WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry matter partitioning

  1. Effects of shading on dry matter partitioning and yield of field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.; Soriano, A.; Fereres, E.

    1992-01-01

    Crop simulation models require quantitative descriptions of the effects of irradiance on dry matter partition and yield. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of reduced radiation intensity during different phenological stages on the growth, dry matter partitioning and grain numbers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.). A field experiment was carried out in 1990 with 50 per cent shading treatments. The earliest treatment began at crop emergence while the latest ended at first anthesis. Shading had little effect on plant leaf area growth but reduced biomass and yield. The dry matter: radiation quotient and specific leaf area increased with shading. Grain number per head was decreased by shading, with the greatest effect occurring when shading was applied prior to anthesis. All shading treatments increased dry matter partitioning to stems, decreased assimilate partitioning to the heads and had no effect on the partitioning to leaves. (author)

  2. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  3. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  4. Responses of young tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought and temperature. II. Dry matter production and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.; Carr, M.K.V.

    1996-01-01

    The physiological basis for differences in yields from well-watered and draughted plants of four contrasting clones of tea was studied in terms of light interception, dry matter production and partitioning at a high altitude site in Southern Tanzania where there are marked seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature. The plant dry weights, including roots, were measured eight months after field planting and subsequently at intervals of three to four months, corresponding to the different seasons, during the following two years. Fully irrigated plants of one clone (S15/10) were also harvested after four years in the field. Clones differed in the rates of canopy spread and hence in their capacity to intercept solar radiation. The ‘radiation use efficiency’ (the net total dry matter production per unit of intercepted short-wave radiation) was similar for the four well-watered clones and ranged from 0.40 to 0.66 g MJ −1 , which corresponds closely to values reported for other woody tropical plants. A 16-week drought treatment imposed two years after planting reduced the mean light interception of the four clones by about 25% and the mean radiation use efficiency by 78% to 0.09 g MJ −1 . Clone S15/10, a cultivar from Kenya which produces large yields, partitioned a greater proportion of dry matter to leaves and harvested shoots than the other clones, and correspondingly less to large structural roots. This resulted in a maximum harvest index of 24%, substantially greater than other values reported in the literature. There were seasonal differences in partitioning, with more dry matter being diverted to roots and less to shoots during the cool season. Although the drought treatments had no significant effect on root growth, the amount of dry matter partitioned to leaves, stems and harvested shoots declined by 80–95%. The roots of all four clones extended in depth at similar rates (about 2 mm d −1 ), those of Clone S15/10 reaching 2.8m after four years

  5. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  6. Shoot growth, radiation interception and dry matter production and partitioning during the establishment phase of Miscanthus sinensis 'Giganteus' grown at two densities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, M.J.; Heath, M.C.; Nixon, P.M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic area index (PAI), radiation interception (I) and dry matter partitioning between shoots and roots were measured for Miscanthus sinensis‘Giganteus' grown from micro-propagated transplants on a fertile peaty loam soil in eastern England. In the establishment year, Miscanthus plants produced 35 and 70 shoots plant -1 at densities of 4.0 and 1.8 plants m -2 respectively. At the higher density, there were 140 shoots m -2 with the largest reaching a height of 1.8 m; these canopies attained a maximum PAI of 5.45, intercepting 94% of incident radiation. Leaf lamina contributed c. 90% of total photosynthetic area with stems contributing the remainder. At the lower density, maximum PAI and I values were 2.88 and 86% respectively. PAI was related to I by calculating attenuation coefficients (k); these indicated that Miscanthus canopies were more effective at intercepting radiation per unit PAI at the lower density (k= -0.31) compared with the higher density (k= -0.20). Radiation interception was related to dry matter accumulated by calculating conversion efficiencies (e). At 4 plants m -2 , × for shoot dry matter production was 1.17g MJ -1 . Miscanthus partitioned a relatively large amount of total dry matter into below-ground biomass. By plant senescence, c. 30% of total dry matter had been partitioned into root and rhizome; rhizome biomass contributed 80% of below-ground dry matter, × increased to 1.62 g MJ -1 when calculated on a total dry matter basis (shoot + root + rhizome). Total dry matter production was increased 68% by a 2.2-fold increase in plant density. (author)

  7. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  8. Dry matter yield and Carbon partitioning in the aboveground part of switchgrass ( panicum virgatum l.) germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkutė, B.; Lemežien ė, N.; Cesevičienė, J.; Liaudanskienė, I., E-mail: brone@lzi.lt [Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon (C) accumulated in biomass can be converted into usable forms of energy like methane, bioethanol or solid fuel. Understanding the partitioning of aboveground biomass and C plays an important role in optimizing its pre-treatment technologies. Our objectives were to determine dry matter yield (DMY) and C partitioning in switch grass germplasm. Plants were sampled at heading (HS) and seed filling (SFS) stages. The biomass of the SFS-sampled plants was separated into leaves (blades+sheaths), stems, and panicles. C content was determined by dry combustion. C yield per plant (CY) at HS ranged from 25.9 to 171 g (37.3 g on average for plants in the first harvest year, and 147 for those in the second harvest year), at SFS CY varied within a range of 79.8 ‒ 295g and averaged 119 and 252g depending on the year of growth. DMY was a weighted factor for such results. At SFS, DMY of stems accounted on average for 46.3%, leaves for 40.5%, and panicles for 13.2% of the aboveground biomass of whole plant with respective C concentrations of 462, 439 and 459 g kg -1 DM. (author)

  9. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  10. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  11. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  12. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  13. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  14. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  15. Growth analysis partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom submitted to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuela Garbin Martinazzo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at comparing the growth and partitioning of assimilate in tomato plants cv. Micro-Tom subjected to nitrogen and pyraclostrobin. This substance favors the development of chloroplasts and the synthesis of chlorophyll. Tomato plants were submitted to the treatments: T1, complete nutrient solution without pyraclostrobin, T2, complete nutrient solution + pyraclostrobin, T3, ½ strength nutrient solution without N pyraclostrobin and T4, ½ strength nutrient solution N + pyraclostrobin. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation throughout the crop cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. From the primary data, growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter (Wt, the instantaneous rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw e net assimilation (Ea, leaf area (Af, production rates (Ca and relative growth of leaf area index (Ra and leaf weight (Fw specific leaf area (Sa the dry matter partitioning between organs and number (Nfr and fresh fruit weight (Wfr. Plants of T1 showed higher Wt, Ct and Wfr compared to those of other treatments. However, the T2 plants exhibited similar Nfr to T1 plants, being superior to others. Also allocated on the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage of dry matter in the seafood compared to T3 and T4 plants. Also they allocated relative to the total dry matter and at the end of the cycle, a higher percentage in fruits of plants to T3 and T4. The association between nitrogen and pyraclostrobin changes the growth and assimilated partition on tomato plants cv. Micro – Tom, and those submitted to ½ dose of nitrogen have a higher total dry matter and less final percentage of total dry matter in fruits , comparatively to those submitted to the association ½ dose of nitrogen and pyraclostrobin.

  16. Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Eftekhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01. Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.

  17. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  18. Partitioning in P-T concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Peilu; Qi Zhanshun; Zhu Zhixuan

    2000-01-01

    Comparison of dry- and water-method for partitioning fission products and minor actinides from the spent fuels, and description of advance of dry-method were done. Partitioning process, some typical concept and some results of dry-method were described. The problems fond in dry-method up to now were pointed out. The partitioning study program was suggested

  19. Canopy sink-source partitioning influences root/soil respiration in apple

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system of plants derives all its energy from photosynthate translocated from the canopy to the root system. Canopy manipulations that alter either the rate of canopy photosynthesis or the translocation of photosynthate are expected to alter dry matter partitioning to the root system. Fiel...

  20. Heavy metal partitioning of suspended particulate matter-water and sediment-water in the Yangtze Estuary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Chenghong; Guo, Xiaoyu; Yin, Su; Tian, Chenhao; Li, Yangyang; Shen, Zhenyao

    2017-10-01

    The partitioning of ten heavy metals (As, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Hg, Ni, Pb, Sb, and Zn) between the water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediments in seven channel sections during three hydrologic seasons in the Yangtze Estuary was comprehensively investigated. Special attention was paid to the role of tides, influential factors (concentrations of SPM and dissolved organic carbon, and particle size), and heavy metal speciation. The SPM-water and sediment-water partition coefficients (K p ) of the heavy metals exhibited similar changes along the channel sections, though the former were larger throughout the estuary. Because of the higher salinity, the K p values of most of the metals were higher in the north branch than in the south branch. The K p values of Cd, Co, and As generally decreased from the wet season to the dry season. Both the diagonal line method and paired samples t-test showed that no specific phase transfer of heavy metals existed during the flood and ebb tides, but the sediment-water K p was more concentrated for the diagonal line method, owing to the relatively smaller tidal influences on the sediment. The partition coefficients (especially the K p for SPM-water) had negative correlations with the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) but positive correlations were noted with the particle size for most of the heavy metals in sediment. Two types of significant correlations were observed between K p and metal speciation (i.e., exchangeable, carbonate, reducible, organic, and residual fractions), which can be used to identify the dominant phase-partition mechanisms (e.g., adsorption or desorption) of heavy metals. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  2. Effect of oversowing leguminous species on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven years after oversowing, forage dry matter yield and chemical composition were estimated both in the dryand wet seasons. Mean values of forage dry matter yieid in the dry season were 1.75, 1.69, 1.62, 1.51 and, 0.94 t/ha for the plots oversown, with, S. hamata, M atropurpureum, C. ternatea and C. pubescence and ...

  3. Resource partitioning by evergreen and deciduous species in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Yépiz, Juan C; Búrquez, Alberto; Martínez-Yrízar, Angelina; Teece, Mark; Yépez, Enrico A; Dovciak, Martin

    2017-02-01

    Niche differentiation can lead to coexistence of plant species by partitioning limiting resources. Light partitioning promotes niche differentiation in tropical humid forests, but it is unclear how niche partitioning occurs in tropical dry forests where both light and soil resources can be limiting. We studied the adult niche of four dominant evergreen (cycad, palm) and drought-deciduous (legume, oak) species co-occurring along environmental gradients. We analyzed light intensity and soil fertility effects on key functional traits related to plant carbon and water economy, how these traits determine species' functional strategies, and how these strategies relate to relative species abundance and spatial patterns. Light intensity was negatively associated with a key trait linked to plant water economy (leaf δ 13 C, a proxy for long-term water-use efficiency-WUE), while soil fertility was negatively associated with a key trait for plant carbon economy (LNC, leaf nitrogen content). Evergreens were highly sclerophyllous and displayed an efficient water economy but poor carbon economy, in agreement with a conservative resource-use strategy (i.e., high WUE but low LNC, photosynthetic rates and stature). Conversely, deciduous species, with an efficient carbon economy but poor water economy, exhibited an exploitative resource-use strategy (i.e., high LNC, photosynthetic rates and stature, but low WUE). Evergreen and deciduous species segregated spatially, particularly at fine-scales, as expected for species with different resource-use strategies. The efficient water economy of evergreens was related to their higher relative abundance, suggesting a functional advantage against drought-deciduous species in water-limited environments within seasonally dry tropical forests.

  4. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  5. Feasibility of DEXA prediction of dry matter and mass for horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.; West, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the DEXA system used in this research has been deployed commercially in meat processing plants with the objective of accurately determining the fat content of bulk and packaged meat, through a JV with ANZCO Foods and a partnership with Smiths Detection. This present research is aimed at demonstrating an ability to measure the dry matter distribution and in turn the net dry matter for individual horticultural products using DEXA. The DEXA images are obtained while scanning the products on a conveyor belt running at speeds representative of production grading situations. The products reported on here are primarily potatoes (because of a direct commercial interest), but also a butternut pumpkin and two rock melons. The grading and dry matter measurement capability is based on detecting change in the effective atomic number (EAN) with change in the elemental proportions within the product and there being effectively a binary mixture (e.g dry matter and water) present. Grading of fruit and vegetables on this basis is expected to be challenging. The commercial meat/fat grading already commercialised as a DEXA system is associated with 1.8 EAN units difference between fat (carbon rich Z eff =5.8) and fully-lean meat (oxygen rich Z eff =7.6) but this range is large compared to what is expected for horticultural products. The dry matter in horticultural products is primarily starch (plus minerals) and the EAN difference between starch (and minerals) and water is unknown here but calculations give the difference as little as 0.2 EAN units, dependant on the mineral content in the product. In this work we show that the dry matter sensitivities of the DEXA technology for horticultural products is discernable allowing measurement of dry matter distributions, and net dry matter values. The EAN range is indeed much smaller than for fat/meat mixtures, and consistent differences are yet to be demonstrated for an assembly of product, except for potatoes where consistency

  6. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  7. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  8. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  9. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  10. Influence of Acidification on the Partitioning of Steroid Hormones among Filtrate, Filter Media, and Retained Particulate Matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havens, Sonya M; Hedman, Curtis J; Hemming, Jocelyn D C; Mieritz, Mark G; Shafer, Martin M; Schauer, James J

    2016-09-01

    Hormone contamination of aquatic systems has been shown to have deleterious effects on aquatic biota. However, the assessment of hormone contamination of aquatic environments requires a quantitative evaluation of the potential effects of sample preservation on hormone concentrations. This study investigated the influence of acidification (pH 2) of surface water samples on the partitioning of hormones among filtrate, filter media, and filter-retained particulate matter. Hormones were spiked into unpreserved and sulfuric acid-preserved ultrapure water and surface water runoff samples. The samples were filtered, and hormones were extracted from the filter and filtrate and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography. Acidification did not influence the partitioning of hormones onto the filter media. For the majority of the hormones investigated in this study, the partitioning of hormones to the filter-retained particulate matter was not influenced by acidification. Acidification increased the partitioning of progesterone and melengestrol acetate onto the retained particulate matter (about 25% for both analytes). Incorporation of an isotopically labeled internal standard (ISTD) for progesterone accounted for the loss of progesterone to the filter-retained particulates and resulted in accurate concentrations of progesterone in the filtrate. The incorporation of an ISTD for melengestrol acetate, however, was unable to account for the loss of melengestrol acetate to the retained particulates and resulted in underestimations of melengestrol acetate in the filtrate. Our results indicate that the analysis of melengestrol acetate in acid preserved surface runoff samples should be conducted on the filter-retained particulates as well as the filtrate. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  11. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  12. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... on radiation use efficiency (RUE) when comparing inter-annual variation in dry matter production. The loss of tuber dry matter was c. 10% per °C, which is higher than estimated in previous studies. Specifically, compared to mean air temperature from end of tuber initiation to maturity, mean air temperature...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  13. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  14. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  15. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef ...

  16. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available O desenvolvimento, a partição e a produção de matéria seca, foram estudados em soja (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. 'Uberaba', cultivadas em condições de campo, sob quatro doses de metribuzin - (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 e 1,05 kg i.a. ha-1. O metri buzin não reduziu a população e nem alterou significativamente a razão parte aérea/sistema radicular. A altura média das plantas aumentou significativamente com o incremento das doses de metribuzin, sendo que as alturas máximas das plantas foram 761, 784, 815 e 812 mm, em ordem crescente de dose de metribuzin. As variações das taxas de acúmulo de matéria seca foram nitida mente seqüenciais em todos os tratamentos, ocorrendo mudanças do dreno metabólico preferencial de um órgão para outro, de acordo com as transformações morfológicas das plantas, ressaltando-se que o metribuzin não alterou esse comportamento. Os tratamentos não influencia ramo acumulo de matéria seca das vagens (Wv, no entanto, a partir do inicio da maturação, as plantas-controle apres entaram maiores Wv, provavelmente, devido a maior taxa assi milatória líquida verificada a partir da floração plena. A matéria seca acumulada nos pericarpos (Wp diminuiu, a partir das sementes completamente desenvolvid os, para todos os tratamentos com exceção de Wp das plantas tratadas com 0,7 kg i.a. ha-1 de metribuzin que, manteve-se estável. Por outro lado, a matéria seca nas sementes (Ws aumentou de forma acentuada, desde o seu aparecimento até a colheita final , em todas as doses do herbicida.Development, assimlate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine Max (L. Merri ll, cv. Uberaba plants treat ed with four metri buzin doses (0,0; 0,35; 0,70 and 1,05 kg i.a.ha-1 were studied in a field experiment. Metribuzin did not reduce the stand or alter ed significantly shoot /root ratio. Plants height average incre ased as the doses of metribuzin increased; maximum heights were 761, 784, 815 and 812 mm, for

  17. Partitioning of organic matter and heavy metals in a sandy soil: Effects of extracting solution, solid to liquid ratio and pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fest, P.M.J.; Temminghoff, E.J.M.; Comans, R.N.J.; Riemsdijk, van W.H.

    2008-01-01

    In sandy soils the behavior of heavy metals is largely controlled by soil organic matter (solid and dissolved organic matter; SOC and DOC). Therefore, knowledge of the partitioning of organic matter between the solid phase and soil solution is essential for adequate predictions of the total

  18. Microhabitat partitioning between leiuperidae and bufonidae species (amphibia: anura) in tropical dry forest areas in Colombian Caribbean

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanco Torres, Argelina; Bonilla Gomez, Maria Argenis

    2010-01-01

    We analyzed partitioning of microhabitats by five species of frogs in the families, Bufonidae (Rhinella marina, r. granulosa), and Leiuperidae (Engystomops pustulosus, Pleurodema brachyops and Pseudopaludicola pusilla) in six different localities of the Colombian Caribbean with tropical dry forest fragments and different land uses. We identified 29 types of microhabitats; permanent ponds in pastures with trees (CPPA) and flooded pastures without trees (PISA) were the most important environmental used. Engystomops pustulosus used the must microhabitats, and none are used by specialist species. Thus, differences in the use of resource on regional and local scales appeared. Dynamics of microhabitat uses was influenced by the climatic variations of the tropical dry forest. Microhabitats distribution as a mechanism of coexistence in these species is implemented for dry season but in rainfall season this mechanism not exists.

  19. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. DISTRIBUCIÓN DE LA MATERIA SECA DURANTE LA ONTOGENIA DEL LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam. A PLENA EXPOSICIÓN SOLAR EN EL BOSQUE HÚMEDO MONTANO BAJO DEL ORIENTE ANTIOQUEÑO, COLOMBIA LULO (Solanum quitoense Lam BIOMASS PARTITIONING UNDER FULL SUNHINE LIGHT AT THE LOW MOUNTAIN RAIN FOREST OF EAST ANTIOQUIA, COLOMBIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Inés Medina Cano

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Se hizo un estudio, en el Centro de Investigación La Selva, con dos accesiones de lulo Solanum quitoense, de las variedades botánicas septentrionale, ‘NM’, con espinas y quitoense, ‘SV80’, sin espinas. El objetivo fue determinar la partición de la biomasa, para ambos materiales, bajo condiciones de plena exposición solar desde el transplante hasta los 364 días después de éste. La acumulación de materia seca en las plantas, en ambas poblaciones, se ajustó significativamente a modelos sigmoidales (PAn study, with the lulo Solanum quitoense botanical varieties septentrionale, accession ‘NM’, with thorns, and quitoense, accession ‘SV80’, thorneless, was carried out at Corpoica’s La Selva Research Station, Rionegro, Antioquia, Colombia. The objective was to determine the biomass partitioning for both materials under full sunshine conditions from transplanting up to 364 days after transplanting. The plant dry matter accumulation for both materials adjusted closely to sigmoidal models (P<0.0001 for all the plant organs, with some differences between the studied populations. Thus, for total dry matter the logarithmic and longitudinal phases were evident for variety septentrionale but not the asymptotic one; in contrast, in quitoense all the model phases were clearly observed. Dry matter partitioning displayed a dynamic differential pattern throughout the ontogenic periods for both materials, with greater dry matter foliage accumulation at the onset of the growing period, followed by an increase in the partitioning to the stems at the beginning of the reproductive period, and stabilization during the productive stage. Also it was observed that the foliar dry matter accumulated during the vegetative period was redistributed, at the productive stage, between leaves, flowers and fruits. Significant allometric relationships were obtained between stem diameter and leaf dry matter, as well as between leaf dry matter and root dry

  1. Ruminal degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pinto Monção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of dry matter degradation and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone. The banana peel has been acquired from a candy manufacturer that after washing with chlorinated water to 1% and pulp removal was discarded. The banana peel in nature was treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% of limestone in the natural matter, homogenized and pre-dried in the sun for 120 hours. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 4% inclusion of limestone with 3 repetitions. The dry matter potential degradability, showed no difference (P>0.05 in the levels compared to the control with an average of 67.58%. The insoluble degradation fraction rate of dry matter and the fiber fraction did not differ (P> 0.05 between levels and control. In relation to effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber, there was an increase of 3.47% for each percentage unit increased limestone. In relation to the ruminal degradation parameters of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber is not recommended the utilization of limestone as an additive in the treatment of banana peel.

  2. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  3. Sweet sorghum performance under irrigated conditions in northwest China : Biomass and its partitioning in inbred and hybrid cultivars at two nitrogen levels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fan, F.; Spiertz, J.H.J.; Han, L.P.; Liu, Z.X.; Xie, G.H.

    2013-01-01

    Effects of cultivar choice and nitrogen supply on biomass yield and dry matter partitioning of sweet sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] were studied under irrigated conditions in the arid temperate climate of north-west China. Two hybrid cultivars, Zaoshu-1 (ZS 1) and Chuntian-2 (CT 2), and two

  4. Wound healing and dry matter content of orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as influenced by curing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuna Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing in sweetpotato is a crucial pre- or postharvest practice that could guarantee improved shelf life,but rarely practised by sweetpotato farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, principally due to lack of knowledge. Wound healing ability of cultivars has been associated with good root storability. In this study, two orange fleshed sweetpotato cultivars (Apomuden and Nane were either cured in-ground by dehaulming prior to harvest or field-piled over a seven-day period to study their responses to wound healing and changes in dry matter content. Apomuden is a low dry matter content(19% variety in Ghana while Nane is a high dry matter content (27% farmer cultivar under evaluation for formal release. A potato peeler was used to deliberately create the wounds on 21 storage roots. The curing treatment was applied and the subsequent post-treatment quality status of the storage roots was monitored daily over a seven-day period. Wound healing ability was scored as follows: 0 = no lignification, 0.5 = patchy lignification and1= complete lignification. Wound healing ability score was not significantly different for Apomuden and Nane (0.83,0.78, respectively; p = 0.120. However, storage roots curedby field-piled curing method resulted in significantly better wound healing ability than dehaulming (0.86, 0.75,respectively, p = 0.001. Over the seven-day curing period,Nane had a significantly higher and stable dry mattercontent compared with Apomuden (p = 0.008, whose dry matter content was lower and fluctuating. The field-piled curing resulted in higher (p = 0.020 dry matter content,24%, compared with in-ground curing (22%. The field piled curing method, which can easily be adopted by sweetpotato farmers, increased the dry matter content of the storage roots; therefore, it could potentially reduce the post-harvest losses in sweetpotato. The high dry matter content of Nane is a desirable root quality attribute for orange-fleshed cultivars and could augment existing

  5. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  6. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  7. Growth and biomass partitioning of mulungu seedlings in response to phosphorus fertilization and mycorrhizal inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago de Sousa Leite

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the initial growth and biomass partitioning of mulungu (Erythrina velutina Willd. seedlings under different rates of phosphorus in the presence and absence of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (FMA’s. A randomized blocks design in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement was used, with four replicates and three plants per plot. Treatments consisted of five phosphorus rates (0, 50, 100, 150 and 200 mg.Kg soil-1, using as source the superphosphate fertilizer, and presence or absence of FMA’s. At 98 days after sowing (DAS, shoot height, stem diameter, leaf number, leaf chlorophyll index, leaf dry matter, stem dry matter, root dry matter, leaf area, Dickson quality index and height/stem diameter ratio were evaluated. The phosphorus rate of 200 mg.kg-1 proved to be the most efficient for production of Erythrina velutina seedlings, but with a significant reduction in the biological association of this plant with rhizobacteria. Biomass distribution within the different parts of the plants did not change with distinct rates of P, and there were no benefits in the use of FMA’s until 98 DAS.

  8. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  10. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  11. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  12. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  13. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  14. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  15. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  16. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  17. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    grains on rumen fermentation characteristics using the in vitro gas ..... Effect of chemical content and physical characteristics on nutritional value ... properties and in vitro dry matter on starch digestion of eight sorghum grain hybrids and maize.

  18. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  19. Enriquecimento intermitente de CO2 e análise do acúmulo de massa seca e da partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ricardo Brunele Caliman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o acúmulo de massa seca (MS e a partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes concentrações de CO2, foi conduzido um experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com 12 repetições e as cultivares (cv. híbridas de tomateiro Andrea e Alambra. O enriquecimento com CO2 foi intermitente (não havendo enriquecimento no período das 10 h 30 min às 16 h pela utilização de pilha de compostagem como fonte do gás, cuja concentração variou de 600 µl/lt a 750 µl/lt durante o período matinal. O enriquecimento com CO2 alterou somente a partição e o acúmulo de MS de caule na cv. Alambra, permanecendo as demais variáveis, em ambas as cultivares, insensíveis ao tratamento. Houve maior acúmulo de MS nas plantas cultivadas nos ambientes protegidos comparadas às do campo. A cv Andrea acumulou 786.39 g/planta de MS no ambiente protegido + CO2 (AP + CO2, e 815.49 g/planta no ambiente protegido normal (AP normal e 637.41 g/planta no campo. A cv. Alambra acumulou 766.68 g/planta de MS no AP + CO2, 824.35 g/planta no AP normal e 592.44 g/planta no campo. O maior dreno de fotoassimilados foram os frutos, que acumularam 59%, 63% e 72% da MS das plantas nos AP + CO2, AP normal e campo, respectivamente.Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of the dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato submitted to grown in protected environment and field conditions. To assess dry matter (DM accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomatoes growth under different CO2 concentrations an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 12 repetitions and two tomato hybrid cultivars cultivar (cv. Andrea and Alambra. CO2 intermittent enrichment (no enrichment during 10:30a.m. to 4:00p.m. was provide by compost pile, and gas concentration range from 600 to 750 µl l-1. The CO2 enrichment only changed DM partition and accumulation of the stem in the cv. Alambra, leaving the other

  20. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  1. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  2. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caecal inoculum of rabbit on in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Aspilia africana leaf meals at different levels of 0%, 15% and 30%. Leave samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), lignin (ADL), acid (ADF) and neutral (NDF) detergent fibres.

  3. Dry matter production and partitioning of maize hybrids and dwarf unes at four plant populations Produção e distribuição de matéria seca de híbridos e linhagens anãs de milho em quatro populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in Ames, Iowa, USA, to compare dry matter accumulation patterns of maize genotypes contrasting in height and leafiness, and to test whether reduction in plant height an leaf number through the use of dwarfing genes or earliness can improve grain dry matter allocation. Five plant genotypes were tested: a full season hybrid adapted to central lowa (NK 4525, a short season hybrid adapted to northern Minnesota (C1070, and three dwarf lines (156-A, 302-E and I17- A. The dwarves contained, respectively, the homozygous, independent, recessive dwarfing genes d3, d1 and br2. Each genotype was sown at four plant populations: 25, 50, 75 and 100.000 plants. ha-1. Hybrids had the greatest rates of decrease in total biomass and grain dry matter per plant when population was increased, though they also had larger absolute values of these variables at any given density. Hybrids produced more grain dry matter per unit of leaf area, and a higher harvest index, regardless the plant population used. Reduction in plant height or leaf number did not improve maize efficiency in producing and partitioning dry matter to the grain.Este experimento foi conduzido em Ames, Iowa, Estados Unidos, tendo como objetivos comparar os padrões de produção e distribuição de matéria seca de genótipos de milho contrastantes quanto a estatura e número de folhas, e verificar se a redução nestas características, mediante a utilização de genes para nanismo ou cultivares precoces, pode aumentar a eficiência da planta em alocar matéria seca para a produção de grãos. Cinco genótipos foram testados: um híbrido de ciclo normal adaptado à região central de lowa (NK 4525, um híbrido de ciclo precoce adaptado à região norte do estado de Minnesota (C 1070, e três linhagens anãs (156-A, 302-E and 117-A, contendo os genes recessivos de nanismo d3, d1 and br2, respectivamente Cada genótipo foi semeado em quatro populações, equivalentes a 25

  4. Growth and dry matter accumulation in drought resistant maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth, dry matter accumulation and yield characters of maize planted under the same environmental conditions. The trial was conducted during the 2010 wet season at Bagauda the Kano University of Technology (KUST) temporary research farm (11° 39° N, 08° 20° E).The treatments consisted of three sowing dates ...

  5. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  6. Crop characteristics and inulin production in chicory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, W.J.M.; Mathijssen, E.W.J.M.

    1992-01-01

    Crop growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf area development, light interception and dry matter : radiation quotient in chicory were studied in field and glasshouse trials. Variations in root and inulin yields were related to sowing time, sowing density and cultivar. Retarded growth of first leaves appeared to be a major factor in limiting productivity. Growth of the first leaves was limited by assimilate supply and by low temperatures. Leaf area expansion exhibited a lag of 350 °Cd from emergence. From that point until crop closure, leaf area index increased exponentially with thermal time. Initially, 60 per cent of the dry matter was partitioned to the leaves; this share gradually decreased to about 10 per cent during later stages. The average dry matter: radiation quotient was 2.6 g MJ -1 for total dry matter and 2.4 g MJ -1 for root dry matter. Cultivars differed in early leaf growth, dry matter partitioning and dry matter: radiation quotient. The crop characteristics are compared with literature data for sugar beet and the prospects for breeding improved genotypes are discussed. (author)

  7. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  8. [Effects of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Lin; Sun, Shi Jun; Chen, Zhi Jun; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Xu Dong; Chi, Dao Cai

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm -2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99). The results showed that, compared with the other mulching treatments, the black plastic film mulching treatment significantly increased the maize dry matter accumulation and maize biomass by 3.2%-8.2%. In mature stage, the biomass increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing plant density. When planting density was 82500 plants·hm -2 , the biomass was the highest, which was 5.2%-28.3% higher than that of other plant density treatments. The mean soil temperature in prophase of transparent plastic film mulching treatment was 0.4-2.7 ℃ higher than that of other treatments, which accelerated the maize growth process and augmented the dry matter transportation amount (T), dry matter transportation efficiency (TE) and contribution rate of dry matter transportation to the grain yield (TC) of maize stalk and leaf. The T, TE, TC of leaf and leaf-stalk under 60000 plants·hm -2 treatment were the highest. The highest T, TE, TC of stalk were observed under 75000 plants·hm -2 treatment. In heading period, the water consumption and daily water consumption intensity of maize under the treatment of black film mulching were the largest, which were 9.4%-10.6% and 10.6%-24.5% higher than that of other mulching treatments, respectively. The highest water consumption and daily water consumption intensity were both obtained under 90000 plants·hm -2 treatment, which increased by 6.8%-15.7% and 7.0%-20.0% compared with other

  9. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield ..... Proportion (%) of DM accumulated in root stock.

  10. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    The rate and extent of fermentation of dry matter (DM) in the rumen are very important determinants ... kinetics of forages obtained by the in situ nylon bag technique and the in vitro gas production technique. (Blummel & Ørskov ..... not find any correlation between these parameters in barley and wheat straw. Beuvinik et al.

  11. Nutrient and carbohydrate partitioning in sorghum stover

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.M.; Hons, F.M.; McBee, G.G.

    1991-01-01

    Sorghum [Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench] stover has been demonstrated to be a potential biomass energy source. Complete aboveground crop removal, however, can result in soil degradation. Differential dry matter, nutrient, and carbohydrate partitioning by sorghum cultivars may allow management strategies that return certain parts to the field while removing other portions for alternative uses, such as energy production. A field study was conducted to determine N,P,K, nonstructural carbohydrate, cellulose hemicellulose, and lignin distributions in stover of three diverse sorghum cultivars of differing harvest indices. Determinations were based on total vegetative biomass; total blades; total stalks; and upper middle, and lower blades and stalks. Concentrations of N and P were higher in blades than stalks and generally declines from upper to lower stover parts. Large carbohydrate and lignin concentration differences were observed on the basis of cultivar and stover part. Greater nutrient partitioning to the upper third of the intermediate and forage-type sorghum stovers was observed as compared to the conventional grain cultivar. Stover carbohydrates for all cultivars were mainly contained in the lower two-thirds of the stalk fraction. A system was proposed for returning upper stover portion to soil, while removing remaining portions for alternative uses

  12. Temperature effects on radiation use and biomass partitioning in diverse tropical maize cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lafitte, H.R.; Edmeades, G.O.

    1997-01-01

    Temperature can influence crop yields through effects on radiation interception, radiation use, yield component elaboration and/or carbohydrate partitioning. In an attempt to identify causes of yield variation, this study examined these processes in a diverse group of maize cultivars (Zea mays L.). The cultivars were adapted to zones characterized by different temperatures, and were grown in six environments whose mean temperature during the growing season ranged from 13°C to 28°C.Adaptation groups differed greatly in grain and total biomass production across environments, and large differences were observed in harvest index, supporting the hypothesis that temperature has important effects of dry matter partitioning to grain. All yield components were affected. The number of ears per plant, grains per ear and mass per kernel of highland-adapted cultivars declined dramatically when average site temperature exceeded about 17°C, while those of lowland-adapted cultivars were adversely affected by low temperatures. Carbon exchange rates differed among individual cultivars in all environments where that trait was measured, but significant differences were observed among adaptation groups only in the warmest environment, where rates for the highland cultivars were about 15% less than for the others. No consistent differences were observed among adaptation groups for variable chlorophyll fluorescence. Adaptation groups differed significantly in the proportion of incident radiation intercepted by the crop near flowering in three of four environments. This was due to both reduced leaf number and reduced area of individual leaves, but those differences were not proportional to the differences in grain yield among groups. Because indicators of potential assimilate flux to the ear near flowering used in this study (i.e. radiation interception and utilization) could not be consistently related to differences in harvest index among adaptation groups, direct effects of

  13. Raising yield potential of wheat. III. Optimizing partitioning to grain while maintaining lodging resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulkes, M John; Slafer, Gustavo A; Davies, William J; Berry, Pete M; Sylvester-Bradley, Roger; Martre, Pierre; Calderini, Daniel F; Griffiths, Simon; Reynolds, Matthew P

    2011-01-01

    A substantial increase in grain yield potential is required, along with better use of water and fertilizer, to ensure food security and environmental protection in future decades. For improvements in photosynthetic capacity to result in additional wheat yield, extra assimilates must be partitioned to developing spikes and grains and/or potential grain weight increased to accommodate the extra assimilates. At the same time, improvement in dry matter partitioning to spikes should ensure that it does not increase stem or root lodging. It is therefore crucial that improvements in structural and reproductive aspects of growth accompany increases in photosynthesis to enhance the net agronomic benefits of genetic modifications. In this article, six complementary approaches are proposed, namely: (i) optimizing developmental pattern to maximize spike fertility and grain number, (ii) optimizing spike growth to maximize grain number and dry matter harvest index, (iii) improving spike fertility through desensitizing floret abortion to environmental cues, (iv) improving potential grain size and grain filling, and (v) improving lodging resistance. Since many of the traits tackled in these approaches interact strongly, an integrative modelling approach is also proposed, to (vi) identify any trade-offs between key traits, hence to define target ideotypes in quantitative terms. The potential for genetic dissection of key traits via quantitative trait loci analysis is discussed for the efficient deployment of existing variation in breeding programmes. These proposals should maximize returns in food production from investments in increased crop biomass by increasing spike fertility, grain number per unit area and harvest index whilst optimizing the trade-offs with potential grain weight and lodging resistance.

  14. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  15. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  16. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  17. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  18. Feed intake, digestibility and energy partitioning in beef cattle fed diets with cassava pulp instead of rice straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kongphitee, Kanokwan; Sommart, Kritapon; Phonbumrung, Thamrongsak; Gunha, Thidarat; Suzuki, Tomoyuki

    2018-03-13

    This study was conducted to assess the effects of replacing rice straw with different proportions of cassava pulp on growth performance, feed intake, digestibility, rumen microbial population, energy partitioning and efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization in beef cattle. Eighteen yearling Thai native beef cattle (Bos indicus) with an average initial body weight of 98.3 ± 12.8 kg were allocated to one of three dietary treatments and fed ad libitum for 149 days in a randomized complete block design. Three dietary treatments using different proportions of cassava pulp (100, 300 and 500 g/kg dry matter basis) instead of rice straw as a base in a fermented total mixed ration were applied. Animals were placed in a metabolic pen equipped with a ventilated head box respiration system to determine total digestibility and energy balance. The average daily weight gain, digestible intake and apparent digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and non-fiber carbohydrate, total protozoa, energy intake, energy retention and energy efficiency increased linearly (p energy excretion in the urine (p energy requirement for the maintenance of yearling Thai native cattle, determined by a linear regression analysis, was 399 kJ/kg BW0.75, with an efficiency of metabolizable energy utilization for growth of 0.86. Our results demonstrated that increasing the proportion of cassava pulp up to 500 g/kg of dry matter as a base in a fermented total mixed ration is an effective strategy for improving productivity in zebu cattle.

  19. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch yield of five local accessions of cassava, “Ankrah”, “AW/17, “Tomfa”, “Dagarti” and “Tuaka” was evaluated. Tomfa showed the highest (95%) incidence of the disease, index of severity of symptoms for all plants (ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased plants ...

  20. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  1. Organic Matter Quality and Partitioning of Polychlorinated Biphenyls

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Brannon, James

    1997-01-01

    ...). Equilibrium partitioning of neutral organic chemicals between the organic carbon fraction of bedded sediments and the interstitial water of the sediments provides the theoretical basis for the most...

  2. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  3. Distribution, partitioning and sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in Daliao River water system in dry season, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guo Wei; He Mengchang; Yang Zhifeng; Lin Chunye; Quan Xiangchun; Men Bing

    2009-01-01

    Eighteen polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were analyzed in 29 surface water, 29 suspended particulate matter (SPM), 28 sediment, and 10 pore water samples from Daliao River water system in dry season. The total PAH concentration ranged from 570.2 to 2318.6 ng L -1 in surface water, from 151.0 to 28483.8 ng L -1 in SPM, from 102.9 to 3419.2 ng g -1 in sediment and from 6.3 to 46.4 μg l -1 in pore water. The concentration of dissolved PAHs was higher than that of particulate PAHs at many sites, but the opposite results were generally observed at the sites of wastewater discharge. The soluble level of PAHs was much higher in the pore water than in the water column. Generally, the water column of the polluted branch streams contained higher content of PAHs than their mainstream. The environmental behaviors and fates of PAHs were examined according to some physicochemical parameters such as pH, organic carbon, SPM content, water content and grain size in sediments. Results showed that organic carbon was the primary factor controlling the distribution of the PAHs in the Daliao River water system. Partitioning of PAHs between sediment solid phase and pore water phase was studied, and the relationship between log K oc and log K ow of PAHs on some sediments and the predicted values was compared. PAHs other than naphthalene and acenaphthylene would be accumulated largely in the sediment of the Dalaio River water system. The sources of PAHs were evaluated employing ratios of specific PAHs compounds and different wastewater discharge sources, indicating that combustion was the main source of PAHs input.

  4. Nitrogen partitioning and milk production of dairy cows grazing simple and diverse pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Totty, V K; Greenwood, S L; Bryant, R H; Edwards, G R

    2013-01-01

    Research was conducted to examine the effects of a diverse pasture mix on dry matter intake, milk yield, and N partitioning of lactating dairy cows. A pasture containing only ryegrass and white clover (RG), or high-sugar ryegrass and white clover (HS), was compared with a diverse pasture mix (HSD) including chicory, plantain, lotus, high-sugar ryegrass, and white clover. The experiment was conducted over a 10-d period using 3 groups of 12 cows in late lactation. No difference was observed in dry matter (14.3 kg of dry matter/cow per day) or N (583 g of N/cow per day) intake between treatments. The cows grazing the HSD pasture had an increased milk yield (16.9 kg/d) compared with those grazing the simple RG and HS pastures (15.2 and 14.7 kg/d, respectively). However, no differences were observed in milk solids yield for the 3 treatments. A tendency toward greater milk protein yields in the HSD group resulted in improved N use efficiency for milk of 20.4% from the cows fed HSD, compared with 17.8 and 16.7% from cows in the RG and HS treatments, respectively. Urinary N excretion was lower from the cows fed HSD, at 353.8 g/d, compared with 438.3 and 426.6 g/d for cows fed RG and HS, respectively. These results suggest that the use of pastures containing chicory, lotus, and plantain can contribute to the goal of reducing N losses from cows in late lactation. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  6. Influence of salinity intrusion on the speciation and partitioning of mercury in the Mekong River Delta

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noh, Seam; Choi, Mijin; Kim, Eunhee; Dan, Nguyen Phuoc; Thanh, Bui Xuan; Ha, Nguyen Thi Van; Sthiannopkao, Suthipong; Han, Seunghee

    2013-04-01

    The lower Mekong and Saigon River Basins are dominated by distinctive monsoon seasons, dry and rainy seasons. Most of the Mekong River is a freshwater region during the rainy season, whereas during the dry season, salt water intrudes approximately 70 km inland. To understand the role of salinity intrusion controlling Hg behavior in the Mekong and Saigon River Basins, Hg and monomethylmercury (MMHg) in surface water and sediment of the Mekong River and in sediment of the Saigon River were investigated in the dry season. Sediment Hg distribution, ranging from 0.12 to 0.76 nmol g-1, was mainly controlled by organic carbon distribution in the Mekong River; however, the location of point sources was more important in the Saigon River (0.21-0.65 nmol g-1). The MMHg concentrations in Mekong (0.16-6.1 pmol g-1) and Saigon (0.70-8.7 pmol g-1) sediment typically showed significant increases in the estuarine head, with sharp increases of acid volatile sulfide. Unfiltered Hg (4.6-222 pM) and filtered Hg (1.2-14 pM) in the Mekong River increased in the estuarine zone due to enhanced particle loads. Conversely, unfiltered MMHg (0.056-0.39 pM) and filtered MMHg (0.020-0.17 pM) was similar between freshwater and estuarine zones, which was associated with mixing dilution of particulate MMHg by organic- and MMHg-depleted resuspended sediment. Partitioning of Hg between water and suspended particle showed tight correlation with the partitioning of organic carbon across study sites, while that of MMHg implied influences of chloride: enhanced chloride in addition to organic matter depletion decreased particulate MMHg in the estuarine zone. Primary production was an important determinant of inter-annual variation of particulate Hg and sediment MMHg. The bloom year showed relatively low particulate Hg with low C/N ratio, indicating biodilution of Hg. In contrast, the percentage of MMHg in sediment increased significantly in the bloom year, likely due to greater availability of

  7. The role of sorption and bacteria in mercury partitioning and bioavailability in artificial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2009-01-01

    This study compared the relative importance of three types of sorption (organic matter-particle, mercury-organic matter and mercury-particle) in controlling the overall mercury partitioning and bioavailability in sediments. We found that all three types of sorption were important for both inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylated mercury (MeHg). Mercury-particle sorption was more important than mercury-fulvic acid (FA) sorption in increasing the mercury concentrations with increasing aging. Bioavailability (quantified by gut juice extraction from sipunculans) was mainly controlled by mercury-particle sorption, while FA-particle and mercury-FA sorption were not as important, especially for MeHg. Bacterial activity also increased the partitioning of Hg or MeHg in the sediments and was further facilitated by the presence of organic matter. The bioavailability of Hg or MeHg from sediments was only slightly influenced by bacterial activity. This study highlights the importance of sorption from various sources (especially mercury-particle sorption) as well as bacteria in controlling the partitioning and bioavailability of Hg or MeHg in sediments. - Mercury-particle sorption was more important than mercury-organic matter and organic matter-particle sorption in controlling the partitioning of Hg or MeHg in sediments

  8. The role of sorption and bacteria in mercury partitioning and bioavailability in artificial sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong Huan [Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong); Wang Wenxiong [Atmospheric, Marine and Coastal Environment Program and Department of Biology, Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST), Clear Water Bay, Kowloon (Hong Kong)], E-mail: wwang@ust.hk

    2009-03-15

    This study compared the relative importance of three types of sorption (organic matter-particle, mercury-organic matter and mercury-particle) in controlling the overall mercury partitioning and bioavailability in sediments. We found that all three types of sorption were important for both inorganic mercury (Hg) and methylated mercury (MeHg). Mercury-particle sorption was more important than mercury-fulvic acid (FA) sorption in increasing the mercury concentrations with increasing aging. Bioavailability (quantified by gut juice extraction from sipunculans) was mainly controlled by mercury-particle sorption, while FA-particle and mercury-FA sorption were not as important, especially for MeHg. Bacterial activity also increased the partitioning of Hg or MeHg in the sediments and was further facilitated by the presence of organic matter. The bioavailability of Hg or MeHg from sediments was only slightly influenced by bacterial activity. This study highlights the importance of sorption from various sources (especially mercury-particle sorption) as well as bacteria in controlling the partitioning and bioavailability of Hg or MeHg in sediments. - Mercury-particle sorption was more important than mercury-organic matter and organic matter-particle sorption in controlling the partitioning of Hg or MeHg in sediments.

  9. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  10. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  11. Genomic predictions for dry matter intake using the international reference population of gDMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Hulsegge, B.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Wall, E.; Lovendahl, P.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Miglior, F.; Krattenmacher, N.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that using dry matter intake (DMI) phenotypes from multiplecountries increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values for this important trait, provided a multi-trait approach is used. Data from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands,New

  12. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pampana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  13. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  14. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  15. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  16. A simple enzyme assay for dry matter digestibility and its value in studying food selection by generalist herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Gillian M; Waterman, Peter G; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1981-05-01

    The dry matter digestibility of 94 species of leaf was assayed by a simple method involving sequential treatment with pepsin and fungal cellulase enzymes. It was demonstrated that for foliage from rainforest trees of a wide range of dicotyledonous plant families the assay showed high positive correlation with estimates of dry matter digestibility obtained using rumenliquor from a fistulated steer. Both assays were found to reflect negative correlates of digestibility, notably fibre and condensed tannin, rather than the nutritional value of an item. The higher dry matter digestibility of immature leaves relative to mature leaves appeared to be accounted for by their lower fibre content. It is suggested that the pepsin/cellulase assay offers a cheap, quick, routine method of gaining information on the effects of some types of plant secondary compounds (digestibility reducers) on the 'food potential' of different kinds of foliage to herbivores. Its use in studies of herbivory in rainforest areas in relation to analyses for plant secondary compounds and food selection by herbivores is discussed.

  17. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  18. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  19. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  20. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A.; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia (Nigeria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV{sub 2} propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs.

  1. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  2. Chaos synchronization basing on symbolic dynamics with nongenerating partition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xingyuan; Wang, Mogei; Liu, Zhenzhen

    2009-06-01

    Using symbolic dynamics and information theory, we study the information transmission needed for synchronizing unidirectionally coupled oscillators. It is found that when sustaining chaos synchronization with nongenerating partition, the synchronization error will be larger than a critical value, although the required coupled channel capacity can be smaller than the case of using a generating partition. Then we show that no matter whether a generating or nongenerating partition is in use, a high-quality detector can guarantee the lead of the response oscillator, while the lag responding can make up the low precision of the detector. A practicable synchronization scheme basing on a nongenerating partition is also proposed in this paper.

  3. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  4. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  5. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  6. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  7. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  8. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  9. Effect of N, P and K Humates on Dry Matter of Zea mays and Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharjeel Ahmad

    may only be applicable to similar acid soils. The outcome of this study may contribute to the improvement of urea N use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution. Key words: Humic acids, fulvic acids, triple superphosphate, muriate of potash, soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, Zea mays, dry matter.

  10. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  11. Impact of rainfall interception on hydrologic partitioning and soil erosion in natural and managed seasonally dry ecosystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moura, A. E.; Montenegro, S. M.; Silva, B. B.; Bartlett, M. S.; Porporato, A. M.; Antonino, A. C.

    2013-12-01

    Quantifying the effects of land use change and rainfall variability in seasonal, dry ecosystems is crucial to sustainable management of soil and water resources. In particular, changes in rainfall interception effects on hydrologic partitioning and soil erosion due to land use change are among the least known processes, despite their importance for water resource managements, in terms of water availability for ecosystem and society and water quality and erosion problems. In this work we quantify the interception losses in different types of vegetation (coffee, lemon and vegetation of natural forest) found in the Tapacurá basin in the Pernambuco state of NE Brazil, coupling field experiments and analytical models. The interception losses were measured with rain gauges installed in three types of vegetation along with stemflow collectors. Close to the coffee plantation, a meteorological station was also installed for measurement of the necessary variables for the model calibrations. As expected, the results show that rainfall events of smaller magnitude proportionally have larger relative interception losses, with larger differences in the wet season. The model results also allow us to quantify the nonlinear behavior of the interception process, at the same time providing a valuable tool to estimate the interception loss due to changes in vegetation and rainfall regime and thus to improve water resource management in seasonally dry tropics .

  12. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  13. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  14. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  15. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  16. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  17. Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion in order to develop equations to predict DMI, and 2) to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytic approac...

  18. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  19. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  1. Integrating spot short-term measurements of carbon emissions and backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate intake in lactating dairy cows fed ad libitum or restricted.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A B D; Utsumi, S A; Dorich, C D; Brito, A F

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to use spot short-term measurements of CH4 (QCH4) and CO2 (QCO2) integrated with backward dietary energy partition calculations to estimate dry matter intake (DMI) in lactating dairy cows. Twelve multiparous cows averaging 173±37d in milk and 4 primiparous cows averaging 179±27d in milk were blocked by days in milk, parity, and DMI (as a percentage of body weight) and, within each block, randomly assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: ad libitum intake (AL) or restricted intake (RI=90% DMI) according to a crossover design. Each experimental period lasted 22d with 14d for treatments adaptation and 8d for data and sample collection. Diets contained (dry matter basis): 40% corn silage, 12% grass-legume haylage, and 48% concentrate. Spot short-term gas measurements were taken in 5-min sampling periods from 15 cows (1 cow refused sampling) using a portable, automated, open-circuit gas quantification system (GreenFeed, C-Lock Inc., Rapid City, SD) with intervals of 12h between the 2daily samples. Sampling points were advanced 2h from a day to the next to yield 16 gas samples per cow over 8d to account for diurnal variation in QCH4 and QCO2. The following equations were used sequentially to estimate DMI: (1) heat production (MJ/d)=(4.96 + 16.07 ÷ respiratory quotient) × QCO2; respiratory quotient=0.95; (2) metabolizable energy intake (MJ/d)=(heat production + milk energy) ± tissue energy balance; (3) digestible energy (DE) intake (MJ/d)=metabolizable energy + CH4 energy + urinary energy; (4) gross energy (GE) intake (MJ/d)=DE + [(DE ÷ in vitro true dry matter digestibility) - DE]; and (5) DMI (kg/d)=GE intake estimated ÷ diet GE concentration. Data were analyzed using the MIXED procedure of SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) and Fit Model procedure in JMP (α=0.05; SAS Institute Inc.). Cows significantly differed in DMI measured (23.8 vs. 22.4kg/d for AL and RI, respectively). Dry matter intake estimated using QCH4 and QCO2 coupled with

  2. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  3. Photoperiodic control of soybean 14C-assimilate partitioning during the seed filling period

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morandi, E.N.

    1986-01-01

    Photoperiod not only controls the timing of flowering, but also affects later stages of seed development. To study its effect on assimilate partitioning, soybean plants were kept in short days (SD) or night interrupted (NI) during seed filling. The source-sink ratio was fixed to one leaflet-one pod per node. The node was girdle-isolated and its leaflet was pulse labelled with 14 CO 2 . SD plants partitioned more 14 C into seeds, while NI plants showed higher proportions in the petiole, stem and carpel. Seed growth rate and final seed dry weight were increased by 40% in SD. The sugar/starch ratio was increased in cotyledons and decreased in leaves of SD plants. In contrast, NI plants showed more 14 C incorporation into proteins. No changes were detected in carbon exchange ratio, dark respiration and total node dry weight. Thus, photoperiodic induced changes in carbohydrate and protein partitioning occurred without changes in the overall assimilatory process

  4. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  5. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  6. Partitioning of hexachlorobenzene in a kaolin/humic acid/surfactant/water system: Combined effect of surfactant and soil organic matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wan, Jinzhong; Wang, Lingling [Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lu, Xiaohua, E-mail: hust-esri2009@hotmail.com [Environmental Science Research Institute, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430074 (China); Lin, Yusuo; Zhang, Shengtian [Nanjing Institute of Environmental Science, Ministry of Environmental Protection of China, Nanjing 210042 (China)

    2011-11-30

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We study HCB partitioning in a kaolin/humic acid/TX100/water system. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We reveal influence of TX100-HA interaction on TX100 and HA sorption to kaolin. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We verify combined effect of TX100 and HA on HCB desorption from clay. - Abstract: Understanding the combined effect of soil organic matter (SOM) and surfactants on the partitioning of hydrophobic organic compounds in soil/water systems is important to predict the effectiveness of surfactant-enhanced remediation (SER). In the present study we investigate the partitioning of hexachlorobenzene (HCB) within a humic acid (HA)-coated kaolin/Triton X-100 (TX100)/water system, with special emphasis on the interaction between TX100 and HA, and their combined effect on HCB sorption. HA firstly enhanced then suppressed TX100 sorption to kaolin as the amounts of HA increased, while the addition of TX100 led to a consistent reduction in HA sorption. In the HA-coated kaolin/TX100/water system, TX100 played a primary role in enhancing desorption of HCB, while the role could be suppressed and then enhanced as HA coating amounts increased. Only at HA coating above 2.4%, dissolved HA outcompeted clay-bound HA for HCB partitioning, resulting in dissolved HA enhanced desorption. The presence of dissolved HA at these conditions further promoted the effectiveness of TX100 enhanced desorption. Despite a reduced TX100 sorption to clay was achieved due to the presence of dissolved HA, the effect on HCB desorption was comparatively slight. A reliable cumulative influence of HA and TX100 on HCB desorption was observed, although HCB desorption by HA/TX100 mixed was less than the sum of HA and TX100 individually. Our study suggests that for soils of high organic contents, the combined effect of SOM and surfactants on HOCs desorption can be applied to improve the performance of SER.

  7. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  8. Impact of sediment organic matter quality on the fate and effects of fluoranthene in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selck, Henriette; Granberg, Maria E; Forbes, Valery E.

    2005-01-01

    Hydrophobic contaminants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) readily adsorb to organic matter. The aim of this study was to determine the importance of the quality of sedimentary organic matter for the uptake, biotransformation and toxicity of the PAH, fluoranthene (Flu......), in the infaunal brittle star Amphiura filiformis. Brittle stars were exposed to a base sediment covered by a 2 cm Flu-spiked top layer (30 mug Flu/g dry wt. sed.), enriched to the same total organic carbon content with either refractory or labile organic matter. The labile carbon source was concentrated green...... to equilibrium partitioning between organism lipid content and organic content of the sediment. Biotransformation of Flu by brittle stars was very limited and unaffected by organic matter quality. A. filiformis contributed to the downward transport of Flu from the surface sediment to the burrow lining...

  9. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  10. Effect of localized nitrogen availability to soybean half-root systems on photosynthate partitioning to roots and nodules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singleton, P.W.; van Kessel, C.

    1987-01-01

    Soybean (Glycine max [L.] Merr. cv Davis) was grown in a split-root growth system designed to maintain control of the root atmosphere. Two experiments were conducted to examine how 80% Ar:20%, O 2 (Ar:O 2 ) and air (Air) atmospheres affected N assimilation (NH 4 NO 3 and N 2 fixation) and the partitioning of photosynthate to roots and nodules. Application of NH 4 NO 3 to nonnodulated half-root systems enhanced root growth and root respiration at the site of application. A second experiment applied Ar:O 2 or air to the two sides of nodulated soybean half-root systems for 11 days in the following combinations: (a) Air to both sides (Air/Air); (b) Air to one side, Ar:O 2 to the other (Air/Ar:O 2 ), and (c) Ar:O 2 to both sides (Ar:O 2 /Ar:O 2 ). Results indicated that dry matter and current photosynthate ( 14 C) were selectively partitioned to nodules and roots where N 2 was available. Both root and nodule growth on the Air side of Air/Ar:O 2 plants was significantly greater than the Ar:O 2 side. The relative partitioning of carbon and current photosynthate between roots and nodules on a half-root system was also affected by N 2 availability. The Ar:O 2 sides partitioned relatively more current photosynthate to roots (57%) than nodules (43%), while N 2 -fixing root systems partitioned 36 and 64% of the carbon to roots and nodules, respectively. The Ar:O 2 atmosphere decreased root and nodule respiration by 80% and nitrogenase activity by 85% compared to half-root systems in Air while specific nitrogenase activity in Ar:O 2 was 50% of nodules supplied Air. Results indicated that nitrogen assimilation, whether from N 2 fixation or inorganic sources, had a localized effect on root development

  11. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  12. Growth analisys and assimilate partitioning in physalis plants under leaf fertilization intervalsAnálise de crescimento e partição de assimilados em plantas de fisalis submetidas a intervalos de adubação foliar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Pedó

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The work was conducted in greenhouse and aimed to analyze the growth and partitioning of assimilates in Physalis peruviana subjected in intervals of leaf fertilization. The plants were collected at regular intervals of fourteen days after transplantation until the end of the cycle and determined the dry mass and leaf area. From the primary data analysis was applied to growth analysis and calculated the total dry matter production (Wt, rates of dry matter production (Ct, relative growth (Rw, net assimilation (Ea, leaf area index (L, relative growth of leaf area (Fa and ratios of leaf area and leaf mass (Fw, specific leaf area (Sa and dry matter partitioning between organs. Plants of Physalis peruviana subjected to leaf fertilization biweekly reached higher Wt, Ct, number of fruits and similar dry mass of fruits (Wfr of plants subjected to foliar weekly application and higher Wfr compared to plants without application leaf of fertilization. Thus, the application of leaf fertilization provided benefits of growth and the partition of assimilates in Physalis peruviana plants. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e objetivou analisar o crescimento e a partição de assimilados em Physalis peruviana submetida a intervalos de adubação foliar. As plantas foram coletadas a intervalos regulares de quatorze dias após o transplante até o final do ciclo e foram determinados a massa seca e a área foliar. A partir dos dados primários foi aplicada a análise de crescimento, sendo calculados a massa seca total (Wt, taxas de produção de matéria seca (Ct, crescimento relativo (Rw e assimilatória liquída (Ea, índice de área foliar (L, razões de área foliar (Fa e massa foliar (Fw, área foliar específica (Sa, partição de matéria seca entre órgãos e o número de frutos. Plantas de Physalis peruviana submetidas à adubação foliar quinzenal atingiram maior Wt, Ct, superior número de frutos e semelhante matéria seca de frutos (Wfr a

  13. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  14. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Production, partitioning and stoichiometry of organic matter under variable nutrient supply during mesocosm experiments in the tropical Pacific and Atlantic Ocean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. S. Franz

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Oxygen-deficient waters in the ocean, generally referred to as oxygen minimum zones (OMZ, are expected to expand as a consequence of global climate change. Poor oxygenation is promoting microbial loss of inorganic nitrogen (N and increasing release of sediment-bound phosphate (P into the water column. These intermediate water masses, nutrient-loaded but with an N deficit relative to the canonical N:P Redfield ratio of 16:1, are transported via coastal upwelling into the euphotic zone. To test the impact of nutrient supply and nutrient stoichiometry on production, partitioning and elemental composition of dissolved (DOC, DON, DOP and particulate (POC, PON, POP organic matter, three nutrient enrichment experiments were conducted with natural microbial communities in shipboard mesocosms, during research cruises in the tropical waters of the southeast Pacific and the northeast Atlantic. Maximum accumulation of POC and PON was observed under high N supply conditions, indicating that primary production was controlled by N availability. The stoichiometry of microbial biomass was unaffected by nutrient N:P supply during exponential growth under nutrient saturation, while it was highly variable under conditions of nutrient limitation and closely correlated to the N:P supply ratio, although PON:POP of accumulated biomass generally exceeded the supply ratio. Microbial N:P composition was constrained by a general lower limit of 5:1. Channelling of assimilated P into DOP appears to be the mechanism responsible for the consistent offset of cellular stoichiometry relative to inorganic nutrient supply and nutrient drawdown, as DOP build-up was observed to intensify under decreasing N:P supply. Low nutrient N:P conditions in coastal upwelling areas overlying O2-deficient waters seem to represent a net source for DOP, which may stimulate growth of diazotrophic phytoplankton. These results demonstrate that microbial nutrient assimilation and

  16. Effect of the corn breaking method on oil distribution between stillage phases of dry-grind corn ethanol production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, H; Wang, T; Johnson, L A; Pometto, A L

    2008-11-12

    The majority of fuel ethanol in the United States is produced by using the dry-grind corn ethanol process. The corn oil that is contained in the coproduct, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS), can be recovered for use as a biodiesel feedstock. Oil removal will also improve the feed quality of DDGS. The most economical way to remove oil is considered to be at the centrifugation step for separating thin stillage (liquid) from coarse solids after distilling the ethanol. The more oil there is in the liquid, the more it can be recovered by centrifugation. Therefore, we studied the effects of corn preparation and grinding methods on oil distribution between liquid and solid phases. Grinding the corn to three different particle sizes, flaking, flaking and grinding, and flaking and extruding were used to break up the corn kernel before fermentation, and their effects on oil distribution between the liquid and solid phases were examined by simulating an industrial decanter centrifuge. Total oil contents were measured in the liquid and solids after centrifugation. Dry matter yield and oil partitioning in the thin stillage were highly positively correlated. Flaking slightly reduced bound fat. The flaked and then extruded corn meal released the highest amount of free oil, about 25% compared to 7% for the average of the other treatments. The freed oil from flaking, however, became nonextractable after the flaked corn was ground. Fine grinding alone had little effect on oil partitioning.

  17. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  18. Lipid–water partition coefficients and correlations with uptakes by algae of organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hung, Wei-Nung; Chiou, Cary T.; Lin, Tsair-Fuh

    2014-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Partition coefficients of contaminants with lipid triolein (K tw ) are measured. • Measured K tw values are nearly the same as the respective K ow . • Sorption of the contaminants to a dry algal powder is similarly measured. • Algal uptake of a compound occurs primarily by partition into the algal lipid. - Abstract: In view of the scarcity of the lipid–water partition coefficients (K tw ) for organic compounds, the log K tw values for many environmental contaminants were measured using ultra-pure triolein as the model lipid. Classes of compounds studied include alkyl benzenes, halogenated benzenes, short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides. In addition to log K tw determination, the uptakes of these compounds from water by a dry algal species were measured to evaluate the lipid effect on the algal uptake. The measured log K tw are closely related to their respective log K ow (octanol–water), with log K ow = 1.9 to 6.5. A significant difference is observed between the present and early measured log K tw for compounds with log K ow > ∼5, which is attributed to the presence and absence of a triolein microemulsion in water affecting the solute partitioning. The observed lipid-normalized algae–water distribution coefficients (log K aw/lipid ) are virtually identical to the respective log K tw values, which manifests the dominant lipid-partition effect of the compounds with algae

  19. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding...... grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  20. Partition-based discrete-time quantum walks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konno, Norio; Portugal, Renato; Sato, Iwao; Segawa, Etsuo

    2018-04-01

    We introduce a family of discrete-time quantum walks, called two-partition model, based on two equivalence-class partitions of the computational basis, which establish the notion of local dynamics. This family encompasses most versions of unitary discrete-time quantum walks driven by two local operators studied in literature, such as the coined model, Szegedy's model, and the 2-tessellable staggered model. We also analyze the connection of those models with the two-step coined model, which is driven by the square of the evolution operator of the standard discrete-time coined walk. We prove formally that the two-step coined model, an extension of Szegedy model for multigraphs, and the two-tessellable staggered model are unitarily equivalent. Then, selecting one specific model among those families is a matter of taste not generality.

  1. Using ground-based spectral reflectance sensors and photography to estimate shoot N concentration and dry matter of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Jabloun, Mohamed; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Two years experiments were set up to evaluate the performance of different vegetation indices (VI) to estimate shoot N concentration (Nc) and shoot dry matter (DM) for a potato crop grown under different nitrogen (N) treatments. Possibilities to improve the performance of VI using normalization b...

  2. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  3. Partitioning of the pesticide trifluralin between dissolved organic matter and water using automated SPME-GC/MS

    KAUST Repository

    Caupos, Emilie

    2014-10-04

    Solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was used to determine the equilibrium association constant for a pesticide, trifluralin (TFR), with dissolved organic matter (DOM). After optimization of the SPME method for the analysis of TFR, partition coefficients (K DOM) with three different sources of DOM were determined in buffered solutions at pH 7. Commercial humic acids and DOM fractions isolated from two surface waters were used. The values of log K DOMvaried from 4.3 to 5.8, depending on the nature of the organic material. A good correlation was established between log K DOMand DOM properties (as measured with the H/O atomic ratio and UV absorbance), in agreement with literature data. This is consistent with the effect of polarity and aromaticity for governing DOM-pollutant associations, regardless of the origin of DOM. This association phenomenon is relevant to better understand the behavior of pesticides in the environment since it controls part of pesticide leaching and fate in aquatic systems.

  4. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  5. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  6. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  7. Coding Partitions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Burderi

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available Motivated by the study of decipherability conditions for codes weaker than Unique Decipherability (UD, we introduce the notion of coding partition. Such a notion generalizes that of UD code and, for codes that are not UD, allows to recover the ``unique decipherability" at the level of the classes of the partition. By tacking into account the natural order between the partitions, we define the characteristic partition of a code X as the finest coding partition of X. This leads to introduce the canonical decomposition of a code in at most one unambiguouscomponent and other (if any totally ambiguouscomponents. In the case the code is finite, we give an algorithm for computing its canonical partition. This, in particular, allows to decide whether a given partition of a finite code X is a coding partition. This last problem is then approached in the case the code is a rational set. We prove its decidability under the hypothesis that the partition contains a finite number of classes and each class is a rational set. Moreover we conjecture that the canonical partition satisfies such a hypothesis. Finally we consider also some relationships between coding partitions and varieties of codes.

  8. A linear solvation energy relationship model of organic chemical partitioning to dissolved organic carbon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kipka, Undine; Di Toro, Dominic M

    2011-09-01

    Predicting the association of contaminants with both particulate and dissolved organic matter is critical in determining the fate and bioavailability of chemicals in environmental risk assessment. To date, the association of a contaminant to particulate organic matter is considered in many multimedia transport models, but the effect of dissolved organic matter is typically ignored due to a lack of either reliable models or experimental data. The partition coefficient to dissolved organic carbon (K(DOC)) may be used to estimate the fraction of a contaminant that is associated with dissolved organic matter. Models relating K(DOC) to the octanol-water partition coefficient (K(OW)) have not been successful for many types of dissolved organic carbon in the environment. Instead, linear solvation energy relationships are proposed to model the association of chemicals with dissolved organic matter. However, more chemically diverse K(DOC) data are needed to produce a more robust model. For humic acid dissolved organic carbon, the linear solvation energy relationship predicts log K(DOC) with a root mean square error of 0.43. Copyright © 2011 SETAC.

  9. Membrane behavior as influenced by partitioning of amphiphiles during drying : a comparative study in anhydrobiotic plant systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Golovina, E.A.; Hoekstra, F.A.

    2002-01-01

    During cellular desiccation, reduction in volume can in principle cause amphiphilic compounds to partition from the cytoplasm into membranes, with structural perturbance as the result. Here, we studied the effect of partitioning of endogenous amphiphiles on membrane surface dynamics in

  10. Does the oviparity-viviparity transition alter the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Yan-Qing; Qu, Yan-Fu; Wang, Xue-Ji; Gao, Jian-Fang; Ji, Xiang

    2017-11-29

    The oviparity-viviparity transition is a major evolutionary event, likely altering the reproductive process of the organisms involved. Residual yolk, a portion of yolk remaining unutilized at hatching or birth as parental investment in care, has been investigated in many oviparous amniotes but remained largely unknown in viviparous species. Here, we used data from 20 (12 oviparous and 8 viviparous) species of snakes to see if the oviparity-viviparity transition alters the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes. We used ANCOVA to test whether offspring size, mass and components at hatching or birth differed between the sexes in each species. We used both ordinary least squares and phylogenetic generalized least squares regressions to test whether relationships between selected pairs of offspring components were significant. We used phylogenetic ANOVA to test whether offspring components differed between oviparous and viviparous species and, more specifically, the hypothesis that viviparous snakes invest more in the yolk as parental investment in embryogenesis to produce more well developed offspring that are larger in linear size. In none of the 20 species was sex a significant source of variation in any offspring component examined. Newborn viviparous snakes on average contained proportionally more water and, after accounting for body dry mass, had larger carcasses but smaller residual yolks than did newly hatched oviparous snakes. The rates at which carcass dry mass (CDM) and fat body dry mass (FDM) increased with residual yolk dry mass (YDM) did not differ between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes. Neither CDM nor FDM differed between newborn oviparous and viviparous snakes after accounting for YDM. Our results are not consistent with the hypothesis that the partitioning of yolk between embryonic and post-embryonic stages differs between snakes that differ in parity mode, but instead show that the partitioning of yolk in embryonic snakes is species

  11. The impact of aerosol composition on the particle to gas partitioning of reactive mercury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, Andrew P; Schauer, James J

    2007-06-01

    A laboratory system was developed to study the gas-particle partitioning of reactive mercury (RM) as a function of aerosol composition in synthetic atmospheric particulate matter. The collection of RM was achieved by filter- and sorbent-based methods. Analyses of the RM collected on the filters and sorbents were performed using thermal extraction combined with cold vapor atomic fluorescence spectroscopy (CVAFS), allowing direct measurement of the RM load on the substrates. Laboratory measurements of the gas-particle partitioning coefficients of RM to atmospheric aerosol particles revealed a strong dependence on aerosol composition, with partitioning coefficients that varied by orders of magnitude depending on the composition of the particles. Particles of sodium nitrate and the chlorides of potassium and sodium had high partitioning coefficients, shifting the RM partitioning toward the particle phase, while ammonium sulfate, levoglucosan, and adipic acid caused the RM to partition toward the gas phase and, therefore, had partitioning coefficients that were lower by orders of magnitude.

  12. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  13. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  14. Effect of curing methods, packaging and gamma irradiation on the weight loss and dry matter percent of garlic during curing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.; Farag, S.E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Egyptian garlic plants, showed higher percent of weight loss at 17 or 27 days from curing compared to those of Chinese plants. The curing period of 17 days seemed satisfactory for the Egyptian cultivar, whereas, 27 days seemed to be enough for the Chinese garlic. No significant differences were observed between common and shaded curing methods in weight loss per cent. The Chinese garlic contained higher dry matter percentage than those of the Egyptian cultivar. Shaded cured plants of the two cultivars contained higher dry matter percent than those subjected to the common curing methods. Irradiation of garlic bulbs, shaded curing method and sack packaging decreased, in general the weight loss during storage in comparison with other treatments

  15. Lipid–water partition coefficients and correlations with uptakes by algae of organic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hung, Wei-Nung [Green Energy and Environment Research Laboratories, Industrial Technology Research Institute, Hsinchu 30011, Taiwan (China); Chiou, Cary T., E-mail: carychio@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Environment Research Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China); U.S. Geological Survey, Denver Federal Center, Denver, CO 80225 (United States); Lin, Tsair-Fuh, E-mail: tflin@mail.ncku.edu.tw [Department of Environmental Engineering and Sustainable Environment Research Laboratory, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 70101, Taiwan (China)

    2014-08-30

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Partition coefficients of contaminants with lipid triolein (K{sub tw}) are measured. • Measured K{sub tw} values are nearly the same as the respective K{sub ow}. • Sorption of the contaminants to a dry algal powder is similarly measured. • Algal uptake of a compound occurs primarily by partition into the algal lipid. - Abstract: In view of the scarcity of the lipid–water partition coefficients (K{sub tw}) for organic compounds, the log K{sub tw} values for many environmental contaminants were measured using ultra-pure triolein as the model lipid. Classes of compounds studied include alkyl benzenes, halogenated benzenes, short-chain chlorinated hydrocarbons, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, polychlorinated biphenyls, and organochlorine pesticides. In addition to log K{sub tw} determination, the uptakes of these compounds from water by a dry algal species were measured to evaluate the lipid effect on the algal uptake. The measured log K{sub tw} are closely related to their respective log K{sub ow} (octanol–water), with log K{sub ow} = 1.9 to 6.5. A significant difference is observed between the present and early measured log K{sub tw} for compounds with log K{sub ow} > ∼5, which is attributed to the presence and absence of a triolein microemulsion in water affecting the solute partitioning. The observed lipid-normalized algae–water distribution coefficients (log K{sub aw/lipid}) are virtually identical to the respective log K{sub tw} values, which manifests the dominant lipid-partition effect of the compounds with algae.

  16. Análise de crescimento e partição de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a níveis de sombreamento Growth analysis and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants submitted to shading levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.Z Aumonde

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available A espécie Solanum americanum (maria-pretinha é considerada planta daninha; por possuir elevada habilidade competitiva e agressividade, ela reduz a produtividade dos cultivos. O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação e objetivou analisar o crescimento e a partição de assimilados em plantas de maria-pretinha submetidas a três níveis de sombreamento. As plantas foram coletadas em intervalos regulares de sete dias após o transplante até o final do ciclo, sendo determinada a massa seca e a área foliar. A partir dos dados primários, foi aplicada a análise de crescimento, sendo calculados a massa seca total (Wt, as taxas de produção de matéria seca (Ct, crescimento relativo (Rw e assimilatória líquída (Ea, o índice de área foliar (L, as razões de área foliar (Fa e massa foliar (Fw, a área foliar específica (Sa, a partição de matéria seca entre órgãos e o número de frutos. Plantas de maria-pretinha cresceram e se desenvolveram melhor sob condição intermediária de luz (65%, em que atingiram maior Wt, Ct, L, Fa, matéria seca de caule, matéria seca de fruto e maior número de frutos, enquanto a luz plena e a redução da luminosidade em nível acentuado, de maneira mais marcante, afetaram negativamente o crescimento e o desenvolvimento, o que possivelmente pode influenciar a habilidade competitiva da maria-pretinha.The species Solanum americanum (mary-nightshade is considered a weed whose highly competitive ability and aggressiveness reduce crop productivity. This work was conducted under greenhouse conditions aiming to analyze the growth and partitioning of assimilates in mary-nightshade plants subjected to three levels of shading. The plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days after transplantation until the end of the cycle, with dry mass and leaf area being determined. Based on primary data , growth analysis was carried out to calculate total dry matter production (Wt, dry matter production rates

  17. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  18. Effect of pruning history on growth and dry mass partitioning of jatropha on a plantation site in Madagascar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajaona, Arisoa M.; Brueck, Holger; Asch, Folkard

    2011-01-01

    While technical aspects of oil processing of seeds of jatropha are under intensive investigation, comparably little is known about the performance of jatropha in the field. We investigated the effects of water availability (rainfed versus irrigated) and pruning-induced differences in plant stature on growth, biomass partitioning, and canopy size at a plantation site in Madagascar in 2010. Plants of different pruning types differed in trunk height (43 versus 29 cm) and primary branches total length (171 versus 310 cm). The two pruning types had effects on dry mass formation and leaf area projection (LAP) during the vegetation period. Trees which had a shorter trunk and longer lateral branches produced more biomass and had a higher LAP. Total dry mass formation varied from 489 to 912 g m −2 and LAP from 3.26 to 7.37. Total aboveground biomass increased from 2.3 ± 0.5 to 4.89 ± 1.4 kg tree −1 and from 4.6 ± 1.8 to 8.9 ± 1.0 kg tree −1 for the pruning types with shorter and longer lateral branches, respectively. Growth of twigs and leaves was positively correlated with total length of branches. Relative dry mass allocation to branches, twigs and leaves, length of twigs per cm of branches and specific leaf area (13.57 ± 0.72 m 2 kg −1 ) were not affected by pruning and water supply. Trees with shorter branches had higher LAD. Results indicate that pruning type should be considered as a management tool to optimize biomass production. Detailed studies on effects of canopy size and shape on radiation interception and growth are required to improve the productivity of jatropha. -- Highlights: ▶ Correlation between branch length and newly formed twigs and leaves. ▶ Comparison of LAI and leaf area density in the field. ▶ Twigs per unit length of branches.

  19. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  20. Pure spinor partition function and the massive superstring spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aisaka, Yuri; Arroyo, E. Aldo; Berkovits, Nathan; Nekrasov, Nikita

    2008-01-01

    We explicitly compute up to the fifth mass-level the partition function of ten-dimensional pure spinor worldsheet variables including the spin dependence. After adding the contribution from the (x μ , θ α , p α ) matter variables, we reproduce the massive superstring spectrum. Even though pure spinor variables are bosonic, the pure spinor partition function contains fermionic states which first appear at the second mass-level. These fermionic states come from functions which are not globally defined in pure spinor space, and are related to the b ghost in the pure spinor formalism. This result clarifies the proper definition of the Hilbert space for pure spinor variables.

  1. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  2. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  3. Nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean and chickpea as affected by soil moisture and potassium fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Ahamma, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of three rates of K-fertilizer (0, 75, and 150 kg K 2 O/ha)on nodulation, dry matter production and N 2 fixation by fababean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cirer arietinum L.) was evaluated in a pot experiment. The plants were subjected to three soil moisture regimes (low, 45-50%; moderate, 55-60% and high 75-80% of field capacity). 15 N-isotope dilution method was employed to evaluate N 2 fixation using a non-fixing chickpea genotype as a reference crop. Water restriction drastically affected dry matter production, nodulation and N 2 fixation by both plant species. The negative effect of water stress on %N 2 fixed was more prominent in chickpea (11-58%) than in fababean (68-81%) under low and high % of field capacity, respectively. Plant species differed in their response to K-fertilizer as a mean to enhance growth and overcome the stress conditions. The higher level of K fertilizer increased both dry matter production and total N 2 fixed in fababean, but did not have any impact on chickpea. %N 2 fixed, however, appeared to be unaffected by K fertilizer as a mean of alleviating drought stress in both plant species. Therefore, it appears that, under the experimental conditions, the beneficial effect of potassium on water-stressed fababean resulted from stimulation the growth rather than improving the N 2 -fixation efficiency. However, under well-watered plants, a high requirement of the symbiotic system to potassium is needed to ensure and optimal growth and N 2 -fixation. (author)

  4. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  5. Partitioning of water flux in a Sierra Nevada ponderosa pine plantation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurpius, M.R.; Panek, J.A.; Nikolov, N.T.; McKay, M.; Goldstein, Allen H.

    2003-01-01

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus ponderosa) in this region. To investigate how year-round water fluxes were partitioned in a young ponderosa pine ecosystem in the Sierra Nevada Mountains, water fluxes were continually measured from June 2000 to May 2001 using a combination of sap flow and eddy covariance techniques (above- and below-canopy). Water fluxes were modeled at our study site using a biophysical model, FORFLUX. During summer and fall water fluxes were equally partitioned between transpiration and soil evaporation while transpiration dominated the water fluxes in winter and spring. The trees had high rates of canopy conductance and transpiration in the early morning and mid-late afternoon and a mid-day depression during the dry season. We used a diurnal centroid analysis to show that the timing of high canopy conductance and transpiration relative to high vapor pressure deficit (D) shifted with soil moisture: during periods of low soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked early in the day when D was low. Conversely, during periods of high soil moisture canopy conductance and transpiration peaked at the same time or later in the day than D. Our observations suggest a general strategy by the pine trees in which they maximize stomatal conductance, and therefore carbon fixation, throughout the day on warm sunny days with high soil moisture (i.e. warm periods in winter and late spring) and maximize stomatal conductance and carbon fixation in the morning through the dry periods. FORFLUX model estimates of evaporation and transpiration were close to measured/calculated values during the dry period, including the drought, but underestimated transpiration and overestimated evaporation during the wet period. ?? 2003

  6. Effects of canopy structural variables on retrieval of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area from remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Duren, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) are two important traits in measuring biodiversity. To use remote sensing for the estimation of these traits, it is essential to understand the underlying factors that influence their relationships with canopy reflectance. The effect of

  7. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  8. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  9. Uncertainties associated with lacking data for predictions of solid-solution partitioning of metals in soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Le, T.T. Yen; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2014-01-01

    Soil properties, i.e., pH and contents of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), clay, oxides, and reactive metals, are required inputs to both mechanistic and empirical modeling in assessing metal solid-solution partitioning. Several of these properties are rarely measured in site-specific risk assessment. We compared the uncertainties induced by lacking data on these soil properties in estimating metal soil solution concentrations. The predictions by the Orchestra framework were more sensitive to lacking soil property data than the predictions by the transfer functions. The deviations between soil solution concentrations of Cd, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Co estimated with measured SOM and those estimated with generic SOM by the Orchestra framework were about 10 times larger than the deviations in the predictions by the transfer functions. High uncertainties were induced by lacking data in assessing solid-solution partitioning of oxy-anions like As, Mo, Sb, Se, and V. Deviations associated with lacking data in predicting soil solution concentrations of these metals by the Orchestra framework reached three-to-six orders of magnitude. The solid-solution partitioning of metal cations was strongly influenced by pH and contents of organic matter, oxides, and reactive metals. Deviations of more than two orders of magnitude were frequently observed between the estimates of soil solution concentrations with the generic values of these properties and the estimates based on the measured data. Reliable information on these properties is preferred to be included in the assessment by either the Orchestra framework or transfer functions. - Highlights: • Estimates of metal solid-solution partitioning sensitive to soil property data. • Uncertainty mainly due to lacking reactive metal contents, pH, and organic matter. • Soil solution concentrations of oxy-anions highly influenced by oxide contents. • Clay contents had least effects on solid-solution partitioning

  10. Uncertainties associated with lacking data for predictions of solid-solution partitioning of metals in soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.T. Yen, E-mail: YenLe@science.ru.nl; Hendriks, A. Jan

    2014-08-15

    Soil properties, i.e., pH and contents of soil organic matter (SOM), dissolved organic carbon (DOC), clay, oxides, and reactive metals, are required inputs to both mechanistic and empirical modeling in assessing metal solid-solution partitioning. Several of these properties are rarely measured in site-specific risk assessment. We compared the uncertainties induced by lacking data on these soil properties in estimating metal soil solution concentrations. The predictions by the Orchestra framework were more sensitive to lacking soil property data than the predictions by the transfer functions. The deviations between soil solution concentrations of Cd, Ni, Zn, Ba, and Co estimated with measured SOM and those estimated with generic SOM by the Orchestra framework were about 10 times larger than the deviations in the predictions by the transfer functions. High uncertainties were induced by lacking data in assessing solid-solution partitioning of oxy-anions like As, Mo, Sb, Se, and V. Deviations associated with lacking data in predicting soil solution concentrations of these metals by the Orchestra framework reached three-to-six orders of magnitude. The solid-solution partitioning of metal cations was strongly influenced by pH and contents of organic matter, oxides, and reactive metals. Deviations of more than two orders of magnitude were frequently observed between the estimates of soil solution concentrations with the generic values of these properties and the estimates based on the measured data. Reliable information on these properties is preferred to be included in the assessment by either the Orchestra framework or transfer functions. - Highlights: • Estimates of metal solid-solution partitioning sensitive to soil property data. • Uncertainty mainly due to lacking reactive metal contents, pH, and organic matter. • Soil solution concentrations of oxy-anions highly influenced by oxide contents. • Clay contents had least effects on solid-solution partitioning

  11. δ2H isotopic flux partitioning of evapotranspiration over a grass field following a water pulse and subsequent dry down

    Science.gov (United States)

    Good, Stephen P.; Soderberg, Keir; Guan, Kaiyu; King, Elizabeth G.; Scanlon, Todd M.; Caylor, Kelly K.

    2014-02-01

    The partitioning of surface vapor flux (FET) into evaporation (FE) and transpiration (FT) is theoretically possible because of distinct differences in end-member stable isotope composition. In this study, we combine high-frequency laser spectroscopy with eddy covariance techniques to critically evaluate isotope flux partitioning of FET over a grass field during a 15 day experiment. Following the application of a 30 mm water pulse, green grass coverage at the study site increased from 0 to 10% of ground surface area after 6 days and then began to senesce. Using isotope flux partitioning, transpiration increased as a fraction of total vapor flux from 0% to 40% during the green-up phase, after which this ratio decreased while exhibiting hysteresis with respect to green grass coverage. Daily daytime leaf-level gas exchange measurements compare well with daily isotope flux partitioning averages (RMSE = 0.0018 g m-2 s-1). Overall the average ratio of FT to FET was 29%, where uncertainties in Keeling plot intercepts and transpiration composition resulted in an average of uncertainty of ˜5% in our isotopic partitioning of FET. Flux-variance similarity partitioning was partially consistent with the isotope-based approach, with divergence occurring after rainfall and when the grass was stressed. Over the average diurnal cycle, local meteorological conditions, particularly net radiation and relative humidity, are shown to control partitioning. At longer time scales, green leaf area and available soil water control FT/FET. Finally, we demonstrate the feasibility of combining isotope flux partitioning and flux-variance similarity theory to estimate water use efficiency at the landscape scale.

  12. Effects of soil type and light on height growth, biomass partitioning, and nitrogen dynamics on 22 species of tropical dry forest tree seedlings: Comparisons between legumes and nonlegumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith-Martin, Christina M; Gei, Maria G; Bergstrom, Ellie; Becklund, Kristen K; Becknell, Justin M; Waring, Bonnie G; Werden, Leland K; Powers, Jennifer S

    2017-03-01

    The seedling stage is particularly vulnerable to resource limitation, with potential consequences for community composition. We investigated how light and soil variation affected early growth, biomass partitioning, morphology, and physiology of 22 tree species common in tropical dry forest, including eight legumes. Our hypothesis was that legume seedlings are better at taking advantage of increased resource availability, which contributes to their successful regeneration in tropical dry forests. We grew seedlings in a full-factorial design under two light levels in two soil types that differed in nutrient concentrations and soil moisture. We measured height biweekly and, at final harvest, biomass partitioning, internode segments, leaf carbon, nitrogen, δ 13 C, and δ 15 N. Legumes initially grew taller and maintained that height advantage over time under all experimental conditions. Legumes also had the highest final total biomass and water-use efficiency in the high-light and high-resource soil. For nitrogen-fixing legumes, the amount of nitrogen derived from fixation was highest in the richer soil. Although seed mass tended to be larger in legumes, seed size alone did not account for all the differences between legumes and nonlegumes. Both belowground and aboveground resources were limiting to early seedling growth and function. Legumes may have a different regeneration niche, in that they germinate rapidly and grow taller than other species immediately after germination, maximizing their performance when light and belowground resources are readily available, and potentially permitting them to take advantage of high light, nutrient, and water availability at the beginning of the wet season. © 2017 Botanical Society of America.

  13. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  14. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  15. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2017-02-01

    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA 3 content and GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. PARTITIONING OF WATER FLUX IN A SIERRA NEVADA PONDEROSA PINE PLANTATION. (R826601)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The weather patterns of the west side of the Sierra Nevada Mountains (cold, wet winters and hot, dry summers) strongly influence how water is partitioned between transpiration and evaporation and result in a specific strategy of water use by ponderosa pine trees (Pinus pond...

  17. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  18. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  19. Prediction of gas/particle partitioning of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in global air: A theoretical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y.-F.; Ma, W.-L.; Yang, M.

    2015-02-01

    Gas/particle (G/P) partitioning of semi-volatile organic compounds (SVOCs) is an important process that primarily governs their atmospheric fate, long-range atmospheric transport, and their routes of entering the human body. All previous studies on this issue are hypothetically based on equilibrium conditions, the results of which do not predict results from monitoring studies well in most cases. In this study, a steady-state model instead of an equilibrium-state model for the investigation of the G/P partitioning behavior of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) was established, and an equation for calculating the partition coefficients under steady state (KPS) of PBDEs (log KPS = log KPE + logα) was developed in which an equilibrium term (log KPE = log KOA + logfOM -11.91 where fOM is organic matter content of the particles) and a non-equilibrium term (log α, caused by dry and wet depositions of particles), both being functions of log KOA (octanol-air partition coefficient), are included. It was found that the equilibrium is a special case of steady state when the non-equilibrium term equals zero. A criterion to classify the equilibrium and non-equilibrium status of PBDEs was also established using two threshold values of log KOA, log KOA1, and log KOA2, which divide the range of log KOA into three domains: equilibrium, non-equilibrium, and maximum partition domain. Accordingly, two threshold values of temperature t, tTH1 when log KOA = log KOA1 and tTH2 when log KOA = log KOA2, were identified, which divide the range of temperature also into the same three domains for each PBDE congener. We predicted the existence of the maximum partition domain (the values of log KPS reach a maximum constant of -1.53) that every PBDE congener can reach when log KOA ≥ log KOA2, or t ≤ tTH2. The novel equation developed in this study was applied to predict the G/P partition coefficients of PBDEs for our Chinese persistent organic pollutants (POPs) Soil and Air Monitoring

  20. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  1. Chlor-alkali industrial contamination and riverine transport of mercury: Distribution and partitioning of mercury between water, suspended matter, and bottom sediment of the Thur River, France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hissler, Christophe; Probst, Jean-Luc

    2006-01-01

    Total dissolved and total particulate Hg mass balances were estimated during one hydrological period (July 2001-June 2002) in the Thur River basin, which is heavily polluted by chlor-alkali industrial activity. The seasonal variations of the Hg dynamics in the aquatic environment were assessed using total Hg concentrations in bottom sediment and suspended matter, and total and reactive dissolved Hg concentrations in the water. The impact of the chlor-alkali plant (CAP) remains the largest concern for Hg contamination of this river system. Upstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning between dissolved and particulate phases was principally controlled by the dissolved fraction due to snow melting during spring high flow, while during low flow, Hg was primarily adsorbed onto particulates. Downstream from the CAP, the Hg partitioning is controlled by the concentration of dissolved organic and inorganic ligands and by the total suspended sediment (TSS) concentrations. Nevertheless, the particulate fluxes were five times higher than the dissolved ones. Most of the total annual flux of Hg supplied by the CAP to the river is transported to the outlet of the catchment (total Hg flux: 70 μg m -2 a -1 ). Downstream from the CAP, the bottom sediment, mainly composed of coarse sediment (>63 μm) and depleted in organic matter, has a weak capacity to trap Hg in the river channel and the stock of Hg is low (4 mg m -2 ) showing that the residence time of Hg in this river is short

  2. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  3. Unique Path Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bessenrodt, Christine; Olsson, Jørn Børling; Sellers, James A.

    2013-01-01

    We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions.......We give a complete classification of the unique path partitions and study congruence properties of the function which enumerates such partitions....

  4. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  5. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  6. Direct calculation of 1-octanol-water partition coefficients from adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics simulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhatnagar, Navendu; Kamath, Ganesh; Chelst, Issac; Potoff, Jeffrey J

    2012-07-07

    The 1-octanol-water partition coefficient log K(ow) of a solute is a key parameter used in the prediction of a wide variety of complex phenomena such as drug availability and bioaccumulation potential of trace contaminants. In this work, adaptive biasing force molecular dynamics simulations are used to determine absolute free energies of hydration, solvation, and 1-octanol-water partition coefficients for n-alkanes from methane to octane. Two approaches are evaluated; the direct transfer of the solute from 1-octanol to water phase, and separate transfers of the solute from the water or 1-octanol phase to vacuum, with both methods yielding statistically indistinguishable results. Calculations performed with the TIP4P and SPC∕E water models and the TraPPE united-atom force field for n-alkanes show that the choice of water model has a negligible effect on predicted free energies of transfer and partition coefficients for n-alkanes. A comparison of calculations using wet and dry octanol phases shows that the predictions for log K(ow) using wet octanol are 0.2-0.4 log units lower than for dry octanol, although this is within the statistical uncertainty of the calculation.

  7. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  8. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  9. In-situ partitioning and bioconcentration of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons among water, suspended particulate matter, and fish in the Dongjiang and Pearl Rivers and the Pearl River Estuary, China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li, Haiyan; Lu, Lei; Huang, Wen; Yang, Juan; Ran, Yong

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • PAHs are relatively higher in marine fish than in freshwater fish. • PAHs respectively show significant correlations with DOC, POC, and Chl a. • The log K oc for PAHs is one order magnitude higher than the predicted. • The log BCF values in fish and their tissues are nonlinear in respect to log K ow . • Lipid is related to PAHs in freshwater fish, but not in marine fishes. - Abstract: The partitioning and bioaccumulation of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and fish samples from the Dongjiang River (DR), Pearl River (PR), and the Pearl River Estuary (PRE) were examined. Although PAHs are much lower in PRE than in DR or PR, PAHs in some fish species are significantly higher in PRE than in DR or PR. Aqueous or particulate PAHs respectively show significant correlations with dissolved organic carbon, particulate organic matter, and chlorophyll a, suggesting that biological pumping effect regulates their distribution. The in situ partitioning coefficients (log K oc ) for PAHs are one order magnitude higher than the empirical log K oc –log K ow correlation. The bioconcentration factor (BCF) is slightly higher for the marine fish than for the freshwater fish. The above phenomena indicate that BCF may vary due to the diversity of fish species, feeding habits, and metabolism of PAHs in fish

  10. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  11. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Jiyi; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Seunghee

    2014-01-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] −1 , the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem

  12. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle–water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jang, Jiyi [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Global Bioresources Research Center, Korea Institute of Ocean Science and Technology (KIOST), Ansan 426-744 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyunji [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Han, Seunghee, E-mail: shan@gist.ac.kr [School of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle–water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a] < 0.6 μg L{sup −1}, the bacterial number, instead of chlorophyll-a concentration in particle, showed a positive correlation with the particle–water partition coefficient of Hg. Overall, microbial abundance seems to play a critical role in particle scavenging of Hg in coastal water. Taking this result in light of Hg in pristine coastal zones, we predict that increases in algal biomass amplify the potential for algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. - Highlights: • Abundance of phytoplankton and bacteria influenced particle–water partitioning of Hg. • More Hg partitioned toward particles when microorganism biomass in particle is large. • Increases of algal biomass may enhance Hg bioaccumulation in coastal ecosystem.

  13. Using measured octanol-air partition coefficients to explain environmental partitioning of organochlorine pesticides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shoeib, Mahiba; Harner, Tom

    2002-05-01

    Octanol-air partition coefficients (Koa) were measured directly for 19 organochlorine (OC) pesticides over the temperature range of 5 to 35 degrees C. Values of log Koa at 25 degrees C ranged over three orders of magnitude, from 7.4 for hexachlorobenzene to 10.1 for 1,1-dichloro-2,2-bis(p-chlorophenyl) ethane. Measured values were compared to values calculated as KowRT/H (where R is the ideal gas constant [8.314 J mol(-1) K(-1)], T is absolute temperature, and H is Henry's law constant) were, in general, larger. Discrepancies of up to three orders of magnitude were observed, highlighting the need for direct measurements of Koa. Plots of Koa versus inverse absolute temperature exhibited a log-linear correlation. Enthalpies of phase transition between octanol and air (deltaHoa) were determined from the temperature slopes and were in the range of 56 to 105 kJ mol(-1) K(-1). Activity coefficients in octanol (gamma(o)) were determined from Koa and reported supercooled liquid vapor pressures (pL(o)), and these were in the range of 0.3 to 12, indicating near-ideal solution behavior. Differences in Koa values for structural isomers of hexachlorocyclohexane were also explored. A Koa-based model was described for predicting the partitioning of OC pesticides to aerosols and used to calculate particulate fractions at 25 and -10 degrees C. The model also agreed well with experimental results for several OC pesticides that were equilibrated with urban aerosols in the laboratory. A log-log regression of the particle-gas partition coefficient versus Koa had a slope near unity, indicating that octanol is a good surrogate for the aerosol organic matter.

  14. Aboveground dry biomass partitioning and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the biomass and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean plants experiencing contrasting weather conditions. Soybean (Glycine max is a species of agricultural crop plant that is widely described in scientific publications. During 2014–2016, a field experiment with early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’ was carried out at Grodziec Śląski, Poland (49°48'01" N, 18°52'04" E. Results showed that the morphological traits of the plants, the yield of individual plants, and the soybean crop were all closely related to the climatic conditions. A high amount of precipitation stimulated seed development, resulting in a high production potential. The harvest index calculated for soybean ‘Merlin’ was high and exceeded 0.5 g g−1. The nitrogen content of the aboveground biomass increased during ontogenesis. The maximum yield of dry matter was noted at the green maturity phase, which subsequently decreased at the full maturity phase because of the loss of the leaf fraction. The variation in the effectiveness of nitrogen accumulation in seeds between 2015 and 2016 was 30%. The nitrogen harvest index values were high in each year of the experiment and exceeded 0.92 g−1. For the production of 1 ton of seeds with an adequate amount of soybean straw, plants needed, on average, 68 kg of nitrogen.

  15. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  16. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  17. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  18. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanche, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Allison, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total...... components, such as cellulose, pectin, lignin, cutin, and suberin, but also with nonstructural carbohydrates and certain active compounds. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy could be considered a low-cost alternative to in situ measurements in feed evaluation....

  19. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  20. Acúmulo de massa seca em três cultivares de arroz irrigado com diferentes arquiteturas de plantas Dry matter accumulation by three flooded rice cultivars with different plant canopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Planossolo da Unidade de Mapeamento Vacacaí, com o ohjetivo de estudar o acúmulo de massa seca nos diversos órgãos da planta de três cultivares de arroz irrigado (EEA 406, Bluebelle e BR-IRGA 409, utilizando-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A massa seca foi obtida em sete estádios fenológicos da cultura. Desconsiderando os grãos e panículas, a EEA 406 possui maior capacidade produtiva de fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos produtiva. Na maturação, a cultivar BR-IRGA 409 apresentou maior massa seca total, demonstrando maior capacidade de alocar assimilados nos grãos e maior eficiência de conversão de energia solar em fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos eficiente. Para as três cultivares, até a floração, o colmo acumulou a maior percentagem de massa seca sendo, a partir daí, substituído pelas panículas e grãos. O máximo acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes ocorreu por ocasião da floração, cerca de 80 dias após a emergência.This experiment was carried out in an Halbaqualf soil to study the dry matter accumulation of three flooded rice cultivars. A complete randomized block design was used, with tive replication. Plant dry matter was measured in seven different growth stages. The cultivar EEA 406 had a higherdry matter accumulation than the cultivar Bluebelle without including grain and panicle. At maturity, the BR-IRGA 409 cultivar showed higher total dry matter. This demonstrate a better capacity of this variety in alocating assimilates into grains a higher effíciency in converting solar energy into plant biomass. The Bluebelle had lower efficiency. The dry matter accumulation increased for the three varieties from seeding to flowering into colm and, from flowering to harvest into panicles and grain. The maximum dry matter accumulation in roots was observed at flowering, eighty days after emergency.

  1. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  2. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  3. Size Matters: The Effect of the Scramble for Africa on Informal Institutions and Development

    OpenAIRE

    Dimico, Arcangelo

    2013-01-01

    We argue that the partition of ethnic groups following the Scramble for Africa does not itself matter for development in Africa. It matters only when the partitioned groups are relatively small because small groups lack political representation which may promote ethnic mobilization and foster support for informal (rather than formal) institutions which then may affect development. Furthermore, the analysis of data from the Afrobarometer shows that the persistence of informal/tribal institutio...

  4. Production and Energy Partition of Lactating Dairy Goats Fed Rations Containing Date Fruit Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Yuniarti

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Dates fruit waste (DFW is a by-product of dates juice industry that contains high energy. So, it is suitable for an energy source in dairy goat ration. This study was conducted to observe the effect of DFW utilization in the ration on energy partition and productivity of lactating dairy goats. The experimental design was randomized block design using 9 primiparous lactating dairy goats. There were three types of ration as treatments used in this study, i.e. R0= 35% forage + 65% concentrate, R1= 35% forage + 55% concentrate + 10% DFW, and R2= 35% forage + 45% concentrate + 20% DFW. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and polynomial orthogonal test. The evaluated variables were dry matter intake (DMI, energy partition including energy intake, digestible and metabolizable energy, fecal and urine energy, energy in methane gas, and energy in milk, milk production and quality. The results showed that the linear decreased of DMI, energy intake, digestible energy, metabolizable energy, and urine energy with the increased of DFW level in the rations. The use of 10% DFW (R1 showed the lowest energy loss through feces and methane gas of all treatments about 1089.57 kcal/head/d and 2.36 kcal/head/d, respectively. The use of DFW did not affect energy retention in milk. The utilization of DFW in ration did not significantly prevent the decline of milk production and milk quality. It can be concluded that DFW can be used as an alternative feed for the lactating dairy goat up to 10% in the ration.

  5. Height, leaf nymber, chemical composition and dry matter production of Stylosanthes Campo Grande at different levels of potassium and zinco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Mara Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine plant height, total number of leaves, number of live leaves, chemical composition and dry mass production of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande at first cut and after 21 days of regrowth at different levels of potassium (K2O with and without zinc (Zn. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme consisting of four repetitions. Four levels of K2O (0, 120, 240 and 360 mg/dm3 with and without Zn (0 and 6 mg/dm3 were used. There was no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on the structural characteristics of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed. The mean plant height, total number of leaves and number of live leaves were 21.2 cm, 30.2 and 27.2, respectively. Dry mass production did not differ between K2O and Zn levels, with a mean production of 3.7 g/pot. There was also no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed, with mean values of 29.3% and 46.9% dry matter, respectively. However, an effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels was observed for crude protein content, which exhibited a quadratic response. Re2growth increased linearly with increasing K2O levels. Although the highest crude protein content was obtained at zero levels of potassium and zinc, potassium fertilization is advantageous since it increases the regrowth of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande in 21 days.

  6. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  7. Prediction of phenanthrene uptake by plants with a partition-limited model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu, Lizhong; Gao, Yanzheng

    2004-01-01

    The performance of a partition-limited model on prediction of phenanthrene uptake by a wide variety of plant species was evaluated using a greenhouse study. The model predictions of root or shoot concentrations for tested plant species were all within an order of magnitude of the observed values. Modeled root concentrations appeared to be more accurate than modeled shoot concentrations. The differences of simulated and experimented concentrations of phenanthrene in roots and shoots of three representative plant species, including ryegrass, flowering Chinese cabbage, and three-colored amaranth, were less than 81% for roots and 103% for shoots. Results are promising in that the α pt values of the partition-limited model for root uptake of phenanthrene correlate well with root lipid contents. Additionally, a significantly positive correlation is also observed between root concentration factors (RCFs, defined as the ratio of contaminant concentrations in root and in soil on a dry weight basis) of phenanthrene and root lipid contents. Results from this study suggest that the partition-limited model may have potential applications for predicting the plant PAH concentration in contaminated sites

  8. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  9. Estimation of gas-particle partitioning coefficients (Kp) of carcinogenic polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in carbonaceous aerosols collected at Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai, Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pongpiachan, Siwatt; Ho, Kin Fai; Cao, Junji

    2013-01-01

    To assess environmental contamination with carcinogens, carbonaceous compounds, water-soluble ionic species and trace gaseous species were identified and quantified every three hours for three days at three different atmospheric layers at the heart of Chiang-Mai, Bangkok and Hat-Yai from December 2006 to February 2007. A DRI Model 2001 Thermal/Optical Carbon Analyzer with the IMPROVE thermal/optical reflectance (TOR) protocol was used to quantify the organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) contents in PM10. Diurnal and vertical variability was also carefully investigated. In general, OC and EC mass concentration showed the highest values at the monitoring period of 21.00-00.00 as consequences of human activities at night bazaar coupled with reduction of mixing layer, decreased wind speed and termination of photolysis at nighttime. Morning peaks of carbonaceous compounds were observed during the sampling period of 06:00-09:00, emphasizing the main contribution of traffic emission in the three cities. The estimation of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) raises concern of high risk of carbonaceous accumulation over workers and residents living close to the observatory sites. The average values of incremental lifetime particulate matter exposure (ILPE) of total carbon at Baiyoke Suit Hotel and Baiyoke Sky Hotel are approximately ten times higher than those air samples collected at Prince of Songkla University Hat-Yai campus corpse incinerator and fish-can manufacturing factory but only slightly higher than those of rice straw burning in Songkla province. This indicates a high risk of developing lung cancer and other respiratory diseases across workers and residents living in high buildings located in Pratunam area. Using knowledge of carbonaceous fractions in PM10, one can estimate the gas-particle partitioning of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Dachs-Eisenreich model highlights the crucial role of adsorption in gas

  10. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  11. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  12. Mercury partition in the interface between a contaminated lagoon and the ocean: The role of particulate load and composition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pato, P.; Otero, M.; Valega, M.; Lopes, C.B.; Pereira, M.E.; Duarte, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    After having estimated the patterns of flow to the ocean and found some seasonal and tidal differences, mainly with regard to the relative importance of dissolved and particulate fractions, mercury partitioning at the interface between a contaminated lagoon and the Atlantic Ocean was investigated during four tidal cycles in contrasting season and tidal regimes. Mercury was found to be located predominantely in the particulate fraction throughout the year, contributing to its retention within the system. Seasonal conditions, variations in marine and fluvial signals and processes affecting bed sediment resuspension influenced the character and concentration of suspended particulate matter in the water column. Variation in the nature, levels and partitioning of organic carbon in the particulate fraction affected levels of particulate mercury as well as mercury partitioning. These results highlight the dominant role of suspended particulate matter in the distribution of anthropogenic mercury and reinforce the importance of competitive behavior related to organic carbon in mercury scavenging.

  13. Partitioning of fissile and radio-toxic materials from spent nuclear fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychkov, A.V.; Skiba, O.V.; Kormilitsyn, M.V.

    2007-01-01

    Full text of publication follows. The term ''partitioning'' means separation of one group of radwaste components from another. Such technological approaches are mainly applied to extraction of long-lived fission products (Tc, I) and minor actinides (Np, Am, Cm) from the waste arising from spent nuclear fuel reprocessing. Transmutation of the extracted minor actinides should be performed in a reactor or some accelerated systems. The combination of these technologies, partitioning and transmutation (P and T), will reduce the radiotoxicity of radwaste. In recent decades, partitioning has been directly linked to spent fuel reprocessing. Therefore, the basic investigations have been focused on the partitioning of liquid wastes arising from the PUREX process. These subjects have been the most developed ones, but the processes of fine aqueous separation generates an extra amount of liquid waste. This fact has an effect on the nuclear fuel cycle economy. Therefore, some other advanced compact methods have also been studied. These are dry methods involving molten chlorides and fluorides, the methods based on a supercritical movable phase, etc. The report provides a brief review of information on the basic partitioning process flow-sheets developed in France, Japan, Russia and other countries. Recent approaches to partitioning have been mostly directed towards radio-toxic hazard reduction and ecology. In the future, partitioning should be closely bound up with reprocessing and other spent nuclear fuel management processes. Reprocessing/partitioning should also be aimed at solving the problems of safety (non-proliferation) and economy in a closed fuel cycle. It is necessary to change a future ''technological philosophy'' of reprocessing and partitioning. The basic spent fuel components (U, Pu, Th) are to be extracted only for recycling in a closed nuclear fuel cycle. If these elements are regarded as a waste, additional expenses are required for transmutation. If we consider

  14. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  15. Spatio-temporal evaluation of emerging contaminants and their partitioning along a Brazilian watershed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Sousa, Diana Nara Ribeiro; Mozeto, Antonio Aparecido; Carneiro, Renato Lajarim; Fadini, Pedro Sergio

    2018-02-01

    The occurrence, partitioning, and spatio-temporal distribution of seven pharmaceuticals for human use, three steroid hormones and one personal care product were determined in surface water, suspended particulate matter (SPM), and sediment of Piraí Creek and Jundiaí River (Jundiaí River Basin, São Paulo, Brazil). The maximum average detected concentrations of the compounds in the Piraí River samples were contaminants most frequently detected in sediment and SPM samples. Triclosan had the highest average proportion of SPM as opposed to in the aqueous phase (> 75%). Contaminants with acid functional groups showed, in general, a lower tendency to bind to particulate matter and sediments. In addition, hydrophobicity had an important effect on their environmental partitioning. The spatial distribution of contaminants along the Jundiaí River was mainly affected by the higher concentration of contaminants in water samples collected downstream from a sewage treatment plant (STP). The results obtained here clearly showed the importance of the analysis of some contaminants in the whole water, meaning both dissolved and particulate compartments in the water, and that the partitioning is ruled by a set of parameters associated to the physicochemical characteristics of contaminants and the matrix properties of the studied, which need be considered in an integrated approach to understand the fate of emerging chemical contaminants in aquatic environments.

  16. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  17. Influence of microorganism content in suspended particles on the particle-water partitioning of mercury in semi-enclosed coastal waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Jiyi; Kim, Hyunji; Han, Seunghee

    2014-02-01

    It is known that particle scavenging of mercury (Hg) can be affected by the abundance of particulate organic matter in coastal waters. However, the role of living organic particles in Hg scavenging is not yet completely understood. In this study, we hypothesized that an abundance of living organic particles (i.e., phytoplankton and bacteria) would influence the particle-water partitioning of Hg in coastal waters. Surface seawater samples were collected from eight stations in Gwangyang Bay, Korea, in three seasons (November 2009, April 2010, and October 2010) for the determination of concentrations of suspended particulate matter (including chlorophyll-a and bacteria), and Hg in unfiltered and filtered waters. We found that more Hg partitioned toward particulate matter when phytoplankton biomass, indicated from the chlorophyll-a concentration in a particle, was higher. In the low algal season, when [chlorophyll-a]algae to transfer Hg to marine food chains. © 2013.

  18. Determinação da matéria seca e teores de macronutrientes em folhas de frutíferas usando diferentes métodos de secagem Determination of dry matter and macronutrient content in leaves of fruit trees using different drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nericlenes Chaves Marcante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar diferentes métodos de secagem de folhas para três diferentes frutíferas (maracujá, pêssego e abacate, com relação à determinação da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas recém expandida de três culturas, do pomar da fazenda de ensino e pesquisa da FCAV-UNESP, câmpus de Jaboticabal, no mês de janeiro de 2010, coletando-se para cada cultura 12 amostras com 25 folhas cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se por dois métodos de secagem, estufa de circulação de ar forçada regulada a uma temperatura de 70°C e o forno microondas (FMO. Avaliou-se a massa da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Os resultados sugerem que os dois métodos de secagem testados se assemelham na determinação de matéria seca e nos teores foliares de macronutrientes para as culturas análisadas, exceto os teores de cálcio na cultura do pêssego.The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods of drying of leaves for three different fruit (passion fruit, peach and avocado, with respect to the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients. Samples were collected from recently expanded leaves of three crops orchard Farm education and research FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal campus, in January 2010, by collecting 12 samples for each culture with 25 leaves. The treatments consisted of two drying methods, greenhouse circulation of air regulated to a temperature of 70°C and FMO. We evaluated the mass of dry matter and foliar nutrients. The results suggest that the two drying methods tested did not interfere in the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients to crops analyzed, except the calcium levels in peach.

  19. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  20. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  1. Download this PDF file

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    partitioning to the roots was controlled by plant age and Solar radiation while dry matter partitioning to the leaves was a function of ... of cassava to the roots and leaves are dependent upon solar radiation and temperature in higher altitudes. The data may be useful for ..... Effects of shade, nitrogen and potassium on cassava.

  2. Visualising the equilibrium distribution and mobility of organic contaminants in soil using the chemical partitioning space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Fiona; Wania, Frank

    2011-06-01

    Assessing the behaviour of organic chemicals in soil is a complex task as it is governed by the physical chemical properties of the chemicals, the characteristics of the soil as well as the ambient conditions of the environment. The chemical partitioning space, defined by the air-water partition coefficient (K(AW)) and the soil organic carbon-water partition coefficient (K(OC)), was employed to visualize the equilibrium distribution of organic contaminants between the air-filled pores, the pore water and the solid phases of the bulk soil and the relative importance of the three transport processes removing contaminants from soil (evaporation, leaching and particle erosion). The partitioning properties of twenty neutral organic chemicals (i.e. herbicides, pharmaceuticals, polychlorinated biphenyls and volatile chemicals) were estimated using poly-parameter linear free energy relationships and superimposed onto these maps. This allows instantaneous estimation of the equilibrium phase distribution and mobility of neutral organic chemicals in soil. Although there is a link between the major phase and the dominant transport process, such that chemicals found in air-filled pore space are subject to evaporation, those in water-filled pore space undergo leaching and those in the sorbed phase are associated with particle erosion, the partitioning coefficient thresholds for distribution and mobility can often deviate by many orders of magnitude. In particular, even a small fraction of chemical in pore water or pore air allows for evaporation and leaching to dominate over solid phase transport. Multiple maps that represent soils that differ in the amount and type of soil organic matter, water saturation, temperature, depth of surface soil horizon, and mineral matters were evaluated.

  3. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  4. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  5. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  6. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viglizzo, E.F., E-mail: evigliz@cpenet.com.ar [INTA, EEA Anguil, Grupo de Investigaciones en Gestión Ambiental (GIGA), Av. Spinetto 785, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); INCITAP-CONICET, Ruta 35, km 335, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); UNLPam, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Jobbágy, E.G. [CONICET, Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Grupo de Estudios Ambientales IMASL, Ejército de los, Andes 950, 5700 San Luis, San Luis (Argentina); Ricard, M.F. [INCITAP-CONICET, Ruta 35, km 335, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); UNLPam, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Av. Uruguay 151, 6300 Santa Rosa, La Pampa (Argentina); Paruelo, J.M. [Laboratorio de Análisis Regional y Teledetección, Departamento de Métodos Cuantitativos Sistemas de información, Facultad de Agronomía and IFEVA, Universidad de Buenos Aires and CONICET, Av. San Martín 4453, 1417 Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2016-08-15

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. - Highlights: • The partition of regulatory services in ecosystems poses a major policy challenge. • We examined how partitions occur at the hydrosphere

  7. Partition of some key regulating services in terrestrial ecosystems: Meta-analysis and review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viglizzo, E.F.; Jobbágy, E.G.; Ricard, M.F.; Paruelo, J.M.

    2016-01-01

    Our knowledge about the functional foundations of ecosystem service (ES) provision is still limited and more research is needed to elucidate key functional mechanisms. Using a simplified eco-hydrological scheme, in this work we analyzed how land-use decisions modify the partition of some essential regulatory ES by altering basic relationships between biomass stocks and water flows. A comprehensive meta-analysis and review was conducted based on global, regional and local data from peer-reviewed publications. We analyzed five datasets comprising 1348 studies and 3948 records on precipitation (PPT), aboveground biomass (AGB), AGB change, evapotranspiration (ET), water yield (WY), WY change, runoff (R) and infiltration (I). The conceptual framework was focused on ES that are associated with the ecological functions (e.g., intermediate ES) of ET, WY, R and I. ES included soil protection, carbon sequestration, local climate regulation, water-flow regulation and water recharge. To address the problem of data normality, the analysis included both parametric and non-parametric regression analysis. Results demonstrate that PPT is a first-order biophysical factor that controls ES release at the broader scales. At decreasing scales, ES are partitioned as result of PPT interactions with other biophysical and anthropogenic factors. At intermediate scales, land-use change interacts with PPT modifying ES partition as it the case of afforestation in dry regions, where ET and climate regulation may be enhanced at the expense of R and water-flow regulation. At smaller scales, site-specific conditions such as topography interact with PPT and AGB displaying different ES partition formats. The probable implications of future land-use and climate change on some key ES production and partition are discussed. - Highlights: • The partition of regulatory services in ecosystems poses a major policy challenge. • We examined how partitions occur at the hydrosphere

  8. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  9. The effect of gamma irradiation on the digestibility of organic matter of poultry excreta (In vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The changes in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter by enzyme (in vitro) for two types of the excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that there was significant (0.05) difference in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and the percentage of crude fibre between samples and the control for the types I and II before and after storage. The dry matter digestibility for types I and II increased by 7%, and the organic matter digestibility increased by 17% for type I and by 11% for type II before and after storage. The increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter is attributed to the decrease in crude fibre obtained by irradiation. The storage of excreta after drying has no effects on the rate of increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter due to irradiation in both types (I and II). (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  10. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  11. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  12. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  13. Partitioning of fluoranthene between free and bound forms in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges using passive dosing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birch, Heidi; Mayer, Philipp; Lützhøft, Hans-Christian Holten

    2012-01-01

    to dissolved organic carbon was lower than partitioning to particulate organic carbon. Partitioning of fluoranthene to particulate organic matter in the 19 stormwater samples yielded a log KPOM of 5.18. The presented results can be used in stormwater quality modeling and assessment of efficiency of stormwater......Partitioning of fluoranthene in stormwater runoff and other urban discharges was measured by a new analytical method based on passive dosing. Samples were collected at the inlet (n = 11) and outlet (n = 8) from a stormwater retention pond in Albertslund (Denmark), and for comparison samples were...... of the different stormwater samples for carrying fluoranthene was 2–23 relative to pure water and decreasing during rain events. The enhanced capacity of stormwater showed a different relationship with suspended solid concentrations than the other types of urban discharges. Partitioning of fluoranthene...

  14. Brominated flame retardants in the urban atmosphere of Northeast China: Concentrations, temperature dependence and gas-particle partitioning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qi, Hong; Li, Wen-Long; Liu, Li-Yan; Song, Wei-Wei; Ma, Wan-Li, E-mail: mawanli002@163.com; Li, Yi-Fan, E-mail: ijrc_pts_paper@yahoo.com

    2014-09-01

    57 pairs of air samples (gas and particle phases) were collected using a high volume air sampler in a typical city of Northeast China. Brominated flame retardants (BFRs) including 13 polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs, including BDEs 17, 28, 47, 49, 66, 85, 99, 100, 138, 153, 154, 183, and 209) and 9 alternative BFRs (p-TBX, PBBZ, PBT, PBEB, DPTE, HBBZ, γ-HBCD, BTBPE, and DBDPE) were analyzed. The annual average total concentrations of the 13 PBDEs and the 9 alternative BFRs were 69 pg/m{sup 3} and 180 pg/m{sup 3}, respectively. BDE 209 and γ-HBCD were the dominant congeners, according to the one-year study. The partial pressure of BFRs in the gas phase was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature, except for BDE 85, γ-HBCD and DBDPE, indicating the important influence of ambient temperature on the behavior of BFRs in the atmosphere. It was found that the gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) for most low molecular weight BFRs were highly temperature dependent as well. Gas–particle partitioning coefficients (logK{sub p}) also correlated with the sub-cooled liquid vapor pressure (logP{sub L}{sup o}). Our results indicated that absorption into organic matter is the main control mechanism for the gas–particle partitioning of atmospheric PBDEs. - Highlights: • Both PBDEs and alternative BFRs were analyzed in the atmosphere of Northeast China. • Partial pressure of BFRs was significantly correlated with the ambient temperature. • A strong temperature dependence of gas-particle partitioning was found. • Absorption into organic matter was the control mechanism for G-P partitioning.

  15. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  16. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  17. Whole plant senescence of sunflower following seedhead removal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ho, InSun; Below, F.E.

    1989-01-01

    This study was undertaken to further clarify the relationship between seed development and monocarpic senescence of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.). Field-grown plants with and without seedheads were evaluated for rate and duration of accumulation of dry weight, reduced N, and P by whole shoots, and for partitioning of these constituents within the individual plant parts. Concurrent with seedhead removal, [ 15 N]nitrate was applied to the plants in a selected are of the experimental plot. Whole plants (above ground portions) were harvested seven times during the seed-filling period and analyzed from dry weight, reduced N, and P. Although seedhead removal depressed the rates of dry weight, reduced N, and P accumulation by whole shoots, it extended the duration of accumulation of these constituents, relative to headed control plants. As a result, the final whole shoot dry weight and N and P contents at seed maturity were similar for deheaded and headed plants. Seedhead removal also affected the partitioning of dry matter, reduced N, and P but the relative proportions varied as a function of constituent and growth stage. Analysis of 15 N present in whole shoots at physiological maturity showed that similar amounts of nitrate were absorbed during the postflowering period by headed and deheaded plants. These data indicate that the absence of seeds does not affect the total accumulation of dry matter, reduced N, or P, by sunflower plants, but does alter the rates of accumulation and partitioning of these constituents

  18. Common y-intercept and single compound regressions of gas-particle partitioning data vs 1/T

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.

    Confidence intervals are placed around the log Kp vs 1/ T correlation equations obtained using simple linear regressions (SLR) with the gas-particle partitioning data set of Yamasaki et al. [(1982) Env. Sci. Technol.16, 189-194]. The compounds and groups of compounds studied include the polycylic aromatic hydrocarbons phenanthrene + anthracene, me-phenanthrene + me-anthracene, fluoranthene, pyrene, benzo[ a]fluorene + benzo[ b]fluorene, chrysene + benz[ a]anthracene + triphenylene, benzo[ b]fluoranthene + benzo[ k]fluoranthene, and benzo[ a]pyrene + benzo[ e]pyrene (note: me = methyl). For any given compound, at equilibrium, the partition coefficient Kp equals ( F/ TSP)/ A where F is the particulate-matter associated concentration (ng m -3), A is the gas-phase concentration (ng m -3), and TSP is the concentration of particulate matter (μg m -3). At temperatures more than 10°C from the mean sampling temperature of 17°C, the confidence intervals are quite wide. Since theory predicts that similar compounds sorbing on the same particulate matter should possess very similar y-intercepts, the data set was also fitted using a special common y-intercept regression (CYIR). For most of the compounds, the CYIR equations fell inside of the SLR 95% confidence intervals. The CYIR y-intercept value is -18.48, and is reasonably close to the type of value that can be predicted for PAH compounds. The set of CYIR regression equations is probably more reliable than the set of SLR equations. For example, the CYIR-derived desorption enthalpies are much more highly correlated with vaporization enthalpies than are the SLR-derived desorption enthalpies. It is recommended that the CYIR approach be considered whenever analysing temperature-dependent gas-particle partitioning data.

  19. Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Schmidt, R J; Holmes, B J; Muck, R E

    2018-05-01

    An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration. The possibility of reducing DM and quality losses during the ensiling process requires knowledge of how to measure losses on farm and establish the status of the silage during the feed-out phase, implementing the most effective management practices to avoid air exposure during conservation and reduce silage aerobic deterioration during feeding. The paper concludes with future perspectives and recommended management practices to reduce losses and increase efficiency over the whole ensiling process in view of increasing sustainability of the livestock production chain. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  20. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  1. Heavy metal distribution and partitioning in the vicinity of the discharge areas of Lisbon drainage basins (Tagus Estuary, Portugal)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Bernardo; Silva, Gilda; Costa, José Lino; Medeiros, João Paulo; Azeda, Carla; Sá, Erica; Metelo, Inês; Costa, Maria José; Caçador, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Worldwide estuarine ecosystems are by their privileged geographic location, anthropogenically impacted systems. Heavy metal contamination in estuarine waters and sediments are well known to be one of the most important outcomes driven from human activities. The partitioning of these elements has been widely focused, due to its importance not only on the estuarine biogeochemistry but also on its bioavailability to the trophic webs. As observed in other estuaries, in the Tagus basin, no increase in the partition coefficients with the increasing suspended particulate matter concentrations was observed, mostly due to a permanent dilution process of the suspended matter, rich in heavy metals and less contaminated and resuspended bottom sediments. Another important outcome of this study was the common origin of all the analysed heavy metals, probably due to the large industrialization process that the margins of the Tagus estuary suffered in the past, although no relationship was found with the presence of the different discharge areas. In fact, metal partitioning seems to be mostly influenced by the chemical species in which the pollutant is delivered to the system and on water chemistry, with a higher emphasis on the metal cycling essentially between the particulate and dissolved phase. This partitioning system acquires a relevant importance while evaluating the impacts of marine construction and the associated dredging operations, and consequent changes in the estuarine water chemistry.

  2. Safety-Critical Partitioned Software Architecture: A Partitioned Software Architecture for Robotic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, Greg; Chung, Seung H.; Cilloniz-Bicchi, Ferner

    2011-01-01

    The flight software on virtually every mission currently managed by JPL has several major flaws that make it vulnerable to potentially fatal software defects. Many of these problems can be addressed by recently developed partitioned operating systems (OS). JPL has avoided adopting a partitioned operating system on its flight missions, primarily because doing so would require significant changes in flight software design, and the risks associated with changes of that magnitude cannot be accepted by an active flight project. The choice of a partitioned OS can have a dramatic effect on the overall system and software architecture, allowing for realization of benefits far beyond the concerns typically associated with the choice of OS. Specifically, we believe that a partitioned operating system, when coupled with an appropriate architecture, can provide a strong infrastructure for developing systems for which reusability, modifiability, testability, and reliability are essential qualities. By adopting a partitioned OS, projects can gain benefits throughout the entire development lifecycle, from requirements and design, all the way to implementation, testing, and operations.

  3. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  4. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  5. 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid from Solanum somalense leaves: advantage of centrifugal partition chromatography over conventional column chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chideh, Saïda; Pilard, Serge; Attoumbré, Jacques; Saguez, Robert; Hassan-Abdallah, Alshaimaa; Cailleu, Dominique; Wadouachi, Anne; Baltora-Rosset, Sylvie

    2014-09-01

    Solanum somalense leaves, used in Djibouti for their medicinal properties, were extracted by MeOH. Because of the high polyphenol and flavonoid contents of the extract, respectively, determined at 80.80 ± 2.13 mg gallic acid equivalent/g dry weight and 24.4 ± 1.01 mg quercetin equivalent/g dry weight, the isolation and purification of the main polyphenols were carried out by silica gel column chromatography and centrifugal partition chromatography. Column chromatography led to 11 enriched fractions requiring further purification, while centrifugal partition chromatography allowed the easy recovery of the main compound of the extract. In a solvent system composed of CHCl3/MeOH/H2O (9.5:10:5), 21.8 mg of this compound at 97% purity was obtained leading to a yield of 2.63%. Its structure was established as 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid by mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopy. This work shows that S. somalense leaves contain very high level of 5-O-caffeoylshikimic acid (0.74% dry weight), making it a potential source of production of this secondary metabolite that is not commonly found in nature but could be partly responsible of the medicinal properties of S. somalense leaves. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  6. VARIATIONS IN THE SPECTRAL PROPERTIES OF FRESHWATER AND ESTUARINE CDOM CAUSED BY PARTITIONING ONTO RIVER AND ESTUARINE SEDIMENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The optical properties and geochemical cycling of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) are altered by its sorption to freshwater and estuarine sediments. Measured partition coefficients (Kp) of Satilla River (Georgia) and Cape Fear River estuary (North Carolina) CDOM ran...

  7. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  8. Polymers as reference partitioning phase: polymer calibration for an analytically operational approach to quantify multimedia phase partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gilbert, Dorothea; Witt, Gesine; Smedes, Foppe

    2016-01-01

    Polymers are increasingly applied for the enrichment of hydrophobic organic chemicals (HOCs) from various types of samples and media in many analytical partitioning-based measuring techniques. We propose using polymers as a reference partitioning phase and introduce polymer-polymer partitioning......-air) and multimedia partition coefficients (lipid-water, air-water) were calculated by applying the new concept of a polymer as reference partitioning phase and by using polymer-polymer partition coefficients as conversion factors. The present study encourages the use of polymer-polymer partition coefficients...

  9. Photosynthate partitioning in basal zones of tall fescue leaf blades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allard, G.; Nelson, C.J.

    1991-01-01

    Elongating grass leaves have successive zones of cell division, cell elongation, and cell maturation in the basal portion of the blade and are a strong sink for photosynthate. Our objective was to determine dry matter (DM) deposition and partitioning in basal zones of elongating tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) leaf blades. Vegetative tall fescue plants were grown in continuous light (350 micromoles per square meter per second photosynthetic photon flux density) to obtain a constant spatial distribution of elongation growth with time. Content and net deposition rates of water-soluble carbohydrates (WSC) and DM along elongating leaf blades were determined. These data were compared with accumulation of 14 C in the basal zones following leaf-labeling with 14 CO 2 . Net deposition of DM was highest in the active cell elongation zone, due mainly to deposition of WSC. The maturation zone, just distal to the elongation zone, accounted for 22% of total net deposition of DM in elongating leaves. However, the spatial profile of 14 C accumulation suggested that the elongation zone and the maturation zone were sinks of equal strength. WSC-free DM accounted for 55% of the total net DM deposition in elongating leaf blades, but only 10% of incoming 14 C-photosynthate accumulated in the water-insoluble fraction (WIF ∼ WSC-free DM) after 2 hours. In the maturation zone, more WSC was used for synthesis of WSC-free DM than was imported as recent photosynthate

  10. Hydro-Priming and Re-Drying Effects on Germination, Emergence ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Hydrated seeds can be re-dried for four hours without loss of physiological ..... nature of the variety as it displays heterosis, the ... characters and hence dry matter production and yield. .... effects of NaCl priming on salt tolerance in melon.

  11. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  12. Polyacrylate–water partitioning of biocidal compounds: Enhancing the understanding of biocide partitioning between render and water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollmann, Ulla E.; Ou, Yi; Mayer, Philipp

    2014-01-01

    -N-octylisothiazolinone). The correlation of the polyacrylate-water partition constants with the octanol-water partition constants is significant, but the polyacrylate-water partition constants were predominantly below octanol-water partition constants (Kow). The comparison with render-water distribution constants showed that estimating...

  13. Real-Time Measurements of Gas/Particle Partitioning of Semivolatile Organic Compounds into Different Probe Particles in a Teflon Chamber

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.; Day, D. A.; Ziemann, P. J.; Krechmer, J. E.; Jimenez, J. L.

    2017-12-01

    The partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) into and out of particles plays an essential role in secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation and evolution. Most atmospheric models treat the gas/particle partitioning as an equilibrium between bulk gas and particle phases, despite potential kinetic limitations and differences in thermodynamics as a function of SOA and pre-existing OA composition. This study directly measures the partitioning of oxidized compounds in a Teflon chamber in the presence of single component seeds of different phases and polarities, including oleic acid, squalane, dioctyl sebacate, pentaethylene glycol, dry/wet ammonium sulfate, and dry/wet sucrose. The oxidized compounds are generated by a fast OH oxidation of a series of alkanols under high nitric oxide conditions. The observed SOA mass enhancements are highest with oleic acid, and lowest with wet ammonium sulfate and sucrose. A chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) was used to measure the decay of gas-phase organic nitrates, which reflects uptake by particles and chamber walls. We observed clear changes in equilibrium timescales with varying seed concentrations and in equilibrium gas-phase concentrations across different seeds. In general, the gas evolution can be reproduced by a kinetic box model that considers partitioning and evaporation with particles and chamber walls, except for the wet sucrose system. The accommodation coefficient and saturation mass concentration of each species in the presence of each seed are derived using the model. The changes in particle size distributions and composition monitored by a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) and a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-ToF-AMS) are investigated to probe the SOA formation mechanism. Based on these results, the applicability of partitioning theory to these systems and the relevant quantitative parameters, including the dependencies on seed particle composition, will

  14. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  15. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF......) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability...

  16. Partitioning of Nanoparticles into Organic Phases and Model Cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Posner, J.D.; Westerhoff, P.; Hou, W-C.

    2011-08-25

    There is a recognized need to understand and predict the fate, transport and bioavailability of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) in aquatic and soil ecosystems. Recent research focuses on either collection of empirical data (e.g., removal of a specific NP through water or soil matrices under variable experimental conditions) or precise NP characterization (e.g. size, degree of aggregation, morphology, zeta potential, purity, surface chemistry, and stability). However, it is almost impossible to transition from these precise measurements to models suitable to assess the NP behavior in the environment with complex and heterogeneous matrices. For decades, the USEPA has developed and applies basic partitioning parameters (e.g., octanol-water partition coefficients) and models (e.g., EPI Suite, ECOSAR) to predict the environmental fate, bioavailability, and toxicity of organic pollutants (e.g., pesticides, hydrocarbons, etc.). In this project we have investigated the hypothesis that NP partition coefficients between water and organic phases (octanol or lipid bilayer) is highly dependent on their physiochemical properties, aggregation, and presence of natural constituents in aquatic environments (salts, natural organic matter), which may impact their partitioning into biological matrices (bioaccumulation) and human exposure (bioavailability) as well as the eventual usage in modeling the fate and bioavailability of ENPs. In this report, we use the terminology "partitioning" to operationally define the fraction of ENPs distributed among different phases. The mechanisms leading to this partitioning probably involve both chemical force interactions (hydrophobic association, hydrogen bonding, ligand exchange, etc.) and physical forces that bring the ENPs in close contact with the phase interfaces (diffusion, electrostatic interactions, mixing turbulence, etc.). Our work focuses on partitioning, but also provides insight into the relative behavior of ENPs as either "more like

  17. Lability of Secondary Organic Particulate Matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Pengfei; Li, Yong Jie; Wang, Yan; Giles, Mary K.; Zaveri, Rahul A.; Bertram, Allan K.; Martin, Scot T.

    2016-10-24

    Accurate simulations of the consenctrations of atmospheric organic particulate matter (PM) are needed for predicting energy flow in the Earth’s climate system. In the past, simulations of organic PM widely assume equilibrium partitioning of semivolatile organic compounds (SVOCs) between the PM and surrounding vapor. Herein, we test this assumption by measuring evaporation rates and associated vapor mass concentration of organic films representative of atmospheric PM. For films representing anthropogenic PM, evaporation rates and vapor mass concentrations increased above a threshold relative humidity (RH), indicating equilibrium partitioning above a transition RH but not below. In contrast for films representing biogenic PM, no threshold was observed, indicating equilibrium partitioning at all RHs. The results suggest that the mass lability of atmospheric organic PM can differ in consequential ways among Earth’s natural biomes, polluted regions, and regions of land-use change, and these differences need to be considered when simulating atmospheric organic PM.

  18. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  19. The complex formation-partition and partition-association models of solvent extraction of ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siekierski, S.

    1976-01-01

    Two models of the extraction process have been proposed. In the first model it is assumed that the partitioning neutral species is at first formed in the aqueous phase and then transferred into the organic phase. The second model is based on the assumption that equivalent amounts of cations are at first transferred from the aqueous into the organic phase and then associated to form a neutral molecule. The role of the solubility parameter in extraction and the relation between the solubility of liquid organic substances in water and the partition of complexes have been discussed. The extraction of simple complexes and complexes with organic ligands has been discussed using the first model. Partition coefficients have been calculated theoretically and compared with experimental values in some very simple cases. The extraction of ion pairs has been discussed using the partition-association model and the concept of single-ion partition coefficients. (author)

  20. COMPUTING VERTICES OF INTEGER PARTITION POLYTOPES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. S. Vroublevski

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a method of generating vertices of the polytopes of integer partitions that was used by the authors to calculate all vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes for all n ≤ 105 and all knapsack partitions of n ≤ 165. The method avoids generating all partitions of n. The vertices are determined with the help of sufficient and necessary conditions; in the hard cases, the well-known program Polymake is used. Some computational aspects are exposed in more detail. These are the algorithm for checking the criterion that characterizes partitions that are convex combinations of two other partitions; the way of using two combinatorial operations that transform the known vertices to the new ones; and employing the Polymake to recognize a limited number (for small n of partitions that need three or more other partitions for being convexly expressed. We discuss the computational results on the numbers of vertices and support vertices of the partition polytopes and some appealing problems these results give rise to.

  1. Abiotic partitioning of clothianidin under simulated rice field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulligan, Rebecca A; Parikh, Sanjai J; Tjeerdema, Ronald S

    2015-10-01

    Clothianidin is registered for pre- and post-flood application in Californian rice fields for control of the rice seed midge, Cricotopus sylvestris, and the rice water weevil, Lissorhoptrus oryzophilus. The objective was to characterize air-water and soil-water partitioning of clothianidin under simulated Californian rice field conditions. Clothianidin was confirmed to be non-volatile (from water) via the gas purge method, as no loss from the aqueous phase was observed at 22 and 37 °C; an upper-limit KH value was calculated at 2.9 × 10(-11) Pa m(3) mol(-1) (20 °C). Soil-water partitioning was determined by the batch equilibrium method using four soils collected from rice fields in the Sacramento Valley, and sorption affinity (Kd ), sorbent capacity, desorption and organic-carbon-normalized distribution (Koc ) were determined. Values for pH, cation exchange capacity and organic matter content ranged from 4.5 to 6.6, from 5.9 to 37.9 and from 1.25 to 1.97% respectively. The log Koc values (22 and 37 °C) ranged from 2.6 to 2.7, while sorption capacity was low at 22 °C and decreased further at 37 °C. Hysteresis was observed in soils at both temperatures, suggesting that bound residues do not readily desorb. Soil-water and air-water partitioning will not significantly reduce offsite transport of clothianidin from flooded rice fields via drainage. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  3. Quality of fresh and dry onion (Аllium cepa L. products for different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. Ф. Скалецька

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article features results of studying suitability to processing for various varieties of onion as grown in the conditions of Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. A complex assessment has been completed for fresh products of onion for 9 different varieties by the content of basic biochemical, biological, economic, organoleptic characteristics with the view of determining the most suitable for drying. Varieties are singled out , which bulbs accumulate the biggest dry matter, sugar, C vitamin content and display the highest yield of consumable products. Assessment of dry products against the set of organoleptic and technological indicators has been completed. This revealed loss of basic biochemical components of onions during drying and long-term storage of dried products, as well as established increasing of the content of dry matters and acids and decreasing of that of sugars and vitamin C while storing the dried onion. The set of examined parameters

  4. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  5. Space-partition method for the variance-based sensitivity analysis: Optimal partition scheme and comparative study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhai, Qingqing; Yang, Jun; Zhao, Yu

    2014-01-01

    Variance-based sensitivity analysis has been widely studied and asserted itself among practitioners. Monte Carlo simulation methods are well developed in the calculation of variance-based sensitivity indices but they do not make full use of each model run. Recently, several works mentioned a scatter-plot partitioning method to estimate the variance-based sensitivity indices from given data, where a single bunch of samples is sufficient to estimate all the sensitivity indices. This paper focuses on the space-partition method in the estimation of variance-based sensitivity indices, and its convergence and other performances are investigated. Since the method heavily depends on the partition scheme, the influence of the partition scheme is discussed and the optimal partition scheme is proposed based on the minimized estimator's variance. A decomposition and integration procedure is proposed to improve the estimation quality for higher order sensitivity indices. The proposed space-partition method is compared with the more traditional method and test cases show that it outperforms the traditional one

  6. Analysing surface energy balance closure and partitioning over a semi-arid savanna FLUXNET site in Skukuza, Kruger National Park, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Majozi, Nobuhle P

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available available energy (net radiation (Rn) less soil heat (G)), and the energy balance ratio (EBR). Partitioning of the surface energy during the wet and dry seasons was also investigated, as well as how it is affected by atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD...

  7. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  8. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  9. The prediction of blood-tissue partitions, water-skin partitions and skin permeation for agrochemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, Michael H; Gola, Joelle M R; Ibrahim, Adam; Acree, William E; Liu, Xiangli

    2014-07-01

    There is considerable interest in the blood-tissue distribution of agrochemicals, and a number of researchers have developed experimental methods for in vitro distribution. These methods involve the determination of saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions; not only are they indirect, but they do not yield the required in vivo distribution. The authors set out equations for gas-tissue and blood-tissue distribution, for partition from water into skin and for permeation from water through human skin. Together with Abraham descriptors for the agrochemicals, these equations can be used to predict values for all of these processes. The present predictions compare favourably with experimental in vivo blood-tissue distribution where available. The predictions require no more than simple arithmetic. The present method represents a much easier and much more economic way of estimating blood-tissue partitions than the method that uses saline-blood and saline-tissue partitions. It has the added advantages of yielding the required in vivo partitions and being easily extended to the prediction of partition of agrochemicals from water into skin and permeation from water through skin. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  10. Toxicologically important trace elements and organic compounds investigated in size-fractionated urban particulate matter collected near the Prague highway

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sysalová, J.; Sýkorová, Ivana; Havelcová, Martina; Száková, J.; Trejtnarová, Hana; Kotlík, B.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 437, October (2012), s. 127-136 ISSN 0048-9697 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA205/09/1162 Institutional support: RVO:67985891 Keywords : urban particulate matter * grain- size partitioning * grain- size partitioning Subject RIV: DI - Air Pollution ; Quality Impact factor: 3.258, year: 2012

  11. Acúmulo de matéria seca e de macronutrientes em cultivares de bananeira irrigada Accumulation of dry matter and macronutrient in cultivars of irrigated banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das quantidades de matéria seca e de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por cultivares de bananeira é importante para o desenvolvimento de uma recomendação de adubação para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as quantidades de matéria seca e de macronutrientes acumuladas e exportadas por seis cultivares de bananeiras irrigadas. Foram amostradas plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha e Gross Michel, em uma área de plantio comercial de bananeira irrigada, no município de Limoeiro do Norte - CE. Na colheita, foram escolhidas quatro famílias de cada cultivar para amostragem. A "planta-mãe" foi dividida em rizoma, pseudocaule, pecíolo, limbo, engaço e frutos. Na matéria seca dessas partes das plantas, determinaram-se os teores dos macronutrientes. As cultivares Pacovan, Prata-Anã e Pacovan-Apodi que, de modo geral, extraíram do solo as maiores quantidades de macronutrientes, foram as que acumularam quantidades mais elevadas de matéria seca. O potássio e o nitrogênio foram os macronutrientes mais acumulados e exportados pelas seis cultivares de bananeira irrigada, seguidos pelo enxofre, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo.The knowledge about the quantity of dry matter and nutrients accumulated and exported by banana is important for the development of fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of dry matter and macronutrients by six cultivars of irrigated banana crop. Plants of Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha and Gross Michel cultivars were sampled in a commercial plantation in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, state of Ceará, Brazil. At harvest, four plants of each cultivar were selected for sampling. The "mother-plant" was divided into rhizome, pseudo stem, petiole, leaf blade, stalk and fruits. In the dry matter of these parts, the contents of macronutrients were determined. The

  12. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  13. Dual Nitrate Isotopes in Dry Deposition: Utility for Partitioning Nox Source Contributions to Landscape Nitrogen Deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dry deposition is a major component of total nitrogen deposition and thus an important source of bioavailable nitrogen to ecosystems. However, relative to wet deposition, less is known regarding the sources and spatial variability of dry deposition. This is in part due to diffi...

  14. Soil-water partition coefficients for uranium and thorium: a systematic study of Tummalapalle mining site, India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalvi, Aditi; Verma, Rakesh; Kumar, Sangita D.; Reddy, A.V.R.

    2012-01-01

    The simplest and most common parameter for modeling radionuclide mobility in soils is the partition coefficient (K d ). The soil-water partition coefficient for radionuclide is affected by numerous geochemical parameters like pH, sorption to clays, presence of organic matter, iron oxides, other soil constituents and the chemical forms of the radionuclide as well as oxidation/reduction conditions and major ion chemistry. In these studies radionuclides uranium and thorium were systematically assessed for their behaviour in the soils from Tummalapalle mining site. Physico-chemical characteristics such as chemical composition, pH, CaCO 3 content and organic carbon were determined for soils and synthetic groundwater samples. Oven dried soil samples (1g) were taken in polycarbonate tube and washed with synthetic ground water till the pH of the supernatant solution remained unchanged. The soil sample was then equilibrated with 30 mL of synthetic ground water spiked with an element of interest. The pH was adjusted to its initial value by addition of small increments of dilute NaOH/HNO 3 . The tubes containing samples were gently shaken for 72 h at room temperature. On completion of the experiment, it was centrifuged using high-speed centrifugation for 30 min and the aqueous phase was separated and analysed. The blank was processed in the same manner without adding soil. Determination of U and Th in the supernatant was carried out using ICPMS. The K d of thorium was found to be two-three order of magnitude higher than that of uranium for both the soil samples assessed in this study. The presence of carbonates and organic carbon in the groundwater has a significant effect on the K d of uranium. The K d values for uranium were found to be hundred fold lower in the presence of carbonates. (author)

  15. Global observation-based diagnosis of soil moisture control on land surface flux partition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego-Elvira, Belen; Taylor, Christopher M.; Harris, Phil P.; Ghent, Darren; Veal, Karen L.; Folwell, Sonja S.

    2016-04-01

    Soil moisture plays a central role in the partition of available energy at the land surface between sensible and latent heat flux to the atmosphere. As soils dry out, evapotranspiration becomes water-limited ("stressed"), and both land surface temperature (LST) and sensible heat flux rise as a result. This change in surface behaviour during dry spells directly affects critical processes in both the land and the atmosphere. Soil water deficits are often a precursor in heat waves, and they control where feedbacks on precipitation become significant. State-of-the-art global climate model (GCM) simulations for the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5 (CMIP5) disagree on where and how strongly the surface energy budget is limited by soil moisture. Evaluation of GCM simulations at global scale is still a major challenge owing to the scarcity and uncertainty of observational datasets of land surface fluxes and soil moisture at the appropriate scale. Earth observation offers the potential to test how well GCM land schemes simulate hydrological controls on surface fluxes. In particular, satellite observations of LST provide indirect information about the surface energy partition at 1km resolution globally. Here, we present a potentially powerful methodology to evaluate soil moisture stress on surface fluxes within GCMs. Our diagnostic, Relative Warming Rate (RWR), is a measure of how rapidly the land warms relative to the overlying atmosphere during dry spells lasting at least 10 days. Under clear skies, this is a proxy for the change in sensible heat flux as soil dries out. We derived RWR from MODIS Terra and Aqua LST observations, meteorological re-analyses and satellite rainfall datasets. Globally we found that on average, the land warmed up during dry spells for 97% of the observed surface between 60S and 60N. For 73% of the area, the land warmed faster than the atmosphere (positive RWR), indicating water stressed conditions and increases in sensible heat flux

  16. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  17. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A.

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools

  18. Partitioning planning studies: Preliminary evaluation of metal and radionuclide partitioning the high-temperature thermal treatment systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liekhus, K.; Grandy, J.; Chambers, A. [and others

    1997-03-01

    A preliminary study of toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning during high-temperature processing of mixed waste has been conducted during Fiscal Year 1996 within the Environmental Management Technology Evaluation Project. The study included: (a) identification of relevant partitioning mechanisms that cause feed material to be distributed between the solid, molten, and gas phases within a thermal treatment system; (b) evaluations of existing test data from applicable demonstration test programs as a means to identify and understand elemental and species partitioning; and, (c) evaluation of theoretical or empirical partitioning models for use in predicting elemental or species partitioning in a thermal treatment system. This preliminary study was conducted to identify the need for and the viability of developing the tools capable of describing and predicting toxic metals and radionuclide partitioning in the most applicable mixed waste thermal treatment processes. This document presents the results and recommendations resulting from this study that may serve as an impetus for developing and implementing these predictive tools.

  19. Effects of sediment composition on inorganic mercury partitioning, speciation and bioavailability in oxic surficial sediments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhong Huan; Wang Wenxiong

    2008-01-01

    Artificially prepared sediments were used to assess the effects of sediment composition on inorganic Hg partitioning, speciation and bioavailability. Organic coating in sediment greatly increased the Hg partitioning and the amount of bioavailable Hg bound with the clay and the Fe and Mn oxides, but had little effect on that bound with the quartz and calcium carbonate as a result of weaker binding of humic acids and fulvic acids. The clay content increased the concentration of Hg in the sediments but inhibited the gut juice extraction due to the strong binding of Hg-organic matter (OM) complexes. Most Hg in the sediments was complexed by OM (mainly distributed in the organo-complexed phase and the strongly complexed phase), and the Hg-OM complexes (especially Hg in the strongly complexed phase) in sediments contributed much to gut juice extraction. Redistribution of Hg-OM complexes between sediments and gut juices may occur during gut juice extraction and modify Hg bioavailability and speciation in sediments. - Organic and clay contents in sediments are the two most important components controlling Hg partitioning in sediments and bioavailability

  20. Partitioning Water Vapor and Carbon Dioxide Fluxes using Correlation Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scanlon, T. M.

    2008-12-01

    A variety of methods are currently available to partition water vapor fluxes (into components of transpiration and direct evaporation) and carbon dioxide fluxes (into components of photosynthesis and respiration), using chambers, isotopes, and regression modeling approaches. Here, a methodology is presented that accounts for correlations between high-frequency measurements of water vapor (q) and carbon dioxide (c) concentrations being influenced by their non-identical source-sink distributions and the relative magnitude of their constituent fluxes. Flux-variance similarity assumptions are applied separately to the stomatal and the non-stomatal exchange, and the flux components are identified by considering the q-c correlation. Water use efficiency for the vegetation, and how it varies with respect to vapor pressure deficit, is the only input needed for this approach that uses standard eddy covariance measurements. The method is demonstrated using data collected over a corn field throughout a growing season. In particular, the research focuses on the partitioning of the water flux with the aim of improving how direct evaporation is handled in soil-vegetation- atmosphere transfer models over the course of wetting and dry-down cycles.

  1. The Euler–Riemann gases, and partition identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chair, Noureddine

    2013-01-01

    The Euler theorem in partition theory and its generalization are derived from a non-interacting quantum field theory in which each bosonic mode with a given frequency is equivalent to a sum of bosonic mode whose frequency is twice (s-times) as much, and a fermionic (parafermionic) mode with the same frequency. Explicit formulas for the graded parafermionic partition functions are obtained, and the inverse of the graded partition function (IGPPF), turns out to be bosonic (fermionic) partition function depending on the parity of the order s of the parafermions. It is also shown that these partition functions are generating functions of partitions of integers with restrictions, the Euler generating function is identified with the inverse of the graded parafermionic partition function of order 2. As a result we obtain new sequences of partitions of integers with given restrictions. If the parity of the order s is even, then mixing a system of parafermions with a system whose partition function is (IGPPF), results in a system of fermions and bosons. On the other hand, if the parity of s is odd, then, the system we obtain is still a mixture of fermions and bosons but the corresponding Fock space of states is truncated. It turns out that these partition functions are given in terms of the Jacobi theta function θ 4 , and generate sequences in partition theory. Our partition functions coincide with the overpartitions of Corteel and Lovejoy, and jagged partitions in conformal field theory. Also, the partition functions obtained are related to the Ramond characters of the superconformal minimal models, and in the counting of the Moore–Read edge spectra that appear in the fractional quantum Hall effect. The different partition functions for the Riemann gas that are the counter parts of the Euler gas are obtained by a simple change of variables. In particular the counter part of the Jacobi theta function is (ζ(2t))/(ζ(t) 2 ) . Finally, we propose two formulas which brings

  2. Hawk: A Runtime System for Partitioned Objects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ben Hassen, S.; Bal, H.E.; Tanenbaum, A.S.

    1997-01-01

    Hawk is a language-independent runtime system for writing data-parallel programs using partitioned objects. A partitioned object is a multidimensional array of elements that can be partitioned and distributed by the programmer. The Hawk runtime system uses the user-defined partitioning of objects

  3. CO2 Losses from Terrestrial Organic Matter through Photodegradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutledge, S.; Campbell, D. I.; Baldocchi, D. D.; Schipper, L. A.

    2010-12-01

    Net ecosystem exchange (NEE) is the sum of CO2 uptake by plants and CO2 losses from both living plants and dead organic matter. In all but a few ecosystem scale studies on terrestrial carbon cycling, losses of CO2 from dead organic matter are assumed to be the result of microbial respiration alone. Here we provide evidence for an alternative, previously largely underestimated mechanism for ecosystem-scale CO2 emissions. The process of photodegradation, the direct breakdown of organic matter by solar radiation, was found to contribute substantially to the ecosystem scale CO2 losses at both a bare peatland in New Zealand, and a summer-dead grassland in California. Comparisons of daytime eddy covariance (EC) data with data collected at the same time using an opaque chamber and the CO2 soil gradient technique, or with night-time EC data collected during similar moisture and temperature conditions were used to quantify the direct effect of exposure of organic matter to solar radiation. At a daily scale, photodegradation contributed up to 62% and 92% of summer mid-day CO2 fluxes at the de-vegetated peatland and at the grassland during the dry season, respectively. Irradiance-induced CO2 losses were estimated to be 19% of the total annual CO2 loss at the peatland, and almost 60% of the dry season CO2 loss at the grassland. Small-scale measurements using a transparent chamber confirmed that CO2 emissions from air-dried peat and grass occurred within seconds of exposure to light when microbial activity was inhibited. Our findings imply that photodegradation could be important for many ecosystems with exposed soil organic matter, litter and/or standing dead material. Potentially affected ecosystems include sparsely vegetated arid and semi-arid ecosystems (e.g. shrublands, savannahs and other grasslands), bare burnt areas, agricultural sites after harvest or cultivation (especially if crop residues are left on the surface), deciduous forests after leaf fall, or ecosystems

  4. [On the partition of acupuncture academic schools].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Pengyan; Luo, Xi; Xia, Youbing

    2016-05-01

    Nowadays extensive attention has been paid on the research of acupuncture academic schools, however, a widely accepted method of partition of acupuncture academic schools is still in need. In this paper, the methods of partition of acupuncture academic schools in the history have been arranged, and three typical methods of"partition of five schools" "partition of eighteen schools" and "two-stage based partition" are summarized. After adeep analysis on the disadvantages and advantages of these three methods, a new method of partition of acupuncture academic schools that is called "three-stage based partition" is proposed. In this method, after the overall acupuncture academic schools are divided into an ancient stage, a modern stage and a contemporary stage, each schoolis divided into its sub-school category. It is believed that this method of partition can remedy the weaknesses ofcurrent methods, but also explore a new model of inheritance and development under a different aspect through thedifferentiation and interaction of acupuncture academic schools at three stages.

  5. Analysis of load balance in hybrid partitioning | Talib | Botswana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In information retrieval systems, there are three types of index partitioning schemes - term partitioning, document partitioning, and hybrid partitioning. The hybrid-partitioning scheme combines both term and document partitioning schemes. Term partitioning provides high concurrency, which means that queries can be ...

  6. Growth and physiological characteristics of the weed false johnsongrass ( Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deborah Amorim Martins

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf is a weed that belongs to the Poaceae family and is widespread throughout Brazil. Despite the frequent occurrence, infesting cultivated areas, there is little research concerning the biology and physiology of this species. The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth, carbon partitioning and physiological characteristics of the weed Sorghum arundinaceum in greenhouse. Plants were collected at regular intervals of seven days, from 22 to 113 days after transplanting (DAT. In each sample, we determined plant height, root volume, leaf area and dry matter, and subsequently we perfomed the growth analysis, we have determined the dry matter partitioning among organs, the accumulation of dry matter, the specific leaf area, the relative growth rate and leaf weight ratio. At 36, 78 and 113 DAT, the photosynthetic and transpiration rates, stomatal conductance, CO2 concentration and chlorophyll fluorescence were evaluated. The Sorghum arundinaceum reached 1.91 in height, with slow initial growth and allocated much of the biomass in the roots. The photosynthetic rate and the maximum quantum yield of FSII are similar throughout the growth cycle. At maturity the Sorghum arundinaceum presents higher values of transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (NPQ.

  7. Drying-induced physico-chemical changes in cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Honke, Joanna; Ciska, Ewa; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2018-02-01

    Sugar-free cranberry juice (XAD) and juice with 15% of maltodextrin were dried by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Total phenolics (589-6435mg/kg dry matter) including 5 flavonols, 3 phenolic acids, 2 procyanidins and 5 anthocyanins were stronger affected by juice formulation than by drying methods. Spray drying of juice, regardless of its formulation, was competitive to freeze drying in terms of polyphenols' retention. Increase in temperature up to 100°C during vacuum drying of XAD extracts resulted in degradation of polyphenolics (down to 4%), except chlorogenic acid. Its content increased with rise in temperature and accelerated hydroxymethylfurfural formation. The stronger the impact of drying, the more chlorogenic acid is present in cranberry products. In all powders analysed, formation of furoylmethyl amino acids was noted. Antioxidant capacity of cranberry products was influenced by juice formulation and was linked to content of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  9. A simulation study on the interactive effects of radiation and plant density on growth of cut chrysanthemum

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lee, J.H.; Heuvelink, E.; Challa, H.

    2002-01-01

    In the present study, we used a photosynthesis-driven crop growth model to determine acceptable plant densities for cut chrysanthemum throughout the year at different intensities of supplementary light. Dry matter partitioning between leaves, stems, and flowers was simulated as a function of crop

  10. Low-airflow drying of fungicide-treated shelled corn

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, W.H.; Benson, P.W.

    1993-02-01

    Approved fungicides inhibit mold growth in shelled corn and allow for longer, natural-air drying. The longer drying periods permit lower than-normal airflows and smaller power units, thus reducing electrical demands on utilities in corn-producing states. Researchers placed approximately 67 m 3 (1900 bu) of one variety of shelled corn at approximately 24% moisture in each of five equally sized storage bins. They partitioned each bin vertically and filled one half of each bin with fungicide-treated corn and one half with untreated corn. Each of four bins used a different airflow. A fifth bin used the lowest of the four airflows but was equipped to capture and use solar energy. All corn dried rapidly with resulting good quality. The percentage of damaged kernels was significantly higher for untreated than for treated corn. The energy required for the lowest airflow system was approximately one half of that required for the higher, more traditional airflows. Because of lower-than-normal airflows, the electrical demand on the utility is approximately one fourth as great as that imposed when the higher, more traditional natural-air systems are used. The 1991 corn growing and drying seasons were unusual in central Illinois, the site of the study. Both harvest and drying occurred several weeks ahead of schedule. Additional work is needed to verify that findings hold true during more-normal Midwest corn growing and drying seasons; the investigators predict that they will. It should be noted that the fungicide used in this study has not yet been approved for widespread use in drying corn

  11. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  12. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  13. Partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolda, T.G.

    1998-05-01

    The authors are interested in partitioning sparse rectangular matrices for parallel processing. The partitioning problem has been well-studied in the square symmetric case, but the rectangular problem has received very little attention. They will formalize the rectangular matrix partitioning problem and discuss several methods for solving it. They will extend the spectral partitioning method for symmetric matrices to the rectangular case and compare this method to three new methods -- the alternating partitioning method and two hybrid methods. The hybrid methods will be shown to be best.

  14. A brief history of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debnath, Lokenath

    2016-04-01

    'Number rules the universe.' The Pythagoras 'If you wish to forsee the future of mathematics our course is to study the history and present conditions of the science.' Henri Poincaré 'The primary source (Urqell) of all mathematics are integers.' Hermann Minkowski This paper is written to commemorate the centennial anniversary of the Mathematical Association of America. It deals with a short history of different kinds of natural numbers including triangular, square, pentagonal, hexagonal and k-gonal numbers, and their simple properties and their geometrical representations. Included are Euclid's and Pythagorean's main contributions to elementary number theory with the main contents of the Euclid Elements of the 13-volume masterpiece of mathematical work. This is followed by Euler's new discovery of the additive number theory based on partitions of numbers. Special attention is given to many examples, Euler's theorems on partitions of numbers with geometrical representations of Ferrers' graphs, Young's diagrams, Lagrange's four-square theorem and the celebrated Waring problem. Included are Euler's generating functions for the partitions of numbers, Euler's pentagonal number theorem, Gauss' triangular and square number theorems and the Jacobi triple product identity. Applications of the theory of partitions of numbers to different statistics such as the Bose- Einstein, Fermi- Dirac, Gentile, and Maxwell- Boltzmann statistics are briefly discussed. Special attention is given to pedagogical information through historical approach to number theory so that students and teachers at the school, college and university levels can become familiar with the basic concepts of partitions of numbers, partition functions and their modern applications, and can pursue advanced study and research in analytical and computational number theory.

  15. Carbon and nitrogen partitioning during the post-anthesis period is conditioned by N fertilisation and sink strength in three cereals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aranjuelo, I; Cabrera-Bosquet, L; Araus, J L; Nogués, S

    2013-01-01

    Further knowledge of the processes conditioning nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) is of great relevance to crop productivity. The aim of this paper was characterise C and N partitioning during grain filling and their implications for NUE. Cereals such as bread wheat (Triticum aestivum L. cv Califa sur), triticale (× Triticosecale Wittmack cv. Imperioso) and tritordeum (× Tritordeum Asch. & Graebn line HT 621) were grown under low (LN, 5 mm NH(4) NO(3)) and high (HN, 15 mm NH(4)NO(3)) N conditions. We conducted simultaneous double labelling ((12)CO(2) and (15)NH(4) (15)NO(3)) in order to characterise C and N partitioning during grain filling. Although triticale plants showed the largest total and ear dry matter values in HN conditions, the large investment in shoot and root biomass negatively affected ear NUE. Tritordeum was the only genotype that increased NUE in both N treatments (NUE(total)), whereas in wheat, no significant effect was detected. N labelling revealed that N fertilisation during post-anthesis was more relevant for wheat and tritordeum grain filling than for triticale. The study also revealed that the investments of C and N in flag leaves and shoots, together with the 'waste' of photoassimilates in respiration, conditioned the NUE of plants, and especially under LN. These results suggest that C and N use by these plants needs to be improved in order to increase ear C and N sinks, especially under LN. It is also remarkable that even though tritordeum shows the largest increase in NUE, the low yield of this cereal limits its agronomic value. © 2012 German Botanical Society and The Royal Botanical Society of the Netherlands.

  16. New Linear Partitioning Models Based on Experimental Water: Supercritical CO2 Partitioning Data of Selected Organic Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burant, Aniela; Thompson, Christopher; Lowry, Gregory V; Karamalidis, Athanasios K

    2016-05-17

    Partitioning coefficients of organic compounds between water and supercritical CO2 (sc-CO2) are necessary to assess the risk of migration of these chemicals from subsurface CO2 storage sites. Despite the large number of potential organic contaminants, the current data set of published water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients is very limited. Here, the partitioning coefficients of thiophene, pyrrole, and anisole were measured in situ over a range of temperatures and pressures using a novel pressurized batch-reactor system with dual spectroscopic detectors: a near-infrared spectrometer for measuring the organic analyte in the CO2 phase and a UV detector for quantifying the analyte in the aqueous phase. Our measured partitioning coefficients followed expected trends based on volatility and aqueous solubility. The partitioning coefficients and literature data were then used to update a published poly parameter linear free-energy relationship and to develop five new linear free-energy relationships for predicting water-sc-CO2 partitioning coefficients. A total of four of the models targeted a single class of organic compounds. Unlike models that utilize Abraham solvation parameters, the new relationships use vapor pressure and aqueous solubility of the organic compound at 25 °C and CO2 density to predict partitioning coefficients over a range of temperature and pressure conditions. The compound class models provide better estimates of partitioning behavior for compounds in that class than does the model built for the entire data set.

  17. [Effect of antecedent dry period on water quality of urban storm runoff pollution].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bian, Bo

    2009-12-01

    Identified the main factor influencing urban rainfall-runoff pollution provides a scientific basis for urban rainfall-runoff pollution control and management. Therefore, starting in May 2006, a study was conducted to characterize water quality from representative land uses types in Zhenjiang to analyse the effect of antecedent dry period on stormwater runoff quality. The results show that the beginning of rainfall, with the increase of antecedent dry periods, the percentages of less than 40 microm is increased, the correlation of the water quality parameters (TN, TP, Zn, Pb, Cu, TSS and COD) and antecedent dry period shows a significant positive correlation, dissolved pollutants in the initial period surface runoff is increased. These findings show that facilitating the recognition of antecedent dry periods is the main factor influencing the change in concentration and partitioning of pollutants to provide the scientific basis for non-point source pollution control and management.

  18. Experimental determination of trace-element partitioning between pargasite and a synthetic hydrous andesitic melt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brenan, J. M.; Shaw, H. F.; Ryerson, F. J.; Phinney, D. L.

    1995-10-01

    In order to more fully establish a basis for quantifying the role of amphibole in trace-element fractionation processes, we have measured pargasite/silicate melt partitioning of a variety of trace elements (Rb, Ba, Nb, Ta, Hf, Zr, Ce, Nd, Sm, Yb), including the first published values for U, Th and Pb. Experiments conducted at 1000°C and 1.5 GPa yielded large crystals free of compositional zoning. Partition coefficients were found to be constant at total concentrations ranging from ˜ 1 to > 100 ppm, indicating Henry's Law is oparative over this interval. Comparison of partition coefficients measured in this study with previous determinations yields good agreement for similar compositions at comparable pressure and temperature. The compatibility of U, Th and Pb in amphibole decreases in the order Pb > Th > U. Partial melting or fractional crystallization of amphibole-bearing assemblages will therefore result in the generation of excesses in 238U activity relative to 230Th, similar in magnitude to that produced by clinopyroxene. The compatibility of Pb in amphibole relative to U or Th indicates that melt generation in the presence of residual amphibole will result in the long-term enrichment in Pb relative to U or Th in the residue. This process is therefore incapable of producing the depletion in Pb relative to U or Th inferred from the Pb isotopic composition of MORB and OIB. Comparison of partition coefficients measured in this study with previous values for clinopyroxene allows some distinction to be made between expected trace-element fractionations produced during dry (cpx present) and wet (cpx + amphibole present) melting. Rb, Ba, Nb and Ta are dramatically less compatible in clinopyroxene than in amphibole, whereas Th, U, Hf and Zr have similar compatibilities in both phases. Interelement fractionations, such as DNb/DBa are also different for clinopyroxene and amphibole. Changes in certain ratios, such as Ba/Nb, Ba/Th, and Nb/Th within comagmatic suites may

  19. Partitioning and distribution of dissolved copper, cadmium and organic matter in Mediterranean marine coastal areas: The case of a mucilage event

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scoullos, Michael; Plavšić, Marta; Karavoltsos, Sotiris; Sakellari, Aikaterini

    2006-04-01

    Dissolved copper and cadmium partitioning and their interaction with organic matter were investigated in shallow coastal areas of the Aegean Sea (Eastern Mediterranean). The percentage of DGT-labile copper as for total dissolved copper ranged from 13 to 34% during summer and from 23 to 36% during winter, whereas the corresponding percentage for DGT-labile cadmium was higher in summer (38-68%), in comparison to winter (29-44%). The CCu was found to be 100-260 nM during summer while in winter the range was 42-430 nM. The corresponding CCd reached 27 and 45 nM, respectively. The mean TEP value in summer was high (208 μg/L xanthan equiv.), while in winter it reached 441 μg/L xanthan equiv., which indicates significant phytoplankton activity in winter, a feature occasionally observed in the stratified study areas after the breaking down of the thermocline/pycnocline, followed by consequent nutrient enrichment of the surface layers by nutrients accumulated in the sea bottom. A significant fraction of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) exhibited surface active properties and was determined as surface active substances (SAS) in mg/L eq. of nonionic surfactant Triton-X-100. Carbohydrates were also determined and they represented up to 33% of the DOC.

  20. Girdling and summer pruning in apple increase soil respiration

    Science.gov (United States)

    The root system of plants derives all its energy from photosynthate translocated from the canopy to the root system. Canopy manipulations that alter either the rate of canopy photosynthesis or the translocation of photosynthate are expected to alter dry matter partitioning to the root system. Fiel...

  1. Effect of drying on the desorption of diuron and terbuthylazine from natural soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lennartz, Bernd [Institute for Land Use, Rostock University, Justus-von-Liebig-Weg 6, D-18051 Rostock (Germany)]. E-mail: bernd.lennartz@uni-rostock.de; Louchart, Xavier [Laboratory on Interactions between Soils, Agrosystems and Hydrosystems (LISAH), National Institute for Agricultural Research (INRA), 2 place Viala, 34060 Montpellier Cedex 1 (France)

    2007-03-15

    This work was initiated to study the effects of climate induced soil water status variations which can reach extreme values under natural conditions on the sorption process of hydrophobic organic compounds. Based on the classical slurry batch methodology an approach is developed that allows the fast and careful complete drying of soil suspensions (microwave technique). Classical adsorption experiments were followed by three desorption steps with and without drying cycles. Drying and re-wetting enhanced the sorption-desorption hysteresis and Freundlich adsorption coefficients increased from 5.9 to 16 and 5.2 to 21 over three drying cycles for diuron and terbuthylazine respectively. Assuming the validity of a dual stage adsorption process, model evaluation suggests that drying is as a shrinking-like process leading to conformational changes of the dominant sorbent (soil organic matter) which restrict the intra-micro-particle diffusion. Rewetting only leads to a partial recovery of the diffusional pore space. - Drying of soil samples increased the binding of herbicidal compounds which is interpreted as a reduction of diffusional mass transfer into and out of the soil organic matter.

  2. Effect of drying on the desorption of diuron and terbuthylazine from natural soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lennartz, Bernd; Louchart, Xavier

    2007-01-01

    This work was initiated to study the effects of climate induced soil water status variations which can reach extreme values under natural conditions on the sorption process of hydrophobic organic compounds. Based on the classical slurry batch methodology an approach is developed that allows the fast and careful complete drying of soil suspensions (microwave technique). Classical adsorption experiments were followed by three desorption steps with and without drying cycles. Drying and re-wetting enhanced the sorption-desorption hysteresis and Freundlich adsorption coefficients increased from 5.9 to 16 and 5.2 to 21 over three drying cycles for diuron and terbuthylazine respectively. Assuming the validity of a dual stage adsorption process, model evaluation suggests that drying is as a shrinking-like process leading to conformational changes of the dominant sorbent (soil organic matter) which restrict the intra-micro-particle diffusion. Rewetting only leads to a partial recovery of the diffusional pore space. - Drying of soil samples increased the binding of herbicidal compounds which is interpreted as a reduction of diffusional mass transfer into and out of the soil organic matter

  3. Development of partitioning method : cold experiment with partitioning test facility in NUCEF (I)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Isoo; Morita, Yasuji; Kondo, Yasuo

    1996-03-01

    A test facility in which about 1.85 x 10 14 Bq of high-level liquid waste can be treated has been completed in 1994 at Nuclear Fuel Cycle Safety Engineering Research Facility (NUCEF) for research and development of Partitioning Method. The outline of the partitioning test facility and support equipments for it which were design terms, constructions, arrangements, functions and inspections were given in JAERI-Tech 94-030. The present report describes the results of the water transfer test and partitioning tests, which are methods of precipitation by denitration, oxalate precipitation, solvent extraction, and adsorption with inorganic ion exchanger, using nitric acid to master operation method of the test facility. As often as issues related to equipments occurred during the tests, they were improved. As to issues related to processes such as being stopped up of columns, their measures of solution were found by testing in laboratories. They were reflected in operation of the Partitioning Test Facility. Their particulars and improving points were described in this report. (author)

  4. Effects of canopy light distribution characteristics and leaf nitrogen content on efficiency of radiation use in dry matter accumulation of soybean [Glycine max] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Hashikawa, U.; Taka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of dry matter produced per photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by the canopy (EPAR) and factors which might affect EPAR were determined for various soybean cultivars, and their relationships were also analyzed in two field experiments. In 1989 and 1990, 11 cultivars and 27 cultivars respectively, were grown on an experimental field in shiga Prefectural Junior College. Changes of intercepted PAR, top dry matter weight, light extinction coefficient (KPAR), nitrogen content per leaf area (SLN) and nitrogen accumulation in the top (1990 only) were measured. EPAR averaged for all the cultivars was 2.48g MJ(-1) in both years and its coefficient of variance among cultivars was +- 9% in 1989 and +- 17% in 1990. In general, recent cultivars showed greater EPAR than older ones. The correlation coefficients between SLN and EPAR were 0.548 in 1989 and 0.651-- in 1990, while there was no correlation between KPAR and EPAR. Since SLN showed close correlation with SLW (r = 0.954 in 1989, r = 0.170-- in 1990), the difference in EPAR between old and new cultivars was considered to be attributable mainly to the improved leaf morphological trait and consequently greater leaf photosynthesis of newer cultivars. SLN further correlated with total top nitrogen content (r = 0.736-- in 1990) thus seemed to be limited by nitrogen accumulation

  5. Purification of biomaterials by phase partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A technique which is particularly suited to microgravity environments and which is potentially more powerful than electrophoresis is phase partitioning. Phase partitioning is purification by partitioning between the two immiscible aqueous layers formed by solution of the polymers poly(ethylene glycol) and dextran in water. This technique proved to be very useful for separations in one-g but is limited for cells because the cells are more dense than the phase solutions thus tend to sediment to the bottom of the container before reaching equilibrium with the preferred phase. There are three phases to work in this area: synthesis of new polymers for affinity phase partitioning; development of automated apparatus for ground-based separations; and design of apparatus for performing simple phase partitioning space experiments, including examination of mechanisms for separating phases in the absence of gravity.

  6. Betweenness-based algorithm for a partition scale-free graph

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Bai-Da; Wu Jun-Jie; Zhou Jing; Tang Yu-Hua

    2011-01-01

    Many real-world networks are found to be scale-free. However, graph partition technology, as a technology capable of parallel computing, performs poorly when scale-free graphs are provided. The reason for this is that traditional partitioning algorithms are designed for random networks and regular networks, rather than for scale-free networks. Multilevel graph-partitioning algorithms are currently considered to be the state of the art and are used extensively. In this paper, we analyse the reasons why traditional multilevel graph-partitioning algorithms perform poorly and present a new multilevel graph-partitioning paradigm, top down partitioning, which derives its name from the comparison with the traditional bottom—up partitioning. A new multilevel partitioning algorithm, named betweenness-based partitioning algorithm, is also presented as an implementation of top—down partitioning paradigm. An experimental evaluation of seven different real-world scale-free networks shows that the betweenness-based partitioning algorithm significantly outperforms the existing state-of-the-art approaches. (interdisciplinary physics and related areas of science and technology)

  7. Measuring seasonal variations of moisture in a landfill with the partitioning gas tracer test

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Han, Byunghyun; Jafarpour, Behnam; Gallagher, Victoria N.; Imhoff, Paul T.; Chiu, Pei C.; Fluman, Daniel A.

    2006-01-01

    Seven pilot-scale partitioning gas tracer tests (PGTTs) were conducted to assess the accuracy and reproducibility of this method for measuring water in municipal solid waste landfills. Tests were conducted in the same location over a 12-month period, and measured moisture conditions ranged from possible dry waste to refuse with a moisture content of 24.7%. The final moisture content of 24.7% was in reasonable agreement with gravimetric measurements of excavated refuse, where the moisture content was 26.5 ± 6.0CI%. Laboratory tests were used to assess the utility of the PGTT for measuring water in small pores, water sorbed to solid surfaces, and the influence of dry waste on PGTTs. These experiments indicated that when refuse surfaces are not completely solvated with water, PGTTs may produce misleading results (negative estimates) of water saturation and moisture content

  8. Partition of iodine (129I and 127I) isotopes in soils and marine sediments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Violeta; Roos, Per; Aldahan, Ala

    2011-01-01

    Natural organic matter, such as humic and fulvic acids and humin, plays a key role in determining the fate and mobility of radioiodine in soil and sediments. The radioisotope 129I is continuously produced and released from nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, and as a biophilic element, its......–60% of the total 129I are associated with organic matter in soil and sediment samples. At a soil/sediment pH below 5.0–5.5, 127I and 129I in the organic fraction associate primarily with the humic acid while at soil/sediment pH > 6 129I was mostly found to be bound to fulvic acid. Anoxic conditions seem...... environmental mobility is strongly linked to organic matter. Due to its long half-life (15.7 million years), 129I builds up in the environment and can be traced since the beginning of the nuclear era in reservoirs such as soils and marine sediments. Nevertheless, partition of the isotope between the different...

  9. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  10. Photosynthate partitioning and nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shieh, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    Nodule mass and number are usually correlated with rates of nitrogen fixation in legumes. Birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) with more than twice the nodule number and mass, however, fixes far less nitrogen than alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) at the same age. In this research, photosynthesis and photosynthate partitioning and utilization in relation to nitrogen fixation of alfalfa and birdsfoot trefoil were examined in order to determine their relationship to nitrogen fixation potential. Photosynthate to nodules was studied using 14 CO 2 labeling techniques. Partitioning patterns were altered by shading and dark depletion treatments. Efficiency of photosynthate utilization was examined by determining turnover of 14 C photosynthate in nodule metabolites and by studying rates of cyanide-resistant and cyanide-sensitive O 2 uptake. Alfalfa nodule activity was greater than trefoil expressed on a hole pot or nodule dry weight basis. Both shading and dark treatments significantly reduced nodule activity as estimated by the acetylene reduction assay. Shoots of both species were found to be the dominant sinks for photosynthate. Percentage 14 C recovered in alfalfa roots was more than twice that of trefoil at 1,2,3,4 and 24 h after labeling. Greater relative specific radioactivity (RSA) in nodules of both species suggests that they were stronger sinks for current photosynthate than roots

  11. Effect of lentil cultivar on N2 fixation and N partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Kalifa, K.; Al-Shamma, M.

    1996-12-01

    The study conducted on five lentil cultivars. the results showed that dry matter production, nodulation and N sup 2 fixation were influenced by the cultivar. Beyond flowering, N sup 2 fixation, soil N uptake, and N and P remobilization differed by the cultivar. (author). 32 Refs., 7 Figs., 9 Tabs

  12. The effects of dietary nitrogen to water-soluble carbohydrate ratio on isotopic fractionation and partitioning of nitrogen in non-lactating sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, L; Nicol, A M; Dewhurst, R J; Edwards, G R

    2013-08-01

    The main objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between partitioning and isotopic fractionation of nitrogen (N) in sheep consuming diets with varying ratios of N to water-soluble carbohydrate (WSC). Six non-lactating sheep were offered a constant dry matter (DM) allowance with one of three ratios of dietary N/WSC, achieved by adding sucrose and urea to lucerne pellets. A replicated 3 dietary treatments (Low, Medium and High N/WSC) × 3 (collection periods) and a Latin square design was used, with two sheep assigned to each treatment in each period. Feed, faeces, urine, plasma, wool, muscle and liver samples were collected and analysed for ¹⁵N concentration. Nitrogen intake and outputs in faeces and urine were measured for each sheep using 6-day total collections. Blood urea N (BUN) and urinary excretion of purine derivative were also measured. Treatment effects were tested using general ANOVA; the relationships between measured variables were analysed by linear regression. BUN and N intake increased by 46% and 35%, respectively, when N/WSC increased 2.5-fold. However, no indication of change in microbial protein synthesis was detected. Results indicated effects of dietary treatments on urinary N/faecal N, faecal N/N intake and retained N/N intake. In addition, the linear relationships between plasma δ¹⁵N and urinary N/N intake and muscle δ¹⁵N and retained N/N intake based on individual measurements showed the potential of using N isotopic fractionation as an easy-to-use indicator of N partitioning when N supply exceeds that required to match energy supply in the diet.

  13. Plane partition vesicles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rensburg, E J Janse van; Ma, J

    2006-01-01

    We examine partitions and their natural three-dimensional generalizations, plane partitions, as models of vesicles undergoing an inflation-deflation transition. The phase diagrams of these models include a critical point corresponding to an inflation-deflation transition, and exhibits multicritical scaling in the vicinity of a multicritical point located elsewhere on the critical curve. We determine the locations of the multicritical points by analysing the generating functions using analytic and numerical means. In addition, we determine the numerical values of the multicritical scaling exponents associated with the multicritical scaling regimes in these models

  14. The importance of applying an appropriate data partitioning

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2015-01-01

    In this presentation are described specific technical solutions put in place in various database applications of the ATLAS experiment at LHC where we make use of several partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL procedures and scheduler jobs to sustain data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the new Oracle 11g reference partitioning in the ATLAS Nightly Build System to achieve uniform data segmentation. However the most challenging was to segment the data of the new ATLAS Distributed Data Management system, which resulted in tens of thousands list type partitions and sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate physical model for the application data management. The so-far accumulated knowledge wi...

  15. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L.; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J.

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  16. Partitioning and transmutation (P and T) 1997. Status report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Enarsson, Aasa; Landgren, A.; Liljenzin, J.O.; Skaalberg, M.; Spjuth, L. [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry; Gudowski, W.; Wallenius, J. [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear and Reactor Physics

    1998-05-01

    Research on and the evaluation of partitioning and transmutation are currently in progress in many industrial countries due to its potential as a long-term, sustainable energy source with low environmental impact and due to its ability to destroy many long-lived nuclides. The cost of the research and development work on partitioning and transmutation is considered to be so great that international co-operation is required. With respect to Sweden, we recommend a balanced research work on both partitioning and transmutation technology. Within the area of partitioning, it is above all a question of locating new reagents which can be used to simplify the necessary partitioning processes and minimize the losses. The requirements with respect to high selectivity and minor losses will be significantly higher in a recirculating system based on transmutation than in the reprocessing facilities of today where only uranium and plutonium are recovered. If the utilized reagents can be easily destroyed, by dry or wet incineration and conversion into non-complex gaseous chemical compounds, this will open up good opportunities for the recovery of the radionuclides. From a purely technical standpoint, it would seem that a combination of different types of reactor systems would give the best possible transmutation efficiency. While existing light water reactors can be utilized for increased plutonium incineration, there is currently consensus about the view that reactors with high-energy neutrons are necessary to achieve a sufficiently high transmutation efficiency for neptunium, americium, curium and certain fission products. By allowing an accelerator-based neutron source to drive a subcritical heavy metal-cooled reactor, the potential for transmutation of fission products is increased, at the same time that satisfactory safety margins are achieved for certain fuel types with a low share of delayed neutrons and a high heat conductivity. Regardless of what types of systems are

  17. Genetic variation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of double haploid wheat lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Milkova, V.; Ivanov, P.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study considers the genotype peculiarities in the dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in plant parts during the different stages of 10 DH wheat lines characterized as initial breeding material of high quality. These were obtained from 2 crosses - 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-4 and 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-24. Considerable genotype variations were established both between the lines and the parental forms, and in comparison to the standard quality variety Slavyanka-196. Lines 41-191 and 41-344 are of special interest because of their high grain yield and high intensity of biomass accumulation (kg/dka/day) and high intensity of nitrogen uptake (g/dka/day) mainly in the second half of the grain filling period. These fines stand out among the new DH fines with their high protein yields. In line 41-181 the ratio NHI/GHI changes positively with a high degree of certainty in both phases of grain maturity. This line is characterized with the highest value of nitrogen (mg) in vegetation mass per unit mature grain. A positive correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio and protein content in grain. Line 41-344 is the most economic one with regard to nitrogen formation per 100 kg grain with the lowest expense for formation of the respective quantity of straw. Refs. 5 (author)

  18. Partitioning behaviour of trace elements in a stoker-fired combustion unit : An example using bituminous coals from the Greymouth coalfield (Cretaceous), New Zealand

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Moore, T.A.; Weaver, S.D. [University of Canterbury, Department of Geological Science, Christchurch (New Zealand); Clemens, A.H.; Gong, D. [CRL Energy Ltd, PO Box 31 244, Lower Hutt (New Zealand); Eby, N. [Department of Environmental, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Lowell, MA 01854 (United States)

    2005-07-20

    In order to understand trace element behaviour during combustion of coals from the Greymouth coalfield, combustion tests were performed on three seam composite samples. The major and trace elements from sub-samples of feed coal, bottom ash, fly ash, and flue gas were analysed by different techniques including inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES), wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence (WD-XRF), and scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive X-ray analyser (SEM-EDXA). To help better understand trace element partitioning in combustion ash, float-sink and sequential leaching experiments were also employed to determine the association of trace elements with mineral matter or organic matter. Instrumental Neutron Activation Analysis (INAA) was also employed to determine trace element content in float and sink fractions of fly ash as well as in three major phases in the bottom ash. The partitioning behaviour of trace elements, including some that are environmentally sensitive, was also investigated through the use of float-sink tests and direct determination of trace elements in different combustion ash types and phases. Mass balance and partitioning of major and trace elements have been studied to determine the fate of trace elements after combustion. The partitioning of trace elements, especially hazardous air pollutants (HAPs), in different combustion ashes can be summarised as follows:1.Most trace elements, especially As, Ba, Co, Cr, Mn, Ni, are partitioned in the glassy and refractory bottom ash fractions. 2.A significant proportion of trace elements of As, Se, and Pb are partitioned into fly ash fractions. 3.Some volatile elements (e.g. > 90% of S and Hg and up to 64% of Cl) and, to a lesser extent, B (up to 44%) and Cd (up to 50%) are partitioned in the flue gas fraction. 4.Although the low ash yield of Greymouth coal seams have the advantage of generating less solid

  19. Comparison of Solid-Water Partitions of Radiocesium in River Waters in Fukushima and Chernobyl Areas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Yoshio; Fan, Qiaohui; Suga, Hiroki; Tanaka, Kazuya; Sakaguchi, Aya; Takeichi, Yasuo; Ono, Kanta; Mase, Kazuhiko; Kato, Kenji; Kanivets, Vladimir V

    2017-09-29

    Adsorption of radiocesium (RCs) on particulate matters in aquatic environment is important to understand its mobility and bioavailability. We here focused on factors controlling partition of RCs on particulate matters and sediments in Kuchibuto (Fukushima) and Pripyat (Chernobyl) Rivers, though RCs level in water was much smaller than WHO guideline. Moreover, Cs speciation and organic matter-clay mineral interaction were studied: (i) extended X-ray absorption fine structure showed that the contribution of outer-sphere complex of Cs on particulate matters is larger in Chernobyl than in Fukushima and (ii) scanning transmission X-ray microscope revealed larger association of humic substances and clay minerals in Chernobyl partly due to high [Ca 2+ ] in the Pripyat River. Consequently, RCs is more soluble in the Pripyat River due to weaker interaction of RCs with clay minerals caused by the inhibition effect of the adsorbed humic substances. In contrast, particulate matters and sediments in the Kuchibuto River display high adsorption affinity with lesser inhibition effect of adsorbed humic substances. This difference is possibly governed by the geology and soil type of provenances surrounding both catchments (Fukushima: weathered granite; Chernobyl: peat wetland and carbonate platform) which leads to high concentrations of organic matter and Ca 2+ in the Pripyat River.

  20. Inside-sediment partitioning of PAH, PCB and organochlorine compounds and inferences on sampling and normalization methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Opel, Oliver; Palm, Wolf-Ulrich; Steffen, Dieter; Ruck, Wolfgang K.L.

    2011-01-01

    Comparability of sediment analyses for semivolatile organic substances is still low. Neither screening of the sediments nor organic-carbon based normalization is sufficient to obtain comparable results. We are showing the interdependency of grain-size effects with inside-sediment organic-matter distribution for PAH, PCB and organochlorine compounds. Surface sediment samples collected by Van-Veen grab were sieved and analyzed for 16 PAH, 6 PCB and 18 organochlorine pesticides (OCP) as well as organic-matter content. Since bulk concentrations are influenced by grain-size effects themselves, we used a novel normalization method based on the sum of concentrations in the separate grain-size fractions of the sediments. By calculating relative normalized concentrations, it was possible to clearly show underlying mechanisms throughout a heterogeneous set of samples. Furthermore, we were able to show that, for comparability, screening at <125 μm is best suited and can be further improved by additional organic-carbon normalization. - Research highlights: → New method for the comparison of heterogeneous sets of sediment samples. → Assessment of organic pollutants partitioning mechanisms in sediments. → Proposed method for more comparable sediment sampling. - Inside-sediment partitioning mechanisms are shown using a new mathematical approach and discussed in terms of sediment sampling and normalization.

  1. Present status of partitioning developments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Haruto; Kubota, Masumitsu; Tachimori, Shoichi

    1978-09-01

    Evolution and development of the concept of partitioning of high-level liquid wastes (HLLW) in nuclear fuel reprocessing are reviewed historically from the early phase of separating useful radioisotopes from HLLW to the recent phase of eliminating hazardous nuclides such as transuranium elements for safe waste disposal. Since the criteria in determining the nuclides for elimination and the respective decontamination factors are important in the strategy of partitioning, current views on the criteria are summarized. As elimination of the transuranium is most significant in the partitioning, various methods available of separating them from fission products are evaluated. (auth.)

  2. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter; Cohen, Albert; Dahmen, Wolfgang; DeVore, Ronald

    2014-01-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  3. Classification algorithms using adaptive partitioning

    KAUST Repository

    Binev, Peter

    2014-12-01

    © 2014 Institute of Mathematical Statistics. Algorithms for binary classification based on adaptive tree partitioning are formulated and analyzed for both their risk performance and their friendliness to numerical implementation. The algorithms can be viewed as generating a set approximation to the Bayes set and thus fall into the general category of set estimators. In contrast with the most studied tree-based algorithms, which utilize piecewise constant approximation on the generated partition [IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory 52 (2006) 1335.1353; Mach. Learn. 66 (2007) 209.242], we consider decorated trees, which allow us to derive higher order methods. Convergence rates for these methods are derived in terms the parameter - of margin conditions and a rate s of best approximation of the Bayes set by decorated adaptive partitions. They can also be expressed in terms of the Besov smoothness β of the regression function that governs its approximability by piecewise polynomials on adaptive partition. The execution of the algorithms does not require knowledge of the smoothness or margin conditions. Besov smoothness conditions are weaker than the commonly used Holder conditions, which govern approximation by nonadaptive partitions, and therefore for a given regression function can result in a higher rate of convergence. This in turn mitigates the compatibility conflict between smoothness and margin parameters.

  4. Performance of Sandy Dry Beds for sludge dewatering

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Muzaini, S.

    2003-01-01

    Sludge produced by the Jahra treatment plant was assessed. The assessment was directed at determining the performance of sand drying beds. The assessment of quality of the sludge produced was based on the standards for land application of sewage sludge. Analyses were carried out for trace heavy metals and bacteria. The results of analyses showed that the sludge produced was high in organic matter and sand content but low in heavy metals. The collected data indicated that the sand drying beds at the Jahra treatment plant are at present inadequate to handle the projected sludge production. The investigation showed that the sand drying beds are fully used and the plant will require 3-4 times the capacity of the existing drying beds when the plant becomes fully operational. In addition, these sand drying beds are subjected to uncontrollable conditions such as temperature, rainfall and sludge drainage rate. Thus, sand drying beds have become less popular as a dewatering system. This paper evaluates the performance of the existing sand drying beds and suggests the most appropriate technology to alleviate the above mentioned problems. (author)

  5. Octanol-Water Partition Coefficient from 3D-RISM-KH Molecular Theory of Solvation with Partial Molar Volume Correction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, WenJuan; Blinov, Nikolay; Kovalenko, Andriy

    2015-04-30

    The octanol-water partition coefficient is an important physical-chemical characteristic widely used to describe hydrophobic/hydrophilic properties of chemical compounds. The partition coefficient is related to the transfer free energy of a compound from water to octanol. Here, we introduce a new protocol for prediction of the partition coefficient based on the statistical-mechanical, 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation. It was shown recently that with the compound-solvent correlation functions obtained from the 3D-RISM-KH molecular theory of solvation, the free energy functional supplemented with the correction linearly related to the partial molar volume obtained from the Kirkwood-Buff/3D-RISM theory, also called the "universal correction" (UC), provides accurate prediction of the hydration free energy of small compounds, compared to explicit solvent molecular dynamics [ Palmer , D. S. ; J. Phys.: Condens. Matter 2010 , 22 , 492101 ]. Here we report that with the UC reparametrized accordingly this theory also provides an excellent agreement with the experimental data for the solvation free energy in nonpolar solvent (1-octanol) and so accurately predicts the octanol-water partition coefficient. The performance of the Kovalenko-Hirata (KH) and Gaussian fluctuation (GF) functionals of the solvation free energy, with and without UC, is tested on a large library of small compounds with diverse functional groups. The best agreement with the experimental data for octanol-water partition coefficients is obtained with the KH-UC solvation free energy functional.

  6. The effect of drying and urea treatment on nutritional and anti-nutritional components of browses collected during wet and dry seasons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S. [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil)]. E-mail: dovitti@cena.usp.br; Nozella, E.F.; Abdalla, A.L.; Bueno, I.C.S.; Longo, C.; Cabral Filho, S.L.S.; Godoy, P.B. [Centre for Nuclear Energy in Agriculture, University of Sao Paulo, Piracicaba, SP (Brazil); Silva Filho, J.C. [Universidade Federal de Lavras, Lavras, MG (Brazil); Costa, C. [Faculdade de Medicina Veterinaria e Zootecnia, UNESP, Botucatu, SP (Brazil); Bueno, M.S. [Instituto de Zootecnia, Nova Odessa, SP (Brazil); Vieira, M.E.Q. [Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Recife, PE (Brazil); Mueller-Harvey, I. [Agriculture Department, University of Reading, Reading (United Kingdom)

    2005-08-19

    Fibre, crude protein and tannin concentrations were measured in browse species from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil during the dry and wet seasons. The effects of oven-, sun- and shade-drying and of urea treatment were also determined. Crude protein (CP) content varied from 103 to 161 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the browses had similar CP content in the two seasons (during 2002) (102-161 and 107-153 g/kg DM in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Total tannin concentrations ranged from 13 to 201 g/kg DM amongst the browses and were higher in the dry season. A 30-d treatment with urea reduced extractable tannins significantly (P < 0.05). The urea treatment was also most effective at reducing the in vitro effects of tannins compared to the other drying treatments. This was demonstrated by measuring the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on gas production. Addition of PEG increased gas production of oven- (81.4%), sun- (78.5%) and shade-dried (76.7%) samples much more compared to urea treated samples (10.9%). (author)

  7. The effect of drying and urea treatment on nutritional and anti-nutritional components of browses collected during wet and dry seasons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vitti, D.M.S.S.; Nozella, E.F.; Abdalla, A.L.; Bueno, I.C.S.; Longo, C.; Cabral Filho, S.L.S.; Godoy, P.B.; Silva Filho, J.C.; Costa, C.; Bueno, M.S.; Vieira, M.E.Q.; Mueller-Harvey, I.

    2005-01-01

    Fibre, crude protein and tannin concentrations were measured in browse species from the semi-arid region of Northeast Brazil during the dry and wet seasons. The effects of oven-, sun- and shade-drying and of urea treatment were also determined. Crude protein (CP) content varied from 103 to 161 g/kg dry matter (DM) and the browses had similar CP content in the two seasons (during 2002) (102-161 and 107-153 g/kg DM in the wet and dry seasons, respectively). Total tannin concentrations ranged from 13 to 201 g/kg DM amongst the browses and were higher in the dry season. A 30-d treatment with urea reduced extractable tannins significantly (P < 0.05). The urea treatment was also most effective at reducing the in vitro effects of tannins compared to the other drying treatments. This was demonstrated by measuring the effect of polyethylene glycol (PEG) on gas production. Addition of PEG increased gas production of oven- (81.4%), sun- (78.5%) and shade-dried (76.7%) samples much more compared to urea treated samples (10.9%). (author)

  8. The Benefits of Adaptive Partitioning for Parallel AMR Applications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steensland, Johan [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States). Advanced Software Research and Development

    2008-07-01

    Parallel adaptive mesh refinement methods potentially lead to realistic modeling of complex three-dimensional physical phenomena. However, the dynamics inherent in these methods present significant challenges in data partitioning and load balancing. Significant human resources, including time, effort, experience, and knowledge, are required for determining the optimal partitioning technique for each new simulation. In reality, scientists resort to using the on-board partitioner of the computational framework, or to using the partitioning industry standard, ParMetis. Adaptive partitioning refers to repeatedly selecting, configuring and invoking the optimal partitioning technique at run-time, based on the current state of the computer and application. In theory, adaptive partitioning automatically delivers superior performance and eliminates the need for repeatedly spending valuable human resources for determining the optimal static partitioning technique. In practice, however, enabling frameworks are non-existent due to the inherent significant inter-disciplinary research challenges. This paper presents a study of a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning and discusses implied potential benefits from the perspective of common groups of users within computational science. The study is based on a large set of data derived from experiments including six real-life, multi-time-step adaptive applications from various scientific domains, five complementing and fundamentally different partitioning techniques, a large set of parameters corresponding to a wide spectrum of computing environments, and a flexible cost function that considers the relative impact of multiple partitioning metrics and diverse partitioning objectives. The results show that even a simple implementation of adaptive partitioning can automatically generate results statistically equivalent to the best static partitioning. Thus, it is possible to effectively eliminate the problem of determining the

  9. Radioactive material dry-storage facility and radioactive material containing method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kanai, Hidetoshi; Kumagaya, Naomi; Ganda, Takao.

    1997-01-01

    The present invention provides a radioactive material dry storage facility which can unify the cooling efficiency of a containing tube and lower the pressure loss in a storage chamber. Namely, a cylindrical body surrounds a first containing tube situated on the side of an air discharge portion among a plurality of containing tubes and forms an annular channel extending axially between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. An air flow channel partitioning member is disposed below a second containing tube situated closer to an air charging portion than the first containing tube. A first air flow channel is formed below the air channel partitioning member extending from the air charging portion to the annular channel. The second air channel is formed above the air channel partitioning member and extends from the air charging portion to the air discharge portion by way of a portion between the second containing tubes and the portion between the cylindrical body and the first containing tube. Then, low temperature air can be led from the air charging portion to the periphery of the first containing tube. The effect of cooling the first containing tube can be enhanced. The difference between the cooling efficiency between the second containing tube and the first containing tube is decreased. (I.S.)

  10. Analysing surface energy balance closure and partitioning over a semi-arid savanna FLUXNET site in Skukuza, Kruger National Park, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Majozi, Nobuhle P.; Mannaerts, Chris M.; Ramoelo, Abel; Mathieu, Renaud; Nickless, Alecia; Verhoef, Wouter

    2017-07-01

    Flux towers provide essential terrestrial climate, water, and radiation budget information needed for environmental monitoring and evaluation of climate change impacts on ecosystems and society in general. They are also intended for calibration and validation of satellite-based Earth observation and monitoring efforts, such as assessment of evapotranspiration from land and vegetation surfaces using surface energy balance approaches. In this paper, 15 years of Skukuza eddy covariance data, i.e. from 2000 to 2014, were analysed for surface energy balance closure (EBC) and partitioning. The surface energy balance closure was evaluated using the ordinary least squares regression (OLS) of turbulent energy fluxes (sensible (H) and latent heat (LE)) against available energy (net radiation (Rn) less soil heat (G)), and the energy balance ratio (EBR). Partitioning of the surface energy during the wet and dry seasons was also investigated, as well as how it is affected by atmospheric vapour pressure deficit (VPD), and net radiation. After filtering years with low-quality data (2004-2008), our results show an overall mean EBR of 0.93. Seasonal variations of EBR also showed the wet season with 1.17 and spring (1.02) being closest to unity, with the dry season (0.70) having the highest imbalance. Nocturnal surface energy closure was very low at 0.26, and this was linked to low friction velocity during night-time, with results showing an increase in closure with increase in friction velocity. The energy partition analysis showed that sensible heat flux is the dominant portion of net radiation, especially between March and October, followed by latent heat flux, and lastly the soil heat flux, and during the wet season where latent heat flux dominated sensible heat flux. An increase in net radiation was characterized by an increase in both LE and H, with LE showing a higher rate of increase than H in the wet season, and the reverse happening during the dry season. An increase in

  11. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  12. Reactions of Adansonia digitata L. provenances to long-term stress at seedling stage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bouda, Z. H N; Bayala, J.; Jensen, J. S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of drought stress on growth parameters and dry matter partitioning of seven provenances (six from West Africa and one from East Africa) of Adansonia digitata L. were assessed in a seedling experiment in Burkina Faso. Three water regimes corresponding to 100 % (control), 75 % and 50 % ...

  13. Effect of salinity on growth, water use and nutrient use in radish (Raphanus sativus L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marcelis, L.F.M.; Hooijdonk, van J.

    1999-01-01

    Radish (Raphanus sativus L.) plants were grown at five soil salinity levels (1, 2, 4, 9 and 13 dS m-1) to analyse the effects on growth, dry matter partitioning, leaf expansion and water and nutrient use. Salinity was varied by proportionally changing the concentration of all macro nutrients. When

  14. Comparative effects of partial root-zone drying and deficit irrigation on nitrogen uptake in potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Huiqun; Liu, Fulai; Andersen, Mathias Neumann

    2009-01-01

    The effects of partial root-zone drying (PRD) as compared with deficit irrigation (DI) and full irrigation (FI) on nitrogen (N) uptake and partitioning in potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) were investigated. Potato plants were grown in split-root pots and were exposed to FI, PRD, and DI treatments...

  15. Proportional relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production in a mulberry [Morus] field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueel, S.A.; Ito, D.; Naoi, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between dry matter production (DMP) and the amount of intercepted solar radiation (S), and to analyze the fluctuations in the radiation conversion efficiency (DMP/S), summer-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) trees under a standard planting density were subjected to a shading treatment using a cheesecloth. Then, using a non-destructive method, DMP was examined for 5 plants from each plot every 15 days from July to September. DMP was also examined for mulberry trees under a high planting density. Rates of radiation that penetrated onto the ground and beneath the cheesecloth were measured to calculate S from the incoming solar radiation. In the shading plots, DMP decreased depending on the degree of shading throughout the experimental period. Compared with the control plot, 70 and 60 % DMP were produced finally under 71 and 53 % S. Therefore, DMP was considered to be almost proportional to S even in a broad-leaf population like mulberry. Radiation conversion efficiency gradually decreased with growth regardless of the planting density. At the late growth stage, radiation conversion efficiency was lower in the densely planted field than in the standard density field

  16. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolotukhin, Sergey; Kukina, Olga; Abramenko, Anatoly

    2018-03-01

    Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state), and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced), made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  17. Partitions for high-rise construction using phosphogypsum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zolotukhin Sergey

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Gypsum blocks are usually used to make partitions in highrise construction. Reducing the cost of materials used in high-rise construction is an urgent task of modern material science. Phosphogypsum dihydrate, which has binding properties, is one of the large-tonnage waste. The authors have proved that, after years of storage in heaps, water-soluble phosphates, fluorides and other additives included in the structure of fresh phosphogypsum dissolved in water due to weathering (humidification-drying, freezing-thawing in a water-saturated state, and the calcium hydro-and dihydrogen phosphates ingressed in the lattice underwent complete hydrolysis and disintegration, thereby changing the physicochemical properties of phosphogypsum. The data obtained by the authors on the absence of water-soluble compounds of phosphorus, fluorine in stale phosphogypsum indicate its ecological purity and the possibility of application in housing construction. Having analyzed the data of modern methods of differential scanning calorimetry and scanning electron microscopy, the authors predicted and proved by the energy of dehydration of phosphogypsum dihydrate, lime, sandy loam, the possibility of obtaining non-flammable materials with sufficient strength for wall materials. Understanding the processes occurring in water films (the thickness of the water film, the pressure, the temperature and the pH of the aqueous extract of the mixture, the drying of the materials produced, made it possible to develop a technology for obtaining wall products from lime-sandy phosphogypsum material using typical silicate brick production equipment and vibropresses for key-cog blocks production.

  18. Energy analyses and drying kinetics of chamomile leaves in microwave-convective dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Motevali

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying characteristics and energy aspects as well as mathematical modeling of thin layer drying kinetics of chamomile in a microwave-convective dryer are reported in this article. Drying experiments were carried out at 8 microwave power levels (200–900 W, air temperature of 50 °C, and air velocity of 0.5 m/s. Increasing the microwave output power from 200 to 900 W, decreased the drying time from 40 to 10 min. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. The Midilli et al. model showed the best fit to the experimental drying data. Moisture diffusivity values increase with decreasing moisture content down to 1.70 (kg water kg−1 dry matter but decrease with a further decrease in moisture content from 1.72 to 0.96 (kg water kg−1 dry matter. The average values of Deff increased with microwave power from 5.46 to 39.63 × 10−8 (m2 s−1. Energy consumption increased and energy efficiency decreased with moisture content of chamomile samples. Average specific energy consumption, energy efficiency and energy loss varied in the range 18.93–28.15 MJ kg−1 water, 8.25–13.07% and 16.79–26.01 MJ kg−1 water, respectively, while the best energy results were obtained at 400 W, 50 °C and 0.5 m s−1.

  19. Gentile statistics and restricted partitions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The partition function of Gentile statistics also has the property that it nicely interpolates between the ... We now construct the partition function for such a system which also incorporates the property of interpolation ... As in [4], we however keep s arbitrary even though for s > 2 there are no quadratic. Hamiltonian systems.

  20. The importance of having an appropriate data segmentation (partitioning)

    CERN Document Server

    Dimitrov, Gancho; The ATLAS collaboration

    2014-01-01

    In this presentation will be shown real life examples from database applications in the ATLAS experiment @ LHC where we make use of many Oracle partitioning techniques available in Oracle 11g. With the broadly used range partitioning and its option of automatic interval partitioning we add our own logic in PLSQL for sustaining data sliding windows in order to enforce various data retention policies. We also make use of the reference partitioning in some use cases, however the most challenging was to segment the data of a large bookkeeping system which resulted in tens of thousands list partitions and list sub-partitions. Partition and sub-partition management, index strategy, statistics gathering and queries execution plan stability are important factors when choosing an appropriate for the use case data management model. The gained experience with all of those will be shared with the audience.

  1. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    OpenAIRE

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms of a tone row as possible (generated by any combination of transposition, inversion or reversal) are expressed 'horizontally' and that each integer partition of 12 whose cardinality is no greater than the n...

  2. Lift of dilogarithm to partition identities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terhoeven, M.

    1992-11-01

    For the whole set of dilogarithm identities found recently using the thermodynamic Bethe-Ansatz for the ADET series of purely elastic scattering theories we give partition identities which involve characters of those conformal field theories which correspond to the UV-limits of the scattering theories. These partition identities in turn allow to derive the dilogarithm identities using modular invariance and a saddle point approximation. We conjecture on possible generalizations of this correspondance, namely, a lift from dilogarithm to partition identities. (orig.)

  3. Dry Port Location Problem: A Hybrid Multi-Criteria Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    BENTALEB Fatimazahra

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Choosing a location for a dry port is a problem which becomes more essential and crucial. This study deals with the problem of locating dry ports. On this matter, a model combining multi-criteria (MACBETH and mono-criteria (BARYCENTER methods to find a solution to dry port location problem has been proposed. In the first phase, a systematic literature review was carried out on dry port location problem and then a methodological classification was presented for this research. In the second phase, a hybrid multi-criteria approach was developed in order to determine the best dry port location taking different criteria into account. A Computational practice and a qualitative analysis from a case study in the Moroccan context have been provided. The results show that the optimal location is very convenient with the geographical region and the government policies.

  4. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets; El proceso de secado por atomizacion: formacion de granulos y cinetica de secado de gotas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-09-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  5. The release of organic compounds during biomass drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering drying heating medium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rupar, K.; Sanati, M.

    2003-01-01

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contribute to air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may be released into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on the environmental effects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from different green and dried biofuels that have been dried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using different techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was significantly affected by the following factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from different localities in Sweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during drying are monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. The relative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shifts from steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard to environmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity of biomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomass drying rate. (author)

  6. Antioxidant Properties of Crude Extract, Partition Extract, and Fermented Medium of Dendrobium sabin Flower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farahziela Abu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidant properties of crude extract, partition extract, and fermented medium from Dendrobium sabin (DS flower were investigated. The oven-dried DS flower was extracted using 100% methanol (w/v, 100% ethanol (w/v, and 100% water (w/v. The 100% methanolic crude extract showed the highest total phenolic content (40.33 ± mg GAE/g extract and the best antioxidant properties as shown by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP assays. A correlation relationship between antioxidant activity and total phenolic content showed that phenolic compounds were the dominant antioxidant components in this flower extract. The microbial fermentation on DS flower medium showed a potential in increasing the phenolic content and DPPH scavenging activity. The TPC of final fermented medium showed approximately 18% increment, while the DPPH of fermented medium increased significantly to approximately 80% at the end of the fermentation. Dendrobium sabin (DS flower showed very good potential properties of antioxidant in crude extract and partition extract as well as better antioxidant activity in the flower fermented medium.

  7. Disponibilidade, composição bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis Herbage availability, chemical composition and dry matter intake in mixed pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with Stylosanthes guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição bromatológica, o consumo de matéria seca e a proporção de gramínea e leguminosa na dieta de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão e leguminosas arbóreas. Para estimativa da produção fecal, foram usados 10 g vaca-1 dia-1 de óxido crômico, durante dez dias. Amostras de extrusa foram usadas para determinação da composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A disponibilidade de matéria seca de forragem de B. decumbens variou com as condições climáticas, enquanto a de S. guianensis decresceu linearmente ao longo do período experimental. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior em maio de 2001 (1,9% do peso do animal vivo e não diferiu entre os demais meses (1,5% do peso do animal vivo. Os baixos índices de consumo de matéria seca refletiram altos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (70,2% a 79,4% e baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (42,1% a 48,0% da forragem. O consumo de leguminosa variou entre 8,7% e 24,1% do total ingerido. O consumo de matéria seca esteve diretamente relacionado à porcentagem de leguminosa na pastagem, o que evidencia o potencial de uso de pastagens consorciadas para vacas leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows, in pasture with Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão and tree legumes. To estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. Extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. B. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while S. guianensis

  8. Data Partitioning Technique for Improved Video Prioritization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ismail Amin Ali

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A compressed video bitstream can be partitioned according to the coding priority of the data, allowing prioritized wireless communication or selective dropping in a congested channel. Known as data partitioning in the H.264/Advanced Video Coding (AVC codec, this paper introduces a further sub-partition of one of the H.264/AVC codec’s three data-partitions. Results show a 5 dB improvement in Peak Signal-to-Noise Ratio (PSNR through this innovation. In particular, the data partition containing intra-coded residuals is sub-divided into data from: those macroblocks (MBs naturally intra-coded, and those MBs forcibly inserted for non-periodic intra-refresh. Interactive user-to-user video streaming can benefit, as then HTTP adaptive streaming is inappropriate and the High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC codec is too energy demanding.

  9. EXTENSION OF FORMULAS FOR PARTITION FUNCTIONS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ladan et al.

    2Department of Mathematics, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria. ... 2 + 1 + 1. = 1 + 1 + 1 + 1. Partition function ( ). Andrew and Erikson (2004) stated that the ..... Andrews, G.E., 1984, The Theory of Partitions, Cambridge ... Pure Appl. Math.

  10. The partition dimension of cycle books graph

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santoso, Jaya; Darmaji

    2018-03-01

    Let G be a nontrivial and connected graph with vertex set V(G), edge set E(G) and S ⊆ V(G) with v ∈ V(G), the distance between v and S is d(v,S) = min{d(v,x)|x ∈ S}. For an ordered partition ∏ = {S 1, S 2, S 3,…, Sk } of V(G), the representation of v with respect to ∏ is defined by r(v|∏) = (d(v, S 1), d(v, S 2),…, d(v, Sk )). The partition ∏ is called a resolving partition of G if all representations of vertices are distinct. The partition dimension pd(G) is the smallest integer k such that G has a resolving partition set with k members. In this research, we will determine the partition dimension of Cycle Books {B}{Cr,m}. Cycle books graph {B}{Cr,m} is a graph consisting of m copies cycle Cr with the common path P 2. It is shown that the partition dimension of cycle books graph, pd({B}{C3,m}) is 3 for m = 2, 3, and m for m ≥ 4. pd({B}{C4,m}) is 3 + 2k for m = 3k + 2, 4 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k + 1, and 3 + 2(k ‑ 1) for m = 3k. pd({B}{C5,m}) is m + 1.

  11. Quantum Dilogarithms and Partition q-Series

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kato, Akishi; Terashima, Yuji

    2015-08-01

    In our previous work (Kato and Terashima, Commun Math Phys. arXiv:1403.6569, 2014), we introduced the partition q-series for mutation loop γ—a loop in exchange quiver. In this paper, we show that for a certain class of mutation sequences, called reddening sequences, the graded version of partition q-series essentially coincides with the ordered product of quantum dilogarithm associated with each mutation; the partition q-series provides a state-sum description of combinatorial Donaldson-Thomas invariants introduced by Keller.

  12. Characterization and source identification of organic matter in view of land uses and heavy rainfall in the Lake Shihwa, Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Yeonjung; Hur, Jin; Shin, Kyung-Hoon

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Organic matter derived from industrial area showed high biodegradability. • Organic matter transported from rural area was of refractory nature. • Autochthonous organic matter dominated in lake during the dry season. • Contributions of organic source by industrial and rural area increased at rainy season. - Abstract: The characteristics and sources of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa, which receives inputs from rural, urban, and industrial areas, were evaluated by examining the biodegradable organic carbon concentration, fluorescence spectra, and carbon and nitrogen isotope ratios, especially during rainy season and dry season. The organic matter transported from rural areas was of refractory nature, while that of industrial origin decomposed rapidly. As compared to the dry season, the organic matter in the rainy season was characterized by a reduced labile fraction. During the dry season, the autochthonous organic matter dominated in the lake, however, the contributions of allochthonous organic sources by industrial and rural areas significantly increased at rainy season. This investigation revealed that the transport of organic matter of anthropogenic origin to the Lake Shihwa was mainly influenced by heavy rainfall. Moreover, each anthropogenic source could differently influence the occurrence of organic matter in water of the Lake Shihwa

  13. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  14. A statistical mechanical approach to restricted integer partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chi-Chun; Dai, Wu-Sheng

    2018-05-01

    The main aim of this paper is twofold: (1) suggesting a statistical mechanical approach to the calculation of the generating function of restricted integer partition functions which count the number of partitions—a way of writing an integer as a sum of other integers under certain restrictions. In this approach, the generating function of restricted integer partition functions is constructed from the canonical partition functions of various quantum gases. (2) Introducing a new type of restricted integer partition functions corresponding to general statistics which is a generalization of Gentile statistics in statistical mechanics; many kinds of restricted integer partition functions are special cases of this restricted integer partition function. Moreover, with statistical mechanics as a bridge, we reveal a mathematical fact: the generating function of restricted integer partition function is just the symmetric function which is a class of functions being invariant under the action of permutation groups. Using this approach, we provide some expressions of restricted integer partition functions as examples.

  15. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.

    2013-10-30

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  16. Spatially Partitioned Embedded Runge--Kutta Methods

    KAUST Repository

    Ketcheson, David I.; MacDonald, Colin B.; Ruuth, Steven J.

    2013-01-01

    We study spatially partitioned embedded Runge--Kutta (SPERK) schemes for partial differential equations (PDEs), in which each of the component schemes is applied over a different part of the spatial domain. Such methods may be convenient for problems in which the smoothness of the solution or the magnitudes of the PDE coefficients vary strongly in space. We focus on embedded partitioned methods as they offer greater efficiency and avoid the order reduction that may occur in nonembedded schemes. We demonstrate that the lack of conservation in partitioned schemes can lead to nonphysical effects and propose conservative additive schemes based on partitioning the fluxes rather than the ordinary differential equations. A variety of SPERK schemes are presented, including an embedded pair suitable for the time evolution of fifth-order weighted nonoscillatory spatial discretizations. Numerical experiments are provided to support the theory.

  17. Use of a Combined Technology of Ultrasonication, Three-Phase Partitioning, and Aqueous Enzymatic Oil Extraction for the Extraction of Oil from Spirogyra sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adisheshu Reddy

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal oil from Spirogyra sp. was extracted using a combined technology of ultrasonication, three-phase partitioning, and aqueous enzymatic oil extraction. Ultrasonication was done to rupture the cell wall and papain was used for an easier release of the trapped oil. The salt concentration for three-phase partitioning, preincubation period with (or without the protease, and its operational temperature were optimized for a maximum possible yield of the oil and the effect of ultrasonication, and three-phase partitioning with (or without the protease were studied. It was found that under optimized conditions at 50% ammonium sulphate concentration using tert-butanol (in 1 : 1, v/v ratio a presonicated and papain treated algal suspension could produce 24% (w/w, dry weight oil within few hours which was ten times higher as compared to the oil obtained by Soxhlet extraction using hexane and two times higher than the oil obtained without using the protease.

  18. Effect of partitioning the nonfiber carbohydrate fraction and neutral detergent fiber method on digestibility of carbohydrates by dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tebbe, A W; Faulkner, M J; Weiss, W P

    2017-08-01

    Many nutrition models rely on summative equations to estimate feed and diet energy concentrations. These models partition feed into nutrient fractions and multiply the fractions by their estimated true digestibility, and the digestible mass provided by each fraction is then summed and converted to an energy value. Nonfiber carbohydrate (NFC) is used in many models. Although it behaves as a nutritionally uniform fraction, it is a heterogeneous mixture of components. To reduce the heterogeneity, we partitioned NFC into starch and residual organic matter (ROM), which is calculated as 100 - CP - LCFA - ash - starch - NDF, where crude protein (CP), long-chain fatty acids (LCFA), ash, starch, and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) are a percentage of DM. However, the true digestibility of ROM is unknown, and because NDF is contaminated with both ash and CP, those components are subtracted twice. The effect of ash and CP contamination of NDF on in vivo digestibility of NDF and ROM was evaluated using data from 2 total-collection digestibility experiments using lactating dairy cows. Digestibility of NDF was greater when it was corrected for ash and CP than without correction. Conversely, ROM apparent digestibility decreased when NDF was corrected for contamination. Although correcting for contamination statistically increased NDF digestibility, the effect was small; the average increase was 3.4%. The decrease in ROM digestibility was 7.4%. True digestibility of ROM is needed to incorporate ROM into summative equations. Data from multiple digestibility experiments (38 diets) using dairy cows were collated, and ROM concentrations were regressed on concentration of digestible ROM (ROM was calculated without adjusting for ash and CP contamination). The estimated true digestibility coefficient of ROM was 0.96 (SE = 0.021), and metabolic fecal ROM was 3.43 g/100 g of dry matter intake (SE = 0.30). Using a smaller data set (7 diets), estimated true digestibility of ROM when calculated

  19. Dynamics of vacuum-sealed, double-leaf partitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavanaugh, Joshua Stephen

    The goal of this research is to investigate the feasibility and potential effectiveness of using vacuum-sealed, double-leaf partitions for applications in noise control. Substantial work has been done previously on double-leaf partitions where the acoustics of the inner chamber and mechanical vibrations of structural supports are passively and actively controlled. The work presented here is unique in that the proposed system aims to eliminate the need for active acoustic control of transmitted acoustic energy by removing all the air between the two panels of the double partition. Therefore, the only remaining energy paths would be along the boundary and at the points where there are intermediate structural supports connecting the two panels. The eventual goal of the research is to develop a high-loss double-leaf partition that simplifies active control by removing the need for control of the air cavity and channeling all the energy into discrete structural paths. The work presented here is a first step towards the goal of designing a high-loss, actively-controlled double-leaf partition with an air-evacuated inner chamber. One experiment is conducted to investigate the effects of various levels of vacuum on the response of a double-leaf partition whose panels are mechanically coupled only at the boundary. Another experiment is conducted which investigates the effect of changing the stiffness of an intermediate support coupling the two panels of a double-leaf partition in which a vacuum has been applied to the inner cavity. The available equipment was able to maintain a 99% vacuum between the panels. Both experiments are accompanied by analytical models used to investigate the importance of various dynamic parameters. Results show that the vacuum-sealed system shows some potential for increased transmission loss, primarily by the changing the natural frequencies of the double-leaf partition.

  20. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  1. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  2. Partitions in languages and parallel computations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burgin, M S; Burgina, E S

    1982-05-01

    Partitions of entries (linguistic structures) are studied that are intended for parallel data processing. The representations of formal languages with the aid of such structures is examined, and the relationships are considered between partitions of entries and abstract families of languages and automata. 18 references.

  3. Comparative studies on storage and drying of chips and chunks in Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gjoelsjoe, S. (Norwegian Forest Research Inst. (Norway))

    1988-11-01

    Knowledge of sporulation and alteration in moisture content and dry-matter content is essential when trying to determine optimal conditions for storage of wood fuel. The object of this experiment has been to study the progression of these variables in wood fuel of varying sizes. The material used was debranched stemwood of birch. The wood was comminuted up and stored in three different sizes. The sizes were chips (length approx. 3 cm), chunkwood (approx. 8 cm) and firewood (approx. 15 cm). The fuelwood was stored in bines of 10 m{sup 3} with netting floor and netting walls. Six of the bins were covered, the remaining six were without cover. The highest temperature increase was found in chips, particularly during the first stages of storage when temperature reached approximately 30 C. The other fuel sizes had temperature close to ambient temperature. At the start of the test, moisture content was approximately 40 %. By the end of the test the moisture content was below 20% for firewood and chunkwood under cover. The moisture was measured 50 cm from the top and 50 cm from the sidewall of the bin. Whilst chips without cover had a moisture content of more than 60%. Storage under cover resulted in a higher reduction of moisture content than storage without cover. The smaller sizes exhibited the greatest difference in moisture content. The highest dry-matter loss during the storage time was found in chips stored under cover, approximately 1.2% per month. Dry-matter loss was lowest in firewood stored under cover 0.07% per month. Dry-matter loss decreased with increasing size. Spores and dust particles had the highest concentrations in chips and lowest in firewood. (12 refs., 10 figs., 8 tabs.) (au).

  4. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    'Southafrica' ecotipes were groWn at root zone temperatures of 8, 15, 22 and 29°C under greenhouse conditions in Berlin, Germany. Two and a half L plastic pots and quartz sand as substrate were used. With rising rizosphere temperatures biomass production increased up to 22 and 29°C depending on plant organ and ecotype. The highest biomass accumulation achieved 'Colombia' at 29°C and 'Southafrica' at 22°C. At 8°C temperature low root and leaf dry matter were produced, while fruit producction was less affected. This indicates an adaptation to cold soils in the highlands. 22°C encouraged more the growth of main shoots while laterals had their optimum soil temperature at 29°C, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. The highest partitioning of dry matter of the Colombian ecotype to roots, leaves and fruits at 29°C is considered as an adaptation to the hot soils in the slopes exposed to the sun.

  5. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  6. Scheduling Driven Partitioning of Heterogeneous Embedded Systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pop, Paul; Eles, Petru; Peng, Zebo

    1998-01-01

    In this paper we present an algorithm for system level hardware/software partitioning of heterogeneous embedded systems. The system is represented as an abstract graph which captures both data-flow and the flow of control. Given an architecture consisting of several processors, ASICs and shared...... busses, our partitioning algorithm finds the partitioning with the smallest hardware cost and is able to predict and guarantee the performance of the system in terms of worst case delay....

  7. Evaluation of the performance and limitations of empirical partition-relations and process based multisurface models to predict trace element solubility in soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groenenberg, J.E.; Bonten, L.T.C. [Alterra, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Dijkstra, J.J. [Energy research Centre of the Netherlands ECN, P.O. Box 1, 1755 ZG Petten (Netherlands); De Vries, W. [Department of Environmental Systems Analysis, Wageningen University, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands); Comans, R.N.J. [Department of Soil Quality, Wageningen University, Wageningen UR, P.O. Box 47, 6700 AA Wageningen (Netherlands)

    2012-07-15

    Here we evaluate the performance and limitations of two frequently used model-types to predict trace element solubility in soils: regression based 'partition-relations' and thermodynamically based 'multisurface models', for a large set of elements. For this purpose partition-relations were derived for As, Ba, Cd, Co, Cr, Cu, Mo, Ni, Pb, Sb, Se, V, Zn. The multi-surface model included aqueous speciation, mineral equilibria, sorption to organic matter, Fe/Al-(hydr)oxides and clay. Both approaches were evaluated by their application to independent data for a wide variety of conditions. We conclude that Freundlich-based partition-relations are robust predictors for most cations and can be used for independent soils, but within the environmental conditions of the data used for their derivation. The multisurface model is shown to be able to successfully predict solution concentrations over a wide range of conditions. Predicted trends for oxy-anions agree well for both approaches but with larger (random) deviations than for cations.

  8. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and dry matter digestibility of stylo ( stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of stylo. Methods The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  9. Partition functions for supersymmetric black holes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Manschot, J.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis presents a number of results on partition functions for four-dimensional supersymmetric black holes. These partition functions are important tools to explain the entropy of black holes from a microscopic point of view. Such a microscopic explanation was desired after the association of a

  10. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum dry matter (DMD % were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc and bags (Vb per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE of mean DMD. The adequate number of bags to be used was the one that produced a value of 1 % (SE of the study. Precision increased as the number of cows increased, with mean SE of 1.66, 1.18 and 0.96 % for one, two and three cows, respectively. Precision remained more or less constant for incubation times of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 48 h, with respective values of 0.93, 0.81, 1.05, 0.92 and 1.08 %. The SE values doubled at 24 (2.15 and 72 (1.92 h. The EE diminished as the number of bags increased, being the values higher for one cow than for two or three cows, but these differences were slight when 10 bags were used. The use of two cows seems reasonable, since the increase in precision from one to two cows was greater than from two to three cows. Three bags were the minimum necessary to estimate the SE value of 1%.

  11. Aspects of system modelling in Hardware/Software partitioning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Knudsen, Peter Voigt; Madsen, Jan

    1996-01-01

    This paper addresses fundamental aspects of system modelling and partitioning algorithms in the area of Hardware/Software Codesign. Three basic system models for partitioning are presented and the consequences of partitioning according to each of these are analyzed. The analysis shows...... the importance of making a clear distinction between the model used for partitioning and the model used for evaluation It also illustrates the importance of having a realistic hardware model such that hardware sharing can be taken into account. Finally, the importance of integrating scheduling and allocation...

  12. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... important to understand how crops with different root architecture would ... while in soils rich in organic matter, it is present as organic ... Plants take up most of the required nutrient elements ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  13. Generating Milton Babbitt's all-partition arrays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bemman, Brian; Meredith, David

    2016-01-01

    In most of Milton Babbitt's (1916–2011) works written since the early 1960s, both the pitch and rhythmic content is organized according to a highly constrained structure known as the all-partition array. The all-partition array provides a framework that ensures that as many different forms...

  14. Dry matter digestibility of roughages and concentrates determined “in vitro” procedures Digestibilidade da matéria seca de alimentos volumosos e concentrados determinada por procedimentos "in vitro"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui da Silva Verneque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the values of in vitro dry matter digestibility of six classes of concentrates and roughages feeds, determined by the two-stage technique carried in individual digestion tubes or using an automatized equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique, FBT. In the second digestion stage of the technique it was also evaluated the effect of pepsin acid solution and the reflux with neutral detergent solution on the in vitro dry matter digestibility. For both studies the experimental design was completely randomized with a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were close to those found by others authors and lower than those obtained by the filter bag technique. Standard deviation of in vitro dry matter digestibility means were, in general, lower when the individual tubes method were used. The procedure using reflux with neutral detergent was less expensive and time-consuming, and yield similar results when compared to those using the acidified pepsin digestion methodology. The apparent overestimated values of in vitro dry matter digestibility observed in the filter bag technique suggests that the recommendation of the automatized equipment will be dependent of new studies, with emphasis to the material used to make the incubation bags.Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de seis classes de alimentos concentrados e volumosos, determinados pelo método de dois estágios, realizado em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação (incubadora in vitro. No segundo estágio da análise foi adicionalmente avaliado o efeito sobre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca da utilização de solução ácida de pepsina ou do refluxo em solução de detergente neutro. Para ambos os estudos utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (procedimentos in vitro x

  15. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  16. Effect of silage maize hybrid (dry down vs. stay green) on dairy cow performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zom, R.L.G.; Schooten, van H.A.; Laar, van H.

    2008-01-01

    A randomized block design experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of two contrasting silage maize hybrids (DD: dry down vs. SG: stay green) harvested at 33% dry matter (DM) on in situ degradation and dairy cow performance. Thirty-eight Red-HF cows were assigned to two silage treatments and

  17. Matrix string partition function

    CERN Document Server

    Kostov, Ivan K; Kostov, Ivan K.; Vanhove, Pierre

    1998-01-01

    We evaluate quasiclassically the Ramond partition function of Euclidean D=10 U(N) super Yang-Mills theory reduced to a two-dimensional torus. The result can be interpreted in terms of free strings wrapping the space-time torus, as expected from the point of view of Matrix string theory. We demonstrate that, when extrapolated to the ultraviolet limit (small area of the torus), the quasiclassical expressions reproduce exactly the recently obtained expression for the partition of the completely reduced SYM theory, including the overall numerical factor. This is an evidence that our quasiclassical calculation might be exact.

  18. An Association-Oriented Partitioning Approach for Streaming Graph Query

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yun Hao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The volumes of real-world graphs like knowledge graph are increasing rapidly, which makes streaming graph processing a hot research area. Processing graphs in streaming setting poses significant challenges from different perspectives, among which graph partitioning method plays a key role. Regarding graph query, a well-designed partitioning method is essential for achieving better performance. Existing offline graph partitioning methods often require full knowledge of the graph, which is not possible during streaming graph processing. In order to handle this problem, we propose an association-oriented streaming graph partitioning method named Assc. This approach first computes the rank values of vertices with a hybrid approximate PageRank algorithm. After splitting these vertices with an adapted variant affinity propagation algorithm, the process order on vertices in the sliding window can be determined. Finally, according to the level of these vertices and their association, the partition where the vertices should be distributed is decided. We compare its performance with a set of streaming graph partition methods and METIS, a widely adopted offline approach. The results show that our solution can partition graphs with hundreds of millions of vertices in streaming setting on a large collection of graph datasets and our approach outperforms other graph partitioning methods.

  19. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  20. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liao Hsuan-Yu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05. An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was developed to appropriately predict the partition coefficients of organic compounds. The empirical model for estimating the PDMS-gas partition coefficient will contribute to the practical applications of the SPME technique.

  1. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  2. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A.

    2015-01-01

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction

  3. Variable length adjacent partitioning for PTS based PAPR reduction of OFDM signal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibraheem, Zeyid T.; Rahman, Md. Mijanur; Yaakob, S. N.; Razalli, Mohammad Shahrazel; Kadhim, Rasim A. [School of Computer and Communication Engineering, Universiti Malaysia Perlis, 02600 Arau, Perlis (Malaysia)

    2015-05-15

    Peak-to-Average power ratio (PAPR) is a major drawback in OFDM communication. It leads the power amplifier into nonlinear region operation resulting into loss of data integrity. As such, there is a strong motivation to find techniques to reduce PAPR. Partial Transmit Sequence (PTS) is an attractive scheme for this purpose. Judicious partitioning the OFDM data frame into disjoint subsets is a pivotal component of any PTS scheme. Out of the existing partitioning techniques, adjacent partitioning is characterized by an attractive trade-off between cost and performance. With an aim of determining effects of length variability of adjacent partitions, we performed an investigation into the performances of a variable length adjacent partitioning (VL-AP) and fixed length adjacent partitioning in comparison with other partitioning schemes such as pseudorandom partitioning. Simulation results with different modulation and partitioning scenarios showed that fixed length adjacent partition had better performance compared to variable length adjacent partitioning. As expected, simulation results showed a slightly better performance of pseudorandom partitioning technique compared to fixed and variable adjacent partitioning schemes. However, as the pseudorandom technique incurs high computational complexities, adjacent partitioning schemes were still seen as favorable candidates for PAPR reduction.

  4. Enhanced extraction of oleoresin from ginger (Zingiber officinale) rhizome powder using enzyme-assisted three phase partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varakumar, Sadineni; Umesh, Kannamangalam Vijayan; Singhal, Rekha S

    2017-02-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale R.) is a popular spice used worldwide. The oleoresin consists of gingerols, shogaols and other non-volatiles as chief bioactive constituents. Three phase partitioning (TPP), a bioseparation technique, based on partitioning of polar constituents, proteins, and hydrophobic constituents in three phases comprising of water, ammonium sulphate and t-butanol, was explored for extraction of oleoresin and gingerols from dry powder. Parameters optimized for maximum recovery of gingerols and [6]-shogaol were ammonium sulphate concentration, ratio of t-butanol to slurry, solid loading and pH. Ultrasound and enzymatic pretreatments increased the yield of oleoresin and its phytoconstituents. Ultrasound pretreatment showed separation of starch in the bottom aqueous phase but is an additional step in extraction. Enzymatic pretreatment using accellerase increased the yield of [6]-, [8]-, [10]-gingerols and [6]-shogaol by 64.10, 87.8, 62.78 and 32.0% within 4h and is recommended. The efficacy of the enzymatic pretreatment was confirmed by SEM and FTIR. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Phase Grouping Line Extraction Algorithm Using Overlapped Partition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    WANG Jingxue

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at solving the problem of fracture at the discontinuities area and the challenges of line fitting in each partition, an innovative line extraction algorithm is proposed based on phase grouping using overlapped partition. The proposed algorithm adopted dual partition steps, which will generate overlapped eight partitions. Between the two steps, the middle axis in the first step coincides with the border lines in the other step. Firstly, the connected edge points that share the same phase gradients are merged into the line candidates, and fitted into line segments. Then to remedy the break lines at the border areas, the break segments in the second partition steps are refitted. The proposed algorithm is robust and does not need any parameter tuning. Experiments with various datasets have confirmed that the method is not only capable of handling the linear features, but also powerful enough in handling the curve features.

  6. Analytical model for macromolecular partitioning during yeast cell division

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kinkhabwala, Ali; Khmelinskii, Anton; Knop, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Asymmetric cell division, whereby a parent cell generates two sibling cells with unequal content and thereby distinct fates, is central to cell differentiation, organism development and ageing. Unequal partitioning of the macromolecular content of the parent cell — which includes proteins, DNA, RNA, large proteinaceous assemblies and organelles — can be achieved by both passive (e.g. diffusion, localized retention sites) and active (e.g. motor-driven transport) processes operating in the presence of external polarity cues, internal asymmetries, spontaneous symmetry breaking, or stochastic effects. However, the quantitative contribution of different processes to the partitioning of macromolecular content is difficult to evaluate. Here we developed an analytical model that allows rapid quantitative assessment of partitioning as a function of various parameters in the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae. This model exposes quantitative degeneracies among the physical parameters that govern macromolecular partitioning, and reveals regions of the solution space where diffusion is sufficient to drive asymmetric partitioning and regions where asymmetric partitioning can only be achieved through additional processes such as motor-driven transport. Application of the model to different macromolecular assemblies suggests that partitioning of protein aggregates and episomes, but not prions, is diffusion-limited in yeast, consistent with previous reports. In contrast to computationally intensive stochastic simulations of particular scenarios, our analytical model provides an efficient and comprehensive overview of partitioning as a function of global and macromolecule-specific parameters. Identification of quantitative degeneracies among these parameters highlights the importance of their careful measurement for a given macromolecular species in order to understand the dominant processes responsible for its observed partitioning

  7. Partitioning and transmutation - Technical feasibility, proliferation resistance and safeguardability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenkel, R.; Glatz, J.-P.; Magill, J.; Mayer, K.

    2001-01-01

    combined with a transmutation cycle (second stratum). Here, the first separation of radiotoxic elements from the PUREX high-level liquid waste could be achieved by advanced aqueous partitioning. In the following transmutation cycle, pyroreprocessing should be used, because of a number of advantages; those are a higher compactness of equipment and the possibility to form an integrated system between irradiation and reprocessing facility (reduced transport of nuclear materials and process costs in general) higher radiation stability of the salt in the pyrochemical process compared to the organic solvent in the hydrochemical process offers an important advantage when dealing with highly active spent MA fuel compared with aqueous methods, dry reprocessing results in less pure and thus more proliferation resistant fractions of Pu, Np and Am. In particular the latter aspect is important in view of the attractiveness of products for proliferation. In the paper the different partitioning processes, aqueous and dry, will be briefly described and analyzed for their strengths and weaknesses in view of safeguards and proliferation. Furthermore, the advantages and drawbacks of homogeneous and heterogeneous cycles will be discussed in view of proliferation resistance and safeguardability. (author)

  8. Partition wall structure in spent fuel storage pool and construction method for the partition wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Izawa, Masaaki

    1998-01-01

    A partitioning wall for forming cask pits as radiation shielding regions by partitioning inside of a spent fuel storage pool is prepared by covering both surface of a concrete body by shielding metal plates. The metal plate comprises opposed plate units integrated by welding while sandwiching a metal frame as a reinforcing material for the concrete body, the lower end of the units is connected to a floor of a pool by fastening members, and concrete is set while using the metal plate of the units as a frame to form the concrete body. The shielding metal plate has a double walled structure formed by welding a lining plate disposed on the outer surface of the partition wall and a shield plate disposed to the inner side. Then the term for construction can be shortened, and the capacity for storing spent fuels can be increased. (N.H.)

  9. Spatial partitions systematize visual search and enhance target memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solman, Grayden J F; Kingstone, Alan

    2017-02-01

    Humans are remarkably capable of finding desired objects in the world, despite the scale and complexity of naturalistic environments. Broadly, this ability is supported by an interplay between exploratory search and guidance from episodic memory for previously observed target locations. Here we examined how the environment itself may influence this interplay. In particular, we examined how partitions in the environment-like buildings, rooms, and furniture-can impact memory during repeated search. We report that the presence of partitions in a display, independent of item configuration, reliably improves episodic memory for item locations. Repeated search through partitioned displays was faster overall and was characterized by more rapid ballistic orienting in later repetitions. Explicit recall was also both faster and more accurate when displays were partitioned. Finally, we found that search paths were more regular and systematic when displays were partitioned. Given the ubiquity of partitions in real-world environments, these results provide important insights into the mechanisms of naturalistic search and its relation to memory.

  10. Experiments and Recommendations for Partitioning Systems of Equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafteiu-Scai Liviu Octavian

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Partitioning the systems of equations is a very important process when solving it on a parallel computer. This paper presents some criteria which leads to more efficient parallelization, that must be taken into consideration. New criteria added to preconditioning process by reducing average bandwidth are pro- posed in this paper. These new criteria lead to a combination between preconditioning and partitioning of systems equations, so no need two distinct algorithms/processes. In our proposed methods - where the preconditioning is done by reducing the average bandwidth- two directions were followed in terms of partitioning: for a given preconditioned system determining the best partitioning (or one as close and the second consist in achieving an adequate preconditioning, depending on a given/desired partitioning. A mixed method it is also proposed. Experimental results, conclusions and recommendations, obtained after parallel implementation of conjugate gradient on IBM BlueGene /P supercomputer- based on a synchronous model of parallelization- are also presented in this paper.

  11. Partitional clustering algorithms

    CERN Document Server

    2015-01-01

    This book summarizes the state-of-the-art in partitional clustering. Clustering, the unsupervised classification of patterns into groups, is one of the most important tasks in exploratory data analysis. Primary goals of clustering include gaining insight into, classifying, and compressing data. Clustering has a long and rich history that spans a variety of scientific disciplines including anthropology, biology, medicine, psychology, statistics, mathematics, engineering, and computer science. As a result, numerous clustering algorithms have been proposed since the early 1950s. Among these algorithms, partitional (nonhierarchical) ones have found many applications, especially in engineering and computer science. This book provides coverage of consensus clustering, constrained clustering, large scale and/or high dimensional clustering, cluster validity, cluster visualization, and applications of clustering. Examines clustering as it applies to large and/or high-dimensional data sets commonly encountered in reali...

  12. Topological string partition functions as polynomials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaguchi, Satoshi; Yau Shingtung

    2004-01-01

    We investigate the structure of the higher genus topological string amplitudes on the quintic hypersurface. It is shown that the partition functions of the higher genus than one can be expressed as polynomials of five generators. We also compute the explicit polynomial forms of the partition functions for genus 2, 3, and 4. Moreover, some coefficients are written down for all genus. (author)

  13. Clean-up of aqueous acetone vegetable extracts by solid-matrix partition for pyrethroid residue determination by gas chromatography-electron-capture detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Muccio, A; Barbini, D A; Generali, T; Pelosi, P; Ausili, A; Vergori, F; Camoni, I

    1997-03-21

    Disposable, ready-to-use cartridges filled with macroporous diatomaceous material are used to carry out a partition clean-up that, in a single step, is capable of transferring pesticide residues from aqueous acetone extracts into light petroleum-dichloromethane (75:25, v/v). This procedure takes the place of some functions (such as separatory-funnel partition, drying over anhydrous sodium sulphate and partial adsorption clean-up) usually performed by separate steps in classical schemes. Fourteen pyrethroid pesticides, including tefluthrin, tetramethrin, cyphenothrin, cyfluthrin, flucythrinate, tau-fluvalinate, deltamethrin, bioallethrin, fenpropathrin, lambda-cyhalothrin, permethrin, alpha-cypermethrin, esfenvalerate and tralomethrin were determined using the described procedure with satisfactory recoveries for most of them, at spiking levels ranging from 0.08 to 0.82 mg/kg for the different compounds. Crops subjected to the described procedure included strawberry, apple, and orange gave extracts containing a mass of co-extractives that was between 5 and 30 mg. Compared with classical schemes, the described procedure is simple, less labour intensive, allows parallel handling of several extracts and does not require the preparation and maintenance of equipment. Troublesome emulsions such as those frequently observed in separation funnel partitioning do not occur.

  14. Partitioning of selected antioxidants in mayonnaise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Charlotte; Schwarz, K.; Stockmann, H.

    1999-01-01

    This study examined partitioning of alpha-, beta-, and gamma- tocopherol and six polar antioxidants (Trolox, ferulic acid, caffeic acid, propyl gallate, gallic acid, and catechin) in mayonnaise. Partitioning of antioxidants between different phases was determined after separation of mayonnaise...... acid and catechin) to 83% (Trolox). Accordingly, proportions of 6% (Trolox) to 80% (gallic acid and catechin) were found in the aqueous phase. Similar trends were observed after dialysis. After ultracentrifugation, large proportions of polar antioxidants were found in the "emulsion phase...... by either (a) centrifugation + ultracentrifugation or (b) centrifugation + dialysis. Antioxidants partitioned in accordance with their chemical structure and polarity: Tocopherols were concentrated in the oil phase (93-96%), while the proportion of polar antioxidants in the oil phase ranged from 0% (gallic...

  15. Partitioning of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Shen, Chen; Stein, Paul C.; Klösgen-Buchkremer, Beate Maria

    2015-01-01

    Partitioning of trans-3,5,4′-trihydroxy-stilbene (resveratrol) between n-pentane and DMSO was investigated as a contribution to understand the interaction between resveratrol and biomembranes. In order to determine the partition coefficient P* of resveratrol between pentane and DMSO, resveratrol ...

  16. Fat polygonal partitions with applications to visualization and embeddings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark de Berg

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Let T be a rooted and weighted tree, where the weight of any node is equal to the sum of the weights of its children. The popular Treemap algorithm visualizes such a tree as a hierarchical partition of a square into rectangles, where the area of the rectangle corresponding to any node in T is equal to the weight of that node. The aspect ratio of the rectangles in such a rectangular partition necessarily depends on the weights and can become arbitrarily high.We introduce a new hierarchical partition scheme, called a polygonal partition, which uses convex polygons rather than just rectangles. We present two methods for constructing polygonal partitions, both having guarantees on the worst-case aspect ratio of the constructed polygons; in particular, both methods guarantee a bound on the aspect ratio that is independent of the weights of the nodes.We also consider rectangular partitions with slack, where the areas of the rectangles may differ slightly from the weights of the corresponding nodes. We show that this makes it possible to obtain partitions with constant aspect ratio. This result generalizes to hyper-rectangular partitions in ℝd. We use these partitions with slack for embedding ultrametrics into d-dimensional Euclidean space:  we give a polylog(Δ-approximation algorithm for embedding n-point ultrametrics into ℝd with minimum distortion, where Δ denotes the spread of the metric. The previously best-known approximation ratio for this problem was polynomial in n. This is the first algorithm for embedding a non-trivial family of weighted-graph metrics into a space of constant dimension that achieves polylogarithmic approximation ratio.

  17. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation in three millet species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behnam kamkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A factorial arrangement of three millets species (Panicum miliaceum, Pennisetum glaucum, and Setaria italica and two sowing dates with three replications were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation. Leaf area index was used in daily intervals to calculate daily intercepted radiation. Light extinction coefficient was calculated as the slope of regression line between log transformed fraction of intercepted radiation and leaf area index during growing season. Radiation use efficiency was calculated as the slope of linear regression between cumulative intercepted radiation and cumulative biomass during growing season. Results showed that light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency for proso, pearl and foxtail millets were 0.75, 0.66, 0.57 and 1.43, 1.83, 1.74 g/MJ in terms of total radiation, respectively. Differences in biomass production were not significant between proso and pearl millets. Proso millet had higher intercepted radiation, but lower radiation use efficiency in comparison with pearl millet. Foxtail millet had lower intercepted radiation than proso and pearl millets, but its radiation use efficiency was higher than pearl millet. Total biomass of foxtail millet was lower than other species. Results indicated that proso and pearl millets can produce more biomass than foxtail millet.

  18. High Pressure/Temperature Metal Silicate Partitioning of Tungsten

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shofner, G. A.; Danielson, L.; Righter, K.; Campbell, A. J.

    2010-01-01

    The behavior of chemical elements during metal/silicate segregation and their resulting distribution in Earth's mantle and core provide insight into core formation processes. Experimental determination of partition coefficients allows calculations of element distributions that can be compared to accepted values of element abundances in the silicate (mantle) and metallic (core) portions of the Earth. Tungsten (W) is a moderately siderophile element and thus preferentially partitions into metal versus silicate under many planetary conditions. The partitioning behavior has been shown to vary with temperature, silicate composition, oxygen fugacity, and pressure. Most of the previous work on W partitioning has been conducted at 1-bar conditions or at relatively low pressures, i.e. pressure. Predictions based on extrapolation of existing data and parameterizations suggest an increased pressured dependence on metal/ silicate partitioning of W at higher pressures 5. However, the dependence on pressure is not as well constrained as T, fO2, and silicate composition. This poses a problem because proposed equilibration pressures for core formation range from 27 to 50 GPa, falling well outside the experimental range, therefore requiring exptrapolation of a parametereized model. Higher pressure data are needed to improve our understanding of W partitioning at these more extreme conditions.

  19. New method measures moisture and true dry mass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frank, H.

    The moisture content of wood can be determined by measuring the nuclear magnetic resonance of free water hydrogen atoms in wood. Nanassy studied NMR curves for six types of wood and obtained the calibration curve by reducing the moisture content in steps by 4% moisture down to ca. 1% moisture and then by gradually wetting the wood. The initial material was fresh wood. For each step he measured the intensity of the free water hydrogen signal. If the sample weight is known the dry matter content (dry weight) and moisture content of the sample can be derived from the measured NMR signal. (J.P.)

  20. A recipe for constructing frustration-free Hamiltonians with gauge and matter fields in one and two dimensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabé Ferreira, Miguel Jorge; Ibieta Jimenez, Juan Pablo; Padmanabhan, Pramod; Teôtonio Sobrinho, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    State sum constructions, such as Kuperberg’s algorithm, give partition functions of physical systems, like lattice gauge theories, in various dimensions by associating local tensors or weights with different parts of a closed triangulated manifold. Here we extend this construction by including matter fields to build partition functions in both two and three space-time dimensions. The matter fields introduce new weights to the vertices and they correspond to Potts spin configurations described by an {A}-module with an inner product. Performing this construction on a triangulated manifold with a boundary we obtain transfer matrices which are decomposed into a product of local operators acting on vertices, links and plaquettes. The vertex and plaquette operators are similar to the ones appearing in the quantum double models (QDMs) of Kitaev. The link operator couples the gauge and the matter fields, and it reduces to the usual interaction terms in known models such as {{{Z}}}2 gauge theory with matter fields. The transfer matrices lead to Hamiltonians that are frustration-free and are exactly solvable. According to the choice of the initial input, that of the gauge group and a matter module, we obtain interesting models which have a new kind of ground state degeneracy that depends on the number of equivalence classes in the matter module under gauge action. Some of the models have confined flux excitations in the bulk which become deconfined at the surface. These edge modes are protected by an energy gap provided by the link operator. These properties also appear in ‘confined Walker-Wang’ models which are 3D models having interesting surface states. Apart from the gauge excitations there are also excitations in the matter sector which are immobile and can be thought of as defects like in the Ising model. We only consider bosonic matter fields in this paper.

  1. Distribuição da matéria seca e composição química das raízes, caule e folhas de goiabeira submetida a estresse salino Dry matter partitioning and mineral composition of roots, stems and leaves of guava grown under salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Gonçalves Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajavaL. a diferentes concentrações de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, com 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150 mM de NaCl, e colhidas com 30 e 50 dias após estresse, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinadas: matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea; e porcentagens de Na, Cl, K, Ca e Mg nas raízes, caule e folhas. O estresse salino reduziu a matéria seca total, e a relação parte aérea/raiz foi reduzida. O estresse causou um aumento nos níveis dos íons Na+ e Cl-, com maior acúmulo nas folhas, seguido das raízes. Os teores de Ca foram estáveis nas raízes, mas decresceram no caule e folhas. Os teores de K foram reduzidos, particularmente nas folhas. Ao contrário, os teores de Mg não foram afetados pela salinidade no caule e nas raízes, havendo, entretanto, redução nas folhas. O teor de Na apresentou relação direta com o de Cl e inversa com o de K nas raízes e folhas. O teor de Ca não variou com o de Na nas folhas, mas apresentou uma relação inversa nas raízes. O teor de Mg não variou com o de Na nas raízes e folhas.A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of studying the response of guava plants (Psidium guajavaL. to increasing levels of NaCl concentrations. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mM of NaCl, and harvested 30 and 50 days after saline stress in a complete randomized design. The following traits were studied: shoot, root and total plant dry matter and the percentage of Na, Cl, K, Ca and Mg in plant dry matter. Dry matter yield decreased when salinity increased. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the saline treatment. Salinity stress caused an increase in the levels of Na+ and Cl-. The highest ion accumulation was found in the leaves followed by the roots. The Ca levels were stable in the roots

  2. Hepatoprotective action of various partitions of methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea leaves against paracetamol-induced liver toxicity: involvement of the antioxidant mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakaria, Zainul Amiruddin; Yahya, Farhana; Mamat, Siti Syariah; Mahmood, Nur Diyana; Mohtarrudin, Nurhafizah; Taher, Muhammad; Hamid, Siti Selina Abdul; Teh, Lay Kek; Salleh, Mohd Zaki

    2016-06-11

    Methanol extract of Bauhinia purpurea L. (family Fabaceae) (MEBP) possesses high antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities and recently reported to exert hepatoprotection against paracetamol (PCM)-induced liver injury in rats. In an attempt to identify the hepatoprotective bioactive compounds in MEBP, the extract was prepared in different partitions and subjected to the PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Dried MEBP was partitioned successively to obtain petroleum ether (PEBP), ethylacetate (EABP) and aqueous (AQBP) partitions, respectively. All partitions were subjected to in vitro antioxidant (i.e. total phenolic content (TPC), 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)- and superoxide-radicals scavenging assay, and oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) assay) and anti-inflammatory (i.e. lipooxygenase (LOX) and xanthine oxidase (XO) assay) analysis. The partitions, prepared in the dose range of 50, 250 and 500 mg/kg, together with a vehicle (10 % DMSO) and standard drug (200 mg/kg silymarin) were administered orally for 7 consecutive days prior to subjection to the 3 mg/kg PCM-induced liver injury model in rats. Following the hepatic injury induction, blood samples and liver were collected for the respective biochemical parameter and histopathological studies. Body weight changes and liver weight were also recorded. The partitions were also subjected to the phytochemical screening and HPLC analysis. Of all partitions, EABP possessed high TPC value and demonstrated remarkable antioxidant activity when assessed using the DPPH- and superoxide-radical scavenging assay, as well as ORAC assay, which was followed by AQBP and PEBP. All partitions also showed low anti-inflammatory activity via the LOX and XO pathways. In the hepatoprotective study, the effectiveness of the partitions is in the order of EABP>AQBP>PEBP, which is supported by the microscopic analysis and histopathological scoring. In the biochemical analysis, EABP also exerted the most effective

  3. Crescimento, partição de matéria seca e retenção de Na+, K+ e Cl- em dois genótipos de sorgo irrigados com águas salinas Growth, dry mass partitioning, and Na+, K+, and Cl- retention by two sorghum genotypes irrigated with saline water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre José Silva de Aquino

    2007-10-01

    and anatomical changes occurring in the whole-plant. This research aimed at evaluating ion retention, vegetative growth, and dry matter partitioning by two forage sorghum genotypes [Sorghum Bicolor (L. Moench] irrigated with saline water. Selected seeds were sown in plastic pots containing 12 kg a sandy Argisol and grown under greenhouse conditions. The experiment was in completely randomized with treatments arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial design, consisting of two genotypes (CSF 18, sensitive and CSF 20, tolerant and five levels of increasing salinity (0.5, 2.0 , 4.0, 6.0 and 8.0 dS m-1, with four replicates. The treatments (salinity water application began five days after seeds emergence. On the forty-fourth day after the salt water applications began plants were harvested and evaluated for the following characteristics: dry mass production, dry mass partitioning, root distribution into pots, and Na+, K+ and Cl- contents. Salinity reduced leaf area and dry mass production of shoots and roots; the reduction in shoot growth was highest in the CSF 18 genotype. Salinity also altered carbon partitioning in both genotypes and caused an increase in source/sink ratio, which may contribute to plant acclimation to salt stress. Sorghum plants presented an efficient mechanism of Na+ retention, avoiding excessive accumulation in leaf tissues. However, this mechanism caused a certain dehydration degree in the leaves. Among the studied parameters, potassium leaf content and retention of sodium ions in the stem were highest in genotype CSF 20 (tolerant.

  4. Multiple supplements for beef heifers on pasture during the dry season: nutritional characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Pereira da Silva-Marques

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective was to evaluate levels of multiple supplements supplied to beef heifers in low supply of pasture on intake and nutrients digestibility, pH and concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen, nitrogen balance, synthesis and microbial efficiency. Five Nellore heifers with initial body weight of 344.00 ± 21.10 kg and average initial age of 22 months were used. The following supplements were evaluated as fed to the animals: control (mineral supplement and supplementation levels of 2, 4, 6 and 8 kg/animal/day, composing the following percentages of body weight (BW: 0.55, 1.11, 1.66 and 2.22%, respectively. The experimental design was a Latin square with five replications and five supplements. Intakes of total dry matter, crude protein (CP and total digestible nutrients, and total apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein, total carbohydrates and no fiber carbohydrates increased linearly (P <0.0001 and dry matter intake of forage decreased (P <0.0001 with supplementation levels. Supplementation strategies promoted reduction on ruminal pH (P = 0.0343 and increased concentration of ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N (P = 0.0004 before the supply of supplements, and after, this NH3-N presented quadratic behavior (P = 0.0023. Nitrogen intake, excretion of urea in urine and nitrogen excretion in feces increased linearly (P <0.0001 according to supplementation levels. The supply of high levels of multiple supplements reduces forage intake and presents itself as an alternative to cattle maintained in a systems with low supply of pasture in the dry season.

  5. Choosing the best partition of the output from a large-scale simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Challacombe, Chelsea Jordan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Casleton, Emily Michele [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-09-26

    Data partitioning becomes necessary when a large-scale simulation produces more data than can be feasibly stored. The goal is to partition the data, typically so that every element belongs to one and only one partition, and store summary information about the partition, either a representative value plus an estimate of the error or a distribution. Once the partitions are determined and the summary information stored, the raw data is discarded. This process can be performed in-situ; meaning while the simulation is running. When creating the partitions there are many decisions that researchers must make. For instance, how to determine once an adequate number of partitions have been created, how are the partitions created with respect to dividing the data, or how many variables should be considered simultaneously. In addition, decisions must be made for how to summarize the information within each partition. Because of the combinatorial number of possible ways to partition and summarize the data, a method of comparing the different possibilities will help guide researchers into choosing a good partitioning and summarization scheme for their application.

  6. Why partition nuclear waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cohen, J.J.

    1976-01-01

    A cursory review of literature dealing with various separatory processes involved in the handling of high-level liquid nuclear waste discloses that, for the most part, discussion centers on separation procedures and methodology for handling the resulting fractions, particularly the actinide wastes. There appears to be relatively little discussion on the incentives or motivations for performing these separations in the first place. Discussion is often limited to the assumption that we must separate out ''long-term'' from our ''short-term'' management problems. This paper deals with that assumption and devotes primary attention to the question of ''why partition waste'' rather than the question of ''how to partition waste'' or ''what to do with the segregated waste.''

  7. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  8. A Timing-Driven Partitioning System for Multiple FPGAs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kalapi Roy

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available Field-programmable systems with multiple FPGAs on a PCB or an MCM are being used by system designers when a single FPGA is not sufficient. We address the problem of partitioning a large technology mapped FPGA circuit onto multiple FPGA devices of a specific target technology. The physical characteristics of the multiple FPGA system (MFS pose additional constraints to the circuit partitioning algorithms: the capacity of each FPGA, the timing constraints, the number of I/Os per FPGA, and the pre-designed interconnection patterns of each FPGA and the package. Existing partitioning techniques which minimize just the cut sizes of partitions fail to satisfy the above challenges. We therefore present a timing driven N-way partitioning algorithm based on simulated annealing for technology-mapped FPGA circuits. The signal path delays are estimated during partitioning using a timing model specific to a multiple FPGA architecture. The model combines all possible delay factors in a system with multiple FPGA chips of a target technology. Furthermore, we have incorporated a new dynamic net-weighting scheme to minimize the number of pin-outs for each chip. Finally, we have developed a graph-based global router for pin assignment which can handle the pre-routed connections of our MFS structure. In order to reduce the time spent in the simulated annealing phase of the partitioner, clusters of circuit components are identified by a new linear-time bottom-up clustering algorithm. The annealing-based N-way partitioner executes four times faster using the clusters as opposed to a flat netlist with improved partitioning results. For several industrial circuits, our approach outperforms the recursive min-cut bi-partitioning algorithm by 35% in terms of nets cut. Our approach also outperforms an industrial FPGA partitioner by 73% on average in terms of unroutable nets. Using the performance optimization capabilities in our approach we have successfully partitioned the

  9. Combinatorics and complexity of partition functions

    CERN Document Server

    Barvinok, Alexander

    2016-01-01

    Partition functions arise in combinatorics and related problems of statistical physics as they encode in a succinct way the combinatorial structure of complicated systems. The main focus of the book is on efficient ways to compute (approximate) various partition functions, such as permanents, hafnians and their higher-dimensional versions, graph and hypergraph matching polynomials, the independence polynomial of a graph and partition functions enumerating 0-1 and integer points in polyhedra, which allows one to make algorithmic advances in otherwise intractable problems. The book unifies various, often quite recent, results scattered in the literature, concentrating on the three main approaches: scaling, interpolation and correlation decay. The prerequisites include moderate amounts of real and complex analysis and linear algebra, making the book accessible to advanced math and physics undergraduates. .

  10. A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, Lin; Litvinov, Sergej; Hu, Xiangyu Y.; Adams, Nikolaus A.

    2017-07-01

    We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.

  11. A novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fu, Lin, E-mail: lin.fu@tum.de; Litvinov, Sergej, E-mail: sergej.litvinov@aer.mw.tum.de; Hu, Xiangyu Y., E-mail: xiangyu.hu@tum.de; Adams, Nikolaus A., E-mail: nikolaus.adams@tum.de

    2017-07-15

    We propose a novel partitioning method for block-structured adaptive meshes utilizing the meshless Lagrangian particle concept. With the observation that an optimum partitioning has high analogy to the relaxation of a multi-phase fluid to steady state, physically motivated model equations are developed to characterize the background mesh topology and are solved by multi-phase smoothed-particle hydrodynamics. In contrast to well established partitioning approaches, all optimization objectives are implicitly incorporated and achieved during the particle relaxation to stationary state. Distinct partitioning sub-domains are represented by colored particles and separated by a sharp interface with a surface tension model. In order to obtain the particle relaxation, special viscous and skin friction models, coupled with a tailored time integration algorithm are proposed. Numerical experiments show that the present method has several important properties: generation of approximately equal-sized partitions without dependence on the mesh-element type, optimized interface communication between distinct partitioning sub-domains, continuous domain decomposition which is physically localized and implicitly incremental. Therefore it is particularly suitable for load-balancing of high-performance CFD simulations.

  12. Heritability, combining ability and inheritance of storage root dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Storage root dry matter content (RDM) is central to the improvement of consumer and industrial attributes of root crops. Yam bean (Pachyrhizus species) is a legume root crop newly introduced in Uganda, but its adoption may be constrained by low RDM. The objective of this study was to investigate the magnitude of ...

  13. The influence of hydrogen bonding on partition coefficients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Nádia Melo; Kenny, Peter W.; Montanari, Carlos A.; Prokopczyk, Igor M.; Ribeiro, Jean F. R.; Rocha, Josmar R.; Sartori, Geraldo Rodrigues

    2017-02-01

    This Perspective explores how consideration of hydrogen bonding can be used to both predict and better understand partition coefficients. It is shown how polarity of both compounds and substructures can be estimated from measured alkane/water partition coefficients. When polarity is defined in this manner, hydrogen bond donors are typically less polar than hydrogen bond acceptors. Analysis of alkane/water partition coefficients in conjunction with molecular electrostatic potential calculations suggests that aromatic chloro substituents may be less lipophilic than is generally believed and that some of the effect of chloro-substitution stems from making the aromatic π-cloud less available to hydrogen bond donors. Relationships between polarity and calculated hydrogen bond basicity are derived for aromatic nitrogen and carbonyl oxygen. Aligned hydrogen bond acceptors appear to present special challenges for prediction of alkane/water partition coefficients and this may reflect `frustration' of solvation resulting from overlapping hydration spheres. It is also shown how calculated hydrogen bond basicity can be used to model the effect of aromatic aza-substitution on octanol/water partition coefficients.

  14. Compactified webs and domain wall partition functions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shabbir, Khurram [Government College University, Department of Mathematics, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2017-04-15

    In this paper we use the topological vertex formalism to calculate a generalization of the ''domain wall'' partition function of M-strings. This generalization allows calculation of partition function of certain compactified webs using a simple gluing algorithm similar to M-strings case. (orig.)

  15. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leendert Snynan

    Crop residues in the summer rainfall area of South Africa fulfill a strategic role in the fodder flow program ... This value is high when compared with in vitro organic matter digestibility values reported for wheat straw. (38.9%) ... Sunflower-cob residues seem to be a forage with a high energy value that might be suitable for use.

  16. Structural analysis of the ParR/parC plasmid partition complex

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller-Jensen, Jakob; Ringgaard, Simon; Mercogliano, Christopher P

    2007-01-01

    Accurate DNA partition at cell division is vital to all living organisms. In bacteria, this process can involve partition loci, which are found on both chromosomes and plasmids. The initial step in Escherichia coli plasmid R1 partition involves the formation of a partition complex between the DNA...

  17. Interfacial thermodynamics and electrochemistry of protein partitioning in two-phase systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fraaije, J.G.E.M.

    1987-01-01

    The subject of this thesis is protein partition between an aqueous salt solution and a surface or an apolair liquid and the concomitant co-partition of small ions. The extent of co-partitioning determines the charge regulation in the protein partitioning process.

    Chapters 2 and 3

  18. Partitioning of organochlorine pesticides from water to polyethylene passive samplers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hale, Sarah E.; Martin, Timothy J.; Goss, Kai-Uwe; Arp, Hans Peter H.; Werner, David

    2010-01-01

    The mass transfer rates and equilibrium partitioning behaviour of 14 diverse organochlorine pesticides (OCP) between water and polyethylene (PE) passive samplers, cut from custom made PE sheets and commercial polyethylene plastic bags, were quantified. Overall mass transfer coefficients, k O , estimated PE membrane diffusion coefficients, D PE , and PE-water partitioning coefficients, K PE-water, are reported. In addition, the partitioning of three polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) from water to PE is quantified and compared with literature values. K PE-water values agreed mostly within a factor of two for both passive samplers and also with literature values for the reference PAHs. As PE is expected to exhibit similar sorption behaviour to long-chain alkanes, PE-water partitioning coefficients were compared to hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients estimated with the SPARC online calculator, COSMOtherm and a polyparameter linear free energy relationship based on the Abraham approach. The best correlation for all compounds tested was with COSMOtherm estimated hexadecane-water partitioning coefficients. - The partitioning of organochlorine pesticides between single phase polyethylene passive samplers and water is quantified.

  19. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  20. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahima; Kumar, Vinod; Tomar, S. K.; Roy, Debashis; Kumar, Muneendra

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein) containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05) effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP), TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g) was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05) as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein. PMID:27047133

  1. Effect of varying levels of formaldehyde treatment of mustard oil cake on rumen fermentation, digestibility in wheat straw based total mixed diets in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahima

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to protect the protein in mustard cake by different levels of formaldehyde treatment with a view to optimize the level of formaldehyde. Materials and Methods: Different levels of formaldehyde treatment (0, 1, 1.5 and 2% of crude protein containing concentrate and roughages diet in 40:60 ratio were tested for their effect on nutrients digestibility, in vitro ammonia release, in vitro gas production and change in protein fractions. Non-significant (p≤0.05 effect on pH, microbial biomass, partitioning factor, total gas production (TGP, TGP per g dry matter and TGP per g digestible dry matter (ml/g was observed in almost all the treatments. Results: Total volatile fatty acids at 2% formaldehyde treatment level of mustard cake was lower (p<0.05 as compared to other groups, while in vitro dry matter digestibility and in vitro organic matter digestibility were reported to be low in 1% formaldehyde treated group. Conclusion: On a holistic view, it could be considered that formaldehyde treatment at 1.5% level was optimal for protection of mustard oil cake protein.

  2. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, G.; Ekern, A.

    1974-01-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 μVi 51 Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate fumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker 51 Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of 51 Cr-EDTA through faeces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days. (author)

  3. Time and Space Partitioning the EagleEye Reference Misson

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bos, Victor; Mendham, Peter; Kauppinen, Panu; Holsti, Niklas; Crespo, Alfons; Masmano, Miguel; de la Puente, Juan A.; Zamorano, Juan

    2013-08-01

    We discuss experiences gained by porting a Software Validation Facility (SVF) and a satellite Central Software (CSW) to a platform with support for Time and Space Partitioning (TSP). The SVF and CSW are part of the EagleEye Reference mission of the European Space Agency (ESA). As a reference mission, EagleEye is a perfect candidate to evaluate practical aspects of developing satellite CSW for and on TSP platforms. The specific TSP platform we used consists of a simulated LEON3 CPU controlled by the XtratuM separation micro-kernel. On top of this, we run five separate partitions. Each partition runs its own real-time operating system or Ada run-time kernel, which in turn are running the application software of the CSW. We describe issues related to partitioning; inter-partition communication; scheduling; I/O; and fault-detection, isolation, and recovery (FDIR).

  4. Effects of nitrogen fertilization strategies on nitrogen use efficiency in physiology, recovery, and agronomy and redistribution of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation in two typical rice cultivars in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-xia; Wang, Guang-huo; Zhang, Qi-chun; Guo, Hai-chao

    2007-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution (post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang. With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.

  5. Prediction of Partition Coefficients of Organic Compounds for SPME/PDMS

    OpenAIRE

    Liao Hsuan-Yu; Huang Miao-Ling; Lu Yu-Ting; Chao Keh-Ping

    2016-01-01

    The partition coefficients of 51 organic compounds between SPME/PDMS and gas were compiled from the literature sources in this study. The effect of physicochemical properties and descriptors on the partitioning process of partition coefficients was explicated by the correlation analysis. The PDMS-gas partition coefficients were well correlated to the molecular weight of organic compounds (r = 0.832, p < 0.05). An empirical model, consisting of the molecular weight and the polarizability, was ...

  6. Effect of ambient temperature and sodium bicarbonate supplementation on water and electrolyte balances in dry and lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khelil-Arfa, H; Faverdin, P; Boudon, A

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the interaction between 2 constant ambient temperatures [thermoneutrality (TN; 15°C) and high temperature (HT; 28°C)] and 2 levels of Na bicarbonate supplementation [calculated to provide diet Na contents of 0.20%DM (Na-) and 0.50%DM (Na+)] on water partitioning in dairy cows. Treatments were compared on 4 dry and 4mid-lactation Holstein cows according to 2 Latin squares (1 for each physiological stage) over the course of 4 periods of 15d. Diets consisted of a total mixed ration based on maize silage. Dry cows were restricted to their protein and energy requirements, whereas lactating cows were fed ad libitum. The daily average temperature-humidity index was 59.4 for TN and 73.2 for HT. Lactating and dry cows had higher vaginal temperatures at HT than at TN, but the increase was more pronounced in lactating cows (+1.05 vs. +0.12°C for vaginal temperature, respectively). Dry matter intake (DMI) of lactating cows decreased by 2.3kg/d at HT. Free water intake (FWI) and estimated volume of water lost to evaporation increased at HT in both lactating and dry cows; no interactions were observed between temperature and physiological stage. When expressed as a proportion of DMI, the increase in evaporation that occurred with increasing temperature was completely compensated for by an increase in FWI for both physiological stages. The urinary water excretion increased slightly at HT in lactating cows but not in dry cows, which may be related to the low chloride content of the offered diet. High Na supplementation increased DMI slightly in lactating cows, but milk yield was not affected. Sodium supplementation did not limit the decrease in DMI observed in lactating cows at HT; this observation is likely due to the high diet electrolyte balance of the offered diets. Sodium supplementation increased FWI in lactating cows and urinary flow in both physiological states. The interaction between ambient temperature and Na

  7. Effects of salinity and organic matter on the partitioning of perfluoroalkyl acid (PFAs) to clay particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeon, Junho; Kannan, Kurunthachalam; Lim, Byung J; An, Kwang Guk; Kim, Sang Don

    2011-06-01

    The influence of salinity and organic matter on the distribution coefficient (K(d)) for perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) in a brackish water-clay system was studied. The distribution coefficients (K(d)) for PFAs onto inorganic clay surfaces increased with salinity, providing evidence for electrostatic interaction for the sorption of PFAs, whereas the relationship between K(d) and organic carbon content (f(oc)) suggested that hydrophobic interaction is the primary driving force for the sorption of PFAs onto organic matter. The organic carbon normalized adsorption coefficient (K(oc)) of PFAs can be slightly overestimated due to the electrostatic interaction within uncoated inorganic surfaces. In addition, the dissolved organic matter released from coated clay particles seemed to solvate PFA molecules in solution, which contributed to a decrease in K(d). A positive relationship between K(d) and salinity was apparent, but an empirical relationship for the 'salting-out' effect was not evident. The K(d) values of PFAs are relatively small compared with those reported for persistent organic pollutants. Thus, sorption may not be a significant route of mass transfer of PFAs from water columns in estuarine environments. However, enhancement of sorption of PFAs to particulate matter at high salinity values could evoke potential risks to benthic organisms in estuarine areas.

  8. Solar radiation use efficiency and morphophysiological indices in common bean cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gisele Carneiro da Silva Teixeira

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Common bean crops present a broad edaphoclimatic adaptation, allowing their cultivation throughout the year. However, in order to reach good economic income levels, it is fundamental to understand the processes that affect the growth and development of the crop in various environments. This study aimed to compare two common bean cultivars (BRS Radiante and Pérola contrasting in cycle and growth behavior by using morphophysiological indices and solar radiation use efficiency. The following traits were evaluated: light extinction coefficient, radiation use efficiency, phenologic development, leaf area index, total dry matter weight, crop growth rate, relative growth rate and dry matter partitioning. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher vigor, when compared to the Pérola cultivar, due to its faster initial phenologic development and higher initial and relative growth rates. Both cultivars differ for leaf area index and shoot architecture, although that does not happen for light extinction coefficient. The BRS Radiante cultivar shows a higher solar radiation use efficiency, resulting in a greater dry matter yield throughout its development.

  9. Soil aggregate formation: the role of wetting-drying cycles in the genesis of interparticle bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In nature, soil is continually exposed to wetting (e.g., rainfall and diffusive flow) and drying (e.g., evaporation, diffusive flow and plant uptake). These natural wetting and drying cycles of soils are physical events that profoundly affect the development of soil structure, aggregate stability, carbon (C) flux and mineralization. We hypothesize that drying of capillary water transports suspended and/or dissolved cementing agents toward inter-particle contacts and eventually deposits part of the colloidal mass forming inter-particle bonds. Here, we will show the role of wetting and drying cycles on soil aggregation and stabilization and how these cycles transport and deposit organic cementing agents at the inter-particle contact. We found that aggregates of sand and silt particles can be formed by subjecting loose particles to wetting-drying cycles in the presence of dilute solutions of organic matter that mimic root or microbial exudates. Moreover, majority of the organic matter was deposited in the contact region between the sand particles, where the water accumulates during drying. The model predictions and aggregate stability measurements are supported by scanning electron micrographs that clearly show the process of aggregate formation.

  10. Phylogenetic systematics and biogeography of hummingbirds: Bayesian and maximum likelihood analyses of partitioned data and selection of an appropriate partitioning strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGuire, Jimmy A; Witt, Christopher C; Altshuler, Douglas L; Remsen, J V

    2007-10-01

    Hummingbirds are an important model system in avian biology, but to date the group has been the subject of remarkably few phylogenetic investigations. Here we present partitioned Bayesian and maximum likelihood phylogenetic analyses for 151 of approximately 330 species of hummingbirds and 12 outgroup taxa based on two protein-coding mitochondrial genes (ND2 and ND4), flanking tRNAs, and two nuclear introns (AK1 and BFib). We analyzed these data under several partitioning strategies ranging between unpartitioned and a maximum of nine partitions. In order to select a statistically justified partitioning strategy following partitioned Bayesian analysis, we considered four alternative criteria including Bayes factors, modified versions of the Akaike information criterion for small sample sizes (AIC(c)), Bayesian information criterion (BIC), and a decision-theoretic methodology (DT). Following partitioned maximum likelihood analyses, we selected a best-fitting strategy using hierarchical likelihood ratio tests (hLRTS), the conventional AICc, BIC, and DT, concluding that the most stringent criterion, the performance-based DT, was the most appropriate methodology for selecting amongst partitioning strategies. In the context of our well-resolved and well-supported phylogenetic estimate, we consider the historical biogeography of hummingbirds using ancestral state reconstructions of (1) primary geographic region of occurrence (i.e., South America, Central America, North America, Greater Antilles, Lesser Antilles), (2) Andean or non-Andean geographic distribution, and (3) minimum elevational occurrence. These analyses indicate that the basal hummingbird assemblages originated in the lowlands of South America, that most of the principle clades of hummingbirds (all but Mountain Gems and possibly Bees) originated on this continent, and that there have been many (at least 30) independent invasions of other primary landmasses, especially Central America.

  11. Construction of Scaling Partitions of Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ole Christensen

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Partitions of unity in ℝd formed by (matrix scales of a fixed function appear in many parts of harmonic analysis, e.g., wavelet analysis and the analysis of Triebel-Lizorkin spaces. We give a simple characterization of the functions and matrices yielding such a partition of unity. For expanding matrices, the characterization leads to easy ways of constructing appropriate functions with attractive properties like high regularity and small support. We also discuss a class of integral transforms that map functions having the partition of unity property to functions with the same property. The one-dimensional version of the transform allows a direct definition of a class of nonuniform splines with properties that are parallel to those of the classical B-splines. The results are illustrated with the construction of dual pairs of wavelet frames.

  12. Recent research and development activities on partitioning and transmutation of radioactive nuclides in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Minato, K.; Ikegami, T.; Inoue, T.

    2005-01-01

    In Japan, research and development activities for partitioning and transmutation (P and T) have been promoted under the OMEGA programme for more than 15 years. These activities were reviewed by the Atomic Energy Commission in Japan in 2000. In accordance with the results of the review, three institutes, the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute (JAERI), the Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Institute (JNC) and the Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry (CRIEPI), are continuing the research and development on the P and T technology. This report summarises the recent activities in Japan by these institutes. JAERI is engaging in the research and development on the Double-strata Fuel Cycle concept consisting of the partitioning process of the high-level waste and the dedicated transmutation cycle using the accelerator driven system (ADS) fuelled with the minor actinide (MA) nitride fuel. JNC and CRIEPI are engaging in the research and development on the P and T technology using commercialized fast reactors (FR), where JNC is mainly in charge of the MOX fuel and the aqueous reprocessing, while CRIEPI is mainly in charge of the metallic fuel and the dry reprocessing. The research and development activities on FR are organised under the Feasibility Study on Commercialized Fast Reactor Cycle Systems. (authors)

  13. Environmental concentration and atmospheric deposition of halogenated flame retardants in soil from Nepal: Source apportionment and soil-air partitioning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ishwar Chandra; Devi, Ningombam Linthoingambi; Li, Jun; Zhang, Gan

    2018-02-01

    While various investigations have been driven on polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) and other flame retardants (FRs) in different framework around the world, information about contamination and fate of PBDEs and other FRs in developing countries especially in the Indian subcontinent is uncommon. Nepal being located in the Indian subcontinent, very little is known about contamination level of semi-volatile organic pollutants discharged into the environment. This motivated us to investigate the environmental fate of halogenated flame retardant (HFRs) in Nepalese condition. In this study, we investigated the concentration, fate, and sources of 9 PBDEs, 2 dechlorane plus isomers (DPs), and 6 novel brominated flame retardants (NBFRs). Moreover, air-soil exchange and soil-air partitioning were also evaluated to characterize the pattern of air-soil exchange and environmental fate. In general, the concentrations of NBFRs in soil were more prevalent than PBDEs and DPs, and accounted 95% of ∑HFRs. By and large, the concentrations of NBFRs and DPs were measured high in Kathmandu, while PBDEs level exceeded in Pokhara. Principal component analysis (PCA) study suggested contributions from commercial penta-, octa-, and deca-BDEs products and de-bromination of highly brominated PBDEs as the significant source of PBDEs. Likewise, low f anti ratio suggested DPs in soil might have originated from long-range atmospheric transport from remote areas, while high levels of decabromodiphenyl ethane (DBDPE) in soil were linked with the use of wide varieties of consumer products. The estimated fugacity fraction (ff) for individual HFR was quite lower (soil is overwhelming. Soil-air partitioning study revealed neither octanol-air partition coefficient (K OA ) nor black carbon partition coefficient (K BC-A ) is an appropriate surrogate for soil organic matter (SOM), subsequently, absorption by SOM has no or little role in the partitioning of HFRs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All

  14. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  15. Probabilistic Decision Based Block Partitioning for Future Video Coding

    KAUST Repository

    Wang, Zhao

    2017-11-29

    In the latest Joint Video Exploration Team development, the quadtree plus binary tree (QTBT) block partitioning structure has been proposed for future video coding. Compared to the traditional quadtree structure of High Efficiency Video Coding (HEVC) standard, QTBT provides more flexible patterns for splitting the blocks, which results in dramatically increased combinations of block partitions and high computational complexity. In view of this, a confidence interval based early termination (CIET) scheme is proposed for QTBT to identify the unnecessary partition modes in the sense of rate-distortion (RD) optimization. In particular, a RD model is established to predict the RD cost of each partition pattern without the full encoding process. Subsequently, the mode decision problem is casted into a probabilistic framework to select the final partition based on the confidence interval decision strategy. Experimental results show that the proposed CIET algorithm can speed up QTBT block partitioning structure by reducing 54.7% encoding time with only 1.12% increase in terms of bit rate. Moreover, the proposed scheme performs consistently well for the high resolution sequences, of which the video coding efficiency is crucial in real applications.

  16. Development of the four group partitioning process at JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kubota, Masumitsu; Morita, Yasuji; Yamaguchi, Isoo; Yamagishi, Isao; Fujiwara, T.; Watanabe, Masayuki; Mizoguchi, Kenichi; Tatsugae, Ryozo

    1999-01-01

    At JAERI, development of a partitioning method started about 24 years ago. From 1973 to 1984, a partitioning process was developed for separating elements in HLLW into 3 groups; TRU, Sr-Cs and others. The partitioning process consisted of three steps; solvent extraction of U and Pu with TBP, solvent extraction of Am and Cm with DIDPA, and adsorption of Sr and Cs with inorganic ion exchangers. The process was demonstrated with real HLLW. Since 1985, a four group partitioning process has been developed, in which a step for separating the Tc-PGM group was developed in addition to the three group separation. Effective methods for separating TRU, especially Np, and Tc have been developed. In this paper, the flow sheet of the four group partitioning and the results of tests with simulated and real HLLW in NUCEF hot-cell are shown. (J.P.N.)

  17. The Partition of Multi-Resolution LOD Based on Qtm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, M.-L.; Xing, H.-Q.; Zhao, X.-S.; Chen, J.

    2011-08-01

    The partition hierarch of Quaternary Triangular Mesh (QTM) determine the accuracy of spatial analysis and application based on QTM. In order to resolve the problem that the partition hierarch of QTM is limited by the level of the computer hardware, the new method that Multi- Resolution LOD (Level of Details) based on QTM will be discussed in this paper. This method can make the resolution of the cells varying with the viewpoint position by partitioning the cells of QTM, selecting the particular area according to the viewpoint; dealing with the cracks caused by different subdivisions, it satisfies the request of unlimited partition in part.

  18. THE PARTITION OF MULTI-RESOLUTION LOD BASED ON QTM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.-L. Hou

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available The partition hierarch of Quaternary Triangular Mesh (QTM determine the accuracy of spatial analysis and application based on QTM. In order to resolve the problem that the partition hierarch of QTM is limited by the level of the computer hardware, the new method that Multi- Resolution LOD (Level of Details based on QTM will be discussed in this paper. This method can make the resolution of the cells varying with the viewpoint position by partitioning the cells of QTM, selecting the particular area according to the viewpoint; dealing with the cracks caused by different subdivisions, it satisfies the request of unlimited partition in part.

  19. LHCb: Optimising query execution time in LHCb Bookkeeping System using partition pruning and partition wise joins

    CERN Multimedia

    Mathe, Z

    2013-01-01

    The LHCb experiment produces a huge amount of data which has associated metadata such as run number, data taking condition (detector status when the data was taken), simulation condition, etc. The data are stored in files, replicated on the Computing Grid around the world. The LHCb Bookkeeping System provides methods for retrieving datasets based on their metadata. The metadata is stored in a hybrid database model, which is a mixture of Relational and Hierarchical database models and is based on the Oracle Relational Database Management System (RDBMS). The database access has to be reliable and fast. In order to achieve a high timing performance, the tables are partitioned and the queries are executed in parallel. When we store large amounts of data the partition pruning is essential for database performance, because it reduces the amount of data retrieved from the disk and optimises the resource utilisation. This research presented here is focusing on the extended composite partitioning strategy such as rang...

  20. Open software tools for eddy covariance flux partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agro-ecosystem management and assessment will benefit greatly from the development of reliable techniques for partitioning evapotranspiration (ET) into evaporation (E) and transpiration (T). Among other activities, flux partitioning can aid in evaluating consumptive vs. non-consumptive agricultural...

  1. Partitioning a macroscopic system into independent subsystems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delle Site, Luigi; Ciccotti, Giovanni; Hartmann, Carsten

    2017-08-01

    We discuss the problem of partitioning a macroscopic system into a collection of independent subsystems. The partitioning of a system into replica-like subsystems is nowadays a subject of major interest in several fields of theoretical and applied physics. The thermodynamic approach currently favoured by practitioners is based on a phenomenological definition of an interface energy associated with the partition, due to a lack of easily computable expressions for a microscopic (i.e. particle-based) interface energy. In this article, we outline a general approach to derive sharp and computable bounds for the interface free energy in terms of microscopic statistical quantities. We discuss potential applications in nanothermodynamics and outline possible future directions.

  2. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  3. Consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of the Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth for ovinesConsumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta da Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth por ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was realized in the Animal Research Unit "Senator Alvaro Adolpho" in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belem, Para State, to evaluate the effect of four levels (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the leguminous Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, on substitution to the Brachiaria humidicola, on the voluntary consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP. It was realized a metabolic assay, of 21 days having been 14 days of adaptation to experimental dietary and seven days of collected, was used sixteen sheep, of ten months and 28 (± 2.44 average of kg, in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and four repetitions. The data was analyzed by software SAS. The use of the Pueraria phaseoloides leguminous, provides to greater availability of dry substance in the fodder plant and rise of the nutritional value, mainly, protein in the diet, promoting increase of the animal productivity. Levels of substitution of P. Phaseoloides, around 100%, make possible greater consumption of the dry matter, organic matter, CP.O trabalho foi realizado na Unidade de Pesquisa Animal “Senador Álvaro Adolpho” na Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém, Pará, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis (100%, 75%, 50% e 25% da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, em substituição ao quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola, sobre o consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e proteína bruta (PB. Foi realizado um ensaio metabólico de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais e sete dias de coleta. Foram utilizados dezesseis ovinos, de dez meses e média de 28 (± 2,44 kg de peso vivo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados pelo software SAS. A utilização da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides, proporciona maior

  4. Drying brick masonry by electro-osmosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Rörig-Dalgaard, Inge

    2006-01-01

    When a fine grained, porous medium is applied an electric DC field, transport of matter occurs, and the transport mechanism in focus of the present study is electro-osmosis, which is transport of water. In laboratory it was shown possible to transport water inside a brick and brick/mortar system...... movement of water towards the cathode was seen. Thus the basis for utilizing the electro-osmotic effect for drying brick masonry is present, but proper electrodes still needs to be developed....

  5. Dry-type radioactive material storage facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamanaka, Yasuharu; Matsuda, Masami; Kanai, Hidetoshi; Ganda, Takao.

    1996-01-01

    A plurality of container tubes containing a plurality of canisters therein are disposed in a canister storage chamber. High level radioactive materials are filled in the canisters in the form of glass solidification materials. The canister storage chamber is divided into two cooling channels by a horizontal partition wall. Each of the container tubes is suspended from a ceiling slab and pass through the horizontal partition wall. Namely, each of the container tubes vertically traverses the cooling channel formed between the ceiling slab and the partition wall and extends to the cooling channel formed between the partition wall and a floor slab. Cooling gases heated in the cooling channel below the partition wall are suppressed from rising to the cooling channel above the partition wall. Therefore, the container tubes are efficiently cooled even in a cooling channel above the partition wall to unify temperature distribution in the axial direction of the container tubes. (I.N.)

  6. Application of common y-intercept regression parameters for log Kp vs 1/ T for predicting gas-particle partitioning in the urban environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankow, James F.

    Gas-particle partitioning is examined using a partitioning constant Kp = ( F/ TSP)/ A, where F (ng m -3) and A (ng m -3) are the particulate-associated and gas-phase concentrations, respectively, and TSP is the total suspended particulate matter level (μg m -3). Compound-dependent values of Kp depend on temperature ( T) according to Kp = mp/ T + bp. Limitations in data quality can cause errors in estimates of mp and bp obtained by simple linear regression (SLR). However, within a group of similar compounds, the bp values will be similar. By pooling data, an improved set of mp and a single bp can be obtained by common y-intercept regression (CYIR). SLR estimates for mp and bp for polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) sorbing to urban Osaka particulate matter are available (Yamasaki et al., 1982, Envir. Sci. Technol.16, 189-194), as are CYIR estimates for the same particulate matter (Pankow, 1991, Atmospheric Environment25A, 2229-2239). In this work, a comparison was conducted of the ability of these two sets of mp and bp to predict A/ F ratios for PAHs based on measured T and TSP values for data obtained in other urban locations, specifically: (1) in and near the Baltimore Harbor Tunnel by Benner (1988, Ph.D thesis, University of Maryland) and Benner et al. (1989, Envir. Sci. Technol.23, 1269-1278); and (2) in Chicago by Cotham (1990, Ph.D. thesis, University of South Carolina). In general, the CYIR estimates for mp and bp obtained for Osaka particulate matter were found to be at least as reliable, and for some compounds more reliable than their SLR counterparts in predicting gas-particle ratios for PAHs. This result provides further evidence of the utility of the CYIR approach in quantitating the dependence of log Kp values on 1/ T.

  7. Off-diagonal series expansion for quantum partition functions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hen, Itay

    2018-05-01

    We derive an integral-free thermodynamic perturbation series expansion for quantum partition functions which enables an analytical term-by-term calculation of the series. The expansion is carried out around the partition function of the classical component of the Hamiltonian with the expansion parameter being the strength of the off-diagonal, or quantum, portion. To demonstrate the usefulness of the technique we analytically compute to third order the partition functions of the 1D Ising model with longitudinal and transverse fields, and the quantum 1D Heisenberg model.

  8. Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1984-06-01

    The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension of particles and how the mechanics depend on particle size. The effect of rough surfaces is discussed. It is concluded that knowledge on the subject, at relevant large Reynolds numbers, is indeed lacking. Various methods for measurements of deposition is mentioned and further the report gives some general ideas on how a suitable full scale experiment should be laid out in order to produce some data on the problems of dry deposition to city surfaces. (author)

  9. Forage selection and performance of sheep grazing dry annual range.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ridder, de N.; Benjamin, R.W.; Keulen, van H.

    1986-01-01

    During 114 days of grazing, sheep grazing a dry annual pasture in Israel selected the fine fraction available with a higher nutritive value. As this fraction became depleted and feed quality dropped, organic matter intake dropped from 1.73 to 0.75 kg/sheep/d. Sheep lost weight, body condition and

  10. Modeling water and hydrogen networks with partitioning regeneration units

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.M. Shehata

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Strict environment regulations in chemical and refinery industries lead to minimize resource consumption by designing utility networks within industrial process plants. The present study proposed a superstructure based optimization model for the synthesis of water and hydrogen networks with partitioning regenerators without mixing the regenerated sources. This method determines the number of partitioning regenerators needed for the regeneration of the sources. The number of the regenerators is based on the number of sources required to be treated for recovery. Each source is regenerated in an individual partitioning regenerator. Multiple regeneration systems can be employed to achieve minimum flowrate and costs. The formulation is linear in the regenerator balance equations. The optimized model is applied for two systems, partitioning regeneration systems of the fixed outlet impurity concentration and partitioning regeneration systems of the fixed impurity load removal ratio (RR for water and hydrogen networks. Several case studies from the literature are solved to illustrate the ease and applicability of the proposed method.

  11. A layer model of ethanol partitioning into lipid membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nizza, David T; Gawrisch, Klaus

    2009-06-01

    The effect of membrane composition on ethanol partitioning into lipid bilayers was assessed by headspace gas chromatography. A series of model membranes with different compositions have been investigated. Membranes were exposed to a physiological ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l. The concentration of membranes was 20 wt% which roughly corresponds to values found in tissue. Partitioning depended on the chemical nature of polar groups at the lipid/water interface. Compared to phosphatidylcholine, lipids with headgroups containing phosphatidylglycerol, phosphatidylserine, and sphingomyelin showed enhanced partitioning while headgroups containing phosphatidylethanolamine resulted in a lower partition coefficient. The molar partition coefficient was independent of a membrane's hydrophobic volume. This observation is in agreement with our previously published NMR results which showed that ethanol resides almost exclusively within the membrane/water interface. At an ethanol concentration of 20 mmol/l in water, ethanol concentrations at the lipid/water interface are in the range from 30-15 mmol/l, corresponding to one ethanol molecule per 100-200 lipids.

  12. Dominant partition method. [based on a wave function formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dixon, R. M.; Redish, E. F.

    1979-01-01

    By use of the L'Huillier, Redish, and Tandy (LRT) wave function formalism, a partially connected method, the dominant partition method (DPM) is developed for obtaining few body reductions of the many body problem in the LRT and Bencze, Redish, and Sloan (BRS) formalisms. The DPM maps the many body problem to a fewer body one by using the criterion that the truncated formalism must be such that consistency with the full Schroedinger equation is preserved. The DPM is based on a class of new forms for the irreducible cluster potential, which is introduced in the LRT formalism. Connectivity is maintained with respect to all partitions containing a given partition, which is referred to as the dominant partition. Degrees of freedom corresponding to the breakup of one or more of the clusters of the dominant partition are treated in a disconnected manner. This approach for simplifying the complicated BRS equations is appropriate for physical problems where a few body reaction mechanism prevails.

  13. Sharing-Aware Horizontal Partitioning for Exploiting Correlations during Query Processing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tzoumas, Kostas; Deshpande, Amol; Jensen, Christian Søndergaard

    2010-01-01

    Optimization of join queries based on average selectivities is suboptimal in highly correlated databases. In such databases, relations are naturally divided into partitions, each partition having substantially different statistical characteristics. It is very compelling to discover such data...... partitions during query optimization and create multiple plans for a given query, one plan being optimal for a particular combination of data partitions. This scenario calls for the sharing of state among plans, so that common intermediate results are not recomputed. We study this problem in a setting...

  14. Vertical partitioning of relational OLTP databases using integer programming

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amossen, Rasmus Resen

    2010-01-01

    A way to optimize performance of relational row store databases is to reduce the row widths by vertically partition- ing tables into table fractions in order to minimize the number of irrelevant columns/attributes read by each transaction. This pa- per considers vertical partitioning algorithms...... for relational row- store OLTP databases with an H-store-like architecture, meaning that we would like to maximize the number of single-sited transactions. We present a model for the vertical partitioning problem that, given a schema together with a vertical partitioning and a workload, estimates the costs...... applied to the TPC-C benchmark and the heuristic is shown to obtain solutions with costs close to the ones found using the quadratic program....

  15. Metric Structures on Fibered Manifolds Through Partitions of Unity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hulya Kadioglu

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The notion of partitions of unity is extremely useful as it allows one to extend local constructions on Euclidean patches to global ones. It is widely used in many fields in mathematics. Therefore, prolongation of this useful tool to another manifold may help constructing many geometric structures. In this paper, we construct a partition of unity on a fiber bundle by using a given partition of unity on the base manifold. On the other hand we show that the converse is also possible if it is a vector bundle. As an application, we define a Riemannian metric on the fiber bundle by using induced partition of unity on the fiber bundle.

  16. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  17. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  18. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of crude glycerines originated from palm oil using fed rooster assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiari Tia Legawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the dry matter digestibility, gross energy (GE, the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, and the nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of two crude glycerine from two different sources. The first crude glycerine (CG1 was from a large scale biodiesel producer with high content of glycerol (89.49% and low content of crude fat (1.73%, meanwhile the second crude glycerine (CG2 was from a medium scale biodiesel producer with lower content of glycerol than CG1 (38.36% and high content of crude fat (23.63%. Fed rooster assay based on Sibbald (1976 was used in the experiment. The experimental feed consisted of ground corn and three levels of crude glycerine (0, 10, and 20%. Twenty four Hisex brown roosters were housed in metabolic cages. Roosters were force fed with 30 g experimental feed, after 24 hours of fasting. Excreta collection was performed for two days while the roosters were fasting again. The content values of GE, AMEn, and TMEn of CG1 were 4065.18, 2926.59, and 3068.73 kcal kg-1 and for CG2 were 5928.09, 4010.11, and 4054.52 kcal kg, respectively.

  19. Qualitative Indices of Istamaran Date Variety Affected by Various Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Mehryar

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Drying of fruits and vegetables is one of the oldest methods for preserving foods. Drying not only affects the moisture content of the product, but also changes other physical, chemical and biological properties of the product including enzymatic activity, microbial spoilage, viscosity, hardness, taste and aroma. In order to study the occurring changes in dried product, qualitative characteristics including shrinkage, color and water rehydration are commonly evaluated. The purpose of this research was to study the effect of drying methods on qualitative indices for dried Istamaran dates. The drying methods were hot air, microwave and vacuum drying. The photos of the final product were taken using a digital camera. Then, color parameters (L*, a* and b* of the samples were measured using Photoshop software. The amount of shrinkage for dried product was determined by liquid displacement method. For evaluating rehydration ability, water absorption capacity (WAC, dry matter holding capacity (DHC, and rehydration ability (RA were also estimated. Results showed that the effect of drying method on WAC, DHC, and RA was significant (p<0.01. Means comparison revealed that the structural damage into the final dried product occurred by microwave method was higher than that for hot air and vacuum drying methods. Drying method did not lead to any significant difference among shrinkage values. Drying temperature influenced shrinkage more than drying time. Analysis of variance showed that the effect of drying method on L*, a* and b* parameters was not significant. Since the temperature of drying in microwave method is very high, it is possible that caramelization occurs during this method. This phenomenon can be considered as the reason of color darkness caused by microwave method.

  20. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  1. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger after therma1 drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Purwadaria

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been carried out to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS. POS was fermented aerobically for four days in a fermentor chambers (28°C, RH 80%, with 60% moisture content Some of the product was further incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 28°C. Both products from aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes were dried by various methods, i.e. sunlight, oven at 60°C, oven with blower at 40°C, at the moisture content less than 11%. Results of the drying methods were also compared with the fresh fermented product. Statistic analysis using factorial design (2 x 4 showed that there was no interaction between kind of fermentation processes (aerobic and anaerobic and drying methods (fresh, sunlight, oven 60°C, and blower 40°C for almost all parameters except total a-amino acid content Significant results (p<0.05 were obtained on the drying methods for parameters of crude protein, true protein, in vitro dry matter and protein digestibilities, and mannanase and cellulase activities. There were no significant results between treatments in the crude fiber analysis and soluble nitrogen content Significant results also did not occur between treatment of aerob and anaerob fermentation processes for almost all parameters except for dry matter digestibilities. Results from true protein and in vitro digestibilities show that the fresh fermented product has the best nutritive value, while product dried by sunlight was best among other drying processes. Results from in vivo of protein and energy digestibilities show that there were better metabolizable energy and protein for product with aerobic process and dried with oven and blower treatments, while sunlight drying was best for product processed in anaerobic condition. Although fresh fermented product gave better result from in vitro digestibilities and enzyme activity analyses, for some reasons (easy handling and preservation sunlight

  2. Group field theory formulation of 3D quantum gravity coupled to matter fields

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oriti, Daniele; Ryan, James

    2006-01-01

    We present a new group field theory describing 3D Riemannian quantum gravity coupled to matter fields for any choice of spin and mass. The perturbative expansion of the partition function produces fat graphs coloured with SU(2) algebraic data, from which one can reconstruct at once a three-dimensional simplicial complex representing spacetime and its geometry, like in the Ponzano-Regge formulation of pure 3D quantum gravity, and the Feynman graphs for the matter fields. The model then assigns quantum amplitudes to these fat graphs given by spin foam models for gravity coupled to interacting massive spinning point particles, whose properties we discuss

  3. PAQ: Partition Analysis of Quasispecies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccam, P; Thompson, R J; Fedrigo, O; Carpenter, S; Cornette, J L

    2001-01-01

    The complexities of genetic data may not be accurately described by any single analytical tool. Phylogenetic analysis is often used to study the genetic relationship among different sequences. Evolutionary models and assumptions are invoked to reconstruct trees that describe the phylogenetic relationship among sequences. Genetic databases are rapidly accumulating large amounts of sequences. Newly acquired sequences, which have not yet been characterized, may require preliminary genetic exploration in order to build models describing the evolutionary relationship among sequences. There are clustering techniques that rely less on models of evolution, and thus may provide nice exploratory tools for identifying genetic similarities. Some of the more commonly used clustering methods perform better when data can be grouped into mutually exclusive groups. Genetic data from viral quasispecies, which consist of closely related variants that differ by small changes, however, may best be partitioned by overlapping groups. We have developed an intuitive exploratory program, Partition Analysis of Quasispecies (PAQ), which utilizes a non-hierarchical technique to partition sequences that are genetically similar. PAQ was used to analyze a data set of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) envelope sequences isolated from different regions of the brain and another data set consisting of the equine infectious anemia virus (EIAV) regulatory gene rev. Analysis of the HIV-1 data set by PAQ was consistent with phylogenetic analysis of the same data, and the EIAV rev variants were partitioned into two overlapping groups. PAQ provides an additional tool which can be used to glean information from genetic data and can be used in conjunction with other tools to study genetic similarities and genetic evolution of viral quasispecies.

  4. Actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-07-01

    The fourth international information exchange meeting on actinide and fission product partitioning and transmutation, took place in Mito City in Japan, on 111-13 September 1996. The proceedings are presented in six sessions: the major programmes and international cooperation, the partitioning and transmutation programs, feasibility studies, particular separation processes, the accelerator driven transmutation, and the chemistry of the fuel cycle. (A.L.B.)

  5. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  6. The amount of food ingested in a single meal by rainbow trout offered chopped herring, dry and wet diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruohonen; Grove; McIlroy

    1997-07-01

    Two-year-old 1·5-kg rainbow trout were held in cages and conditioned by feeding either on low-fat chopped herring (H trout) or dry pellets (P trout) for 15 weeks. Their satiation amounts were then determined under standard conditions. On a wet weight basis H trout ate 2·5-3·5 times more food than P trout; this was sufficient to compensate for the high water content of herring and thereby maintain the dry matter intake. When P trout were offered herring (PH trout) they consumed more food than when offered dry pellets but not as much as H trout. Stomach capacity restricted the intake and their dry matter intake was reduced by c. 40%. When H trout were offered dry pellets (HP trout) they adjusted their intake immediately close to the level of P trout although their larger stomachs could have accommodated more than twice this volume of dry food. The return of appetite after a satiation meal was almost linear with time. Appetite increased at c. 556 mg g-1 body weight h-1 for H trout and at 142 mg g-1 bw h-1 for P trout. The return of appetite in PH trout was significantly slower (c. 370 mg g-1 bw h-1) than in H trout; the previous dietary history of the PH trout limited their capacity to process larger volumes of wet food in a single meal. Fish offered dry diet (P and HP trout) had similar rates of appetite return despite their previous feeding history suggesting that the property of the dry feed itself might limit meal size. The total gastric emptying time of diets of similar dry matter content (with and without large amounts of water) was similar, but the delay time before gastric emptying starts tended to be longer for dry diets. Dry pellets appear to impose a demand for water that prolongs the gastric delay. This water demand is met partly by drinking since the trout fed on dry pellets drank significantly more (436±189 mg kg-1 h-1) than unfed and herring-fed trout which drank little or not at all (65±113 and 70±66 mg kg-1 h-1 respectively). Dietary water

  7. VLSI PARTITIONING ALGORITHM WITH ADAPTIVE CONTROL PARAMETER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. N. Filippenko

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The article deals with the problem of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning. A graph is selected as a mathematical model describing integrated circuit. Modification of ant colony optimization algorithm is presented, which is used to solve graph partitioning problem. Ant colony optimization algorithm is an optimization method based on the principles of self-organization and other useful features of the ants’ behavior. The proposed search system is based on ant colony optimization algorithm with the improved method of the initial distribution and dynamic adjustment of the control search parameters. The experimental results and performance comparison show that the proposed method of very large-scale integration circuit partitioning provides the better search performance over other well known algorithms.

  8. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using /sup 51/Cr-labelled EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, G; Ekern, A [Agricultural University of Norway. Dept. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-06-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 ..mu..Vi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate rumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA through feces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days.

  9. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    randomized complete block design with three replications. Experiment treatments included priminig at four levels: hydropriming, osmopriming (in %2KNO3, priminig with falomin amino acid (in 2% and control (without priming. Seed samples of the two cultivars were sieved by slotted screens and placed into three groups of seed diameter size: small, medium and large and cultivars at two levels: Red Azarshahr and Zarghun. The physiological growth indices such as total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, bulb growth rate and bulb fresh and dry yield were studied. Results and Discussion Results of field experiment showed that seed priming improved growth indices such as dry matter accumulation (DMA, crop growth rate (CGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, relative growth rate (RGR, bulb growth rate (BGR and leaf aria index (LAI in both cultivars. The highest bulb fresh, dry yield and dry matter percentage (54400, 6800 kg/ha and11/80 % belonged to priminig with folammine amino acid, respectively. The results of growth analysis indicated that the maximum and minimum growth indices values were obtained from large and small seeds, respectively. Mean comparison showed that the highest bulb fresh yield (53.26 ton/ha, bulb dry yield (9.95 ton/ha and bulb dry matter (11.47 % were achieved from large seeds. Mean comparison indicated that the highest bulb fresh yield (43.40 ton/ha, bulb dry yield (5.43 ton/ha and bulb dry matter (11.47 % were observed in Red Azarshahr. Conclusions Seed priming treatments improved bulb fresh and dry yield, total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, bulb growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate as compared to the unprimed. Among the treatments, seed priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% was more effective than the potassium nitrite 2% and hydropriming. Large seed size significantly increased the bulb fresh and dry yield and physiological growth indices. The highest bulb fresh and dry yield, total dry matter

  10. Consistent Estimation of Partition Markov Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jesús E. García

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The Partition Markov Model characterizes the process by a partition L of the state space, where the elements in each part of L share the same transition probability to an arbitrary element in the alphabet. This model aims to answer the following questions: what is the minimal number of parameters needed to specify a Markov chain and how to estimate these parameters. In order to answer these questions, we build a consistent strategy for model selection which consist of: giving a size n realization of the process, finding a model within the Partition Markov class, with a minimal number of parts to represent the process law. From the strategy, we derive a measure that establishes a metric in the state space. In addition, we show that if the law of the process is Markovian, then, eventually, when n goes to infinity, L will be retrieved. We show an application to model internet navigation patterns.

  11. Limit Shapes and Fluctuations of Bounded Random Partitions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beltoft, Dan

    Random partitions of integers, bounded both in the number of summands and the size of each summand are considered, subject to the probability measure which assigns a probability proportional to some fixed positive number to the power of the number being partitioned. This corresponds to considering...

  12. The effects of organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry on diuron sorption across a diverse range of soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smernik, Ronald J; Kookana, Rai S

    2015-01-01

    Sorption of non-ionic organic compounds to soil is usually expressed as the carbon-normalized partition coefficient (KOC), because it is assumed that the main factor that influences the amount sorbed is the organic carbon content of the soil. However, KOC can vary by a factor of at least ten across a range of soils. We investigated two potential causes of variation in diuron KOC - organic matter-mineral interactions and organic matter chemistry - for a diverse set of 34 soils from Sri Lanka, representing a wide range of soil types. Treatment with hydrofluoric acid (HF-treatment) was used to concentrate soil organic matter. HF-treatment increased KOC for the majority of soils (average factor 2.4). We attribute this increase to the blocking of organic matter sorption sites in the whole soils by minerals. There was no significant correlation between KOC for the whole soils and KOC for the HF-treated soils, indicating that the importance of organic matter-mineral interactions varied greatly amongst these soils. There was as much variation in KOC across the HF-treated soils as there was across the whole soils, indicating that the nature of soil organic matter is also an important contributor to KOC variability. Organic matter chemistry, determined by solid-state (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy, was correlated with KOC for the HF-treated soils. In particular, KOC increased with the aromatic C content (R=0.64, p=1×10(-6)), and decreased with O-alkyl C (R=-0.32, p=0.03) and alkyl C (R=-0.41, p=0.004) content. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  14. The effects of plastic film mulching on maize growth and water use in dry and rainy years in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m(-3)) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account.

  15. Preparation and characterization of nickel-spiked freshwater sediments for toxicity tests: toward more environmentally realistic nickel partitioning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brumbaugh, William G.; Besser, John M.; Ingersoll, Christopher G.; May, Thomas W.; Ivey, Chris D.; Schlekat, Christian E.; Garman, Emily R.

    2013-01-01

    Two spiking methods were compared and nickel (Ni) partitioning was evaluated during a series of toxicity tests with 8 different freshwater sediments having a range of physicochemical characteristics. A 2-step spiking approach with immediate pH adjustment by addition of NaOH at a 2:1 molar ratio to the spiked Ni was effective in producing consistent pH and other chemical characteristics across a range of Ni spiking levels. When Ni was spiked into sediment having a high acid-volatile sulfide and organic matter content, a total equilibration period of at least 10 wk was needed to stabilize Ni partitioning. However, highest spiking levels evidently exceeded sediment binding capacities; therefore, a 7-d equilibration in toxicity test chambers and 8 volume-additions/d of aerobic overlying water were used to avoid unrealistic Ni partitioning during toxicity testing. The 7-d pretest equilibration allowed excess spiked Ni and other ions from pH adjustment to diffuse from sediment porewater and promoted development of an environmentally relevant, 0.5- to 1-cm oxic/suboxic sediment layer in the test chambers. Among the 8 different spiked sediments, the logarithm of sediment/porewater distribution coefficient values (log Kd) for Ni during the toxicity tests ranged from 3.5 to 4.5. These Kd values closely match the range of values reported for various field Ni-contaminated sediments, indicating that testing conditions with our spiked sediments were environmentally realistic.

  16. Thermal drying of sewage plant sludge and its disposal; El secado termico de fangos de EDAR y su disposicion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elias, X.

    2002-07-01

    Thermal drying is one more link in the sludge treatment chain. The thickeners transfer the wastes water contaminant to the primary sludge, which contains around 5% of dry matter (DM). Mechanical dehydration brings the proportion of DM up to between 20% and 40%. Thermal drying raises the proportion of DM to between 85% and 95%. These are the solutions that have been adopted in most of the European Union. The next step consists in eliminating the organic fraction, which makes up from 40% to 60% of the DM, from the sludge. This can be done by pyrolysis-gasification or incineration. Although incineration provides the energy needed to dry the sludge and also complies with the Directive that limits the disposal of fermentable matter on dumps, it inevitably leaves behind the inorganic waste presents in the sludge. Vitrification is a simple, complementary technology for making the inorganic fraction inert while allowing it to be valorized. It thus closes the cycle and achieves zero dumping. (Author) 28 refs.

  17. Mesh Partitioning Algorithm Based on Parallel Finite Element Analysis and Its Actualization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In parallel computing based on finite element analysis, domain decomposition is a key technique for its preprocessing. Generally, a domain decomposition of a mesh can be realized through partitioning of a graph which is converted from a finite element mesh. This paper discusses the method for graph partitioning and the way to actualize mesh partitioning. Relevant softwares are introduced, and the data structure and key functions of Metis and ParMetis are introduced. The writing, compiling, and testing of the mesh partitioning interface program based on these key functions are performed. The results indicate some objective law and characteristics to guide the users who use the graph partitioning algorithm and software to write PFEM program, and ideal partitioning effects can be achieved by actualizing mesh partitioning through the program. The interface program can also be used directly by the engineering researchers as a module of the PFEM software. So that it can reduce the application of the threshold of graph partitioning algorithm, improve the calculation efficiency, and promote the application of graph theory and parallel computing.

  18. Pinus taeda clones and soil nutrient availability: effects of soil organic matter incorporation and fertilization on biomass partitioning and leaf physiology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michael Tyree; John Seiler; Chris Maier; Kurt Johnsen

    2009-01-01

    The combined effects of intensive management and planting of improved seedlings have led to large increases in productivity on intensively managed pine forests in the southeastern United States. To best match clones to particular site conditions, an understanding of how specific clones respond to changes in nutrition in terms of biomass partitioning, leaf physiology...

  19. Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fombong, Forkwa Tengweh; Van Der Borght, Mik; Vanden Broeck, Jozef

    2017-09-16

    The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville), plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying), employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November-December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44%) and palmitic acid (28%) were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6%) and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21%) suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896-1035 mg/100 g), potassium (779-816 mg/100 g) and phosphorus (652-685 mg/100 g) were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217-220 mg/100 g), zinc (14.2-14.6 mg/100 g), manganese (7.4-8.3 mg/100 g) and copper (1.66 mg/100 g) suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes.

  20. Influence of Freeze-Drying and Oven-Drying Post Blanching on the Nutrient Composition of the Edible Insect Ruspolia differens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forkwa Tengweh Fombong

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The longhorn grasshopper, Ruspolia differens (Serville, plays an important role as a food source across Sub-Saharan Africa, where it is consumed as a delicacy in both rural and urban areas. The effect of two drying methods (freeze-drying and oven-drying, employed after blanching, on the proximate, fatty acid and mineral composition of the two most common morphs was determined. Ruspolia differens grasshoppers were harvested in Uganda and Kenya from wild swarms during the rainy periods of November–December 2016. Based on cuticular coloration, we identified three morphs, green, brown and purple, which occurred at a ratio of 65:33:2, respectively. Results indicated that these insects have a high lipid content of 36%, as well as significant protein levels ranging between 33% and 46% dry matter. Oleic acid (44% and palmitic acid (28% were the two most abundant fatty acids; while the presence of arachidonic acid (0.6% and docosahexaenoic acid (0.21% suggests that Ruspolia differens is also a source of polyunsaturated fatty acids. The observed amino acid profile showed similar trends in all morphs, and all essential amino acids were present. Calcium (896–1035 mg/100 g, potassium (779–816 mg/100 g and phosphorus (652–685 mg/100 g were quite high among the minerals. The presence of the trace elements iron (217–220 mg/100 g, zinc (14.2–14.6 mg/100 g, manganese (7.4–8.3 mg/100 g and copper (1.66 mg/100 g suggests that inclusion of these grasshoppers in human diets may aid in combatting micronutrient deficiencies. Oven-drying Ruspolia differens delivered the same nutritional quality as freeze-drying. Hence, both drying approaches can be adequately used to formulate insect-based food products without noticeable nutritional changes.

  1. Gauge/gravity duality. Exploring universal features in quantum matter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klug, Steffen

    2013-07-09

    In this dissertation strongly correlated quantum states of matter are explored with the help of the gauge/gravity duality, relating strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly curved gravitational theories. The main focus of the present work is on applications to condensed matter systems, in particular high temperature superconductors and quantum matter close to criticality at zero temperature. The gauge/gravity duality originates from string theory and is a particular realization of the holographic principle. Therefore, a brief overview of the conceptual ideas behind string theory and the ramifications of the holographic principle are given. Along the way, supersymmetry and supersymmetric field theories needed to understand the low energy effective field theories of superstring theory will be discussed. Armed with the string theory background, the double life of D-branes, extended object where open strings end, is explained as massive solitonic solutions to the type II supergravity equations of motion and their role in generating supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Connecting these two different pictures of D-branes will give an explicit construction of a gauge/gravity duality, the AdS{sub 5}/CFT{sub 4} correspondence between N=4 supersymmetric SU(N{sub c}) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions with vanishing β-function to all orders, describing a true CFT, and type IIB supergravity in ten-dimensional AdS{sub 5} x S{sup 5} spacetime. Furthermore, the precise dictionary relating operators of the conformal field theory to fields in the gravitational theory is established. More precisely, the partitions functions of the strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the large N{sub c} limit is equal to the on-shell supergravity partition evaluated at the boundary of the AdS space. Applying the knowledge of perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to the quantum partition function the dictionary may be extended to finite temperature and finite

  2. Gauge/gravity duality. Exploring universal features in quantum matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klug, Steffen

    2013-01-01

    In this dissertation strongly correlated quantum states of matter are explored with the help of the gauge/gravity duality, relating strongly coupled gauge theories to weakly curved gravitational theories. The main focus of the present work is on applications to condensed matter systems, in particular high temperature superconductors and quantum matter close to criticality at zero temperature. The gauge/gravity duality originates from string theory and is a particular realization of the holographic principle. Therefore, a brief overview of the conceptual ideas behind string theory and the ramifications of the holographic principle are given. Along the way, supersymmetry and supersymmetric field theories needed to understand the low energy effective field theories of superstring theory will be discussed. Armed with the string theory background, the double life of D-branes, extended object where open strings end, is explained as massive solitonic solutions to the type II supergravity equations of motion and their role in generating supersymmetric Yang-Mills theories. Connecting these two different pictures of D-branes will give an explicit construction of a gauge/gravity duality, the AdS 5 /CFT 4 correspondence between N=4 supersymmetric SU(N c ) Yang-Mills theory in four dimensions with vanishing β-function to all orders, describing a true CFT, and type IIB supergravity in ten-dimensional AdS 5 x S 5 spacetime. Furthermore, the precise dictionary relating operators of the conformal field theory to fields in the gravitational theory is established. More precisely, the partitions functions of the strongly coupled N=4 supersymmetric Yang-Mills theory in the large N c limit is equal to the on-shell supergravity partition evaluated at the boundary of the AdS space. Applying the knowledge of perturbative quantum field theory and its relation to the quantum partition function the dictionary may be extended to finite temperature and finite density states. Thus, all aspects

  3. Influence of ash on the fiber composition of dried dairy manures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reeves, J.B.; Van Kessel, J.A.S.

    2002-01-01

    The ash content of dried dairy manures is a significant source of error in the determination of their fiber composition. - The objective of this work was to examine the role of ash in the compositional analysis of dried dairy manures. Ninety-nine dairy manures obtained from Connecticut, Maryland, New York, Pennsylvania and Virginia were dried at 60 deg. C, and ground to 20 mesh. Samples were analyzed for neutral and acid detergent fiber, acid detergent lignin, total carbon, total nitrogen, and ash. In addition, cellulose and hemicellulose were computed by difference. Results indicated that high ash contents (8-52% of dry matter) can dramatically and unpredictably alter various measures of fiber composition and are a significant source of error in the determination of manure composition and how it relates to mineralization or other compositional influenced factors. Also, while the ash content of the dried intact manure can easily be determined, it is difficult to estimate the ash contribution to the individual fiber determinations, especially if sequential assays are performed

  4. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Polyhedral Computations for the Simple Graph Partitioning Problem

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Michael Malmros

    The simple graph partitioning problem is to partition an edge-weighted graph into mutually disjoint subgraphs, each containing no more than b nodes, such that the sum of the weights of all edges in the subgraphs is maximal. In this paper we present a branch-and-cut algorithm for the problem that ...

  6. On the