots. The plots were the types of ground cover: bare soil (control, black polyeth- ylene film (double-sided black, silver polyethylene film (double-sided black and silver, white polyethylene film (double-sided black and white and black row cover (TNT, and the subplots sampling dates of plants of the hybrid tomato Mariana at intervals of fourteen days, from the seedling stage (14, 28, 42, 56, 70, 84 and 98 days after transplanting, DAT. The plants were harvested in the surface area of each plot, partitioned into leaves, stems, flowers clusters and fruit, and placed in an oven with forced circulation at 65 oC, until constant weight is gotten. The characteristics assessed were: dry matter accumulation of leaves, twigs, flower clusters, fruit, total leaf area and leaf area index. Based on the dry mass of leaves, twigs, flower clusters, fruit and total, it was quantified partition of treated tomato grown in different mulching. Mulching treatments affected the growth of tomato plants with black row cover, white polyethylene and bare soil registering the highest mean of total dry matter, leaf area and leaf area index. The maximum leaf area index was obtained at 71 DAT in the treatments with black row cover (2.88, non-covered soil (2.36, white polyethylene (2.21, 77 DAT in silver polyethylene (2.17 and black polyethylene (1.72. At the end of the cycle, the plant has accumulated a mean of 28.30%, 11.98%, 3.92% and 55.82% of dry leaves, twigs, flowers and fruit clusters, respectively. Key words: Solanum lycopersicon L, dry mass accumulation, assimilate partitioning, leaf area.It is proposed to evaluate the growth of tomato

  3. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hammerle

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria. The main findings of the study were: i Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; ii When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; ii There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  4. Autochthonous "Bjelovars dried cheese"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Slavko Kirin

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available «Dried cheese» is in autochthonous group of Bjelovar region cheeses which is still produced in rural domestic scale. The name of cheese originates from production procedure - drying for longer or shorter period in airy place after which the cheese is smoked, or is smoked only without drying. This type of cheese is produced in whole central region of Croatia which includes Međimurje, Podravina, Bilogora; Moslavina, Posavina and region around the capital. The aim of this paper is to describe and determine sensory, chemical and microbiological composition to determine its characteristics and production standards. As standards for sensory properties following characteristics can be used: a Outer shape: dimensions: diameter: 140-145 mm, height: 58-61 mm, mass: 700-750 g, equal, rounded shape, smooth skin, equal colour; b Consistency: easily cut, elastic, soft; c Cut: nicely combined white body, few improper holes of equal size; d Odour: pleasant milky acid odour, fairly smoky; e Taste: Fairly milky acidic taste, medium salty, fairly smoky taste. Depending on fat in dry matter content and water content in non fat dry matter, analyzed samples can be characterized as quarter fat, soft and semidry cheese. Higher acidity and saltiness was determined in some samples, microbiological analyses has shown that the most common contaminants are yeasts and moulds.

  5. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  6. Effect of ozone on growth and assimilate partitioning in parsley

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oshima, R.J.; Bennett, J.P.; Braegelmann, P.K.

    1978-05-01

    Parsley (Petroselinum crispum (Mill.) Nym. cv. Banquet) incurred leaf injury, reduced growth, and altered assimilate partitioning after exposures to 20 pphm ozone. Total plant dry weight and root dry weight were decreased 23% and 43% respectively, with little effect on leaves. The relative growth rate of fumigated plants was reduced after the initial ozone exposure but leveled off at a steady state above that of the control plants when plant dry weights reached about 4.5 g. Ozone appeared to have its greatest effect on growth during initial exposures. 15 references, 3 figures, 1 table.

  7. Acúmulo e partição de nutrientes de cultivares de milho em competição com plantas daninhas Accumulation and partitioning of dry matter and nutrients in maize cultivars in competition with weed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P. Cury

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A competição por nutrientes varia com as espécies envolvidas e pode determinar o sucesso de plantas cultivadas em detrimento das espécies daninhas. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar os efeitos da competição entre três cultivares de milho (híbrido DKB 390 YG, variedade AL 25 e híbrido SHS 4080 e seis espécies de plantas daninhas (Bidenspilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Brachiaria brizantha, Commelina benghalensis, Brachiaria plantaginea e Euphorbia heterophylla no acúmulo e na alocação de nutrientes pelas plantas, determinando-se também o potencial dessas espécies em ciclar nutrientes. O experimento foi realizado em condições controladas de temperatura e umidade, em delineamento de blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições. O período de convivência entre os cultivares de milho e as plantas daninhas foi de 60 dias após emergência do milho. Os cultivares de milho apresentaram reduzida capacidade de acumular nutrientes quando em competição. O conteúdo relativo das espécies infestantes foi severamente reduzido em função dessa convivência. A capacidade de acumular nutrientes aparentemente não representa vantagem competitiva para as espécies infestantes. O cultivar AL 25 foi o que menos tolerou a competição, e B. brizantha e C. benghalensis foram as espécies com maior capacidade competitiva. B. brizantha e C. echinatus, livre da convivência com o milho, apresentaram elevado potencial em ciclar nutrientes.Competition for nutrients varies with the species involved and can determine the success of plants grown at the expense of weeds. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of competition among three cultivars of maize (hybrid DKB 390 YG, variety AL 25, and hybrid SHS 4080 and six weed species (Bidens pilosa, Cenchrus echinatus, Brachiaria brizantha, Commelina benghalensis, Brachiaria plantaginea and Euphorbia heterophylla on the accumulation and allocation of nutrients by plants, also determining the potential of these species in nutrient cycling. The experiment was conducted under controlled temperature and humidity, in a randomized block design with four replications. The period of coexistence between corn and weeds was 60 days after corn emergence. The maize cultivars showed reduced ability to accumulate nutrients when in competition. The relative content of weed species was severely reduced as a result ofthis coexistence. The ability to accumulate nutrients apparently does not represent a competitive advantage forthe infesting species. Cultivar AL 25 was the species that tolerated the competition the least and B. brizantha and C. benghalensis showed greater competitive ability. B. brizantha and C. echinatus, free from coexistence with the corn, had high potential for nutrient cycling.

  8. Fibre degrading enzymes and Lactobacillus plantarum influence liquid feed characteristics and the solubility of fibre components and dry matter in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, P.; Glitso, V.; Pettersson, D.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of fibre degrading enzymes in combination with Lactobacillus plantarum on feed viscosity and pH and on solubilisation of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP) was studied in vitro using diets composed of cereals and soybean meal. The diet was incubated over time up to 24 It as liquid feed o...... in comparison with the control based on the original dry feed. It may be concluded that enzyme supplementation to liquid or fermented feed may cause a reduction in the insoluble dietary fibre content as well as a reduction in feed viscosity, while the pH is not influenced....... reduction in pH down to a level of about pH 4.3. This development was irrespective of enzyme supplementation level. The L. plantarum treatment had already reached a pH of 4.2 after 8 h and a pH of 3.6 after 24 It. The viscosity was reduced with supplementation with a high enzyme dose (6000 FXU and 600 FBG...... per kg diet), compared to the control diet (without enzymes). Treatment with L. plantarum (1.8 x 1011 CFU/kg feed) increased the viscosity over time, even with enzyme supplementation, compared to the control treatment. Diets without and with enzyme supplementation and pre-treated as dry feed (control...

  9. 有机肥对烤烟干物质积累及分配的影响%Effect of Flue-cured Tobacco Dry Matter Accumulation and Distribution in Organic Fertilizer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟巍; 范雪微; 夏厚禹; 郭宇; 陈乔; 王鹏

    2012-01-01

    试验研究了有机肥对烤烟各器官干物质积累的影响,以为黑龙江重茬栽培烤炯合理施用有机肥提供理论依据。本试验设在肇州县永胜乡,采用田间小区试验设计,4个处理,分别为对照B1,常规施肥B2,有机肥B3,有机HE+饼肥处理B4,所有处理氮、P2O5、K2O用量分别为52.50、78.75、105.00kg·hm^-2,3次重复。结果表明:根系、茎内B4处理干物质积累量比B2处理提高33.85%、17.51%,B3处理分别提高15.30%、10.19%;下部叶、中部叶、上部叶B4处理干物质积累量分别达到1061.17、865.73、601.58kg·hm^-2,显著高于B2处理;B3处理下部叶干物质积累量显著高于B2处理,中部叶、上部叶与B2之间无显著差异;B4处理有利于干物质在下部叶中的分配,B2处理有利于干物质在中部叶中的分配。综合分析认为B4为最佳处理。%The test studied effect of flue-cured tobacco dry matter accumulation and distribution in organic fertilizer that provided a theoretical basis for the production of flue-cured tobacco rational application of organic fertilizer. The test with random block design in the field of Yongsheng Township, Zhaozhou county, four treatments were applied for the control (B1), conventional fertilizer (B2), organic tertilizer (B3), organic fertilizer and fermented soybean cake treatment (B4), B2 to B4 treatment N, P2O5,K2O tertilizer were 52.50,78.75,105.00 kg·hm^-2,repeat 3 times. The results showed that the B4 treatment dry matter accumulation increased than B2 was 33.85%, 17.51% and organic fertilizer treatment increased 15.30%, 10.19% in root and stem; lower leaves, middle leaves, upper leaves dry matter accumulation reached 1 061.17,865.73,601.58 kg·hm^-2 and significantly higher than the conventional fertilizer treatment with organic cropping fertilizer; organic fertilizer treatment significantly higher than the conventional fertilizer in lower leaves

  10. Dinâmica do acúmulo de matéria seca em pastagens de Tifton 85 sob pastejo Dry matter accumulation dynamics in grazed Tifton 85 bermudagrass swards

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Felipe de Moura Pinto

    2001-09-01

    Full Text Available O acúmulo de forragem é o resultado líquido de dois processos concomitantes e antagônicos: o crescimento e a senescência e morte de tecidos. O presente trabalho teve por objetivo avaliar o processo de produção de forragem através do estudo de seus componentes; crescimento e senescência. Os tratamentos corresponderam a quatro condições de pasto caracterizadas pelas alturas de 5, 10, 15 e 20 cm, mantidas constante através do pastejo por ovinos em regime de lotação contínua e taxa de lotação variável. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos completos casualizados, com quatro repetições. Foram avaliadas as seguintes respostas: alongamento de hastes, alongamento de folhas, senescência, filocrono e o número de folhas por perfilho. Os resultados revelaram um padrão estacional de produção de forragem, com as maiores taxas de crescimento e senescência sendo observadas nas alturas de pasto mais altas (15 e 20 cm. O filocrono variou com a época do ano e com a altura de pasto, revelando uma alta associação com variações em temperatura do ar, disponibilidade de água no solo e índice de área foliar do pasto. As alturas de 15 e 20 cm resultaram na maior produção de matéria seca. Os mesmos princípios e relações originalmente descritos para plantas forrageiras de clima temperado são válidos para plantas tropicais dentro do contexto das limitações fisiológicas e de ambiente inerentes para cada condição.Herbage dry matter accumulation from forage plants results from the balance between growth and senescence. Agronomic practices may influence both processes in different ways and, therefore, alter the quantitative and qualitative patterns of dry matter production. This study aimed at evaluating the process of dry matter accumulation through measurements of growth and senescence. Experimental treatments corresponded to four sward state conditions (5, 10, 15 and 20 cm of sward surface height - SSH generated

  11. Effects of Different Nitrogen Application on Dry Matter Accumulation and Nitrogen Utilization Efficiency of Rice%氮肥运筹对水稻干物质积累和氮肥利用率的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李殿平

    2014-01-01

    Tiejing No.7 was used to research the effects of different nitrogen application on dry matter accumulation and nitrogen utilization efficiency of rice.The results showed that the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application contributed the increase of the dry matter accumulation of the variety Tiejing No.7,reaching 15 570 kg/hm2,on the condition of that application amount of pure nitrogen was 255 kg/hm2 and the ratio of basal fertilizer and tillering fertilizer was 8:2.Meanwhile,the increase of nitrogen fertilizer application also enhanced total nitrogen absorption amount,but lowered nitrogen recovery rate and nitrogen harvest index declined.However,nitrogen physiological utilization ratio was highest with the treatment of pure nitrogen 210 kg/hm2.%以北方超级稻铁粳7号为试材,重点分析了氮肥运筹对水稻生产干物质积累和氮肥利用率的影响。结果表明,增加施氮量有利于提高铁粳7号的干物质重,在施纯氮255 kg/hm2、基蘖肥与穗粒肥比为8:2处理下成熟期的总干物重达到最高为15570 kg/hm2;增加施氮量会提高铁粳7号的总吸氮量,但氮素回收率和氮素收获指数会下降,而氮素生理利用率以施纯氮210 kg/hm2处理最高。

  12. 甘薯不同时期干物质积累及光合特性研究%Dry matter accumulation and photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato at different growth stages

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄咏梅; 李彦青; 吴翠荣; 李慧峰; 陈天渊; 卢森权

    2012-01-01

    [Objective]The photosynthetic characteristics of sweet potato with different dry matter rate and sweet potato's yield potential at different growth stages were studied in order to provide references for improving sweet potato production. [Method]Two sweet potato varieties, Guifen 2 and Bendishu, were used to test the dry matter rate of their corresponding root tuber, leaf photosynthesis, freshness, and dry potato yield. [Result]Dry matter rate of Guifen 2 with high starch content increased during the growth period of 77-107 days, and then it decelerated a bit and kept the same a certain level after 107 days. Dry matter rate of Bendishu with low starch content gradually increased with only a little variation during the entire growth period. During the growth period of 36-77 d, the net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance of the two cultivars grew constantly; but after 77 d, they all decreased substantially. Intercellular CO2 concentration accelerated during the growth period of 36-60 d, then descended after 60 d. At different growth stages, four indicators viz., net photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance, and intercellular CO2 concentration in Guifen 2 with high starch content were higher than those of Bendishu. [Conclusion]High starch content type Bweet potato Guifen 2 produced less fresh potato than low starch content type sweet potato Bendishu, while dry matter rate, dry potato yield, and photosynthetic ability of Guifen 2 were higher than those of Bendishu. Photosynthetic rate change of Bendishu was caused by stomatal limitations, whereas that of Guifen 2 was caused by stomatal and non-stomatal limitations.%[目的]了解具有不同产量潜力及不同干物率的甘薯品种光合特性的差异,为其在生产中的利用提供参考依据.[方法]以不同淀粉型甘薯品种桂粉2号和本地薯为材料,研究其不同时期块根干物率、叶片光合作用及收获时鲜薯、薯干产量.[结

  13. Partitioning the Quaternary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibbard, Philip L.; Lewin, John

    2016-11-01

    We review the historical purposes and procedures for stratigraphical division and naming within the Quaternary, and summarize the current requirements for formal partitioning through the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS). A raft of new data and evidence has impacted traditional approaches: quasi-continuous records from ocean sediments and ice cores, new numerical dating techniques, and alternative macro-models, such as those provided through Sequence Stratigraphy and Earth-System Science. The practical usefulness of division remains, but there is now greater appreciation of complex Quaternary detail and the modelling of time continua, the latter also extending into the future. There are problems both of commission (what is done, but could be done better) and of omission (what gets left out) in partitioning the Quaternary. These include the challenge set by the use of unconformities as stage boundaries, how to deal with multiphase records in ocean and terrestrial sediments, what happened at the 'Early-Mid- (Middle) Pleistocene Transition', dealing with trends that cross phase boundaries, and the current controversial focus on how to subdivide the Holocene and formally define an 'Anthropocene'.

  14. Prediction of gas/particle partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global air: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-F.; Ma, W.-L.; Yang, M.

    2015-02-01

    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is an important process that primarily governs their atmospheric fate, long-range atmospheric transport, and their routes of entering the human body. All previous studies on this issue are hypothetically based on equilibrium conditions, the results of which do not predict results from monitoring studies well in most cases. In this study, a steady-state model instead of an equilibrium-state model for the investigation of the G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was established, and an equation for calculating the partition coefficients under steady state (KPS) of PBDEs (log KPS = log KPE + logα) was developed in which an equilibrium term (log KPE = log KOA + logfOM -11.91 where fOM is organic matter content of the particles) and a non-equilibrium term (log α, caused by dry and wet depositions of particles), both being functions of log KOA (octanol-air partition coefficient), are included. It was found that the equilibrium is a special case of steady state when the non-equilibrium term equals zero. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and non-equilibrium status of PBDEs was also established using two threshold values of log KOA, log KOA1, and log KOA2, which divide the range of log KOA into three domains: equilibrium, non-equilibrium, and maximum partition domain. Accordingly, two threshold values of temperature t, tTH1 when log KOA = log KOA1 and tTH2 when log KOA = log KOA2, were identified, which divide the range of temperature also into the same three domains for each PBDE congener. We predicted the existence of the maximum partition domain (the values of log KPS reach a maximum constant of -1.53) that every PBDE congener can reach when log KOA ≥ log KOA2, or t ≤ tTH2. The novel equation developed in this study was applied to predict the G/P partition coefficients of PBDEs for our Chinese persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Soil and Air Monitoring

  15. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  16. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  17. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula......H or milk fat percentage. Cows maintained average ventral ruminal pH of 6.65 ± 0.02, medial ruminal pH of 5.95 ± 0.04, and milk fat of 4.42 ± 0.12% with chewing time of 28.0 ± 2.1 min/kg of DM when fed short particles. The medial ruminal pool of wet particulate matter was decreased by 10.53 ± 2.29 kg...... particles. The estimated ruminal fluid flow and therefore intraruminal VFA transport between medial and ventral phase was not affected by the FPS. In conclusion, the ruminal mat pool of VFA was proportional to the size of the mat and the only detected effects of decreasing FPS were decreasing the mat size...

  18. Fermentation quality and nutritive value of a total mixed ration silage containing coffee grounds at ten or twenty percent of dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, C C; Cai, Y; Zhang, J G; Ogawa, M

    2007-04-01

    Six wethers were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square to study the fermentation quality and nutritive value of total mixed ration (TMR) silages that included wet coffee grounds (WCG). The TMR were prepared using a commercial compound feed, timothy hay, alfalfa hay, dried beet pulp, and a vitamin-mineral supplement in a ratio of 36.5:30:20:12:1.5, respectively, on a DM basis, with timothy hay and alfalfa hay being replaced by WCG at 0, 10, or 20%. All TMR silages, irrespective of WCG addition, were well preserved, with a low pH and ammonia-N content and a high lactic acid content. Intakes by wethers of TMR silages containing 0 and 10% WCG were 96.6 and 94.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), and did not differ (P > 0.05). Intake of TMR silage containing 20% WCG was 76.8 g/kg of BW(0.75), which was equal to 80% of that of the TMR silage with no WCG (quadratic: P < 0.01). Increasing concentrations of WCG in the rations decreased the digestibility of DM, CP, ADF, NDF, and energy, and increased that of ether extract (P < 0.05). The TDN and DE contents of the TMR silages with 0 and 10% WCG were similar, but the TMR silage with 20% WCG was lower (P < 0.05). With progressive increases in WCG concentrations, N intake did not differ, but fecal and urinary N increased linearly (P < 0.001), and retained N decreased linearly (P < 0.001). This study demonstrated that the proportion of WCG to be incorporated into TMR silages should not exceed 10% of the DM.

  19. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain.......Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  20. Protein metabolism, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore steers with high and low residual feed intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo da Costa Gomes

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate protein turnover, nitrogen balance, feed energy partitioning, behavior patterns and plasma cortisol in Nellore (B. indicus cattle with high and low residual feed intake (RFI = actual minus expected dry matter intake. Seventy-two Nellore steers (16 to 21 months-old, 334±19 kg initial body weight were fed a feedlot diet for 70 days ad libitum. Daily dry matter intake (DMI and average daily gain (ADG were recorded individually and RFI was calculated. The 12 steers of lowest (Low-RFI, most efficient RFI and the 12 ones of highest RFI (High-RFI, least efficient were evaluated with respect to their behavior patterns and plasma cortisol concentration. Urine was collected for determination of daily 3-methylhistidine excretion (3MH and myofibrillar protein breakdown rates. Urinary, gaseous and fecal energy losses were determined as well as the N retention and excretion. High-RFI steers tended to have shorter lying and idle periods and greater feeding time and plasma cortisol levels than low-RFI cattle. No RFI effects were seen for urine 3MH excretion and for rates of protein degradation and synthesis. No effects of efficiency class were observed for N excretion or N retention. No RFI effects were observed for dry matter digestibility, digestible energy (DE and metabolizable energy (ME content and DE/ME ratio. Methane energy losses were lower for low-compared with high-RFI steers. Protein turnover seems not to affect feed efficiency in Nellore steers. Improved RFI in Nellore steers is probably associated with lower degrees of activity and responsiveness to stress and lower losses of dietary energy as methane.

  1. Accumulation and translocation properties of dry matter and mineral elements in edible canna (Canna edulis Ker)%芭蕉芋干物质及矿质营养元素累积与分配特征研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张文娥; 王飞; 潘学军

    2013-01-01

    In order to establish a reasonable fertilization protocol in canna production,pot experiments were conducted to investigate the accumulation and translocation characteristics of biomass and mineral elements in different organs of edible canna at the taro enlargement stage and taro ripe stage.The total dry matters of edible canna at the taro enlargement stage is about 54.99-62.21g/plant,and the leaf is the main translocation organ.At the taro ripe stage,the total dry matter of edible canna is more than four times of the taro enlargement stage,and the rhizome is main translocation organ.The accumulation amounts of total nitrogen (N),phosphorus (P),potassium (K),calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) of edible canna at the sub-taro enlargement stage are 497.4 -598.8,128.7-223.1,2021.2-2450.3,496.0-577.3 and 526.7-804.5 mg/plant,respectively.The highest N content is in leaves,the highest P,K and Mg contents in stems and Ca content in roots.At the ripe stage,the total N,P,K,Ca and Mg contents of edible canna are 1116.2-1210.8,852.6-907.5,4528.9-5055.2,919.2 -991.7 and 888.2-1369.0 mg/plant,respectively.The highest N content is in leaves,followed by rhizome,the highest K content is in roots,the same high P contents in stems and leaves,Mg in rhizome.To build the same dry matter of edible canna,more K,Ca and Mg are needed with Xingyu-1 than Xingyu-2 and PLRF,similar amounts of N and P required for the three cultivars.Because of the percentage dry matters distribution of Xingyu-1 in rhizome is higher than those of the other two cultivars,Xingyu-1 absorbs less N,P and K than the other two cultivars to produce the same rhizome dry weight biomass.%以3个芭蕉芋栽培品种为试材,研究了芭蕉芋发棵结芋期和子芋完熟期生物量的构成特点及各器官矿质元素含量、积累和分配规律,以期为芭蕉芋科学管理和合理施肥提供依据.结果表明,发棵结芋期,芭蕉芋干物质量为54.99~62.21g/plant,叶片是干物质主要的分配器官

  2. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco Unapal- Dorado, pumpkin new cultivar with high dry matter for fresh consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.From three diallelic crossings, among populations with different degree of inbreeding (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2, 11 family with high dry matter, production by plant and fruit quality for consumption in fresh were selected. Two cycles of genetic recombination and selection were carried out. Four selected genotypes were evaluated the Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (CEUNP. The genotype of better performance was evaluated comparatively with others six families, including the control Unapal Bolo Verde, in regional tests, in three localities of the Valle del Cauca, during two consecutive semesters (2008 B - 2009A. By its excellent behavior in production (15 kg/planta, content of dry matter (higher than 16%, 3,5 kg by fruit, and five fruits by plant, quality of fruit for consumption in fresh, this family of better performance originated the pumpkin new cultivar, with the

  3. Effect of the dry matter intake level on the sanguine profile of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone and concentration of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of crossbred heifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Paulo Rigolon

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to study effect of the dry matter intake level on the concentrations of glucose, insulin, urea, estrogen and progesterone in the blood and the level of IGF-I in the follicular liquid of heifers. Twenty seven crossbred heifers were used, in three treatments: 1.2, 1.6 and 2.6% of the live weight of dry matter intake (DMI daily. The sanguine concentrations of glucose and estrogen were higher in the animals with 1.6% of DMI and the insulin levels were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was an increase in the sanguine levels of urea with the increase of the DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the progesterone levels in the sanguine plasma collected from the jugular. The progesterone levels in caudal vena were higher in the animals with 2.6% of DMI. There was no effect of the DMI on the follicular levels of IGF-I.O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do nível de ingestão de matéria seca (IMS/% do PV sobre as concentrações sanguíneas de glicose, insulina, urea, estrógeno e progesterona e o nível de IGF-I no líquido folicular de novilhas. Vinte e sete novilhas cruzadas foram utilizadas, distribuídas em três tratamentos: 1,2%; 1,6% e 2,6% do peso vivo de ingestão de matéria seca por dia. As concentrações no plasma da veia jugular de glicose e estrógeno foram maiores nos animais com 1,6% de IMS e os níveis de insulina foram maiores nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Houve um aumento dos níveis plasmáticos de uréia com aumento dos níveis de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis de progesterona no plasma sangüíneo coletado da jugular. No plasma sangüíneo coletado da veia cada caudal, os níveis de progesterona foram maiores (P<0,05 nos animais com 2,6% de IMS. Não houve efeito da IMS sobre os níveis foliculares de IGF-I.

  4. UNAPAL -Abanico 75: nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca en el fruto para fines agroindustriales UNAPAL - Abanico 75: new butternut squash cultivar, with high dry matter content in fruit for agribusiness purposes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diosdado Baena García

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones de zapallo, con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, se seleccionaron dos híbridos y dos líneas de zapallo, por su alto contenido de materia seca en fruto y producción por planta. Con los genotipos seleccionados se formaron siete poblaciones híbridas, que se estabilizaron genéticamente mediante cruzamientos fraternales y se evaluaron en diferentes ambientes del Valle del Cauca. Se seleccionó la población 1, que presentó una producción por planta entre 29 - 32 kg; peso promedio del fruto entre 5 -6 kg.; 4 -5 frutos por planta; 24 -26% de materia seca en el fruto; formato globular acostillado de color externo verde intenso y color de pulpa amarillo intenso a naranja (12 a 15 abanico de Roche. Esta población fue registrada en el Instituto Colombiano Agropecuario ICA con el nombre de UNAPAL-Abanico-75.Using three diallel crosses among populations of butternut squash, with different levels of inbreeding (S0 x S0, (S1 x S1 y (S2 x S2, two hybrids and two inbred lines of butternut squash were selected, for its high dry matter content in fruit and plant production. Seven hybrid populations were formed from the selected genotypes. They are genetically stabilized by fraternal crossing and were evaluated in different environments of Valle del Cauca. Population one was selected, which presented a plant production between 29 to 32 kg; average fruit weight between 5 -6 kg; 4-5 fruit per plant; dry matter in fruit among 24-26%; globular form ribbed bright green external color and deep yellow to orange flesh color (12 to 14 Roche Fan. This population was registered in Institute Colombian Agropecuario ICA, under the name UNAPAL-Abanico-75.

  5. Use of genotype × environment interaction model to accommodate genetic heterogeneity for residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; de Los Campos, G; VandeHaar, M J; Spurlock, D M; Armentano, L E; Coffey, M; de Haas, Y; Veerkamp, R F; Staples, C R; Connor, E E; Wang, Z; Hanigan, M D; Tempelman, R J; Weigel, K A

    2017-03-01

    Feed efficiency in dairy cattle has gained much attention recently. Due to the cost-prohibitive measurement of individual feed intakes, combining data from multiple countries is often necessary to ensure an adequate reference population. It may then be essential to model genetic heterogeneity when making inferences about feed efficiency or selecting efficient cattle using genomic information. In this study, we constructed a marker × environment interaction model that decomposed marker effects into main effects and interaction components that were specific to each environment. We compared environment-specific variance component estimates and prediction accuracies from the interaction model analyses, an across-environment analyses ignoring population stratification, and a within-environment analyses using an international feed efficiency data set. Phenotypes included residual feed intake, dry matter intake, net energy in milk, and metabolic body weight from 3,656 cows measured in 3 broadly defined environments: North America (NAM), the Netherlands (NLD), and Scotland (SAC). Genotypic data included 57,574 single nucleotide polymorphisms per animal. The interaction model gave the highest prediction accuracy for metabolic body weight, which had the largest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.37 to 0.55. The within-environment model performed the best when predicting residual feed intake, which had the lowest estimated heritabilities ranging from 0.13 to 0.41. For traits (dry matter intake and net energy in milk) with intermediate estimated heritabilities (0.21 to 0.50 and 0.17 to 0.53, respectively), performance of the 3 models was comparable. Genomic correlations between environments also were computed using variance component estimates from the interaction model. Averaged across all traits, genomic correlations were highest between NAM and NLD, and lowest between NAM and SAC. In conclusion, the interaction model provided a novel way to evaluate traits measured in

  6. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  7. Instantons on ALE spaces and orbifold partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert; Sułkowski, Piotr

    2008-03-01

    We consider Script N = 4 theories on ALE spaces of Ak-1 type. As is well known, their partition functions coincide with Ak-1 affine characters. We show that these partition functions are equal to the generating functions of some peculiar classes of partitions which we introduce under the name 'orbifold partitions'. These orbifold partitions turn out to be related to the generalized Frobenius partitions introduced by G. E. Andrews some years ago. We relate the orbifold partitions to the blended partitions and interpret explicitly in terms of a free fermion system.

  8. Instantons on ALE spaces and orbifold partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Dijkgraaf, Robbert

    2008-01-01

    We consider N=4 theories on ALE spaces of $A_{k-1}$ type. As is well known, their partition functions coincide with $A_{k-1}$ affine characters. We show that these partition functions are equal to the generating functions of some peculiar classes of partitions which we introduce under the name 'orbifold partitions'. These orbifold partitions turn out to be related to the generalized Frobenius partitions introduced by G. E. Andrews some years ago. We relate the orbifold partitions to the blended partitions and interpret explicitly in terms of a free fermion system.

  9. Partitioning ecosystems for sustainability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Martyn G

    2016-03-01

    Decline in the abundance of renewable natural resources (RNRs) coupled with increasing demands of an expanding human population will greatly intensify competition for Earth's natural resources during this century, yet curiously, analytical approaches to the management of productive ecosystems (ecological theory of wildlife harvesting, tragedy of the commons, green economics, and bioeconomics) give only peripheral attention to the driving influence of competition on resource exploitation. Here, I apply resource competition theory (RCT) to the exploitation of RNRs and derive four general policies in support of their sustainable and equitable use: (1) regulate resource extraction technology to avoid damage to the resource base; (2) increase efficiency of resource use and reduce waste at every step in the resource supply chain and distribution network; (3) partition ecosystems with the harvesting niche as the basic organizing principle for sustainable management of natural resources by multiple users; and (4) increase negative feedback between consumer and resource to bring about long-term sustainable use. A simple policy framework demonstrates how RCT integrates with other elements of sustainability science to better manage productive ecosystems. Several problem areas of RNR management are discussed in the light of RCT, including tragedy of the commons, overharvesting, resource collapse, bycatch, single species quotas, and simplification of ecosystems.

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  11. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  12. Effects of drying means on dry matter, color and chemical composition of lfue-cured tobacco leaves%干燥方式对烟叶样品干物质量、颜色和化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会纳; 雷波; 丁福章; 任竹; 蔡凯; 潘文杰

    2014-01-01

    Effects of drying methods on tobacco leaf morphology and chemical composition were investigated by half leaf method. Results showed that leaves obtained by freeze-drying were green, while that by de-enzyme torrefaction were yellow brown. Bulk size of the former is 3.25 times larger than that of the latter with the same weight. Polyphenols and carotenoids were degraded because of external high temperature stress and body water dissipation in the process of de-enzyme torrefaction. Nine Maillard reaction products and 8 carotenoid degradation products were detected, while 9 small molecular aromatic components disappeared, such as 3-methyl-butanol, 2-pentyl alcohol, 3-pentenal. Overall, dry matter loss during de-enzyme torrefaction processes showed 4.37% difference with that treated by freeze-drying. It was concluded that freeze-drying was a better sample drying method which could keep fresh leaf’s color and structure.%采用半叶法对烟叶进行杀青干燥和冷冻干燥,分析2种干燥方式对烟叶形态和化学成分组成的影响。结果表明:(1)冷冻干燥后的烟叶呈鲜绿色,杀青干燥后的烟叶呈黄褐色,冷冻干燥后的烟叶体积(同样重量)是杀青法干燥后的烟叶的3.25倍;(2)杀青干燥的过程中,由于外界温度较高及烟叶内水分的耗散,造成烟叶中多酚和类胡萝卜素的降解转化,检测出美拉德反应产物9种和类胡萝卜素降解产物8种,同时损失了9种低分子香气物质,如:3-甲基丁醇、2-戊烯醇和3-戊烯醛等,总体造成干物质含量降低(与冷冻法相差4.37百分点)。冷冻干燥方式保持了烤烟烟叶的固有色泽、结构和内含物,是一种适合于化学成分准确检测的样品干燥方式。

  13. Effects of drying means on dry matter, color and chemical composition of lfue-cured tobacco leaves%干燥方式对烟叶样品干物质量、颜色和化学成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵会纳; 雷波; 丁福章; 任竹; 蔡凯; 潘文杰

    2014-01-01

    Effects of drying methods on tobacco leaf morphology and chemical composition were investigated by half leaf method. Results showed that leaves obtained by freeze-drying were green, while that by de-enzyme torrefaction were yellow brown. Bulk size of the former is 3.25 times larger than that of the latter with the same weight. Polyphenols and carotenoids were degraded because of external high temperature stress and body water dissipation in the process of de-enzyme torrefaction. Nine Maillard reaction products and 8 carotenoid degradation products were detected, while 9 small molecular aromatic components disappeared, such as 3-methyl-butanol, 2-pentyl alcohol, 3-pentenal. Overall, dry matter loss during de-enzyme torrefaction processes showed 4.37% difference with that treated by freeze-drying. It was concluded that freeze-drying was a better sample drying method which could keep fresh leaf's color and structure.%采用半叶法对烟叶进行杀青干燥和冷冻干燥,分析2种干燥方式对烟叶形态和化学成分组成的影响。结果表明:(1)冷冻干燥后的烟叶呈鲜绿色,杀青干燥后的烟叶呈黄褐色,冷冻干燥后的烟叶体积(同样重量)是杀青法干燥后的烟叶的3.25倍;(2)杀青干燥的过程中,由于外界温度较高及烟叶内水分的耗散,造成烟叶中多酚和类胡萝卜素的降解转化,检测出美拉德反应产物9种和类胡萝卜素降解产物8种,同时损失了9种低分子香气物质,如:3-甲基丁醇、2-戊烯醇和3-戊烯醛等,总体造成干物质含量降低(与冷冻法相差4.37百分点)。冷冻干燥方式保持了烤烟烟叶的固有色泽、结构和内含物,是一种适合于化学成分准确检测的样品干燥方式。

  14. Effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat on milk production and energy partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boerman, J P; Potts, S B; VandeHaar, M J; Lock, A L

    2015-10-01

    The effects of partly replacing dietary starch with fiber and fat to provide a diet with similar net energy for lactation (NEL) density on yields of milk and milk components and on energy partitioning were evaluated in a crossover design experiment. Holstein cows (n = 32; 109 ± 22 d in milk, mean ± standard deviation) were randomly assigned to treatment sequence. Treatments were a high-starch diet containing 33% corn grain (mixture of dry ground and high-moisture corn; HS) or a high-fiber, high-fat diet containing 2.5% palmitic acid-enriched fatty acid (FA) supplement (HFF). Diets contained corn silage, alfalfa silage, and wheat straw as forage sources; HS contained 32% starch, 3.2% FA, and 25% neutral detergent fiber, whereas HFF contained 16% starch, 5.4% FA, and 33% neutral detergent fiber. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced milk yield, milk protein concentration, and milk protein yield, but increased milk fat concentration, milk fat yield, milk energy output, and milk to feed ratio (energy-corrected milk/dry matter intake). The HFF treatment reduced the yield of de novo synthesized ( 16-carbon) milk FA was not different. The HFF treatment increased plasma concentrations of triglycerides and nonesterified fatty acids, but decreased plasma concentration of insulin. Compared with HS, the HFF treatment reduced body weight gain, change in body condition score, and fat thickness over the rump and rib. Calculated body energy gain, as a fraction of NEL use, was less for HFF than HS, whereas milk energy as a fraction of NEL use was increased for HFF. We concluded that the 2 treatments resulted in similar apparent NEL densities and intakes, but the HS treatment partitioned more energy toward body gain whereas the HFF treatment partitioned more energy toward milk. A high-fiber, high-fat diet might diminish the incidence of over conditioning in mid-lactation cows while maintaining high milk production. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association

  15. Estudo comparativo do acúmulo de massa seca e macronutrientes por plantas de milho var. BR-106 e Brachiaria plantaginea Dry matter and macronutrient accumulation by maize and Brachiaria plantaginea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Foram realizados dois experimentos, em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Biologia Aplicada à Agropecuária da FCAV-UNESP de Jaboticabal, objetivando-se determinar o acúmulo de massa seca e a distribuição e acúmulo de macronutrientes em plantas de milho, no período de outubro de 2000 a fevereiro de 2001, e de capim-marmelada, no período de setembro de 2003 a fevereiro de 2004. Os estudos foram realizados em delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. As plantas cresceram em vasos com capacidade de sete litros - preenchidos com areia de rio lavada e peneirada - e foram irrigadas diariamente com solução nutritiva. Os tratamentos foram representados pelas épocas de amostragem realizadas a intervalos de 14 dias, a saber: 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105, 119 e 133 dias após a emergência (DAE das plantas de milho; e 21, 35, 49, 63, 77, 91, 105, 119, 133 e 147 DAE das plantas de capim-marmelada. O ponto de máximo acúmulo teórico de massa seca deu-se aos 122 DAE para o milho (143,8 g por planta e aos 143 DAE para o capim-marmelada (23,9 g por planta. A taxa de absorção diária dos macronutrientes atingiu maiores valores entre 71 e 104 DAE para o milho e entre 96 e 111 DAE para a planta daninha. Levando-se em conta a média dos valores de pontos de inflexão observados na cultura do milho, aos 85 DAE uma planta de milho acumula, teoricamente, 83,0 g de massa seca; 788,9 mg de N; 137,5 mg de P; 1.385,6 mg de K; 551,8 mg de Ca; 217,9 mg de Mg; e 92,5 mg de S. Enquanto que, no mesmo período, uma planta de B. plantaginea acumula, teoricamente, 9,6 g de massa seca; 127,8 mg de N; 15,9 mg de P; 217,3 mg de K; 43,9 mg de Ca; 58,3 mg de Mg; e 15,8 mg de S.Two trials were conducted under greenhouse conditions at the FCAV/UNESP facilities in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, to determine dry matter accumulation, as well as macronutrient distribution and accumulation in maize plants from October 2000 to February 2001, and

  16. Influence of the drying step within disk-based solid-phase extraction both on the recovery and the limit of quantification of organochlorine pesticides in surface waters including suspended particulate matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Günter, Anastasia; Balsaa, Peter; Werres, Friedrich; Schmidt, Torsten C

    2016-06-10

    In this study, 21 organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) were determined based on sample preparation using solid-phase extraction disks (SPE disks) coupled with programmable temperature vaporizer (PTV)-large-volume injection gas-chromatography mass spectrometry (LVI-GC-MS). The work includes a comprehensive testing scheme on the suitability of the method for routine analysis of surface and drinking water including suspended particulate matter (SPM) with regard to requirements derived from the European Water Framework Directive (WFD, Directive 2000/60/EC). SPM is an important reservoir for OCPs, which contributes to the transport of these compounds in the aquatic environment. To achieve the detection limits required by the WFD, a high pre-concentration factor during sample preparation is necessary, which was achieved by disk SPE in this study. The performance of disk SPE is strongly influenced by the drying step, which could be significantly improved by effective elimination of the residual water by combination of a high vacuum pump and a low humidity atmosphere. Detection limits of the WFD in the ng/L range were achieved by large volume injection of 100μL sample extract. The recoveries ranged from 82% to 117% with an RSD smaller than 13%. The applicability of this method to natural samples was tested for instrumental qualification and system suitability evaluation. Successful participation in an interlaboratory comparison proved the suitability of the method for routine analysis.

  17. 新疆不同类型春小麦品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累及转运规律研究%Study on the Accumulation and Translocation Regulation of Dry Matter and NP after Anthesis in Different Types of Spring Wheat Varieties in Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    栾姗姗; 贾永红; 马会杰; 侯丽丽; 王伟; 石书兵

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The purpose of this project was to evaluate the accumulation and translocation regulation of dry matter and NP of different types of spring wheat varieties planted in the natural ecological condition. [Method]The test materials were 8 spring wheat varieties cultivated in Xinjiang. The accumulation and translocation regulations were studied by measuring the accumulation of dry matter and NP after anthesis. [ Result] The accumulative dynamic state of dry matter and NP appeared a rising tendency after anthesis. The accumulation of dry matter and NP in strong gluten varieties was the highest in maturity, followed by middle gluten varieties and middle strong varieties. For the translocation of dry matter and NP, the amount and rate of dry matter translocation before anthesis was middle gluten > middle strong gluten > strong gluten in turn from high to low, the amount of dry matter translocation was middle gluten > strong gluten > middle strong gluten, the contribution rate of dry matter translocation to grain yield was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. The regulation of NP accumulation and translocation was basically consistent, and the amount of NP accumulation was strong gluten > middle gluten > middle strong gluten. [ Conclusion ] Certain difference existed under the regulation of dry matter and NP accumulation and translocation in different types of spring wheat varieties.%[目的]在自然生态条件下,研究不同品质类型春小麦品种干物质及氮磷的积累和转运规律.[方法]选用新疆主栽的8个春小麦品种,测定其花后干物质和氮磷的积累量,对其积累和转运规律进行研究.[结果]不同类型品种花后干物质与氮磷的积累动态均呈上升的趋势,成熟期干物质与氮磷的积累量强筋品种最高,其次为中筋品种,中强筋品种较低;从干物质与氮磷的转运情况来看,花前干物质转运量和干物质转运率由大到小依次为中强筋>中筋>

  18. Effects of nitrogen rates on dry matter accumulation and distribution of potato plants under film mulching in dry land%不同氮水平对旱地覆膜马铃薯干物质积累与分配的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何万春; 何昌福; 邱慧珍; 张文明; 王亚飞; 张春红; 王蒂

    2016-01-01

    针对马铃薯生产中存在的氮肥施用过量问题,通过田间试验,研究了不同氮肥水平(0、50、100、150、200、250 kg·hm-2,分别对应T1、T2、T3、T4、T5、T6处理)对旱地覆膜马铃薯“陇薯3号”的生育进程及其干物质积累与分配的影响。结果表明:施用氮肥显著推迟了马铃薯的生育进程,随施氮量的增加,马铃薯的生育期延后,各施氮处理的干重平衡期比不施氮肥的对照处理(T1)推迟了2~16 d;施用氮肥显著增加了马铃薯全株和块茎干物质快速积累的持续时间(Δt ),随施氮量的增加,与T1相比,全株Δt增加了2~14 d ,块茎Δt增加2~10 d;马铃薯整株和块茎干物质积累均表现出明显的“S”曲线特征。不同氮水平对成熟期马铃薯干物质在不同器官中的分配比例也有显著影响,随施氮量的增加,成熟期茎和叶所占干物质比例明显增加,块茎所占干物质比例呈单峰趋势变化;不同氮水平也显著影响马铃薯块茎产量,与对照处理(T1)相比,T2处理增产17.86%,T3、T4、T5和T6分别减产6.88%、21.06%、27.05%和38.63%,说明过量施用氮肥会导致马铃薯减产,其本质是马铃薯库源关系的失调(施氮量超过50 kg·hm-2时)。在本试验条件下,当目标产量为1.65 t·667m-2时,50 kg·hm-2为经济最佳施肥量。%Field experiment was carried out to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates on growing stages and dry matter (DM ) accumulation of potato cv Longshu No .3 under film mulching in dry land .Six nitrogen rates ,0 (CK or T1 ) ,50 (T2) ,100 (T3) ,150 (T4) ,200 (T5) and 250 (T6) kg·hm-2 were used ,and field plots were arranged in a random-ized complete block design with four replications .The results showed that the application of nitrogen had significantly positive effect on the duration of growing stages of potato .Nitrogen applications obviously

  19. Effect of Control Irrigation on Soil Temperature and Dry Matter Accumulation of Rice During Tillering Stage%分蘖期控制灌溉对土温及水稻干物质积累等的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷舜; 王抄抄; 黄炎; 黄穗华; 符如壮; 唐湘如

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the optimum mode of irrigation in double-harvest rice area in South China during tille-ring stage,super rice Yuxiangyouzhan was selected as experimental material;field experiment was conducted in SCAU farm in 2014.Two water gradient treatments were set respectively in two different tillering stages,soil temper-atures were recorded during treatment periods,effect of control irrigation on dry matter accumulation,dynamic of LAI change,photosynthetic characteristics,panicle rate and yield were studied.Results showed that:control irriga-tion during tillering stage(the average relative soil water content reach about (60 ±5 )% at 0 -20 cm soil layer) could enlarge soil diurnal temperature range in 5 cm soil layer,reduce dry matter accumulation before jointing stage,improve photosynthetic rate and LAI in late growth stage,matter accumulation dynamic was optimized thus W1 & W2′s panicle rate and yield were improved.Therefore,control 0 -20 cm soil layer′s average relative water content at (60 ±5)% during tillering stage of Yuxiangyouzhan could attain the goal of water-saving and high-effi-ciency cultivation.%为了研究超级稻在双季稻区分蘖时期的最佳控水模式,2014年在华南农业大学农场以超级稻玉香油占为试材进行大田试验。在水稻分蘖数达到不同的2个阶段分别设置2个水分梯度处理,记录了控制灌溉期间土壤温度的变化,研究了其对干物质积累动态、LAI 变化动态、光合特性以及成穗率和最终产量等的影响。结果表明:分蘖期控制灌溉(0~20 cm 土层平均土壤相对含水率为(60±5)%能够扩大土壤5 cm 深度日温差,减少拔节前干物质积累,提高拔节期净光合速率和生育后期叶面积指数,优化干物质积累动态,最终提高了 W1和 W2处理的成穗率与产量。因此,在玉香油占分蘖期控制0~20 cm 土层平均土壤相对含水率为(60±5)%,能够达到节水高效栽培的目的。

  20. 加气灌溉改善大棚番茄光合特性及干物质积累%Aerated irrigation improving photosynthesis characteristics and dry matter accumulation of greenhouse tomato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李元; 牛文全; 吕望; 古君; 邹小阳; 王京伟; 刘璐; 张明智; 许健

    2016-01-01

    limits crop yield and quality improvement. Tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum) are one of the most vulnerable mesophytes to hypoxia in the root environment. Soil aeration has been found to be very useful in overcoming problems associated with hypoxia in the root-zone of irrigated crops including tomato, cotton, cucumber and zucchini. Over a range of soil water contents and soil types, the performance of crops can be improved under oxygen-deficient conditions. It is hypothesized that varying the aeration volume and burial depths of drip irrigation tubes (aeration position) would result in the different soil air environment in the root-zone. To date, there are no reports in the literature which specifically examined the sensitivity of tomato plants to soil aeration volume and burial depths of drip irrigation tubes in Lou soil, and the effect on the photosynthetic characteristics and dry matter accumulation. The experiments were conducted in a greenhouse at Yangling (E108°02′, N34°17′), Shaanxi, between October, 2014 and May, 2015. The tested variety of tomato was Fenyuyanggang (New Horizon Facilities Agricultural Development Co. Ltd., Northwest A&F University, China). Air was used for soil aeration, and the soil for the test was a silty clay loam (soil order was Inceptisol based on the USDA (United States Department of Agriculture) soil taxonomy). The volume of air in each plot was injected into the drip tubing via a manifold connected to the air compressor. The experiment was designed to study the responses of photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content and dry matter accumulation of greenhouse-produced tomato to 4 aeration volumes in combination with 2 depths of drip-tubing placed in the soil. The drip irrigation placement depths were respectively 15 and 40 cm below the surface of the ridge. Artificial aeration treatments were 0, 24.6, 49.4 and 74.2 L/m2, respectively. Results showed that drip tubing placement and artificial aeration treatments

  1. ADSORPTION-PARTITIONING UPTAKE OF NINE LOW-POLARITY ORGANIC CHEMICALS ON A NATURAL SORBENT. (R825406)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sorption of comparatively nonpolar organic chemicals by natural solids not only can be predominated by partitioning with organic matter but also can reflect a substantial contribution from adsorption at low relative concentration. Sorption of nine polycyclic aromat...

  2. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  3. 保护性耕作对绿洲灌区冬小麦产量形成的影响%Effect of Conservation Tillage on Dry Matter Accumulating and Yield of Winter Wheat in Oasis Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李玲玲; 黄高宝; 秦舒浩; 于爱忠

    2011-01-01

    Hexi Oasis is the most important region for food crop production in Gansu province, where is not only exposed to serious wind erosion but also one of the main sources of dust storm in China. Spring wheat traditionally dominates in wheat production in this region, but the bare field from dry winter to spring usually accelerates serious wind erosion. Conservation tillage proves to be able to increase water use efficiency (WUE) and eliminate soil erosion. In this study, dry matter accumulating, yield and WUE of winter wheat under different tillage practices were investigated in order to establish proper systems of conservation tillage in the Hexi Oasis area for winter wheat production, and to save water and prevent wind erosion. Experiments on five tillage practices were carried out from 2004 to 2007, including conventional tillage (T), conventional tillage with stubble incorporated (TIS), no-tillage (NT), no-tillage with stubble retention (NTS), and no-tillage with stubble standing (NTSS). The effects of conservation tillage on dry matter dynamics, grain-filling characteristics, grain yield, yield components, and WUE of winter wheat were determined using wheat cultivar Fan-13. Compared with treatment T, the growth and development process and grain-filling duration of winter wheat were prolonged in NTS and NTSS treatments. Both treatments had higher values in dry matter, relative growth rate (RGR), grain-filling duration, average filling velocity in spike of main stem, and filling index than other treatments.Although the grain number per spike and 1000-grain weight of NTS and NTSS varied across years, they generally showed higher levels than those of the T and TIS treatments, especially the NTSS treatment. The highest WUE was observed in the NTS treatment. The average grain yields (2004-2007) of NTS and NTSS were increased by 18.6% and 23.8% compared to the T treatment,and the average WUE (2005-2007) of NTS and NTSS were enhanced by 26.8% and 16.1

  4. Efficient FM Algorithm for VLSI Circuit Partitioning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.RAJESH

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available In FM algorithm initial partitioning matrix of the given circuit is assigned randomly, as a result for larger circuit having hundred or more nodes will take long time to arrive at the final partition if theinitial partitioning matrix is close to the final partitioning then the computation time (iteration required is small . Here we have proposed novel approach to arrive at initial partitioning by using spectralfactorization method the results was verified using several circuits.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  6. Semeadura do milho em sistema de plantio direto sem e com manejo mecânico da matéria seca No till corn seeding with and without mechanichal management of dry matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro H. Weirich Neto

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar se a cultura do milho é influenciada pelo manejo mecânico da aveia-preta dessecada antes de sua semeadura, pela utilização de rolo destorroador. Os tratamentos consistiram na semeadura do milho sob a matéria seca de aveia-preta dessecada sem manejo mecânico e rolada. O experimento foi realizado em quatro propriedades, duas na safra de 2007/2008 e as outras duas na safra de 2008/2009. O delineamento experimental adotado foi em blocos ao acaso, com 11 repetições, cujas parcelas possuíam 80 m² cada. Avaliaram-se a qualidade da semeadura e os componentes de rendimento. Conclui-se que o manejo mecânico da palha de aveia-preta antes da semeadura do milho pode elevar significativamente os espaçamentos falhos e reduzir significativamente os espaçamentos aceitáveis. Nas áreas experimentais, os tratamentos não afetaram os componentes de rendimento da cultura do milho, havendo apenas acréscimo no custo da produção.The aim of this study was to determine whether the corn is influenced by the management of dry oat before sowing, by the use of roller-Loosening. The treatments consisted of sowing the corn in the oat dry matter without mechanical handling and rolled. The experiment was conducted in four properties, two in the 2007/2008 harvest, and two others in the 2008/2009 season. The experimental design was randomized blocks with 11 repetitions, which plots had 80 m² each. It was evaluated the quality of sowing and yield components. It was concluded that in the four agricultural properties and two years mechanical handling of the oat straw before sowing the corn significantly increased the spacing flawed, significantly reduced the acceptable spacing and did not affect the corn yield, and only increased the cost of production.

  7. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  8. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  9. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  10. Global distribution and Gas-particle Partitioning of Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons - a Modelling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lammel, G.; Sehili, A. M.

    2009-04-01

    organic matter and adsorption to black carbon (soot) to determine gas-particle partitioning. PAHs are multi-hopping to some extent and volatilization from ground exceeds deposition over dry parts of the continents and some sea regions at least seasonally. Bond T.C., Streets D.G., Yarber K.F., Nelson S.M., Woo J.H., Klimont Z. (2004), J. Geophys. Res. 109, D14203, doi:10.1029/2003JD003697 Lohmann R., Lammel G. (2004), Environ. Sci. Technol. 38, 3793-3803 Pankow J.F. (1987), Atmos. Environ. 21, 2275-2283 Sehili A.M., Lammel G. (2007), Atmos. Environ. 41, 8301-8315. Semeena V.S., Feichter J., Lammel G. (2006), Atmos. Chem. Phys. 6, 1231-1248 Stier P., Feichter J., Kinne S., Kloster S., Vignati E., Wilson J., Ganzeveld L., Tegen I., Werner M., Schulz M., Balkanski Y., Boucher O., Minikin A., Petzold A. (2005), Atmos. Chem. Phys. 5, 1125-1156

  11. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  12. Acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes no meloeiro irrigado sob estratégias de manejo da salinidade Accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in irrigated melon under strategies of salimity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero P. C. Terceiro Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar estratégias de uso de água salobra sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes, duas cultivares de melão (Sancho- C1 e Medellín- C2 irrigadas com água de baixa (S1 = 0,61 dS m-1 e alta (S2 = 4,78 dS m-1 salinidade por fase da cultura: S1S1S2S2- T1, S2S1S2S2- T2, S2S2S1S2- T3 (os 1, 2, 3 e 4º termos correspondem, respectivamente, às fases de crescimento, floração, crescimento dos frutos e maturação e colheita e, ainda a irrigação alternada, durante todo o ciclo, com água S1 por 2 dias consecutivos seguido com água S2 por um dia (S12dias + S21dia- T4 e a irrigação com água S2 durante todo o ciclo- T5. Além disto foi utilizada, como testemunha, a irrigação com a mistura de 37% da água S1 e 63% da água S2- T0 (manejo adotado atualmente na fazenda em que o experimento foi conduzido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 6 x 2 (manejo da água salina x cultivar com quatro repetições. O acúmulo de fitomassa seca total na parte aérea da cultivar Sancho foi superior ao de Medellín, em todas as estratégias de manejo utilizado; os nutrientes mais absorvidos pelas plantas das duas cultivares foram o cálcio, o potássio e o nitrogênio.A study was carried out aiming to investigate management strategies for use of brackish water in the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in two cultivars of melon (C1 - Sancho and C2 - MedeLλi n irrigated with low (S1 = 0.61 dS m-1 and high (S2 = 4.78 dS m-1 salinity water in different phases of crop: S1S1S2S2 - T1, S2S1S2S2 - T2, S2S2S1S2 - T3. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th term correspond, respectively, to different phases - initial growth, flowering, fruit maturation and harvest. Alternate irrigation during the crop cycle, two days of consecutive application with S1 water followed by one day with S2 water (S1 2 days + S2 1day - T4 and irrigation with

  13. PRODUCTION EVALUATION OF DRY MATTER, MINERAL COMPOSITION AND SILAGE OF GRASS MILLET (Pennisetum americanum AVALIAÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA, DA COMPOSIÇÃO MINERAL E DA SILAGEM DO MILHETO FORRAGEIRO (Pennisetum americanum (L. K. Schum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana de Jesus Madureira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    For evaluate the dry matter production, the mineral composition and the silage quality of grass millet, it was carried out a field experiment using a design in randomized blocks with three replications and nine treatments. Ninety-three days after the emergence, the ensilage of fodder was made. The dry matter production presented a variation of 3.6 to 10.2 t/ha. In fresh fodder the concentration of macronutrients was: N = 1.54 to 1.96%; P = 0.11 to 0.21%; K =1.10 to 3.63%; Ca = 0.12 to 0.27% and Mg = 0.07 to 0.17%. The concentration in the silage was: N = 1.13 to 2.13%; P = 0.09 to 0.22%; K = 1.53 to 3.40%; Ca = 0.09 to 0.23% and Mg = 0.09 to 0.21%. The pH ranged 3.74 to 4.35 so the silage can be classified of excellent quality.

    Para avaliar a produção de matéria seca (kg/ha, a composição mineral (N, P, K, Ca e Mg e qualidade da silagem do milheto forrageiro, conduziu-se um experimento de campo, utilizando-se o delineamento de blocos casualizados com nove tratamentos (NoPoKo, N1P1K1, NoP1K1, N2P1K1, N1PoK1, N1P2K2, N1P1Ko, N1P1K2 e N2P2K2 e três repetições. Decorridos noventa e três dias após a emergência, procedeu-se ao corte e à ensilagem do material. A produção de matéria seca apresentou uma variação de 3,6 a 10,2 t/ha. Na forragem a concentração dos macronutrientes foi da seguinte ordem: N= 1,54 a 1,96%; P = 0,11 a 0,21%; K = 1,10 a 3,63%; Ca = 012, a 0,27% e Mg = 0,07 a 0,17%, enquanto na silagem foi de: N = 1,13 a 2,13%; P = 0,09 a 022%; K 1,53 a 3,40%; Ca = 0,09 a 0,23% e Mg = 0,09 a 021%. O pH variou de 3,74 a 4,35, o que nos permite classificar a silagem como sendo de ótima qualidade.

  14. Acumulação de matéria seca do tomateiro cultivado em substrato com diferentes doses de fertilizantes Dry matter accumulation of tomato plants grown in substrate under different fertilizer doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto André Grave

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available Plantas de tomateiro foram cultivadas em substrato no interior de um ambiente protegido localizado no Departamento de Fitotecnia da UFSM, em Santa Maria, RS, com o objetivo de determinar o efeito de cinco doses de fertilizantes sobre a acumulação da matéria seca da parte vegetativa e dos frutos. Foram efetuados três experimentos, no outono-inverno de 1997, na primavera-verão de 1997 e no outono-inverno de 1998, empregando os híbridos Diva, Monte Carlo e Saladette, respectivamente. Foi utilizada como referência uma dose semanal com as seguintes quantidades de fertilizantes, em g por planta: 4 de KNO3; 6,3 de Ca(NO32; 1,5 de superfosfato simples; 3 de MgSO4, complementada por 0,13ml de ferro quelatizado (5% de Fe e 0,7mL de uma solução contendo os demais micronutrientes. No experimento 1, a dose de T1 foi igual àquela de referência e as doses de T2 e T3 foram obtidas multiplicando-se a dose de referência por 1,15 e 1,3, respectivamente. Nos experimentos 2 e 3, as doses de T1, T2 e T3 corresponderam à dose de referência multiplicada por 0,6; 1,15 e 1,7, respectivamente. Para cada um dos dois híbridos e nos três experimentos, as plantas foram localizadas em três blocos, com três fileiras de 35 plantas em cada bloco. Cada tratamento foi aplicado uma vez por semana a todas as plantas da mesma fileira, através da fertirrigação. Foi determinada a matéria seca acumulada na parte vegetativa da planta e nos frutos no início do período de maturação dos mesmos, em cada experimento. Não foram observadas diferenças significativas na acumulação de matéria seca na parte vegetativa da planta e nos frutos entre as três doses e nos três experimentos.Tomato plants were grown in substrate in a greenhouse at Departamento de Fitotecnia, Universidade Federal de Santa Maria, RS, Brazil, to determine the effect of five fertilizer levels on dry matter accumulation of vegetative plant parts and fruits. Three experiments were done, in autumn

  15. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    C S Srivatsan; M V N Murthy; R K Bhaduri

    2006-03-01

    In a recent paper (Tran et al, Ann. Phys. 311, 204 (2004)), some asymptotic number theoretical results on the partitioning of an integer were derived exploiting its connection to the quantum density of states of a many-particle system. We generalise these results to obtain an asymptotic formula for the restricted or coloured partitions $p_{k}^{s} (n)$, which is the number of partitions of an integer into the summand of th powers of integers such that each power of a given integer may occur utmost times. While the method is not rigorous, it reproduces the well-known asymptotic results for = 1 apart from yielding more general results for arbitrary values of .

  16. Extremal sizes of subspace partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Heden, Olof; Nastase, Esmeralda; Sissokho, Papa

    2011-01-01

    A subspace partition $\\Pi$ of $V=V(n,q)$ is a collection of subspaces of $V$ such that each 1-dimensional subspace of $V$ is in exactly one subspace of $\\Pi$. The size of $\\Pi$ is the number of its subspaces. Let $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ denote the minimum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the largest subspace has dimension $t$, and let $\\rho_q(n,t)$ denote the maximum size of a subspace partition of $V$ in which the smallest subspace has dimension $t$. In this paper, we determine the values of $\\sigma_q(n,t)$ and $\\rho_q(n,t)$ for all positive integers $n$ and $t$. Furthermore, we prove that if $n\\geq 2t$, then the minimum size of a maximal partial $t$-spread in $V(n+t-1,q)$ is $\\sigma_q(n,t)$.

  17. The effect of dietary water soluble carbohydrate to nitrogen ratio on nitrogen partitioning and isotopic fractionation of lactating goats offered a high-nitrogen diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Edwards, G R; Dewhurst, R J; Nicol, A M; Pacheco, D

    2016-05-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between nitrogen (N) partitioning and isotopic fractionation in lactating goats consuming diets with a constant high concentration of N and increasing levels of water soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Eight lactating goats were offered four different ratios of WSC : N in the diet. A two-period incomplete cross-over design was used, with two goats assigned to each treatment in each period. N balance measurements were conducted, with measurement of feed N intake and total output of N in milk, faeces and urine. Treatment, period and infusion effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between variables were analysed by linear regression. Dietary treatment and period had significant effects on dry matter (DM) intake (g/day). DM digestibility (g/kg DM) and N digestibility (g/kg N) increased as the ratio of WSC : N increased in the diet. No treatment effect was observed on milk urea N concentration (g/l) or urinary excretion of purine derivatives (mM/day). Although dietary treatment and period had significant effects on N intake, the change of N intake was small; no effect was observed for N partitioning among faeces, milk and urine. Milk, plasma and faeces were enriched in 15N compared with feed, whilst urine was depleted in 15N relative to feed. No significant relationship was established between N partitioning and isotopic fractionation. This study failed to confirm the potential to use N isotopic fractionation as an indicator of N partitioning in dairy goats when diets provided N in excess to requirements, most likely because the range of milk N output/N intake and urinary N output/N intake were narrow.

  18. Role of weathered coal tar pitch in the partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in manufactured gas plant site sediments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khalil, Muhammad F; Ghosh, Upal; Kreitinger, Joseph P

    2006-09-15

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in manufactured gas plant (MGP) site sediments are often associated with carbonaceous particles that reduce contaminant bioavailability. Although black carbon inclusive partitioning models have been proposed to describe elevated PAH partitioning behavior, questions remain on the true loading and association of PAHs in different particle types in industrially impacted sediments. In the studied MGP sediments, the light density organic particles (coal, coke, wood, and coal tar pitch) comprised 10-20% of the total mass and 70-95% of the PAHs. The remainder of the PAHs in sediment was associated with the heavy density particles (i.e., sand, silt, and clays). Among the different particle types, coal tar pitch (quantified by a quinoline extraction method) contributed the most to the bulk sediment PAH concentration. Aqueous partition coefficients for PAHs measured using a weathered pitch sample from the field were generally an order of magnitude higher than reported for natural organic matter partitioning, and match well with theoretical predictions based on a coal tar-water partitioning model. A pitch-partitioning inclusive model is proposed that gives better estimates of the measured site-specific PAH aqueous equilibrium values than standard estimation based on natural organic matter partitioning only. Thus, for MGP impacted sediments containing weathered pitch particles, the partitioning behavior may be dominated by the sorption characteristics of pitch and not by natural organic matter or black carbon.

  19. Partitions of generalized split graphs

    OpenAIRE

    Shklarsky, Oren

    2012-01-01

    We discuss matrix partition problems for graphs that admit a partition into k independent sets and ` cliques. We show that when k + ` 6 2, any matrix M has finitely many (k; `) minimal obstructions and hence all of these problems are polynomial time solvable. We provide upper bounds for the size of any (k; `) minimal obstruction when k = ` = 1 (split graphs), when k = 2; ` = 0 (bipartite graphs), and when k = 0; ` = 2 (co-bipartite graphs). When k = ` = 1, we construct an exponential size spl...

  20. The complexity of string partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Condon, Anne; Thachuk, Chris

    2012-01-01

    Given a string $w$ over a finite alphabet $\\Sigma$ and an integer $K$, can $w$ be partitioned into strings of length at most $K$, such that there are no \\emph{collisions}? We refer to this question as the \\emph{string partition} problem and show it is \\NP-complete for various definitions of collision and for a number of interesting restrictions including $|\\Sigma|=2$. This establishes the hardness of an important problem in contemporary synthetic biology, namely, oligo design for gene synthesis.

  1. Assimilate Partitioning and Plant Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yong-Ling Ruan; John W.Patrick; Hans Weber

    2010-01-01

    @@ It has been a pleasure to organize this special issue of Molecular Plant on 'Assimilate Partitioning and Plant Development'. Assimilate, a collective term describing organic carbon (C) and nitrogen (N), is of paramount importance for plant development and realization of crop productivity.

  2. Gershgorin domains for partitioned matrices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sluis, A. van der

    1979-01-01

    Inclusion domains for the eigenvalues of a partitioned matrix are specified in terms of perturbations of its diagonal blocks. The size of such perturbations is measured using the Kantorovitch-Robert-Deutsch vectorial norms. The inclusion domains obtained thereby are compared with inclusion domains o

  3. Influência do teor de matéria seca e do inoculante bacteriano nas características físicas e químicas da silagem de capim Tanzânia = Effects of dry matter content and bacterial inoculant on the physical and chemical properties and losses in Tanzânia grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solidete de Fátima Paziani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do teor de matéria seca e da adição de inoculante bacteriano sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e perdas em silagens do capim Tanzânia. O uso do inoculante não foi efetivo em preservar a PB. Os índices de recuperação de matéria seca e as perdas de MS, na forma de efluente e gases, foram respectivamente de 90,6%; 53,7 kg t-1 MV e 6,4% da MS nas silagens não-emurchecidas, 93,6%; 16,8 kg t-1 MV e 5,0% com adição de milheto grão e 92,2%; 3,6 kg t-1 MV e 6,2% naquelas emurchecidas. Asdensidades de massa verde/matéria seca foram 346/105, 455/145 e 442/97 kg m-3 nas silagens emurchecidas, adicionadas com milheto e com umidade original, respectivamente. Como a elevação no teor de MS não alterou o índice de recuperação de MS, apesar de promoveralgumas modificações na composição química das silagens, a opção pelos tratamentos vai depender da ponderação de fatores que facilitem a operacionalidade e reduzam os custos na confecção da silagem.The present trial aimed to study the effect of dry matter content and the addition of bacterial inoculant on the ensilage of Tanzânia grass. The bacterial inoculant did not alter crude protein content. Dry matter recovery rates, effluent yield and DM gases losses were 90.6%, 53.7 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.4% for the wet silages; 93.6%, 16.8 kg t-1 wet forage, 5.0% for millet added silages and 92.2%, 3.6 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.2% for the wilted silages, respectively. The silages dry matter content influenced wet bulk density/dry matter silo bulk density resulting in 346/105, 455/145 and 442/97 kg m-3 for the wilted, millet added and wet silages, respectively. Because the increase on dry matter content was not offsets in DM recovery rate, although there were some changes in chemical composition, the adoption and field recommendation of strategies will be dependent on the operational and costs restrictions.

  4. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta, e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho Consumption and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy, and balance of nitrogen of silages of five maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.R. Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantificaram-se o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG 5011 e BR 3123. Foram utilizados 15 carneiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para coleta total de fezes e urina. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos quanto ao consumo e digestibilidade da MS, da EB e da PB (P>0,05. Os consumos de MS, EB e PB digestíveis e energia metabolizável também não foram diferentes entre os híbridos (P>0,05. Quanto às relações consumo de energia digestível/consumo de MS e consumo de energia metabolizável/consumo de MS, o genótipo AG5011 foi semelhante ao HT01 (P>0,05 e superior aos demais (P0,05. Todos os genótipos produziram silagens de bom valor nutritivo, entretanto o genótipo AG5011 apresentou maior eficiência na utilização da energia (PThe voluntary intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and the nitrogen balance, of silages of five maize genotypes (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG5011 and BR3123 were quantified. Fifteen sheep were stored in metabolic cages for total collection of feces and urine. A complete randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions was used. The intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. The intake of digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and metabolic energy did not differ (P>0.05 among the genotypes. The ratios of digestible energy intake/dry matter intake and metabolic energy intake/dry matter intake of the genotype AG5011 silage was similar (P>0.05 to HT01, and higher than the other genotypes (P<0.05. All genotypes showed similar and positive nitrogen balance, and all of them produced silages of good nutritional value

  5. 覆膜方式对旱地糜子生育后期干物质积累与转运的影响%Effects of Film Mulching Modes on Dry Matter Accumulation and Transportation Characteristics of Broomcorn Millet at Later Growing Stage in Arid Land

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张盼盼; 冯乃杰; 郑殿峰; 柯希望; 金喜军; 殷丽华; 刘洋; 刘涛; 石英; 张洪鹏; 马爽

    2015-01-01

    The variety of Jinshu 7 was used as material to study the effects of film mulching modes on dry matter accumulation and transportation characteristics of broomcorn millet at later growing stage in arid land. The results showed that it compared with traditional planting,and the above-ground dry matter accumulation of film side dibble and flat film dibble increased by 55.56%, 27.88%,and seed dry matter increased by 9.25%,24.90% in the whole grain filling periods. Film mulching can contributed to the transportation of dry matter of vegetative organs to grains. The contribution to grain yield of stem was bigger than those of leaf and sheath,which was as high as 55.31%-56.08%. Film mulching had the obvious role in promoting grain number per plant and 1000-grain weight. Compared with traditional planting,the yield of film side dibble and flat film dibble increased by 40.52%and 51.2%, respectively,Which indicated that the effect of film side dibble to dry matter accumulation and transportation was better than film dibbling so as to increas grain yield in broomcorn millet.%以晋黍7号为材料,研究旱地不同覆膜方式对糜子生育后期干物质积累与转运的影响。试验结果表明,整个籽粒灌浆期,与露地条播相比,膜侧穴播、平膜穴播地上干物质的积累量分别增加55.56%、27.88%,籽粒干重分别提高9.25%、24.90%。覆膜能够促进花后营养器官干物质向籽粒中转运,茎干物质对籽粒的贡献率高于叶、鞘,其贡献率高达55.31%~56.08%。覆膜处理对糜子单株粒数、千粒重有明显的促进作用;膜侧穴播、平膜穴播分别比露地条播增产40.52%、51.2%,说明膜侧穴播对糜子干物质积累与转运的促进效果优于平膜穴播,有利于糜子产量的提高。

  6. Seasonal dynamics of nutrient accumulation and partitioning in the perennial C{sub 4}-grasses Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beale, C.V. [Writtle College, Chelmsford (United Kingdom)] Long, S.P. [Essex Univ., Colchester (United Kingdom). Dept. of Biological and Chemical Sciences

    1997-12-31

    Seasonal variation in the accumulation and partitioning of nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium was determined in both the above-ground and below-ground dry matter of the potential energy crops Miscanthus x giganteus and Spartina cynosuroides. It is desirable from both economic and environmental perspectives that such crops should exhibit a high nutrient use efficiency and minimal nutrient losses to the environment. The N, P and K concentrations in the above-ground dry matter, at final harvest, were 5.0, 0.6 and 12.0 mg g{sup -1} respectively in M. x giganteus and 3.0, 0.4 and 1.0 mg g{sup -1} in S. cynosurodes. Both species exhibited the high N-use efficiency expected of C{sub 4} plants. Nitrate leaching was negligible. At the end of the growing season, nutrients were translocated to the rhizomes and, in the case of M. giganteus, recycled to the soil in shed leaves. Consequently the nutrient content of the crop offtake was low. It was calculated that the N, P and K requirements of a M. x giganteus crop producing an above-ground harvest of 1.5 kg m{sup -2} dry matter would be 9.2, .3 and 20.4 g m{sup -2} respectively. The corresponding nutrient requirements for S. cynosuroides would be 7.5, 1.7 and 8.8 g m{sup -2}. Except for the K requirements of M. x giganteus, the N, P and K demands of both species were less than those of typical graminaceous crops, including maize. (Author)

  7. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  8. Optimized Local Trigonometric Bases with Nonuniform Partitions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Qiao Fang LIAN; Yong Ge WANG; Dun Yan YAN

    2006-01-01

    The authors provide optimized local trigonometric bases with nonuniform partitions which efficiently compress trigonometric functions. Numerical examples demonstrate that in many cases the proposed bases provide better compression than the optimized bases with uniform partitions obtained by Matviyenko.

  9. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise by...

  10. On free fermions and plane partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Foda, O; Zuparic, M

    2008-01-01

    We use free fermion methods to re-derive a result of Okounkov and Reshetikhin relating charged fermions to random plane partitions, and to extend it to relate neutral fermions to strict plane partitions.

  11. Antioxidant Properties of Some Dried Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilge Ertekin Filiz

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity of various dried fruits were investigated. Total phenolic content of dried fruits (apple, quince, peach, orange, grapefruit, kiwi, banana, watermelon, cantaloupe, strawberries and tomatoes were between 219-5386 mg GAE/kg in dry matter (dm. TEAC and ORAC values of the samples were between 7.01-126 µmol TE/g dm and 11.69-211 µmol TE/g dm, respectively. Dried fruits can be considered as an important source of antioxidant components in diet with the higher antioxidant properties.

  12. Effects of Potassium Fertilizer on Dry Matter Accumulation Dynamic,Yield and Quality of Land Cotton in North Xinjiang%钾肥对北疆陆地棉干物质积累动态、产量和品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王娇; 张成; 殷志峰; 徐文修; 唐江华

    2012-01-01

    This paper, through field experiment in 2009 and 2010, studied the dry matter accumulation characteristics, yield and quality of cotton affected by different potassium fertilization strategies. The results showed that the dry matter accumulation of cotton was appeared "S" curve. The dry matter accumulation rate changed as a single-peak curve and the peak value emerged about 105 d after seed emergence. Among them, the fast-growing period of total dry matter of shoot, stem and leaf dry matter and bud and boll dry matter were all advanced through medium of fertilizer K4 processing, and had a long time of crucial period, effectively increased dry matter accumulation amount and rate, significantly improved boll number per plant and single boll weight of cotton, so the two years of the experiment lint yields came to 1 514. 95 and 1 785. 88 kg/hm2, increasing respectively by 16. 23% and 52.20% compared to the same year not fertilizing processing, increased average respectively by 6. 46% and 19. 33% compared to high rate of treatment. Accordingly, potassium fertilization may improve fiber quality of land cotton, among which the length, uniformity, intensity and elongation rate of cotton fiber were all increased. However, it had little influence on Micronaire value and maturity index.%2009年和2010年,通过大田试验研究不同施钾处理对北疆陆地棉棉花干物质积累规律以及产量和品质的影响.结果表明:不同年份不同施钾肥处理棉株干物质积累动态变化可用“S”曲线方程拟合,且干物质积累速率均呈单峰曲线变化,峰值出现在出苗后105 d左右;其中,中等施肥量处理,棉株地上部总干物质、茎叶干物质和蕾铃干物质生长的最快时期提前,关键时期持续期长,干物质积累量和积累速率增加,单株铃数和单铃质量显著增加,而且2 a的皮棉产量分别达到1514.95和1785.88 kg/hm2,比同年未施肥处理分别提高了16.23%和52.20%,比高

  13. Energy Partition From Various Climate Conditions And Land Use Types

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chi-Han; Hsu2, Pang-Chi

    2015-04-01

    Investigating how energy partitions and what factors control energy exchange is critical for better understanding the hydrological cycle, boundary layer dynamics, and land -atmosphere coupling. Climate and land use conditions are the two main factors to control energy partitation. However, previous studies discussed energy partition and factors that controlled Bowen ratio (i.e., ratio of sensible heat flux to latent heat flux) in limited land use types and climate conditions. To provide a more comprehensive analysis over various climate and vegetation types, in this study, we studied eleven different land use types in the eight different climate zones within the United State. The results found out that the Mediterranean climate zone with dry summer season, dry arid (desert) climate zone, and the higher latitude area with severe winter would had higher Bowen ratio, lower precipitation and net radiation. In contrast, the humid climate zones had the lower Bowen ratio, higher net radiation and precipitation. Moreover, the higher Bowen ratio usually happened in the winter or early spring seasons. Regarding land conditions, it is found that soil moistures are the key factor to control Bowen ratio in the drier climate areas. Hence, the grassland and closed shrublands sites have higher Bowen ratio than deciduous broadleaf forests and evergreen needle-leaf forests sites' because of shallower root systems that lack access to the full storage of water in the vadose zone. However, in the humid areas, land use factors, such as stomatal resistance and leaf area, would play an important role in changing latent heat and sensible heat. Based on the tight relationships between Bowen ratio and conditions of climate and land use, we suggest that Bowen ratio could be a useful tool for understanding the potential feedbacks of changes in climate and land use to energy partition and exchange.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  15. Effects of Sequence Partitioning on Compression Rate

    CERN Document Server

    Alagoz, B Baykant

    2010-01-01

    In the paper, a theoretical work is done for investigating effects of splitting data sequence into packs of data set. We proved that a partitioning of data sequence is possible to find such that the entropy rate at each subsequence is lower than entropy rate of the source. Effects of sequence partitioning on overall compression rate are argued on the bases of partitioning statistics, and then, an optimization problem for an optimal partition is defined to improve overall compression rate of a sequence.

  16. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  17. Digestibilidade da matéria seca de silagens de milho e de suplementos concentrados determinada por procedimentos in vitro Dry matter digestibility of corn silages and concentrates determined by in vitro procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS de quatro silagens de milho e de seis concentrados (três proteicos e três energéticos, determinados pelo método de dois estádios realizados em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação, e avaliou-se a ocorrência de efeito associativo na digestão de alimentos destas três classes incubadas em um mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora in vitro, ou em jarros diferentes contendo a mesma classe de alimentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (procedimentos in vitro x classes de alimentos. Os valores de DIVMS determinados pelo método dos tubos foram mais próximos dos relatados na literatura e menores (P0,05 nos valores de DIVMS dos concentrados e das silagens de milho incubados no mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora ou, separadamente por alimento, em jarros diferentes.The values of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of four corn silages and six concentrates (three proteic and three energetics were determined by the two-stage technique that utilizes individual digestion tubes and by an automatic equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique. It was also evaluated the associative effect on digestion of these three food classes when incubated in the same fermentation jar of the "in vitro incubator" and when in different vessels containing the same class of foods. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were closer to those found in the literature and lower (P0.05 in IVDMD of concentrates and silages when incubated together in the same fermentation jar or separated by food classes in separated jars.

  18. Produção de massa seca e composição química de cinco cultivares de Cynodon = Dry matter production and chemical composition of five Cynodon cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. Os tratamentos consistiram na avaliação de 5 cultivares de Cynodon, em 11 idades de corte, para estudo da característica crescimento e 5 idades para a avaliação da composição química. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições, considerando-se, nas parcelas, as cultivares (C e, nas subparcelas, as idades de corte (I. Foram avaliados a produção de massa seca (PMS, a relação folha/colmo, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, defibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, nas folhas, nos colmos e na planta inteira. A PMS aumentou dos 14 aos 84 dias (PThe experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The treatments aimed to evaluate five Cynodon cultivars at eleven cutting ages to study the characteristics of growing, and at five cutting ages toevaluate the chemical composition. A random design with split plot was adopted, with three replications, considering cultivars as plot and cutting age as subplots. The following variables were studied: dry matter (DM production, leaf/stem ratio and the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, in green leaf, stem and total plant. The highest DM production was from 14 to 84 days (P<0.01, and did not differ among cultivars. The leaf/stem ratio differ (P<0.01 among cultivars (C and decreased with plant age (I showing interaction C x I. The CP contents of the total plant were superior to the stem and inferior to the leaf. The NDF and ADF contents were similar among cultivars. The Cynodon cultivars would be better managed during 28 days of plant growth.

  19. Short communication: Use of single nucleotide polymorphism genotypes and health history to predict future phenotypes for milk production, dry matter intake, body weight, and residual feed intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, C; Armentano, L E; VandeHaar, M J; Weigel, K A

    2015-03-01

    As feed prices have increased, the efficiency of feed utilization in dairy cattle has attracted increasing attention. In this study, we used residual feed intake (RFI) as a measurement of feed efficiency along with its component traits, adjusted milk energy (aMilkE), adjusted dry matter intake (aDMI), and adjusted metabolic body weight (aMBW), where the adjustment was for environmental factors. These traits may also be affected by prior health problems. Therefore, the carryover effects of 3 health traits from the rearing period and 10 health traits from the lactating period (in the same lactation before phenotype measurements) on RFI, aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW were evaluated. Cows with heavier birth weight and greater body weight at calving of this lactation had significant increases in aMilkE, aDMI, and aMBW. The only trait associated with RFI was the incidence of diarrhea early in the lactation. Mastitis and reproductive problems had negative carryover effects on aMilkE. The aMBW of cows with metabolic disorders early in the lactation was lower than that of unaffected cows. The incidence of respiratory disease during lactating period was associated with greater aMBW and higher aDMI. To examine the contribution of health traits to the accuracy of predicted phenotype, genomic predictions were computed with or without information regarding 13 health trait phenotypes using random forests (RF) and support vector machine algorithms. Adding health trait phenotypes increased prediction accuracies slightly, except for prediction of RFI using RF. In general, the accuracies were greater for support vector machine than RF, especially for RFI. The methods described herein can be used to predict future phenotypes for dairy replacement heifers, thereby facilitating culling decisions that can lead to decreased feed costs during the rearing period. For these decisions, prediction of the animal's own phenotype is of greater importance than prediction of the genetic superiority or

  20. Solving set partitioning problems using lagrangian relaxation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Krieken, M.G.C.

    2006-01-01

    This thesis focuses on the set partitioning problem. Given a collection of subsets of a certain root set and costs associated to these subsets, the set partitioning problem is the problem of finding a minimum cost partition of the root set. Many real-life problems, such as vehicle routing and crew s

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  3. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  4. Ontology Partitioning: Clustering Based Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soraya Setti Ahmed

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The semantic web goal is to share and integrate data across different domains and organizations. The knowledge representations of semantic data are made possible by ontology. As the usage of semantic web increases, construction of the semantic web ontologies is also increased. Moreover, due to the monolithic nature of the ontology various semantic web operations like query answering, data sharing, data matching, data reuse and data integration become more complicated as the size of ontology increases. Partitioning the ontology is the key solution to handle this scalability issue. In this work, we propose a revision and an enhancement of K-means clustering algorithm based on a new semantic similarity measure for partitioning given ontology into high quality modules. The results show that our approach produces meaningful clusters than the traditional algorithm of K-means.

  5. Discretized configurations and partial partitions

    CERN Document Server

    Abrams, Aaron; Hower, Valerie

    2010-01-01

    We show that the discretized configuration space of $k$ points in the $n$-simplex is homotopy equivalent to a wedge of spheres of dimension $n-k+1$. This space is homeomorphic to the order complex of the poset of ordered partial partitions of $\\{1,\\...,n+1\\}$ with exactly $k$ parts. We also compute the Euler characteristic in two different ways, thereby obtaining a topological proof of a combinatorial recurrence satisfied by the Stirling numbers of the second kind.

  6. The Effects of Drying Methods, Packaging Atmosphere and Storage Time on Dried Pomegranate Aril Quality

    OpenAIRE

    GÖLÜKCÜ, Muharrem

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of drying methods, packaging atmosphere, and storage time in preserving the quality of dried pomegranate aril on total phenolic matter, total anthocyanin, antioxidant activity, and CIE L, a*, b*, C, h colour values. The highest contents of phenolic matter (5580 mg kg-1), anthocyanin (679.76 mg kg-1), antioxidant capacity (IC50, 26.16 mg g-1) and CIE a* colour value (10.73) were observed in freeze dried sample, followed by vacuum, convective, an...

  7. On higher spin partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Beccaria, M

    2015-01-01

    We observe that the partition function of the set of all free massless higher spins s=0,1,2,3,... in flat space is equal to one: the ghost determinants cancel against the "physical" ones or, equivalently, the (regularized) total number of degrees of freedom vanishes. This reflects large underlying gauge symmetry and suggests analogy with supersymmetric or topological theory. The Z=1 property extends also to the AdS background, i.e. the 1-loop vacuum partition function of Vasiliev theory is equal to 1 (assuming a particular regularization of the sum over spins); this was noticed earlier as a consistency requirement for the vectorial AdS/CFT duality. We find that Z=1 is also true in the conformal higher spin theory (with higher-derivative d^{2s} kinetic terms) expanded near flat or conformally flat S^4 background. We also consider the partition function of free conformal theory of symmetric traceless rank s tensor field which has 2-derivative kinetic term but only scalar gauge invariance in flat space. This non...

  8. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, A; Haslwanter, A; Tappeiner, U; Cernusca, A; Wohlfahrt, G

    2008-03-20

    Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria). The main findings of the study were: (i) Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii) When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii) There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  9. Leaf area controls on energy partitioning of a temperate mountain grassland

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hammerle

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Using a six year data set of eddy covariance flux measurements of sensible and latent heat, soil heat flux, net radiation, above-ground phytomass and meteorological driving forces energy partitioning was investigated at a temperate mountain grassland managed as a hay meadow in the Stubai Valley (Austria. The main findings of the study were: (i Energy partitioning was dominated by latent heat, followed by sensible heat and the soil heat flux; (ii When compared to standard environmental forcings, the amount of green plant matter, which due to three cuts varied considerably during the vegetation period, explained similar, and partially larger, fractions of the variability in energy partitioning; (iii There were little, if any, indications of water stress effects on energy partitioning, despite reductions in soil water availability in combination with high evaporative demand, e.g. during the summer drought of 2003.

  10. Degradação in situ da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa do capim marandu obtido por diferentes métodos de amostragem, no período seco do ano Dry matter and fibrous fraction in situ degradability of palissade grass sampled through different methods in the dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rean Augusto Zaninetti

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho foi realizado na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias Veterinárias - Unesp - Jaboticabal e foi conduzido, com o objetivo de avaliar a influência do método de amostragem do pasto sobre a degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa de capim Marandu, colhido no período seco dos anos de 2003 e 2005. O experimento foi instalado em delineamento de blocos casualizados com parcela subdividida, com três repetições, representadas pelos piquetes amostrados. Nas parcelas, foram avaliados cinco métodos de amostragens de forragem (método do quadrado metálico; método de avaliação através de extrusa de bovino da raça Nelore; método de avaliação por meio de extrusa de bovino Cruzado (Red Angus x Nelore; método de avaliação por meio do pastejo, simulando bovino da raça Nelore; método de avaliação por meio do pastejo, simulando bovino Cruzado (Red Angus x Nelore e as subparcelas foram constituídas pelos anos de amostragem, 2003 e 2005. Foram determinadas as frações da cinética ruminal: solúvel "A"; insolúvel potencialmente degradável "B"; taxa de degradação "Kd"; degradação potencial (DP e fração não degradável "C" da MS e degradação potencial (DP, fração não degradável "C" e taxa de degradação "Kd" da FDN e da FDA. De acordo com os resultados obtidos, observou-se que o método do quadrado metálico subestimou as características da degradação do capim. Os métodos do pastejo simulado se assemelharam muito ao das extrusas, no entanto, a prática do simulador é que assegurou a amostragem eficiente, conforme foi constatado pelos dados obtidos no ano de 2003 e 2005.This experiment was carried out at the Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias Veterinárias - Unesp - Jaboticabal during dry season, to evaluate the effects of sampling methods on the Marandu grass dry matter and cell wall in situ degradability. The data were analyzed according to a randomized block design with three replications

  11. Dark Matter

    OpenAIRE

    Einasto, Jaan

    2013-01-01

    I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic...

  12. Effect of light from flowering to maturity stage on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize%花粒期光照对夏玉米干物质积累和养分吸收的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    史建国; 朱昆仑; 曹慧英; 董树亭; 刘鹏; 赵斌; 张吉旺

    2015-01-01

    Using Denghai 605 (DH605) as the experimental material,shading (S) and increasing light (L) treatments from flowering to maturity stage were designed in a field experiment to explore effects of light on dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption of summer maize.Results showed that grain yield,dry matter accumulation and nutrient absorption decreased significantly after shading but increased after increasing light.Yields in S treatment from 2011 to 2013 were reduced by 59.4%,79.0% and 60.6% compared to those in CK,while that in L treatment were increased by 16.3%,12.9% and 6.8%,respectively.The relative N and P absorption increased to a certain extent because of the greater effect of shading on dry matter accumulation than that of N and P absorption.After shading,K absorption of whole plant corn decreased significantly to a greater extent than that of dry matter accumulation decrease.The proportion of nutrient allocated to grains decreased significantly after shading.Dry matter accumulation and N and P absorption rates increased significantly after increasing light,and effects of increasing light on N and P absorption were greater than that of dry matter accumulation.Nutrient accumulation and the proportion allocated to grain increased significantly after increasing light.%选用登海605(DH605)为试验材料,在大田条件下通过花粒期遮阴(S)和增光(L)研究不同光照对花后夏玉米产量、干物质积累和氮、磷、钾养分吸收与运转特性的影响.结果表明:遮阴后夏玉米产量、干物质积累量及氮、磷、钾养分吸收量均显著降低;而增光有利于夏玉米干物质积累量及氮、磷、钾养分吸收量和产量的提高.2011-2013年,遮阴处理的产量较对照(自然光下)分别降低了59.4%、79.0%、60.6%;增光后产量分别增加16.3%、12.9%、6.8%.遮阴对于物质积累的影响大于其对植株氮、磷吸收量的影响,植株体内氮、磷等养分含量有所

  13. The nutritive value of selected commercial dry dog foods

    OpenAIRE

    Michal Rolinec; Daniel Bíro; Branislav Gálik; Milan Šimko; Miroslav Juráček; Kristína Tvarožková; Andrea Ištoková

    2016-01-01

    The goal of this study was to analysed and compared the nutrients content of dry dog foods with nutrient content, which is declared by the manufacturer of the dry dog foods. 15 dry dog foods bought in the Slovak republic were analysed for dry matter, crude protein, crude fat, crude fiber, nitrogen free extract and ash concentration. Nutrients analysis of dry dog foods were realised in Laboratory of Quality and Nutritional Value of Feeds. We found, that only 6 from 15 dry dog food samples were...

  14. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  15. Concentrados protéicos para bovinos: 1. Digestibilidade in situ da matéria seca e da proteína bruta Protein concentrates for bovines: 1. In situ digestibility of dry matter and crude protein

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.F.C. Moreira

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a degradação ruminal, pela técnica in situ, da matéria seca (MS e da proteína bruta (PB de 10 concentrados protéicos. As degradações potenciais da MS e da PB das farinhas de origem vegetal, soja, algodão, mamona e palmiste, mostraram-se elevadas (próximas a 100%, porém em função de taxas de degradação mais altas para o farelo de soja (10% e menores para o algodão (4%, mamona (MS:3%; PB:1,2% e palmiste (1,7%, as degradabilidades efetivas (DE foram bem superiores para o farelo de soja, independentemente da taxa de passagem, o que a torna a fonte protéica de maior disponibilidade ruminal. O glúten de milho mostrou ser uma fonte protéica de baixa degradabilidade ruminal (DE da PB: 16% para 0,05 de taxa de passagem. Dentre os alimentos de origem animal, a maior degradabilidade potencial da proteína bruta foi verificada para a farinha de carne e ossos ( 75,5%, seguida das farinhas de peixe I (58,5%, de penas e vísceras (52,3% e de sangue (36,7%. A maior degradabilidade efetiva para a taxa de passagem de 5% foi a da farinha de carne e ossos (51%, seguida da farinha de peixe I (41%, de penas e vísceras (40,0% e de sangue (33%. A farinha de peixe II apresentou valores muito baixos de degradabilidade, apenas 22% com 48h de incubação ruminal.This work aimed to determine the in situ rumen digestibility of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP using 10 protein sources. Potential degradabilities of DM and CP of soybean meal, cottonseed meal, castorbean meal and palmist coconut meal were high (around 100%, however due to higher fractional degradation rates of soybean meal (10% and lower for cottonseed meal (4%, castorbean meal (DM:3%, CP:1.2% and palmist meal (1.7%, the effective degradability (ED of soybean was significantly higher despite the rates of passage, showing this protein source has the highest ruminal nitrogen availability (from 86% to 63%, as rate of passage increased from 2 to 8

  16. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  17. Effects of Nitrogen Fertilizer Rate on Nitrogen and Dry Matter Accumulation in Summer Peanut%施氮水平对夏播花生氮素及干物质积累的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小龙; 孟强; 谢永乐; 赵晓娜; 王巧平

    2015-01-01

    Summer peanut nitrogen accumulation dynamics and its relationship with peanut pro-ductivity were studied through plot nitrogen fertilizer rate experiment with 2 summer peanut varieties (YH15 and BS101 6) in the Yellow River Basin in China.The results showed: nitrogen accumulation of peanut was found as the “S” type curve.While nitrogen fertilizer application amount was less than 120 kg /ha, the peanut plant nitrogen accumulation, leaf area index, dry matter and the leaf nitrogen concentration increased with the increase of nitrogen fertilizer rate, but they showed stagflationary when the nitrogen rate reached over 120 kg /ha.At each level of nitrogen application, the leaf nitrogen concentration decreased with the increasing of the growth process, but decreased gradually with the increase of nitrogen application rate.The LAID dynamic curve could distinguish the peanut growth differences under different nitrogen fertilizer rate.The curves showed that the LAID complied with exponential curve when RGDD≤0.5 and linear growth when RGDD>0.5.%基于黄河流域夏播花生种植区两个类型花生品种(豫花15和白沙1016)不同施氮水平进行田间试验,研究夏播花生氮素积累动态,及与花生生产力的关系。结果表明,各施氮水平下,氮素积累动态呈近“S”型曲线;施氮量在120 kg /hm2以下,花生植株氮积累量、叶面积指数、叶面积指数持续期、干物质积累量和各生育时期叶片氮浓度均随着施氮量增加而增加,但当施氮量达到和超过120 kg /hm2时均出现滞涨;每个施氮水平下,整个叶层平均氮浓度随着生育进程推进均呈下降趋势,但随着施氮量增加氮浓度下降速度趋缓。本研究用叶面积指数持续期拟合的动态曲线较好地区分了不同施氮水平间的差异,该曲线显示,在苗后10℃以上积温归一化值 RGDD≤0.5时,夏播花生的叶面积指数持续期呈指数曲线增长;当 RGDD>0.5时,呈线性增长。

  18. Simulation of Dry Matter Productivity and Water Dynamics in a Chilean Patagonian Range Simulación de la Productividad de Materia Seca y Dinámica del Agua en Praderas de la Patagonia Chilena

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simulation model combining the main components of water balance and growth of perennial grassland steppe in Chilean Patagonia, to estimate long-term annual production (Yr, kg ha-1 and sheep carrying capacity (GC, sheep equivalent [EO] ha-1. The model is based on climate-water balance relationships, where the basic process is evapotranspiration. The model calculates Yr depending on the accumulation of transpiration and the water use efficiency from the time of growth initiation until the grassland accumulates the maximum amount of dry matter (DM. Depending on Yr, the DM requirement of EO, the proper use factor of grassland and a slope correction factor, a range site GC is calculated. Simulations were performed using actual climate data sets of eight growing seasons at Kampenaike (52º41' S; 70°54'W; 12 m.a.s.l. and a long-term simulation in the same location, using a stochastic weather variables generator. Through the model it was possible to estimate the water loss associated with the components of water balance and estimate the restriction imposed by water deficit on Yr. By simulating many years, it was possible to establish a normal distribution of GC with 0.629 EO ha-1 yr-1, associated with 80% probability of being exceeded, which is lower than values reported in field assessments. This method calculates GC with a conservational approach, taking into account soil and climatic variability in semiarid ecosystems.Se describe un modelo de simulación para pastizales esteparios de la Patagonia chilena, que estima a largo plazo los principales componentes del balance hídrico, la producción anual de MS (Yr, kg ha-1 y la capacidad de carga ovina (GC, equivalente ovino [EO] ha-1 de éstos. El modelo se basa en la relación clima-balance hídrico, siendo el proceso básico la evapotranspiración. Yr es función de la acumulación de transpiración durante la temporada de crecimiento y de la eficiencia del uso del agua. La GC

  19. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  20. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  1. Acurácia, precisão e robustez das estimativas da digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca determinada com o uso de indicadores em ovinos Accuracy, precision and robustness of in vivo dry matter digestibility estimates by different markers in ovine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Henrique Mazza Rodrigues

    2010-05-01

    comparar tratamentos dentro de um mesmo experimento.This study aimed at evaluating the accuracy, precision and robustness of in vivo dry matter apparent digestibility estimates (DMAD, using as markers indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, indigestible acid detergent lignin and chromic oxide in comparison to the fecal total collection. Eighteen wethers (56.5 ± 4.6 kg BW were randomly assigned to diets containing 25, 50 or 75% of concentrate and Coast cross hay for 25 days. Feces were collected during the five days to determine apparent digestibility of dry matter and samples of feed and feces were incubated for 144 hours in bovine rumen to obtain the indigestible fractions. Chromic oxide (4.0 g/animal was offered daily. Accuracy was evaluated by comparing mean bias of estimates (predicted dry matter apparent digestibility - observed dry matter apparent digestibility among markers. Precision was assessed by the root mean square prediction error and the residual error; robustness was studied by the regression between bias and dry matter intake, diet concentrate level and animal body weight. Fecal recovery and accuracy of dry matter apparent digestibility estimates were higher for indigestible acid detergent fiber, followed by indigestible neutral detergent fiber, indigestible acid detergent lignin and chromic oxide, and at last for acid detergent lignin. Linear bias was significant only for indigestible acid detergent fiber, indigestible neutral detergent fiber and indigestible acid detergent lignin. By using chromic oxide it was possible to estimate dry matter apparent digestibility more precisely. All markers were robust regarding to variation of dry matter intake while only indigestible acid detergent lignin and chromic oxide were robust regarding to concentrate levels in the diet. Chromic oxide was not robust when animal body weight varied. In this experimental condition, indigestible acid detergent fiber is the

  2. Intrinsic energy partition in fission

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    Mirea M.

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The intrinsic energy partition between two complementary fission fragments is investigated microscopically. The intrinsic excitation energy of fission fragments is dynamically evaluated in terms of the time-dependent pairing equations. These equations are corroborated with two conditions. One of them fixes the number of particles and the other separates the pairing active spaces associated to the two fragments in the vicinity of the scission configuration. The excitation energy in a wide distribution of fission fragments is calculated for the 234U parent nucleus.

  3. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  4. On the partition dimension of unicyclic graphs

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Juan A; Fernau, Henning

    2011-01-01

    Given an ordered partition $\\Pi =\\{P_1,P_2, ...,P_t\\}$ of the vertex set $V$ of a connected graph $G=(V,E)$, the \\emph{partition representation} of a vertex $v\\in V$ with respect to the partition $\\Pi$ is the vector $r(v|\\Pi)=(d(v,P_1),d(v,P_2),...,d(v,P_t))$, where $d(v,P_i)$ represents the distance between the vertex $v$ and the set $P_i$. A partition $\\Pi$ of $V$ is a \\emph{resolving partition} if different vertices of $G$ have different partition representations, i.e., for every pair of vertices $u,v\\in V$, $r(u|\\Pi)\

  5. On the partition dimension of trees

    CERN Document Server

    Rodriguez-Velazquez, Juan A; Lemanska, Magdalena

    2011-01-01

    Given an ordered partition $\\Pi =\\{P_1,P_2, ...,P_t\\}$ of the vertex set $V$ of a connected graph $G=(V,E)$, the \\emph{partition representation} of a vertex $v\\in V$ with respect to the partition $\\Pi$ is the vector $r(v|\\Pi)=(d(v,P_1),d(v,P_2),...,d(v,P_t))$, where $d(v,P_i)$ represents the distance between the vertex $v$ and the set $P_i$. A partition $\\Pi$ of $V$ is a \\emph{resolving partition} of $G$ if different vertices of $G$ have different partition representations, i.e., for every pair of vertices $u,v\\in V$, $r(u|\\Pi)\

  6. Biomass Partitioning Following Defoliation of Annual and Perennial Mediterranean Grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    No'am Seligman

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A two-year experiment was conducted in northeastern Israel to study the effects of various defoliation regimes on biomass partitioning between vegetative and reproductive structures in a perennial and an annual Mediterranean grass. Greater insight into the mechanisms regulating biomass partitioning after defoliation enables ecologists and rangeland managers to interpret and predict population and community dynamics in Mediterranean grasslands more efficiently. Two typical Mediterranean grasses, Triticum dicoccoides, an annual species, and Hordeum bulbosum, a perennial species, were grown in containers in the open. They were subjected to a series of defoliation treatments that comprised three clipping frequencies and three clipping heights in a full factorial combination. In addition, individuals of both species were sampled in the field, in paddocks that were grazed, and in a control exclosure that was closed to grazing during the growing season. The experiment was conducted over two growing seasons, one unusually dry and one unusually wet. The clipping treatments invariably caused a reduction in the amount of biomass partitioned to the reproductive organs, but had little effect on the vegetative components of the plants. Greater tillering following defoliation compensated, to a large degree, for the loss of photosynthetic biomass following defoliation. The effect of grazing on biomass partitioning was much lower than the effect of clipping. Under grazing, the investment in reproductive biomass was considerably higher than when the grasses were clipped. The results of this experiment help to elucidate the reasons for the persistence of these species and, especially, for the dominance of Hordeum bulbosum in many eastern Mediterranean grasslands.

  7. Hardware/software partitioning in Verilog.

    OpenAIRE

    2002-01-01

    We propose in this paper an algebraic approach to hardware/software partitioning in Verilog HDL. We explore a collection of algebraic laws for Verilog programs, from which we design a set of syntax-based algebraic rules to conduct hardware/software partitioning. The co-specification language and the target hardware and software description languages are specific subsets of Verilog, which brings forth our successful verification for the correctness of the partitioning process by algebra of Ver...

  8. Data Partitioning View of Mining Big Data

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Shichao

    2016-01-01

    There are two main approximations of mining big data in memory. One is to partition a big dataset to several subsets, so as to mine each subset in memory. By this way, global patterns can be obtained by synthesizing all local patterns discovered from these subsets. Another is the statistical sampling method. This indicates that data partitioning should be an important strategy for mining big data. This paper recalls our work on mining big data with a data partitioning and shows some interesti...

  9. Evolution of Task Partitioning in Swarm Robotics

    OpenAIRE

    Ferrante, Eliseo,; Duenez-Guzman, E.; Turgut, A. E.; Wenseleers, Tom

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Task-partitioning refers to the process whereby a task is divided into two or more sub-tasks. Through task partitioning both efficiency and effectiveness can be improved provided the right environmental conditions. We synthesize self-organized task partitioning behaviors for a swarm of mobile robots using artificial evolution. Through validation experiments, we show that the synthesized behaviors exploits behavioral specialization despite being based on homogeneous ind...

  10. Combinatorial set theory partition relations for cardinals

    CERN Document Server

    Erdös, P; Hajnal, A; Rado, P

    2011-01-01

    This work presents the most important combinatorial ideas in partition calculus and discusses ordinary partition relations for cardinals without the assumption of the generalized continuum hypothesis. A separate section of the book describes the main partition symbols scattered in the literature. A chapter on the applications of the combinatorial methods in partition calculus includes a section on topology with Arhangel''skii''s famous result that a first countable compact Hausdorff space has cardinality, at most continuum. Several sections on set mappings are included as well as an account of

  11. NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA DE MILHO SUBMETIDO A CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO SULFATADA MAIZE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD UNDER LIMING AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretusa Daniela Resende Mendes

    2011-04-01

    -3, 30 mg dm-3 e 60 mg dm-3, mais o tratamento sem adição de enxofre. As plantas de milho foram colhidas aos 45 dias após a semeadura, sendo separada a parte aérea do sistema radicular. O método mais eficiente de recomendação de calagem para o milho foi o método da elevação da saturação por bases. A aplicação de doses de enxofre não teve efeito no desenvolvimento do milho, até o estádio avaliado.


    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mayz; acidez do solo; matéria seca; desenvolvimento radicular.


    Liming is essential for obtaining high yield levels in tropical acid soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate maize nutrition and dry matter yield in soil under

  12. In situ ruminal degradability of dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of some concentrated supplements used in the feeding of bovines/ Degradabilidade ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta de alguns suplementos concentrados usados na alimentação de bovinos

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    Marco Antônio da Rocha

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Holstein steers, with permanent ruminal cannula, 650 kg of liveweight, maintained on pasture, and receiving mineral mixture “ad libtum” were used. The present study had the objective of evaluating the “in situ” ruminal degradation of the dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and organic matter (OM of 12 concentrated feed: whole sunflower seed (WSF, partially degreased sunflower (DSF, sunflower meal (SFM, sunflower pie pressed one time (T 1x, sunflower pie pressed two time (T 2x, for extracting of the oil, whole soybean seed (WS, partially degreased soybean (DS, soybean meal (SM, whole cottonseed (WC, cottonseed meal (CM, degreased corn germ (CG and a commercial concentrate with 36% of CP (CC. The feed were grounded in a mill equipped with a screen with sieves of 2 mm of diameter. Samples 5 g of DM from each one of the mentioned feed were incubated in nylon bags with pores of 50 micras of diameter, measuring 14 x 7 cm, for the times of 12; 20; and 33 h of ruminal fermentation. The effective degradability (ED of CP, for a passage rate of 5%/h varied from 62.08 to 95.93% for commercial concentrate and sunflower pie pressed two time for OM varied from 48.17 to 85.28% for soybean meal and whole cottonseed. The CC and CG presented the smallest ED of CP, however only the CC have larger protein escapes to be digested in the intestines, because CG presents little PB in its constitution.Foram utilizados quatro bovinos da raça holandesa, machos castrados, fistulados no rúmen, pesando em média 650kg, mantidos em pastejo e recebendo mistura mineral “ad libtum”. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar a degradação ruminal “in situ” da matéria seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB e matéria orgânica (MO de 12 alimentos concentrados: grão de girassol integral (GI, grão de girassol parcialmente desengordurado (GD, farelo de girassol (FG, torta de girassol com uma passagem pela prensa (T 1x, torta de girassol com duas passagens pela prensa (T

  13. Soil-Air Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls and Total Dichloro-Diphenyl-Trichloroethanes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yaping Zhang; Erping Bi; Honghan Chen

    2014-01-01

    Soil-air partitioning is an important diffusive process that affects the environmental fate of organic compounds and human health. In this review, factors affecting the soil-air partitioning of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and total dichloro-diphenyl-trichloroethanes (p,p’-and o,p’-isomers of DDT, DDD, and DDE) are discussed. Hydrophobicity is an important factor that influences soil-air partition coefficients (KSA), and its effect can be explained through enthalpy of phase change for soil-air partitioning transfer (ΔHSA). For more hydrophobic compounds, a sharp increase in the KSA of PCBs and organochlorines can be seen in the early aging period. During the aging period, the temperature has a significant effect on the more hydrophobic organic compounds. The content and properties of soil or-ganic matter influence the KSA of the target compounds. Generally, KSA decreases with increasing rela-tive humidity in soils. The linear trend between KSA and temperature (T) changes at 0 °C. Freezing the air or soil in experiments would change the research results. On the basis of factors influencing soil-air partitioning, a multipleparameter (T, organic carbon fraction (fOC), and octanol-air partition coefficient (KOA)) model is put forward to predict the KSA values for PCBs and total DDTs.

  14. Resolution of Adsorption and Partition Components of Organic Compounds on Black Carbons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Cary T; Cheng, Jianzhong; Hung, Wei-Nung; Chen, Baoliang; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2015-08-04

    Black carbons (BCs) may sequester non-ionic organic compounds by adsorption and/or partition to varying extents. Up to now, no experimental method has been developed to accurately resolve the combined adsorption and partition capacity of a compound on a BC. In this study, a unique "adsorptive displacement method" is introduced to reliably resolve the adsorption and partition components for a solute-BC system. It estimates the solute adsorption on a BC by the use of an adsorptive displacer to displace the adsorbed target solute into the solution phase. The method is validated by tests with uses of activated carbon as the model carbonaceous adsorbent, soil organic matter as the model carbonaceous partition phase, o-xylene and 1,2,3-trichlorobenzene as the reference solutes, and p-nitrophenol as the adsorptive displacer. Thereafter, the adsorption-partition resolution was completed for the two solutes on selected model BCs: four biochars and two National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) standard soots (SRM-2975 and SRM-1650b). The adsorption and partition components resolved for selected solutes with given BCs and their dependences upon solute properties enable one to cross-check the sorption data of other solutes on the same BCs. The resolved components also provide a theoretical basis for exploring the potential modes and extents of different solute uptakes by given BCs in natural systems.

  15. Dry matter yield and nutritional value of Marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in cerrado in São Paulo Produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu sob adubação nitrogenada e irrigação no cerrado paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Dupas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate dry matter yield and nutritional value of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu using nitrogen doses and sprinkler irrigation in two periods of the year, aiming at reducing seasonality of forage production. It was used a randomized block design in a split-plot scheme, with five doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/cut, and the sub-plots were defined by the seasons of the year (wet and dry season, with and without irrigation. During the wet season, in the plots with and without irrigation, doses of 175 and 161 kg/ha/cut promoted the highest dry matter yields. During the dry season, 171 kg ha-1N with irrigation resulted in the highest dry matter yield. During the same season, there was no response to N fertilization in the lack of irrigation. Average contents of CP were 10% with and without irrigation. Contents of neutral detergent fiber decreased with nitrogen doses, while acid detergent fiber was not affected by fertilization. Plots under irrigation reached the maximal acid detergent fiber content at N dose of 60 kg ha-1. Irrigation promotes increase of 15% increase in dry matter yield and it increases contents of neutral detergent fiber.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu utilizando doses de nitrogênio e irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos do ano, visando à redução da estacionalidade de produção de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg/ha/corte e as subparcelas definidas pelos períodos do ano (período das águas e da seca, com e sem irrigação. No período das águas, nas parcelas com e sem irrigação, as doses de 175 e 161 kg/ha/corte promoveram as máximas produções de MS. No período da seca, a dose 171 kg ha-1 de N com irrigação propiciou a

  16. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, M.; Zhang, Z.; Noormets, A.; Fang, X.; Zha, T.; Zhou, J.; Sun, G.; McNulty, S.; Chen, J.

    2015-01-01

    Poplar (Populus sp.) plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76") plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G) partitioning to latent (LE) and sensible (H) heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G) ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008) to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009), and H/(Rn-G) from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE) were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs) had the greatest response to drought (+43%), but the aerodynamic and climatological resistances did not change significantly (p > 0.05). Partial correlation analysis indicated that Rs was the dominant factor in controlling the Bowen ratio. Furthermore, Rs was the major factor controlling LE during the growing season, even in wet years, as indicated by the decoupling coefficient (Ω = 0.45 and 0.39 in wet and dry years, respectively), and the LE / LEeq ratio ranged from 0.81 and 0.68 in wet and dry years, respectively. In general, the dry surface conditions dominated in this poplar plantation ecosystem regardless of soil water availability suggesting that fast-growing and water use-intensive species like poplar plantations are poorly adapted for the water limited region.

  17. Responses of energy partitioning and surface resistance to drought in a poplar plantation in northern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Kang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Poplar (Populus sp. plantations have been used broadly for combating desertification, urban greening, and paper and wood production in northern China. However, given the high water use by the species and the regional dry environment, the long-term sustainability of these plantations needs to be evaluated. Currently, the understanding of energy partitioning and canopy resistance to water vapor and CO2 in poplar plantations is limited, impeding an accurate assessment of their true ecosystem functions. This study examined the variability of canopy bulk resistance parameters and energy partitioning over a four-year period encompassing both dry and wet conditions in a poplar (Populus euramericana CV. "74 / 76" plantation ecosystem located in northern China. Available energy (Net radiation Rn minus Soil Heat Flux, G partitioning to latent (LE and sensible (H heat was responsive to climatological drought, with LE/(Rn-G ranging from 62% in wet years (e.g. 2007 and 2008 to 53% in dry years (e.g. 2006 and 2009, and H/(Rn-G from 25 to 33% between wet and dry years. Correspondingly, the Bowen ratio (β=H/LE were 0.83 and 1.57. Surface resistance (Rs had the greatest response to drought (+43%, but t