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Sample records for dry matter accumulation

  1. Growth and dry matter accumulation in drought resistant maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    growth, dry matter accumulation and yield characters of maize planted under the same environmental conditions. The trial was conducted during the 2010 wet season at Bagauda the Kano University of Technology (KUST) temporary research farm (11° 39° N, 08° 20° E).The treatments consisted of three sowing dates ...

  2. Standing crop dry matter accumulation and quality patterns of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nine-week production curves and quality values of eight subtropical pasture species were studied under supplemental spray irrigation to characterize their productive capacity, periodicity and quality.All species exhibited a slow dry matter regrowth rate for two to three weeks after defoliation to 7,5 or 10 cm height. Thereafter ...

  3. [Characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley genotypes with high nitrogen utilization efficiency].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yi; Li, Ting-Xuan; Zhang, Xi-Zhou; Ji, Lin

    2014-07-01

    A pot experiment was conducted under low (125 mg x kg-1) and normal (250 mg x kg(-1)) nitrogen treatments. The nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency of 22 barley cultivars were investigated, and the characteristics of dry matter production and nitrogen accumulation in barley were analyzed. The results showed that nitrogen uptake and utilization efficiency were different for barley under two nitrogen levels. The maximal values of grain yield, nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index were 2.87, 2.91 and 2.47 times as those of the lowest under the low nitrogen treatment. Grain yield and nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain and nitrogen harvest index of barley genotype with high nitrogen utilization efficiency were significantly greater than low nitrogen utilization efficiency, and the parameters of high nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype were 82.1%, 61.5% and 50.5% higher than low nitrogen utilization efficiency genotype under the low nitrogen treatment. Dry matter mass and nitrogen utilization of high nitrogen utilization efficiency was significantly higher than those of low nitrogen utilization efficiency. A peak of dry matter mass of high nitrogen utilization efficiency occurred during jointing to heading stage, while that of nitrogen accumulation appeared before jointing. Under the low nitrogen treatment, dry matter mass of DH61 and DH121+ was 34.4% and 38.3%, and nitrogen accumulation was 54. 8% and 58.0% higher than DH80, respectively. Dry matter mass and nitrogen accumulation seriously affected yield before jointing stage, and the contribution rates were 47.9% and 54.7% respectively under the low nitrogen treatment. The effect of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation on nitrogen utilization efficiency for grain was the largest during heading to mature stages, followed by sowing to jointing stages, with the contribution rate being 29.5% and 48.7%, 29.0% and 15.8%, respectively. In conclusion, barley genotype with high

  4. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-10-05

    Oct 5, 2009 ... Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to ... high dry matter also produce high leaf area index and root yield ..... Proportion (%) of DM accumulated in root stock.

  5. Photosynthetic rate, dry matter accumulation and yield inter-relationships jn genotypes of rice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Devendra, R.; Udaya Kumar, M.; Krishna Sastry, K.S.

    1980-01-01

    The relationship between photosynthetic efficiency, dry matter accumulation and yield in five genotypes of paddy derived from a single cross between Jaya X Halubbalu was studied. Photosynthetic efficiency of younger leaves, on the main tiller was higher than in the older leaves. A significant positive correlation between RuDPcase activity and photosynthetic efficiency was observed in these genotypes. Also a similar positive correlation between dry matter production and photosynthetic efficiency during vegetative period but not during post-anthesis period was observed. Genotypes with high photosynthetic efficiency and also the genotypes with high LAD produced higher dry matter. A reduction in LAD or in photosynthetic efficiency during the post-anthesis period and thus a reduction in source capacity which occurred specially in late types resulted in a lesser ratio between productive and total tillers and also higher percent sterility. Differences in yield amongst the genotypes were not significant, since in the late types MR. 333 and MR. 335, the post-anthesis dry matter production was low due to lesser source capacity. But in the early types, though the total dry matter was less, the post-anthesis source capacity was high. The importance of post-anthesis leaf area of photo-synthetic efficiency in productivity in genotypes of rice is highlighted. (author)

  6. Accumulation and distribution of dry matter in relation to root yield of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cassava an important staple food is grown both in upland and inland valley in the tropics. A trial to assess dry matter production and partitioning in relation to root yield was conducted in 3 positions along inland valley toposequence using 4 x 4 Latin square design. Dry matter partitioning differed among cultivars, ...

  7. Genetic variation of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation of double haploid wheat lines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Milkova, V.; Ivanov, P.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study considers the genotype peculiarities in the dynamics of dry matter and nitrogen accumulation in plant parts during the different stages of 10 DH wheat lines characterized as initial breeding material of high quality. These were obtained from 2 crosses - 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-4 and 7-P 2 - 11 x H-81/32-24. Considerable genotype variations were established both between the lines and the parental forms, and in comparison to the standard quality variety Slavyanka-196. Lines 41-191 and 41-344 are of special interest because of their high grain yield and high intensity of biomass accumulation (kg/dka/day) and high intensity of nitrogen uptake (g/dka/day) mainly in the second half of the grain filling period. These fines stand out among the new DH fines with their high protein yields. In line 41-181 the ratio NHI/GHI changes positively with a high degree of certainty in both phases of grain maturity. This line is characterized with the highest value of nitrogen (mg) in vegetation mass per unit mature grain. A positive correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio and protein content in grain. Line 41-344 is the most economic one with regard to nitrogen formation per 100 kg grain with the lowest expense for formation of the respective quantity of straw. Refs. 5 (author)

  8. Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and mycorrhizal stimulant affect dry matter and nutrient accumulation in bean and soybean plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Henrique Moreira Salgado

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The adoption of biological resources in agriculture may allow less dependence and better use of finite resources. This study aimed at evaluating the effects of inoculation with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi native to the Brazilian Savannah associated with the application of mycorrhizal stimulant (7-hydroxy, 4'-methoxy-isoflavone, in the early growth of common bean and soybean. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, in a completely randomized design, with a 7 x 2 factorial arrangement, consisting of five arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi species, joint inoculation (junction of all species in equal proportions and native fungi (without inoculation, in the presence and absence of stimulant. The following traits were evaluated: shoot dry matter, root dry matter, mycorrhizal colonization, nodules dry matter and accumulation of calcium, zinc and phosphorus in the shoot dry matter. The increase provided by the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and the use of stimulant reached over 200 % in bean and over 80 % in soybean plants. The fungi Acaulospora scrobiculata, Dentiscutata heterogama, Gigaspora margarita and Rhizophagus clarus, for bean, and Claroideoglomus etunicatum, Dentiscutata heterogama, Rhizophagus clarus and the joint inoculation, for soybean, increased the dry matter and nutrients accumulation.

  9. Evaluation of radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation in three millet species

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behnam kamkar

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available A factorial arrangement of three millets species (Panicum miliaceum, Pennisetum glaucum, and Setaria italica and two sowing dates with three replications were used in a completely randomized design to evaluate the radiation use efficiency and its relationship with dry matter accumulation. Leaf area index was used in daily intervals to calculate daily intercepted radiation. Light extinction coefficient was calculated as the slope of regression line between log transformed fraction of intercepted radiation and leaf area index during growing season. Radiation use efficiency was calculated as the slope of linear regression between cumulative intercepted radiation and cumulative biomass during growing season. Results showed that light extinction coefficient and radiation use efficiency for proso, pearl and foxtail millets were 0.75, 0.66, 0.57 and 1.43, 1.83, 1.74 g/MJ in terms of total radiation, respectively. Differences in biomass production were not significant between proso and pearl millets. Proso millet had higher intercepted radiation, but lower radiation use efficiency in comparison with pearl millet. Foxtail millet had lower intercepted radiation than proso and pearl millets, but its radiation use efficiency was higher than pearl millet. Total biomass of foxtail millet was lower than other species. Results indicated that proso and pearl millets can produce more biomass than foxtail millet.

  10. [Effects of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Lin; Sun, Shi Jun; Chen, Zhi Jun; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Xu Dong; Chi, Dao Cai

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm -2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99). The results showed that, compared with the other mulching treatments, the black plastic film mulching treatment significantly increased the maize dry matter accumulation and maize biomass by 3.2%-8.2%. In mature stage, the biomass increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing plant density. When planting density was 82500 plants·hm -2 , the biomass was the highest, which was 5.2%-28.3% higher than that of other plant density treatments. The mean soil temperature in prophase of transparent plastic film mulching treatment was 0.4-2.7 ℃ higher than that of other treatments, which accelerated the maize growth process and augmented the dry matter transportation amount (T), dry matter transportation efficiency (TE) and contribution rate of dry matter transportation to the grain yield (TC) of maize stalk and leaf. The T, TE, TC of leaf and leaf-stalk under 60000 plants·hm -2 treatment were the highest. The highest T, TE, TC of stalk were observed under 75000 plants·hm -2 treatment. In heading period, the water consumption and daily water consumption intensity of maize under the treatment of black film mulching were the largest, which were 9.4%-10.6% and 10.6%-24.5% higher than that of other mulching treatments, respectively. The highest water consumption and daily water consumption intensity were both obtained under 90000 plants·hm -2 treatment, which increased by 6.8%-15.7% and 7.0%-20.0% compared with other

  11. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  12. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. I. Dynamics of dry matter accumulation. Grain yield and structural elements of yield

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostadin, K.; Nonkova, M.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The genotype peculiarities in the translocation dynamics of dry matter in relation to wheat yield were studied under vegetation-laboratory and field conditions. The new wheat varieties Enola, Karat and Svilena created at the Institute for Wheat and Sunflower 'Dobroudja' have a high production potential due to their high intensity of dry matter accumulation in grain during the second half of maturation. It was established that in the standard variety Pliska the intensity of dry matter accumulation in reproductive parts was higher during heading-grain filling and then sharply decreased during maturation. This variety was characterized with high translocation of vegetation mass eventually leading to grain yield decrease. Significant genotype variations were established in the vegetation mass translocation in the respective parts during the stages of development. The contribution of the individual organs concerning carbohydrate reutilization to grain was mainly due to stems. An especially important peculiarity of the leaves of cv. Svilena was established: they ensured over 30 of grain yield at optimal nutrition. The complex evaluation of the new varieties revealed their high plasticity, the cultivar Karat showing the best characteristics. Refs. 13 (author)

  13. The endogenous plant hormones and ratios regulate sugar and dry matter accumulation in Jerusalem artichoke in salt-soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lingling; Shao, Tianyun; Yang, Hui; Chen, Manxia; Gao, Xiumei; Long, Xiaohua; Shao, Hongbo; Liu, Zhaopu; Rengel, Zed

    2017-02-01

    The changes in content of endogenous hormones in stolons and tubers of Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus L.) regulate tuber growth, but the specific knowledge about the importance of balance among the endogenous hormones is lacking. Two varieties of Jerusalem artichoke (NY-1 and QY-2) were tested for the endogenous zeatin (ZT), auxins (IAA), gibberellins (GA 3 ) and abscisic acid (ABA) in regulating sugar and dry matter accumulation in tubers. The dry matter content and sugar accumulation in tubers were correlated positively with endogenous ZT and negatively with GA 3 content and GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios. Throughout the tuber formation, ZT content was higher in NY-1 than QY-2 tubers, whereas ABA content was higher in QY-2 than NY-1 tubers. The content ratios GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA were greater in NY-1 than QY-2 before tuber initiation, but QY-2 surpassed NY-1 during the tuber growth stage. The GA 3 /ABA and IAA/ABA content ratios declined during tuber growth. The results suggested that a dynamic balance of endogenous hormones played an important role in tuber development. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Dry matter and nitrogen accumulation are not affected by superoptimal concentration of ammonium in flowing solution culture with pH control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rideout, J. W.; Raper, C. D. Jr; Raper CD, J. r. (Principal Investigator)

    1994-01-01

    While it is known that superoptimal concentrations of the nitrate (NO3-) ion in solution culture do not increase NO3- uptake or dry matter accumulation, the same is not known for the ammonium (NH4+) ion. An experiment was conducted utilizing flowing solution culture with pH control to investigate the influence of superoptimal NH4+ concentrations on dry matter, nitrogen (N), potassium (K), calcium (Ca), and magnesium (Mg) accumulation by nonnodulated soybean plants. Increasing the NH4+ concentration in solution from 1 to 10 mM did not affect dry matter or N accumulation. Accumulations of K, Ca, and Mg were slightly decreased with increased NH4+ concentration. The NH4+ uptake system, which is saturated at less than 1mM NH4+, is able to regulate uptake of NH4+ at concentrations as high as 10 mM.

  15. Accumulation of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of high protein mutant lines of Triticum Aestivum (L.) produced by the IAEA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mir Ali, N.; Nabulsi, I.

    1993-03-01

    Accumulation patterns of dry matter and nitrogen in the developing seeds of nine mutant lines produced by the IAEA and their mother Triticum Aestivum (L.) line were studied. The experiments lasted 2 years under rain fed conditions. Significant differences were found among the lines in dry matter and nitrogen rates, and periods of accumulation, whereas no significant differences were found in the final seed weight of the lines. The highest rates of accumulation for dry matter and nitrogen were accompanied with the shortest period of accumulation in two late flowering mutant lines. However, these two lines were the lowest in their yield per plot. The other mutant lines achieved the high nitrogen percentage in their seeds through the relative reduction in dry matter accumulation rate compared to their mother line rather than through higher rate of nitrogen accumulation. This study revealed some of the potential reasons behind the higher percentage of protein in the seeds of the mutant lines under investigation. (author). 17 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs

  16. The dynamics of dry matter accumulation in the initial period of growth of four varieties of the "stay-green"type of maize (zea mays L.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szulc, P.; Michalski, T.; Bocianowski, J.; Nowosad, K.; Zajac, M.

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was to determine the impact of weather conditions (temperature, precipitation) on the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of maize plants in the type of "stay-green"Four varieties were evaluated: NK Cooler, Delitop, NK Gazelle, NK Ravello. Thermal conditions and humidity in the period from sowing to the phase of 5-6 leaves (BBCH 15/16) shaped the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen nutritional status of plants. The differences were found in tested varieties of "stay-green"in terms of the dynamics of initial growth, expressed by the dynamics of dry matter accumulation and their nitrogen nutritional status. In most of the analyzed characteristics, the variety of NK Cooler was characterized by favorable values of these characteristics, as compared to other varieties. The genetic variation of tested varieties is derived from the heterosis cultivation process of F1 hybrids. Currently, cultivated maize varieties (including "stay-green") are F1 hybrids characterized by identical genotype and varietal differences arise from components of parental hybrid genotype (paternal and maternal), as presented in the paper

  17. Effects of exogenous ABA application on post-anthesis dry matter redistribution and grain starch accumulation of winter wheat with different staygreen characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongqing Yang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate whether and how exogenous abscisic acid (ABA is involved in mediating starch accumulation in the grain and redistribution of carbohydrates during grain filling of two wheat cultivars with different staygreen characteristics. At blooming stage, plants of Wennong 6 (a staygreen cultivar and Jimai 20 (control were sprayed with 10 mg L− 1 abscisic acid (ABA for 3 days. The application of ABA significantly (P < 0.05 increased grain filling rate, starch accumulation rate and content, remobilization of dry matters to kernels, and 1000-grain weight of the two cultivars. Exogenous ABA markedly (P < 0.05 increased grain yield at maturity, and Wennong 6 and Jiami 20 showed 14.14% and 4.86% higher compared yield than the control. Dry matter accumulation after anthesis of Wennong 6 was also significantly (P < 0.05 influenced by exogenous ABA, whereas that of Jimai 20 was unchanged. Application of ABA increased endogenous zeatin riboside (ZR content 7 days after anthesis (DAA, and spraying ABA significantly increased endogenous indole-3-acetic acid (IAA and ABA contents from 7 to 21 DAA and decreased gibberellin (GA3 content at 14 DAA, but increased GA3 content from 21 to 35 DAA. The results suggested that increased yield of staygreen was due to greater starch assimilation owing to a higher filling rate and longer grain-filling duration.

  18. Effects of canopy light distribution characteristics and leaf nitrogen content on efficiency of radiation use in dry matter accumulation of soybean [Glycine max] cultivars

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiraiwa, T.; Hashikawa, U.; Taka, S.; Sakai, A.

    1994-01-01

    The amount of dry matter produced per photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) intercepted by the canopy (EPAR) and factors which might affect EPAR were determined for various soybean cultivars, and their relationships were also analyzed in two field experiments. In 1989 and 1990, 11 cultivars and 27 cultivars respectively, were grown on an experimental field in shiga Prefectural Junior College. Changes of intercepted PAR, top dry matter weight, light extinction coefficient (KPAR), nitrogen content per leaf area (SLN) and nitrogen accumulation in the top (1990 only) were measured. EPAR averaged for all the cultivars was 2.48g MJ(-1) in both years and its coefficient of variance among cultivars was +- 9% in 1989 and +- 17% in 1990. In general, recent cultivars showed greater EPAR than older ones. The correlation coefficients between SLN and EPAR were 0.548 in 1989 and 0.651-- in 1990, while there was no correlation between KPAR and EPAR. Since SLN showed close correlation with SLW (r = 0.954 in 1989, r = 0.170-- in 1990), the difference in EPAR between old and new cultivars was considered to be attributable mainly to the improved leaf morphological trait and consequently greater leaf photosynthesis of newer cultivars. SLN further correlated with total top nitrogen content (r = 0.736-- in 1990) thus seemed to be limited by nitrogen accumulation

  19. Effects of nitrogen fertilization strategies on nitrogen use efficiency in physiology, recovery, and agronomy and redistribution of dry matter accumulation and nitrogen accumulation in two typical rice cultivars in Zhejiang, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Wen-xia; Wang, Guang-huo; Zhang, Qi-chun; Guo, Hai-chao

    2007-03-01

    Field experiments were conducted in farmers' rice fields in 2001 and 2002 to study the effects of nitrogen (N) management strategies on N use efficiency in recovery (RE), agronomy (AE) and physiology (PE) and redistribution of dry matter accumulation (DMA) and nitrogen accumulation (NA) in two typical rice cultivars in Jinhua, Zhejiang Province. This study aimed mainly at identifying the possible causes of poor fertilizer N use efficiency (NUE) of rice in Zhejiang by comparing farmers' fertilizer practice (FFP) with advanced site-specific nutrient management (SSNM) and real-time N management (RTNM). The results showed that compared to FFP, SSNM and RTNM reduced DMA and NA before panicle initiation and increased DMA and NA at post-flowering. There is no significant difference between SSNM and FFP in post-flowering dry matter redistribution (post-DMR) and post-flowering nitrogen redistribution (post-NR). These results suggest that high input rate of fertilizer N and improper fertilizer N timing are the main factors causing low NUE of irrigated rice in the farmer's routine practice of Zhejiang. With SSNM, about 15% of the current total N input in direct-seeding early rice and 45% in single rice could be reduced without yield loss in Zhejiang, China.

  20. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

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    Yuanyuan Hu

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm, the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII, and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP. The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars.

  1. Novel Insights into the Influence of Seed Sarcotesta Photosynthesis on Accumulation of Seed Dry Matter and Oil Content in Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Yongling; Yu, Weiwu; Hänninen, Heikki; Song, Lili; Du, Xuhua; Zhang, Rui; Wu, Jiasheng

    2018-01-01

    Seed oil content is an important trait of nut seeds, and it is affected by the import of carbon from photosynthetic sources. Although green leaves are the main photosynthetic organs, seed sarcotesta photosynthesis also supplies assimilates to seed development. Understanding the relationship between seed photosynthesis and seed development has theoretical and practical significance in the cultivation of Torreya grandis cv. “Merrillii.” To assess the role of seed sarcotesta photosynthesis on the seed development, anatomical and physiological traits of sarcotesta were measured during two growing seasons in the field. Compared with the attached current-year leaves, the sarcotesta had higher gross photosynthetic rate at the first stage of seed development. At the late second stage of seed development, sarcotesta showed down-regulation of PSII activity, as indicated by significant decrease in the following chlorophyll fluorescence parameters: the maximum PSII efficiency (Fv/Fm), the PSII quantum yield (ΦPSII), and the photosynthetic quenching coefficient (qP). The ribulose 1, 5—bisphosphate carboxylase (Rubisco) activity, the total chlorophyll content (Chl(a+b)) and nitrogen content in the sarcotesta were also significantly decreased during that period. Treatment with DCMU [3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] preventing seed photosynthesis decreased the seed dry weight and the oil content by 25.4 and 25.5%, respectively. We conclude that seed photosynthesis plays an important role in the dry matter accumulation at the first growth stage. Our results also suggest that down-regulation of seed photosynthesis is a plant response to re-balance the source-sink ratio at the second growth stage. These results suggest that seed photosynthesis is important for biomass accumulation and oil synthesis of the Torreya seeds. The results will facilitate achieving higher yields and oil contents in nut trees by selection for higher seed photosynthesis cultivars. PMID:29375592

  2. Acúmulo de massa seca em três cultivares de arroz irrigado com diferentes arquiteturas de plantas Dry matter accumulation by three flooded rice cultivars with different plant canopy

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    Juçara Terezinha Paranhos

    1995-01-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido em Planossolo da Unidade de Mapeamento Vacacaí, com o ohjetivo de estudar o acúmulo de massa seca nos diversos órgãos da planta de três cultivares de arroz irrigado (EEA 406, Bluebelle e BR-IRGA 409, utilizando-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso com cinco repetições. A massa seca foi obtida em sete estádios fenológicos da cultura. Desconsiderando os grãos e panículas, a EEA 406 possui maior capacidade produtiva de fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos produtiva. Na maturação, a cultivar BR-IRGA 409 apresentou maior massa seca total, demonstrando maior capacidade de alocar assimilados nos grãos e maior eficiência de conversão de energia solar em fitomassa, sendo a Bluebelle menos eficiente. Para as três cultivares, até a floração, o colmo acumulou a maior percentagem de massa seca sendo, a partir daí, substituído pelas panículas e grãos. O máximo acúmulo de massa seca nas raízes ocorreu por ocasião da floração, cerca de 80 dias após a emergência.This experiment was carried out in an Halbaqualf soil to study the dry matter accumulation of three flooded rice cultivars. A complete randomized block design was used, with tive replication. Plant dry matter was measured in seven different growth stages. The cultivar EEA 406 had a higherdry matter accumulation than the cultivar Bluebelle without including grain and panicle. At maturity, the BR-IRGA 409 cultivar showed higher total dry matter. This demonstrate a better capacity of this variety in alocating assimilates into grains a higher effíciency in converting solar energy into plant biomass. The Bluebelle had lower efficiency. The dry matter accumulation increased for the three varieties from seeding to flowering into colm and, from flowering to harvest into panicles and grain. The maximum dry matter accumulation in roots was observed at flowering, eighty days after emergency.

  3. Acúmulo de matéria seca e de macronutrientes em cultivares de bananeira irrigada Accumulation of dry matter and macronutrient in cultivars of irrigated banana tree

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Bezerra Hoffmann

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O conhecimento das quantidades de matéria seca e de nutrientes acumulados e exportados por cultivares de bananeira é importante para o desenvolvimento de uma recomendação de adubação para esta cultura. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as quantidades de matéria seca e de macronutrientes acumuladas e exportadas por seis cultivares de bananeiras irrigadas. Foram amostradas plantas das cultivares Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha e Gross Michel, em uma área de plantio comercial de bananeira irrigada, no município de Limoeiro do Norte - CE. Na colheita, foram escolhidas quatro famílias de cada cultivar para amostragem. A "planta-mãe" foi dividida em rizoma, pseudocaule, pecíolo, limbo, engaço e frutos. Na matéria seca dessas partes das plantas, determinaram-se os teores dos macronutrientes. As cultivares Pacovan, Prata-Anã e Pacovan-Apodi que, de modo geral, extraíram do solo as maiores quantidades de macronutrientes, foram as que acumularam quantidades mais elevadas de matéria seca. O potássio e o nitrogênio foram os macronutrientes mais acumulados e exportados pelas seis cultivares de bananeira irrigada, seguidos pelo enxofre, cálcio, magnésio e fósforo.The knowledge about the quantity of dry matter and nutrients accumulated and exported by banana is important for the development of fertilizer recommendations. The objective of this study was to evaluate the accumulation of dry matter and macronutrients by six cultivars of irrigated banana crop. Plants of Grande Naine, Pacovan, Pacovan-Apodi, Prata-Anã, Terrinha and Gross Michel cultivars were sampled in a commercial plantation in the municipality of Limoeiro do Norte, state of Ceará, Brazil. At harvest, four plants of each cultivar were selected for sampling. The "mother-plant" was divided into rhizome, pseudo stem, petiole, leaf blade, stalk and fruits. In the dry matter of these parts, the contents of macronutrients were determined. The

  4. Compost amendment, enhanced nutrient uptake and dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Field trial was conducted to assess the influence of Compost and inorganic fertilizer as well as plant growth stage on growth, nutrient uptake, dry matter accumulation and partitioning in maize crop grown on the battery waste contaminated site. Two types of compost (Mexican Sunflower (MSC) and Cassava peels (CPC) ...

  5. Acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes no meloeiro irrigado sob estratégias de manejo da salinidade Accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in irrigated melon under strategies of salimity management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cícero P. C. Terceiro Neto

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de investigar estratégias de uso de água salobra sobre o acúmulo de matéria seca e nutrientes, duas cultivares de melão (Sancho- C1 e Medellín- C2 irrigadas com água de baixa (S1 = 0,61 dS m-1 e alta (S2 = 4,78 dS m-1 salinidade por fase da cultura: S1S1S2S2- T1, S2S1S2S2- T2, S2S2S1S2- T3 (os 1, 2, 3 e 4º termos correspondem, respectivamente, às fases de crescimento, floração, crescimento dos frutos e maturação e colheita e, ainda a irrigação alternada, durante todo o ciclo, com água S1 por 2 dias consecutivos seguido com água S2 por um dia (S12dias + S21dia- T4 e a irrigação com água S2 durante todo o ciclo- T5. Além disto foi utilizada, como testemunha, a irrigação com a mistura de 37% da água S1 e 63% da água S2- T0 (manejo adotado atualmente na fazenda em que o experimento foi conduzido. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos inteiramente casualizados em um esquema de parcelas subdivididas 6 x 2 (manejo da água salina x cultivar com quatro repetições. O acúmulo de fitomassa seca total na parte aérea da cultivar Sancho foi superior ao de Medellín, em todas as estratégias de manejo utilizado; os nutrientes mais absorvidos pelas plantas das duas cultivares foram o cálcio, o potássio e o nitrogênio.A study was carried out aiming to investigate management strategies for use of brackish water in the accumulation of dry matter and nutrients in two cultivars of melon (C1 - Sancho and C2 - MedeLλi n irrigated with low (S1 = 0.61 dS m-1 and high (S2 = 4.78 dS m-1 salinity water in different phases of crop: S1S1S2S2 - T1, S2S1S2S2 - T2, S2S2S1S2 - T3. The 1st, 2nd, 3rd and 4th term correspond, respectively, to different phases - initial growth, flowering, fruit maturation and harvest. Alternate irrigation during the crop cycle, two days of consecutive application with S1 water followed by one day with S2 water (S1 2 days + S2 1day - T4 and irrigation with

  6. Nitrogen deficiency in maize. I. Effects on crop growth, development, dry matter partitioning, and kernel set

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uhart, S.A.; Andrade, F.H.

    1995-01-01

    Variations in N availability affect growth and development of maize (Zea mays L.) and may lead to changes in crop physiological conditions at flowering and in kernel set. The objectives of this study were (i) to establish the effect of N availability on crop development, crop radiation interception, radiation use efficiency, and dry matter partitioning; and (ii) to study the relationship between kernel number and crop growth at flowering and between kernel number and crop N accumulation at flowering. Three experiments with a commercial hybrid (DK636) were carried out under field conditions at the INTA Balcarce Experimental Station, Argentina, without water limitations. The treatments consisted of different radiation levels, obtained by shading, combined with different levels of N availability obtained by the addition of N fertilizer or organic matter to immobilize N. Nitrogen deficiencies delayed both vegetative and reproductive phenological development, slightly reduced leaf emergence rate, and strongly diminished leaf expansion rate and leaf area duration. Nitrogen deficiencies reduced radiation interception as much as radiation use efficiency and their effects on the ear dry mater/total dry matter ratio at harvest were associated with crop growth rate reductions at flowering. Dry matter partitioning to reproductive sinks at flowering and the ear dry matter/total dry matter ratio at harvest were reduced by N shortages. Significant relationships between kernel number and N accumulation rate or crop growth rate at flowering were fitted by linear + plateau functions with thresholds above which kernel number and grain yield did not increase

  7. Dielectric spectroscopy for evaluating dry matter content of potato tubers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Glenn G. B.; Kjaer, Anders; Klösgen, Beate

    2016-01-01

    The present study investigated the application of dielectric spectroscopy as a method for evaluating the dry matter content of potato tubers. Sample specific factors determining the precision of this application were investigated by studying the prediction of the dry material content in agar gel...... of the predicted dry matter content was observed in chemically and spatially uniform systems, with a root mean square error (RMSE) of the predicted dry-matter content of 0.64 percentage points observed in agar gels containing refined potato starch. A marked decrease in precision is observed in model systems which...... include chemical variations between potato tuber samples. The added dry material content was predicted with a RMSE of 0.94 percentage points in agar gels with added dried material extracted from separate potato tubers. The local dry matter content from a region within 2 cm of the center location...

  8. Effect of oversowing leguminous species on dry matter yield and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seven years after oversowing, forage dry matter yield and chemical composition were estimated both in the dryand wet seasons. Mean values of forage dry matter yieid in the dry season were 1.75, 1.69, 1.62, 1.51 and, 0.94 t/ha for the plots oversown, with, S. hamata, M atropurpureum, C. ternatea and C. pubescence and ...

  9. Remobilization of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Phosphorus in Durum Wheat as Affected by Genotype and Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pampana

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Field studies were carried out to determine dry matter (DM, nitrogen (N and phosphorus (P assimilation until anthesis and DM, N and P remobilization during grain filling in wheat. Twentyfive durum wheat (Triticum durum L. varieties were grown in Tuscany at Grosseto and at Arezzo. At Grosseto 76% of DM was assimilated during pre-anthesis while at Arezzo the amount was 81%. At Grosseto 44% and at Arezzo 35% of N was accumulated until anthesis, while 33% of P was stored until anthesis in both localities. Cultivar differences in DM and N remobilization were positively related to pre-anthesis dry matter and N content at anthesis (r > 0.74. Environmental contraints on carbon, N and P availability in the plant are crucial factors in determining grain yield and N and P content in grain, affecting both accumulation and remobilization. In the low rainfall site of Grosseto, most of the grain yield originated from dry matter accumulation, while in the wetter environment of Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally to grain yield. Conversely, at Grosseto grain N content relied most on remobilization and at Arezzo remobilization and accumulation contributed equally. Finally, at Grosseto and at Arezzo accumulation of P was the main source of grain P content.

  10. Produção de matéria seca, teor e acúmulo de silício em cultivares de arroz sob doses de silício Dry matter production, content and accumulation of silicon in cultivars of rice (Oryza sativa L. under levels of silicon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leilson Antônio de Faria Júnior

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available O efeito do silício (Si na produção de matéria seca de arroz, teor e acúmulo de Si foi avaliado sob condições de casa-de-vegetação. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado em esquema fatorial 5 x 2 com 4 repetições. Os tratamentos foram 5 doses de Si (0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,00 g dm-3 e 2 cultivares de arroz (Conai e Curinga. A aplicação de Si não afetou os componentes de crescimento e produção, com exceção da matéria seca de raiz. Houve um acréscimo da matéria seca de raiz sob aplicação de Si com uma produção máxima de 33,57 g vaso-1 na dose ajustada de 0,38 g dm-3 de Si. O acúmulo e os teores de Si variaram entre os cultivares, os quais responderam de forma linear ao aumento das doses de Si. Já para o acúmulo de Si na parte aérea não houve diferenças significativas entre cultivares.The effect of silicon (Si application on dry matter production of rice, as well as on the content and accumulation of silicon was evaluated under greenhouse conditions. The experimental design was a completely randomized design arranged in a 5 x 2 factorial structure with four replicates. The treatments consisted of a combination of five Si levels (0, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, and 1.00 g dm-3 and two rice cultivars (Conai and Curinga. The Si application did not affect the growth and production components except the root dry matter. There was an increase in the root dry matter under Si application with a maximum production of 33.57 g pot-1 in the dose of 0.38 g dm-3 Si. The content and accumulation of Si varied between the cultivars, increasing linearly with the Si levels, except for Si accumulated in the shoot, where no significant differences were observed between the cultivars.

  11. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter, shoot P and Zn concentrations in wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.)wheat ( Triticum durum L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) grown in a calcareous soil.

  12. Influência da temperatura e do teor de humidade do solo na área foliar e acumulação de matéria seca durante o estabelecimento da ervilha, do milho e do girassol Influence of temperature and soil moisture on leaf area and dry matter accumulation during establishment of pea, maize and sunflower

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. A. Andrade

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O crescimento foliar e a acumulação de matéria seca durante o estabelecimento da ervilha (Pisum sativum L., var. Ballet, do milho (Zea mays L., var. Lorena e do girassol (Helianthus annuus L., var. Flora-sol foram estudados em função da temperatura e do teor de água num solo Pmg(Évora e num Cb (Lisboa, entre Junho de 1995 e Novembro de 1996. Mediu-se a temperatura do solo a 2 e 4 cm de profundidade, a temperatura do ar e a humidade do solo. A área foliar das plântulas foi estimada a partir de medições do comprimento e da largura de cada folha. A acumulação de matéria seca foi avaliada pela pesagem da parte aérea das plântulas após secagem em estufa. Os dados foram analisados com base no conceito de tempo térmico. Para teores de humidade superiores a 50% da capacidade utilizável de cada solo, a área foliar durante o estabelecimento da ervilha e do milho aumentou linearmente com a temperatura acumulada, enquanto que a do girassol aumentou exponencialmente durante o mesmo período. A relação entre a acumulação de matéria seca de qualquer das culturas e a temperatura acumulada foi exponencial. O tipo de solo influenciou significativamente o “início da expansão foliar” da ervilha e do girassol, a “taxa térmica de expansão foliar” do milho e a acumulação de matéria seca da ervilha e do milho. O “início da expansão foliar” da ervilha ocorreu mais cedo no solo Cb enquanto que o do girassol ocorreu mais cedo no solo Pmg. A expansão foliar do milho foi mais rápida no solo Pmg. A acumulação de matéria seca da ervilha foi mais rápida no solo Cb, enquanto que a do girassol foi mais rápida no solo Pmg. Em ambos os solos, baixos teores de humidade afectaram negativamente a expansão da área foliar e a acumulação de matéria seca.Leaf area expansion and accumulation of dry matter during the establishment of pea (Pisum sativum L., var. Ballet, maize (Zea mays L., var. Lorena and sunflower (Helianthus annuus

  13. Enriquecimento intermitente de CO2 e análise do acúmulo de massa seca e da partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabiano Ricardo Brunele Caliman

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Para avaliar o acúmulo de massa seca (MS e a partição de fotoassimilados em tomateiro cultivado sob diferentes concentrações de CO2, foi conduzido um experimento no delineamento em blocos casualizados com 12 repetições e as cultivares (cv. híbridas de tomateiro Andrea e Alambra. O enriquecimento com CO2 foi intermitente (não havendo enriquecimento no período das 10 h 30 min às 16 h pela utilização de pilha de compostagem como fonte do gás, cuja concentração variou de 600 µl/lt a 750 µl/lt durante o período matinal. O enriquecimento com CO2 alterou somente a partição e o acúmulo de MS de caule na cv. Alambra, permanecendo as demais variáveis, em ambas as cultivares, insensíveis ao tratamento. Houve maior acúmulo de MS nas plantas cultivadas nos ambientes protegidos comparadas às do campo. A cv Andrea acumulou 786.39 g/planta de MS no ambiente protegido + CO2 (AP + CO2, e 815.49 g/planta no ambiente protegido normal (AP normal e 637.41 g/planta no campo. A cv. Alambra acumulou 766.68 g/planta de MS no AP + CO2, 824.35 g/planta no AP normal e 592.44 g/planta no campo. O maior dreno de fotoassimilados foram os frutos, que acumularam 59%, 63% e 72% da MS das plantas nos AP + CO2, AP normal e campo, respectivamente.Intermittent CO2 enrichment and analysis of the dry matter accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomato submitted to grown in protected environment and field conditions. To assess dry matter (DM accumulation and photoassimilate partitioning in tomatoes growth under different CO2 concentrations an experiment was conducted in a randomized complete block design with 12 repetitions and two tomato hybrid cultivars cultivar (cv. Andrea and Alambra. CO2 intermittent enrichment (no enrichment during 10:30a.m. to 4:00p.m. was provide by compost pile, and gas concentration range from 600 to 750 µl l-1. The CO2 enrichment only changed DM partition and accumulation of the stem in the cv. Alambra, leaving the other

  14. Acúmulo e repartição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva sob três doses de nutrientes minerais Dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants under three mineral nutrient levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hugo Nicasio Rodríguez Espínola

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Determinou-se o efeito de três doses de nutrientes minerais sobre o acúmulo e distribuição da matéria seca da planta de pepino tipo conserva, híbrido Crispina. As plantas foram cultivadas em sacolas plásticas com 4,6kg de substrato composto por uma mistura de 40% de casca de arroz e 60% de solo, no interior de uma estufa de polietileno, na primavera de 1998 e no verão de 1999. Foi empregado um delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados, com três repetições e 15 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por três níveis múltiplos de uma dose padrão de nutrientes aplicada para cada planta, contendo N-P-K-Ca e Mg nas quantidades de 0,8-0,12-0,8-0,46-0,086g.pl-1, com 0,33m de solução de micronutrientes e 0,07m de quelato de ferro. Os níveis corresponderam às quantidades de 50%, 100% e 150% da dose padrão, denominados de tratamentos T1, T2 e T3, respectivamente, aplicados semanalmente através da fertirrigação em todas as plantas de uma mesma parcela. Determinou-se a matéria seca dos diferentes órgãos da parte aérea da planta a intervalos semanais. Houve efeito significativo dos tratamentos no acúmulo da matéria seca, nos dois experimentos. A maior fração foi alocada para os frutos, atingindo o valor mais elevado de 0,64 na primavera. Concluiu-se que a distribuição da matéria seca desse material vegetal não é constante, sofrendo interações com as variáveis do ambiente.It was determined the effect of three mineral nutrient levels on dry matter accumulation and distribution of pickling cucumber plants, hybrid Crispina, grown inside a polyethylene greenhouse, in spring 1998 and in summer 1999. Planting was made in bags filled with 4.6kg of a substrate mixture composed by 40% rice husks and 60% soil. A randomized block experimental design was used, with three replications and15 plants per plot. A reference nutrient dose was supplied weekly to each one of the plants, with the following composition

  15. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The mean IVDMD of maize residues obtained by means of a whole plant maize harvester was found to be relatively high (IVDMD = 55.6±7.0%) while the crude protein (CP) (46±10 g/kg dry matter (DM)) and phosphorus (P) (1.2±0.5 g/kg DM) concentrations were below the maintenance requirement for dry gestating beef ...

  16. Produção de gado de corte e acúmulo de matéria seca em sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária em presença e ausência de trevo branco e nitrogênio Beef cattle production and dry matter accumulation in the crop-pasture rotation system in presence and absence of white clover and nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alceu Luiz Assmann

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido com o objetivo de verificar a influência da adubação nitrogenada em uma pastagem de azevém (Lolium multiflorium L. e aveia (Avena strigosa Scherb em presença e ausência de trevo branco (Trifolium repens L., conferida pelo acúmulo e produção de matéria seca, ganho médio diário, ganho de peso vivo e carga animal no sistema de integração lavoura-pecuária sob sistema de plantio direto. A cultura antecessora da pastagem foi a soja (Glycine Max L.. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos completos ao acaso, com parcelas subdivididas e três repetições. Nas parcelas, foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 300 kg.ha-1 e nas subparcelas, a combinação de presença e ausência de trevo branco. A elevação das doses crescentes de N aumentaram de forma linear crescente o acúmulo e a produção de matéria seca da pastagem. A carga animal e o ganho de peso vivo por hectare de bovinos aumentaram com o incremento de nitrogênio. Os resultados demonstram o efeito da adubação nitrogenada no acúmulo diário, na produção de matéria seca, carga animal e no ganho de peso vivo.The research was carried out to verify the influence of the nitrogen input in an Italian ryegrass (Lolium multiflorium L. and oat (Avena strigosa Scherb pasture, in presence and absence of white clover (Trifolium repens L., checked by the dry matter accumulation, dry matter yield, average daily gain, liveweight gain and stocking rate a crop-pasture rotation system, on no tillage system. Soybean (Glycine Max L. was cultivated before the grass. The experimental design was complete randomized blocks with split-plot model and three replications. In the plots, four nitrogen levels were tested (0, 100, 200 and 300 kg.ha-1 and in the split-plot model, the presence and absence of white clover. Increasing nitrogen levels increased in a cresecent linear way the dry matter accumulation and dry matter yield. The stocking rate and

  17. Chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of Moringa ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of caecal inoculum of rabbit on in vitro gas production and dry matter digestibility of Moringa oleifera, Azadirachta indica and Aspilia africana leaf meals at different levels of 0%, 15% and 30%. Leave samples were analyzed for crude protein (CP), lignin (ADL), acid (ADF) and neutral (NDF) detergent fibres.

  18. Effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment evaluated effect of stage of maturity on dry matter yield, morphological characteristics and nutritive value of burgundy bean (Macroptilium bracteatum) at the screen house of Department of Agronomy, Bayero University Kano, Nigeria. The treatments were 3 stages of growth repeated 3 times in a completely ...

  19. Rumen dry matter degradability of fresh and ensiled sugarcane ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to evaluate the chemical composition and in situ ruminal degradability of fresh (FSC) and ensiled (ESC) sugarcane. In situ dry matter degradability (DMD) was determined using the nylon bag technique with four cows equipped ruminal fistulas. Cows were fed with fresh or ensiled sugarcane and ...

  20. Dry matter intake and digestibility of temperate pastures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of sorghum grain supplementation on total and forage dry matter (DM) intake and digestibility of wethers and heifers consuming temperate pasture. Twenty four Corriedale x Milchschaf wethers and 24 crossbred heifers fed temperate pasture were non-supplemented or ...

  1. Genotype x Environment Interaction for Tuber Yield, Dry Matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted to determine stability of tuber yield, dry matter content and specific gravity, and the nature and magnitude of genotype x environment (G x E) interaction in elite tetraploid potato genotypes. Eleven potato genotypes including two standard checks were evaluated in the eastern part of Ethiopia at ...

  2. Genetic by environment interaction on fresh root yield, dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Eighteen yellow-fleshed cassava genotypes and two released white-fleshed clones (check) were evaluated in five locations representing the major cassava growing agroecological zones of Nigeria to access their performance for fresh root yield, dry matter content, total carotene content and genotypes by environment ...

  3. Materia seca nodular y nitrógeno acumulado en el cultivo de soja en función de la disponibilidad de agua y azufre, y del sistema de labranza Nodular dry matter and accumulated nitrogen in soybean as a function of water and sulfur availability and tillage system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Cicore

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available La material seca nodular (MSN y el nitrógeno acumulado (N-acum. en el cultivo de soja fueron evaluados en función del sistema de labranza [siembra directa (SD y labranza convencional (LC] y la disponibilidad de azufre (S. Para ello, se realizaron en Balcarce durante la campaña 2002-03 dos experimentos, uno conducido bajo riego (Ri y otro en secano (Se. La MSN determinada en R5 no fue afectada por la aplicación de S (P>0.10, sin embargo fue mayor bajo SD en Se (PNodular dry matter (NDM and accumulated nitrogen (AN in a soybean crop were evaluated as a function of tillage system [no-tillage (NT and conventional tillage(CT] and sulfur (S availability in two experiments carried out under irrigation (Ri and rainfed conditions (Se. The experiment was carried out at Balcarce in the 2002-2003 growing season. The NDM, determined at R5 stage, was not affected by S fertilization (P>0.10 but was higher under NT in Se (P< 0.05. Under Ri NDM was higher under NT but this difference was not significant. The AN was not affected by S fertilization, and under rainfed conditions, it was significantly lower (P<0.05 under CT. The AN was positively related with NDM but the r² value was low (36%, suggesting that NDM was not the only factor regulating biological N2-fixation.

  4. Aboveground dry biomass partitioning and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz Zając

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to determine the biomass and nitrogen accumulation in early maturing soybean plants experiencing contrasting weather conditions. Soybean (Glycine max is a species of agricultural crop plant that is widely described in scientific publications. During 2014–2016, a field experiment with early maturing soybean ‘Merlin’ was carried out at Grodziec Śląski, Poland (49°48'01" N, 18°52'04" E. Results showed that the morphological traits of the plants, the yield of individual plants, and the soybean crop were all closely related to the climatic conditions. A high amount of precipitation stimulated seed development, resulting in a high production potential. The harvest index calculated for soybean ‘Merlin’ was high and exceeded 0.5 g g−1. The nitrogen content of the aboveground biomass increased during ontogenesis. The maximum yield of dry matter was noted at the green maturity phase, which subsequently decreased at the full maturity phase because of the loss of the leaf fraction. The variation in the effectiveness of nitrogen accumulation in seeds between 2015 and 2016 was 30%. The nitrogen harvest index values were high in each year of the experiment and exceeded 0.92 g−1. For the production of 1 ton of seeds with an adequate amount of soybean straw, plants needed, on average, 68 kg of nitrogen.

  5. Dry Bean Morpho-Physiological Responses to Gradual Weed Biomass Accumulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein GHAMARI

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Field study was carried out in 2011 in west of Iran to assess responses of dry bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. morpho-physiological traits to gradual weed biomass accumulation. The treatments consisted of two different periods of weed interference, which weeds either infested the plots or removed for an increasing duration of time (0, 10, 20, 30, 40, 50 days after crop emergence. Relative dominance and relative importance of weed species fluctuated over the crop cycle. As the duration of weed interference was increased, a declining trend of crop growth rate (CGR was observed. When weeds were allowed to compete with crop throughout the crop cycle, maximum value of CGR was decreased from 25.57 g m-2 days in full season weed free treatment to 16.78 g m-2 days in full season weed infested treatment. Effect of treatments on leaf area index (LAI was significant. Weed removal increased LAI but it could not significantly affect this trait, at the early of growing season. Weed interference caused a significant reduction on number of branches. The minimum number of branches was registered in full season weed infested treatment (2.58 branches per plant, while the maximum one was observed in the full season weed free treatment (4.25 branches per plant. Weed competition severely reduced crop yield. At 10 and 20 days after crop emergence, weed infestation could not significantly affect the yield. A negative relationship between weeds’ dry matter accumulation and LAI as well as number of branches was observed which signify the vulnerability of these morpho-physiological traits to weed competition.

  6. Nitrogen and dry matter dynamics in linseed as affected by the nitrogen level and genotype in a Mediterranean environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dordas, Christos A.

    2012-01-01

    Linseed or oilseed flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) is an important source of edible and industrial vegetable oil and is grown widely in temperate regions around the world. Nitrogen, one of the most important nutrients for linseed, is often applied for higher yield and better quality. However, the effects of N level on dry matter and N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation have not yet been identified in linseed. A two-year field study was therefore conducted to determine the effects of N level on dry matter, N accumulation, partitioning, and retranslocation of three linseed cultivars (Livia, Lirina, Creola) grown in a Mediterranean environment under rain-fed conditions. It was found that N fertilization increased biomass at anthesis by an average of 47% and at maturity by an average of 38%, compared with the control. N fertilization increased the dry matter partitioning in leaves + flowers and stems at anthesis, and also in leaves + capsule vegetative components, stems, and seeds at maturity. Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, growing season, and by the interaction between growing season and N treatment. In addition, N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts of the plant to the seed. Moreover, the N uptake by seeds was more affected by the seed yield and less affected by the seed N concentration. The present study indicates that N fertilization affects dry matter and N translocation in linseed. -- Highlights: ► Dry matter translocation was affected by N fertilization, year, and their interaction. ► HI was affected by N fertilization while NHI was not. ► N fertilization increased N retranslocation from the vegetative parts to the seed.

  7. Response of barley to grasshopper defoliation in interior Alaska: dry matter and grain yield.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Begna, Sultan H; Fielding, Dennis J

    2005-12-01

    Barley, Hordeum vulgare L., is well adapted to subarctic Alaska growing conditions, but little is known about its response to grasshopper defoliation. A field experiment was conducted to study dry matter and grain yield in response to a combination of grasshopper defoliation and weeds in 2002 and 2003 near Delta Junction, AK (63 degrees 55' N, 145 degrees 20' W). Barley plants at third to fourth leaf stage were exposed to a combination of two levels of weeds (present or absent) and four densities of grasshoppers (equivalent to 0, 25, 50, and 75 grasshoppers per m2) of third to fourth instars of Melanoplus sanguinipes (F). Dry matter accumulation by the barley plants was determined at three times during the growing seasons: approximately 10 d after introduction of the grasshoppers, shortly after anthesis, and at maturity. Dry matter accumulation and grain yield were much lower in 2003 than in 2002, probably due to very low levels of soil moisture early in the growing season of 2003. Head clipping accounted for a greater portion of yield loss in 2003 than in 2002. The percentage of reduction in harvestable yield due to grasshoppers remained fairly constant between years (1.9 and 1.4 g per grasshopper per m2 in 2002 and 2003, respectively) despite a large difference in overall yield. Examination of the yield components suggest that yields were reduced by the early season drought in 2003 primarily through fewer seeds per head, whereas grasshoppers in both years reduced average seed weight, but not numbers of seeds.

  8. Biochemical components and dry matter of lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco V. da S. Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to study the biochemical changes and dry matter content in lemon and mandarin hybrids under salt stress during rootstock formation. For this, a study was conducted in randomized complete block, using a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, with two salinity levels (0.3 and 4.0 dS m-1 applied in five citrus rootstock genotypes (1. TSKC x CTARG - 019; 2. LRF; 3. TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040; 4. LCRSTC and 5. LVK, with three replicates and four plants per plot. At 90 days after sowing, saline treatments started to be applied and continued until 120 days after sowing, the moment in which the plants were collected for evaluation of biochemical characteristics and phytomass accumulation. The increase in water salinity negatively affected the biochemical components and dry matter accumulation of citrus genotypes. The genotypes TSKC x (LCR x TR - 040, LCRSTC and LVK were the least affected by salt stress, standing out as the materials most tolerant to salinity.

  9. Maize dry matter production and macronutrient extraction model as a new approach for fertilizer rate estimation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KARLA V. MARTINS

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Decision support for nutrient application remains an enigma if based on soil nutrient analysis. If the crop could be used as an auxiliary indicator, the plant nutrient status during different growth stages could complement the soil test, improving the fertilizer recommendation. Nutrient absorption and partitioning in the plant are here studied and described with mathematical models. The objective of this study considers the temporal variation of the nutrient uptake rate, which should define crop needs as compared to the critical content in soil solution. A uniform maize crop was grown to observe dry matter accumulation and nutrient content in the plant. The dry matter accumulation followed a sigmoidal model and the macronutrient content a power model. The maximum nutrient absorption occurred at the R4 growth stage, for which the sap concentration was successfully calculated. It is hoped that this new approach of evaluating nutrient sap concentration will help to develop more rational ways to estimate crop fertilizer needs. This new approach has great potential for on-the-go crop sensor-based nutrient application methods and its sensitivity to soil tillage and management systems need to be examined in following studies. If mathematical model reflects management impact adequately, resources for experiments can be saved.

  10. Peculiarities of 137Cs accumulation by macromycetes in dry bors of Ukrainian Polessye

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Orlov, O.O.; Kurbet, T.B.; Kalyish, O.B.; Prishchepa, O.L.

    2001-01-01

    The main ecological peculiarities of dry bor in Ukrainian Polessye were given. Research were carried out in Central Polessie of Ukraine during 1997 - 1999. Results were obtained due to spectrometric measurement of specific activity of 137 Cs in fruit bodies of mushrooms and in the soil. Species composition of macromycetes was divided on homogeneous groups on intensity of 13 7Cs accumulation. Amanita porphyria, A. muscaria and Tricholoma portentosum belong to the group of weak 137 Cs accumulation from the soil (TF = 15 - 20); Amanita pantherina, A. phalloides, Cantharellus cibarius, Boletus edulis, Tricholoma flavovirens and Laccaria laccata - to the group of moderate radionuclide accumulation (TF = 30 - 55). The group of strong 137 Cs accumulation (TF = 100 - 180) consists of Suillus variegates, S. bovines and Hydnum imbricatum; and group of very strong accumulation (TF 200 - 280) - of Xerocomus badius, Lactarius rufus, Russula xerampelina, Cortinarius varius and Paxillus involutus. Cortinarius sanguineus (with TF 400) is an accumulator of 137 Cs. Comparative evaluation of dry bor was given from the point of view of purchase of edible macromycetes in it

  11. Tenor of macro nutrients and dry matter productivity of covering crops in function of the potassium doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amilton Ferreira da Silva

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available With the adoption of the system of direct sowing it is necessary the formation of a straw layer in the surface of the soils. In this sense, some species of grass can be used for that goal, besides; those plants can act in the recycling for the accumulation of nutrients in the aerial part, and its readiness for the subsequent culture. The potassium is one of the most accumulated nutrients for many of those plants. The objective of this work was to quantify the macronutrients tenor and the productivity of dry matter of Penisetum glaucum L. and Panicum miliaceum L. under different potassium doses. A blocks at random design, with the treatments disposed in factorial 3x2, was used, being the factors: covering cultures (P.glaucum and P. miliaceum and potassium doses (0; 50 and 100 kg ha-1 of K2 O, with four repetitions. The matter dries was evaluated and the tenors of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S in them, at 50 days after sowing covering cultures. P.glaucum produced larger dry matter content and tenor of N, K and Mg in the aerial part, independently of the K dose applied, while the tenor of P decreased with the application of high dose of K in the soil. The application of K influenced on the tenors of Ca and S in the two covering cultures, nevertheless P.glaucum accumulated higher tenor of those macronutrients in the absence of application of K.

  12. Nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of greenhouse tomato plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattin Jorge E.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The nitrogen concentration in dry matter of the fifth leaf during growth of a greenhouse tomato crop was determined. Plants of hybrid Monte Carlo were grown in 4.5 L bags, using a commercial substrate, in a plant density of 3.3 plants m-2. A nutrient solution containing, in mmol L-1: KNO3, 4.0; K2SO4, 0.9; Ca(NO32, 3.75; KH2PO4, 1.5; MgSO4, 1.0; iron chelate 19. 10³, was used as reference. Microelements were added by a commercial mixture. The T3 treatment was equal to the reference nutrient solution, whereas in treatments T1, T2, T4 and T5 quantities of all nutrients from T3 were multiplied by 0.25, 0.50, 1.25 and 1.50, respectively. In each treatment, the volume of 1 L of nutrient solution was supplied to each plant once a week by fertigation. Periodically destructive measurements were made from anthesis to ripening of the first truss, to determine dry matter and N concentration in shoot and in fifth leaf tissues, counted from the apex to the bottom of the plant. Five dilution curves were fitted from data of N concentration in the fifth leaf and shoot dry matter accumulation during growth of plants. A general relationship was adjusted between actual N concentration in shoot (Nt and in the fifth leaf (Nf: Nt = 1.287 Nf (R² = 0.80. This relationship could be used to estimate the N status of plants by means of a nitrogen nutrition index (NNI, from analysis of the fifth leaf sap.

  13. Change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeerasak Chobtang

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted to determine the change in dry matter and nutritive composition of Humidicola grass (Brachiaria humidicola grown in Ban Thon soil series (infertility soil as a function of growth age. One rai (0.16 ha of two-year-old pasture of fertilised Humidicola grass was uniformly cut and the regrowth samples were collected every twenty days. The samples were subjected to analysis for dry matter content and nutritive composition, i.e. crude protein, ash, calcium, phosphorus, neutral detergent fibre, acid detergent fibre, and acid detergent lignin. The results showed that while the yields of available forage and leaves increased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05, the stem yield increased linearly (p<0.05 over sampling dates. The highest biomass accumulation rate was numerically observed between 40-60 days of regrowth. The concentrations of crude protein, ash, calcium and phosphorus decreased curvilinearly (quadratic, p<0.05 with advancing maturity and reached the lowest flat after 60 days of regrowth. The cell wall components, i.e. NDF, ADF and ADL, increased over the experimental period and reached the highest plateau at 40 days of regrowth. It was concluded that Humidicola grass should be grazed or preserved at the regrowth age of not over 60 days to maximise the utilisation of the grass.

  14. Wet and Dry Atmospheric Mercury Deposition Accumulates in Watersheds of the Northeastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, E. W.; Grant, C.; Grimm, J.; Drohan, P. J.; Bennett, J.; Lawler, D.

    2013-12-01

    Mercury emissions to the atmosphere from coal-fired power plants and other sources such as waste incineration can be deposited to landscapes in precipitation and in dry fallout. Some mercury reaches watersheds and streams, where it can accumulate in sediments and biota. Human exposure to mercury occurs primarily through fish consumption, and currently mercury fish eating advisories are in place for many of the streams and lakes in the state. Here, we explored mercury in air, soils, water, and biota. To quantify atmospheric mercury deposition, we measured both wet and dry mercury deposition at over 10 locations in Pennsylvania, from which we present variation in mercury deposition and initial assessments of factors affecting the patterns. Further, we simulated mercury deposition at unmonitored locations in Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States over space and time with a high-resolution modeling technique that reflects storm tracks and air flow patterns. To consider mercury accumulation in watersheds, we collected data on soil mercury concentrations in a set of soil samples, and collected baseline data on mercury in streams draining 35 forested watersheds across Pennsylvania, spanning gradients of atmospheric deposition, climate and geology. Mercury concentrations were measured in stream water under base-flow conditions, in streambed sediments, aquatic mosses, and in fish tissues from brook trout. Results indicate that wet and dry atmospheric deposition is a primary source of mercury that is accumulating in watersheds of Pennsylvania and the northeastern United States.

  15. The effect of age on in sacco estimates of rumen dry matter and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to determine whether rumen dry matter and crude protein degradability in calves aged 8-10 weeks differs from that in mature cows. Five Holstein bull calves were rumen-fistulated at six weeks of age and were used in consecutive weekly 24 h trials from 8-20 weeks of age. Dry matter and crude ...

  16. Relationship between liver lipid and liver dry matter in slaughtered ruminants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zohreh Eftekhari

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Lipids in liver wet and dry matter, liver moist and dry matter and their relationships were investigated based on species, sex and age in cows, buffaloes, sheep and goats. Mean percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter and liver dry matter in cows were 3.60%, 1.10%, 29.70%, and for buffaloes were 5.30%, 1.55%, 29.20%, sheep 3.00%, 0.83%, 27.90%, and goats 2.910%, 1.55% and 28.40%, respectively. The highest and lowest percentage of lipids in liver wet and dry matter was observed in buffaloes and sheep, and for the liver dry matter was recorded in cows and sheep, respectively. Analyses showed significant differences in liver parameters among ruminants (p < 0.01. Gender, except for goats, did not affect the animals' liver parameters. In overall 15.00% of buffaloes and 3.50% of cows showed over 10.00% lipids in liver, while none of small ruminants appeared to have over 6.00% lipids in liver. There was no correlation between liver lipid and liver dry matter. In conclusion mean percentage of lipid in liver dry matter in small ruminants was less than large ruminants. Liver dry matter was high in cows and low in sheep. Mean differences in liver parameters was significant, while the age and sex of the animals were not. Liver lipidosis in buffaloes seems greater than in cows, and in small ruminants it was negligible. No correlation was expected between liver parameters. Finally, on the basis of liver dry matter, the liver in ruminants ranked from cows to buffaloes, goats and sheep.

  17. Decoupling Seasonal Changes in Water Content and Dry Matter to Predict Live Conifer Foliar Moisture Content.

    OpenAIRE

    Jolly, W. M.; Hadlow, A. M.; Huguet, K.

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples fromPinus contorta for two growing seasons and quantified their LFMC, relative water content (RWC) and dry matter chemistry. LFMC quantifies the amou...

  18. Soil Organic Matter Accumulation and Carbon Fractions along a Moisture Gradient of Forest Soils

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Błońska

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to present effects of soil properties, especially moisture, on the quantity and quality of soil organic matter. The investigation was performed in the Czarna Rózga Reserve in Central Poland. Forty circular test areas were located in a regular grid of points (100 × 300 m. Each plot was represented by one soil profile located at the plot’s center. Sample plots were located in the area with Gleysols, Cambisols and Podzols with the water table from 0 to 100 cm. In each soil sample, particle size, total carbon and nitrogen content, acidity, base cations content and fractions of soil organic matter were determined. The organic carbon stock (SOCs was calculated based on its total content at particular genetic soil horizons. A Carbon Distribution Index (CDI was calculated from the ratio of the carbon accumulation in organic horizons and the amount of organic carbon accumulation in the mineral horizons, up to 60 cm. In the soils under study, in the temperate zone, moisture is an important factor in the accumulation of organic carbon in the soil. The highest accumulation of carbon was observed in soils of swampy variant, while the lowest was in the soils of moist variant. Large accumulation of C in the soils with water table 80–100 cm results from the thick organic horizons that are characterized by lower organic matter decomposition and higher acidity. The proportion of carbon accumulation in the organic horizons to the total accumulation in the mineral horizons expresses the distribution of carbon accumulated in the soil profile, and is a measure of quality of the organic matter accumulated. Studies have confirmed the importance of moisture content in the formation of the fractional organic matter. With greater soil moisture, the ratio of humic to fulvic acids (HA/FA decreases, which may suggest an increase in carbon mobility in soils.

  19. The impact of shrubbification on soil organic matter accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Street, L.; Wookey, P. A.; Subke, J. A.; Baxter, R.; Garnett, M.

    2017-12-01

    The degree to which increasing vegetation productivity in the Arctic can offset permafrost carbon emissions under a warming climate is highly uncertain. Most ecosystem or earth system models predict that plant C inputs to permafrost soils will balance or exceed losses with warming, at least until about mid-century. Observations on the ground however, question whether vegetation change in Arctic ecosystems will result in even a transient net C sink. In the European Arctic, for example, rhizosphere processes associated with ectomycorrhizal (ECM) fungi have been implicated in driving rapid cycling - and thus lower storage - of soil organic C (SOC) under deciduous shrubs. Short-term incubation studies also show that decomposition of SOC can be stimulated or "primed" by new inputs of labile plant C. The implication is that as Arctic vegetation shifts towards a greater abundance of productive, and mostly ECM, deciduous trees and shrubs, net C losses from soils may result. Over decadal timescales however, the impact of changing vegetation and associated rhizosphere processes on C stock trajectories is complex - shifts in productivity and mycorrhizal status will be accompanied by other biological and physical changes that can impact decomposition. Encroachment of shrubs will likely influence both litter quality and quantity, as well as soil temperature and moisture regimes due to altered transpiration rates, shading and snow accumulation. Short-term studies, and those based on instantaneous flux measurements, can provide only limited information as to what the impact of shrubbification on SOC stocks will be. Here we use radiocarbon data, in combination with a vertically-resolved isotopic model, to examine how and why SOC accumulation in tundra soils differs between vegetation types over decades to centuries. We compare soil profiles under ECM birch, N-fixing alder, and ericaceous/lichen heath tundra in the Canadian Arctic. Early model results suggest that under alder

  20. Shoot growth, radiation interception and dry matter production and partitioning during the establishment phase of Miscanthus sinensis 'Giganteus' grown at two densities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, M.J.; Heath, M.C.; Nixon, P.M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic area index (PAI), radiation interception (I) and dry matter partitioning between shoots and roots were measured for Miscanthus sinensis‘Giganteus' grown from micro-propagated transplants on a fertile peaty loam soil in eastern England. In the establishment year, Miscanthus plants produced 35 and 70 shoots plant -1 at densities of 4.0 and 1.8 plants m -2 respectively. At the higher density, there were 140 shoots m -2 with the largest reaching a height of 1.8 m; these canopies attained a maximum PAI of 5.45, intercepting 94% of incident radiation. Leaf lamina contributed c. 90% of total photosynthetic area with stems contributing the remainder. At the lower density, maximum PAI and I values were 2.88 and 86% respectively. PAI was related to I by calculating attenuation coefficients (k); these indicated that Miscanthus canopies were more effective at intercepting radiation per unit PAI at the lower density (k= -0.31) compared with the higher density (k= -0.20). Radiation interception was related to dry matter accumulated by calculating conversion efficiencies (e). At 4 plants m -2 , × for shoot dry matter production was 1.17g MJ -1 . Miscanthus partitioned a relatively large amount of total dry matter into below-ground biomass. By plant senescence, c. 30% of total dry matter had been partitioned into root and rhizome; rhizome biomass contributed 80% of below-ground dry matter, × increased to 1.62 g MJ -1 when calculated on a total dry matter basis (shoot + root + rhizome). Total dry matter production was increased 68% by a 2.2-fold increase in plant density. (author)

  1. Dry matter yield and Carbon partitioning in the aboveground part of switchgrass ( panicum virgatum l.) germplasm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butkutė, B.; Lemežien ė, N.; Cesevičienė, J.; Liaudanskienė, I., E-mail: brone@lzi.lt [Institute of Agriculture, Lithuanian Research Centre for Agriculture and Forestry, Akademija, Kėdainiai distr. (Lithuania)

    2013-07-01

    Carbon (C) accumulated in biomass can be converted into usable forms of energy like methane, bioethanol or solid fuel. Understanding the partitioning of aboveground biomass and C plays an important role in optimizing its pre-treatment technologies. Our objectives were to determine dry matter yield (DMY) and C partitioning in switch grass germplasm. Plants were sampled at heading (HS) and seed filling (SFS) stages. The biomass of the SFS-sampled plants was separated into leaves (blades+sheaths), stems, and panicles. C content was determined by dry combustion. C yield per plant (CY) at HS ranged from 25.9 to 171 g (37.3 g on average for plants in the first harvest year, and 147 for those in the second harvest year), at SFS CY varied within a range of 79.8 ‒ 295g and averaged 119 and 252g depending on the year of growth. DMY was a weighted factor for such results. At SFS, DMY of stems accounted on average for 46.3%, leaves for 40.5%, and panicles for 13.2% of the aboveground biomass of whole plant with respective C concentrations of 462, 439 and 459 g kg -1 DM. (author)

  2. Cell wall content and rumen dry matter disappearance of γ-irradiated wood by-products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flachowsky, G.; Baer, M.; Zuber, S.; Tiroke, K.

    1990-01-01

    Spruce sawdust and barks of spruce, pine and larch were irradiated with various doses of γ-rays (0; 0.1; 0.25; 0.5; 1.0 and 2.0 MGy). Cell wall constituents and rumen dry-matter disappearance (incubation time: 48 h) were determined. γ-Irradiation significantly reduced neutral detergent fibre and acid detergent fibre content of all by-products. The crude lignin of the wood by-products was not significantly influenced by γ-irradiation. Rumen dry-matter loss of untreated sawdust was 5.6%, that of barks between 18.2 (pine) and 64.6% (spruce). γ-Irradiation significantly increased rumen dry-matter loss. Increased washout due to solubilization and particle breakdown was mainly responsible for the higher dry-matter losses in the rumen after irradiation. The results do not justify practical use because of the high dose of irradiation required. (author)

  3. Effects of shading on dry matter partitioning and yield of field-grown sunflower

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villalobos, F.J.; Soriano, A.; Fereres, E.

    1992-01-01

    Crop simulation models require quantitative descriptions of the effects of irradiance on dry matter partition and yield. The objective of this work was to quantify the effects of reduced radiation intensity during different phenological stages on the growth, dry matter partitioning and grain numbers of sunflower (Helianthus annuus, L.). A field experiment was carried out in 1990 with 50 per cent shading treatments. The earliest treatment began at crop emergence while the latest ended at first anthesis. Shading had little effect on plant leaf area growth but reduced biomass and yield. The dry matter: radiation quotient and specific leaf area increased with shading. Grain number per head was decreased by shading, with the greatest effect occurring when shading was applied prior to anthesis. All shading treatments increased dry matter partitioning to stems, decreased assimilate partitioning to the heads and had no effect on the partitioning to leaves. (author)

  4. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    grains on rumen fermentation characteristics using the in vitro gas ..... Effect of chemical content and physical characteristics on nutritional value ... properties and in vitro dry matter on starch digestion of eight sorghum grain hybrids and maize.

  5. Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianping Luo

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Behavior of solid matters and heavy metals during conductive drying process of sewage sludge was evaluated in a sewage sludge disposal center in Beijing, China. The results showed most of solid matters could be retained in the dried sludge after drying. Just about 3.1% of solid matters were evaporated with steam mainly by the form of volatile fatty acids. Zn was the dominant heavy metal in the sludge, followed by Cu, Cr, Pb, Ni, Hg, and Cd. The heavy metals in the condensate were all below the detection limit except Hg. Hg in the condensate accounted for less than 0.1% of the total Hg. It can be concluded that most of the heavy metals are also retained in the dried sludge during the drying process, but their bioavailability could be changed significantly. The results are useful for sewage sludge utilization and its condensate treatment.

  6. Photoperiod and growing degree days effect on dry matter partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effect of photoperiod and growing degree days (GDD) on dry matter and dry partitioning in Jerusalem artichoke was investigated during 2008-09 and 2009-10. Three Jerusalem artichoke genotypes (CN-52867, JA-89 and HEL-65) were planted in 15 day-intervals between with thirteen different dates (Sep...

  7. The effects of increased phosphorus application on shoot dry matter ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ONOS

    2010-09-06

    Sep 6, 2010 ... important to understand how crops with different root architecture would ... while in soils rich in organic matter, it is present as organic ... Plants take up most of the required nutrient elements ... MATERIALS AND METHODS.

  8. Influence of diesel contamination in soil on growth and dry matter partitioning of Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatokun, Kayode; Zharare, Godfrey Elijah

    2015-09-01

    Phytotoxic effect of diesel contaminated soil was investigated on growth and dry matter partitioning in Lactuca sativa and Ipomoea batatas in greenhouse pot experiment at two concentration range (0-30 ml and 0-6 ml diesel kg(-1) soil) for 14 weeks. The results indicated thatwhole plant biomass, stem length, root length, number of leaves and leaf chlorophyll in two plants were negatively correlated with increasing diesel concentrations. The critical concentration of diesel associated with 10% decrease in plant growth was 0.33 ml for lettuce and 1.50 ml for sweet potato. Thus, growth of lettuce in diesel contaminated soil was more sensitive than sweet potato. The pattern of dry matter partitioning between root and shoot in both plants were similar. In 0-6 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to shoot system was favoured resulting in high shoot: root ratio of 4.54 and 12.91 for lettuce and sweet potato respectively. However, in 0-30 ml diesel contamination range, allocation of dry matter to root was favoured, which may have been an adaptive mechanism in which the root system was used for storage in addition to increasing the capacity for foraging for mineral nutrients and water. Although lettuce accumulated more metals in its tissue than sweet potato, the tissue mineral nutrients in both species did not vary to great extent. The critical diesel concentration for toxicity suggested that the cause of mortality and poor growth of sweet potato and lettuce grown in diesel contaminated soil was due to presence of hydrocarbons in diesel.

  9. Crescimento , produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivadas em solo de várzea, em função de diferentes doses de fósforo Growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in andiroba seedling shoots (Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivated in lowland soil, in function of phosphorus doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlando Sílvio Caires Neves

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de diferentes doses de fósforo no crescimento e produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S na parte aérea de mudas de andiroba, cultivadas em solo de várzea, foi conduzido um experimento em casa de vegetação, no Departamento de Ciências do Solo (DCS da Universidade Federal de Lavras (UFLA. O delineamento utilizado foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições e quatro doses de fósforo (0, 150, 300 e 450 mg dm-3 de P. Foram avaliados diâmetro do caule (mm, altura de plantas (cm, matéria seca de raiz, caule, folha e total (g planta-1. A partir dos teores dos elementos, determinou-se o acúmulo dos nutrientes com base na matéria seca. A máxima resposta física da planta de andiroba à adubação fosfatada foi obtida na faixa de 239 a 265 mg dm-3 de P. O máximo acúmulo de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S foi atingido com as doses de 254; 287,5; 244,5; 254; 241; e 275 mg dm-3 de P, respectivamente. Os elementos em estudo que mais acumularam na parte aérea das mudas de andiroba seguem a seguinte ordem decrescente: N > Ca > K > Mg > S > P.To evaluate the effect of phosphorus application on growth, dry matter yield and N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S accumulation in "andiroba" seedling shoots, cultivated in lowland soil, an experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department (DCS of the Federal University of Lavras (UFLA. The experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, with five replications and four phosphorus doses (0, 150, 300 and 450 mg dm-3 of P. Stem diameter (mm, plant height (cm, root dry matter, stem, leafs and total (g plant-1 were evaluated and the accumulation of the nutrients based on dry matter was determined. The maximum physical response of andiroba to phosphorus was obtained between 239 to 265 mg dm-3 of P. The maximum accumulation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S was observed with the doses 254, 287,5, 244,5, 254, 241 and 275 mg dm-3 of P, respectively

  10. Dry matter production and nutrient accumulation after successive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogongrass in a substrate with zeolite Produção de matéria seca e acúmulo de nutrientes após cultivos sucessivos com alface, tomate, arroz e capim andropogon em substrato com zeólita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto C. de Campos Bernardi

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Zeolites are hydrated crystalline aluminosilicate minerals of natural occurrence, structured in rigid third dimension net that can be used as slow release plant-nutrient source. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of plant growth substrate under zeolite application, enriched with N, P and K, on dry matter yield and on nutrient contents in consecutive crops of lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. The experiment was carried out in a greenhouse, with 3 kg pots with an inert substrate, evaluated in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four types of enrichment of concentrated natural zeolite: concentrated zeolite (Z only, zeolite + KNO3 (ZNK, zeolite + K2HPO4 (ZPK and zeolite + H3PO4 + apatite (ZP, and a control grown in substrate fertilized with a zeolite-free nutrient solution. Four levels of enriched zeolite were tested: 20, 40, 80, and 160 g/pot. Four successive crops were grown on the same substrate in each pot: lettuce, tomato, rice, and andropogon grass. Results indicated that N, P and K enriched zeolite was an adequate slow-release nutrient source for plants. The total dry matter production of above-ground biomass of four successive crops followed a descending order: ZP > ZPK > ZNK > Z.Zeólitas são minerais aluminossilicatos cristalinos hidratados de ocorrência natural, estruturados em redes cristalinas tridimensionais rígidas que podem ser usados como fonte de liberação lenta de nutrientes para as plantas. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de zeólita enriquecida com N, P e K ao substrato de cultivo sobre a produção de matéria seca e o acúmulo de nutrientes pelas culturas sucessivas de alface, de tomate, de arroz e de capim-andropogon. O experimento foi conduzido em vasos em casa de vegetação, em vasos contendo 3 kg de substrato inerte. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com três repetições. A zeólita natural

  11. Modelling anaerobic digestion of concentrated black water and faecal matter in accumulation system

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Elmitwalli, T.; Zeeman, G.; Otterpohl, R.

    2011-01-01

    A dynamic mathematical model based on anaerobic digestion model no. 1 (ADM1) was developed for accumulation (AC) system treating concentrated black water and faecal matter at different temperatures. The AC system was investigated for the treatment of waste(water) produced from the following systems:

  12. Ecosystem site description - an approach to quantify transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soderback, B.; Kautsky, U.; Lindborg, T.

    2004-01-01

    The Swedish Nuclear Fuel and Waste Management Co. (SKB) presently perform site investigations at two sites in Sweden for a future repository of spent nuclear fuel. The safety assessment of a potential repository will, among other methods, use an approach where transport and accumulation of radionuclides is modelled by quantifying the pathways of carbon/nitrogen/phosphorous in the ecosystem. Since water is the most important medium for transportation of matter, the obvious delimitation of an area for quantification of matter transport is the drainage area. This study describes how site-specific data on surface water chemistry and hydrology, measured at several points along the flow paths of a drainage area, can be used to describe and quantify the flow of matter in terms of transport or accumulation. The approach was applied to the drainage area of Lake Eckarfjaerden, investigated as part of the site investigation programme at Forsmark in central Sweden. By using data from inlet and outlet of the lake, together with data from the lake itself, we quantified the flow of matter in the drainage area, and also developed mass-balance budgets for important elements. The results were used to validate process oriented terrestrial and aquatic ecosystem models, developed for the same drainage area in parallel to the present study. In conclusion, applying this approach will contribute substantially to our understanding of the processes controlling transport and accumulation of matter in a drainage area, and thereby reduce the uncertainties in estimating radionuclide flow and consequences to humans and the environment. (author)

  13. Grain Yield, Dry Weight and Phosphorus Accumulation and Translocation in Two Rice (Oryza sativa L. Varieties as Affected by Salt-Alkali and Phosphorus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkali is the main threat to global crop production. The functioning of phosphorus (P in alleviating damage to crops from saline-alkaline stress may be dependent on the variety of crop but there is little published research on the topic. This pot experiment was conducted to study if P has any effect on rice (Oryza sativa L. yield, dry matter and P accumulation and translocation in salt-alkaline soils. Plant dry weight and P content at heading and harvest stages of two contrasting saline-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and sensitive (Tongyu-315 rice varieties were examined under two saline-alkaline (light versus severe soils and five P supplements (P0, P50, P100, P150 and P200 kg ha−1. The results were: in light saline-alkaline soil, the optimal P levels were found for P150 for Dongdao-4 and for P100 for Tongyu-315 with the greatest grain dry weight and P content. Two rice varieties obtained relatively higher dry weight and P accumulation and translocation in P0. In severe saline-alkaline soil, however, dry weight and P accumulation and translocation, 1000-grain weight, seed-setting rate and grain yield significantly decreased, but effectively increased with P application for Dongdao-4. Tongyu-315 showed lower sensitivity to P nutrition. Thus, a more tolerant variety could have a stronger capacity to absorb and translocate P for grain filling, especially in severe salt-alkaline soils. This should be helpful for consideration in rice breeding and deciding a reasonable P application in saline-alkaline soil.

  14. The chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Leendert Snynan

    Crop residues in the summer rainfall area of South Africa fulfill a strategic role in the fodder flow program ... This value is high when compared with in vitro organic matter digestibility values reported for wheat straw. (38.9%) ... Sunflower-cob residues seem to be a forage with a high energy value that might be suitable for use.

  15. Ruminal degradation of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Pinto Monção

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the kinetics of dry matter degradation and neutral detergent fiber of banana peel treated with limestone. The banana peel has been acquired from a candy manufacturer that after washing with chlorinated water to 1% and pulp removal was discarded. The banana peel in nature was treated with 1, 2, 3 and 4% of limestone in the natural matter, homogenized and pre-dried in the sun for 120 hours. The experiment was conducted in a completely randomized experimental design, with five treatments (0 (control, 1, 2, 3 and 4% inclusion of limestone with 3 repetitions. The dry matter potential degradability, showed no difference (P>0.05 in the levels compared to the control with an average of 67.58%. The insoluble degradation fraction rate of dry matter and the fiber fraction did not differ (P> 0.05 between levels and control. In relation to effective degradability of neutral detergent fiber, there was an increase of 3.47% for each percentage unit increased limestone. In relation to the ruminal degradation parameters of dry matter and neutral detergent fiber is not recommended the utilization of limestone as an additive in the treatment of banana peel.

  16. Dry deposition and resuspension of particulate matter in city environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, N.O.

    1984-06-01

    The report describes, mostly in qualitative terms, the deposition and resuspension of particles and how the mechanics depend on particle size. The effect of rough surfaces is discussed. It is concluded that knowledge on the subject, at relevant large Reynolds numbers, is indeed lacking. Various methods for measurements of deposition is mentioned and further the report gives some general ideas on how a suitable full scale experiment should be laid out in order to produce some data on the problems of dry deposition to city surfaces. (author)

  17. Dry matter production, radiation interception and radiation use efficiency of potato in response to temperature and nitrogen application regimes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Plauborg, Finn; Kristensen, Kristian

    2017-01-01

    while N rate varied from 0 to 180 kg ha−1. Statistical analysis using mixed modelling detected two clear features: Both temperature and N supply were important factors for dry matter production. Higher temperatures were associated with decreased dry matter production mainly through its negative effect...... on radiation use efficiency (RUE) when comparing inter-annual variation in dry matter production. The loss of tuber dry matter was c. 10% per °C, which is higher than estimated in previous studies. Specifically, compared to mean air temperature from end of tuber initiation to maturity, mean air temperature...... from emergence to end of tuber initiation was more important for dry matter production. N supply promoted dry matter production (p

  18. Evaluation of a microwave method for dry matter determination in faecal samples from weaned pigs with or without clinical diarrhoea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Ken Steen; Stege, Helle; Nielsen, Jens Peter

    2011-07-01

    Microwave drying as a procedure for determination of faecal dry matter in weaned pigs was evaluated and clinical relevant cut-off values between faecal consistency scores were determined. Repeatability and reproducibility were evaluated. Overall coefficient of variation was 0.03. The 95% confidence limits for any future faecal subsample examined by any operator in any replica were ± 0.85% faecal dry matter. Robustness in relation to weight of wet faeces was evaluated. The weight categories were 0.5, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0 and 3.0 g. Samples of 0.5 g gave significantly different mean faecal dry matter content compared to weighing of 1.0-3.0 g. Agreement with freeze-drying was evaluated. Lin's concordance correlation coefficient was 0.94. On average the faecal dry matter values was 1.7% (SD=1.99%) higher in freeze dried compared to micro waved samples. Non-parametric ROC analyses were used to determine optimal faecal dry matter cut-off values for clinical faecal consistency scores. The 4 consistency scores were score 1=firm and shaped, score 2=soft and shaped, score 3=loose and score 4=watery. The cut-off values were score 1: faecal dry matter content >19.5%, score 2: faecal dry matter content ≤ 19.5% and >18.0%, score 3: faecal dry matter content ≤ 18.0% and >11.3%, score 4: faecal dry matter content ≤ 11.3%. In conclusion, the microwave procedure has an acceptable repeatability/reproducibility and good agreement with freeze drying can be expected. A minimum of 1.0 g of wet faeces must be used for analyses. Faecal dry matter cut-off values between 4 different clinical consistency scores were determined. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Oesophageal fistula/tritium-labelled water technique for determining dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luick, J.R.

    1982-01-01

    Seven assumptions on which the use of tritium-labelled water and oesophageal fistula depend, for determining the dry matter intake and saliva secretion rates of grazing herbivores, were tested experimentally. It is concluded that many of the possible sources of error can be ignored, but that a correction is necessary for the saliva dry matter content when calculating the dry matter of ingested food from fistula samples. (author)

  20. Feasibility of DEXA prediction of dry matter and mass for horticultural products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartle, C.M.; West, J.G.

    2009-01-01

    Previously the DEXA system used in this research has been deployed commercially in meat processing plants with the objective of accurately determining the fat content of bulk and packaged meat, through a JV with ANZCO Foods and a partnership with Smiths Detection. This present research is aimed at demonstrating an ability to measure the dry matter distribution and in turn the net dry matter for individual horticultural products using DEXA. The DEXA images are obtained while scanning the products on a conveyor belt running at speeds representative of production grading situations. The products reported on here are primarily potatoes (because of a direct commercial interest), but also a butternut pumpkin and two rock melons. The grading and dry matter measurement capability is based on detecting change in the effective atomic number (EAN) with change in the elemental proportions within the product and there being effectively a binary mixture (e.g dry matter and water) present. Grading of fruit and vegetables on this basis is expected to be challenging. The commercial meat/fat grading already commercialised as a DEXA system is associated with 1.8 EAN units difference between fat (carbon rich Z eff =5.8) and fully-lean meat (oxygen rich Z eff =7.6) but this range is large compared to what is expected for horticultural products. The dry matter in horticultural products is primarily starch (plus minerals) and the EAN difference between starch (and minerals) and water is unknown here but calculations give the difference as little as 0.2 EAN units, dependant on the mineral content in the product. In this work we show that the dry matter sensitivities of the DEXA technology for horticultural products is discernable allowing measurement of dry matter distributions, and net dry matter values. The EAN range is indeed much smaller than for fat/meat mixtures, and consistent differences are yet to be demonstrated for an assembly of product, except for potatoes where consistency

  1. Mechanical pressure and momentum conservation in dry active matter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fily, Y.; Kafri, Y.; Solon, A. P.; Tailleur, J.; Turner, A.

    2018-01-01

    We relate the breakdown of equations of states (EOS) for the mechanical pressure of generic dry active systems to the lack of momentum conservation in such systems. We show how net sources and sinks of momentum arise generically close to confining walls. These typically depend on the interactions of the container with the particles, which makes the mechanical pressure a container-dependent quantity. We show that an EOS is recovered if the dynamics of the propulsive forces of the particles are decoupled from other degrees of freedom and lead to an apolar bulk steady-state. This recovery of an EOS stems from the mean steady-state active force density being the divergence of the flux of ‘active impulse’, an observable which measures the mean momentum particles will receive from the substrate in the future. ), which features invited work from the best early-career researchers working within the scope of J. Phys. A. This project is part of the Journal of Physics series’ 50th anniversary celebrations in 2017. Julien Tailleur was selected by the Editorial Board of J. Phys. A as an Emerging Talent.

  2. Determinants of iron accumulation in deep grey matter of multiple sclerosis patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ropele, Stefan; Kilsdonk, Iris D; Wattjes, Mike P

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Iron accumulation in deep grey matter (GM) structures is a consistent finding in multiple sclerosis (MS) patients. This study focused on the identification of independent determinants of iron accumulation using R2* mapping. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven MS patients and 81 healthy...... controls were included in this multicentre study. R2* mapping was performed on 3T MRI systems. R2*in deep GM was corrected for age and was related to disease duration, disability, T2 lesion load and brain volume. RESULTS: Compared to controls, R2* was increased in all deep GM regions of MS patients except...... and the red nucleus. In lesions, R2* was inversely correlated with disease duration and higher total lesion load. CONCLUSION: Iron accumulation in deep GM of MS patients is most strongly and independently associated with duration and severity of the disease. Additional associations between cortical GM atrophy...

  3. Radio Frequency Sensing of Particulate Matter Accumulation on a Gasoline Particulate Filter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parks, II, James E [ORNL; Prikhodko, Vitaly Y [ORNL; Sappok, Alex [Filter Sensing Technologies; Ragaller, Paul [Filter Sensing Technologies; Bromberg, L. [Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT)

    2016-10-30

    Filter Sensing Technology’s radio frequency (RF) sensor for particulate filter on-board diagnostics (OBD) was studied on a lean gasoline engine at the National Transportation Research Center (NTRC) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL). The response of the RF sensor to particulate matter (PM) or “soot” accumulation on the gasoline particulate filter (GPF) installed in the engine exhaust was evaluated. In addition, end plugs of the GPF were purposely removed, and subsequent changes to the RF sensor measured soot loading on the GPF were characterized. Results from the study showed that the RF sensor can accurately measure soot accumulation on a GPF; furthermore, the predicted decreased soot accumulation due to plug removal was detected by the RF sensor. Overall, the studies were short and preliminary in nature; however, clearly, the RF sensor demonstrated the capability of measuring GPF soot loading at a level suitable for use in lean gasoline engine emission control OBD and control.

  4. Genomic predictions for dry matter intake using the international reference population of gDMI

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haas, de Y.; Pryce, J.E.; Calus, M.P.L.; Hulsegge, B.; Spurlock, D.M.; Berry, D.P.; Wall, E.; Lovendahl, P.; Weigel, K.; MacDonald, K.; Miglior, F.; Krattenmacher, N.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we have demonstrated that using dry matter intake (DMI) phenotypes from multiplecountries increases the accuracy of genomic breeding values for this important trait, provided a multi-trait approach is used. Data from Australia, Canada, Denmark, Germany, Ireland, the Netherlands,New

  5. Yield, yield components and dry matter digestibility of alfalfa experimental populations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katić Slobodan

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa is the most important forage crop grown in the temperate regions. It is cultivated for production of vegetative aerial mass used fresh or as hay, and recently as haylage and silage. In many centres worldwide, efforts are made to breed and create new alfalfa cultivars with both higher yields and of higher nutritional value. The aim of this paper was to determine yield and digestibility of 12 experimental populations of alfalfa, and to compare their results to the yields of well-known domestic alfalfa commercial cultivars. The results show significant differences in yield of green forage and dry matter among alfalfa populations, as well as in yield components, height, proportion of leaves in yield and growth rate (tab. 1, 2 and 3. Differences between in vitro digestible dry matter (% and yields of in vitro digestible dry matter (t ha-1 were also significant (tab. 5 and 6. Yield and quality of experimental populations were at the same level or higher than of control cultivars. Synthetic SINUSA exceeded the control cutivars (NS Mediana ZMS V and Banat VS in yield and quality of dry matter. .

  6. Effect of N, P and K Humates on Dry Matter of Zea mays and Soil

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Sharjeel Ahmad

    may only be applicable to similar acid soils. The outcome of this study may contribute to the improvement of urea N use efficiency as well as reducing environmental pollution. Key words: Humic acids, fulvic acids, triple superphosphate, muriate of potash, soil exchangeable ammonium, available nitrate, Zea mays, dry matter.

  7. Comparison between in situ dry matter degradation and in vitro gas ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dry matter (DM) degradation of Glycrrhiza glabra L, Arbutus andrachne, Juniperus communis, and Pistica lentiscus was determined using two different techniques: (i) the in vitro gas production and (ii) the in situ nylon bag degradability technique. Samples were incubated in situ and in vitro for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 h.

  8. Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effect of N-fertilizer rates on Dry Matter Yield (DMY) and quality of pinapple propagules (Ananas comosus) in the acid sands of cross river. W Ubi, M W Ubi, VE Osedeke. Abstract. No Abstract. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Physics Vol. 14 (1) 2008 pp. 1-4. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD ...

  9. Evaluation of hyperspectral reflectance for estimating dry matter and sugar concentration in processing potatoes

    Science.gov (United States)

    The measurement of sugar concentration and dry matter in processing potatoes is a time and resource intensive activity, cannot be performed in the field, and does not easily measure within tuber variation. A proposed method to improve the phenotyping of processing potatoes is to employ hyperspectral...

  10. Comparison of in situ dry matter degradation parameters with in vitro ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Adem Kamalak

    The rate and extent of fermentation of dry matter (DM) in the rumen are very important determinants ... kinetics of forages obtained by the in situ nylon bag technique and the in vitro gas production technique. (Blummel & Ørskov ..... not find any correlation between these parameters in barley and wheat straw. Beuvinik et al.

  11. Dry Matter Production and Leaf Elemental Concentrations of Rambutan Grown on an Acid Ultisol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little is known about the adaptability of rambutan (Nephelium lappaceum) to highly acidic soils rich in aluminum (Al). A 2-yr field study was conducted to determine the effects of various levels of soil Al on dry matter production, plant growth, and nutrient concentration in the leaves of four cult...

  12. Dry matter genotypes of Cynodon by microwave and conventional oven methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Euclides Reuter de Oliveira

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aimed of this work was to comparing the drying process in a microwave oven and forced air ventilation, as well as their effects on the chemical composition of different genotypes of the genus Cynodon (Tifton 85, Jiggs, Russell, Tifton 68 and Vaquero collected at different ages cutting (28, 48, 63 and 79 days. The experimental design was a randomized block in a split-plot design, with 4 replicates. There was no difference (P>0.05 between the methods analyzed on the chemical composition of the genotypes studied. Increasing age cutoff negatively influenced (P<0.05 the crude protein content of the different plant parts. A significant increase (P<0.05 of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and dry matter production was observed with increasing age cut. The use of the microwave oven is a quick and precise method obtain the dry matter content of the fodder showing efficiency similar to the method of drying in an oven with forced air circulation. The genotypes showed better chemical composition results when handled at age 28 days.

  13. Dry matter content and fruit size affect flavour and texture of novel Actinidia deliciosa genotypes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardozza, Simona; Gamble, Joanna; Axten, Lauren G; Wohlers, Mark W; Clearwater, Michael J; Feng, Jinquan; Harker, F Roger

    2011-03-15

    Previous studies with commercial kiwifruit cultivars have demonstrated that the taste of fruit with higher dry matter content (DM) is more liked by consumers. A unique replicated trial of kiwifruit genotypes (10 high/low DM × small/large-fruited genotypes) has provided an opportunity to consider how the genetic propensity for a kiwifruit to accumulate DM affects fruit flavour and texture. In the present study, eating-ripe fruit from each of the genotypes were assessed using a trained sensory panel and the relationships between these sensory attributes and fresh weight, DM, flesh firmness and soluble solids content (SSC) were explored. The genotypes provided a diversity of flavour and texture attributes, each of which varied in perceived intensity of the sensory experience. High-DM genotypes had higher SSC and were perceived as sweeter than low-DM genotypes. Sweet taste was closely associated with the perception of the tropical flavour and high-DM genotypes were found to have more tropical notes. Fruit size was associated with fruit texture, and small fruit were characterised by a firmer and more fibrous core. Large high-DM fruit were perceived as juicier than those of all other genotypes. Genotypes were perceived differently from one another, and differences in fruit size and DM content were reflected in fruit sensorial properties. This study is unique in demonstrating interactions between fruit size, DM and sensory properties. These findings could be relevant not only to kiwifruit but to fruiting crop breeders in general, because of the demonstrated potential for effects of fruit size and DM content on sweetness, flavour and fruit texture. Copyright © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Dry Matter Losses and Greenhouse Gas Emissions From Outside Storage of Short Rotation Coppice Willow Chip.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    This study examined the dry matter losses and the greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations within two short rotation coppice (SRC) willow wood chip storage heaps. One heap was built on a grassland area (East Midlands) and the other (Rothamsted) on a concrete hard standing. A series of 1- and 3-m probes were embedded in the heaps in order to retrieve gas samples for analysis, and pre-weighed net bags were positioned in the core of the heap to detect dry matter losses. The bagged samples showed dry matter losses of 18 and 19 % in the East Midlands and Rothamsted heaps after 210 and 97 days storage, respectively. The Rothamsted heap showed a whole-heap dry matter loss of 21 %. During this time, the wood chips dried from 54 to 39 % moisture content in the East Midlands heap and 50 to 43 % at Rothamsted. The results from analysing the whole Rothamsted heap indicated an overall loss of 1.5 GJ per tonne stored, although measurements from bagged samples in the core suggested that the chips dried sufficiently to have a minimal energy loss from storage. The process of mixing the heap, however, led to incorporation of wet outer layers and hence the average moisture content was higher in an average sample of chip. After establishment of the heaps, the temperature rose rapidly and this correlated with a peak in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) concentration within the heap. A peak in methane (CH 4 ) concentration was also detected in both heaps, though more noticeably in the East Midlands heap after around 55 days. In both instances, the peak CH 4 concentration occurred as CO 2 concentrations dropped, suggesting that after an active period of aerobic decomposition in the first 2 months of storage, the conditions in the heap became anaerobic. The results from this study suggest that outside wood chip storage is not an efficient method of storing biomass, though this may be location-specific as there are some studies showing lower dry matter losses. It is necessary to explore other

  15. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nwachukwu, E C; Mbanaso, E N.A.; Ene, L S.O. [Plant Breeding Div., National Root Crops Research Inst., Umudike, Umuahia (Nigeria)

    1997-07-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV{sub 2} propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs.

  16. Improvement of cassava for high dry matter, starch and low cyanogenic glucoside content by mutation induction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nwachukwu, E.C.; Mbanaso, E.N.A.; Ene, L.S.O.

    1997-01-01

    Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food in Nigeria. One drawback in its use as a staple food is the presence of cyanogenic glucosides which on hydrolysis produce the very toxic hydrogen cyanide (HCN). To reduce the cyanogenic levels by mutation induction, three locally adopted and high yielding varieties of cassava, TMS 30572, NR 8817 and NR 84111 were irradiated with 20, 25 and 30 Gy gamma rays. There were a wide variation in HCN, dry matter and starch content of irradiated cassava plants, screened in the MV 2 propagation. Fourteen cassavavariant lines were selected for low HCN content, and 22 lines for high dry matter content. These will be further tested for yield in replicated field trials. (author). 7 refs, 3 tabs

  17. Comparison between grass-silages of different dry matter content fed to reindeer during winter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Nilsson

    1996-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was made of whether the dry matter content of silage influenced performance when 17-month-old male reindeer were fed solely silage outdoor during winter. Two kinds of round-baled silages with different wilting times were offered to the animals; low dry matter (LDM silage with a mean of 39% DM, or high dry matter (HDM silage with a mean of 53% DM. The 115 reindeer were allotted to slaughter at the start of the experiment in October or to be fed until slaughter in January or March. During the first three weeks of the experiment small amounts of lichens were mixed with the silages and the reindeer adapted to the feeding without problems. The daily intake of DM did not differ significantly between reindeer fed the LDM or the HDM silage despite a highly significant difference in daily silage intake. This resulted in small but significantly higher gains in live weight for animals fed the LDM silage, caused by increased weight of the rumen content. All groups of reindeer either retained or lost carcass weight during the experiment, and no improvements or differences were obtained between the kinds of silages in carcass assessment or gains in fat in the abdominal cavity. Animals slaughtered in January had a lower carcass weight and dressing percentage than reindeer slaughtered in October and March. Environmental conditions during the experiment were good but nonetheless mobbing and illness still occurred. The present results concur with those of earlier studies suggesting that it seems to be the bulk of the ration rather than the dry matter content of the silage that limits the intake.

  18. Effects of phosphorus and sulphur on dry matter yield of maize ( Zea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A screen-house experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of phosphorus (P) and sulphur (S) on maize dry-matter yield (MDY) in soils of five locations (Obantoko I, II, Alabata I, II, and III) in Abeokuta, Ogun State of Nigeria. Three levels of sulphur (0, 10 and 20 kg S ha–1) and phosphorus (0, 30 and 45 kg P ha–1) ...

  19. Effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of mosaic virus diseases on dry matter content and starch yield of five local accessions of cassava, “Ankrah”, “AW/17, “Tomfa”, “Dagarti” and “Tuaka” was evaluated. Tomfa showed the highest (95%) incidence of the disease, index of severity of symptoms for all plants (ISSAP) of 3.70, as well as, for diseased plants ...

  20. Relationship between incident radiation, leaf area and dry-matter yield in wheat

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saini, A.D.; Nanda, R.

    1986-01-01

    Light-utilization efficiency was evaluated between 20 and 50 days of crop growth period in 'Kalyansona', 'Sonalika' (semi-dwarf), 'Hindi 62' (tall) varieties of bread-wheat (Triticum aestivum Linn. emend., Fiori and Paol.) and semi-dwarf 'HD 4502' variety of macaroni wheat (T. durum Desf.). In the first model, the relationship between absorbed photosynthetic radiation and crop growth rates showed above-ground dry matter of 2.9 g in 'Sonalika', 2.5 g each in 'Kalyansona' and 'HD 4502' and 1.8 g in 'Hindi 62' were produced for each megajoule of absorbed photosynthetic radiation corresponding to the growth efficiency of 5.1, 4.4 and 3.1% respectively. In the second model of partial regression analysis, the rate of change in dry matter due to mean green area index as well as photosynthetic radiation was low in 'Hindi 62'. However, the dry matter changes due to mean green area index were similar in 'Kalyansona', 'HD4502' and 'Sonalika', but was high due to photosynthetic radiation in 'Sonalika' only. Both models gave similar conclusion

  1. Performance, dry matter digestibility and feeding behavior of Holstein steers fed different diets in confinement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikael Neumann

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the performance, apparent digestibility of dry matter and feeding behavior of Dutch steers fed different diets in feedlot. Were used 36 Holstein calves, from the same herd, with an average of 192 days and an average body weight of 221kg age. The experimental diets consisted of: T1: 100% concentrate diet; T2: 55% concentrate diet + corn silage; and T3: 55% concentrate diet + oat hay, and six replicates, where each replicate was a stall with two animals. Was no significant difference between treatments, and the treatment consists of the 100% concentrate diet had higher performance results with an average daily gain of 1.350 kg day-1; and feed conversion of 5.28 dry matter intake of 6.84. We evaluated also the 100% diet also influenced the feeding behavior, and the time for rumination, food consumption and water intake are respectively 2.75; 1.14; 0.15 hours day-1. The digestibility of dry matter was also a significant difference to the diet 100%, and this was around 76.37%. The diet showed 100% concentrate in terms of performance, an interesting alternative for termination of Holstein steers.

  2. Effect of Plant Growth Regulators on Leaf Number, Leaf Area and Leaf Dry Matter in Grape

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ahmad BHAT

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Influence of phenylureas (CPPU and brassinosteriod (BR along with GA (gibberellic acid were studied on seedless grape vegetative characteristics like leaf number, leaf area and leaf dry matter. Growth regulators were sprayed on the vines either once (7 days after fruit set or 15 days after fruit set or twice (7+15 days after fruit set. CPPU 2 ppm+BR 0.4 ppm+GA 25 ppm produced maximum number of leaves (18.78 while as untreated vines produced least leaf number (16.22 per shoot. Maximum leaf area (129.70 cm2 and dry matter content (26.51% was obtained with higher CPPU (3 ppm and BR (0.4 ppm combination along with GA 25 ppm. Plant growth regulators whether naturally derived or synthetic are used to improve the productivity and quality of grapes. The relatively high value of grapes justifies more expensive inputs. A relatively small improvement in yield or fruit quality can justify the field application of a very costly product. Application of new generation growth regulators like brassinosteroids and phenylureas like CPPU have been reported to increase the leaf number as well as leaf area and dry matter thereby indirectly influencing the fruit yield and quality in grapes.

  3. Locational variation in green fodder yield, dry matter yield, and forage quality of sorghum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hussain, A.; Khan, S.; Mohammad, D.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was designed to find out the variations in for- age yield and quality of sorghum as affected by different environments. The three agroecological zones viz., Agricultural Research Institute (ARI), Sariab, Quetta, Ayub Agricultural Research Institute (AARI), Faisalabad and National Agricultural Research Centre (NARC), Islamabad were selected on the basis of different physiography, geology, temperature, and climate and water availability. Crude protein contents, varied from 6.98 to 8.02 percent, crude fibre contents from 30.84 to 31.68 percent, green fodder yield from 38.91 to 50.64 t/ha and dry matter yield from 8.92 to 10.17 t/ha at the three diverse locations. Maximum crude protein and crude fibre contents were obtained at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. Maximum green fodder and dry matter yields were also observed at NARC, Islamabad and AARI, Faisalabad. It was also noted that the same genotypes showed differential response when planted under the diverse environments for green fodder yield, dry matter yield, crude protein and crude fibre contents. Therefore, it was concluded that these differences in forage yield and quality traits under diverse environments were due to differences in soil types, soil fertility, temperature, rain- fall and other climatic conditions. (author)

  4. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  5. Investigation the Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Sweet Basil (Ocimum basilicum L., Borage (Borago officinalis L. and Cover Crops in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zeinab shirzadi margavi

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Distribution of leaf area and dry matter are the effective factors that influence on absorption the radiation, evaporation and transpiration of canopy and eventually dry matter accumulation and grain yield in plants. Plant canopy is the spatial arrangement of shoots in a plant population. In plant canopy, leaves are responsible for radiation absorption and gas exchange with the outside. Stem and branches arrange photosynthetic organs somehow, which gas exchange and light distribution best done. The effect of canopy structure on gas exchange and absorption of radiation in plant communities caused detailed study of the canopy structure to be more important. Materials and methods In order to investigate the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of borage and sweet basil in competition with weeds by cover crops treatments, a field experiment was carried out in a randomized complete block design with 8 treatments and 3 replications in Agricultural Sciences and Natural Resources University of Sari in 2013. Treatments were cover crops mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L. in the rows between the sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L. and borage (Borago officinalis L.. Moreover, in order to evaluate the effectiveness of cover crops to control weeds, pure stand of sweet basil and borage in terms of weeding and no weed controls per replicates were used. Each plot was included 5 rows of medicinal plants. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Estimation of leaf area and dry matter of each plant in different canopy layers (0-20, 20-40, 40-60, 80.100, 100-120 and 120-140 cm were done after 75 planting days, with 1 m × 1 m quadrate per plot. For this purpose a vertical card board frame marked in 20-cm increments was used in the field as a guide to cut standing plants (crops, cover crops and weeds into 20-cm strata increments (Mosier & Oliver, 1995. All samples were transferred to the

  6. Determination of critical nitrogen dilution curve based on stem dry matter in rice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Tahir Ata-Ul-Karim

    Full Text Available Plant analysis is a very promising diagnostic tool for assessment of crop nitrogen (N requirements in perspectives of cost effective and environment friendly agriculture. Diagnosing N nutritional status of rice crop through plant analysis will give insights into optimizing N requirements of future crops. The present study was aimed to develop a new methodology for determining the critical nitrogen (Nc dilution curve based on stem dry matter (SDM and to assess its suitability to estimate the level of N nutrition for rice (Oryza sativa L. in east China. Three field experiments with varied N rates (0-360 kg N ha(-1 using three Japonica rice hybrids, Lingxiangyou-18, Wuxiangjing-14 and Wuyunjing were conducted in Jiangsu province of east China. SDM and stem N concentration (SNC were determined during vegetative stage for growth analysis. A Nc dilution curve based on SDM was described by the equation (Nc = 2.17W(-0.27 with W being SDM in t ha(-1, when SDM ranged from 0.88 to 7.94 t ha(-1. However, for SDM < 0.88 t ha(-1, the constant critical value Nc = 1.76% SDM was applied. The curve was dually validated for N-limiting and non-N-limiting growth conditions. The N nutrition index (NNI and accumulated N deficit (Nand of stem ranged from 0.57 to 1.06 and 51.1 to -7.07 kg N ha(-1, respectively, during key growth stages under varied N rates in 2010 and 2011. The values of ΔN derived from either NNI or Nand could be used as references for N dressing management during rice growth. Our results demonstrated that the present curve well differentiated the conditions of limiting and non-limiting N nutrition in rice crop. The SDM based Nc dilution curve can be adopted as an alternate and novel approach for evaluating plant N status to support N fertilization decision during the vegetative growth of Japonica rice in east China.

  7. Ecogeomorphology of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes: Soil organic matter accumulation, marsh elevation dynamics, and disturbance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cahoon, D.R.; Ford, M.A.; Hensel, P.F.; Fagherazzi, Sergio; Marani, Marco; Blum, Linda K.

    2004-01-01

    Marsh soil development and vertical accretion in Spartina patens (Aiton) Muhl.-dominated tidal marshes is largely dependent on soil organic matter accumulation from root-rhizome production and litter deposition. Yet there are few quantitative data sets on belowground production and the relationship between soil organic matter accumulation and soil elevation dynamics for this marsh type. Spartina patens marshes are subject to numerous stressors, including sea-level rise, water level manipulations (i.e., flooding and draining) by impoundments, and prescribed burning. These stressors could influence long-term marsh sustainability by their effect on root production, soil organic matter accumulation, and soil elevation dynamics. In this review, we summarize current knowledge on the interactions among vegetative production, soil organic matter accumulation and marsh elevation dynamics, or the ecogeomorphology, of Spartina patens-dominated tidal marshes. Additional studies are needed of belowground production/decomposition and soil elevation change (measured simultaneously) to better understand the links among soil organic matter accumulation, soil elevation change, and disturbance in this marsh type. From a management perspective, we need to better understand the impacts of disturbance stressors, both lethal and sub-lethal, and the interactive effect of multiple stressors on soil elevation dynamics in order to develop better management practices to safeguard marsh sustainability as sea level rises.

  8. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays)

    OpenAIRE

    Wagner dos Reis; Ciniro Costa; Paulo Roberto de Lima Meirelles; Marina Gabriela Berchiol da Silva; Marco Aurélio Factori; Janaína Conte Hadlich; Kátia de Oliveira; Erikelly Aline Ribeiro de Santana; Cristiano Magalhães Pariz; Josineudson Augusto II de Vasconcelos Silva

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM) and crude protein (CP) degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter) of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms ...

  9. Accumulation of three different sizes of particulate matter on plant leaf surfaces: Effect on leaf traits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaoping

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Plants not only improve air quality by adsorbing particulate matter (PM on leaf surfaces but can also be affected by their accumulation. In this study, a field investigation was performed in Wuhan, China, into the relationship between seven leaf traits and the accumulation of three different sizes of PM (PM11, PM2.5 and PM0.2 on leaves. The retention abilities of plant leaves with respect to the three sizes of PM differed significantly at different sites and species. The average PM retention capabilities of plant leaves and specific leaf area (SLA were significantly greater in a seriously polluted area, whereas the average values of chlorophyll a (Chl a, chlorophyll b (Chl b, total chlorophyll, carotenoid, pH and relative water content (RWC were greater at the control site. SLA significantly positively correlated with the size of PM, but Chl a, Chl b, total chlorophyll, RWC significantly negatively correlated with the size of PM, whereas the pH did not correlate significantly with the the PM fractions. Additionally, SLA was found to be affected by large particles (PM11, p<0.01; PM2.5 had a more obvious effect on plant leaf traits than the other PM (p<0.05. Overall, the findings from this study provide useful information regarding the selection of plants to reduce atmospheric pollution.

  10. Accumulation of {sup 241}Am by suspended matter, diatoms and aquatic weeds of the Yenisei River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zotina, T.A., E-mail: t_zotina@ibp.r [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation); Bolsunovsky, A.Ya.; Bondareva, L.G. [Institute of Biophysics SB RAS, Akademgorodok, Krasnoyarsk 660036 (Russian Federation)

    2010-02-15

    In this work we experimentally estimated the capacities of the key components of the Yenisei River (Russia): particulate suspended matter (seston), diatom microalgae, and submerged macrophytes for accumulating {sup 241}Am from water. In our experiments large particles of seston (>8 mum), comparable in size with diatoms, took up most of americium from water. The accumulation of americium by isolated diatom algae (Asterionella formosa and Diatoma vulgare) was lower than by total seston. The concentration factors (CFs) of {sup 241}Am for seston of the Yenisei River in our experiments were (2.8-6.9).10{sup 5}; for diatoms - (1.5-4.2).10{sup 4}. The CFs for aquatic plant Elodea canadensis were within the same order of magnitude as those for diatoms. Activity concentration and CFs of {sup 241}Am were nearly the same in experiments under dark and light conditions. This is indicative of an energy independent mechanism of americium uptake from the water by diatoms and submerged macrophytes.

  11. De-coupling seasonal changes in water content and dry matter to predict live conifer foliar moisture content

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. Matt Jolly; Ann M. Hadlow; Kathleen Huguet

    2014-01-01

    Live foliar moisture content (LFMC) significantly influences wildland fire behaviour. However, characterising variations in LFMC is difficult because both foliar mass and dry mass can change throughout the season. Here we quantify the seasonal changes in both plant water status and dry matter partitioning. We collected new and old foliar samples from Pinus contorta for...

  12. Bromatological composition and dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars subjected to nitrogen doses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W.H.D. Buso

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The bromatological composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility of millet cultivars were assessed for different nitrogen doses and two sowing seasons in the Ceres municipality of Goiás state, Brazil. The treatments consisted of three millet cultivars (ADR-7010, ADR-500 and BRS-1501, four nitrogen (N doses (0, 50, 100 and 200kg ha-1 of N and two sowing seasons. Three replicates and a randomised block design with a 3 x 4 x 2 factorial scheme were used. Two cuttings were performed in each season when plants reached an average height of 0.70 cm. No significant interactions were observed between or among cultivars for N doses and dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fibre (NDF and acid detergent fibre (ADF contents. The DM, CP, NDF and ADF contents were significantly different between N doses. The DM and CP contents increased as the N dose increased to 100kg ha-1. The maximum DM and CP contents were 11.14 and 22.53%, respectively. The NDF and ADF contents were higher in the control treatment (60.11 and 30.01%, respectively. In addition, the lowest ADF and NDF concentrations occurred at an N dose of 50kg ha-1 (56.33 and 30.23%, respectively. The DM contents were higher for the February sowing, with an average of 10.59%. The highest CP and ADF contents were found for the December sowing (22.46 and 31.58%, respectively. No significant differences were found for millet cultivars, N doses or sowing seasons. A significant interaction was found between sowing season and millet cultivar. The BRS-1501 cultivar had a higher in vitro dry matter digestibility in the December/2010 sowing (73.88%.

  13. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  14. Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. under different soil moisture levels near Nairobi, Kenya

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muniafu, M.M.; Macharia, J.N.M.; Stigter, C.J.; Coulson, G.L.

    1999-01-01

    Leaf area development, dry weight accumulation and solar energy conversion efficiencies of Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv GLP-2 under two soil moisture levels in two contrasting seasons near Nairobi, Kenya were investigated. The experiment confirms that dry weights and yields of Phaseolus vulgaris are

  15. Accumulation and evolution of tocopherols in dry-cured hams from Iberian pigs as affected by their feeding and rearing system

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rey, A I; Lopez-Bote, C J; Daza, A

    2010-01-01

    The influence of feeding and rearing systems on the accumulation and evolution of α- and γ-tocopherols in relation to storage time in dry-cured ham slices and pieces was investigated. The accumulation of γ-tocopherol in Musculus Biceps femoris or fat of cured hams was lower in groups fed acorns i...

  16. Above-ground dry matter accumulation by Eucalyptus grandis and its relation to standard meteorological data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Byrne, G.F.

    1989-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of increase of biomass in some stands of Eucalyptus grandis, growing near Coffs Harbour, N.S.W., Australia, is explored in terms of estimated evapotranspiration and radiation interception, and related to a similar previous study of Pinus radiata. A possible role of method of planting, site slope and site aspect in biomass increase is also discussed

  17. Effect of Cover Crops on Vertical Distribution of Leaf Area and Dry Matter of Soybean (Glycine max L. in Competition with Weeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    seyyedeh samaneh hashemi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Amount and vertical distribution of leaf area are essential for estimating interception and utilization of solar radiation of crop canopies and, consequently dry matter accumulation (Valentinuz & Tollenaar, 2006. Vertical distribution of leaf area is leaf areas per horizontal layers, based on height (Boedhram et al., 2001. Above-ground biomass is one of the central traits in functional plant ecology and growth analysis. It is a key parameter in many allometric relationships (Niklas & Enquist, 2002. The vertical biomass distribution is considered to be the main determinant of competitive strength in plant species. The presence of weeds intensifies competition for light, with the effect being determined by plant height, position of the branches, and location of the maximum leaf area. So, this experiment was conducted to study the vertical distribution of leaf area and dry matter of soybean canopy in competition with weeds and cover crops. Materials and methods This experiment was performed based on complete randomized block design with 3 replications in center of Agriculture of Joybar in 2013. Soybean was considered as main crop and soybean and Persian clover (Trifolium resupinatum L., fenugreek (Trigonella foenum–graecum L., chickling pea (Lathyrus sativus L. and winter vetch (Vicia sativa L. were the cover crops. Treatments were included cover crops (Persian clover, fenugreek, chickling pea and winter vetch and cover crop planting times (simultaneous planting of soybean with cover crops and planting cover crops three weeks after planting of soybeans and also monoculture of soybeans both in weedy and weed free conditions were considered as controls. Soybean planted in 50 cm row spacing with 5 cm between plants in the same row. Each plot was included 5 rows soybeans. Cover crop inter-seeded simultaneously in the main crop. Crops were planted on 19 May 2013 for simultaneous planting of soybean. The dominant weed species were green

  18. Determination of the minimum dry matter index for the optimum harvest of 'Hass' avocado fruits in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catarina Pedro Carvalho

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Colombia has become an important producer of 'Hass' avocado in the last three years; however, a minimum dry matter content has not been established as a maturity index for harvest. The aim of this study was to determine the correlation between oil percentage and dry matter content in order to establish a minimum harvest index for 'Hass' avocado fruits grown in Colombia. Samples were collected for maturity determinations over three years of 'Hass' avocado fruit cultivation from fifteen different orchards in the department of Antioquia in order to determine the dry matter and oil percentage of fruits throughout the season. A simple linear relationship between oil content and dry matter was thus established. The equations for all of the studied orchards presented a good correlation coefficient, ranging between 0.70 on the Cartucho orchard in the municipality of Retiro and 0.99 on the Gacamayas and Paraiso orchards in the municipality of Entrerrios and Retiro. Using the minimal oil standard of 11.2% as a reference, the orchards that were found to have a high dry matter percentage at harvest were Cartucho in Retiro (26%, followed by Piedras Blancas and Santa Cruz in the municipality of Venecia (25%; while the 'Hass' avocado fruit from the Cebadero orchard in Retiro, Coconi in the municipality of La Ceja and Guacamayas in Entrerrios reached this oil standard at 22% dry matter, which could be a commercial advantage. Based on these oil content results, a minimal dry matter index of 23.5% was proposed as a harvest maturity indicator for 'Hass' avocado grown in Colombia. This harvesting index will need to be refined over time and with the addition of samples from more regions and climatic data profiles.

  19. RUMINAL DRY MATTER DEGRADABILITY OF HIGH CONCENTRATE DIETS WITH INCREASING LEVELS OF CALCIUM SOAPS OF TALLOW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaime Salinas-Chavira

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study measured the in situ digestibility and ruminal degradability of dry matter of rations with different levels of calcium soaps of tallow (CST. The samples of the four rations with CST at levels of 0% (T1, 1.5% (T2, 3.0% (T3 or 4.5% (T4 were incubated in the rumen of a fistulated yearling steer. The nylon bag technique was used to determine the in situ digestibility and ruminal dry matter degradability. A completely randomized design was used, with 4 treatment diets and 4 repetitions. Rapidly-soluble fraction (a or in situ digestibility of DM at 0 h of incubation was higher in T1 than T3 (P0.05. Potential (a+b degradability was similar (P>0.05 between treatments. Effective degradation modeled at low ruminal turnover (1%/h was lower in T4 than T1 (P0.05. In conclusion, CST in the ration influenced ruminal fermentation during the first hours of incubation. However, effective degradability at medium and high ruminal turnover was not affected by CST level in diets.

  20. Dry matter production of perennial pasture Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different doses of fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karlize Prigol

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Dairy farming is an activity that provides the small rural farmer the opportunity to earn income in small areas of land. The perennial pastures represent a source for a cheap and nutritious diet for the animals. The correct management of perennial pastures can be the key to sustainability in the dairy business, resulting in the preservation or recovery of the balance of a pasture system, starting with the pursuit of production with low costs and good pasture production per unit area. The correct choice of fertilizer is of great importance to ensure the continuous production of pasture both in quantity and in quality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the dry matter production of perennial pasture consisting of Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp under different nutrient sources on a typical dystrophic Red Latosol, presents in a region where the climate is characterized as humid-mesothermic with a hot summer, Cfa according to Köppen, with an average annual rainfall of 2039 mm, well distributed throughout the year and average annual temperatures around 18 º C, varying monthly from 14.1 to 23 º C. The treatments consisted of three nutrient sources: 1 organic manure, a base of chicken bedding (average values of reference NPK (02/03/02, 2 organic manure + mineral - organic mineral, with application of 606 kg ha-1 (04/10/10 Formula, aiming to adjust the same amounts of NPK supplied by mineral fertilizer and, 3 Mineral. The experimental design was a randomized blocks with nine replications. We collected five samples of each pasture treatment for determination of the average. After cutting the pasture of Tifton 85, the samples were subjected to weighing for determination of wet weight and then taken to the drying oven (temperature 65 ° C for 72 hours to determine dry matter production. The statistical analysis was performed with SAS for Windows computer system (SAS and the results submitted to the Tukey test at 5%. The highest dry matter yield (kg ha-1 was

  1. Preliminary Results of Clover and Grass Coverage and Total Dry Matter Estimation in Clover-Grass Crops Using Image Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anders K. Mortensen

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The clover-grass ratio is an important factor in composing feed ratios for livestock. Cameras in the field allow the user to estimate the clover-grass ratio using image analysis; however, current methods assume the total dry matter is known. This paper presents the preliminary results of an image analysis method for non-destructively estimating the total dry matter of clover-grass. The presented method includes three steps: (1 classification of image illumination using a histogram of the difference in excess green and excess red; (2 segmentation of clover and grass using edge detection and morphology; and (3 estimation of total dry matter using grass coverage derived from the segmentation and climate parameters. The method was developed and evaluated on images captured in a clover-grass plot experiment during the spring growing season. The preliminary results are promising and show a high correlation between the image-based total dry matter estimate and the harvested dry matter ( R 2 = 0.93 with an RMSE of 210 kg ha − 1 .

  2. Assimilation and Translocation of Dry Matter and Phosphorus in Rice Genotypes Affected by Salt-Alkaline Stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhijie Tian

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Salt-alkaline stress generally leads to soil compaction and fertility decline. It also restricts rice growth and phosphorus acquisition. In this pot experiment, two relatively salt-alkaline tolerant (Dongdao-4 and Changbai-9 and sensitive (Changbai-25 and Tongyu-315 rice genotypes were planted in sandy (control and salt-alkaline soil to evaluate the characteristics of dry matter and phosphorus assimilation and translocation in rice. The results showed that dry matter and phosphorus assimilation in rice greatly decreased under salt-alkaline stress as the plants grew. The translocation and contribution of dry matter and phosphorus to the grains also increased markedly; different performances were observed between genotypes under salt-alkaline stress. D4 and C9 showed higher dry matter translocation, translocation efficiency and contribution of dry matter assimilation to panicles than those of C25 and T315. These changes in D4 and C9 indexes occurred at low levels of salt-alkaline treatment. Higher phosphorus acquisition efficiency of D4 and C9 were also found under salt-alkaline conditions. Additionally, the phosphorus translocation significantly decreased in C25 and T315 in the stress treatment. In conclusion, the results indicated that salt-alkaline-tolerant rice genotypes may have stronger abilities to assimilate and transfer biomass and phosphorus than sensitive genotypes, especially in salt-alkaline conditions.

  3. Dewatering treatments to increase dry matter content of the brown seaweed, kelp (Laminaria digitata ((Hudson) JV Lamouroux)).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallagher, Joe A; Turner, Lesley B; Adams, Jessica M M; Dyer, Philip W; Theodorou, Michael K

    2017-01-01

    Macroalgal water content is an on-going problem for the use of readily accessible seaweeds in sustainable biorefining, including fuel production. Silage is a reduced-water, compactable, easily stored, transportable material. Ensiling could establish a non-seasonal supply of preserved algal biomass, but requires high initial dry matter content to mitigate environmental pollution risks from effluent. This study investigated potential dewatering methods for kelp harvested throughout the year. Treatments included air-drying, osmotic media and acids. Significant interactions between treatment and harvest-time were observed for traits of interest. Fresh weight loss during treatment was composed of changes in water and dry matter content. Air-drying gave reliable increase in final dry matter content; in summer and autumn 30% dry matter content was reached after 24h. Dilute hydrochloric acid reduced stickiness and rendered material suitable for dewatering by screw-pressing; it may be possible to use the consequent pH reduction to promote efficient preservation. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Predicting pear (cv. Clara Frijs) dry matter and soluble solids content with near infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Travers, Sylvia; Bertelsen, Marianne; Petersen, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Regression models for predicting preharvest dry matter (DM) and soluble solids content (SSC), based on two spectral ranges (680-1000 nm and 1100-2350 nm), were compared. Models based on longer NIR spectra were more successful for both parameters (DM/SSC: R2 = 0.78-0.84; RMECV = 0.78/0.44; LVs = 6....../7). SSC prediction was better than expected considering the presence of starch in fruit. Generally poor SSC prediction in the presence of starch could be related to the inability of models to distinguish between forms of carbohydrate. Variable selection and regression coefficients highlighted...... fruit. Further research is needed to qualify and build on the results presented here....

  5. Early phosphorus nutrition, mycorrhizae development, dry matter partitioning and yield of maize

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gavito, M.E.; Miller, M.H.

    1998-01-01

    to a mycorrhizal mycelium network (no-tillage treatments). Maize yield and harvest index were lower after cropping With canola. The yield for conventional tillage was higher than that for no-tillage but the harvest index was lower. The hypothesis was supported at early stages of maize growth by the effect...... was used with previous crop (Zea mays L.-maize and Brassica napus L.-canola), tillage practices (no-tillage or conventional tillage) and P fertilization (5 levels) as factors chosen to modify mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages of maize. Previous cropping with canola resulted in decreased......We conducted a field experiment to test the hypothesis that improved phosphorus nutrition occurs in maize plants with rapid arbuscular (AM) mycorrhizae development at early developmental stages and that this also is reflected in dry matter allocation and final yield. A split-split plot design...

  6. Dry matter production and chemical composition of Massai grass submitted to nitrogen rates and cutting heights

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giselle Abadia Campos Pereira

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out in a greenhouse with a 4X4 factorial arrangement randomized block design in order to evaluate the effects of nitrogen rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 mg dm-3 associated with cutting heights (10, 15, 20 and 25 cm on dry matter production and the chemical composition of Massai grass. The seeding was done in pots with 11 kg of soil. 10 plants were kept per pot, and there were two cuts every 35 days. Nitrogen fertilization was split between the two cuts, where the first N application occurred after the uniformity cut and the second after the first cut. In each cut the plants were separated and weighed for botanical component evaluation: leaf blade and stem + sheath. After this, the samples were homogenized and analysed for dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP and neutral detergent fibre (NDF content. In the first cut, the N fertilization caused a linear increase in DM production of 0.058 g pot-1 per each 1 mg dm-3 of N applied, as well as causing an increase of 0.549% in CP percentage, a 0.0124 pot-1 g increase in CP production and a reduction of 0.055% in NDF. In the second cut, N rates promoted a quadratic effect on DM production. A maximum DM production of 16.48 g pot-1 with 107.27 mg dm-3 of N was observed while CP production content was increased by 0.0092 g pot-1 for each 1 mg dm-3 N applied. In terms of linear responses to DM and PB, as well as the use efficiency calculated for Massai grass, recommended N doses range between 50 and 100 g dm-3.

  7. Digestive physiology of captive giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla): determinants of faecal dry matter content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gull, J M; Stahl, M; Osmann, C; Ortmann, S; Kreuzer, M; Hatt, J-M; Clauss, M

    2015-06-01

    Giant anteaters (Myrmecophaga tridactyla) are specialized insectivores and consume mainly ants and termites in the wild. In captivity, giant anteaters are either fed a complete diet, or a combination of a domestic carnivore diet with leaf eater pellets, or a traditional gruel-type diet. Soft faeces are a frequently encountered problem with this type of feeding. In the present study, we analysed diet and faeces composition, calculated digestibility and measured mean retention time on various diets in eight giant anteaters (total of n = 64 experiments). The results suggest that the digestive physiology of giant anteaters is similar to that of domestic dogs and cats in terms of nutrient digestibility and digesta retention. When testing correlations between faecal dry matter content and other variables, no relationship with dietary crude fibre content or mean digesta retention time could be detected. However, acid insoluble ash intake was significantly and positively correlated with faecal dry matter content. The amount of acid insoluble ash excreted with the faeces was higher than that ingested with the diet offered, indicating that the giant anteaters ingested soil from their enclosure of up to 93 g per day. This finding is consistent with observation of faeces of wild giant anteaters that contain soil or sand most likely due to indiscriminate feeding. It also corresponds to reports that indigestible materials such as peat, soil, chitin or cellulose contribute to a firmer faecal consistency in various carnivore species. Therefore, offering giant anteaters the opportunity to voluntarily ingest soil from their enclosure might be beneficial. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Dry matter intake, performance and carcass characteristics of hair sheep reared under different grazing systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Viviane Rodrigues Ventolin dos Santos

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of three different grazing systems: isolated, alternate and simultaneous, on feed intake, performance and carcass characteristics of sheep. About 5.2 ha area of Tanzania grass (Panicum maximun Jacq cultivate Tanzania was divided into 13 paddocks. This area was used as a stocking rate of two animal units (AU per ha for 7 days’ occupation and 21 days rest. A total number of 58 animals were used consisting of 12 heifers and 30 Santa Ines lambs with the addition of 16 adult ewes that were used to stabilize grazing pressure in the isolated system. The sheep were fed on 200 g per head per day of concentrate and cattle 2 kg per head per day. The parameters determined were the following: weekly weight (WW, total live weight gain (LWG and mean daily weight gain (MDW. Also dry matter intake was estimated 84 days after the start of the experiment using external indicators (Purified and Enriched Lignin in addition to carcass traits and composition which were also estimated. The result obtained for carcass composition revealed that the muscle:bone ratio and bone percentage were better in the alternate system. Moreover, the simultaneous and isolated systems showed higher lamb performance than the alternate system, while there was no effect on dry matter intake. Furthermore, there was no difference of the different systems on carcass traits and feed intake of sheep. Nevertheless, the simultaneous grazing system showed better sheep performance than the alternate grazing system.

  9. Organic Carbon Accumulation in Topsoil Following Afforestation with Willow: Emphasis on Leaf Litter Decomposition and Soil Organic Matter Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benoit Lafleur

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Short-rotation intensive cultures (SRICs of willows can potentially sequester carbon (C in soil. However, there is limited information regarding the factors governing soil organic C (Corg accumulation following afforestation. The objectives of this study were to: (i determine whether willow leads to Corg accumulation in the topsoil (0–10 cm two to six years after establishment in five SRICs located along a large climatic/productivity gradient in southern Quebec, and (ii assess the influence of leaf litter decomposition and soil organic matter (OM quality on Corg accumulation in the topsoil. Topsoil Corg concentrations and pools under SRICs were, on average, 25% greater than reference fields, and alkyls concentrations were higher under SRICs. On an annualized basis, Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil varied between 0.4 and 4.5 Mg ha−1 yr−1. Estimated annual litterfall C fluxes were in the same order of magnitude, suggesting that SRICs can accumulate Corg in the topsoil during early years due to high growth rates. Leaf litter decomposition was also related to Corg accumulation rates in the topsoil. It was positively correlated to growing season length, degree-days, and growing season average air and topsoil temperature (r > 0.70, and negatively correlated to topsoil volumetric water content (r = −0.55. Leaf litter decomposition likely occurred more quickly than that of plants in reference fields, and as it progressed, OM became more decay resistant, more stable and accumulated as Corg in the topsoil.

  10. An enzyme complex increases in vitro dry matter digestibility of corn and wheat in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyu Ree; Park, Chan Sol; Kim, Beob Gyun

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of enzyme complex on in vitro dry matter (DM) digestibility for feed ingredients. The objective of experiment 1 was to screen feed ingredients that can be effective substrates for an enzyme complex, mainly consisted of β-pentosanase, β-glucanase and α-amylase, using in vitro digestibility methods. In experiment 1, the test ingredients were three grain sources (barley, corn and wheat) and six protein supplements (canola meal, copra expellers, cottonseed meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, palm kernel expellers and soybean meal). In vitro ileal and total tract digestibility (IVID and IVTTD, respectively) of DM for test ingredients were determined. In vitro digestibility methods consisted of two- or three-step procedure simulating in vivo digestion in the pig gastrointestinal tracts with or without enzyme complex. As the enzyme complex added, the IVID of DM for corn and wheat increased (p digestibility, corn grains were selected to determine the in vitro digestibility of the fractions (starch, germ, hull and gluten) that maximally respond to the enzyme complex in experiment 2. The IVID of DM for corn starch, germ and hull increased (p digestibility of corn and wheat, and the digestibility increments of corn are mainly attributed to the increased digestibility of corn starch.

  11. In situ degradability of dry matter and fibrous fraction of sorghum silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renê Ferreira Costa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate in situ degradability and degradation kinetics of DM, NDF and ADF of silage, with or without tannin in the grains. Two isogenic lines of grain sorghum (CMS-XS 114 with tannin and CMS-XS 165 without tannin and two sorghum hybrids (BR-700 dual purpose with tannin and BR-601 forage without tannin were ensiled; dried and ground silage samples were placed in nylon bags and introduced through the fistulas. After incubation for 6, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours, bags were taken for subsequent analysis of fibrous fractions. The experimental design was completely randomized with 4 replicates and 4 treatments and means compared by Tukey’s test at 5% probability. As for the DM degradation rate, silage of CMSXS165without tannin was superior. Silages of genotypes BR700 and CMSXS 114 with tannin showed the highest values of indigestible ADF (59.54 and 43.09%. Regarding the NDF, the potential degradation of silage of CMSXS165 line without tannin was superior. Tannin can reduce ruminal degradability of the dry matter and fibrous fractions.

  12. A mouse dry eye model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Juan; Tan, Gang; Ding, Xiaoyan; Wang, Yahong; Wu, Anhua; Yang, Qichen; Ye, Lei; Shao, Yi

    2017-12-01

    To introduce a novel dry eye mouse model induced by topical administration of the air pollutant particulate matter 10 (PM 10 ). A total of 60 male BALB/c mice were used in this study and divided into two groups: group A (PBS eye drops, n=30) and group B (PM 10 eye drop group, n=30). Each treatment was dosed four times a day, every time 50ul with the concentration of 5mg/ml PM10, for 14 consecutive days in the right eye. The clinical manifestations of dry eye were measured before therapy and 4, 7 and 14days post-treatment respectively, which included the tear volume, tear break-up (BUT) time, corneal fluorescein staining, rose bengal staining, Lissamine Green staining and inflammatory index. Eye samples were collected on D14 and examined by histologic light microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM), corneal cytokeration 10 (K10) immunnostaining, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB Western Blot analysis. At 0d, 7d and 14d, there were no statistical changes in tear volume, BUT after treatment (P>0.05) with PBS in group A. In group B, all items showed statistical differences at each time point (Plevels of K10 and reduced number of goblet cells in the conjunctival fornix in group B. PM 10 significantly increased the levels of TNF-α, NF-κB-p65 and NF-κB in the cornea. PM 10 can damage the tear film function and cause the destruction of the structural organization of ocular surface in mice. Topical administration of PM 10 in mice induces ocular surface changes that are similar to those of dry eye in humans, representing a novel model of DES. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  13. Wound healing and dry matter content of orange-fleshed sweetpotato cultivars as influenced by curing methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atuna Richard A.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Curing in sweetpotato is a crucial pre- or postharvest practice that could guarantee improved shelf life,but rarely practised by sweetpotato farmers in Sub-Saharan Africa, principally due to lack of knowledge. Wound healing ability of cultivars has been associated with good root storability. In this study, two orange fleshed sweetpotato cultivars (Apomuden and Nane were either cured in-ground by dehaulming prior to harvest or field-piled over a seven-day period to study their responses to wound healing and changes in dry matter content. Apomuden is a low dry matter content(19% variety in Ghana while Nane is a high dry matter content (27% farmer cultivar under evaluation for formal release. A potato peeler was used to deliberately create the wounds on 21 storage roots. The curing treatment was applied and the subsequent post-treatment quality status of the storage roots was monitored daily over a seven-day period. Wound healing ability was scored as follows: 0 = no lignification, 0.5 = patchy lignification and1= complete lignification. Wound healing ability score was not significantly different for Apomuden and Nane (0.83,0.78, respectively; p = 0.120. However, storage roots curedby field-piled curing method resulted in significantly better wound healing ability than dehaulming (0.86, 0.75,respectively, p = 0.001. Over the seven-day curing period,Nane had a significantly higher and stable dry mattercontent compared with Apomuden (p = 0.008, whose dry matter content was lower and fluctuating. The field-piled curing resulted in higher (p = 0.020 dry matter content,24%, compared with in-ground curing (22%. The field piled curing method, which can easily be adopted by sweetpotato farmers, increased the dry matter content of the storage roots; therefore, it could potentially reduce the post-harvest losses in sweetpotato. The high dry matter content of Nane is a desirable root quality attribute for orange-fleshed cultivars and could augment existing

  14. Accumulation of nitrogen and organic matter during primary succession of Leymus arenarius dunes on the volcanic island Surtsey, Iceland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefansdottir, G.; Aradottir, A. L.; Sigurdsson, B. D.

    2014-05-01

    The volcanic island of Surtsey has been a natural laboratory where the primary succession of flora and fauna has been monitored, since it emerged from the N-Atlantic Ocean in 1963. We quantified the accumulation rates of nitrogen (N) and soil organic matter (SOM) in a 37 year long chronosequence of Leymus arenarius dunes in order to illuminate the spatiotemporal patterns in their build-up in primary succession. The Leymus dune area, volume and height grew exponentially over time. Aboveground plant biomass, cover or number of shoots per unit area did not change significantly with time, but root biomass accumulated with time, giving a root-shoot ratio of 19. The dunes accumulated on average 6.6 kg N ha-1 year-1, which was 3.5 times more than is received annually by atmospheric deposition. The extensive root system of Leymus seems to effectively retain and accumulate large part of the annual N deposition, not only deposition directly on the dunes but also from the adjacent unvegetated areas. SOM per unit area increased exponentially with dune age, but the accumulation of roots, aboveground biomass and SOM was more strongly linked to soil N than time: 1 g m-2 increase in soil N led on the average to 6 kg C m-2 increase in biomass and SOM. The Leymus dunes, where most of the N has been accumulated, will therefore probably act as hot-spots for further primary succession of flora and fauna on the tephra sands of Surtsey.

  15. Using ground-based spectral reflectance sensors and photography to estimate shoot N concentration and dry matter of potato

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhenjiang, Zhou; Jabloun, Mohamed; Plauborg, Finn

    2018-01-01

    Two years experiments were set up to evaluate the performance of different vegetation indices (VI) to estimate shoot N concentration (Nc) and shoot dry matter (DM) for a potato crop grown under different nitrogen (N) treatments. Possibilities to improve the performance of VI using normalization b...

  16. Urinary purine derivatives as a tool to estimate dry matter intake in cattle: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objectives of this study were: 1) to investigate the relationship between dry matter intake (DMI) and urinary purine derivatives (PD) excretion in order to develop equations to predict DMI, and 2) to determine the endogenous excretion of PD for beef and dairy cattle using a meta-analytic approac...

  17. Effect of green manure crops and nitrogen fertilizer levels on dry matter remobilization efficiency in wheat (Triticum aestivum L. internodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gerami

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of nitrogen rates and green manure crops on dry matter mobilization and mobilization efficiency indices of wheat (Triticum aestivum L. a field experiment was conducted in Agricultural Faculty of Shahid Chamran University, Ahvaz during growing season of 2010-2011. The experimental design was split-plot based on randomized complete block with three replications. Main plot included four nitrogen rates (i.e. 0, 50, 100 and 150 kgN.ha-1 and sub-plot included six green manure crops containing millet (Pennisetum sp., amaranth (Amaranthus sp., sesbania (Sesbania sp., cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L., mung bean (Vigna radiata L. and fallow. This experiment was done at two stages. First, planting and turn down of green manure crops and then planting of wheat. The results showed that the maximum weight and specific weight of all stem internodes obtained from 0 to 20 days after wheat anthesis. Then, this trend decreased from 20 to 50 days after wheat anthesis due to remobilization of dry matter to grain. Mobilized dry matter was more in control (0 kg.N.h-1 than in high N application for peduncle (219 vs. 181 mg and penultimate (203 vs. 165 mg, while, was less in the lower internodes (403 vs. 407 mg. Generally, with increasing of nitrogen levels, dry matter mobilization efficiency was decreased by. So, the effect of green manure crops not limited only by soil properties, while influences the relationship between physiological sources and sink.

  18. Effects of canopy structural variables on retrieval of leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area from remotely sensed data

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ali, A.M.; Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; van Duren, I.C.

    2016-01-01

    Leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA) are two important traits in measuring biodiversity. To use remote sensing for the estimation of these traits, it is essential to understand the underlying factors that influence their relationships with canopy reflectance. The effect of

  19. Effect of defoliation frequency and height of cutting on growth, dry matter yield and nutritive value of Napier grass (Pennisetum purpureum (L.) Schumach)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tessema, Z.K.; Mihret, J.; Solomon, M.

    2010-01-01

    Growth characteristics, dry-matter (DM) yield, chemical components and in vitro dry-matter digestibility (IVDMD) of Napier grass were studied in a randomized complete block design with three replications at Haramaya University, Ethiopia. The treatments were three defoliation frequencies (60, 90 and

  20. Cadmium accumulation in zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs is modulated by dissolved organic matter (DOM)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burnison, B. Kent; Meinelt, Thomas; Playle, Richard; Pietrock, Michael; Wienke, Andreas; Steinberg, Christian E.W.

    2006-01-01

    Experiments were conducted to investigate factors influencing the accumulation of cadmium (Cd 2+ ) into zebrafish (Danio rerio) eggs. The accumulation of 109 Cd was affected by: (1) concentration, (2) time, (3) presence of dissolved organic material (DOM), (4) different origin of DOM and (5) different parts of fish eggs. Over a 5-h exposure, zebrafish eggs showed a steady increase in Cd-accumulation. DOM-concentrations over 15 ppm carbon (C) decreased Cd-uptake significantly. Both samples of DOM, brown water marsh (LM) and a eutrophic pond (SP), at 16.9 ppm C, reduced the Cd-accumulation in the chorion, perivitelline liquid and the embryo. Cd was mainly accumulated in the egg's outer shell chorion (61%) and only small amounts passed through the chorion into the perivitelline liquid (38%) and embryo (1%). In the presence of LM-DOM, the accumulation of Cd into the egg components was decreased by 43% (chorion), 52% (perivitelline liquid) and 52% (embryo), respectively, compared with the control group. Similarly, the presence of SP-DOM reduced the Cd-accumulation by 29% (chorion), 61% (perivitelline liquid) and 60% (embryo), respectively, compared with the controls. DOM-concentration should be taken into consideration when determining ecotoxicological effects of Cd on fish populations

  1. Production of volatile fatty acid in the rumen and its relationship with their concentration, intake of dry matter and digestible organic matter in buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verma, D.N.; Singh, U.B.

    1979-01-01

    The production rates of total volatile fatty acid (TVFA) in the rumen of buffalo (Bos bubalis) calves were estimated using a single injection isotope dilution technique. A series of twelve experiments were done with animals given wheat straw and concentrate mixture. The production rate of TVFA ranged from 19.77 to 24.84 moles/d depending upon the amount of food consumed by the animals. Highly significant correlations were observed between TVFA production and their concentration, dry matter and digestible organic matter intake. (auth.)

  2. Effect of pre-grazing herbage mass on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wims, C M; Delaby, L; Boland, T M; O'Donovan, M

    2014-01-01

    A grazing study was undertaken to examine the effect of maintaining three levels of pre-grazing herbage mass (HM) on dairy cow performance, grass dry matter (DM) production and output from perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) pastures. Cows were randomly assigned to one of three pre-grazing HM treatments: 1150 - Low HM (L), 1400 - Medium HM (M) or 2000 kg DM/ha - High HM (H). Herbage accumulation under grazing was lowest (Ppastures required more grass silage supplementation during the grazing season (+73 kg DM/cow) to overcome pasture deficits due to lower pasture growth rates (Ppasture intake, although cows grazing the L pastures had to graze a greater daily area (Ppasture reduces pasture DM production and at a system level may increase the requirement for imported feed.

  3. Dry matter losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in bunker silos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitte Koehler

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available An efficient feed management is important for a sustainable and economic agricultural production. One of the main points for improving the efficiency is the reduction of feed losses. In the present investigation the dry matter (DM losses of grass, lucerne and maize silages in farm scaled bunker silos were analysed. The method of determining DM losses was the total-in versus total-out DM mass flow of the silos, including the determination of DM content and other silage parameters via manual sampling. The results taken from 48 silos showed on average for all investigated crops 9–12% of DM losses. Density and feed out rate showed a negative correlation to DM losses in maize silages. According to the applied method for determining DM losses on farm scale, a guideline of 8% can be suggested for maximum DM losses in bunker silos for grass and maize silages. The described method seems to be applicable for improving the feed management by using largely automated measurements on the harvest and feeding side.

  4. Proportional relationship between intercepted solar radiation and dry matter production in a mulberry [Morus] field

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aqueel, S.A.; Ito, D.; Naoi, T.

    1999-01-01

    In order to investigate the relationship between dry matter production (DMP) and the amount of intercepted solar radiation (S), and to analyze the fluctuations in the radiation conversion efficiency (DMP/S), summer-pruned mulberry (Morus alba L.) trees under a standard planting density were subjected to a shading treatment using a cheesecloth. Then, using a non-destructive method, DMP was examined for 5 plants from each plot every 15 days from July to September. DMP was also examined for mulberry trees under a high planting density. Rates of radiation that penetrated onto the ground and beneath the cheesecloth were measured to calculate S from the incoming solar radiation. In the shading plots, DMP decreased depending on the degree of shading throughout the experimental period. Compared with the control plot, 70 and 60 % DMP were produced finally under 71 and 53 % S. Therefore, DMP was considered to be almost proportional to S even in a broad-leaf population like mulberry. Radiation conversion efficiency gradually decreased with growth regardless of the planting density. At the late growth stage, radiation conversion efficiency was lower in the densely planted field than in the standard density field

  5. Silage review: Factors affecting dry matter and quality losses in silages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borreani, G; Tabacco, E; Schmidt, R J; Holmes, B J; Muck, R E

    2018-05-01

    An overview was made of dry matter (DM) and quality losses that occur during the ensiling process from the field through the feeding phase. The aim was to review the relevant published literature of the last 15 yr focusing on developments achieved after the publication of the book Silage Science and Technology. This review discusses the factors affecting DM and quality losses in terms of field and pre-ensiling conditions, respiration and temperature at ensiling, fermentation patterns, methods of covering and weighting the silage cover, and management of aerobic deterioration. The possibility of reducing DM and quality losses during the ensiling process requires knowledge of how to measure losses on farm and establish the status of the silage during the feed-out phase, implementing the most effective management practices to avoid air exposure during conservation and reduce silage aerobic deterioration during feeding. The paper concludes with future perspectives and recommended management practices to reduce losses and increase efficiency over the whole ensiling process in view of increasing sustainability of the livestock production chain. The Authors. Published by FASS Inc. and Elsevier Inc. on behalf of the American Dairy Science Association®. This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/).

  6. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  7. Dry matter yield and nitrogen-15 uptake by tomatoes under sodium chloride stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pessarakli, M.; Tucker, T.C.

    1988-01-01

    An absorption study was conducted in nutrient solution with seedlings of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill; cv. Columbia) to observe the effects of NaCl on ( 15 N) uptake and distribution in plant roots and shoots. The 14-d-old seedlings were grown for 16 d in complete Hoagland solution no. 1, then salinized (except the controls, -0.03 MPa) to -0.3, -0.6, and -0.9 MPa osmotic potentials with NaCl. Nutrient solutions were sampled daily for N loss after addition of 15 NH 4 15 NO 3 to the pots. The cumulative 15 N loss was considered to be absorbed by plants. Lowering the osmotic potential of the culture solution decreased total N uptake at all salinity levels, and 15 N uptake of the plants at medium and high salinity levels. A low level of salinity did not affect 15 N uptake compared with the control. Water uptake and dry matter yield were affected to a greater extent than 15 N absorption. Nitrogen-15 concentration was slightly higher in roots than in shoots

  8. Estimation of Abdominal Fat by Plasma Triglycerides and Carcass Dry Matter in Broiler Chicks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javad Pour-Reza

    1997-04-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was carried out to determine the relationship of plasma triglycerides and carcass dry matter with abdominal fat. One of the problems of broiler is carcass fatness, especially abdominal fat due to rapid growth of broilers which is not the consumer preference. Six hundred one-day-old commercial broiler chicks (Lohman were divided into 40 groups, 15 chicks per group. Each one of the 10 experimental diets, in which barley was substituted for corn at levels of 0, 5, 10, 20 and 40%, was fed to 4 groups of chicks for 56 days. All diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous. Rice hulls was used to make diets isoenergetic. At days 42, 49 and 56, one male and one female were selected from each pen and after blood sampling, the birds were killed, eviscerated and percentages of carcass and amount of abdominal fats were measured. Blood samples were used to determine plasma triglycerides, cholesterol and total lipids. The results showed that increasing abdominal fat reduced carcass moisture content. Correlation between abdominal fat and plasma triglycerides was positive and significant (p<0.05. Correlation between abdominal fat and carcass moisture was negative and significant (P<0.01. The regression equations indicated that abdominal fat can be estimated from plasma triglycerides and carcass moisture content. The equations also indicated that using several parameters for estimating abdominal fat is better than single parameter estimation.

  9. NITROGEN CONTENT AND DRY-MATTER DIGESTIBILITY OF GUINEA AND SABI GRASSES AS INFLUENCED BY TREE LEGUME CANOPY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Lagaligo Amar

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available A research study was undertaken to study the grass layer across a mini landscape dominated by tree legume Albizia lebbeck to explore the nutritional differences of two introduced grasses, guinea grass (Panicum maximum and sabi grass (Urochloa mosambicensis, paying particular attention to the presence or absence of tree legume canopy of Albizia lebbeck. The two grass species showed a tendency to replace the native spear grass (Heteropogon contortus; their dominance was more or less complete under tree canopies but was increasing in open areas between trees. Nutritional differences were examined by nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility. For comparison, Heteropogon contortus, a native species only found in the open, was included in the nutritional determination using the same methods as the guinea and sabi grasses. The quality parameters of the pasture species were statistically compared (LSD, P=0.05. The quality of herbage was different between the species. Urochloa mosambicensis was better than Panicum maximum. In the open, sabi grass has higher N content (0.62% than guinea grass (0.55%, but they were similar when grown under the canopy (0.69% and 0.72%, respectively. Sabi grass has consistently higher dry matter digestibility (41.39% and 36.83%, respectively under the canopy and in the open, than guinea grass (27.78% and 24.77%. These two species are much higher in both N concentration and dry matter digestibility than the native spear grass. The native species has contained 0.28% N, and 17.65% digestible dry matter. The feeding values of herbage were influenced by the canopy factor. Both guinea and sabi grasses have better quality when grown under the tree canopies than in between canopies. Nitrogen concentration and dry matter digestibility of the guinea grass under canopy were, 0.72% and 27.78%, respectively, significantly higher than those from the open area, 0.55% and 24.77%. Similarly, herbage of sabi grass under canopy has 0

  10. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum) LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos; Jesús Jarillo-Rodríguez; Ismael Cortes-Salazar; Braulio Valles-De la Mora; Eliazar Ocaña-Zavaleta

    2012-01-01

    The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum) dry matter (DMD %) were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h) were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc) and bags (Vb) per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE) of mean DMD. The ...

  11. [Dry matter intake of South American camelids and its effects on the composition of feed rations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stölzl, Anna Maria; Lambertz, Christian; Moors, Eva; Stiehl, Jennifer; Gauly, Matthias

    2014-01-01

    The number of South American camelids (SAC) is increasing in Germany since decades. Due to a lack of scientifically based publications the knowledge about feeding SACs is still poor. Therefore, the aim of this study was to estimate the dry matter intake (DMI) of SACs as a basis for calculations of feed rations. Previous studies proposed a DMI of up to 3% of the body weight (BW) (Vaughan und Gauly, 2011). In the present study, eight llamas (Llama glama) were allocated to two groups of four animals each. The two groups were fed with hay of different qualities over a total period often weeks, which was divided into two runs of five weeks each. During the first run, group 1 was fed with hay 1 (15.1% crude protein; 8.5% crude ash; 3.1% crude fat; 52.6% NDF per kg DM) and group 2 with hay 2 (6.6% crude protein; 6.2% crude ash; 2.1% crude fat; 64.3% NDF per kg DM). After five weeks the groups were changed and group 1 received hay 2 and group 2 received hay 1. BW was measured at the start and end of each run (week zero, five and ten). The hay quality affected the DMI, but the animals did not compensate a lower feed quality with an increased DMI. The total DMI was 1.26% and 0.89% of the BW for hay 1 and hay 2, respectively, which was lower than expected in both groups. In conclusion, calculations of feed rations for SACs should be adjusted to the present findings of a lower DMI capability.

  12. Real-time dry matter content of corn silage by a microwave sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Perricone

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Daily dry matter (DM intake in dairy cow is a central point to meet nutritional requirements and optimal performance, reducing the incidence of metabolic diseases. DM content of some forages, such as silages, can undergo huge variations during storing, affecting the total daily DM consumed. Reference laboratory method is time consuming and cannot be applied to daily changes in diet composition. Currently, new promising real-time technologies are available to monitor the DM content of feeds. The aim of the study was to test and calibrate a portable microwave sensor (MS for DM content in corn silage samples. Twenty-two samples were collected from a corn silage front; sampling procedure was optimized to collect as much as DM content variability as possible within the samples. MS readings were performed with 3 different methods for each samples: 1 directly on the silage front, 2 with the MS over the collected sample and 3 with MS placed under the sample. After the first MS reading, a correspondent silage sample was obtained by a silage corer for readings 2 and 3 and the laboratory DM content assay. A simple regression analysis was performed (JMP, SAS Institute, Cary, NC, 2015 over obtained data. Results evidences as the best MS reading method is represented by the probe burdening on the sample (R2=0.75 with respect to the other methods. The obtained results outlined as, with a correct reading method, MS can be valuable tool to determine DM content of corn silage directly at farm level.

  13. Sheep numbers required for dry matter digestibility evaluations when fed fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xuezhao; Krijgsman, Linda; Waghorn, Garry C; Kjestrup, Holly; Koolaard, John; Pacheco, David

    2017-03-01

    Research trials with fresh forages often require accurate and precise measurement of digestibility and variation in digestion between individuals, and the duration of measurement periods needs to be established to ensure reliable data are obtained. The variation is likely to be greater when freshly harvested feeds are given, such as perennial ryegrass ( Lolium perenne L.) and forage rape ( Brassica napus L.), because the nutrient composition changes over time and in response to weather conditions. Daily feed intake and faeces output data from a digestibility trial with these forages were used to calculate the effects of differing lengths of the measurement period and differing numbers of sheep, on the precision of digestibility, with a view towards development of a protocol. Sixteen lambs aged 8 months and weighing 33 kg at the commencement of the trial were fed either perennial ryegrass or forage rape (8/treatment group) over 2 periods with 35 d between measurements. They had been acclimatised to the diets, having grazed them for 42 d prior to 11 days of indoor measurements. The sheep numbers required for a digestibility trial with different combinations of acclimatisation and measurement period lengths were subsequently calculated for 3 levels of imposed precision upon the estimate of mean dry matter (DM) digestibility. It is recommended that if the standard error of the mean for digestibility is equal to or higher than 5 g/kg DM, and if sheep are already used to a fresh perennial ryegrass or forage rape diet, then a minimum of 6 animals are needed and 4 acclimatisation days being fed individually in metabolic crates followed by 7 days of measurement.

  14. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  15. Ensiling as biological pretreatment of grass (Festulolium Hykor): The effect of composition, dry matter, and inocula on cellulose convertibility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ambye-Jensen, Morten; Johansen, Katja Salomon; Didion, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Grass biomass is a prospective type of lignocellulosic biomass for bioenergy and fuel production, but the low dry matter in grass at harvest calls for new pretreatment strategies for cellulosic conversion. In this study, ensiling was tested as a biological pretreatment method of the high yielding...... grass variety Festulolium Hykor. The biomass was harvested in four cuts over a growing season. Three important factors of ensiling: biomass composition, dry matter (DM) at ensiling, and inoculation of lactic acid bacteria, were assessed in relation to subsequent enzymatic cellulose hydrolysis....... The organic acid profile after ensiling was dependant on the composition of the grass and the DM, rather than on the inocula. High levels of organic acids, notably lactic acid, produced during ensiling improved enzymatic cellulose convertibility in the grass biomass. Ensiling of less mature grass gave higher...

  16. Responses of young tea (Camellia sinensis) clones to drought and temperature. II. Dry matter production and partitioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burgess, P.J.; Carr, M.K.V.

    1996-01-01

    The physiological basis for differences in yields from well-watered and draughted plants of four contrasting clones of tea was studied in terms of light interception, dry matter production and partitioning at a high altitude site in Southern Tanzania where there are marked seasonal variations in rainfall and temperature. The plant dry weights, including roots, were measured eight months after field planting and subsequently at intervals of three to four months, corresponding to the different seasons, during the following two years. Fully irrigated plants of one clone (S15/10) were also harvested after four years in the field. Clones differed in the rates of canopy spread and hence in their capacity to intercept solar radiation. The ‘radiation use efficiency’ (the net total dry matter production per unit of intercepted short-wave radiation) was similar for the four well-watered clones and ranged from 0.40 to 0.66 g MJ −1 , which corresponds closely to values reported for other woody tropical plants. A 16-week drought treatment imposed two years after planting reduced the mean light interception of the four clones by about 25% and the mean radiation use efficiency by 78% to 0.09 g MJ −1 . Clone S15/10, a cultivar from Kenya which produces large yields, partitioned a greater proportion of dry matter to leaves and harvested shoots than the other clones, and correspondingly less to large structural roots. This resulted in a maximum harvest index of 24%, substantially greater than other values reported in the literature. There were seasonal differences in partitioning, with more dry matter being diverted to roots and less to shoots during the cool season. Although the drought treatments had no significant effect on root growth, the amount of dry matter partitioned to leaves, stems and harvested shoots declined by 80–95%. The roots of all four clones extended in depth at similar rates (about 2 mm d −1 ), those of Clone S15/10 reaching 2.8m after four years

  17. Dry matter losses and quality changes during short rotation coppice willow storage in chip or rod form.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittaker, Carly; Yates, Nicola E; Powers, Stephen J; Misselbrook, Tom; Shield, Ian

    2018-05-01

    This study compares dry matter losses and quality changes during the storage of SRC willow as chips and as rods. A wood chip stack consisting of approximately 74 tonnes of fresh biomass, or 31 tonnes dry matter (DM) was built after harvesting in the spring. Three weeks later, four smaller stacks of rods with an average weight of 0.8 tonnes, or 0.4 tonnes DM were built. During the course of the experiment temperature recorders placed in the stacks found that the wood chip pile reached 60 °C within 10 days of construction, but the piles of rods remained mostly at ambient temperatures. Dry matter losses were calculated by using pre-weighed independent samples within the stacks and by weighing the whole stack before and after storage. After 6 months the wood chip stack showed a DM loss of between 19.8 and 22.6%, and mean losses of 23.1% were measured from the 17 independent samples. In comparison, the rod stacks showed an average stack DM loss of between 0 and 9%, and between 1.4% and 10.6% loss from the independent samples. Analysis of the stored material suggests that storing willow in small piles of rods produces a higher quality fuel in terms of lower moisture and ash content; however, it has a higher fine content compared to storage in chip form. Therefore, according to the two storage methods tested here, there may be a compromise between maximising the net dry matter yield from SRC willow and the final fine content of the fuel.

  18. Dry Matter Yield And Competitiveness Of Alang-alang (Imperata Cylindrica) And Guinea Grass (Panicum Maximum) In Intercropping

    OpenAIRE

    Rusdy, M

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this experiment were to determine dry matter yield and competitiveness of alang-alang (Imperata cylindrica) and Guinea grass (Panicum maximum) in intercropping. The experiment was arranged in factorial combinations of four planting proportions, two levels of nitrogen fertilization and three harvesting intervals with three replications. Planting proportions were 0, 33.3, 66.7, and 100% of alang-alang (planting densities of 0, 1, 2 and 3 plants/pot) combined with 100, 66.7, 33...

  19. Effect of incorporation of walnut cake (Juglans regia in concentrate mixture on degradation of dry matter, organic matter and production of microbial biomass in vitro in goat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohsin Ahmad Mir

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: This study was carried out to investigate the effect of incorporation of different level of walnut cake in concentrate mixture on in vitro dry matter degradation in order to determine its level of supplementation in ruminant ration. Materials and Methods: Walnut cake was used @ 0, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30% level to formulate an iso-nitrogenous concentrate mixtures and designated as T1, T2, T3, T4, T5 and T6 respectively. The different formulae of concentrate mixtures were used for in vitro gas production studies using goat rumen liquor with wheat straw in 40:60 ratio. Proximate composition, fiber fractionation and calcium and phosphrous content of walnut cake were estimated. Result: The per cent IVDMD value of T1 and T2 diets was 68.42 ± 1.20 and 67.25 ± 1.37 respectively which was found highest (P<0.05 T3, T4, T5 and T6. Similar trend was also found for TDOM and MBP. Inclusion of walnut cake at 10% level in the concentrate mixture does not affect in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD, truly degradable organic matter (TDOM, mg/200 mg DM, total gas production, microbial biomass production (MBP and efficiency of microbial biomass production (EMP. Conclusion: It is concluded that walnut cake incorporation up to 10% level in the iso -nitrogenous concentrate mixture has no any negative effect on in vitro digestibility of dry matter (DM, TDOM, MBP, EMP and total gas production in goat.

  20. Comparative analysis of wood chips and bundles - Costs, carbon dioxide emissions, dry-matter losses and allergic reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eriksson, Lisa; Gustavsson, Leif [Ecotechnology, Department of Engineering and Sustainable Development, Mid Sweden University, SE-831 25 Oestersund (Sweden)

    2010-01-15

    There are multiple systems for the collection, processing, and transport of forest residues for use as a fuel. We compare two systems in use in Sweden to analyze differences in fuel cost, CO{sub 2} emissions, dry-matter loss, and potential for allergic reactions. We compare a bundle system with the traditional Swedish chip system, and then do an in-depth comparison of a Finnish bundle system with the Swedish bundle system. Bundle systems have lower costs, while the allergic reactions do not differ significantly between the systems. The bundle machine is expensive, but results in high productivity and in an overall cost-effective system. The bundle system has higher primary energy use and CO{sub 2} emissions, but the lower dry-matter losses in the bundle system chain give CO{sub 2} emissions per delivered MWh almost as low as for the chip system. Also, lower dry-matter losses mean that more biomass per hectare can be extracted from the clear-cut area. This leads to a higher possible substitution of fossil fuels per hectare with the bundle system, and that more CO{sub 2} emissions from fossil fuel can be avoided per hectare than in the chip system. The Finnish bundle system with its more effective compressing and forwarding is more cost- and energy-effective than the Swedish bundle system, but Swedish bundle systems can be adapted to be more effective in both aspects. (author)

  1. A simple enzyme assay for dry matter digestibility and its value in studying food selection by generalist herbivores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choo, Gillian M; Waterman, Peter G; McKey, Doyle B; Gartlan, J Stephen

    1981-05-01

    The dry matter digestibility of 94 species of leaf was assayed by a simple method involving sequential treatment with pepsin and fungal cellulase enzymes. It was demonstrated that for foliage from rainforest trees of a wide range of dicotyledonous plant families the assay showed high positive correlation with estimates of dry matter digestibility obtained using rumenliquor from a fistulated steer. Both assays were found to reflect negative correlates of digestibility, notably fibre and condensed tannin, rather than the nutritional value of an item. The higher dry matter digestibility of immature leaves relative to mature leaves appeared to be accounted for by their lower fibre content. It is suggested that the pepsin/cellulase assay offers a cheap, quick, routine method of gaining information on the effects of some types of plant secondary compounds (digestibility reducers) on the 'food potential' of different kinds of foliage to herbivores. Its use in studies of herbivory in rainforest areas in relation to analyses for plant secondary compounds and food selection by herbivores is discussed.

  2. Analysis and modeling of dry matter production rate by soybean [Glycine max] community: Curvilinear response to radiation intensity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sameshima, R.

    1996-01-01

    The linear relationship between the amount of absorbed radiation and dry matter production by crop communities has long been known, and the proportionality constant between them is known as the radiation use efficiency (RUE). To analyze and predict crop production using RUE, the assumption is often made that RUE is not sensitive to radiation intensity and that dry matter production rate (DMPR) is a linear function of radiation intensity.However, there is evidence in opposition to this assumption, including reports of increasing RUE in shade tests, and hyperbolic response of photosynthetic rate to radiation intensity. The following model was developed and used to analyze the response of DMPR and RUE to daily radiation R S : DMPR = DMPR max (R S ) * g(α) where DMPR max (R S ) is the DMPR of a hypothetical soybean community absorbing all radiation, and g(α) represents the effect of radiation absorptivity (α). A hyperbolic curve and a straight line were employed for DMPR max (R S ) and g(α), respectively. Field experimental data including shade tests were used to determine the parameters for the model. Two sets of parameters were required to cover the entire experimental period. DMPR max (R S ) had an apparent curvilinear relationship with R S . The model successfully described dry matter production under successive low radiation conditions, which could not be estimated by a model with RUE insensitive to radiation. (author)

  3. Effect of Foliar Application of Micro Nutrients on Physiological Growth Indices and Total Dry Matter Yield of Forage Corn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Soleymani

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of foliar application of micro nutrients on physiological growth indices and total dry matter yield of forage corn. Field experiment was conducted in 2006 at Bersian village Isfahan. A randomized complete block design with four replications was used. Plant treated with 8 foliar application treatments (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn, Fe + Mn, Cu + Zn, Fe + Mn + Cu + Zn and control. The responses to foliar application in total dry weight, LAI and CGR appeared to differ between the treatments, but there is no significant difference in NAR between the treatments. Maximum leaf area index gained in foliar application of Fe but there is significant difference between this treatment and other treatments except foliar application of Zn and Fe + Mn. Foliar application of Fe and Fe + Mn result to maximum total dry weight, but there is no significant difference between these treatments and foliar application of Zn, Mn, Mn + Cu and Fe + Zn + Cu +Mn. Maximum and minimum NAR gained in foliar application of Mn and control treatments respectively. Maximum CGR gained in foliar application of Zn, there is significant difference between this treatment and others. Control treatment in comparison with others shows minimum value in all measured factors. The results indicate that foliar application of micro nutrients particularly Fe and Fe+Mn may be suitable to product maximum total dry matter yield under similar condition.

  4. Degradability of dry matter and crude protein of dry grains and wet grain silages from different processing corn hybrids (Zea mays

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wagner dos Reis

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of processing two corn hybrids conserved, dry and humid grains, the dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability in situ. The particle size was determined and difference was verified in MGD (Medium Geometric Diameter of processed ingredients. Three sheep were used with rumen canulated, in a completely randomized design, using a factorial outline 2 x 2 x 3, being two corn hybrid, two conservation methods and three processing forms (whole, coarsely and finely ground, with five times of incubation (3, 6, 12, 24 and 48 hours. The fraction A in SDC (silage of dent corn of DM was superior to GDC (grain of dent corn in all of the particles size. The ensiling process increased the DM solubility, reducing the fraction B in comparison to dry grain. The values regarding the fractions DP and DE the 5% per hour of the protein, were larger for SDC and GDC, it presents a decreasing when the incubation time advances. The fermentation rate was superior for SDC and GDC. The ensiling process has positive effect in the decreasing of DM and CP in comparison to GDC.

  5. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  6. Adjusting for heterogeneity of experimental data in genetic evaluation of dry matter intake in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uddin, M E; Meuwissen, T; Veerkamp, R F

    2018-02-01

    The objectives of the present study were (i) to find the best fitted model for repeatedly measured daily dry matter intake (DMI) data obtained from different herds and experiments across lactations and (ii) to get better estimates of the genetic parameters and better genetic evaluations. After editing, there were 572,512 daily DMI records of 3,495 animals (Holstein cows) from 11 different herds across 13 lactations and the animals were under 110 different nutritional experiments. The fitted model for this data set was a univariate repeated-measure animal model (called model 1) in which additive genetic and permanent environmental (within and across lactations) effects were fitted as random. Model 1 was fitted as two distinct models (called models 2 and 3) based on alternative fixed effect corrections. For unscaled data, each model (models 2 and 3) was fitted as a homoscedastic (HOM) model first and then as a heteroscedastic (HET) model. Then, data were scaled by multiplying with particular herd-scaling factors, which were calculated by accounting for heterogeneity of phenotypic within-herd variances. Models were selected based on cross-validation and prediction accuracy results. Scaling factors were re-estimated to determine the effectiveness of accounting for herd heterogeneity. Variance components and respective heritability and repeatability were estimated based on a pedigree-based relationship matrix. Results indicated that the model fitted for scaled data showed better fit than the models (HOM or HET) fitted for unscaled data. The heritability estimates of the models 2 and 3 fitted for scaled data were 0.30 and 0.08, respectively. The repeatability estimates of the model fitted for scaled data ranged from 0.51 to 0.63. The re-estimated scaling factor after accounting for heterogeneity of residual variances was close to 1.0, indicating the stabilization of residual variances and herd accounted for most of the heterogeneity. The rank correlation of EBVs between

  7. Determining consumer purchase intentions: the importance of dry matter, size, and price of kiwifruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaeger, Sara R; Harker, Roger; Triggs, Chris M; Gunson, Anne; Campbell, Rachel L; Jackman, Richard; Requejo-Jackman, Cecilia

    2011-04-01

    Knowledge of the relative importance of food quality attributes in determining consumer purchase intention is critical for robust assessment of economic opportunities for industry growth. The aim of this study is to demonstrate how conjoint analysis methodology that incorporates tasting of fruit can be used to collect such information. Three hundred Japanese consumers took part in research designed to measure the importance of dry matter (DM), size, and price of kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa "Hayward" and Actinidia chinensis "Hort16A") for purchase intention. Measurement of consumer liking for kiwifruit of different DM content was a key first step. Liking increased as DM increased and was accompanied by increased purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. The size of kiwifruit presented to consumers varied from "small" to "extra large." Consumers liked "mid-sized" kiwifruit over "small" or "extra-large" kiwifruit. Despite these differences in liking, size was of little importance in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability for kiwifruit. Price was a very important factor in determining purchase likelihood/choice probability but was less important than DM content. As price increased, purchase likelihood/choice probability decreased. Beneath these general findings, heterogeneity existed. Some consumers placed more/less importance on the focal purchase drivers than suggested by the aggregate model. Overall, the results suggest that incentive schemes already implemented by industry should consider rewarding high-DM fruit more than fruit size.   This research has contributed to the New Zealand kiwifruit industry gaining a better understanding of the relative importance consumers place on DM, size, and price of kiwifruit and has resulted in changes to grower incentive schemes. The research approach presented forces consumer to tradeoff attributes of kiwifruit against each other and decide on how important two key quality attributes-DM and

  8. The impact of dry matter loss during herbaceous biomass storage on net greenhouse gas emissions from biofuels production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Emery, Isaac R.; Mosier, Nathan S.

    2012-01-01

    Life cycle inventory models of greenhouse gas emissions from biofuel production have become tightly integrated into government mandates and other policies to encourage biofuel production. Current models do not include life cycle impacts of biomass storage or reflect current literature on emissions from soil and biomass decomposition. In this study, the GREET model framework was used to determine net greenhouse gas emissions during ethanol production from corn and switchgrass via three biomass storage systems: wet ensiling of whole corn, and indoor and outdoor dry bale storage of corn stover and switchgrass. Dry matter losses during storage were estimated from the literature and used to modify GREET inventory analysis. Results showed that biomass stability is a key parameter affecting fuel production per farmed hectare and life cycle greenhouse gas emissions. Corn silage may generate 5358 L/ha of ethanol at 26.5 g CO 2 eq/MJ, relative to 5654 L/ha at 52.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from combined corn stover and conventional grain corn ethanol production, or 3919 L/ha at 21.3 g CO 2 eq/MJ from switchgrass. Dry matter losses can increase net emissions by 3–25% (ensiling), 5–53% (bales outdoors), or 1–12% (bales indoors), decreasing the net GHG reduction of ethanol over gasoline by up to 10.9%. Greater understanding of biomass storage losses and greenhouse gas fluxes during storage is necessary to accurately assess biomass storage options to ensure that the design of biomass supply logistics systems meet GHG reduction mandates for biofuel production. -- Highlights: ► Analyzed the impact of biomass loss during storage. ► Probable dry matter losses strongly depend on storage method and infrastructure. ► Assessed impact of storage losses on LCA for cellulosic ethanol production. ► Storage losses increase GHG emissions by 1–53% depending upon storage conditions.

  9. Transport and solubility of Hetero-disperse dry deposition particulate matter subject to urban source area rainfall-runoff processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ying, G.; Sansalone, J.

    2010-03-01

    SummaryWith respect to hydrologic processes, the impervious pavement interface significantly alters relationships between rainfall and runoff. Commensurate with alteration of hydrologic processes the pavement also facilitates transport and solubility of dry deposition particulate matter (PM) in runoff. This study examines dry depositional flux rates, granulometric modification by runoff transport, as well as generation of total dissolved solids (TDS), alkalinity and conductivity in source area runoff resulting from PM solubility. PM is collected from a paved source area transportation corridor (I-10) in Baton Rouge, Louisiana encompassing 17 dry deposition and 8 runoff events. The mass-based granulometric particle size distribution (PSD) is measured and modeled through a cumulative gamma function, while PM surface area distributions across the PSD follow a log-normal distribution. Dry deposition flux rates are modeled as separate first-order exponential functions of previous dry hours (PDH) for PM and suspended, settleable and sediment fractions. When trans-located from dry deposition into runoff, PSDs are modified, with a d50m decreasing from 331 to 14 μm after transport and 60 min of settling. Solubility experiments as a function of pH, contact time and particle size using source area rainfall generate constitutive models to reproduce pH, alkalinity, TDS and alkalinity for historical events. Equilibrium pH, alkalinity and TDS are strongly influenced by particle size and contact times. The constitutive leaching models are combined with measured PSDs from a series of rainfall-runoff events to demonstrate that the model results replicate alkalinity and TDS in runoff from the subject watershed. Results illustrate the granulometry of dry deposition PM, modification of PSDs along the drainage pathway, and the role of PM solubility for generation of TDS, alkalinity and conductivity in urban source area rainfall-runoff.

  10. Chemical Form Matters: Differential Accumulation of Mercury Following Inorganic and Organic Mercury Exposures in Zebrafish Larvae

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korbas, Malgorzata; MacDonald, Tracy C.; Pickering, Ingrid J.; George, Graham N.; Krone, Patrick H. (Saskatchewan)

    2013-04-08

    Mercury, one of the most toxic elements, exists in various chemical forms each with different toxicities and health implications. Some methylated mercury forms, one of which exists in fish and other seafood products, pose a potential threat, especially during embryonic and early postnatal development. Despite global concerns, little is known about the mechanisms underlying transport and toxicity of different mercury species. To investigate the impact of different mercury chemical forms on vertebrate development, we have successfully combined the zebrafish, a well-established developmental biology model system, with synchrotron-based X-ray fluorescence imaging. Our work revealed substantial differences in tissue-specific accumulation patterns of mercury in zebrafish larvae exposed to four different mercury formulations in water. Methylmercury species not only resulted in overall higher mercury burdens but also targeted different cells and tissues than their inorganic counterparts, thus revealing a significant role of speciation in cellular and molecular targeting and mercury sequestration. For methylmercury species, the highest mercury concentrations were in the eye lens epithelial cells, independent of the formulation ligand (chloride versus L-cysteine). For inorganic mercury species, in absence of L-cysteine, the olfactory epithelium and kidney accumulated the greatest amounts of mercury. However, with L-cysteine present in the treatment solution, mercuric bis-L-cysteineate species dominated the treatment, significantly decreasing uptake. Our results clearly demonstrate that the common differentiation between organic and inorganic mercury is not sufficient to determine the toxicity of various mercury species.

  11. Effects of sawdust bedding dry matter on lying behavior of dairy cows: a dose-dependent response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reich, L J; Weary, D M; Veira, D M; von Keyserlingk, M A G

    2010-04-01

    The objective was to determine the effect of sawdust bedding dry matter on the lying behavior of Holstein cows. Dry matter (DM) was varied systematically over 5 treatment levels to test how cows respond to damp bedding. This experiment was repeated during summer and winter to test if the effects of damp bedding varied with season. The 5 bedding treatments averaged (+/-SD) 89.8+/-3.7, 74.2+/-6.4, 62.2+/-6.3, 43.9+/-4.0, and 34.7+/-3.8% DM. Over the course of the trial, minimum and maximum temperatures in the barn were 2.6+/-2.0 and 6.8+/-2.2 degrees C in the winter and 13.3+/-2.5 and 22.6+/-4.1 degrees C in the summer. In both seasons, 5 groups of 3 nonlactating cows were housed in free stalls bedded with sawdust. Following a 5-d acclimation period on dry bedding, groups were exposed to the 5 bedding treatments in a 5 x 5 Latin square. Each treatment lasted 4 d, followed by 1 d when the cows were provided with dry bedding. Stall usage was assessed by 24-h video scanned at 5-min intervals. Responses were analyzed within group (n=5) as the observational unit. Bedding DM affected lying time, averaging 10.4+/-0.4 h/d on the wettest treatment and increasing to 11.5+/-0.4 h/d on the driest bedding. Lying time varied with season, averaging 12.1+/-0.4 h/d across treatments during the winter and 9.9+/-0.6 h/d during the summer, but season and bedding DM did not interact. These results indicate that access to dry bedding is important for dairy cows. Copyright (c) 2010 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Recent sedimentary history of organic matter and nutrient accumulation in the Ohuira Lagoon, northwestern Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Fernández, Ana Carolina; Frignani, Mauro; Tesi, Tommaso; Bojórquez-Leyva, Humberto; Bellucci, Luca Giorgio; Páez-Osuna, Federico

    2007-08-01

    (210)Pb-derived sediment accumulation rates, as well as a suite of geochemical proxies (Al, Fe, delta(13)C, delta(15)N), were used to assess the time-dependent variations of C, N, and P fluxes recorded in two sediment cores collected at Ohuira Lagoon, in the Gulf of California, Mexico, during the last 100 years. Sedimentary C, N, and P concentrations increased with time and were related to land clearing, water impoundment, and agriculture practices, such as fertilization. C:N:P ratios and delta(13)C suggested an estuarine system that is responsive to increased C loading from a N-limited phytoplankton community, whereas delta(15)N values showed the transition between an estuarine-terrestrial to an estuarine-more marine environment, as a consequence of the declining freshwater supply into the estuary due to the channeling and impoundment of El Fuerte River between 1900 and 1956. The recent increases in nutrient fluxes (2- to 9-fold the pre-anthropogenic fluxes of C and N, and 2 to 13 times for P) taking place in the mainland from the 1940s, were related to the expansion of the intensive agriculture fields and to the more recent development of shrimp farming activities.

  13. Ablation dynamics - from absorption to heat accumulation/ultra-fast laser matter interaction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kramer, Thorsten; Remund, Stefan; Jäggi, Beat; Schmid, Marc; Neuenschwander, Beat

    2018-05-01

    Ultra-short laser radiation is used in manifold industrial applications today. Although state-of-the-art laser sources are providing an average power of 10-100 W with repetition rates of up to several megahertz, most applications do not benefit from it. On the one hand, the processing speed is limited to some hundred millimeters per second by the dynamics of mechanical axes or galvanometric scanners. On the other hand, high repetition rates require consideration of new physical effects such as heat accumulation and shielding that might reduce the process efficiency. For ablation processes, process efficiency can be expressed by the specific removal rate, ablated volume per time, and average power. The analysis of the specific removal rate for different laser parameters, like average power, repetition rate or pulse duration, and process parameters, like scanning speed or material, can be used to find the best operation point for microprocessing applications. Analytical models and molecular dynamics simulations based on the so-called two-temperature model reveal the causes for the appearance of limiting physical effects. The findings of models and simulations can be used to take advantage and optimize processing strategies.

  14. Nodulation, dry matter production and N2 fixation by fababean and chickpea as affected by soil moisture and potassium fertilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurdali, F.; Al-Ain, F.; Al-Ahamma, M.

    2003-01-01

    The impact of three rates of K-fertilizer (0, 75, and 150 kg K 2 O/ha)on nodulation, dry matter production and N 2 fixation by fababean (Vicia faba L.) and chickpea (Cirer arietinum L.) was evaluated in a pot experiment. The plants were subjected to three soil moisture regimes (low, 45-50%; moderate, 55-60% and high 75-80% of field capacity). 15 N-isotope dilution method was employed to evaluate N 2 fixation using a non-fixing chickpea genotype as a reference crop. Water restriction drastically affected dry matter production, nodulation and N 2 fixation by both plant species. The negative effect of water stress on %N 2 fixed was more prominent in chickpea (11-58%) than in fababean (68-81%) under low and high % of field capacity, respectively. Plant species differed in their response to K-fertilizer as a mean to enhance growth and overcome the stress conditions. The higher level of K fertilizer increased both dry matter production and total N 2 fixed in fababean, but did not have any impact on chickpea. %N 2 fixed, however, appeared to be unaffected by K fertilizer as a mean of alleviating drought stress in both plant species. Therefore, it appears that, under the experimental conditions, the beneficial effect of potassium on water-stressed fababean resulted from stimulation the growth rather than improving the N 2 -fixation efficiency. However, under well-watered plants, a high requirement of the symbiotic system to potassium is needed to ensure and optimal growth and N 2 -fixation. (author)

  15. Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional value of winter forage and grains under grazing and split nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loreno Egidio Taffarel

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Morphological characteristics, dry matter production, and nutritional values of winter forage and grains were evaluated. This study was conducted from April 24, 2012 to November 7, 2013 in the Western Paraná State University (UNIOESTE, Marechal Cândido Rondon, Brazil. Pastures under one grazing and non-grazing conditions were evaluated under 120 kg N ha-1 fertilization split into two 60 kg N ha-1 treatments. Two pastures received 40 kg N ha-1 three times. IPR 126 oat, BRS Tarumã wheat, and IPR 111 triticale were the test crops. Topdressing with 40 or 60 kg N ha-1 did not change morphological characteristics until 60 d after sowing. Pastures under non-grazing that received 120 kg N ha-1 treatments were taller than the controls, whereas those under grazing that received 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 presented with higher leaf production than did the controls. Total average dry matter (DM production in 2012 and 2013 was, respectively, 5,275 kg ha-1 and 6,270 kg ha-1 for oat, 3,166 kg ha-1 and 7,423 kg ha-1 for wheat, and 4,552 kg ha-1 and 7,603 kg ha-1 for triticale. Split N fertilization did not cause differences in the levels of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and acid detergent fiber (ADF in the forage. Nevertheless, increases in in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD were observed in oat and wheat receiving 60 kg N ha-1 during the first graze. IVDMD did not change in oat, wheat, and triticale forages receiving 80 or 120 kg N ha-1 during the second graze. Grazing did not affect the nutritional values of wheat and triticale grains, but reduced those of oat. Therefore, the results of the present study suggest that grazing lengthens the crop cycles, and so allow the staggered sowing of summer crops.

  16. Height, leaf nymber, chemical composition and dry matter production of Stylosanthes Campo Grande at different levels of potassium and zinco.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Mara Gomes

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine plant height, total number of leaves, number of live leaves, chemical composition and dry mass production of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande at first cut and after 21 days of regrowth at different levels of potassium (K2O with and without zinc (Zn. The experiment was conducted using a randomized block design in a 4 x 2 factorial scheme consisting of four repetitions. Four levels of K2O (0, 120, 240 and 360 mg/dm3 with and without Zn (0 and 6 mg/dm3 were used. There was no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on the structural characteristics of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed. The mean plant height, total number of leaves and number of live leaves were 21.2 cm, 30.2 and 27.2, respectively. Dry mass production did not differ between K2O and Zn levels, with a mean production of 3.7 g/pot. There was also no effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels on dry matter and neutral detergent fiber content, and no independent effects of the different levels of K2O and Zn were observed, with mean values of 29.3% and 46.9% dry matter, respectively. However, an effect of the interaction between K2O and Zn levels was observed for crude protein content, which exhibited a quadratic response. Re2growth increased linearly with increasing K2O levels. Although the highest crude protein content was obtained at zero levels of potassium and zinc, potassium fertilization is advantageous since it increases the regrowth of Stylosanthes cv. Campo Grande in 21 days.

  17. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics - Dry matter digestibility and Protein Digestibility-Corrected Amino Acid Scores

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry

    2018-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim was to evaluate white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions...... was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. RESULTS: Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) content of 451 g/kg DM and 530 g/kg DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively and a pulp with CP content of 313 and 374 g...

  18. Effective rumen degradation of dry matter, crude protein and neutral detergent fibre in forage determined by near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ohlsson, C; Houmøller, L P; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to examine if near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) could be used to predict degradation parameters and effective degradation from scans of original forage samples. Degradability of dry matter (DM), crude protein (CP) and neutral detergent fibre (NDF......) of 61 samples of perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and orchardgrass (Dactylis glomerata L.) was tested by using the in situ technique. The grass samples were harvested at three different stages, early vegetative growth, early reproductive growth and late reproductive growth. Degradability...

  19. On-line near infrared monitoring of ammonium and dry matter in biosturry for robust biogas production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Michael; Ihunegbo, Felicia N.; Holm-Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2012-01-01

    was applied on-line in a re-circulating loop configuration operating identically as a full-scale setup. Ammonium could be modelled in the industrially relevant range 2.42 – 8.52 g L-1 with an excellent accuracy and precision, slope ~1.0, r2 = 0.97, corresponding toa relative Root Mean Square Error......Heterogeneous substrates fed into agricultural biogas plants originate from many sources with resulting quality fluctuations potentially inhibiting the process. Biogas yield can be substantially increased by optimisation of the organic dry matter load. In this study, near infrared spectroscopy...

  20. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  1. Dry matter yield, chemical composition and estimated extractable protein of legume and grass species during the spring growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Solati, Zeinab; Jørgensen, Uffe; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2017-01-01

    Carbohydrate and Protein System across six harvests during the spring growth. RESULTS The estimated extractable protein [g kg−1 dry matter (DM)] defined as the easily available fractions B1+B2 was significantly higher in white clover and lucerne at all harvests while, if the more cell wall attached fraction B3...... for protein production purpose in a biorefinery due to its high extractable protein content per kg DM. In order to maximise the protein production capacity, harvest should take place during early growth due to a decline in protein extractability with maturity. The final economy of the concept will depend...

  2. Pre-rigor temperature and the relationship between lamb tenderisation, free water production, bound water and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Devine, Carrick; Wells, Robyn; Lowe, Tim; Waller, John

    2014-01-01

    The M. longissimus from lambs electrically stimulated at 15 min post-mortem were removed after grading, wrapped in polythene film and held at 4 (n=6), 7 (n=6), 15 (n=6, n=8) and 35°C (n=6), until rigor mortis then aged at 15°C for 0, 4, 24 and 72 h post-rigor. Centrifuged free water increased exponentially, and bound water, dry matter and shear force decreased exponentially over time. Decreases in shear force and increases in free water were closely related (r(2)=0.52) and were unaffected by pre-rigor temperatures. © 2013.

  3. Effect of harvest period on foliage production and dry matter distribution in five cassava cultivars during the second plant cycle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edvaldo Sagrilo

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to study the leaf production pattern and dry matter distribution in cassava during the second plant cycle. The completely randomized experimental design with four replications was used, with five cultivars in the main plots and ten harvest times in the sub-plots. Foliage production was affected by plant age, being higher in hot periods. Leaf blades and petioles dry matter content presented a linear increase due to a progressive decrease in the amount of young leaves and ontogenetic factors. The stems provided, temporarily, carbohydrates to the plant re-growth, delaying the availability and use of storage roots dry matter. The dry matter content in the storage roots was lower during the vegetative and higher during rest period. The storage roots diameter increased considerably when the amount of leaves was higher, indicating the importance of leaf area in the cassava plant production.O experimento foi conduzido de outubro de 1997 a maio de 1999, no Noroeste do Paraná, Brasil, com o objetivo de avaliar o padrão de produção de folhas e distribuição de massa seca em 5 cultivares de mandioca, durante o segundo ciclo vegetativo. Utilizou-se o delineamento experimental em blocos casualizados, com 4 repetições, no esquema de parcelas subdivididas, estando as cultivares nas parcelas e as épocas de colheita nas subparcelas. A produção de folhas foi afetada pela idade das plantas, sendo maior nos períodos de temperatura elevada. Os teores de massa seca nos limbos foliares e pecíolos aumentaram linearmente com a idade das plantas, devido à menor proporção de folhas jovens e a fatores ontogênicos inerentes à planta. As hastes proporcionaram, temporariamente, os assimilados necessários para a reestruturação vegetativa das plantas, protelando a disponibilidade e uso dos carboidratos armazenados nas raízes. O teor de massa seca nas raízes foi menor durante o período de crescimento vegetativo e maior

  4. Random variation in voluntary dry matter intake and effect of day length on feed intake capacity in growing cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvartsen, Klaus Lønne; Andersen, Refsgaard; Foldager, John

    1992-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to describe the random variation in voluntary dry matter intake (VDMI) and to discuss the application of the results for monitoring purposes. Furthermore, the objective is to review and quantify the influence of day length or photoperiod on VDMI. VDMI was recorded...... was increased by 0.32% per hour increase in day length. This is in agreement with the increase found in reviewed literature when photoperiod was manipulated artificially. Practical application of the results for monitoring purposes are exemplified and discussed....

  5. Measurement of rumen dry matter and neutral detergent fiber degradability of feeds by Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Belanche, A.; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis; Allison, G.G.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the potential of partial least squares (PLS) and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) to predict rumen dry matter (DM) and neutral detergent fiber (NDF) degradation parameters of a wide range of feeds for ruminants, as an alternative to the in situ method. In total...... components, such as cellulose, pectin, lignin, cutin, and suberin, but also with nonstructural carbohydrates and certain active compounds. In conclusion, FTIR spectroscopy could be considered a low-cost alternative to in situ measurements in feed evaluation....

  6. Evaluation of manure drying tunnels to serve as dust filters in the exhaust of laying hen houses: Emissions of particulate matter, ammonia, and odour

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Winkel, Albert; Mosquera, Julio; Aarnink, André J.A.; Groot Koerkamp, Peter W.G.; Ogink, Nico W.M.

    2017-01-01

    IAgrE Poultry houses are important emission sources of ammonia, odour, and particulate matter (PM). Manure drying tunnels (MDTs) might act as ‘end of pipe’ PM filters, but might also emit additional ammonia and odour. This study aimed to gain insight into this matter (parts A and B) and into the

  7. The accumulation of radiocesium in coarse marine sediment: Effects of mineralogy and organic matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Yeongkyoo; Kim, Kangjoo; Kang, Hee-Dong; Kim, Wan; Doh, Si-Hong; Kim, Do-Sung; Kim, Byoung-Ki

    2007-01-01

    The controlling factors affecting the accumulation of 137 Cs in marine sediment have not been investigated in detail, especially in coarse grained sediment. Eighty eight coarse marine sediment samples near Wuljin, Korea, were characterized by quantitative X-ray-diffraction (XRD), gamma-ray, and total organic carbon (TOC) analysis. Those factors were then compared. The grain size was in the range of -0.48 to 3.6 Mdφ corresponding to sand grains. TOC content was in the range of 0.06-1.75%, and the concentration of 137 Cs was 137 Cs activity, which was first reported here, probably due to the weathered frayed edge site of biotite produced by a release of K. The samples with low TOC contents showed even better correlation between biotite content and 137 Cs activity. For the entire samples, however, the TOC content showed better correlation with 137 Cs activity than other single factors, indicating that biotite and organic carbon are the most important factors controlling 137 Cs fixation. The combined effect of biotite and TOC for 137 Cs fixation was also confirmed by multiple regression analysis ( 137 Cs activity = 1.712 . TOC (wt%) + 0.202 . biotite (wt%) - 0.097; R 2 = 0.819). The regressed slopes indicated that the 137 Cs-adsorption capacity of TOC was about 8.5 times higher than that of biotite. However, the amount of 137 Cs adsorbed onto biotite was 30% more than that adsorbed onto TOC due to much greater biotite content in the sediment. The role of biotite in fixing 137 Cs becomes more important in sediment with coarser grains, containing little TOC

  8. Organic matter transformation and detoxification in dry olive mill residue by the saprophytic fungus Paecilomyces farinosus

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sampedro, I.; Cajthaml, Tomáš; Marinari, S.; Petruccioli, M.; Grego, S.; D´Annibale, A.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2009), s. 216-225 ISSN 1359-5113 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06066; GA MŠk 2B06156 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Dry olive mill residue * Phenols * Paecilomyces farinosus Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 2.444, year: 2009

  9. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  10. Changes in root morphology and dry matter production in Pfaffia glomerata (Spreng. Pedersen accessions in response to excessive zinc

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. BERNARDY

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Zinc (Zn participates of numerous metabolic processes in plants. However, it can become toxic to plants in excessive concentrations in the soil. Pfaffia glomerata is a Brazilian medicinal species that has stood out because of its numerous chemical and functional properties, mainly by the triterpene saponins and ecdysteroids accumulated in its roots. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of zinc excess on many root morphological parameters of Pfaffia glomerata. A 4 x 3 factorial design was employed in a completely randomized scheme with 3 replicates. The treatments consisted of four concentrations of Zn (2, 100, 200, and 300 µM and three accessions of P. glomerata (BRA, GD, and JB grown in a hydroponic system for 7 and 14 days. Differences in root morphology and dry mass production were observed among the three accessions in response to excessive Zn. Some growth parameters of GD accession increased with the addition of Zn, ranging from 36 to 79 µM. However, the GD and JB accessions presented reduction in dry mass production, root area, length, and volume with increasing Zn levels. The BRA accession, which had the lowest growth among accessions, presented chlorotic leaves. The shoot/root dry mass ratio and root diameter increased linearly for BRA and GD accessions at 7 days. Based on the evaluated parameters, we observed the following order of Zn excess tolerance in P. glomerata accessions: GD> JB> BRA.

  11. Effect of K-N-humates on dry matter production and nutrient use efficiency of maize in Sarawak, Malaysia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrus, Auldry Chaddy; Ahmed, Osumanu Haruna; Muhamad, Ab Majid Nik; Nasir, Hassan Mohammad; Jiwan, Make

    2010-07-06

    Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW), is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer), which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS), but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots) were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6) showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials) causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from fertilizer to

  12. Effect of K-N-Humates on Dry Matter Production and Nutrient Use Efficiency of Maize in Sarawak, Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Auldry Chaddy Petrus

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Agricultural waste, such as sago waste (SW, is one of the sources of pollution to streams and rivers in Sarawak, particularly those situated near sago processing plants. In addition, unbalanced and excessive use of chemical fertilizers can cause soil and water pollution. Humic substances can be used as organic fertilizers, which reduce pollution. The objectives of this study were to produce K- and ammonium-based organic fertilizer from composted SW and to determine the efficiency of the organic-based fertilizer produced. Humic substances were isolated using standard procedures. Liquid fertilizers were formulated except for T2 (NPK fertilizer, which was in solid form. There were six treatments with three replications. Organic fertilizers were applied to soil in pots on the 10th day after sowing (DAS, but on the 28th DAS, only plants of T2 were fertilized. The plant samples were harvested on the 57th DAS during the tassel stage. The dry matter of plant parts (leaves, stems, and roots were determined and analyzed for N, P, and K using standard procedures. Soil of every treatment was also analyzed for exchangeable K, Ca, Mg, and Na, organic matter, organic carbon, available P, pH, total N, P, nitrate and ammonium contents using standard procedures. Treatments with humin (T5 and T6 showed remarkable results on dry matter production; N, P, and K contents; their uptake; as well as their use efficiency by maize. The inclusion of humin might have loosened the soil and increased the soil porosity, hence the better growth of the plants. Humin plus inorganic fertilizer provided additional nutrients for the plants. The addition of inorganic fertilizer into compost is a combination of quick and slow release sources, which supplies N throughout the crop growth period. Common fertilization by surface application of T2 without any additives (acidic and high CEC materials causes N and K to be easily lost. High Ca in the soil may have reacted with phosphate from

  13. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  15. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  16. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  17. Organic matter accumulation and community change at the peatland-upland interface: inferences from 14C and 210Pb dated profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilka E. Bauer; Jagtar S. Bhatti; Christopher Swanston; R. Kelman Wieder; Caroline M. Perston

    2009-01-01

    Peatland-margin habitats with organic matter accumulation of 40-150 cm make up a significant but poorly quantified portion of Canada's boreal forest region. Spanning the transition between non-wetland forest and fen proper, these ecosystems represent a zone of complex environmental and vegetation change, yet little is known about their ecological function or...

  18. Chemical composition, anti-oxidative activity and in vitro dry matter degradability of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravleen Kour

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Fruit processing and consumption yield a significant amount of by-products as waste, which can be used as potential nutrient suppliers for livestock. “Kinnow” (Citrus nobilis Lour x Citrus deliciosa Tenora is one of the most important citrus fruit crops of North Indian States. Its residues are rich in carbohydrates but poor in protein and account for approximately 55-60% of the raw weight of the fruit. Present study assessed the chemical composition and anti-oxidative activity of Kinnow mandarin fruit waste (KMW and scrutinized the impact of dietary incorporation of variable levels of KMW on in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD. Materials and Methods: Sun dried and ground KMW was analyzed for proximate composition, fibre fractions and calcium and phosphorus content. Antioxidant potential of KMW as total phenolic count and 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH scavenging activity was assayed in an alcoholic extract of KMW. The effect of inclusion of KMW at variable levels (0-40% in the isonitrogenous concentrate mixtures on in vitro degradability of composite feed (concentrate mixture:Wheat straw; 40:60 was also carried out. Results: KMW after sun-drying contained 92.05% dry matter. The crude protein content of 7.60% indicates it being marginal in protein content, whereas nitrogen free extract content of 73.69% suggests that it is primarily a carbonaceous feedstuff. This observation was also supported by low neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber content of 26.35% and 19.50%, respectively. High calcium content (0.92% vis-à-vis low phosphorus content (0.08%, resulted in wide Ca:P ratio (11.5 in KMW. High anti-oxidative potential of KMW is indicated by total phenolic content values of 17.1±1.04 mg gallic acid equivalents/g and DPPH free radicle scavenging activity 96.2 μg/ml (effective concentration 50. Mean IVDMD% of all the composite rations was found to be comparable (p>0.05 irrespective of the level of KMW inclusion

  19. Effect of Drought Stress at Pre and Post-anthesis on Dry Matter Accumulation of Grains in Irrigated Winter Wheat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sh. Elyasi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigating assimilate contribution and grain filling pattern in winter wheat is importance under drought stress condition. This study was conducted to evaluate the relationship between drought stress on grain filling and yield of 4 cultivars including MV17 (dwarf, Alvand, Shahryar (semi-dwarf and Toos (tall. Experimental design was randomized complete block with three replications. Drought stress assigned to main plots and cultivars to sub plots. Growth curve sampling started at 7 days after anthesis with 4 days interval. In pre-anthesis drought stress Alvand produced highest yield, while it was 29.14% less than control treatment. The yield of Toos cultivar was lowest at pre-anthesis drought stress. Rate of grain filling of Toos cultivar did not change at pre-anthesis drought stress. Drought stress treatment at post-anthesis decreased rate of grain filling in all cultivars as compared to control, but it was significant only Toos c.v. In pre-anthesis drought stress grain filling duration increased in Alvand but decreased in Toos. Alvand with higher rate of grain filling produced highest grain yield (3850 kg/ha. It can be concluded that, drought stress decreases grain filling duration and rate of grain filling.

  20. Repeatability, number of harvests, and phenotypic stability of dry matter yield and quality traits of Panicum maximum jacq.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Duarte Fernandes

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Selection of superior forage genotypes is based on agronomic traits assayed in repeated measures. The questions are how repeatable the performance of individual genotypes is and how many harvests are needed to select the best genotypes. The objectives were to estimate repeatability coefficients of dry matter yield (DMY and forage quality, their phenotypic stability and the number of harvests needed for an accurate selection. Two randomized complete block design experiments data with 24 genotypes each, undergoing 12 and 16 harvests, over a period of 2 and 3 years, respectively, were used. The DMY repeatability estimates ranged from 0.42 to 0.55, suggesting a low heritability. The mean numbers of repeated measures were 5 and 7 harvests for 0.80 and 0.85 accuracy, respectively. The inclusion of the first two harvests negatively affects the estimates. Repeatability for quality traits ranged from 0.30 to 0.69, indicating low to moderate heritability.

  1. Metabolisable protein supply to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Hellwing, Anne Louise Frydendahl; Lund, Peter

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this experiment was to study the effect of increased dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage, obtained by extending the pre-wilting period before ensiling, on the amount of metabolisable protein (MP) supplied to lactating dairy cows. Spring growth and first regrowth of grass...... and faeces, respectively, were collected over 94 h to cover the diurnal variation, pooled, and subsequently analysed. Rumen fluid was collected in same sampling procedure. To estimate the duodenal flow of microbial protein, microbes were isolated from the rumen and analysed for amino acids (AA) and purines...... flow of AA. The higher duodenal flow of AA derived from a lower rumen degradation of feed protein and a tendency towards a higher microbial synthesis in the rumen. Fibre digestibility and CH4 production were not affected by silage DM concentration. In conclusion, MP concentration in grass-clover silage...

  2. Comparing oxidative and dilute acid wet explosion pretreatment of Cocksfoot grass at high dry matter concentration for cellulosic ethanol production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Njoku, Stephen Ikechukwu; Uellendahl, Hinrich; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2013-01-01

    into cellulose monomeric C6 sugars was achieved for WEx condition AC-E (180°C, 15 min, and 0.2% sulfuric acid). For that condition, the highest ethanol yield of 197 g/kg DM (97% of theoretical maximum value) was achieved for SSF process by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, the highest concentration...... of hemicellulose C5 sugars was found for WEx pretreatment condition O2-A (160°C, 15 min, and 6 bar O2) which means that the highest potential ethanol yield was found at this moderate pretreatment condition with oxygen added. Increasing the pretreatment temperature to 180–190°C with addition of oxygen or dilute...... was investigated for cellulosic ethanol production. The biomass raw materials were pretreated using wet explosion (WEx) at 25% dry matter concentration with addition of oxygen or dilute sulfuric acid. The enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose was significantly improved after pretreatment. The highest conversion...

  3. Models to quantify excretion of dry matter, nitrogen, phosphorus and carbon in growing pigs fed regional diets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Henry; Poulsen, Hanne Damgaard; Prapaspongsa, Trakarn

    2013-01-01

    used in a digestibility and balance experiment. Excretion of dry matter (DM), nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P) and carbon (C) of the experimental diets were determined. Due to the highest dietary fibre content, VN had the lowest digestibility of N, P and C (73, 49, and 73%, respectively) compared......Modern pig production contributes to many environmental problems that relate to manure, especially in areas with highly intensive production systems and in regions like Asia where the regulative control is not effective. Therefore, the objective of this study was to use three different pig diets...... varying in dietary protein, fibre and fat as representative for Danish (DK), Thai (TH) and Vietnamese (VN) pig production to develop and evaluate different approaches to predict/calculate excretion from growing pigs in comparison with the experimentally determined values. Nine female growing pigs were...

  4. Importance of NDF digestibility of whole crop maize silage for dry matter intake and milk production in dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krämer, Monika; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    The importance of maize silage as a feed component in cattle rations and for biogas production has substantially increased. Whole crop maize silage is a forage with a high starch concentration, but also the cell wall fraction, commonly analysed as neutral detergent fibre (aNDFom) is a major energy...... source for use in ruminant nutrition. Even though ruminants require forage fibre to maintain rumen function and maximize productivity, excess fibre limits feed intake due to its contribution to physical fill in the rumen. As feed intake is the most important factor for milk production, both a......NDFom concentration and aNDFom digestibility are key determinants of the nutritive value of a diet. Therefore, the importance of maize silage aNDFom digestibility on nutritive value, dry matter (DM) intake (DMI) and milk production was investigated in a literature review across a wide range of studies varying...

  5. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  6. Optical crop sensor for variable-rate nitrogen fertilization in corn: i - plant nutrition and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jardes Bragagnolo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Variable-rate nitrogen fertilization (VRF based on optical spectrometry sensors of crops is a technological innovation capable of improving the nutrient use efficiency (NUE and mitigate environmental impacts. However, studies addressing fertilization based on crop sensors are still scarce in Brazilian agriculture. This study aims to evaluate the efficiency of an optical crop sensor to assess the nutritional status of corn and compare VRF with the standard strategy of traditional single-rate N fertilization (TSF used by farmers. With this purpose, three experiments were conducted at different locations in Southern Brazil, in the growing seasons 2008/09 and 2010/11. The following crop properties were evaluated: above-ground dry matter production, nitrogen (N content, N uptake, relative chlorophyll content (SPAD reading, and a vegetation index measured by the optical sensor N-Sensor® ALS. The plants were evaluated in the stages V4, V6, V8, V10, V12 and at corn flowering. The experiments had a completely randomized design at three different sites that were analyzed separately. The vegetation index was directly related to above-ground dry matter production (R² = 0.91; p<0.0001, total N uptake (R² = 0.87; p<0.0001 and SPAD reading (R² = 0.63; p<0.0001 and inversely related to plant N content (R² = 0.53; p<0.0001. The efficiency of VRF for plant nutrition was influenced by the specific climatic conditions of each site. Therefore, the efficiency of the VRF strategy was similar to that of the standard farmer fertilizer strategy at sites 1 and 2. However, at site 3 where the climatic conditions were favorable for corn growth, the use of optical sensors to determine VRF resulted in a 12 % increase in N plant uptake in relation to the standard fertilization, indicating the potential of this technology to improve NUE.

  7. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei Gao

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID of dry matter, crude protein (CP, and amino acids (AA of cottonseed meal (CSM, sunflower seed meal (SFSM and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01. The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01. Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  8. Rumen Degradability and Post-ruminal Digestion of Dry Matter, Nitrogen and Amino Acids of Three Protein Supplements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Wei; Chen, Aodong; Zhang, Bowen; Kong, Ping; Liu, Chenli; Zhao, Jie

    2015-04-01

    This study evaluated the in situ ruminal degradability, and subsequent small intestinal digestibility (SID) of dry matter, crude protein (CP), and amino acids (AA) of cottonseed meal (CSM), sunflower seed meal (SFSM) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) by using the modified three-step in vitro procedure. The ruminal degradability and subsequent SID of AA in rumen-undegradable protein (RUP-AA) varied among three protein supplements. The result show that the effective degradability of DM for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 60.8%, 56.4%, and 41.0% and their ruminal fermentable organic matter was 60.0%, 55.9%, and 39.9%, respectively. The ruminal degradable protein (RDP) content in CP for SFSM, CSM, and DDGS was 68.3%, 39.0%, and 32.9%, respectively, at the ruminal solid passage rate of 1.84%/h. The SFSM is a good source of RDP for rumen micro-organisms; however, the SID of RUP of SFSM was lower. The DDGS and CSM are good sources of RUP for lambs to digest in the small intestine to complement ruminal microbial AA of growing lambs. Individual RUP-AA from each protein source was selectively removed by the rumen micro-organisms, especially for Trp, Arg, His, and Lys (p<0.01). The SID of individual RUP-AA was different within specific RUP origin (p<0.01). Limiting amino acid was Leu for RUP of CSM and Lys for both RUP of SFSM and DDGS, respectively. Therefore, different protein supplements with specific limitations should be selected and combined carefully in growing lambs ration to optimize AA balance.

  9. Effect of zinc and phosphorus on dry matter yield, uptake and utilization of 65Zn on Maize (Zea Mays L.) grown in a molli-soil

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joshi, Megha; Shri Ram; Joshi, G.C.

    2013-01-01

    Zinc uptake and its utilization by Maize (Zea mays L.) variety Pragati using radiotracer 65 Zn technique along with varying levels of phosphorus treatments on dry matter yield was studied. The gamma activity was measured by calibrated NaI(Tl) gamma ray spectrometer. It was observed that zinc uptake in treatment T 2 found to be higher. However, treatment T 6 showed good growth parameters and dry matter yield. The 65 Zn activity was found maximum in roots and minimum in the leaves of maize plant. (author)

  10. Effect of Electron Beam Irradiation on Degradability Coefficients and Ruminalpostruminal Digestibility of Dry Matter and Crude Protein of some Plant Protein Sources

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    gasem tahan

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Effect of electron beam irradiation on degradability coefficients and ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein of soybean meal, canola meal and Lathyrus sativus seed, irradiated at doses of 50, 100 and 150 kGy was investigated. Ruminal degradability of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ method using two cannulated Holstein heifers. Ruminal- postruminal digestibility of dry matter and crude protein was determined by in situ (nylon bag-in vitro (daisy digestor techniques. Data analyzed using SAS software as randomized completely design and the treatment means were compared using Tukey test. The results indicated that irradiation had no effect on dry matter, ether extract and ash content of feeds. In soybean meal, washout fraction and potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was higher and lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than other treatments, respectively, and degradation rate constant and ruminal effective degradability of dry matter and crude protein was lower at all doses of irradiation than untreated soybean meal. In canola meal, irradiation at doses of 50 and 100 kGy decreased washout fraction and increased potentially degradable fraction of crude protein compared with untreated canola meal. In Lathyrus sativus seed, only potentially degradable fraction of dry matter and crude protein was lower at dose of 150 kGy irradiation than untreated Lathyrus sativus seed. Ruminal digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. Total tract digestibility of crude protein decreased in soybean meal at dose of 150 kGy irradiation and for canola meal at all doses of irradiation than untreated samples. In Lathyrus sativus seed, ruminal-postruminal digestibility and total tract digestibility of dry matter increased at doses of 100 and 150 kGy irradiation than untreated

  11. Development of decontamination system for radioactive matter on paved road using dry ice blast method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagamine, Haruo; Wakayama, Masanori; Nakamura, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    As a decontamination method for paved road surface, the 'Dry Ice Blast Decontamination System' has been developed. This decontamination system has characteristic as follows; 1) Generation of decontamination waste is extremely small, 2) not using water, 3) not damaging the pavement surface. In actual decontamination work, more than 60% average (maximum 84%) reduction rate of the radiation counting rate has been achieved. In addition to these features, this system prevent the diffusion into the surrounding and the radiation exposure of workers by sucking waste quickly using attached dust collecting function. This system is also characterized in that it does not cause a difference in skill by the operator because of faceted decontamination using repetitive motion by concatenating three pellet injection nozzle and self-propelled decontamination machine. (author)

  12. Selenium accumulation by plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J.

    2016-01-01

    Background Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate 100 mg Se kg–1 dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000–15 000 mg Se kg–1 dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. Scope This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. Conclusions The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible tissues, which

  13. Statistical models for prediction of dry weight and nitrogen accumulation based on visible and near-infrared hyper-spectral reflectance of rice canopies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Takahashi, W.; Nguyen-Cong, V.; Kawaguchi, S.; Minamiyama, M.; Ninomiya, S.

    2000-01-01

    Various multivariate regression models were examined with ten-fold cross-validation to develop efficient, accurate models to predict dry weight and nitrogen accumulation of rice crops (cultivars Koshihikari, Hanaechizen, Nipponbare, and IR-36) from the maximum tiller number stage to the meiosis stage, using plant-canopy reflectance of hyper-spectra within the 400-1100 nm domain without any variable selection. The results showed that the principal component regression using hyper-spectra gave better fits and predictability than that using specific wavelengths. On the other hand, partial least squares regression was the most useful among the models tested; this method avoided overfitting and multicollinearity by using all wavelength information without variable selection and by inclusion of both x and y variations in its latent variables. (author)

  14. Depositional environment and organic matter accumulation of Upper Ordovician–Lower Silurian marine shale in the Upper Yangtze Platform, South China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yangfang; Zhang, Tongwei; Ellis, Geoffrey S.; Shao, Deyong

    2017-01-01

    The main controlling factors of organic matter accumulation in the Upper Ordovician Wufeng–Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formations are complex and remain highly controversial. This study investigates the vertical variation of total organic carbon (TOC) content as well as major and trace element concentrations of four Ordovician–Silurian transition sections from the Upper Yangtze Platform of South China to reconstruct the paleoenvironment of these deposits and to improve our understanding of those factors that have influenced organic matter accumulation in these deposits.The residual TOC content of the Wufeng Formation averages 3.2% and ranges from 0.12 to 6.0%. The overlying lower Longmaxi Formation displays higher TOC content (avg. 4.4%), followed upsection by consistent and lower values that average 1.6% in the upper Longmaxi Formation. The concentration and covariation of redox-sensitive trace elements (Mo, U and V) suggest that organic-rich intervals of the Wufeng Formation accumulated under predominantly anoxic conditions. Organic-rich horizons of the lower Longmaxi Formation were deposited under strongly anoxic to euxinic conditions, whereas organic-poor intervals of the upper Longmaxi Formation accumulated under suboxic conditions. Positive correlations between redox proxies and TOC contents suggest that organic matter accumulation was predominantly controlled by preservation. Barium excess (Baxs) values indicate high paleoproductivity throughout the entire depositional sequence, with an increase in the lower Longmaxi Formation. Increased productivity may have been induced by enhanced P recycling, as evidenced by elevated Corg/Ptot ratios. Mo–U covariation and Mo/TOC values reveal that the Wufeng Formation was deposited under extremely restricted conditions, whereas the Longmaxi Formation accumulated under moderately restricted conditions. During the Late Ordovician, the extremely restricted nature of ocean circulation on the Upper Yangtze Platform in

  15. Matter accumulation and changes of assimilation product transport and carbohydrate regime in barley plants as induced by infection with Puccinia striiformis West

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schubert, J. (Akademie der Landwirtschaftswissenschaften der DDR, Aschersleben. Inst. fuer Phytopathologie)

    1982-01-01

    Accumulation of nuclides (/sup 32/P, /sup 14/C), /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation and /sup 14/C transport were studied in several barley cultivars differing in their resistance to yellow rust. Increased matter accumulation was found in the rust pustules. Mycelium was proved by means of autoradiography. Infection causes changes with regard to /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ assimilation, carbohydrate regime and transport of /sup 14/C assimilation products. Certain relationships exist between these changes and plant resistance to yellow rust. During germination the rust uredospores release substances, particularly amino acids, to be transported in the plant.

  16. Texture of cooked potatoes (Solanum tuberosum). 1. Relationships between dry matter content, sensory-perceived texture and near-infrared spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dijk, van C.; Fischer, M.; Holm, J.; Beekhuizen, J.G.; Stolle-Smits, T.; Boeriu, C.

    2002-01-01

    Properties of fresh potatoes, including dry matter (DM) content, starch content, and near-infrared (NIR) spectra, were determined and related to the sensory-perceived texture of the steam-cooked samples. To quantify these relationships, three potato cultivars, respectively representing a firm

  17. Amino acid profile of metabolisable protein in lactating dairy cows is affected by dry matter concentration in grass-clover silage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Johansen, Marianne; Lund, Peter; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2018-01-01

    Our previous study showed that supply of metabolisable protein (MP) to lactating dairy cows increased with increasing dry matter (DM) concentration in grass-clover silage. The aim of this study was to examine how amino acid (AA) profile of MP was affected by silage DM concentration. Eight grass-c...

  18. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  19. Milk yield and composition, dry matter intake and blood parameters of Holstein cows fed ensiled apple pomace co-ensiled with broiler litter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Osman Azizi, Osman; Karimi, Shahram; Sadeghi, Ghorbanali

    2014-01-01

    The present study was carried out to evaluate the effects of ensiled mixed apple pomace and broiler litter (EAPBL) on milk yield (MY) and composition, dry matter intake (DMI) and blood parameters at early lactation cow. Four multiparous early-lactating Holstein dairy cows were used in a 4×4 Latin...

  20. Restricting access time at pasture and time of grazing allocation for Holstein dairy cows: Ingestive behaviour, dry matter intake and milk production

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mattiauda, D.A.; Tamminga, S.; Gibb, M.J.; Soca, P.; Bentancur, O.; Chilibroste, P.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the effects of restricting access time to pasture and time of grazing allocation on grazing behaviour, daily dry matter intake (DMI), rumen fermentation, milk production and composition in dairy cows. Twenty-one autumn-calving Holstein cows were assigned to

  1. NUMBER OF COWS AND BAGS NEEDED TO ESTIMATE in situ DRY MATTER DEGRADATION OF KINGGRASS (Pennisetum purpureum LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Epigmenio Castillo-Gallegos

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The number of bags to be incubated per sample, and the number of fistulated cows needed to estimate in situ ruminal degradation of Kinggrass (Pennisetum purpureum dry matter (DMD % were determined. Three rumen-fistulated cows and 10 bags per incubation time (3, 6, 9, 12, 24, 48 and 72 h were used. Five grams of dried leaves were weighed per bag. Variance components for cows (Vc and bags (Vb per incubation time were estimated and used to calculate the standard error (SE of mean DMD. The adequate number of bags to be used was the one that produced a value of 1 % (SE of the study. Precision increased as the number of cows increased, with mean SE of 1.66, 1.18 and 0.96 % for one, two and three cows, respectively. Precision remained more or less constant for incubation times of 3, 6, 9, 12 and 48 h, with respective values of 0.93, 0.81, 1.05, 0.92 and 1.08 %. The SE values doubled at 24 (2.15 and 72 (1.92 h. The EE diminished as the number of bags increased, being the values higher for one cow than for two or three cows, but these differences were slight when 10 bags were used. The use of two cows seems reasonable, since the increase in precision from one to two cows was greater than from two to three cows. Three bags were the minimum necessary to estimate the SE value of 1%.

  2. Wheat cultivars selected for high Fv /Fm under heat stress maintain high photosynthesis, total chlorophyll, stomatal conductance, transpiration and dry matter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2015-02-01

    The chlorophyll fluorescence parameter Fv /Fm reflects the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (PSII) photochemistry and has been widely used for early stress detection in plants. Previously, we have used a three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm to identify naturally existing genetic variation for tolerance to severe heat stress (3 days at 40°C in controlled conditions) in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Here we investigated the performance of the previously selected cultivars (high and low group based on Fv /Fm value) in terms of growth and photosynthetic traits under moderate heat stress (1 week at 36/30°C day/night temperature in greenhouse) closer to natural heat waves in North-Western Europe. Dry matter accumulation after 7 days of heat stress was positively correlated to Fv /Fm . The high Fv /Fm group maintained significantly higher total chlorophyll and net photosynthetic rate (PN ) than the low group, accompanied by higher stomatal conductance (gs ), transpiration rate (E) and evaporative cooling of the leaf (ΔT). The difference in PN between the groups was not caused by differences in PSII capacity or gs as the variation in Fv /Fm and intracellular CO2 (Ci ) was non-significant under the given heat stress. This study validated that our three-tiered approach of phenotyping by Fv /Fm performed under increasing severity of heat was successful in identifying wheat cultivars differing in photosynthesis under moderate and agronomically more relevant heat stress. The identified cultivars may serve as a valuable resource for further studies to understand the physiological mechanisms underlying the genetic variability in heat sensitivity of photosynthesis. © 2014 Scandinavian Plant Physiology Society.

  3. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and dry matter digestibility of stylo ( stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuejuan Zi

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of stylo. Methods The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. Results The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Conclusion Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  4. Dry matter digestibility and metabolizable energy of crude glycerines originated from palm oil using fed rooster assay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Astiari Tia Legawa

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted to determine the dry matter digestibility, gross energy (GE, the nitrogen-corrected apparent metabolizable energy (AMEn, and the nitrogen-corrected true metabolizable energy (TMEn of two crude glycerine from two different sources. The first crude glycerine (CG1 was from a large scale biodiesel producer with high content of glycerol (89.49% and low content of crude fat (1.73%, meanwhile the second crude glycerine (CG2 was from a medium scale biodiesel producer with lower content of glycerol than CG1 (38.36% and high content of crude fat (23.63%. Fed rooster assay based on Sibbald (1976 was used in the experiment. The experimental feed consisted of ground corn and three levels of crude glycerine (0, 10, and 20%. Twenty four Hisex brown roosters were housed in metabolic cages. Roosters were force fed with 30 g experimental feed, after 24 hours of fasting. Excreta collection was performed for two days while the roosters were fasting again. The content values of GE, AMEn, and TMEn of CG1 were 4065.18, 2926.59, and 3068.73 kcal kg-1 and for CG2 were 5928.09, 4010.11, and 4054.52 kcal kg, respectively.

  5. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  6. Effects of a wax organogel and alginate gel complex on holy basil (Ocimum sanctum) in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Templeman, James R; Rogers, Michael A; Cant, John P; McBride, Brian W; Osborne, Vern R

    2018-02-20

    The objectives of this study were to: (a) select an ideal organogel for the oil phase of a novel gel encapsulation technology, (b) optimize the formulation of an organogel and sodium alginate-based gel complex, and (c) examine the rumen protective ability of the gel by measuring 48-h in vitro ruminal dry matter disappearance and gas production from encapsulated dried and ground holy basil leaves. A rice-bran wax and canola oil organogel was selected for the oil phase of the gel complex as this combination had a 48-h dry matter disappearance of 6%, the lowest of all organogels analyzed. The gel complex was formulated by homogenizing the organogel with a sodium alginate solution to create a low-viscosity oil-in-water emulsion. Average dry matter disappearance of gel-encapsulated holy basil was 19%, compared to 42% for the free, unprotected holy basil. However, gel encapsulation of holy basil stimulated gas production. Specifically, gas production of encapsulated holy basil was four times higher than the treatment with holy basil added on top of the gel prior to incubation rather than encapsulated within the gel. Although the gel itself was highly degradable, it is speculated encapsulation thwarted holy basil's antimicrobial activity. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. The fate of the dry matter, carbohydrates and 14C lost from the leaves and stems of wheat during grain filling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Austin, R.B.; Edrich, J.A.; Ford, M.A.; Blackwell, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    In a field study with six winter wheat genotypes losses of dry matter from the stems between 30 June and maturity averaged 172 g m - 2 (range 82 to 256), there being significant differences in loss between genotypes. Respiration from the stems during the same period was estimated to amount to 106 g m -2 (range 104 to 225). The amount of dry matter mobilized from the stems, calculated by difference, was estimated as 66 g m -2 . The loss of ethanol- and water-soluble carbohydrate from the stems (170 g m -2 ; range 124 to 215) was very similar to the dry weight loss. Carbon-14 labelling was used to trace the time course and the amount of the movement of assimilates from the vegetative organs to the grain. Only 14.3 per cent (range 10.3 to 21.0) of the products of photosynthesis over the period 21 May to 20 June were relocated to the grains. This relocation amounted to an average of 7 per cent (range 5.7 to 11.4) of the final grain weight. It was estimated that during the 18 days following anthesis on 20 June photosynthesis contributed 48 per cent (range 39 to 55) of the final grain dry weight. Of this, about half was translocated to the grain within 10 days of initial assimilation. The remainder appeared to be stored temporarily in the stems and leaves and translocated to the grains during the period 17 to 29 July. In general, relocation of dry matter from the vegetative organs to the grains, assessed by carbon-14 labelling, was greatest in those genotypes (Hobbit and Sportsman) which lost most dry weight from the stems and leaves. (author)

  8. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingxin; Zheng, Youfei; He, Yuhong; Wu, Rongjun; Mai, Boru; Kang, Hanqing

    2016-01-01

    Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L.) at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb), with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system). These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2) = 0.85 & T2: R(2) = 0.89) of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2) of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter loss in winter

  9. The Effect of Elevated Ozone Concentrations with Varying Shading on Dry Matter Loss in a Winter Wheat-Producing Region in China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jingxin Xu

    Full Text Available Surface-level ozone pollution causes crop production loss by directly reducing healthy green leaf area available for carbon fixation. Ozone and its precursors also affect crop photosynthesis indirectly by decreasing solar irradiance. Pollutants are reported to have become even more severe in Eastern China over the last ten years. In this study, we investigated the effect of a combination of elevated ozone concentrations and reduced solar irradiance on a popular winter wheat Yangmai13 (Triticum aestivum L. at field and regional levels in China. Winter wheat was grown in artificial shading and open-top-chamber environments. Treatment 1 (T1, i.e., 60% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, Treatment 2 (T2, i.e., 20% shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, and Control Check Treatment (CK, i.e., no shading with an enhanced ozone of 100±9 ppb, with two plots under each, were established to investigate the response of winter wheat under elevated ozone concentrations and varying solar irradiance. At the field level, linear temporal relationships between dry matter loss and cumulative stomatal ozone uptake were first established through a parameterized stomatal-flux model. At the regional level, ozone concentrations and meteorological variables, including solar irradiance, were simulated using the WRF-CMAQ model (i.e., a meteorology and air quality modeling system. These variables were then used to estimate cumulative stomatal ozone uptake for the four major winter wheat-growing provinces. The regional-level cumulative ozone uptake was then used as the independent variable in field data-based regression models to predict dry matter loss over space and time. Field-level results showed that over 85% (T1: R(2 = 0.85 & T2: R(2 = 0.89 of variation in dry matter loss was explained by cumulative ozone uptake. Dry matter was reduced by 3.8% in T1 and 2.2% in T2 for each mmol O3·m(-2 of cumulative ozone uptake. At the regional level, dry matter

  10. Dry matter yield and forage quality traits of oat (Avena sativa L. under integrative use of microbial and synthetic source of nitrogen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Bilal

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The natural microbes are potential contributor to build up soil nitrogen through transformation of molecular nitrogen to plant available forms. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the contribution of biofertilizer to reduce the synthetic nitrogen application without deteriorating the yield and forage quality. The supplementary nitrogen rates included 0, 40, 80 and 120 kg ha−1 and the seed inoculation was carried out with the mixture of Azospirillum + Azotobacter spp. The experiment was laid out in randomized complete block design with factorial arrangement. The results indicated that organic matter contents and ether extractable fat were negatively associated with both nitrogen and inoculation factors. The inoculation produced 6.58%, 9.58%, 2.51%, 16.94%, 10.26%, 17.59%, 14.02%, 33.81% and 66.18% more No. tillers, plant height, leaf to stem ratio, dry matter yield, mineral matter contents, crude fibre, crude protein, crude protein yield and total digestible crude protein yield, respectively over uninoculation. The interactive effects indicated that inoculation alone without nitrogen application produced 19.16% and 6.87% more dry matter yield and crude protein (%, respectively. The beneficiary effects of biofertilizers on growth and dry matter of oat were more pronounced at intermediate level of inorganic nitrogen which was gradually decreased at higher nitrogen levels. The CP, CPY and DCPY achieved with inoculation alone were statistically equivalent to plots fertilized with 0 and 40 kg N ha−1. It is clear that plots sown with inoculated seeds must be fertilized with 80 kg N to produce higher dry matter and economic returns. However, the highest protein contents in dry matter were recorded with highest fertilization level along with inoculation. By giving due attention to stimulatory effects of bacterial species in the present study, it is therefore, recommended to integrate the use of biofertilizers with supplemental

  11. The Effects of Arbuscular Mycorrhiza Fungi on Dry Matter and Concentrations of Nitrogen, Phosphorus and Potassium in Berseem Clover, by Cadmium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    hashem aram

    2016-02-01

    Zanjan, after the complete analysis of soil and obtaining the chemical and physical properties in the laboratory. 6 kg of soil was weighed for each pot and then the soil was contaminated. Cadmium sulfate was used in this experiment. The mycorrhizal fungi weighed 150 grams and was mixed with the soil. After mixing the soil with mycorrhizal fungi, the soil was put in pots and then it was cultivated with clover. In this study, clover seeds weighed 0/5 grams and were disinfected with 10% hydrogen peroxide solution and were added to each pot. Distilled water was used for irrigation. After the completion of growth of plants (about 70 day, plant aerial parts and roots were harvested and before measuring, they were washed with distilled water and then were dried in the oven for 72 hours. Plant aerial parts were harvested. Data were analyzed by SAS (version 9 and MSTATC (version 2.10 software, and obtained variance analysis tables. Mean comparison of different treatments was conducted by Duncan test. Charts were obtained by excel software. Results and Discussion: The results showed that the effects of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured (P< 0.01. With increasing cadmium concentration in soil, dry matter of 37% and 39%, nitrogen concentration of 35% and 28%, Potassium 9/27% and 37%, and phosphorus concentration of 37% and 39%, reduced in root and aerial, respectively. Also the results showed that arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi increased dry matter amount by 42% and 26%, nitrogen concentration by 40.3% and 30%, phosphorus concentration by 6% and 15.4%, potassium concentrations by 54% and 91.2% in root and aerial, respectively. Interaction between cadmium levels and mycorrhizal fungi in statistics was significant on dry matter aerial, nitrogen concentration in aerial and root, and potassium concentrations in plant root (P< 0.01. Conclusion: The results showed that mycorrhizal fungi were significant on all traits measured in one percent level. Cadmium

  12. Relationship between environmental factors, dry matter loss and mycotoxin levels in stored wheat and maize infected with Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Sulyok, Michael; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between storage environmental factors (water activity (a(w)) (0.89-0.97) and temperature (15°C-30°C)), colonisation of wheat and maize by Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides respectively and the dry matter losses (DMLs) caused and quantified by contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUMs) during storage. Fungal growth was assessed by the amount of CO(2) produced under different interacting conditions of a(w) and temperature. DMLs were quantified using the cumulative CO(2) data, and these were shown to increase as temperature and a(w) increased. The amount of DON, ZEA (wheat for human consumption) and FUMs (feed maize) produced was significantly affected by the storage conditions. The three toxins however showed different patterns of production. Optimum for DON was at the wettest conditions (0.97a(w)) and the highest temperature assessed (30°C), whereas for ZEA this shifted to 25°C. FUMs were produced in higher amounts in maize at 30°C and 0.97a(w); however, at intermediate a(w) levels (0.955a(w)), the highest production occurred at 25°C followed by 20°C. Polynomial models were developed for the effect of the storage factors on DMLs and toxin production. DMLs under different environmental conditions were significantly correlated with DON and FUMs. DON contamination was above the EU limits in at least 80% of the wheat samples with DMLs >1%, whereas at least 70% of the same samples contained ZEA above the respective EU legislative limits. Similarly, at least 75% of the maize samples with DMLs ≥ 0.9% exceeded the EU limits for the sum of FUMs in feed. These results show that it may be possible to use temporal CO(2) production during storage of grains as an indicator of the level of contamination of the grain with mycotoxins.

  13. White clover fractions as protein source for monogastrics: dry matter digestibility and protein digestibility-corrected amino acid scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stødkilde, Lene; Damborg, Vinni K; Jørgensen, Henry; Laerke, Helle N; Jensen, Søren K

    2018-05-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the use of white clover as an alternative protein source for monogastrics. White clover plant and leaves were processed using a screw-press resulting in a solid pulp and a juice from which protein was acid-precipitated. The chemical composition of all fractions was determined and digestibility of dry matter (DM) and protein was assessed in an experiment with growing rats. Protein concentrates were produced with crude protein (CP) contents of 451 g kg -1 and 530 g kg -1 DM for white clover plant and leaves, respectively, and a pulp with CP contents of 313 and 374 g kg -1 DM from plant and leaves, respectively. The amino acid composition ranged from 4.72 to 6.49 g per 16 g of nitrogen (N) for lysine, 1.82-2.6 g per 16 g N for methionine and cysteine, and 3.66-5.24 g per 16 g N for threonine. True faecal digestibility of protein varied from 0.81 to 0.88, whereas DM digestibility was in the range 0.72-0.80. Methionine and cysteine were found to be limiting in all fractions, regardless of the reference group used. A high digestibility of white clover protein was found irrespective of the physical fractionation. Together with a well-balanced amino acid composition, this makes white clover a promising protein source for monogastrics. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  14. Intravenous lipid infusion affects dry matter intake, methane yield, and rumen bacteria structure in late-lactating Holstein cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamp, Ole; Reyer, Henry; Otten, Winfried; Nürnberg, Gerd; Derno, Michael; Wimmers, Klaus; Metges, Cornelia C; Kuhla, Björn

    2018-03-28

    Increasing the dietary fat content of ruminant diets decreases methane (CH 4 ) production. This effect is caused by the toxic properties of fatty acids on rumen microbial populations, coating of feed particles diminishing the accessibility for microbes, and a reduction in dry matter intake (DMI). The latter effect is caused by postabsorptive long-chain fatty acids eliciting anorexic signaling; however, whether circulating long-chain fatty acids affect rumen CH 4 production alike is unknown. To approach this question, 5 rumen-cannulated Holstein cows in late lactation received 2 jugular catheters and were kept in respiration chambers to measure CH 4 production and DMI for 48 h. In a crossover design, cows were intravenously infused with a 20% lipid emulsion (LIPO) or 0.9% NaCl (CON). The LIPO cows received 2.1 kg of triglycerides/d [0.152 ± 0.007 g of triglycerides/(kg of BW × h) -1 ] consisting of 12.1% palmitic acid, 4.2% stearic acid, 31.1% oleic acid, and 52.7% linoleic acid. Blood and rumen fluid samples were taken hourly during the day. Results showed that LIPO compared with CON infusion increased plasma triglyceride as well as free fatty acid and serotonin concentrations but reduced the proportion of de novo synthesized milk fatty acids (sum of C6 to C16). Daily CH 4 production and DMI were lower, whereas daily CH 4 yield (CH 4 /DMI) was greater in LIPO than CON cows, although CH 4 yield decreased from d 1 to d 2 by 2 to 14% in LIPO-infused cows only. This effect was associated with a higher (acetate + butyrate)/propionate ratio, tending lower propionate concentrations between 24 and 34 h of infusion, reduced relative abundances of genera belonging to Succinivibrio, Ruminococcaceae, and Ruminiclostridium, and greater relative Bacteroidetes genus abundances in the rumen. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Selenium accumulation by plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Philip J

    2016-02-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential mineral element for animals and humans, which they acquire largely from plants. The Se concentration in edible plants is determined by the Se phytoavailability in soils. Selenium is not an essential element for plants, but excessive Se can be toxic. Thus, soil Se phytoavailability determines the ecology of plants. Most plants cannot grow on seleniferous soils. Most plants that grow on seleniferous soils accumulate plant species have evolved tolerance to Se, and commonly accumulate tissue Se concentrations >100 mg Se kg(-1) dry matter. These plants are considered to be Se accumulators. Some species can even accumulate Se concentrations of 1000-15 000 mg Se kg(-1 )dry matter and are called Se hyperaccumulators. This article provides an overview of Se uptake, translocation and metabolism in plants and highlights the possible genetic basis of differences in these between and within plant species. The review focuses initially on adaptations allowing plants to tolerate large Se concentrations in their tissues and the evolutionary origin of species that hyperaccumulate Se. It then describes the variation in tissue Se concentrations between and within angiosperm species and identifies genes encoding enzymes limiting the rates of incorporation of Se into organic compounds and chromosomal loci that might enable the development of crops with greater Se concentrations in their edible portions. Finally, it discusses transgenic approaches enabling plants to tolerate greater Se concentrations in the rhizosphere and in their tissues. The trait of Se hyperaccumulation has evolved several times in separate angiosperm clades. The ability to tolerate large tissue Se concentrations is primarily related to the ability to divert Se away from the accumulation of selenocysteine and selenomethionine, which might be incorporated into non-functional proteins, through the synthesis of less toxic Se metabilites. There is potential to breed or select crops

  16. Effect of curing methods, packaging and gamma irradiation on the weight loss and dry matter percent of garlic during curing and storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mahmoud, A.A.; El-Oksh, I.I.; Farag, S.E.A.

    1988-01-01

    The Egyptian garlic plants, showed higher percent of weight loss at 17 or 27 days from curing compared to those of Chinese plants. The curing period of 17 days seemed satisfactory for the Egyptian cultivar, whereas, 27 days seemed to be enough for the Chinese garlic. No significant differences were observed between common and shaded curing methods in weight loss per cent. The Chinese garlic contained higher dry matter percentage than those of the Egyptian cultivar. Shaded cured plants of the two cultivars contained higher dry matter percent than those subjected to the common curing methods. Irradiation of garlic bulbs, shaded curing method and sack packaging decreased, in general the weight loss during storage in comparison with other treatments

  17. [Influence of an elevation of the temperature of water on the digestibility of dry matter, nitrogen and energy of food distributed to the rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri Rich)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choubert, G; Fauconneau, B; Luquet, P

    1982-01-01

    Rainbow trout adapted to a water temperature of 10 degrees C were subjected to an abrupt rise in temperature (from 10 to 18 degrees C) in a 24-h period. Fish maintained in recirculated water were fed to satiation twice a day and their feed intakes were recorded. Changes in dry matter, nitrogen and energy digestibility were measured each day at 10 degrees C and during the course of acclimatation to 18 degrees C. Low water temperature (10 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 1.84 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 62.15 p. 100, nitrogen 86.91 p. 100, energy 70.60 p. 100. High water temperature (18 degrees C) was characterized by a feed intake of 3.75 g (DM)/fish/day; digestibility values were as follows: dry matter 66.08 p. 100, nitrogen 89.57 p. 100, energy 73.52 p. 100. The daily patterns in digestibility were affected by the rise in temperature. The digestibility values were stabilized by day 7 after the positive thermal shock.

  18. Rate of Decomposition of Organic Matter in Soil as Influenced by Repeated Air Drying-Rewetting and Repeated Additions of Organic Material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Lasse Holst

    1974-01-01

    Repeated air drying and rewetting of three soils followed by incubation at 20°C resulted in an increase in the rate of decomposition of a fraction of 14C labeled organic matter in the soils. The labeled organic matter originated from labeled glucose, cellulose and straw, respectively, metabolized...... of the treatment was least in the soil which had been incubated with the labeled material for the longest time. Additions of unlabeled, decomposable organic material also increased the rate of decomposition of the labeled organic matter. The evolution of labeled CO2 during the 1st month of incubation after...... addition was in some cases 4–10 times larger than the evolution from the controls. During the continued incubation the evolution decreased almost to the level of the controls, indicating that the effect was related to the increased biological activity in the soils during decomposition of the added material...

  19. Effects of dietary energy allowance and decline in dry matter intake during the dry period on responses to glucose and insulin in transition dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salin, S; Vanhatalo, A; Elo, K; Taponen, J; Boston, R C; Kokkonen, T

    2017-07-01

    We assessed whether high energy intake during the early dry period [144% of metabolizable energy (ME) requirements/d] followed by a gradual restriction of energy intake in the close-up dry period (119% of ME/d; HEI) impaired whole-body insulin sensitivity compared with a controlled energy intake (100% of ME/d; CEI) throughout the 6-wk dry period. Multiparous Ayrshire dairy cows (n = 16) were blocked by body weight, body condition score, and expected date of parturition and were used in a randomized complete block design until 10 d after parturition. Cows were fed either HEI or CEI diets based on grass silage during the first 3 wk of the dry period and grass silage supplemented with a commercial concentrate (30% of ME intake) during the final 3 wk of gestation. After calving, all cows were fed grass silage ad libitum and an increasing amount of commercial concentrate (maximum 9 kg at d 10 postpartum). Intravenous glucose tolerance tests (IVGTT) and intravenous insulin challenges were performed -10 ± 5 d (n = 15) and +10 ± 1 d (n = 14) relative to parturition. Following glucose injection, we did not find any treatment effects on glucose and insulin responses. The prepartal nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) response of the HEI group was blunted, basal NEFA and the decrement of NEFA were smaller, and the area under the response curve (AUC) of NEFA was less negative in HEI cows than in CEI cows. The NEFA response reversed after parturition; the NEFA AUC of the HEI group was more negative than that of the CEI group. We did not find similar responses after insulin injection. Across the treatments, NEFA AUC correlated strongly with the basal NEFA concentration during the IVGTT pre- and postpartum. Calculated and model-based indices characterizing the overall glucose tolerance and β-cell function and the insulin sensitivity were higher after parturition than during the dry period. Consistent with the lower basal insulin, the acute insulin release after the glucose infusion

  20. Accuracies of breeding values for dry matter intake using nongenotyped animals and predictor traits in different lactations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manzanilla-Pech, C I V; Veerkamp, R F; de Haas, Y; Calus, M P L; Ten Napel, J

    2017-11-01

    Given the interest of including dry matter intake (DMI) in the breeding goal, accurate estimated breeding values (EBV) for DMI are needed, preferably for separate lactations. Due to the limited amount of records available on DMI, 2 main approaches have been suggested to compute those EBV: (1) the inclusion of predictor traits, such as fat- and protein-corrected milk (FPCM) and live weight (LW), and (2) the addition of genomic information of animals using what is called genomic prediction. Recently, several methodologies to estimate EBV utilizing genomic information (EBV) have become available. In this study, a new method known as single-step ridge-regression BLUP (SSRR-BLUP) is suggested. The SSRR-BLUP method does not have an imposed limit on the number of genotyped animals, as the commonly used methods do. The objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters using a relatively large data set with DMI records, as well as compare the accuracies of the EBV for DMI. These accuracies were obtained using 4 different methods: BLUP (using pedigree for all animals with phenotypes), genomic BLUP (GBLUP; only for genotyped animals), single-step GBLUP (SS-GBLUP), and SSRR-BLUP (for genotyped and nongenotyped animals). Records from different lactations, with or without predictor traits (FPCM and LW), were used in the model. Accuracies of EBV for DMI (defined as the correlation between the EBV and pre-adjusted DMI phenotypes divided by the average accuracy of those phenotypes) ranged between 0.21 and 0.38 across methods and scenarios. Accuracies of EBV for DMI using BLUP were the lowest accuracies obtained across methods. Meanwhile, accuracies of EBV for DMI were similar in SS-GBLUP and SSRR-BLUP, and lower for the GBLUP method. Hence, SSRR-BLUP could be used when the number of genotyped animals is large, avoiding the construction of the inverse genomic relationship matrix. Adding information on DMI from different lactations in the reference population gave higher

  1. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  2. Multipole analysis of IceCube data to search for dark matter accumulated in the Galactic halo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aartsen, M.G.; Hill, G.C.; Robertson, S.; Whelan, B.J. [University of Adelaide, School of Chemistry and Physics, Adelaide, SA (Australia); Ackermann, M.; Berghaus, P.; Bernardini, E.; Bretz, H.P.; Cruz Silva, A.H.; Gluesenkamp, T.; Gora, D.; Jacobi, E.; Kaminsky, B.; Karg, T.; Middell, E.; Mohrmann, L.; Nahnhauer, R.; Schoenwald, A.; Shanidze, R.; Spiering, C.; Stoessl, A.; Terliuk, A.; Yanez, J.P. [DESY, Zeuthen (Germany); Adams, J.; Brown, A.M.; Hickford, S.; Macias, O. [University of Canterbury, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Christchurch (New Zealand); Aguilar, J.A.; Altmann, D.; Christov, A.; Montaruli, T.; Rameez, M.; Vallecorsa, S. [Universite de Geneve, Departement de physique nucleaire et corpusculaire, Geneva (Switzerland); Ahlers, M.; Arguelles, C.; BenZvi, S.; Chirkin, D.; Day, M.; Desiati, P.; Diaz-Velez, J.C.; Eisch, J.; Fadiran, O.; Feintzeig, J.; Gladstone, L.; Halzen, F.; Hoshina, K.; Jacobsen, J.; Jero, K.; Karle, A.; Kauer, M.; Kelley, J.L.; Kheirandish, A.; Kopper, C.; Kurahashi, N.; Larsen, D.T.; Maruyama, R.; McNally, F.; Middlemas, E.; Morse, R.; Rees, I.; Riedel, B.; Rodrigues, J.P.; Santander, M.; Tobin, M.N.; Tosi, D.; Vandenbroucke, J.; Van Santen, J.; Weaver, C.; Wellons, M.; Wendt, C.; Westerhoff, S.; Whitehorn, N. [University of Wisconsin, Department of Physics, Wisconsin IceCube Particle Astrophysics Center, Madison, WI (United States); Ahrens, M.; Bohm, C.; Danninger, M.; Finley, C.; Flis, S.; Hulth, P.O.; Hultqvist, K.; Walck, C.; Wolf, M.; Zoll, M. [Stockholm University, Department of Physics, Oskar Klein Centre, Stockholm (Sweden); Anderson, T.; Arlen, T.C.; De Andre, J.P.A.M.; DeYoung, T.; Dunkman, M.; Eagan, R.; Groh, J.C.; Huang, F.; Quinnan, M.; Smith, M.W.E.; Stanisha, N.A.; Tesic, G. [Pennsylvania State University, Department of Physics, University Park, PA (United States); Auffenberg, J.; Bissok, M.; Blumenthal, J.; Gier, D.; Gretskov, P.; Haack, C.; Hallen, P.; Heinen, D.; Hellwig, D.; Jagielski, K.; Koob, A.; Kriesten, A.; Krings, K.; Leuermann, M.; Paul, L.; Penek, Oe.; Puetz, J.; Raedel, L.; Reimann, R.; Rongen, M.; Schoenen, S.; Schukraft, A.; Vehring, M.; Wallraff, M.; Wichary, C.; Wiebusch, C.H.; Zierke, S. [RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut, Aachen (Germany); Bai, X. [South Dakota School of Mines and Technology, Physics Department, Rapid City, SD (United States); Barwick, S.W.; Yodh, G. [University of California, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Irvine, CA (United States); Baum, V.; Eberhardt, B.; Koepke, L.; Kroll, G.; Luenemann, J.; Sander, H.G.; Schatto, K.; Wiebe, K. [University of Mainz, Institute of Physics, Mainz (Germany); Beatty, J.J. [Ohio State University, Department of Physics, Center for Cosmology and Astro-Particle Physics, Columbus, OH (United States); Ohio State University, Department of Astronomy, Columbus, OH (United States); Becker Tjus, J.; Bos, F.; Eichmann, B.; Fedynitch, A.; Kroll, M.; Saba, S.M.; Schoeneberg, S.; Unger, E. [Ruhr-Universitaet Bochum, Fakultaet fuer Physik und Astronomie, Bochum (Germany); Becker, K.H.; Bindig, D.; Fischer-Wasels, T.; Helbing, K.; Hoffmann, R.; Klaes, J.; Kopper, S.; Naumann, U.; Obertacke, A.; Omairat, A.; Posselt, J.; Soldin, D.; Tepe, A. [University of Wuppertal, Department of Physics, Wuppertal (Germany); Berley, D.; Blaufuss, E.; Christy, B.; Felde, J.; Goodman, J.A.; Hellauer, R.; Hoffman, K.D.; Huelsnitz, W.; Meagher, K.; Olivas, A.; Redl, P.; Richman, M.; Schmidt, T.; Sullivan, G.W.; Wissing, H. [University of Maryland, Department of Physics, College Park, MD (United States); Bernhard, A.; Coenders, S.; Gross, A.; Jurkovic, M.; Leute, J.; Resconi, E.; Schulz, O.; Sestayo, Y. [Technische Universitaet Muenchen, Garching (Germany); Besson, D.Z. [University of Kansas, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Lawrence, KS (United States); Binder, G.; Gerhardt, L.; Ha, C.; Klein, S.R.; Miarecki, S. [University of California, Department of Physics, Berkeley, CA (United States); Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, Berkeley, CA (United States); Boersma, D.J.; Botner, O.; Euler, S.; Hallgren, A.; Perez de los Heros, C.; Stroem, R.; Taavola, H. [Uppsala University, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Uppsala (Sweden); Bose, D.; Rott, C. [Sungkyunkwan University, Department of Physics, Suwon (Korea, Republic of); Collaboration: IceCube Collaboration; and others

    2015-01-01

    Dark matter which is bound in the Galactic halo might self-annihilate and produce a flux of stable final state particles, e.g. high energy neutrinos. These neutrinos can be detected with IceCube, a cubic-kilometer sized Cherenkov detector. Given IceCube's large field of view, a characteristic anisotropy of the additional neutrino flux is expected. In this paper we describe a multipole method to search for such a large-scale anisotropy in IceCube data. This method uses the expansion coefficients of a multipole expansion of neutrino arrival directions and incorporates signal-specific weights for each expansion coefficient. We apply the technique to a high-purity muon neutrino sample from the Northern Hemisphere. The final result is compatible with the nullhypothesis. As no signal was observed, we present limits on the self-annihilation cross-section averaged over the relative velocity distribution left angle σ{sub A}υ right angle down to 1.9 x 10{sup -23} cm{sup 3} s{sup -1} for a dark matter particle mass of 700-1,000 GeV and direct annihilation into ν anti ν. The resulting exclusion limits come close to exclusion limits from γ-ray experiments, that focus on the outer Galactic halo, for high dark matter masses of a few TeV and hard annihilation channels. (orig.)

  3. Quantifying particulate matter deposition in Niwot Ridge, Colorado: Collection of dry deposition using marble inserts and particle imaging using the FlowCAM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goss, Natasha R.; Mladenov, Natalie; Seibold, Christine M.; Chowanski, Kurt; Seitz, Leslie; Wellemeyer, T. Barret; Williams, Mark W.

    2013-12-01

    Atmospheric wet and dry deposition are important sources of carbon for remote alpine lakes and soils. The carbon inputs from dry deposition in alpine National Atmospheric Deposition Program (NADP) collectors, including aeolian dust and biological material, are not well constrained due to difficulties in retaining particulate matter in the collectors. Here, we developed and tested a marble insert for dry deposition collection at the Niwot Ridge Long Term Ecological Research Station (NWT LTER) Soddie site (3345 m) between 24 May and 8 November 2011. We conducted laboratory tests of the insert's effect on particulate matter (PM) mass and non-purgeable organic carbon (DOC) and found that the insert did not significantly change either measurement. Thus, the insert may enable dry deposition collection of PM and DOC at NADP sites. We then developed a method for enumerating the collected wet and dry deposition with the Flow Cytometer and Microscope (FlowCAM), a dynamic-image particle analysis tool. The FlowCAM has the potential to establish morphology, which affects particle settling and retention, through particle diameter and aspect ratio. Particle images were used to track the abundance of pollen grains over time. Qualitative image examination revealed that most particles were biological in nature, such as intact algal cells and pollen. Dry deposition loading to the Soddie site as determined by FlowCAM measurements was highly variable, ranging from 100 to >230 g ha-1 d-1 in June-August 2011 and peaking in late June. No significant difference in diameter or aspect ratio was found between wet and dry deposition, suggesting fundamental similarities between those deposition types. Although FlowCAM statistics and identification of particle types proved insightful, our total-particle enumeration method had a high variance and underestimated the total number of particles when compared to imaging of relatively large volumes (60-125 mL) from a single sample. We recommend use of

  4. Predicting bioavailability and accumulation of organochlorine pesticides by Japanese medaka in the presence of humic acid and natural organic matter using passive sampling membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ke, Runhui; Luo, Jianping; Sun, Liwei; Wang, Zijian; Spear, Philip A

    2007-10-01

    Adsorption to dissolved organic matter (DOM) may significantly decrease the freely dissolved concentration of many hydrophobic organic compounds and, hence, result in reduced bioavailability to aquatic organisms. Here, the suitability of using triolein-embedded cellulose acetate membrane (TECAM) as a biomimetic surrogate to assess the bioavailability of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) in water in the presence of DOM was explored. The accumulation of OCPs was measured in TECAM and pelagic Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) in the laboratory after 12 h exposure to water containing different levels of Aldrich humic acid. Further, OCP uptake by TECAM and medaka in real aqueous environments was evaluated after 30 d exposures in two sites. Laboratory results showed that OCP uptake by medaka consistently decreased with increasing levels of humic acid in the range of 0-15 mg C/L in sample solutions. This tendency was closely mimicked by OCP accumulation in TECAM under the same conditions. Field results showed that TECAM accumulated similar OCP patterns as medaka (r2 = 0.92 for site 1 and r2 = 0.94 for site 2), although comparison of the in-field eight OCP concentrations in TECAM to those in medaka yielded approximately a factor of 3 (on a wet weight basis). These results suggest that the TECAM method can be used as a simple and useful tool to predict the bioavailability and bioaccumulation potential of poorly biotransformed organic compounds in pelagic fish in aqueous environment.

  5. Reconstruction of the Paleoenvironment of the Early Cambrian Yurtus Black Shale in the Tarim Basin, Northwestern China, and Its Control on Organic Matter Accumulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, J.; Ding, W.; Dong, L.

    2017-12-01

    The black shale in the early Cambrian Yurtus Formation (>521 Ma) in the Tarim basin, northwestern China, is characterized by its high TOC value (up to 16%) andgreat lateral continuity. It has been proven to be high-quality hydrocarbon source rocks. Abundant phytoplanktons and small shelly fossils have been reported from the lower Yurtus chert. However, recent biomarker discovery of aryl isoprenoid hydrocarbons suggests the existence of green sulfur bacteria, which indicates that the water column was stratified and the photic zone was prevailingly euxinic. These seemingly contradictory observations hamper our further understanding of the paleoenvironment in which the Yurtus shale was deposited and its control on the accumulation of organic matter. In this study, we systematically collected samples from the Yurtus Formation at the Kungaikuotan Section, and measured the organic carbon and nitrogen isotopic compositions and the content of trace element Barium (Ba). The strong negative excursions of nitrogen isotope ( -13‰) in the lower and upper parts of the Yurtus Formation are likely attributed to the biological activity of green and purple sulfur bacteria, which is consistent with our organic carbon isotope data as well as previous biomarker discovery. As green sulfur bacteria can only live in euxinic photic zone, it may indicate that the water column above this euxinic zone contains prolific organic matters which consume all the dissolved oxidants in surface ocean. It is well accepted that Ba flux can be used as an indicator for surface ocean primary productivity. Significant increase of barium content (from matter in the early Cambrian surface ocean mainly result from extremely high primary productivity. The abundant phytoplankton fossil record from this time period also supports this interpretation. In summary, high TOC in the Yurtus shale may derive from the extremely high primary productivity of phytoplanktons. Organic matter consumes all the dissolved

  6. Differing associations between Aβ accumulation, hypoperfusion, blood-brain barrier dysfunction and loss of PDGFRB pericyte marker in the precuneus and parietal white matter in Alzheimer's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miners, J Scott; Schulz, Isabel; Love, Seth

    2018-01-01

    Recent studies implicate loss of pericytes in hypoperfusion and blood-brain barrier (BBB) leakage in Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we have measured levels of the pericyte marker, platelet-derived growth factor receptor-β (PDGFRB), and fibrinogen (to assess blood-brain barrier leakage), and analyzed their relationship to indicators of microvessel density (von Willebrand factor level), ante-mortem oxygenation (myelin-associated glycoprotein:proteolipid protein-1 ratio and vascular endothelial growth factor level), Aβ level and plaque load, in precuneus and underlying white matter from 49 AD to 37 control brains. There was reduction in PDGFRB and increased fibrinogen in the precuneus in AD. These changes correlated with reduction in oxygenation and with plaque load. In the underlying white matter, increased fibrinogen correlated with reduced oxygenation, but PDGFRB level was unchanged. The level of platelet-derived growth factor-ββ (PDGF-BB), important for pericyte maintenance, was increased in AD but mainly in the insoluble tissue fraction, correlating with insoluble Aβ level. Loss of the PDGFRB within the precuneus in AD is associated with fibrinogen leakage and reduced oxygenation, and related to fibrillar Aβ accumulation. In contrast, fibrinogen leakage and reduced oxygenation of underlying white matter occur independently of loss of PDGFRB, perhaps secondary to reduced transcortical perfusion.

  7. Dry matter and root colonization of plants by indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi with physical fractions of dry olive mill residue inoculated with saprophytic fungi

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aranda, E.; Sampredro, I.; Diaz, R.; Garcia-Sanchez, M.; Siles, J. A.; Ocampo, J. A.; Garcia-Romera, I.

    2010-07-01

    We studied the influence of indigenous arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM) and saprobe fungi on the phytotoxicity of the physical fractions of dry olive mill residue (DOR). The physical extractions of DOR gave an aqueous (ADOR) and an exhausted (SDOR) fraction with less phytotoxicity for tomato than the original samples. The indigenous AM were able to decrease the phytotoxicity of SDOR inoculated with Trametes versicolor and Pycnoporus cinnabarinus on tomato. However, incubation of ADOR with both saprophytic fungi did not decrease its phytotoxicity in presence of the indigenous AM fungi. The percentage of root length colonized by indigenous AM strongly decreased in presence of DOR, around 80% of decrease at dose of 25 g kg-1of DOR, but the level of mycorrhization was higher in presence of ADOR or SDOR (38% and 44% of decrease respectively at the same dose). There were no relationships between the effects of the physical fractions of DOR incubated with the saprobe fungi on AM colonization and on plant dry weight of tomato. Our results suggest that the phytotoxicity of the olive residues can be eliminated by the combination of physical extraction and by saprobe fungal inoculation and the use of this agrowaste as organic amendment in agricultural soil may be possible. (Author) 33 refs.

  8. The effect of harvest time, dry matter content and mechanical pretreatments on anaerobic digestion and enzymatic hydrolysis of miscanthus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Susanne Frydendal; Hjorth, Maibritt; Baby, Sanmohan

    2016-01-01

    -milling, extrusion or grinding and accumulated methane production and enzymatically-accessible sugars were measured. Accumulated methane production was studied using sigmoid curves that allowed comparison among the treatments of the rate of the methane production and ultimate methane yield. The green biomass gave...

  9. Accumulation and distribution of 137Cs in the organic matter of soil during decomposition of forest dead leaves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jokhanson, K.J.; Dolgilevich, M.I.

    2000-01-01

    The samples of dead leaves, litter, and soil were taken in 1996 in the forest area located in the Ovruch district of the Zhytomyr region, Ukraine and where ground depositions of 137 Cs range from 100 to 590 kBq/m 2 . Radiocaesium activity of all organic fractions of litter decreased in comparison with radioactivity of the same fractions of dead leaves. Only hydrochloric acid hydrolysate of hemicellulose had a very big radioactivity reached 12-32% of radioactivity of samples. Apparently, hydrochloric acid extracted exchangeable 137 Cs (11-17%) and joined one with mineral substances. Organic matter content in the soil layer at a depth of 6-12 cm was 3,4%, the main organic fraction components were residues after hydrolysis and humus substances extracted by sodium pyrophosphate - 52.2 and 28.8%, respectively. In the same soil layer, radiocaesium activity was 0.63 kBg/kg

  10. In situ degrability of dry matter of sheep fed with corn silage with or without Bt gene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Memari Trava

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Silage corn is a food widely used, composing the bulk of feed for ruminants, because its present high nutritional value. Since the release by CNTBio seeds of modified genetically corn, many of it began to use transgenic silage corn, which was inserted into genetic code the Bt (Bacillus thuringiensis gene that expresses a toxic protein to caterpillar pests of corn, so occurs the reduction of production costs and pesticide use. Due to rapid expansion of transgenic maize and your wide use in animal feed by producers, the aim of this study was to evaluate the degrability in situ in animal rumen, in order to estimate the nutritional value of silage corn with and without the Bt gene. The experiment was conducted at the Institute of Animal Science Nova Odessa-SP. Were used four rumen fistulated sheep housed in individual pens for 56 days, including four periods. The animals were fed with silage with two varieties of plant corn to silage - DKB and AG, and their isogenic counterparts with the Bt gene, comprising four treatments. The degradability determination of dry matter (DM digestibility of silage corn treatments was determined by means of nylon bag in situ. After removal, the bags were washed and incubated, then placed in forced-circulation at 55°C to constant weight to determine the DM concentration. Data from in situ degradation of DM was adjusted in the mathematical model proposed by Ørskov and McDonald (1979. For the degradability of DM, the fraction “a” showed the interaction (p <0.05, where the variety DKB do not showed difference (p> 0.05 for the gene insertion. For AG, showed a slight decrease (p <0.05 when compared to its isogenic counterpart with the gene (35.68% and 37.85% respectively, means that the Bt gene reduced the solubility of DM of this fraction for AG range. The fact of the variety AG with and without the gene have suffered lower solubility of DM when compared the DKB with and without the gene is due to the fact of being

  11. Estimating and Up-Scaling Fuel Moisture and Leaf Dry Matter Content of a Temperate Humid Forest Using Multi Resolution Remote Sensing Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamed Adab

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Vegetation moisture and dry matter content are important indicators in predicting the behavior of fire and it is widely used in fire spread models. In this study, leaf fuel moisture content such as Live Fuel Moisture Content (LFMC, Leaf Relative Water Content (RWC, Dead Fuel Moisture Content (DFMC, and Leaf Dry Matter Content (LDMC (hereinafter known as moisture content indices (MCI were calculated in the field for different forest species at 32 sites in a temperate humid forest (Zaringol forest located in northeastern Iran. These data and several relevant vegetation-biophysical indices and atmospheric variables calculated using Landsat 7 Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+ data with moderate spatial resolution (30 m were used to estimate MCI of the Zaringol forest using Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Multiple Linear Regression (MLR methods. The prediction of MCI using ANN showed that ETM+ predicted MCI slightly better (Mean Absolute Percentage Error (MAPE of 6%–12% than MLR (MAPE between 8% and 17%. Once satisfactory results in estimating MCI were obtained by using ANN from ETM+ data, these data were then upscaled to estimate MCI using MODIS data for daily monitoring of leaf water and leaf dry matter content at 500 m spatial resolution. For MODIS derived LFMC, LDMC, RWC, and DLMC, the ANN produced a MAPE between 11% and 29% for the indices compared to MLR which produced an MAPE of 14%–33%. In conclusion, we suggest that upscaling is necessary for solving the scale discrepancy problems between the indicators and low spatial resolution MODIS data. The scaling up of MCI could be used for pre-fire alert system and thereby can detect fire prone areas in near real time for fire-fighting operations.

  12. Anti-nutritional Factors and Ruminal Dry Matter and Crude Protein Degradability of Gamma and Microwave Irradiated Native Rapeseed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    sayyed roohollah ebrahimimahmoudabad

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Native rapeseed (NRS is planted in some parts of Iran because of climatic condition. The consumption of NRS in animal nutrition is limited by anti-nutritional such as phytic acid and glucosinolate. Moreover, the protein of NRS is highly degraded by rumen microorganisms. Several processing methods have been used to enhance the nutritive value of whole oilseeds, including extrusion, roasting, toasting and Jet-Sploding. However, most heat processing methods adversely affect protein digestibility in the small intestine. Recently, other processing methods such as processing by gamma and microwave irradiation have been noticed. Therefore, this research was carried out to evaluate the effects of gamma irradiation (15, 30 and 45 kGy and microwave irradiation (800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min on ruminal dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP degradability, in vitro CP digestibility, anti-nutritional factors (glucosinolate and phytic acid and chemical composition of NRS. Materials and Methods Chemical composition (DM, CP, EE and Ash of untreated and irradiated NRS was determined by AOAC methods. Then, sufficient water was added to the sample to increase the moisture content to 250 g/kg. Gamma irradiation was completed by using a cobalt-60 irradiator at 20 ºC. The dose rate determined by Fricke dosimetry was 0.36 Gy/s. Another three samples (500 g each were subjected to microwave irradiation at a power of 800 W for 2, 4 and 6 min. Phytic acid and glucosinolate contents of untreated and irradiated samples were determined by standard methods. Degradation kinetics of DM or CP were determined according to in situ procedure. Six grams of untreated or irradiated NRS were incubated in the rumen of three ruminally fistulated Taleshi bulls for 0, 2, 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 h. Bags were placed in the rumen just before the bulls were offered their first meal. After retrieval from the rumen, bags were thoroughly washed with tap water until the rinsing water was clear

  13. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  14. Performance of cotton crop grown under surface irrigation and drip fertigation. I. seed cotton yield, dry matter production, and lint properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Janat, M.; Somi, G.

    2002-01-01

    Drip fertigation is a key factor in modern irrigated agriculture, where water and fertilizers are the most expensive inputs for this irrigation method. Drip fertigation experiments were carried out a Hama, north of Syria (Tezeen's Irrigation Research Station), for four consecutive years 1995 - 1998. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutim L.) variety Aleppo 33/1 was planted after unfertilized maize in order to deplete as much as possible the available N and reduce the field variability on the corresponding experimental units and irrigated thereafter. Treatments consisted of two irrigation methods (Surface irrigation and drip fertigation) and five N rates within drip fertigated cotton, including the control (N 0 = 0, N 1 = 60, N 2 = 120, N 3 = 180, N 4 240 kg N ha -1 ). The N fertilizer treatment for surface irrigated cotton was 180 kg N ha -1 in accordance with the recommended rate of ministry of Agriculture and Agrarian Reform. The experimental design was randomized block design with six replicates. Fertigation resulted in large water saving, and highly improved field water-use efficiency. Further, increasing N application rates under drip fertigation increased dry matter yield. The principal benefit of drip fertigation was the achievement of higher field water-use efficiencies, which were increased more than three-fold for both dry matter and seed cotton yield, relative to surface irrigation. The highest water-use efficiencies were obtained with the addition of 180 and 240 kg N ha -1 in 1995 and 1996 and 120 kg N ha -1 in 1997 and 1998. Dry matter production and partitioning among different plant parts at physiological maturity stage varied due to N input and irrigation methods. The overall dry matter distribution among different plant structures for drip fertigated-treatments was: Stems, 20.3 - 21.3%; leaves 26.3 - 28.7%; and fruiting forms, 50 - 53.2%. For the surface-irrigated treatment, the partitioning was stems, 23.1%; leaves, 28.3%; and fruiting form, 48.6%. The

  15. Dry matter production, seed yield and water use efficiency of some grain legumes grown under different water regimes using nuclear technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harb, O.M.S.; Salem, M.S.A.; Abdalla, A.A.; Abd-Elwahed, N.M.

    2007-01-01

    Two field experiments were performed in the experimental farm at the Atomic Energy Authority, Inshas, Egypt, during 2002 and 2004 growing seasons to evaluate the responses of dry matter production, seed yield, water use efficiency and root characteristics for three legumes species, i.e. soybean (Glycine max cv. clark), cowpea (Vigna unguiculata cv. Kafr El-Sheikh) and mungbean (Vigna radiate cv. kawmy 1) grown on a new reclaimed sandy soil under different water regimes. The experiments were laid out using a single line source sprinkler irrigation system which allows a gradual variation of irrigation water, i.e. full irrigation (W1), medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). The obtained results indicated that normal irrigation (W1) gave the highest above ground dry matter production at flowering stage and total dry matter yield at maturity for the tested legumes. Water stress decreased significantly seed yields for all the tested legume seeds. The seed yield of normal watering condition treatment (W1) out yielded seed yield of those irrigated with medium water stress (W2) and severe water stress (W3). Mungbean and cowpea were more adapted to severe water stress than soybean. Most of the reduction in yield arose from a decrease in pod number. Pod number, number of seeds per pod and the thousand seed weight were significantly affected by water stress. The highest water use efficiency based on seed yield or dry matter yield were obtained by exposing the legume plants to medium water stress (W2), while the lowest value was obtained by exposing the plants to severe water stress (W3). There were significant differences in WUE among the tested species, whereas, mungbean showed the highest value in response to water stress, followed by soybean while cowpea showed the lowest value of water use efficiency. Rooting depth was increased under the severe water stress treatment as compared with well watered condition in the tested legume plants. Mungbean had the

  16. Organic matter accumulation and degradation in subsurface coastal sediments: a model-based comparison of rapid sedimentation and aquifer transport

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. M. Holstein

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The redox succession in shallow marine sediments generally exhibits a predictable pattern. Pore water profiles from a back barrier tidal flat in the German Wadden Sea depart from the expected redox zoning. Instead, a sulfate minimum zone associated with a sulfate-methane-sulfate double interface and a distinct ammonium peak at 1.5 m below sea floor (mbsf is displayed. Such evidence for significant degradation of organic matter (OM in subsurface layers is challenging our understanding of tidal flat biogeochemistry as little is known about processes that relocate reactive OM into layers far distant from the sediment-water interface. The objectives of our model study were to identify possible mechanisms for the rapid transport of organic matter to subsurface layers that cause the reversed redox succession and to constrain several important biogeochemical control parameters. We compared two scenarios for OM transfer: rapid sedimentation and burial of OM as well as lateral advection of suspended POM. Using a diagenetic model, uncertain process parameters, in particular those connected to OM degradation and (vertical or lateral transport, are systematically calibrated using field data.

    We found that both scenarios, advection and sedimentation, had solutions consistent with the observed pore water profiles. For this specific site, however, advective transport of particulate material had to be rejected since the reconstructed boundary conditions were rather improbable. In the alternative deposition set-up, model simulations suggested the deposition of the source OM about 60 yrs before cores were taken. A mean sedimentation rate of approximately 2 cm yr−1 indicates substantial changes in near coast tidal flat morphology, since sea level rise is at a much lower pace. High sedimentation rates most probably reflect the progradation of flats within the study area. These or similar morphodynamic features also occur in other coastal areas

  17. Dry Matter Production, Nutrient Cycled and Removed, and Soil Fertility Changes in Yam-Based Cropping Systems with Herbaceous Legumes in the Guinea-Sudan Zone of Benin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphiou Maliki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Traditional yam-based cropping systems (shifting cultivation, slash-and-burn, and short fallow often result in deforestation and soil nutrient depletion. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of yam-based systems with herbaceous legumes on dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrients removed and recycled, and the soil fertility changes. We compared smallholders’ traditional systems (1-year fallow of Andropogon gayanus-yam rotation, maize-yam rotation with yam-based systems integrated herbaceous legumes (Aeschynomene histrix/maize intercropping-yam rotation, Mucuna pruriens/maize intercropping-yam rotation. The experiment was conducted during the 2002 and 2004 cropping seasons with 32 farmers, eight in each site. For each of them, a randomized complete block design with four treatments and four replicates was carried out using a partial nested model with five factors: Year, Replicate, Farmer, Site, and Treatment. Analysis of variance (ANOVA using the general linear model (GLM procedure was applied to the dry matter (DM production (tubers, shoots, nutrient contribution to the systems, and soil properties at depths 0–10 and 10–20 cm. DM removed and recycled, total N, P, and K recycled or removed, and soil chemical properties (SOM, N, P, K, and pH water were significantly improved on yam-based systems with legumes in comparison with traditional systems.

  18. Cassava varietal screening for cooking quality: relationship between dry matter, starch content, mealiness and certain microscopic observations of the raw and cooked tuber

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safo-Kantanka, O.; Owusu-Nipah, J.

    1992-01-01

    Thirteen cassava (Manihot esculenta L Crantz) varieties from three successive annual harvests were screened for the mealiness of the cooked tuber, and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Six were selected for further studies based on their mealiness and the starch and dry matter contents were determined. The diameter of the starch granules of the selected varieties and those of an irradiated M1V2 population were measured. Microscopic examinations of the raw and cooked cells of the irradiated M1V2 population were made. Correlations among all the parameters were studied. Varietal and seasonal differences in cooking quality were observed. There was no consistent relationship between mealiness of the boiled tuber and the elasticity and smoothness of the pounded paste. Varieties that were mealy were high in dry matter and starch content. The starch granules of mealy varieties were larger than those of nonmealy ones. There were no differences between mealy and non-mealy varieties in the arrangement of the cells or ‘cell condition’, of the raw tubers. However, the cells of the cooked tubers were held less cohesively, ie there was more ‘cell disorganisation’, in mealy varieties than in non-mealy ones

  19. Impact of mild heat stress on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition in mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows in a temperate climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorniak, Tobias; Meyer, Ulrich; Südekum, Karl-Heinz; Dänicke, Sven

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of summer temperatures in a temperate climate on mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows. Therefore, a data set was examined comprising five trials with dairy cows conducted at the experimental station of the Friedrich-Loeffler-Institute in Braunschweig, Germany. The temperature-humidity index (THI) was calculated using temperature and humidity data from the barns recorded between January 2010 and July 2012. By using a generalised additive mixed model, the impact of increasing THI on dry matter intake, milk yield and milk composition was evaluated. Dry matter intake and milk yield decreased when THI rose above 60, whilst water intake increased in a linear manner beyond THI 30. Furthermore, milk protein and milk fat content decreased continuously with increasing THI. The present results revealed that heat stress exists in Lower Saxony, Germany. However, further research is necessary to describe the mode of action of heat stress. Especially, mild heat stress has to be investigated in more detail and appropriate heat stress thresholds for temperate climates have to be developed.

  20. Dissecting grain yield pathways and their interactions with grain dry matter content by a two-step correlation approach with maize seedling transcriptome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melchinger Albrecht E

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The importance of maize for human and animal nutrition, but also as a source for bio-energy is rapidly increasing. Maize yield is a quantitative trait controlled by many genes with small effects, spread throughout the genome. The precise location of the genes and the identity of the gene networks underlying maize grain yield is unknown. The objective of our study was to contribute to the knowledge of these genes and gene networks by transcription profiling with microarrays. Results We assessed the grain yield and grain dry matter content (an indicator for early maturity of 98 maize hybrids in multi-environment field trials. The gene expression in seedlings of the parental inbred lines, which have four different genetic backgrounds, was assessed with genome-scale oligonucleotide arrays. We identified genes associated with grain yield and grain dry matter content using a newly developed two-step correlation approach and found overlapping gene networks for both traits. The underlying metabolic pathways and biological processes were elucidated. Genes involved in sucrose degradation and glycolysis, as well as genes involved in cell expansion and endocycle were found to be associated with grain yield. Conclusions Our results indicate that the capability of providing energy and substrates, as well as expanding the cell at the seedling stage, highly influences the grain yield of hybrids. Knowledge of these genes underlying grain yield in maize can contribute to the development of new high yielding varieties.

  1. Quality of fresh and dry onion (Аllium cepa L. products for different

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Л. Ф. Скалецька

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The article features results of studying suitability to processing for various varieties of onion as grown in the conditions of Ukrainian Forest-Steppe. A complex assessment has been completed for fresh products of onion for 9 different varieties by the content of basic biochemical, biological, economic, organoleptic characteristics with the view of determining the most suitable for drying. Varieties are singled out , which bulbs accumulate the biggest dry matter, sugar, C vitamin content and display the highest yield of consumable products. Assessment of dry products against the set of organoleptic and technological indicators has been completed. This revealed loss of basic biochemical components of onions during drying and long-term storage of dried products, as well as established increasing of the content of dry matters and acids and decreasing of that of sugars and vitamin C while storing the dried onion. The set of examined parameters

  2. Sedimentary records of δ{sup 13}C, δ{sup 15}N and organic matter accumulation in lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Widerlund, Anders, E-mail: Anders.Widerlund@ltu.se; Chlot, Sara; Öhlander, Björn

    2014-07-01

    Organic C and total N concentrations, C/N ratios, δ{sup 15}N and δ{sup 13}C values in {sup 210}Pb-dated sediment cores were used to reconstruct historical changes in organic matter (OM) accumulation in three Swedish lakes receiving nutrient-rich mine waters. Ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and sodium cyanide (NaCN) used in gold extraction were the major N sources, while lesser amounts of P originated from apatite and flotation chemicals. The software IsoSource was used to model the relative contribution of soil, terrestrial and littoral vegetation, and phytoplankton detritus in the lake sediments. In one lake the IsoSource modelling failed, suggesting the presence of additional, unknown OM sources. In two of the lakes sedimentary detritus of littoral vegetation and phytoplankton had increased by 15–20% and 20–35%, respectively, since ∼ 1950, when N- and P-rich mine waters began to reach the lakes. Today, phytoplankton is the dominating OM component in these lake sediments, which appears to be a eutrophication effect related to mining operations. Changes in the N isotopic composition of biota, lake water, and sediments related to the use of ammonium-nitrate-based explosives and NaCN were evident in the two studied systems. However, N isotope signals in the receiving waters (δ{sup 15}N ∼ + 9‰ to + 19‰) were clearly shifted from the primary signal in explosives (δ{sup 15}N–NO{sub 3} = + 3.4 ± 0.3‰; δ{sup 15}N–NH{sub 4} = − 8.0 ± 0.3‰) and NaCN (δ{sup 15}N = + 1.1 ± 0.5‰), and direct tracing of the primary N isotope signals in mining chemicals was not possible in the receiving waters. Systems where mine waters with a well known discharge history are a major point source of N with well-defined isotopic composition should, however, be suitable for further studies of processes controlling N isotope signatures and their transformation in aquatic systems receiving mine waters. - Highlights: • Historical mining-related changes in organic

  3. Dry matter intake and feed efficiency profiles of 3 genotypes of Holstein-Friesian within pasture-based systems of milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, J; Berry, D P; Pierce, K M; Brennan, A; Horan, B

    2010-09-01

    The primary objective of the study was to quantify the effect of genetic improvement using the Irish total merit index (Economic Breeding Index) on dry matter intake and feed efficiency across lactation and to quantify the variation in performance among alternative definitions of feed efficiency. Three genotypes of Holstein-Friesian dairy cattle were established from within the Moorepark dairy research herd: 1) low Economic Breeding Index North American Holstein-Friesian representative of the Irish national average dairy cow, 2) high genetic merit North American Holstein-Friesian, and 3) high genetic merit New Zealand Holstein-Friesian. Animals from within each genotype were randomly allocated to 1 of 2 possible intensive pasture-based feed systems: 1) the Moorepark pasture system (2.64 cows/ha and 500 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation) and 2) a high output per hectare pasture system (2.85 cows/ha and 1,200 kg of concentrate supplement per cow per lactation). A total of 128 and 140 spring-calving dairy cows were used during the years 2007 and 2008, respectively. Each group had an individual farmlet of 17 paddocks, and all groups were managed similarly throughout the study. The effects of genotype, feed system, and the interaction between genotype and feed system on dry matter intake, milk production, body weight, body condition score, and different definitions of feed efficiency were studied using mixed models with factorial arrangements of genotypes and feed systems accounting for the repeated cow records across years. No significant genotype-by-feed-system interactions were observed for any of the variables measured. Results showed that aggressive selection using the Irish Economic Breeding Index had no effect on dry matter intake across lactation when managed on intensive pasture-based systems of milk production, although the ranking of genotypes for feed efficiency differed depending on the definition of feed efficiency used. Performance of

  4. The effects of temperature, organic matter and time-dependency on rheological properties of dry anaerobic digested swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Gang-Jin; Liu, Yi; Wang, Zhi-Yong; Lei, Yun-Hui; Chen, Zi-Ai; Deng, Liang-Wei

    2015-04-01

    An efficient way to avoid the pollution of swine wastewater is the application of dry anaerobic digestion, which needs rheological parameter for stirring and pipe designing. The rheological properties of this kind of sludge have been studied for many decades, yet their effects only solid concentration has been investigated widely. In this paper, the influences of temperature, organic and time-dependency on the efficiency of anaerobic digested swine manure were studied. The viscosity decreased with temperature arranged from 10 to 60 °C which caused increase in protein from 7.18 to 8.49 g/kg. 60 °C can make the digested swine manure with TS from 16.6% to 21.5% reach to the same rheology state. The added peptone decreased the viscosity because of its function of water-reducing admixture and air entraining mixture. Time-dependent experiment showed the decrease of shear stress over time. The first and the second yield stress of dry anaerobic digested swine manure were evaluated through time-dependent model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Increased accumulation of cuticular wax and expression of lipid transfer protein in response to periodic drying events in leaves of tree tobacco.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cameron, Kimberly D; Teece, Mark A; Smart, Lawrence B

    2006-01-01

    Cuticular wax deposition and composition affects drought tolerance and yield in plants. We examined the relationship between wax and dehydration stress by characterizing the leaf cuticular wax of tree tobacco (Nicotiana glauca L. Graham) grown under periodic dehydration stress. Total leaf cuticular wax load increased after each of three periods of dehydration stress using a CH2Cl2 extraction process. Overall, total wax load increased 1.5- to 2.5-fold, but composition of the wax was not altered. Homologous series of wax components were classified into organic groups; n-hentriacontane was the largest component (>75%) with alcohols and fatty acids representing drying event. Leaves excised from plants subjected to multiple drying events were more resistant to water loss compared to leaves excised from well-watered plants, indicating that there is a negative relationship between total wax load and epidermal conductance. Lipid transfer proteins (LTPs) are thought to be involved in the transfer of lipids through the extracellular matrix for the formation of cuticular wax. Using northern analysis, a 6-fold increase of tree tobacco LTP gene transcripts was observed after three drying events, providing further evidence that LTP is involved in cuticle deposition. The simplicity of wax composition and the dramatic wax bloom displayed by tree tobacco make this an excellent species in which to study the relationship between leaf wax deposition and drought tolerance.

  6. Macronutrients accumulation and growth of pineapple cultivars submitted to aluminum stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauro F. C. Mota

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The objective was to determine the growth and accumulation of macronutrients of two pineapple cultivars submitted to different concentrations of aluminum (Al. For this, a study was conducted in plastic pots containing 4 L of nutrient solution, in a randomized block design, in a 2 x 5 factorial scheme, corresponding to two pineapple cultivars (‘IAC Fantástico’ and ‘Vitória’ and five Al concentrations (0, 21.6, 43.2, 64.8 and 86.4 mg of Al plant-1, with four replicates. The following variables were evaluated: root length, dry matter of root, stem and leaf, stem diameter, number of leaves, chlorophyll content and accumulation of macronutrients at 60 days after treatment. The cv. ‘Vitória’ showed a linear decrease in chlorophyll content, root dry matter, root length and accumulation of N, P, K, Ca and Mg in most plant components promoted by the increase of Al concentration in the nutrient solution. The cv. ‘IAC Fantástico’ had lower total dry matter, stem dry matter, stem diameter and accumulation of N, Ca and Mg. However, the evaluated characteristics were not influenced by the increase of Al concentration, showing greater tolerance of this cultivar to Al in nutrient solution.

  7. Effects of chloride, sulfate and natural organic matter (NOM) on the accumulation and release of trace-level inorganic contaminants from corroding iron.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ching-Yu; Ferguson, John F; Korshin, Gregory V

    2013-09-15

    This study examined effects of varying levels of anions (chloride and sulfate) and natural organic matter (NOM) on iron release from and accumulation of inorganic contaminants in corrosion scales formed on iron coupons exposed to drinking water. Changes of concentrations of sulfate and chloride were observed to affect iron release and, in lesser extent, the retention of representative inorganic contaminants (vanadium, chromium, nickel, copper, zinc, arsenic, cadmium, lead and uranium); but, effects of NOM were more pronounced. DOC concentration of 1 mg/L caused iron release to increase, with average soluble and total iron concentrations being four and two times, respectively, higher than those in the absence of NOM. In the presence of NOM, the retention of inorganic contaminants by corrosion scales was reduced. This was especially prominent for lead, vanadium, chromium and copper whose retention by the scales decreased from >80% in the absence of NOM to chloride levels. Modeling indicated that the observed effects were associated with the formation of metal-NOM complexes and effects of NOM on the sorption of the inorganic contaminants on solid phases that are typical for iron corrosion in drinking water. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using 51Cr-labelled EDTA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krishna, G.; Ekern, A.

    1974-01-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 μVi 51 Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate fumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker 51 Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of 51 Cr-EDTA through faeces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days. (author)

  9. Effects of climate and lifeform on dry matter yield (epsilon) from simulations using BIOME BGC. [ecosystem process model for vegetation biomass production using daily absorbed photosynthetically active radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, E. R., Jr.; Running, Steven W.

    1992-01-01

    An ecosystem process simulation model, BIOME-BGC, is used in a sensitivity analysis to determine the factors that may cause the dry matter yield (epsilon) and annual net primary production to vary for different ecosystems. At continental scales, epsilon is strongly correlated with annual precipitation. At a single location, year-to-year variation in net primary production (NPP) and epsilon is correlated with either annual precipitation or minimum air temperatures. Simulations indicate that forests have lower epsilon than grasslands. The most sensitive parameter affecting forest epsilon is the total amount of living woody biomass, which affects NPP by increasing carbon loss by maintenance respiration. A global map of woody biomass should significantly improve estimates of global NPP using remote sensing.

  10. Predicting Dry Matter Composition of Clover Grass Leys Using Data Simulation and Camera-based Segmentation of Field Canopies into White Clover, Red Clover, Grass and Weeds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skovsen, Søren; Dyrmann, Mads; Eriksen, Jørgen

    2018-01-01

    species in the biomass. In our setup, we exploit the top-down canopy view of the clover grass ley to estimate the volumetric composition of the yield, and predict the composition of the dry matter of the forage. Using a deep learning approach, the canopy image is automatically pixel-wise segmented....... The biggest hindrance to training a fully convolutional deep neural network is the requirement of labeled data. Due to the complexity, the high number of leaves and high levels of occlusions in clover grass canopies, hand labeling the data requires roughly 20 hours of manual labor per image. The need...... for hundreds or thousands labeled training images renders this approach unfeasible. We have shown that implementation of image simulation of distinct clover grass fields can reduce the labeling task significantly. Investing less than 20 hours of labor, thousands of simulated images and corresponding labels can...

  11. A study of rumen water volume, rate of flow of water and rumen dry matter turnover time measurement by using /sup 51/Cr-labelled EDTA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krishna, G; Ekern, A [Agricultural University of Norway. Dept. of Animal Nutrition

    1974-06-01

    Two fistulated adult sheep were infused with 100 ..mu..Vi /sup 51/Cr-EDTA, four hours after morning feeding, so as to calculate rumen water volume, and rate of flow of water from reticulo-rumen. The average figure of rumen water volume obtained was 2.191 litre, rate of flow of water expressed as volume per cent per hour was 7.55. The biological half-life of marker /sup 51/Cr-EDTA in rumen was 9.34 hours. The percent recovery of infused dosage of /sup 51/Cr-EDTA through feces and urine was 66 and 5 during the period of four days after infusion. Dry matter turnover time in the rumen was 0.483 days.

  12. Effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber content on dry matter intake, digestibility, and chewing activity in Korean native goats ( fed with total mixed ration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Se Young Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective This experiment was to determine proper physical traits in the diet for goats by investigating the effects of physically effective neutral detergent fiber (peNDF content on dry matter intake (DMI, digestibility, and chewing activity in black goats fed with total mixed ration (TMR. Methods Six growing wethers of Korean native black goats (Capra hircus coreanae aged 8 months and weighing between 26.9 kg and 27.1 kg (27.03±5.05 kg were used in this experiment. Three diets of varying peNDF content were obtained by original TMR (T1, 12,000 rpm grinding (T2, and 15,500 rpm grinding (T3 of the same TMR diet. The peNDF1.18 content of the experimental diets was 23.85%, 21.71%, and 16.22% for T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Results Average daily gain (ADG was higher in T2 group compared to those of the control and T3 groups, but ADG and DMI were not affected by the dietary particle size and peNDF content. Also, there was no difference between apparent nutrient digestibility of dry matter, crude fiber, ether extract, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber. Although there was no significant difference, rumination and total chewing time were associated with decreased peNDF content. Conclusion The feeding of peNDF-based TMR showed no impact on apparent nutrient digestibility and nitrogen balance. Further studies are required with a wider range of dietary peNDF level and particle size to better identify the effect of dietary peNDF and particle size on chewing activity and performance in goats.

  13. Effect of Domestic Processing Methods on Dry Matter, Total Sugar, Phenolics and Mineral Composition in Different Developmental Stages of Parkia roxburghii G. (Don. Pods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jekendra Singh SALAM

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Parkia roxburghii is considered delicious in the Northeastern part of India, especially in the state of Manipur. Though it is widely used, information about the biochemical composition and its changes, after processing, is hardly available. In the present experiment, effect of processing methods on dry matter, soluble sugar, phenolics and mineral composition in different developmental stages of P. roxburghii pods were studied. Total soluble sugar (TSS, total phenols (TP, and orthodihydric phenols (ODHP were determined as per the methods of Morris (1948, Bray and Thorpe (1954 and Mahadevan and Sridhar (1986. Sodium (Na, potassium (K, sulphur (S and phosphorus (P were estimated as per the procedures of Tandon (1993. Calcium (Ca, magnesium (Mg, manganese (Mn, zinc (Zn, iron (Fe, copper (Cu and cobalt (Co were analyzed in an atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Processing methods reduced dry matter, soluble sugar and phenolics in all the stages of the pod. TP and ODHP lost up to the extent of 72.78% in tender stage due to ordinary cooking, while higher loss of ODHP recorded in immature stage of the pod due to pressure cooking. Ca, Mg, K and Zn in different stages were found to be affected significantly by different methods of cooking, while no such changes were observed in case of S, P, Fe, Mn and Cu. The level of iron amongst the micro minerals is appreciably high recording up to 51.0 mg/100 g in the immature stage of the pod. As iron, zinc and manganese are antioxidant micronutrients, their higher presence in P. roxburghii might be of some nutritional importance.

  14. Effect of biomass open burning on particulate matter and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiu, Jui C; Shen, Yun H; Li, Hsing W; Chang, Shun S; Wang, Lin C; Chang-Chien, Guo P

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of the present study were to investigate particulate matter (PM) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) concentrations in ambient air during rice straw open burning and non-open burning periods. In the ambient air of a rice field, the mean PM concentration during and after an open burning event were 1828 and 102 μg m⁻³, respectively, which demonstrates that during a rice field open burning event, the PM concentration in the ambient air of rice field is over 17 times higher than that of the non-open burning period. During an open burning event, the mean total PAH and total toxic equivalence (BaP(eq)) concentrations in the ambient air of a rice field were 7206 ng m⁻³ and 10.3 ng m⁻³, respectively, whereas after the open burning event, they were 376 ng m⁻³ and 1.50 ng m⁻³, respectively. Open burning thus increases total PAH and total BaP(eq) concentrations by 19-fold and 6.8-fold, respectively. During a rice straw open burning event, in the ambient air of a rice field, the mean dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs and total BaP(eq) were 1222 μg m⁻² day⁻¹ and 4.80 μg m⁻² day⁻¹, respectively, which are approximately 60- and 3-fold higher than those during the non-open burning period, respectively. During the non-open burning period, particle-bound PAHs contributed 79.2-84.2% of total dry deposition fluxes (gas + particle) of total PAHs. However, an open burning event increases the contribution to total PAH dry deposition by particle-bound PAHs by up to 85.9-95.5%. The results show that due to the increased amount of PM in the ambient air resulting from rice straw open burning, particle-bound PAHs contributed more to dry deposition fluxes of total PAHs than they do during non-open burning periods. The results show that biomass (rice straw) open burning is an important PAH emission source that significantly increases both PM and PAH concentration levels and PAH dry deposition in ambient air.

  15. Effects of nitrogen application rate on dry matter redistribution, grain yield, nitrogen use efficiency and photosynthesis in malting barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cai, J; Jiang, D; Wollenweber, Bernd

    2012-01-01

    The harmonious combination of malting barley yield, quality and nitrogen (N) use-efficiency under nitrogen (N) rates applications was greatly conducive to production in China. The malting barley cultivar Supi 3 was planted during the growing seasons 2005 and 2006 at two contrasting sites in China....... Five nitrogen (N) application rates (0, 75, 150, 225 and 300 kg ha−1) were applied for research of effects of N rates application on grain yield, protein content and N use-efficiency. At both sites and in both years, grain yield increased with increasing N application rates up to 225 kg N ha−1...... with a quadrant model, the optimum N application rates for high grain yield with high nitrogen use-efficiency in malting barley could be indicated. So, the higher yields could be mainly ascribed to the higher accumulation of photoassimilates between anthesis and maturity. In order to achieve high grain yield...

  16. Efecto de la temperatura de la Rizosfera sobre la distribución de la materia seca en uchuva (Physalis peruviana L. Effect of rizosphere temperature on the dry matter distribution in cape gooseberry (Physalis peruviana L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fischer Gerhard

    1998-12-01

    'Southafrica' ecotipes were groWn at root zone temperatures of 8, 15, 22 and 29°C under greenhouse conditions in Berlin, Germany. Two and a half L plastic pots and quartz sand as substrate were used. With rising rizosphere temperatures biomass production increased up to 22 and 29°C depending on plant organ and ecotype. The highest biomass accumulation achieved 'Colombia' at 29°C and 'Southafrica' at 22°C. At 8°C temperature low root and leaf dry matter were produced, while fruit producction was less affected. This indicates an adaptation to cold soils in the highlands. 22°C encouraged more the growth of main shoots while laterals had their optimum soil temperature at 29°C, suggesting a possible hormonal effect. The highest partitioning of dry matter of the Colombian ecotype to roots, leaves and fruits at 29°C is considered as an adaptation to the hot soils in the slopes exposed to the sun.

  17. Pyrogenic organic matter accumulation after density and particle size fractionation of burnt Cambisol using solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Martín, María; Knicker, Heike

    2017-04-01

    Fires lead to formation of the pyrogenic organic matter (PyOM) which is quickly incorporated into the soil. The charring process involves chemical alterations of the litter material, where biologically available structures are transferred into aromatic polymers, such as black carbon (BC) and black nitrogen (BN). In order to reveal the medium term fate of BC and BN in soils, the top 5 cm of A horizons from unburnt, single and double burnt Cambisols of the Sierra de Aznalcóllar (Southern Spain) were collected 7 year after an intense fire and separated according to their density and their size (Golchin et al., 1994; Sohi et al., 2001). The density fractionation yielded in the free (fPOM), occluded particulate organic matter (oPOM) and the mineral-association organic fraction (MAF) and was performed using a sodium polytungstate solution with a density of 1.8 g cm-3. The MAF was further separated into the sand (2 mm to 63 μm) and coarse silt (63 to 20 μm) and fine fraction (solid-state 13C and 15N NMR spectroscopy. The 13C and 15N NMR spectra of all fPOM and oPOM fractions are dominated by signals assignable to O-alkyl C followed by resonance lines of alkyl C. The spectra indicate that fPOM is mainly composed of undecomposed plant debris whereas oPOM is rich in unsubstituted-aliphatic material. The lack of intensity in the chemical shift region from 160 to140 ppm in the spectra of the small size fractions reveals the absence of lignin residues. This, their low C/N ratios and the clear 13C-signal attributed to carboxylic C allows the conclusion that this fraction mainly composed of microbial residues. Former studies evidenced that aromaticity of the burnt bulk soil decreased with elapsing time after the fire. The present investigation revealed that most of the remaining aromatic C accumulated in the POM fractions, which is in contrast to other studies showing a preferential recovery of BC in the fine particle size fractions. Possibly, the poor interaction between Py

  18. Dry matter yield, carbon isotope discrimination and nitrogen uptake in silicon and/ or potassium fed chickpea and barley plants grown under water and non-water stress conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurd Ali, F.; Al-Chammaa, M.; Mouasess, A.

    2012-09-01

    A pot experiment was conducted to study the effects of silicon (Si) and/or potassium (K) on dry matter yield, nitrogen uptake and carbon isotope discrimination Δ 13 C in water stressed (FC1) and well watered (FC2) chickpea plants using 15 N and 13 C isotopes. Three fertilizer rates of Si (Si 5 0, Si 1 00 and Si 2 00) and one fertilizer rate of K were used. The results showed that: In chickpeas, it was found, for most of the growth parameters, that Si either alone or in combination with K was more effective to alleviate water stress than K alone. Increasing soil water level from FC1 to FC2 often had a positive impact on values of most studied parameters. The Si 1 00K + (FC1) and Si 5 0K + (FC2) treatments gave high enough amounts of N 2 -fixation, higher dry matter production and greater nitrogen yield. The percent increments of total N 2 -fixed in the above mentioned treatments were 51 and 47% over their controls, respectively. On the other hand, increasing leaves dry matter in response to the solely added Si (Si 5 0K - and Si 1 00K - ) is associated with lower Δ 13 C under both watering regimes. This may indicate that Si fertilization had a beneficial effect on water use efficiency (WUE). Hence, Δ 13 C could be an adequate indicator of WUE in response to the exogenous supply of silicon to chickpea plants. Our results highlight that Si is not only involved in amelioration of growth and in maintaining of water status but it can be considered as an important element for the symbiotic performance of chickpea plants. It can be concluded that synergistic effect of silicon and potassium fertilization with adequate irrigation improves growth and nitrogen fixation in chickpea plants.In barley plants, solely added K or in combination with adequate rate of Si (Si 1 00) were more effective in alleviating water stress and producing higher yield in barley plants than solely added Si. However, the latter nutrient was found to be more effective than the former in producing

  19. The effect of feeding bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal on their feed consumption and dried organic matter digestability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fattah, S.; Sobang, Y. U. L.; Samba, F. D.; Hartati, E.; Kapa, M. M. J.; Henuk, Y. L.

    2018-02-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding bull Bali Cattle kept in extensive husbnadry system with concentrates contained gliricidia sepium leaf meal and banana strach tuber meal in their feed consumptions and dried organic matter digestibility. Three bull Bali cattle aged 1 - 2 years old with an initial body weight of 135.5 kg - 168.0 kg were used in this study. The three treatments used were T0 = local feeds (consisted of Leucaena leucocephala, Acasia leochophloea, and Ficus sp. leaves as commonly used by local farmers); T1 = T0 + 1 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal); T2 = T1 +2 kg concentrate (contained banana strach tuber meal + gliricidia sepium leaf meal). The results showed that the dry matter intake were: 2.40, 3.52, and 4.14; organic matter intake were: 2.17, 3.32, and 3.62; dry matter digestible was 64.63%, 72.45%, 77.28% and organic matter digestible was 66.79%, 74.66%, 79.33% for T0, T1, and T2, respectively. There was no effect (P>0.05) of treatments on the three parameters observed on bull Bali cattle kept in extensive husbandry system and fed with concentrates contained leaf gliricidia sepium meal and banana starch tuber meal.

  20. Effective Use of Water and Increased Dry Matter Partitioned to Grain Contribute to Yield of Common Bean Improved for Drought Resistance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose A. Polania

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L. is the most important food legume in the diet of poor people in the tropics. Drought causes severe yield loss in this crop. Identification of traits associated with drought resistance contributes to improving the process of generating bean genotypes adapted to these conditions. Field studies were conducted at the International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT, Palmira, Colombia, to determine the relationship between grain yield and different parameters such as effective use of water (EUW, canopy biomass and dry partitioning indices (pod partitioning index, harvest index and pod harvest index in elite lines selected for drought resistance over the past decade. Carbon isotope discrimination (CID was used for estimation of water use efficiency (WUE. The main objectives were: (i to identify specific morpho-physiological traits that contribute to improved resistance to drought in lines developed over several cycles of breeding and that could be useful as selection criteria in breeding; and (ii to identify genotypes with desirable traits that could serve as parents in the corresponding breeding programs. A set of 36 bean genotypes belonging to the Middle American gene pool were evaluated under field conditions with two levels of water supply (irrigated and drought over two seasons. Eight bean lines (NCB 280, NCB 226, SEN 56, SCR 2, SCR 16, SMC 141, RCB 593 and BFS 67 were identified as resistant to drought stress. Resistance to terminal drought stress was positively associated with EUW combined with increased dry matter partitioned to pod and seed production and negatively associated with days to flowering and days to physiological maturity. Differences in genotypic response were observed between grain CID and grain yield under irrigated and drought stress. Based on phenotypic differences in CID, leaf stomatal conductance, canopy biomass and grain yield under drought stress, the lines tested were classified into

  1. Dry matter intake, body condition score, and grazing behavior of nonlactating, pregnant dairy cows fed kale or grass once versus twice daily during winter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rugoho, I; Edwards, G R

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effect of wintering pregnant, nonlactating dairy cows outdoors on either kale or grass, fed in 1 [11 kg dry matter (DM) of kale or grass + 3 kg DM of baled barley straw offered in the morning] or 2 allocations (5.5 kg DM of kale or grass grazed + 1.5 kg DM of barley straw offered morning and afternoon) per day. The body condition score (BCS) gain over the 47-d winter feeding period was higher for grass-fed (0.5 BCS units) than kale-fed cows (0.3 BCS units), but was unaffected by feeding frequency. Forage DM utilization was higher for kale-fed (97%) than grass-fed cows (76%), leading to higher estimated dry matter intake (DMI) in kale-fed (10.7 kg of DM/cow per day) than grass-fed cows (7.7 kg of DM/cow per day). Forage DM utilization and estimated DMI were not affected by feeding frequency. Prehension bite rate was greater for grass-fed (37.3 bites/min) than kale-fed cows (7.6 bites/min), but more mastication bites were required for kale-fed cows. Cumulative DMI after 2, 3, and 6 h was greater in cows allocated forage once than twice a day and for kale than grass after 3 and 6 h. Mean eating time was greater for cows offered forage once (477 min) than twice (414 min) per day. In conclusion, increasing feeding frequency from once to twice per day decreased the intake rate within the first 6 h after allocation, but did not affect total daily DMI, DM utilization or BCS gain. Thus, moving cows more frequently would not have any significant advantage. It may increase labor requirements, thereby creating a more challenging wintering management than feeding once per day. Copyright © 2018 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Oil accumulation kinetic along ripening in four olive cultivars varying for fruit size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Breton Catherine

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available To determine whether oil accumulation pattern is parallel to drupe olive (Olea europaea L growth and if common climatic parameters may influence oil content we conducted an experiment in rainfed orchards with four olive cultivars, Amygdalolia, Arbequina, Lucques, and Olivière, differing by fruit size at maturity. Fruits were harvested weekly from July to November. They were counted and weighted before being crushed. Fat content was determined on dry matter using a Minispec RMN. Common climatic parameters were recorded. Variance analyses showed stage effects highly significant. Results showed three different patterns for fruit growth. Dry matter accumulated broadly similarly and the weekly rates were positively correlated with fruit size. Oil accumulation is mostly independent of climatic variation and probably depends on genetic programmes for each cultivar. We defined the main steps and events for olive fruit ripening according to recent knowledge on fruit development.

  3. Leaf and shoot water content and leaf dry matter content of Mediterranean woody species with different post-fire regenerative strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saura-Mas, S; Lloret, F

    2007-03-01

    Post-fire regeneration is a key process in Mediterranean shrubland dynamics, strongly determining the functional properties of the community. In this study, a test is carried out to determine whether there is co-variation between species regenerative types and functional attributes related to water use. An analysis was made of the seasonal variations in leaf relative water content (RWC), leaf dry matter content (LDMC), leaf moisture (LM) and live fine fuel moisture (LFFM) in 30 woody species of a coastal shrubland, with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeding, resprouting or both). RWC results suggest that the studied resprouters have more efficient mechanisms to reduce water losses and maintain water supply between seasons. In contrast, seeders are more drought tolerant. LDMC is higher in resprouters over the course of the year, suggesting a more efficient conservation of nutrients. The weight of the phylogenetic constraint to understand differences between regenerative strategies tends to be important for LDMC, while it is not the case for variables such as RWC. Groups of species with different post-fire regenerative strategies (seeders and resprouters) have different functional traits related to water use. In addition to the role of phylogenetical constraints, these differences are also likely to be related to the respective life history characteristics. Therefore, the presence and abundance of species with different post-fire regenerative responses influence the functional properties of the communities.

  4. Effects of particle size and dry matter content of a total mixed ration on intraruminal equilibration and net portal flux of volatile fatty acids in lactating dairy cows

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storm, Adam Christian; Kristensen, Niels Bastian

    2010-01-01

    Effects of physical changes in consistency of ruminal contents on intraruminal equilibration and net portal fluxes of volatile fatty acids (VFA) in dairy cows were studied. Four Danish Holstein cows (121 ± 17 d in milk, 591 ± 24 kg of body weight, mean ± SD) surgically fitted with a ruminal cannula...... and permanent indwelling catheters in the major splanchnic blood vessels were used. The experimental design was a 4 × 4 Latin square with a 2 × 2 factorial design of treatments. Treatments differed in forage (grass hay) particle size (FPS; 3.0 and 30 mm) and feed dry matter (DM) content of the total mixed...... ration (44.3 and 53.8%). The feed DM did not affect chewing time, ruminal variables, or net portal flux of VFA. However, decreasing the FPS decreased the overall chewing and rumination times by 151 ± 55 and 135 ± 29 min/d, respectively. No effect of the reduced chewing time was observed on ruminal p...

  5. Dynamics of shearing force and its correlations with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility of stylo (Stylosanthes guianensis) stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zi, Xuejuan; Li, Mao; Zhou, Hanlin; Tang, Jun; Cai, Yimin

    2017-12-01

    The study explored the dynamics of shearing force and its correlation with chemical compositions and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) of stylo. The shearing force, diameter, linear density, chemical composition, and IVDMD of different height stylo stem were investigated. Linear regression analysis was done to determine the relationships between the shearing force and cut height, diameter, chemical composition, or IVDMD. The results showed that shearing force of stylo stem increased with plant height increasing and the crude protein (CP) content and IVDMD decreased but fiber content increased over time, resulting in decreased forage value. In addition, tall stem had greater shearing force than short stem. Moreover, shearing force is positively correlated with stem diameter, linear density and fiber fraction, but negatively correlated with CP content and IVDMD. Overall, shearing force is an indicator more direct, easier and faster to measure than chemical composition and digestibility for evaluation of forage nutritive value related to animal performance. Therefore, it can be used to evaluate the nutritive value of stylo.

  6. Acúmulo de massa seca e de macronutrientes por plantas de Glycine max e Solanum americanum Accumulation of dry mass and macronutrients by Glycine max and Solanum americanum plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Bianco

    2012-03-01

    S.Soybean is one of the main crops in Brazil, but its productivity is very affected by weed competition. Two experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, under greenhouse conditions to determine the accumulation and distribution of dry mass and macronutrients in soybean cv. BR-16, from October 2000 to February 2001, and Solanum americanum plants, from January to May 1995. Plants were grown in seven liter pots filled with river sand substrate and were daily irrigated with nutrient solution. The treatments were constituted by the times of samplings carried out at 14 day intervals, starting 21 days after emergence (DAE. Soybean evaluation was extended to 161 DAE, while S. americanum was extended to 119 DAE. The point of maximum theoretical accumulation of dry mass in soybean occurred at 104 DAE (35.00 g per plant while for S. americanum, it occurred at 143 DAE (179.62 g per plant. From emergence until 49 and 63 DAE, leaves showed higher participation in dry mass accumulation of soybean and S. americanum, respectively. After these periods, an inversion could be observed, with leaves being surpassed by stems for the weeds, and by stems and later, by reproductive structures, for the crop. Macronutrient uptake rate reached higher values between 69 to 87 DAE for soybean and between 105 to 119 DAE for S. americanum. Considering the mean inflexion point values observed in soybean crop, at 75 DAE, it can be evidenced that one soybean plant theoretically accumulated 23.90 g of dry mass, 564.40 mg of N, 7.10 mg of P, 490.80 mg of K, 487.00 mg of Ca, 156.60 mg of Mg and 36.00 mg of S, while one S. americanum plant theoretically accumulated 33.75 g of dry mass, 875.96 mg of N, 88.46 mg of P, 983.54 mg of K, 647.60 mg of Ca, 100.93 mg of Mg, and 42.15 mg of S.

  7. On the accumulation of organic matter on the southeastern Brazilian continental shelf: a case study based on a sediment core from the shelf off Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato da Silva Carreira

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Sterol and fatty acid biomarkers and isotopic composition (δ13C and δ15N of bulk organic matter (OM were quantified in a sediment core to characterize the accumulation of autochthonous OM in an area on the continental shelf adjacent to Rio de Janeiro State. In the sediment surface (0-1 cm the concentration of total sterols and fatty acids was at least one order of magnitude higher than that measured deeper down in the core and was dominated by labile and planktonic-derived biomarker compounds. These results suggest, as is confirmed by multivariate statistical analysis, the occurrence of an event of enhanced primary production in the water column and efficient export of particles to the bottom. Similar conditions have been observed at Cabo Frio, located 150 km to the north of our study site, during an upwelling event, suggesting that such events may exert a regional influence on primary production on the south-eastern Brazilian continental shelf. Beyond the signatures from this event, the presence of biomarker compounds from vascular plants suggests the additional influence of an outflow from Guanabara Bay at the study site. These results point to the need for further investigation of the relative influence of physical forcings and continental inputs on the biogeochemical processes on the section of the continental shelf considered in the present study.Marcadores moleculares na classe de lipídios (esterois, ácidos graxos e hidrocarbonetos e a composição isotópica (δ13C e δ15N da matéria orgânica bruta foram quantificados em amostras de um testemunho de sedimento para caracterizar o histórico recente de sedimentação da matéria orgânica na plataforma continental adjacente à Baía de Guanabara, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro. Na superfície do sedimento (0-1 cm, a concentração total de esterois e ácidos graxos foi cerca de uma ordem de grandeza maior do que observado nas camadas mais profundas do sedimento, com predominância de lip

  8. Consumo e digestibilidade de subprodutos do processamento de frutas em ovinos Intake and dry matter digestibility of by-products of fruit processer in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Edilton Lousada Junior

    2005-04-01

    of 34.5 kg, were assigned to a completely randomized design with five treatments (byproducts and four replications. Dry matter intakes (DMI of byproducts of guava, passion fruit and melon by the animals were similar but higher than WIC byproduct. The highest crude protein intake (CPI (g/animal/day, g/BW0.75 was observed in passion fruit and melon byproducts, while WIC byproduct the lowest CPI. Guava byproduct showed the higher intakes of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF and passion fruit byproduct showed the highest apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM coefficient. Guava and WIC byproducts showed ADMS lower than the others. The coefficients of apparent digestibility of crude protein (ADCP of passion fruit and melon byproducts were higher than the others byproducts. As for, the coefficients of apparent digestibility of NDF (ADNDF and ADF (ADADF, WIC and guava byproducts were lower while passion fruit byproduct showed ADNDF and ADADF higher than the others. No difference among evaluates byproducts for nitrogen balance was observed. Results showed that; pineapple, passion fruit and melon byproducts could be used in ruminant diets. However, WIC and guava byproducts showed low nutrient digestibility coefficients, restricting their use in ruminant diets.

  9. Development and dry mass accumulation in callalily at the initial cultivation stage Desenvolvimento e acúmulo de massa seca em copo-de-leite em fase inicial de cultivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Nogueira Moraes Carneiro

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The cultivation of the calla lily, despite its importance in the floriculture sector, is still limited due to the lack of knowledge of basic production techniques such as development and dry mass accumulation. These techniques facilitate more appropriate management, especially regarding the application of fertilizers, providing better nutrients utilization and greater yields. Thus, this study was aimed at evaluating the growth and development of calla lily plants, establishing growth curves according to dry mass accumulation. Acclimatized and micropropagated calla lily plantlets were grown in plastic pots containing coconut fiber as a substrate and fertilized with a modified formula of Malavolta. Treatments consisted of assessments at intervals of 30 days for 7 months. The design was in randomized blocks with four replications, in a total of 28 plots. Plants were evaluated by observing their growth characteristics and development of shoots, rhizome, roots, as well as production and flower quality. Development of the plants increased throughout the experimental period, with the maximum dry mass accumulation occurring at the end of the experimental period. Blooming was constant with the length of flower stalks increasing with along with the age of the plant.O cultivo de Zantedeschia aethiopica, apesar de sua importância no segmento da floricultura, ainda é limitado pelo reduzido conhecimento em técnicas básicas de produção, como o desenvolvimento e acúmulo de massa seca. Essas informações permitem um manejo mais adequado, sobretudo referente à aplicação de fertilizantes, proporcionando melhor aproveitamento de nutrientes e maiores produções. Dessa forma, neste estudo, objetivou-se avaliar o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas de copo-de-leite, estabelecendo curvas de crescimento, considerando o acúmulo de massa seca. Para tanto, mudas micropropagadas e aclimatizadas de copo-de-leite foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos contendo

  10. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-01-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  11. External validation of the GrazeIn model of pasture dry matter intake and milk yield prediction for cows managed at different calving dates and stocking rates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roca-Fernández, A.I.; González-Rodríguez, A.

    2017-07-01

    The aim was to evaluate the prediction accuracy of pasture dry matter intake (PDMI) and milk yield (MY) predicted by the GrazeIn model using a database representing 124 PDMI measurements at paddock level and 2232 MY measurements at cow level. External validation of the model was conducted using data collected from a trial carried out with Holstein-Friesian cows (n=72) while grazed 28 paddocks and were managed in a 2×2 factorial design by considering two calving dates (CD), with different number of days in milk (DIM), early (E, 29 DIM) vs. middle (M, 167 DIM), and two stocking rates (SR), medium (M, 3.9 cows ha-1) vs. high (H, 4.8 cows ha-1), under a rotational grazing system. Cows were randomly assigned to four grazing scenarios (EM, EH, MM and MH). The mean observed PDMI of the total database was 14.2 kg DM cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a mean PDMI for the database of 13.8 kg DM cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was −0.4 kg DM cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted PDMI for the total database with a relative prediction error (RPE) of 10.0% at paddock level. The mean observed MY of the database was 23.2 kg cow-1 day-1 while GrazeIn predicted a MY for the database of 23.1 kg cow-1 day-1. The mean bias was –0.1 kg cow-1 day-1. GrazeIn predicted MY for the total database with a mean RPE of 17.3% at cow level. For the scenarios investigated, GrazeIn predicted PDMI and MY with a low level of error which made it a suitable tool for decision support systems.

  12. Estimating leaf functional traits by inversion of PROSPECT: Assessing leaf dry matter content and specific leaf area in mixed mountainous forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Abebe Mohammed; Darvishzadeh, Roshanak; Skidmore, Andrew K.; Duren, Iris van; Heiden, Uta; Heurich, Marco

    2016-03-01

    Assessments of ecosystem functioning rely heavily on quantification of vegetation properties. The search is on for methods that produce reliable and accurate baseline information on plant functional traits. In this study, the inversion of the PROSPECT radiative transfer model was used to estimate two functional leaf traits: leaf dry matter content (LDMC) and specific leaf area (SLA). Inversion of PROSPECT usually aims at quantifying its direct input parameters. This is the first time the technique has been used to indirectly model LDMC and SLA. Biophysical parameters of 137 leaf samples were measured in July 2013 in the Bavarian Forest National Park, Germany. Spectra of the leaf samples were measured using an ASD FieldSpec3 equipped with an integrating sphere. PROSPECT was inverted using a look-up table (LUT) approach. The LUTs were generated with and without using prior information. The effect of incorporating prior information on the retrieval accuracy was studied before and after stratifying the samples into broadleaf and conifer categories. The estimated values were evaluated using R2 and normalized root mean square error (nRMSE). Among the retrieved variables the lowest nRMSE (0.0899) was observed for LDMC. For both traits higher R2 values (0.83 for LDMC and 0.89 for SLA) were discovered in the pooled samples. The use of prior information improved accuracy of the retrieved traits. The strong correlation between the estimated traits and the NIR/SWIR region of the electromagnetic spectrum suggests that these leaf traits could be assessed at canopy level by using remotely sensed data.

  13. Accumulation of mixed linkage (1¿3) (1¿4)-ß-D-glucan during grain filling in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Seefeldt, Helene Fast; Blennow, Per Gunnar Andreas; Jespersen, Birthe P Møller

    2009-01-01

    18% BG (w/w) dry matter 30 days after flowering (DAF), seemingly compensating for a decreased synthesis of starch. The spectral information of the barley flour was compared to pure BG spectra and partial least squares regression (PLS) models were constructed for calibration to BG content. Informative...... the normal control Cork were studied. The Cork and lys3a genotypes showed a linear BG accumulation throughout the grain filling to reach a maximum of approximately 6 and 4% BG (w/w) dry matter, respectively. However, lys5f mutant exhibited an exponential increase in BG synthesis to a maximum of approximately...

  14. Effects of light intensity and quality on phycobiliprotein accumulation in the cyanobacterium Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Lu, Fan; Bi, Yonghong; Hu, Zhengyu

    2015-08-01

    To assess the effects of light intensity and quality on the growth and phycobiliproteins (PBP) accumulation in Nostoc sphaeroides Kützing (N. sphaeroides). Dry weights, dry matter, protein, chlorophyll and PBP contents were higher under 90 μmol m(-2) s(-1) than under other intensities (both higher and lower). Phycocyanin and allophycocyanin increased with light intensity while phycoerythrin decreased. Fresh weights, protein and PBP contents increased at the highest rates under blue light. Red light resulted in higher values of dry matter, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a. White light at 90 μmol m(-2) s(-1) or blue light 30 μmol m(-2) s(-1) were optimal for the growth and phycobiliprotein accumulation in N. sphaeroides.

  15. Dry matter production and partitioning of maize hybrids and dwarf unes at four plant populations Produção e distribuição de matéria seca de híbridos e linhagens anãs de milho em quatro populações

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sangoi

    1997-03-01

    Full Text Available This experiment was conducted in Ames, Iowa, USA, to compare dry matter accumulation patterns of maize genotypes contrasting in height and leafiness, and to test whether reduction in plant height an leaf number through the use of dwarfing genes or earliness can improve grain dry matter allocation. Five plant genotypes were tested: a full season hybrid adapted to central lowa (NK 4525, a short season hybrid adapted to northern Minnesota (C1070, and three dwarf lines (156-A, 302-E and I17- A. The dwarves contained, respectively, the homozygous, independent, recessive dwarfing genes d3, d1 and br2. Each genotype was sown at four plant populations: 25, 50, 75 and 100.000 plants. ha-1. Hybrids had the greatest rates of decrease in total biomass and grain dry matter per plant when population was increased, though they also had larger absolute values of these variables at any given density. Hybrids produced more grain dry matter per unit of leaf area, and a higher harvest index, regardless the plant population used. Reduction in plant height or leaf number did not improve maize efficiency in producing and partitioning dry matter to the grain.Este experimento foi conduzido em Ames, Iowa, Estados Unidos, tendo como objetivos comparar os padrões de produção e distribuição de matéria seca de genótipos de milho contrastantes quanto a estatura e número de folhas, e verificar se a redução nestas características, mediante a utilização de genes para nanismo ou cultivares precoces, pode aumentar a eficiência da planta em alocar matéria seca para a produção de grãos. Cinco genótipos foram testados: um híbrido de ciclo normal adaptado à região central de lowa (NK 4525, um híbrido de ciclo precoce adaptado à região norte do estado de Minnesota (C 1070, e três linhagens anãs (156-A, 302-E and 117-A, contendo os genes recessivos de nanismo d3, d1 and br2, respectivamente Cada genótipo foi semeado em quatro populações, equivalentes a 25

  16. Desenvolvimento, partição de assimilados e produção de matéria seca de plantas de soja (Glycine max (L. merrill submetidas a quatro doses de metribuzin Development,assimilate partition and dry matter production in soybean (Glycine max (L. merrill plants treated with four doses of metribuzin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. J. Silva Neto

    1991-01-01

    increasing metribuzin doses. Metribuzin did not alter the pattern of sequential dry matter partition in the plants. Metribuzin did not affect dry matter accumulation in pods (Wv; however, from initiation to the end of maturation of seeds the control presented greater Wv values than trea plants, due to its highest net assimilation rate after blooming. Pericarp dry matter (Wp was decre ased from full development se eds to final harvest for all treatments, except for Wp of plant streated with 0,7 i.a.ha-l that was maintained practically. Constant on the other hand, seed dry matter increased accentuately, from formation to last harvest, for all doses employed.

  17. H-1 chemical shift imaging of the brain in guanidino methyltransferase deficiency, a creatine deficiency syndrome; guanidinoacetate accumulation in the gray matter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sijens, PE; Verbruggen, KT; Meiners, LC; Soorani-Lunsing, RJ; Rake, JP; Oudkerk, M

    MR spectroscopy results in a mild case of guanidinoacetate methyltransferase (GAMT) deficiency are presented. The approach differs from previous MRS studies in the acquisition of a chemical shift imaging spectral map showing gray and white matter with the corresponding spectra in one overview. MR

  18. Categorization of endometritis and its association with ovarian follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake, and milk yield in dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gobikrushanth, M; Salehi, R; Ambrose, D J; Colazo, M G

    2016-10-15

    The objectives were to evaluate the effect of different categories of endometritis on follicular growth and ovulation, reproductive performance, dry matter intake (DMI), and milk yield (MY) in dairy cows. Lactating Holstein cows (n = 126) were examined for endometritis on 25 ± 1 day postpartum (DPP) using vaginoscopy, transrectal ultrasonography, and endometrial cytology to determine the presence and type of vaginal discharge, uterine fluid, and proportion of polymorphonuclear (PMN) cells, respectively. Cows that had mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or presence of uterine fluid, no mucopurulent vaginal discharge or uterine fluid but 8% or more PMN, and mucopurulent vaginal discharge and/or uterine fluid and 8% or more of PMN were defined as having clinical (CLIN; n = 45), cytological (CYTO; n = 15), and clinical and cytological (CLINCYTO; n = 30) endometritis, respectively. Cows that had none of the above pathological conditions were classified as unaffected (UNAF; n = 36). The diameter of the largest follicle at first examination, intervals from calving to first dominant (diameter = 10 mm) follicle, preovulatory size (diameter = 16 mm) follicle, ovulation, presence of follicular cyst, and proportion of ovular cows at 35 and 65 DPP were recorded as the measures of follicular growth and ovulation. None of the ovarian follicular parameters analyzed was affected by categories of endometritis. The first service conception rate tended (P = 0.06) to differ among categories of endometritis; cows that had CLIN and CLINCYTO endometritis were four times less likely to conceive to the first insemination compared to UNAF cows. Cows that had CLIN (hazard ratio: 0.52) and CLINCYTO (hazard ratio: 0.40) endometritis had decreased likelihood of pregnancy at 150 DPP compared to UNAF cows. Similarly, cows diagnosed as having CLINCYTO endometritis had decreased likelihood (hazard ratio: 0.48) of pregnancy at 250 DPP compared to UNAF cows. The DMI and MY up to 5

  19. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  20. Relationships between dry matter content, ensiling, ammonia-nitrogen, and ruminal in vitro starch digestibility in high-moisture corn samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraretto, L F; Taysom, K; Taysom, D M; Shaver, R D; Hoffman, P C

    2014-05-01

    The objectives of the study were (1) to determine relationships between high-moisture corn (HMC) dry matter (DM), ammonia-N [% of crude protein (CP)], and soluble CP concentrations, and pH, with 7-h ruminal in vitro starch digestibility (ivStarchD), and (2) to evaluate the effect of ensiling on pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD measurements in HMC. A data set comprising 6,131 HMC samples (55 to 80% DM) obtained from a commercial feed analysis laboratory was used for this study. Month of sample submittal was assumed to be associated with length of the ensiling period. Data for month of sample submittal were analyzed using Proc Mixed in SAS (SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC) with month as a fixed effect. Regressions to determine linear and quadratic relationships between ivStarchD and ammonia-N, soluble CP, pH, and DM content were performed using Proc Mixed. The ivStarchD increased by 9 percentage units from October to August of the following year. Similar results were observed for ammonia-N and soluble CP with increases from 1.8 to 4.6% of CP and 31.3 to 46.4% of CP, respectively, from October to August of the following year. Ammonia-N was positively related to ivStarchD (R(2)=0.61). The DM content of HMC at silo removal was negatively related (R(2)=0.47) to ivStarchD with a decrease of 1.6 percentage units in ivStarchD per 1-percentage-unit increase in DM content. The pH of HMC was negatively related to ammonia-N (R(2)=0.53), soluble CP (R(2)=0.57), and ivStarchD (R(2)=0.51). Combined, ammonia-N, DM, soluble CP, and pH provided a good prediction of ivStarchD (adjusted R(2)=0.70). Increasing pH, ammonia-N, soluble CP, and ivStarchD values indicate that HMC may need up to 10 mo of ensiling to reach maximum starch digestibility. Ammonia-N, DM content, soluble CP concentration, and pH are good indicators of ruminal in vitro starch digestibility for high-moisture corn. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights

  1. The effect of drainage on organic matter accumulation and plant communities of high-altitude peatlands in the Colombian tropical Andes

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    J.C. Benavides

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The tropical Andes store and regulate water outflow that serves nearly 60 million people. Most of the water is for un-managed agricultural irrigation. In this work I report how the drainage of peatlands has adversely affected the development of plant communities and recent carbon accumulation in a páramo massif at 2500 to 3800 m altitude in the northern Andes. I surveyed vegetation and water chemistry in 26 peatlands with differing intensities of drainage. Peat cores to 50 cm from two sites with contrasting drainage histories were dated using 210Pb, and used to compare historical vegetation changes and carbon accumulation rates. (A Species composition was much affected by drainage, which resulted in a reduction in cover of Sphagnum and other peat-forming species, and the encroachment of sedges and Juncus effusus. The ability of peat to store water and carbon was also reduced in drained peatlands. Vegetation records show a shift towards sedge-Juncus communities around 50 years ago when agricultural use of water increased. (B Peat and carbon accumulation rates were lower in drained sites, indicating either greater decomposition rates of the upper peat column or lower production by the changed plant communities. The ecological services offered by peatlands to agrarian communities downstream are important. Measures to prevent peatland destruction are needed urgently.

  2. Efeito da aplicação de zinco em sementes sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho = Effect of zinc application in seeds on the nutrition and production of dry matter of maize plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do trabalho foi o de avaliar o efeito do tratamento de sementes à aplicação de zinco sobre a nutrição e a produção de massa seca de plantas de milho. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, utilizando o delineamento experimental inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 5, com três repetições. Os tratamentos foram constituídos de híbridos de milho (BRS 1001 e PZ 677, e cinco doses de zinco (0, 25, 50, 100 e 200 g de Zn por 20 kg de sementes, aplicados na forma de sulfato de zinco. Foi avaliado o efeito dos tratamentos sobre o índice de velocidade de emergência dasplântulas e, após 28 dias da semeadura, avaliou-se a produção de massa seca e o teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes. O aumento das doses promoveu elevação do teor de zinco na parte aérea e nas raízes das plântulas de milho, mesmo não existindo aumento significativo na produção da massa seca. Os níveis de zinco utilizados não proporcionaram sintomas de toxicidade nas plântulas.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of seeding treatment to zinc application as regards the nutrition and production of dry matter in maize plants. The experiment was conducted under greenhouse conditions, with completely randomized design, arranged in a 2 x 5 factorial and three replications. The treatments corresponded to two maize cultivars, the BRS 1001 and the PZ 677 and fiverates of zinc (0, 25, 50, 100 and 200 g of Zn to 20 kg of seeds as zinc sulfate. The effect on the outgrowth speed was followed after 28 days of sowing and the dry matter production and the zinc level in the leaves and roots were evaluated. There was accumulation in thelevel of zinc in the leaves and roots with an increase of the rates. However, a significant increase in the dry matter production was not observed. The plants did not present toxicity symptoms with the rates used.

  3. Simulation of Dry Matter Productivity and Water Dynamics in a Chilean Patagonian Range Simulación de la Productividad de Materia Seca y Dinámica del Agua en Praderas de la Patagonia Chilena

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    Giorgio Castellaro G

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a simulation model combining the main components of water balance and growth of perennial grassland steppe in Chilean Patagonia, to estimate long-term annual production (Yr, kg ha-1 and sheep carrying capacity (GC, sheep equivalent [EO] ha-1. The model is based on climate-water balance relationships, where the basic process is evapotranspiration. The model calculates Yr depending on the accumulation of transpiration and the water use efficiency from the time of growth initiation until the grassland accumulates the maximum amount of dry matter (DM. Depending on Yr, the DM requirement of EO, the proper use factor of grassland and a slope correction factor, a range site GC is calculated. Simulations were performed using actual climate data sets of eight growing seasons at Kampenaike (52º41' S; 70°54'W; 12 m.a.s.l. and a long-term simulation in the same location, using a stochastic weather variables generator. Through the model it was possible to estimate the water loss associated with the components of water balance and estimate the restriction imposed by water deficit on Yr. By simulating many years, it was possible to establish a normal distribution of GC with 0.629 EO ha-1 yr-1, associated with 80% probability of being exceeded, which is lower than values reported in field assessments. This method calculates GC with a conservational approach, taking into account soil and climatic variability in semiarid ecosystems.Se describe un modelo de simulación para pastizales esteparios de la Patagonia chilena, que estima a largo plazo los principales componentes del balance hídrico, la producción anual de MS (Yr, kg ha-1 y la capacidad de carga ovina (GC, equivalente ovino [EO] ha-1 de éstos. El modelo se basa en la relación clima-balance hídrico, siendo el proceso básico la evapotranspiración. Yr es función de la acumulación de transpiración durante la temporada de crecimiento y de la eficiencia del uso del agua. La GC

  4. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  5. Using the Small Ruminant Nutrition System to develop and evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake of goats when accounting for ruminal fiber stratification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regadas Filho, J G L; Tedeschi, L O; Cannas, A; Vieira, R A M; Rodrigues, M T

    2014-11-01

    The first objective of this research was to assess the ability of the Small Ruminant Nutrition System (SRNS) mechanistic model to predict metabolizable energy intake (MEI) and milk yield (MY) when using a heterogeneous fiber pool scenario (GnG1), compared with a traditional, homogeneous scenario (G1). The second objective was to evaluate an alternative approach to estimating the dry matter intake (DMI) of goats to be used in the SRNS model. The GnG1 scenario considers an age-dependent fractional transference rate for fiber particles from the first ruminal fiber pool (raft) to an escapable pool (λr), and that this second ruminal fiber pool (i.e., escapable pool) follows an age-independent fractional escape rate for fiber particles (ke). Scenario G1 adopted only a single fractional passage rate (kp). All parameters were estimated individually by using equations published in the literature, except for 2 passage rate equations in the G1 scenario: 1 developed with sheep data (G1-S) and another developed with goat data (G1-G). The alternative approach to estimating DMI was based on an optimization process using a series of dietary constraints. The DMI, MEI, and MY estimated for the GnG1 and G1 scenarios were compared with the results of an independent dataset (n=327) that contained information regarding DMI, MEI, MY, and milk and dietary compositions. The evaluation of the scenarios was performed using the coefficient of determination (R(2)) between the observed and predicted values, mean bias (MB), bias correction factor (Cb), and concordance correlation coefficient. The MEI estimated by the GnG1 scenario yielded precise and accurate values (R(2) = 082; MB = 0.21 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) similar to those of the G1-S (R(2) = 0.85; MB = 0.10 Mcal/d; Cb=0.99) and G1-G (R(2) = 0.84; MB = 0.18 Mcal/d; Cb = 0.98) scenarios. The results were also similar for the MY, but a substantial MB was found as follows: GnG1 (R(2) = 0.74; MB = 0.70 kg/d; Cb = 0.79), G1-S (R(2) = 0.71; MB = 0

  6. Determinação da matéria seca e teores de macronutrientes em folhas de frutíferas usando diferentes métodos de secagem Determination of dry matter and macronutrient content in leaves of fruit trees using different drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nericlenes Chaves Marcante

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse estudo foi avaliar diferentes métodos de secagem de folhas para três diferentes frutíferas (maracujá, pêssego e abacate, com relação à determinação da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Foram coletadas amostras de folhas recém expandida de três culturas, do pomar da fazenda de ensino e pesquisa da FCAV-UNESP, câmpus de Jaboticabal, no mês de janeiro de 2010, coletando-se para cada cultura 12 amostras com 25 folhas cada. Os tratamentos constituíram-se por dois métodos de secagem, estufa de circulação de ar forçada regulada a uma temperatura de 70°C e o forno microondas (FMO. Avaliou-se a massa da matéria seca e os teores foliares de macronutrientes. Os resultados sugerem que os dois métodos de secagem testados se assemelham na determinação de matéria seca e nos teores foliares de macronutrientes para as culturas análisadas, exceto os teores de cálcio na cultura do pêssego.The objective of this study was to evaluate different methods of drying of leaves for three different fruit (passion fruit, peach and avocado, with respect to the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients. Samples were collected from recently expanded leaves of three crops orchard Farm education and research FCAV-UNESP, Jaboticabal campus, in January 2010, by collecting 12 samples for each culture with 25 leaves. The treatments consisted of two drying methods, greenhouse circulation of air regulated to a temperature of 70°C and FMO. We evaluated the mass of dry matter and foliar nutrients. The results suggest that the two drying methods tested did not interfere in the determination of dry matter and foliar nutrients to crops analyzed, except the calcium levels in peach.

  7. An examination of historic inorganic sedimentation and organic matter accumulation in several marsh types within the Mobile Bay and and Mobile-Tensaw River Delta region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Christopher G.; Osterman, Lisa E.; Poore, Richard Z.

    2013-01-01

    Mass accumulation rates (MAR; g cm-2 y-1), linear sedimentation rates (LSR; cm y-1), and core geochronology derived from excess lead-210 (210Pb) profiles and inventories measured in six sediment cores collected from marsh sites from the MobileTensaw River Delta and Mobile Bay region record the importance of both continuous and event-driven inorganic sedimentation over the last 120 years. MAR in freshwater marshes varied considerably between sites and through time (0.24 and 1.31 g cm-2 y-1). The highest MARs occurred in the 1950s and 1960s and correspond to record discharge events along the Mobile and Tensaw Rivers. In comparison, MAR at salt marsh sites increased almost threefold over the last 120 years (0.05 to 0.18 g cm-2 y-1 or 0.23 to 0.48 cm y-1). From 1880 to 1960, organic accumulation remained fairly constant (20%), while intermittent pulses of high inorganic sedimentation were observed following 1960. The pulses in inorganic sedimentation coincide with several major hurricanes (e.g., Hurricanes Camille, Fredric, Georges, and Ivan). The nearly threefold increase in MAR in salt marshes during the last 120 years would thus appear to be partially dependent on inorganic sedimentation from storm events. This study shows that while hurricanes, floods, and other natural hazards are well-known threats to human infrastructure and coastal ecosystems, these events also transport sediment to marshes that help abate other pressures such as sea-level rise (SLR) and subsidence.

  8. Effect of diet grinding and pelleting fed either dry or liquid feed on dry matter and pH in the stomach of pigs and the development of gastric ulcers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mösseler, A; Wintermann, M; Sander, S J; Kamphues, J

    2012-12-01

    The physical form of diets has a marked impact on the development of gastric ulcers in pigs. Earlier studies showed effects of fine grinding and pelleting on the integrity of gastric mucosa as well as on local intragastric milieu. This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of dry or liquid feeding on intragastric milieu (DM and pH) in pigs. The 23 piglets were housed individually and fed with test diets and water ad lib for 6 wk. Both experimental diets [coarsely ground diet fed as mash (CM) vs. finely ground pelleted diet (FP)] were identical in ingredients (39.5% wheat, 34% barley, 20% soybean meal) and chemical composition and were either offered dry or in liquid (25% DM) form. At the end of the trial the animals were slaughtered; the stomach was removed and samples were taken from different localizations. Feeding diets dry or liquid had no effect on the pH (P > 0.05). The diet noticeably affected the gastric content. The FP diets resulted in a more liquid chyme (P pH did not differ between regions. Feeding CM caused marked effects of localization regarding pH (highest values: pars nonglandularis; lowest values: fundus). None of the pigs fed CM showed signs of gastric ulcers, but the score was markedly higher (P < 0.05) when pigs were fed FP. Therefore the predominant factor for development of gastric ulcers seems to be the structure (particle size) of the diet.

  9. Carbon accumulation in pristine and drained mires

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maekilae, M.

    2011-07-01

    The carbon accumulation of 73 peat columns from 48 pristine and drained mires was investigated using a total of 367 dates and age-depth models derived from bulk density measurements. Peat columns were collected from mires of varying depth, age, degree of natural state and nutrient conditions in aapa mire and raised bog regions and coastal mires from southern and central Finland and Russian Karelia. Particular attention was paid to the accumulation of carbon over the last 300 years, as this period encompasses the best estimates of the oxic layer (acrotelm) age across the range of sites investigated. In general, drained mires are initially more nutrient-rich than pristine mires. Organic matter decomposes more rapidly at drained sites than at pristine sites, resulting in thinner peat layers and carbon accumulation but a higher dry bulk density and carbon content. The average carbon accumulation was calculated as 24.0 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine sites and 19.4 g m-2 yr-1 at drained sites, while for peat layers younger than 300 years the respective figures were 45.3 and 34.5 g m-2 yr-1 at pristine and drained sites. For the <300-year-old peat layers studied here, the average thickness was 19 cm less and the carbon accumulation rate 10.8 g m-2 yr-1 lower in drained areas than in pristine areas. The amount carbon accumulation of surface peat layers depends upon the mire site type, vegetation and natural state; variations reflect differences in plant communities as well as factors that affect biomass production and decay rates. The highest accumulation rates and thus carbon binding for layers younger than 300 years were measured in the ombrotrophic mire site types (Sphagnum fuscum bog and Sphagnum fuscum pine bog), and the second highest rates in wet, treeless oligotrophic and minerotrophic mire site types. The lowest values of carbon accumulation over the last 300 years were obtained for the most transformed, sparsely forested and forested mire site types, where the water

  10. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  11. Does a strong pycnocline impact organic-matter preservation and accumulation in an anoxic setting? The case of the Orca Basin, Gulf of Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tribovillard, Nicolas; Bout-Roumazeilles, Viviane; Sionneau, Thomas; Serrano, Jean Carlos Montero; Riboulleau, Armelle; Baudin, François

    2009-01-01

    The Orca Basin (an intraslope depression located in the Gulf of Mexico) collects sedimentary particles of terrestrial origin (clastic and organic particles mainly supplied by the Mississippi River) and of marine origin (biogenic productivity). The basin is partly filled with dense brines leached from salt diapirs cropping out on the sea floor, and is permanently stratified. A strong pycnocline induces anoxic bottom conditions, expectedly favorable to organic matter (OM) preservation. Here, we report on OM in the upper 750 cm below sea floor of Core MD02-2552 (Holocene). The organic content is dominated by marine-derived amorphous OM. The organic assemblage is unexpectedly degraded to some extent, which may be accounted for by a relatively long residence time of organic particles at the halocline-pycnocline at ˜2240 m. Thus the organic particles are temporarily trapped and kept in contact with the dissolved oxygen-rich overlying water mass. Lastly, the land-derived organic fraction shows co-variations with the land-derived clay mineral supply.

  12. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  13. Growth and nutrient accumulation in mycorrhized papaya seedlings cultivated in a phosphorus-fertilized substrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dácio Jerônimo de Almeida

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The indiscriminate use of mineral fertilizers in papaya orchards has increased production costs, and the use of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi is a promising alternative to reduce such expenses. Therefore, the present research aimed at studying the efficiency of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF on dry matter and nutrient accumulation in Sunrise Solo papaya seedlings, by applying doses of P2O5 (triple superphosphate that are harmful to the symbiosis. The experiment was carried out in a protected environment and was set up in a randomized block design with four replications, and consisted of four P2O5 doses (0, 672, 1386 and 2100 mg dm-3, three mycorrhizal fungi species (Gigaspora margarita, Entrophospora colombiana and Scutellospora heterogama and the control treatment (mycorrhiza-free. Shoot and root dry matter as well as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium contents in leaf and root tissues were assessed. Mycorrhizal inoculation promoted a 30% increase in shoot dry matter in relation to the control treatment. Mycorrhizal fungi promoted increases in leaf and root nitrogen content up to 672 mg dm-3 P2O5. Inoculation of E. colombiana favored the highest gains in root and shoot dry matter. P2O5 fertilization increased foliar and root phosphorus content.

  14. Comparison of the ability of fifteen onion (Allium cepa L. cultivars to accumulate nitrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Wojciechowska

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The aim of a two-year study was to characterise selected Allium cepa L. genotypes with regard to their ability to accumulate nitrates in bulbs as well as to search for a possible relation between NO3- concentration and dry matter content. Fifteen cultivars of edible onion, mostly of long-day genotype with different growing periods, bulb size and skin colour, were taken for the experiment. Seeds of particular cultivars were obtained from the following seed companies: Spójnia Nochowo (‘Labrador’, ‘Takstar F1’,‘Tęcza’, ‘Warna’, ‘Zorza’, Polan (‘Polanowska’, ‘Topolska’, PlantiCo Gołębiew (‘Alibaba’, ‘Efekt’, ‘Kristine’, ‘Niagara F1’,and PlantiCo Zielonki (‘Bila’, ‘Irka’, ‘Wenta’, ‘Zeta’. Plants produced from seedlings were grown in the experimental field of the University of Agriculture in Kraków. After crop harvesting and additional drying, nitrate and dry matter content in bulbs of all cultivars were measured. The following cultivars: ‘Efekt’, ‘Labrador’ and red-skinned ‘Wenta’, were characterized by the lowest ability to accumulate NO3- in bulbs. The highest nitrate content was noted in bulbs of ‘Takstar F1’ (a very early-season cultivar, followed by ‘Bila’ and ‘Tęcza’. A weak, yet statistically significant negative correlation between nitrate and dry matter content was observed. The highest dry matter content was determined in bulbs of white-skinned ‘Alibaba’, while the lowest – in brown-skinned ‘Labrador’.

  15. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  16. Influence of elevated alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance in fathead minnows during chronic, multi-trophic exposures to a metal mine effluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ouellet, Jacob D; Dubé, Monique G; Niyogi, Som

    2013-09-01

    Metal bioavailability in aquatic organisms is known to be influenced by various water chemistry parameters. The present study examined the influence of alkalinity and natural organic matter (NOM) on tissue-specific metal accumulation and reproductive performance of fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) during environmentally relevant chronic exposures to a metal mine effluent (MME). Sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) or NOM (as commercial humic acid) were added to a Canadian MME [45 percent process water effluent (PWE)] in order to evaluate whether increases in alkalinity (3-4 fold) or NOM (~1.5-3mg/L dissolved organic carbon) would reduce metal accumulation and mitigate reproductive toxicity in fathead minnows during a 21-day multi-trophic exposure. Eleven metals (barium, boron, cobalt, copper, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, rubidium, selenium, and strontium) were elevated in the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water. Exposure to the unmodified 45 percent PWE resulted in a decrease of fathead minnow egg production (~300 fewer eggs/pair) relative to the unmodified reference water, over the 21-day exposure period. Water chemistry modifications produced a modest decrease in free ion activity of some metals (as shown by MINTEQ, Version 3) in the 45 percent PWE exposure water, but did not alter the metal burden in the treatment-matched larval Chironomus dilutus (the food source of fish during exposure). The tissue-specific metal accumulation increased in fish exposed to the 45 percent PWE relative to the reference water, irrespective of water chemistry modifications, and the tissue metal concentrations were found to be similar between fish in the unmodified and modified 45 percent PWE (higher alkalinity or NOM) treatments. Interestingly however, increased alkalinity and NOM markedly improved fish egg production both in the reference water (~500 and ~590 additional eggs/pair, respectively) and 45 percent PWE treatments (~570 and ~260 additional eggs

  17. In situ dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of the Mineirão stylos=Degradabilidade in situ da matéria seca e fração fibrosa do estilosantes Mineirão

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domingas Cruvinel Batista de Siqueira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This research evaluated, using the in situ technique, the dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of the Mineirão stylo (Stylozanthes guianensis. The nylon bag method was used for the degradability assay, with two incubations in rumen-cannulated adult female cows. In each incubation, 25 samples of 7.0 g each were used. The samples were collected at 0, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The experiment was conducted according to a randomized blocks design and data were submitted to analysis of variance. The maximum effective degradability was obtained in the 2% passage rate. For the 5% passage rate the Mineirão stylo showed effective degradation of 75.70% for dry matter, 59.01% for neutral detergent fiber and 76.81% for acid detergent fiber. The digestibility achieved by the dry matter and fibrous fraction from Mineirão was considered high. These results, coupled with the low lag time found reveal the forage potential of the cultivar.Neste trabalho avaliou-se, por meio da técnica in situ, a degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da leguminosa estilosantes Mineirão (Stylozanthes guianensis, leguminosa nativa do Cerrado brasileiro. Para o ensaio da degradabilidade, usou-se o método dos sacos de náilon, com duas incubações em fêmea bovina adulta canulada no rúmen. Em cada incubação, foram utilizadas 25 amostras de 7,0 g cada. As amostras foram retiradas nos tempos 0, 6, 9, 12, 24, 36, 48, 72 e 96h. O experimento foi conduzido segundo o delineamento de blocos ao acaso e os dados submetidos à analise de variância. As máximas degradabilidades efetivas foram atingidas na taxa de passagem 2%. Para a taxa de passagem de 5%, o estilosantes Mineirão apresentou degradabilidade efetiva de 75,70% para a matéria seca, 59,01% para a fibra em detergente neutro e 76,81% para a fibra em detergente ácido. A digestibilidade alcançada tanto pela matéria seca quanto pela fração fibrosa estilosantes Mineirão foi considerada

  18. Degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fração fibrosa e da proteína bruta de forrageiras Forages dry matter, fibrous fraction and crude protein ruminal degradability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aureliano José Vieira Pires

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a degradabilidade ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta da alfafa (Medicago sativa, aveia-preta (Avena strigosa, leucena (Leucaena leucocephala e guandu (Cajanus cajan. Amostras de 3 g das forragens foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 e 72 horas. As degradabilidades efetivas da matéria seca da alfafa e da aveia, para a taxa de passagem de 5% por hora, foram elevadas (acima de 60%. A leucena e o guandu apresentaram valores inferiores, 50,9 e 56,0%, respectivamente. A partir de 24 horas de incubação, a aveia se destacou com maior desaparecimento da fibra em detergente neutro e da fibra em detergente ácido, e ainda apresentou as mais elevadas taxas de degradação efetiva destas frações. A aveia foi a forragem que apresentou maior degradabilidade da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro, da fibra em detergente ácido e da proteína bruta no rúmen. O guandu, entretanto, foi a forragem com as piores taxas de degradação.The objective of this work was to evaluate ruminal degradability of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and crude protein of alfalfa (Medicago sativa, black oat (Avena strigosa, leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and pigeon pea (Cajanus cajan. Samples of 3 g of forages were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0, 6, 12, 24, 36, 48 and 72 hours periods. The dry matter effective degradabilities of alfalfa and oat, for a passage rate of 5%/hour, were high (over 60%. However, leucaena and pigeon pea showed lower values, 50.9 and 56.0%, respectively. From 24-hour incubation period on, the oat presented the highest neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber disappearance and showed the greatest effective degradation rates of these fractions. The oat was the forage with the highest dry matter, neutral detergent fiber, acid detergent fiber and

  19. Modulation of carbon and nitrogen allocation in Urtica dioica and Plantago major by elevated CO{sub 2}. Impact of accumulation of nonstructural carbohydrates and ontogenetic drift

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hertog, J. den; Stulen, I.; Fonseca, F.; Delea, P.

    1996-10-01

    Doubling the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration from 350 to 700 {mu} l{sup -1} increased the relative growth rate (RGR) of hydroponically grown Urtica dioica L. and Plantagomajor ssp. pleiospherma Pilger only for the first 10-14 days. Previous experiments with P. major indicated that RGR did not respond i proportion to the rate of photosynthesis. The impact of changes in leaf morphology, dry matter partitioning, dry matter chemical composition and ontogenetic drift on this discrepancy is analysed. Soon after the start of the treatment, carbohydrate concentrations were higher at elevated CO{sub 2}; largely due to starch accumulation. An increase in the percentage of leaf dry matter and decreases in the specific leaf area (SLA) and the shoot nitrogen concentration were correlated with an increase in the total nonstructural carbohydrate concentration (TNC). A combination of accumulation of soluble sugars and starch and ontogenetic drift explains the decrease in SLA at the elevated CO{sub 2} level. A similar ontogenetic effect of elevated CO{sub 2} was observed on the specific root length (SRL). Shoot nitrogen concentration and percentage leaf dry matter were not affected. The net diurnal fluctuation of the carbohydrate pool in P. major was equal for both CO{sub 2} concentrations, indicating that the growth response to elevated CO{sub 2} may be ruled by other variables such as sink strength. Elevated CO{sub 2} did not greatly influence the partitioning of nitrogen between soluble and insoluble, reduced N and nitrate, nor the allocation of dry matter between leaf, stem and root. That the root to shoot ratio (F/S) was not affected by elevated CO{sub 2} implies that, to maintain a balanced activity between roots and shoot, no shift in partitioning of dry matter upon doubling of the atmospheric CO{sub 2} concentration is required. (AB)

  20. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and non-starch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat, and co-products from these grains

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jaworski, N. A.; Lærke, Helle Nygaard; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was deter......The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients...... was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn...... up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis...

  1. The effects of plastic film mulching on maize growth and water use in dry and rainy years in Northeast China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jie; Li, Congfeng; Liu, Huitao; Zhou, Peilu; Tao, Zhiqiang; Wang, Pu; Meng, Qingfeng; Zhao, Ming

    2015-01-01

    Plastic film mulching (PM) has been widely used to improve maize (Zea mays L.) yields and water use efficiency (WUE) in Northeast China, but the effects of PM in a changing climate characterized by highly variable precipitation are not well understood. Six site-year field experiments were conducted in the dry and rainy years to investigate the effects of PM on maize growth, grain yield, and WUE in Northeast China. Compared to crops grown without PM treatment (control, CK), PM significantly increased the grain yield by 15-26% in the dry years, but no significant yield increase was observed in the rainy years. Yield increase in the dry years was mainly due to a large increase in dry matter accumulation pre-silking compared to the CK, which resulted from a greater dry matter accumulation rate due to the higher topsoil temperature and water content. As a result, the WUE of the crops that underwent PM (3.27 kg m(-3)) treatment was also increased by around 16% compared to the CK, although the overall evapotranspiration was similar between the two treatments. In the rainy years, due to frequent precipitation and scant sunshine, the topsoil temperature and water content in the field that received PM treatment was improved only at some stages and failed to cause higher dry matter accumulation, except at the 8th leaf stage. Consequently, the grain yield and WUE were not improved by PM in the rainy years. In addition, we found that PM caused leaf senescence at the late growth stage in both dry and rainy years. Therefore, in practice, PM should be applied cautiously, especially when in-season precipitation is taken into account.

  2. Dry matter digestibility of roughages and concentrates determined “in vitro” procedures Digestibilidade da matéria seca de alimentos volumosos e concentrados determinada por procedimentos "in vitro"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rui da Silva Verneque

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to compare the values of in vitro dry matter digestibility of six classes of concentrates and roughages feeds, determined by the two-stage technique carried in individual digestion tubes or using an automatized equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique, FBT. In the second digestion stage of the technique it was also evaluated the effect of pepsin acid solution and the reflux with neutral detergent solution on the in vitro dry matter digestibility. For both studies the experimental design was completely randomized with a 2 x 6 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were close to those found by others authors and lower than those obtained by the filter bag technique. Standard deviation of in vitro dry matter digestibility means were, in general, lower when the individual tubes method were used. The procedure using reflux with neutral detergent was less expensive and time-consuming, and yield similar results when compared to those using the acidified pepsin digestion methodology. The apparent overestimated values of in vitro dry matter digestibility observed in the filter bag technique suggests that the recommendation of the automatized equipment will be dependent of new studies, with emphasis to the material used to make the incubation bags.Objetivou-se neste trabalho comparar valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca de seis classes de alimentos concentrados e volumosos, determinados pelo método de dois estágios, realizado em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação (incubadora in vitro. No segundo estágio da análise foi adicionalmente avaliado o efeito sobre a digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca da utilização de solução ácida de pepsina ou do refluxo em solução de detergente neutro. Para ambos os estudos utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, em esquema fatorial 2 x 6 (procedimentos in vitro x

  3. Influences of the alternation of wet-dry periods on the variability of chromophoric dissolved organic matter in the water level fluctuation zone of the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Tao; Wang, Dingyong; Wei, Shiqiang; Yan, Jinlong; Liang, Jian; Chen, Xueshuang; Liu, Jiang; Wang, Qilei; Lu, Song; Gao, Jie; Li, Lulu; Guo, Nian; Zhao, Zheng

    2018-04-26

    Dissolved organic matter (DOM) is a crucial driver of various biogeochemical processes in aquatic systems. Thus, many lakes and streams have been investigated in the past several decades. However, fewer studies have sought to understand the changes in DOM characteristics in the waters of the Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR) areas, which are the largest artificial reservoir areas in the world. Thus, a field investigation of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations and of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) properties was conducted from 2013 to 2015 to track the spatial-temporal variability of DOM properties in the TGR areas. The results showed that the alternations of wet and dry periods due to hydrological management have a substantial effect on the quantity and quality of aquatic DOM in TGR areas. Increases in DOC concentrations in the wet period show an apparent "dilution effect" that decreases CDOM compounds with relatively lower aromaticity (i.e., SUVA 254 ) and molecular weight (i.e., S R ). In contrast to the obvious temporal variations of DOM, significant spatial variability was not observed in this study. Additionally, DOM showed more terrigenous characteristics in the dry period but weak terrigenous characteristics in the wet period. Furthermore, the positive correlation between SUVA 254 and CDOM suggests that the aromatic component controls the CDOM dynamics in TGR areas. The first attempt to investigate the DOM dynamics in TGR areas since the Three Gorges Dam was conducted in 2012, and the unique patterns of spatial-temporal variations in DOM that are highlighted in this study might provide a new insight for understanding the role of DOM in the fates of contaminants and may help in the further management of flow loads and water quality in the TGR area. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Study of particulate matter from Primary/Secondary Marine Aerosol and anthropogenic sources collected by a self-made passive sampler for the evaluation of the dry deposition impact on built heritage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morillas, Héctor; Maguregui, Maite; García-Florentino, Cristina; Marcaida, Iker; Madariaga, Juan Manuel

    2016-04-15

    Dry deposition is one of the most dangerous processes that can take place in the environment where the compounds that are suspended in the atmosphere can react directly on different surrounding materials, promoting decay processes. Usually this process is related with industrial/urban fog and/or marine aerosol in the coastal areas. Particularly, marine aerosol transports different types of salts which can be deposited on building materials and by dry deposition promotes different decay pathways. A new analytical methodology based on the combined use of Raman Spectroscopy and SEM-EDS (point-by-point and imaging) was applied. For that purpose, firstly evaporated seawater (presence of Primary Marine Aerosol (PMA)) was analyzed. After that, using a self-made passive sampler (SMPS), different suspended particles coming from marine aerosol (transformed particles in the atmosphere (Secondary Marine Aerosol (SMA)) and metallic airborne particulate matter coming from anthropogenic sources, were analyzed. Finally in order to observe if SMA and metallic particles identified in the SMPS can be deposited on a building, sandstone samples from La Galea Fortress (Getxo, north of Spain) located in front of the sea and in the place where the passive sampler was mounted were analyzed. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Distribuição da matéria seca e composição química das raízes, caule e folhas de goiabeira submetida a estresse salino Dry matter partitioning and mineral composition of roots, stems and leaves of guava grown under salt stress conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raimundo Gonçalves Ferreira

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Um experimento em casa de vegetação foi conduzido com o objetivo de estudar a resposta de plantas de goiabeira (Psidium guajavaL. a diferentes concentrações de NaCl. As plantas foram cultivadas em solução nutritiva, com 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 e 150 mM de NaCl, e colhidas com 30 e 50 dias após estresse, num delineamento inteiramente casualizado. Foram determinadas: matéria seca das raízes e parte aérea; e porcentagens de Na, Cl, K, Ca e Mg nas raízes, caule e folhas. O estresse salino reduziu a matéria seca total, e a relação parte aérea/raiz foi reduzida. O estresse causou um aumento nos níveis dos íons Na+ e Cl-, com maior acúmulo nas folhas, seguido das raízes. Os teores de Ca foram estáveis nas raízes, mas decresceram no caule e folhas. Os teores de K foram reduzidos, particularmente nas folhas. Ao contrário, os teores de Mg não foram afetados pela salinidade no caule e nas raízes, havendo, entretanto, redução nas folhas. O teor de Na apresentou relação direta com o de Cl e inversa com o de K nas raízes e folhas. O teor de Ca não variou com o de Na nas folhas, mas apresentou uma relação inversa nas raízes. O teor de Mg não variou com o de Na nas raízes e folhas.A greenhouse experiment was conducted with the objective of studying the response of guava plants (Psidium guajavaL. to increasing levels of NaCl concentrations. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions, with 0, 25, 50, 75, 100, 125 and 150mM of NaCl, and harvested 30 and 50 days after saline stress in a complete randomized design. The following traits were studied: shoot, root and total plant dry matter and the percentage of Na, Cl, K, Ca and Mg in plant dry matter. Dry matter yield decreased when salinity increased. The root/shoot ratio decreased with the saline treatment. Salinity stress caused an increase in the levels of Na+ and Cl-. The highest ion accumulation was found in the leaves followed by the roots. The Ca levels were stable in the roots

  6. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  7. Carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of dry matter and nonstarch polysaccharides in corn, sorghum, and wheat and coproducts from these grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, N W; Lærke, H N; Bach Knudsen, K E; Stein, H H

    2015-03-01

    The objectives of this work were to determine carbohydrate composition and in vitro digestibility of DM and nonstarch polysaccharides (NSP) in corn, wheat, and sorghum and coproducts from these grains. In the initial part of this work, the carbohydrate composition of 12 feed ingredients was determined. The 12 ingredients included 3 grains (corn, sorghum, and wheat), 3 coproducts from the dry grind industry (corn distillers dried grains with solubles [DDGS] and 2 sources of sorghum DDGS), 4 coproducts from the wet milling industry (corn gluten meal, corn gluten feed, corn germ meal, and corn bran), and 2 coproducts from the flour milling industry (wheat middlings and wheat bran). Results indicated that grains contained more starch and less NSP compared with grain coproducts. The concentration of soluble NSP was low in all ingredients. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 22, 49, and 29% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in corn and corn coproducts and approximately 25, 43, and 32% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in sorghum and sorghum DDGS. Cellulose, arabinoxylans, and other hemicelluloses made up approximately 16, 64, and 20% (DM basis), respectively, of the NSP in wheat and wheat coproducts. The concentration of lignin in grains was between 0.8 and 1.8% (DM basis), whereas coproducts contained between 2.2 and 11.5% lignin (DM basis). The in vitro ileal digestibility of NSP was close to zero or negative for all feed ingredients, indicating that pepsin and pancreas enzymes have no effect on in vitro degradation of NSP. A strong negative correlation ( = 0.97) between in vitro ileal digestibility of DM and the concentration of NSP in feed ingredients was observed. In vitro total tract digestibility of NSP ranged from 6.5% in corn bran to 57.3% in corn gluten meal. In conclusion, grains and grain coproducts contain mostly insoluble NSP and arabinoxylans make up the majority of the total NSP fraction. The in vitro

  8. Consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter, organic matter and crude protein of the Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth for ovinesConsumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, matéria orgânica e proteína bruta da Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth por ovinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Geane Dias Gonçalves Ferreira

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This work was realized in the Animal Research Unit "Senator Alvaro Adolpho" in the Embrapa Eastern Amazon, in Belem, Para State, to evaluate the effect of four levels (100%, 75%, 50% and 25% of the leguminous Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, on substitution to the Brachiaria humidicola, on the voluntary consumption and apparent digestibility of the dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM and crude protein (CP. It was realized a metabolic assay, of 21 days having been 14 days of adaptation to experimental dietary and seven days of collected, was used sixteen sheep, of ten months and 28 (± 2.44 average of kg, in a completely randomized experimental design, with four treatments and four repetitions. The data was analyzed by software SAS. The use of the Pueraria phaseoloides leguminous, provides to greater availability of dry substance in the fodder plant and rise of the nutritional value, mainly, protein in the diet, promoting increase of the animal productivity. Levels of substitution of P. Phaseoloides, around 100%, make possible greater consumption of the dry matter, organic matter, CP.O trabalho foi realizado na Unidade de Pesquisa Animal “Senador Álvaro Adolpho” na Embrapa Amazônia Oriental, em Belém, Pará, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de quatro níveis (100%, 75%, 50% e 25% da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth, em substituição ao quicuio-da-amazônia (Brachiaria humidicola, sobre o consumo voluntário e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca (MS, matéria orgânica (MO e proteína bruta (PB. Foi realizado um ensaio metabólico de 21 dias, sendo 14 dias de adaptação dos animais às dietas experimentais e sete dias de coleta. Foram utilizados dezesseis ovinos, de dez meses e média de 28 (± 2,44 kg de peso vivo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os dados foram analisados pelo software SAS. A utilização da leguminosa Pueraria phaseoloides, proporciona maior

  9. Soil aggregate formation: the role of wetting-drying cycles in the genesis of interparticle bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In nature, soil is continually exposed to wetting (e.g., rainfall and diffusive flow) and drying (e.g., evaporation, diffusive flow and plant uptake). These natural wetting and drying cycles of soils are physical events that profoundly affect the development of soil structure, aggregate stability, carbon (C) flux and mineralization. We hypothesize that drying of capillary water transports suspended and/or dissolved cementing agents toward inter-particle contacts and eventually deposits part of the colloidal mass forming inter-particle bonds. Here, we will show the role of wetting and drying cycles on soil aggregation and stabilization and how these cycles transport and deposit organic cementing agents at the inter-particle contact. We found that aggregates of sand and silt particles can be formed by subjecting loose particles to wetting-drying cycles in the presence of dilute solutions of organic matter that mimic root or microbial exudates. Moreover, majority of the organic matter was deposited in the contact region between the sand particles, where the water accumulates during drying. The model predictions and aggregate stability measurements are supported by scanning electron micrographs that clearly show the process of aggregate formation.

  10. Carbon accumulation and storage capacity in mangrove sediments three decades after deforestation within a eutrophic bay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, A; Machado, W; Gutiérrez, D; Borges, A C; Patchineelam, S R; Sanders, C J

    2018-01-01

    A dated sediment core from an eutrophic mangrove area presented non-significant differences in carbon accumulation rates before (55.7±10.2gm -2 yr -1 ) and after three decades of deforestation (59.7±7.2gm -2 yr -1 ). Although eutrophication effects appear to compensate the loss of mangrove organic matter input, the results in this work show a threefold lower carbon accumulation than the global averages estimated for mangrove sediments. The effects of increasing eutrophication and enhanced sediment dry bulk density observed after deforestation (~30% higher) did not result in higher carbon stocks. Moreover, the lower TOC:OP (mangrove deforestation losses on carbon accumulation in mangrove ecosystems. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vitro evaluation of salinomycin addition in wheat straw based total mixed diets on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and dry matter degradability in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Sirohi

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of salinomycin in vitro on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Materials and Methods: Different levels of (0,10, 15 and 20 ppm salinomycin were checked for their effect on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation on three wheat straw based diets i.e. low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of salinomycin was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results: Results of different levels of salinomycin on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (38.14% in term of mM/gDM was noticed in HFD at 20 ppm level. IVDMD showing increasing trend with an increasing concentration of salinomycin with HFD and LFD, while shown decreasing trend with MFD respectively. Protozoal population significantly decreased by addition of salinomycin in all diets. Conclusion: The results of salinomycin evaluation in the current study can be implicated to mitigate the methane production, thus saving the feed energy loss and the accumulation of green house gases in environment. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 609-613

  12. Características fisiológicas e crescimento de clones de eucalipto em resposta ao boro Physiological characteristics and dry matter production of eucalyptus in response to boron

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Marcio Mattiello

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A exigência para boro (B varia largamente entre e dentro das espécies vegetais. Objetivando avaliar a resposta de clones de eucalipto ao B em solução nutritiva foi realizado ensaio em casa de vegetação com oito clones. As plantas cresceram em soluções nutritivas com 0, 10, 20, 50 e 100 µmol/L de B, durante 70 dias. Na finalização do ensaio determinaram-se características fisiológicas, produção de matéria seca e teores de B no tecido vegetal. Houve resposta diferenciada dos clones à concentração de B na solução nutritiva, com máxima produção de matéria seca entre 28 e 69 µmol/L de B. Em baixas concentrações de B, pôde-se observar sintomas visuais de deficiência e, em altas concentrações, não foram observados sintomas de toxidez, porém houve redução na produção de matéria seca. A resposta do eucalipto ao B na solução nutritiva depende do clone, havendo diferenças entre eles na tolerância à deficiência e toxidez e na eficiência de utilização de B. Os clones 68 e 129 apresentaram as mais elevadas taxas de fotossíntese. O clone 3487 foi o mais responsivo ao B. Os clones 3487, 3336 e 68 foram mais sensíveis à deficiência e os clones 3281 e 1270 os mais tolerantes à deficiência. O clone 2486 foi o mais sensível à toxidez e o clone 3281 o mais tolerante. Os clones 3487, 2486 e 129 foram mais eficientes na utilização de B.Boron (B requirement for plant growth varies both within and among plant species. In order to evaluate the response of clones of eucalyptus to B in nutrient solution, an experiment was carried out under glasshouse conditions, with eight clones. Plants were grown in nutrient solutions at B concentrations of 0, 10, 20, 50 and 100 µmol/L for 70 days, after which, physiological variables, dry matter production and boron content were determined. There was a differential response of the eucalyptus clones to the concentration of boron in nutrient solution with maximum dry matter

  13. Acúmulo de massa seca e marcha de absorção de nutrientes em mudas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato' Dry matter storage and absorption route of nutrients in guava seedlings "Pedro Sato"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Mariano Dias Augostinho

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se determinar a curva de acúmulo da matéria seca de mudas e a marcha de absorção de macro e micronutrientes de goiabeira cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, com três repetições. Foram utilizadas sete coletas de plantas de goiabeira 'Pedro Sato', em cultivo hidropônico, em casa de vegetação da Unesp, Campus de Jaboticabal. Nas coletas, avaliaram-se o crescimento das plantas e o acúmulo de nutrientes, a cada 15 dias, durante 120 dias após o transplantio. As mudas de goiabeira proporcionaram maior acúmulo de biomassa no órgão folha em relação ao caule e à raiz. Observou-se alta absorção dos nutrientes, no período de 60 a 90 dias após o transplantio, nas mudas de goiabeira. O acúmulo de nutrientes das mudas de goiabeira (planta inteira foi de 340, 44, 380, 173, 33 e 40 mg planta-1, respectivamente para N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, e de 743, 118, 5.114, 2.151, 566 mg planta-1, respectivamente, para B, Cu, Fe, Mn e Zn.This work aimed to determine the dry matter storage curve of seedlings and the absorptions of macro and micro nutrients of guava tree cultivar 'Pedro Sato'. It was used randomized design with three repetitions. Seven samples of guava plants cultivar 'Pedro Sato' were used in hydroponic growth in the greenhouse located at UNESP- Jaboticabal Campus, São Paulo State, Brazil. It was evaluated the samples of plants growing and the nutrients storage every 15 days, during 120 days after the transplanting. The seedlings of guava priorized the dry matter storage of leaves in relation of the stem and leaves. The guava seedlings presented high absorption of nutrients in the period of 60 and 90 days after the transplanting. The nutrients storage of the guava seedlings (whole plant were of : 340; 44; 380; 173; 33; and 40 mg plant-1, respectively, for N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and 743; 118; 5114; 2151; 566µg plant-1, respectively for B, Cu, Fe, Mn, and Zn.

  14. Unapal-Dorado, nuevo cultivar de zapallo con alto contenido de materia seca para consumo en fresco Unapal- Dorado, pumpkin new cultivar with high dry matter for fresh consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franco Alirio Vallejo C

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir de tres cruzamientos dialélicos entre poblaciones con diferente grado de endocría (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2 se seleccionaron 11 familias promisorias teniendo en cuenta el contenido de materia seca, producción por planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco. Se realizaron dos ciclos de recombinación genética y selección ínter e intrapoblacional. Se escogieron cuatro familias las cuales fueron evaluadas en un ensayo de rendimiento en el Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (Ceunp. La familia de mejor desempeño se evaluó comparativamente con otras seis, incluyendo el testigo comercial Unapal Bolo Verde, en pruebas regionales, en tres localidades del Valle del Cauca, durante dos semestres consecutivos (2008 B- 2009A. Por su excelente comportamiento en producción (15 kg/planta, contenido de materia seca (> 16%, 3.5 kg/fruto y 5 frutos/planta y calidad de fruto para consumo en fresco, esta familia originó la nueva variedad de zapallo, conocida con el nombre comercial Unapal-Dorado.From three diallelic crossings, among populations with different degree of inbreeding (S0 x S0; S1 x S1; S2 x S2, 11 family with high dry matter, production by plant and fruit quality for consumption in fresh were selected. Two cycles of genetic recombination and selection were carried out. Four selected genotypes were evaluated the Centro Experimental de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia sede Palmira (CEUNP. The genotype of better performance was evaluated comparatively with others six families, including the control Unapal Bolo Verde, in regional tests, in three localities of the Valle del Cauca, during two consecutive semesters (2008 B - 2009A. By its excellent behavior in production (15 kg/planta, content of dry matter (higher than 16%, 3,5 kg by fruit, and five fruits by plant, quality of fruit for consumption in fresh, this family of better performance originated the pumpkin new cultivar, with the

  15. Chemically and size-resolved particulate matter dry deposition on stone and surrogate surfaces inside and outside the low emission zone of Milan: application of a newly developed "Deposition Box".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrero, Luca; Casati, Marco; Nobili, Lara; D'Angelo, Luca; Rovelli, Grazia; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Perrone, Maria Grazia; Sansonetti, Antonio; Conti, Claudia; Bolzacchini, Ezio; Bernardi, Elena; Vassura, Ivano

    2018-04-01

    The collection of atmospheric particles on not-filtering substrates via dry deposition, and the subsequent study of the particle-induced material decay, is trivial due to the high number of variables simultaneously acting on the investigated surface. This work reports seasonally resolved data of chemical composition and size distribution of particulate matter deposed on stone and surrogate surfaces obtained using a new method, especially developed at this purpose. A "Deposition Box" was designed allowing the particulate matter dry deposition to occur selectively removing, at the same time, variables that can mask the effect of airborne particles on material decay. A pitched roof avoided rainfall and wind variability; a standardised gentle air exchange rate ensured a continuous "sampling" of ambient air leaving unchanged the sampled particle size distribution and, at the same time, leaving quite calm condition inside the box, allowing the deposition to occur. Thus, the "Deposition Box" represents an affordable tool that can be used complementary to traditional exposure systems. With this system, several exposure campaigns, involving investigated stone materials (ISMs) (Carrara Marble, Botticino limestone, Noto calcarenite and Granite) and surrogate (Quartz, PTFE, and Aluminium) substrates, have been performed in two different sites placed in Milan (Italy) inside and outside the low emission zone. Deposition rates (30-90 μg cm -2  month -1 ) showed significant differences between sites and seasons, becoming less evident considering long-period exposures due to a positive feedback on the deposition induced by the deposited particles. Similarly, different stone substrates influenced the deposition rates too. The collected deposits have been observed with optical and scanning electron microscopes and analysed by ion chromatography. Ion deposition rates were similar in the two sites during winter, whereas it was greater outside the low emission zone during summer and

  16. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. Nutrient uptake and biomass accumulation for eleven different field crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. HAKALA

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Oil hemp (Cannabis sativa L., quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd., false flax (Camelina sativa (L. Crantz, caraway (Carum carvi L., dyer’s woad (Isatis tinctoria L., nettle (Urtica dioica L., reed canary grass (RCG (Phalaris arundinacea L., buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench, linseed (Linum usitatissimum L., timothy (Phleum pratense L. and barley (Hordeum vulgare L. were grown under uniform conditions in pots containing well fertilised loam soil. Dry matter (DM accumulation was measured repeatedly, and contents of minerals N, P, K, Ca and Mg at maturity. Annual crops accumulated above-ground biomass faster than perennials, while perennials had higher DM accumulation rates below ground. Seeds had high concentrations of N and P, while green biomass had high concentrations of K and Ca. Stems and roots had low concentrations of minerals. Concentrations of K and P were high in quinoa and caraway, and that of P in buckwheat. Hemp and nettle had high Ca concentrations, and quinoa had high Mg concentration. N and P were efficiently harvested with seed, Ca and K with the whole biomass. Perennials could prevent soil erosion and add carbon to the soil in the long term, while annuals compete better with weeds and prevent erosion during early growth. Nutrient balances in a field could be modified and nutrient leaching reduced by careful selection of the crop and management practices.;

  19. Trace element accumulation and distribution in sunflower plants at the stages of flower bud and maturity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanna De Maria

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to analyze the accumulation and distribution of cadmium (Cd, zinc (Zn and copper (Cu in different portions of plants of sunflower (Helianthus annuus L., cv. Oleko grown in soil with contaminants (5, 300, 400 mg kg–1 of Cd, Zn and Cu, respectively and without (untreated soil as a control from the emergence of cotyledon leaves until to two phenological stages: flower bud (R-1 and maturity (R- 9. Sunflower accumulated considerable amounts of heavy metals in both phenological stages showing slight reductions of dry matter production. At R-1 stage, Cd, Zn and Cu were accumulated mainly in the roots with concentrations respectively up to 5.4, 233 and 160 mg kg–1 of dry matter with a low translocation from roots to the aerial part. Yet at the R-1 stage, the bioconcentration factor (BCF of Cd showed a significantly higher value in the Cd-Zn-Cu treatment (0.27 with respect to the untreated control (0.02, vice versa was observed for Cu, whereas no significant difference between treatments was observed for Zn (0.12 on average. However among metals, Cd showed the highest value of BCF. Referring only to the epigeous portion, differences in the accumulation and distribution of the three metals in the treated plants were found in both phenological stages; indeed passing from flower bud to the maturity stage, Cd, Zn and Cu concentrations increased in the stems and leaves, particularly in the old ones, whereas decreased in the heads. Metal accumulation in the achenes was very low and never exceed the toxicity threshold value considered for livestock. The high storage of heavy metals in roots and the probable re-translocation of the three metals along the plant during the growing cycle could be considered as a strategy of sunflower to preserve young metabolically-active leaves and reproductive organs from toxic metal concentrations.

  20. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  1. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  2. Produção de matéria seca e valor nutritivo de pastagem de capim-elefante sob irrigação e adubação nitrogenada Dry matter production and nutritional value of elephant grass pasture under irrigation and nitrogen fertilization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudio Manoel Teixeira Vitor

    2009-03-01

    the plant tops, crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, and in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD during the dry and rainy periods was evaluated. The N doses were the plots and the water depths constituted the subplots, according to the complete randomized blocks experimental design with four replicates. The elephant grass dry mass yield in the plant tops accumulated either in the experimental year or during the rainy period, it increased linearly both in relation to the N doses and in relation to the water depths. During the dry period, the elephant grass production increased linearly with the N doses, but it had a quadratic behavior with the applied water depths. The CP content of the leaf blades plus pseudoculm of the elephant grass increased linearly with the N doses both in the experimental year as in the dry and rainy periods being, not influenced by the applied water depths. The NDF content in the leaf blades plus pseudoculm of the elephant grass plants was negatively influenced by the N doses during the experimental year and in the dry period, it was positively influenced by the supplement irrigation in the rainy period. The IVDMD of the leaf blades plus pseudoculm of the elephant grass was adjusted to the regression quadratic model according to the N doses only in the experimental year and in the rainy period; however, it was not influenced by the water depths. In the dry period, the IVDMD was not influenced by any of the studied variables.

  3. Genetic variations in the dynamics of dry matter accumulation, nitrogen assimilation and translocation in new T. aestivum L. varieties. II. Nitrogen assimilation and translocation in relation to grain yield and protein content

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nankova, M.; Kostov, K.; Penchev, E.

    1999-01-01

    The study was carried out under greenhouse and field conditions and showed considerable genotype differences between the vrs. Enola, Karat, Svilena and Pliska (T. aestivum L.) with regard to N assimilation during heading, which played an important role in grain yield formation (0.852). Grain yield depends considerably on N translocation (NT) in the period heading-full maturity (0.864) and on its part affects the intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity. In both experiments cv. Svilena demonstrated high NR from the leaves, which was the reason for more than 52 % of N in grain. In the field experiment cv. Svilena confirmed this tendency, the NR being highest in the 2-3 leaf stage, followed by the flag leaf and the down leaves. The intensity of N uptake in grain during grain filling-full maturity was highest in the vrs. Enola and Karat. This intensity was in strong correlation with NA during heading, and with NT in V m during heading-full maturity. It also affected to a high degree the protein content in grain, as well as grain yield. In both experiments a strong negative correlation was established between the NHI/GHI ratio, and grain yield and nitrogen assimilation during heading; a positive correlation was determined with grain NHI. Under the conditions of increasing N dressing, the vrs. Enola, Karat, and Svilena had higher N expense for formation of a production unit, 63 up to 91 % of the N being used for formation of grain with high protein content. Protein yield correlated strongly not only with protein in grain, but also with the intensity of uptake in grain during grain filling - full maturity. The highest protein yield was registered in cv. Karat. By their N expense for production of 100 kg protein, the new varieties did not differ from the standard variety Pliska. The results from the study showed a higher genetic potential of the agrochemically promising varieties Karat, Enola and Svilena than the standard variety Pliska. Refs. 10 (author)

  4. Produção de matéria seca e eficiência nutricional para P, Ca e Mg em leguminosas herbáceas Dry matter production and nutritional efficiency for P, Ca and Mg in herbaceous legumes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Rodrigues Fernandes

    2007-06-01

    Agricultural of Amazon (Brazil. Soil used was a dystrophic Yellow Latosol, sampled in the 0 - 20 cm depth. A randomized block experimental design was used with treatments arranged in a factorial 3³, comparing three legume species: velvet bean (Stizolobium atterrimum, "mucuna cochinchinensis" (Stilozobium cochinchinensis and jack bean (Canavalia ensiformes; three doses of liming (0, 4 and 8 t ha-1 of limestone and of triple superphosphate (0, 25 and 45 mg P dm-3 of soil, with four replications each one. Results showed that "mucuna cochinchinensis" and jack bean produced higher amounts of dry matter than velvet bean. The first species accumulated higher amount of P and the second species higher amount of Ca in the tissue. The "mucuna cochinchinensis" species showed higher use efficiency of Ca, Mg and P in the absence of liming. The jack bean and mucuna cochinchinensis can have better performance than velvet bean, in weathered soils with low concentration of P, Ca and Mg, since they presented higher translocation efficiency and use of these nutrients, respectively.

  5. Fecal bulk, energy intake, and serum cholesterol: regression response of serum cholesterol to apparent digestibility of dry matter and suboptimal energy intake in rats on fiber-fat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normani, M Z; Hussain, S S; Lim, J K; Albrink, M J; Gunnells, C K; Davis, G K

    1981-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted in the rat to determine the relationships of serum cholesterol (SC, mg/dl), apparent digestibility of dry matter (DDM, %), and digested energy intake (DE, kcal/day) at suboptimal level of energy. The energies in diet and feces were determined by calorimetry. DE as percentage of the National Research Council requirement (DE%) was suboptimal (70 to 85%). The experiments had four to five isofibrous diets, and no fiber diets, supplemented with 0.2% crystalline cholesterol (CChol). Animals in experiment 1 were fed varying amounts of feed with 18% coconut oil in the diets where as these in experiment 2 were given fixed amounts of feed with either 6 or 18% oil. The following regressions (p less than 0.001) for SC were found: experiment 1: -1157.7 -5.97 DDM +105.5 CCI -1.48 CCI2 (r2 0.35), where CCI = CChol, mg/day; -1888.4 -2.66 DE +120.97 CCI -1.62 CCI2 (r2 0.37). Experiment 2: 762.99 -6.15 DDM -0.8 fat cal % -0.87DE% (r2 0.31), where fat cal % = fat calories % of DE. Data indicate that at suboptimal energy intake, SC was inversely related to (1) DDM, (2) fat cal, and (3) total energy intake. Liver cholesterol lowering effect of the dietary fiber was also observed. The above findings help to elucidate various conflicting reports related to diet and blood cholesterol.

  6. Accumulation of some metals by legumes and their extractability from acid mine spoils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, R.W.; Ibeabuchi, I.O.; Sistani, K.R.; Shuford, J.W.

    1992-01-01

    A greenhouse study was conducted to investigate the growth (dry matter yield) of selected legume cover crops; phytoaccumulation of metals such as Zn, Mn, Pb, Cu, Ni, and Al; the extractability of heavy metals from three different Alabama acid mine spoils. The spoils were amended based on soil test recommended levels of N, P, K, Ca and Mg prior to plant growth. Metals were extracted by three extractants (Mehlich 1, DTPA, and 0.1 M HCl) and values correlated with their accumulation by the selected legumes. Among the cover crops, kobe lespedeza Lespedeza striata (Thung.) Hook and Arn, sericea lespedeza Lespedeza cuneata (Dum.) G. Don, and red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) did not survive the stressful conditions of the spoils. However, cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.) followed by 'Bragg' soybean Glycine max (L.) Merr. generally produced the highest dry matter yield while accumulating the largest quantity of metals, except Al, from spoils. The extractability of most metals from the spoils was generally in the order of: 0.1 MHCl > DTPA. Mehlich 1 did not extract Pb and 0.1 M HCl did not extract Ni, whereas DTPA extracted all the metals in a small amount relative to HCl and Mehlich 1. All the extractants were quite effective in removing plant-available Zn from the spoils. In general, the extractants' ability to predict plant-available metals depended on the crop species, spoil type, and extractant used. 28 refs., 4 tabs

  7. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína e energia bruta, e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho Consumption and apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy, and balance of nitrogen of silages of five maize genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.A.R. Freitas

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Quantificaram-se o consumo voluntário e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, proteína bruta, energia bruta e balanço de nitrogênio das silagens de cinco genótipos de milho (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG 5011 e BR 3123. Foram utilizados 15 carneiros alojados em gaiolas metabólicas para coleta total de fezes e urina. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente ao acaso com cinco tratamentos e seis repetições. Não foram observadas diferenças entre os genótipos quanto ao consumo e digestibilidade da MS, da EB e da PB (P>0,05. Os consumos de MS, EB e PB digestíveis e energia metabolizável também não foram diferentes entre os híbridos (P>0,05. Quanto às relações consumo de energia digestível/consumo de MS e consumo de energia metabolizável/consumo de MS, o genótipo AG5011 foi semelhante ao HT01 (P>0,05 e superior aos demais (P0,05. Todos os genótipos produziram silagens de bom valor nutritivo, entretanto o genótipo AG5011 apresentou maior eficiência na utilização da energia (PThe voluntary intake and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy and the nitrogen balance, of silages of five maize genotypes (HT01, HT47C, HT129, AG5011 and BR3123 were quantified. Fifteen sheep were stored in metabolic cages for total collection of feces and urine. A complete randomized design, with five treatments and six repetitions was used. The intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and crude energy did not differ (P>0.05 among treatments. The intake of digestible dry matter, crude protein, crude energy and metabolic energy did not differ (P>0.05 among the genotypes. The ratios of digestible energy intake/dry matter intake and metabolic energy intake/dry matter intake of the genotype AG5011 silage was similar (P>0.05 to HT01, and higher than the other genotypes (P<0.05. All genotypes showed similar and positive nitrogen balance, and all of them produced silages of good nutritional value

  8. Influência do teor de matéria seca e do inoculante bacteriano nas características físicas e químicas da silagem de capim Tanzânia = Effects of dry matter content and bacterial inoculant on the physical and chemical properties and losses in Tanzânia grass silage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solidete de Fátima Paziani

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliados os efeitos do teor de matéria seca e da adição de inoculante bacteriano sobre a composição químico-bromatológica e perdas em silagens do capim Tanzânia. O uso do inoculante não foi efetivo em preservar a PB. Os índices de recuperação de matéria seca e as perdas de MS, na forma de efluente e gases, foram respectivamente de 90,6%; 53,7 kg t-1 MV e 6,4% da MS nas silagens não-emurchecidas, 93,6%; 16,8 kg t-1 MV e 5,0% com adição de milheto grão e 92,2%; 3,6 kg t-1 MV e 6,2% naquelas emurchecidas. Asdensidades de massa verde/matéria seca foram 346/105, 455/145 e 442/97 kg m-3 nas silagens emurchecidas, adicionadas com milheto e com umidade original, respectivamente. Como a elevação no teor de MS não alterou o índice de recuperação de MS, apesar de promoveralgumas modificações na composição química das silagens, a opção pelos tratamentos vai depender da ponderação de fatores que facilitem a operacionalidade e reduzam os custos na confecção da silagem.The present trial aimed to study the effect of dry matter content and the addition of bacterial inoculant on the ensilage of Tanzânia grass. The bacterial inoculant did not alter crude protein content. Dry matter recovery rates, effluent yield and DM gases losses were 90.6%, 53.7 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.4% for the wet silages; 93.6%, 16.8 kg t-1 wet forage, 5.0% for millet added silages and 92.2%, 3.6 kg t-1 wet forage, 6.2% for the wilted silages, respectively. The silages dry matter content influenced wet bulk density/dry matter silo bulk density resulting in 346/105, 455/145 and 442/97 kg m-3 for the wilted, millet added and wet silages, respectively. Because the increase on dry matter content was not offsets in DM recovery rate, although there were some changes in chemical composition, the adoption and field recommendation of strategies will be dependent on the operational and costs restrictions.

  9. Are freeze drying and oven drying methods for trace metal determination in zoological specimens analytically sound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourie, H.O.; Peisach, M.

    1976-01-01

    High specific activity radio-isotopes of chromium, zinc and selenium were used to label these elements accumulated by the oyster Crassostrea gigas. The retention of the metabolised forms of these elements during freeze-drying or oven drying at 50, 90, 105 and 120 deg C was studied. Observed losses question the accuracy of these analytical procedures. (author)

  10. Sediment accumulation rate and radiological characterisation of the sediment of Palmones River estuary (southern of Spain)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubio, L.; Linares-Rueda, A.; Duenas, C.; Fernandez, M.C.; Clavero, V.; Niell, F.X.; Fernandez, J.A.

    2003-01-01

    Chemical analyses and radioecological methods were combined in order to estimate the sediment accumulation rate in the upper 20 cm depth of the Palmones River estuary. Organic matter, total carbon, C:N and 137 Cs vertical profiles showed changes at 13 cm depth. These changes could be associated with the decrease in river input since 1987 when a dam situated in the upper part of the estuary started to store water. Using 1987 as reference to date the sediment, accumulation rate was 1.2 cm yr -1 . As alternative method, two layer model of 210 Pb xs vertical distribution showed a sedimentation rate of 0.7 cm yr -1 with a surface mixing layer of 7 cm thickness. The high ammonium, potassium and sodium content in pore water and the strong correlation between 137 Cs activities and organic matter in dry sediment suggests that 137 Cs (the only anthropogenic product detected) is mainly accumulated in the estuary associated with the particulate organic material from the catchment area

  11. A comparison of individual cow versus group concentrate allocation strategies on dry matter intake, milk production, tissue changes, and fertility of Holstein-Friesian cows offered a grass silage diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M W; O'Connell, N E; Ferris, C P

    2016-06-01

    A diverse range of concentrate allocation strategies are adopted on dairy farms. The objectives of this study were to examine the effects on cow performance [dry matter (DM) intake (DMI), milk yield and composition, body tissue changes, and fertility] of adopting 2 contrasting concentrate allocation strategies over the first 140 d of lactation. Seventy-seven Holstein-Friesian dairy cows were allocated to 1 of 2 concentrate allocation strategies at calving, namely group or individual cow. Cows on the group strategy were offered a mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates in a 50:50 ratio on a DM basis. Cows on the individual cow strategy were offered a basal mixed ration comprising grass silage and concentrates (the latter included in the mix to achieve a mean intake of 6kg/cow per day), which was formulated to meet the cow's energy requirements for maintenance plus 24kg of milk/cow per day. Additional concentrates were offered via an out-of-parlor feeding system, with the amount offered adjusted weekly based on each individual cow's milk yield during the previous week. In addition, all cows received a small quantity of straw in the mixed ration part of the diet (approximately 0.3kg/cow per day), plus 0.5kg of concentrate twice daily in the milking parlor. Mean concentrate intakes over the study period were similar with each of the 2 allocation strategies (11.5 and 11.7kg of DM/cow per day for group and individual cow, respectively), although the pattern of intake with each treatment differed over time. Concentrate allocation strategy had no effect on either milk yield (39.3 and 38.0kg/d for group and individual cow, respectively), milk composition, or milk constituent yield. The milk yield response curves with each treatment were largely aligned with the concentrate DMI curves. Cows on the individual cow treatment had a greater range of concentrate DMI and milk yields than those on the group treatment. With the exception of a tendency for cows on the

  12. Digestibilidade da matéria seca de silagens de milho e de suplementos concentrados determinada por procedimentos in vitro Dry matter digestibility of corn silages and concentrates determined by in vitro procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F.C.F. Lopes

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Compararam-se os valores de digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca (DIVMS de quatro silagens de milho e de seis concentrados (três proteicos e três energéticos, determinados pelo método de dois estádios realizados em tubos individuais ou em equipamento automatizado de fermentação, e avaliou-se a ocorrência de efeito associativo na digestão de alimentos destas três classes incubadas em um mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora in vitro, ou em jarros diferentes contendo a mesma classe de alimentos. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 3 x 3 (procedimentos in vitro x classes de alimentos. Os valores de DIVMS determinados pelo método dos tubos foram mais próximos dos relatados na literatura e menores (P0,05 nos valores de DIVMS dos concentrados e das silagens de milho incubados no mesmo jarro de fermentação da incubadora ou, separadamente por alimento, em jarros diferentes.The values of in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD of four corn silages and six concentrates (three proteic and three energetics were determined by the two-stage technique that utilizes individual digestion tubes and by an automatic equipment of fermentation (filter bag technique. It was also evaluated the associative effect on digestion of these three food classes when incubated in the same fermentation jar of the "in vitro incubator" and when in different vessels containing the same class of foods. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 3 x 3 factorial arrangement (in vitro procedures x food classes. The IVDMD values determined in tubes were closer to those found in the literature and lower (P0.05 in IVDMD of concentrates and silages when incubated together in the same fermentation jar or separated by food classes in separated jars.

  13. Produção de massa seca e composição química de cinco cultivares de Cynodon = Dry matter production and chemical composition of five Cynodon cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Roberto de Andrade Rodrigues

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi conduzido na Faculdade de Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, Estado de São Paulo. Os tratamentos consistiram na avaliação de 5 cultivares de Cynodon, em 11 idades de corte, para estudo da característica crescimento e 5 idades para a avaliação da composição química. O delineamento experimental foi ointeiramente casualizado em parcelas subdivididas, com 3 repetições, considerando-se, nas parcelas, as cultivares (C e, nas subparcelas, as idades de corte (I. Foram avaliados a produção de massa seca (PMS, a relação folha/colmo, os teores de proteína bruta (PB, defibra em detergente neutro (FDN e de fibra em detergente ácido (FDA, nas folhas, nos colmos e na planta inteira. A PMS aumentou dos 14 aos 84 dias (PThe experiment was carried out at the Faculty of Ciências Agrárias e Veterinárias, Unesp, Jaboticabal, São Paulo State. The treatments aimed to evaluate five Cynodon cultivars at eleven cutting ages to study the characteristics of growing, and at five cutting ages toevaluate the chemical composition. A random design with split plot was adopted, with three replications, considering cultivars as plot and cutting age as subplots. The following variables were studied: dry matter (DM production, leaf/stem ratio and the contents of crude protein (CP, neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF, in green leaf, stem and total plant. The highest DM production was from 14 to 84 days (P<0.01, and did not differ among cultivars. The leaf/stem ratio differ (P<0.01 among cultivars (C and decreased with plant age (I showing interaction C x I. The CP contents of the total plant were superior to the stem and inferior to the leaf. The NDF and ADF contents were similar among cultivars. The Cynodon cultivars would be better managed during 28 days of plant growth.

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  16. Snow as an accumulator of air pollutants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robert T. Brown

    1976-01-01

    Using simple analytical techniques, the amounts of air pollutants accumulated in winter snow were determined and the results correlated with lichen survival on trees. Pollutants measured were particulate matter, sulfate, and chloride. An inverse relationship was found between amounts of each of these pollutants and the abundance of various lichens.

  17. Accumulation and distribution of mercury in fruiting bodies by fungus Suillus luteus foraged in Poland, Belarus and Sweden.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saba, Martyna; Falandysz, Jerzy; Nnorom, Innocent C

    2016-02-01

    Presented in this paper is result of the study of the bioconcentration potential of mercury (Hg) by Suillus luteus mushroom collected from regions within Central, Eastern, and Northern regions of Europe. As determined by cold-vapor atomic absorption spectroscopy, the Hg content varied from 0.13 ± 0.05 to 0.33 ± 0.13 mg kg(-1) dry matter for caps and from 0.038 ± 0.014 to 0.095 ± 0.038 mg kg(-1) dry matter in stems. The Hg content of the soil substratum (0-10 cm layer) underneath the fruiting bodies showed generally low Hg concentrations that varied widely ranging from 0.0030 to 0.15 mg kg(-1) dry matter with mean values varying from 0.0078 ± 0.0035 to 0.053 ± 0.025 mg kg(-1) dry matter, which is below typical content in the Earth crust. The caps were observed to be on the richer in Hg than the stems at ratio between 1.8 ± 0.4 and 5.3 ± 2.6. The S. luteus mushroom showed moderate ability to accumulate Hg with bioconcentration factor (BCF) values ranging from 3.6 ± 1.3 to 42 ± 18. The consumption of fresh S. luteus mushroom in quantities up to 300 g week(-1) (assuming no Hg ingestion from other foods) from background areas in the Central, Eastern, and Northern part of Europe will not result in the intake of Hg exceeds the provisional weekly tolerance limit (PTWI) of 0.004 mg kg(-1) body mass.

  18. Quantifying Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Quantifying Matter explains how scientists learned to measure matter and quantify some of its most fascinating and useful properties. It presents many of the most important intellectual achievements and technical developments that led to the scientific interpretation of substance. Complete with full-color photographs, this exciting new volume describes the basic characteristics and properties of matter. Chapters include:. -Exploring the Nature of Matter. -The Origin of Matter. -The Search for Substance. -Quantifying Matter During the Scientific Revolution. -Understanding Matter's Electromagnet

  19. Bromine accumulation in acidic black colluvial soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez Cortizas, Antonio; Ferro Vázquez, Cruz; Kaal, Joeri; Biester, Harald; Costa Casais, Manuela; Taboada Rodríguez, Teresa; Rodríguez Lado, Luis

    2016-02-01

    Recent investigations showed that bromine is incorporated to soil organic matter (SOM), its content increasing with humification. But few research was done on its long-term accumulation and the role played by pedogenetic processes, as those involved in organic matter stabilization. We investigated bromine content and distribution in four deep, acidic, organic-rich, Holocene soils from an oceanic area of Western Europe. Bromine concentrations (93-778 μg g-1) in the silt + clay (stabilized as aluminium-OM associations, and to a lesser extent on soil acidity (pH) and iron-OM associations. Thus, at scales of thousands of years, bromine accumulation in acidic soils is linked to the pool of metal-clay-stabilized organic matter.

  20. Manganese uptake and accumulation by the hyperaccumulator plant Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xue, S.G.; Chen, Y.X.; Reeves, Roger D.; Baker, Alan J.M.; Lin, Q.; Fernando, Denise R.

    2004-01-01

    The perennial herb Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. (Phytolaccaceae), which occurs in Southern China, has been found to be a new manganese hyperaccumulator by means of field surveys on Mn-rich soils and by glasshouse experiments. This species not only has remarkable tolerance to Mn but also has extraordinary uptake and accumulation capacity for this element. The maximum Mn concentration in the leaf dry matter was 19,300 μg/g on Xiangtan Mn tailings wastelands, with a mean of 14,480 μg/g. Under nutrient solution culture conditions, P. acinosa could grow normally with Mn supplied at a concentration of 8000 μmol/l, although with less biomass than in control samples supplied with Mn at 5 μmol/l. Manganese concentration in the shoots increased with increasing external Mn levels, but the total mass of Mn accumulated in the shoots first increased and then decreased. At an Mn concentration of 5000 μmol/l in the culture solution, the Mn accumulation in the shoot dry matter was highest (258 mg/plant). However, the Mn concentration in the leaves reached its highest value (36,380 μg/g) at an Mn supply level of 12,000 μmol/l. These results confirm that P. acinosa is an Mn hyperaccumulator which grows rapidly, has substantial biomass, wide distribution and a broad ecological amplitude. This species provides a new plant resource for exploring the mechanism of Mn hyperaccumulation, and has potential for use in the phytoremediation of Mn-contaminated soils

  1. Advanced accumulator for PWR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichimura, Taiki; Chikahata, Hideyuki

    1997-01-01

    Advanced accumulators have been incorporated into the APWR design in order to simplify the safety system configuration and to improve reliability. The advanced accumulators refill the reactor vessel with a large discharge flow rate in a large LOCA, then switch to a small flow rate to continue safety injection for core reflooding. The functions of the conventional accumulator and the low head safety injection pump are integrated into this advanced accumulator. Injection performance tests simulating LOCA conditions and visualization tests for new designs have been carried out. This paper describes the APWR ECCS configuration, the advanced accumulator design and some of the injection performance and visualization test results. It was verified that the flow resistance of the advanced accumulator is independent of the model scale. The similarity law and performance data of the advanced accumulator for applying APWR was established. (author)

  2. Disponibilidade, composição bromatológica e consumo de matéria seca em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens com Stylosanthes guianensis Herbage availability, chemical composition and dry matter intake in mixed pasture of Brachiaria decumbens with Stylosanthes guianensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a disponibilidade de forragem, a composição bromatológica, o consumo de matéria seca e a proporção de gramínea e leguminosa na dieta de vacas mestiças Holandês x Zebu, em pastagem consorciada de Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão e leguminosas arbóreas. Para estimativa da produção fecal, foram usados 10 g vaca-1 dia-1 de óxido crômico, durante dez dias. Amostras de extrusa foram usadas para determinação da composição bromatológica e digestibilidade in vitro da matéria seca. A disponibilidade de matéria seca de forragem de B. decumbens variou com as condições climáticas, enquanto a de S. guianensis decresceu linearmente ao longo do período experimental. O consumo de matéria seca foi maior em maio de 2001 (1,9% do peso do animal vivo e não diferiu entre os demais meses (1,5% do peso do animal vivo. Os baixos índices de consumo de matéria seca refletiram altos teores de fibra em detergente neutro (70,2% a 79,4% e baixos coeficientes de digestibilidade in vitro de matéria seca (42,1% a 48,0% da forragem. O consumo de leguminosa variou entre 8,7% e 24,1% do total ingerido. O consumo de matéria seca esteve diretamente relacionado à porcentagem de leguminosa na pastagem, o que evidencia o potencial de uso de pastagens consorciadas para vacas leiteiras.The objective of this work was to evaluate the herbage availability, nutritive value, dry matter intake and grass and legume percentage in diet of crossbred Holstein-Zebu cows, in pasture with Brachiaria decumbens cv. Basilisk, Stylosanthes guianensis var. vulgaris cv. Mineirão and tree legumes. To estimate the fecal output, it was used 10 g cow-1 day-1 of chromium oxide during ten consecutive days. Extrusa samples were used to determine the chemical composition and in vitro dry matter digestibility. B. decumbens availability varied with climatic conditions, while S. guianensis

  3. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  4. Ruminal Degradability of Dry Matter and Crude Protein from Moist Dehulled Lupin and Extruded Rapeseed Meal Degradabilidad Ruminal de la Materia Seca y de la Proteína Cruda de Lupino Descascarado y Torta de Raps Extruidos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Barchiesi-Ferrari

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The flow of ruminal undegradable protein (RUP to the small intestine can be increased if ruminal degradation of dietary protein is reduced. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of extrusion on ruminal degradability of dry matter (DM and crude protein (CP from dehulled lupin (Lupinus albus L. (DL and rapeseed (Brassica napus L. meal (RM. Unextruded soybean (Glicine max L. meal (SBM was used as a control. The DL was extruded at 130 ºC with 20% moisture and RM was extruded at 120 ºC with 20% moisture. Ruminal degradability was evaluated in situ by incubating feed samples for 2, 4, 8, 12, 24, and 48 h of fermentation in the rumen using three rumen-fistulated dairy cows. Values of CP soluble fraction (“a” in SBM, DL, extruded dehulled lupin (EDL, RM, and extruded rapeseed meal (ERM was lower in the extruded feeds (P El flujo de proteína no degradable en el rumen (RUP hacia el intestino delgado puede ser incrementado si se reduce la degradación ruminal de la proteína dietaria. El objetivo de este trabajo fue evaluar el efecto de la extrusión sobre la degradabilidad ruminal de la materia seca (DM y proteína cruda (CP de lupino (Lupinus albus L. descascarado (DL y torta de raps (Brassica napus L. (RM. Se utilizó afrecho de soya (Glicine max L. sin extruir (SBM como control. El DL fue extruido a 130 ºC con 20% de humedad y la RM fue extruida a 120 ºC con 20% de humedad. La degradabilidad ruminal se evaluó in situ incubando las muestras de alimentos a 2, 4, 8, 12, 24 y 48 h de fermentación en tres vacas lecheras con fístula ruminal. Los valores de la fracción soluble de la CP (“a” en SBM, en DL, lupino descascarado extruido (EDL, RM y torta de raps extruida (ERM fue menor en los extruidos (P < 0.05. La fracción lentamente degradable (“b” de SBM, DL, EDL, RM y de ERM fue 858; 593; 622 y 451 y 457 g kg-1, respectivamente, y se incrementó por extrusión (P < 0.05. La extrusión redujo la degradabilidad efectiva

  5. Níveis críticos de boro no solo e na planta para cultivo de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo Boron application the nutricional status and dry matter production of passion fruit cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Melo Prado

    2006-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar a aplicação de boro ao substrato de produção de mudas de maracujazeiro-amarelo, para o estabelecimento dos níveis críticos do B no solo e na planta. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco tratamentos e quatro repetições. As doses de boro, na forma de ácido bórico, foram: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 e 1,0 mg de B dm-3 de solo. As mudas receberam doses de N, P, K e Zn, de 300; 450; 150 e 5 mg dm-3, respectivamente, sendo o N e o K parcelados em três vezes (15; 30 e 45 dias após o plantio. O experimento foi conduzido em condições de casa de vegetação, em vasos com 2 dm-3 de substrato de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico. Após 70 dias do plantio, foram avaliados: o diâmetro do caule, a altura da planta, o número de folhas e a matéria seca da parte aérea e das raízes, bem como os teores de macro e micronutrientes. As mudas de maracujazeiro responderam à aplicação de boro em substrato com baixa concentração (0,06 mg dm-3, extraído com água quente. O maior desenvolvimento das plantas esteve associado à dose próxima de 0,5 mg de B dm-3 e à concentração de 0,4 mg de B dm-3 no substrato e um teor de 22 mg de B kg-1 na parte aérea.It was objectified to evaluate the application of boron to the substratum of production of yellow passion fruit cuttings, for the establishment of the critical levels of the B in the soil and the plant. The experimental design used was randomized blocks with 5 treatments and 4 replications. The doses of boron were: 0; 0,25; 0,50; 0,75 and 1,00 mg dm-3 of B. All the plants received doses of N, P, K and Zn of 300; 100; 150 and 5,0 mg dm-3, respectively. The experiment was lead in vases with 2.0 dm³ of substratum of a Typic Haplorthox. After 70 days of the sowing were evaluated: height, leave numeric, dry matter, nutritional status of plants and soil nutrients. The passion fruit plant seedlings answered to the boron application in soil with low concentration of

  6. The effects of forage proportion and rapidly degradable dry matter from concentrate on ruminal digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets with fixed neutral detergent fiber and starch contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lechartier, C; Peyraud, J-L

    2010-02-01

    This study investigated the effects of the forage-to-concentrate (F:C) ratio and the rate of ruminal degradation of carbohydrates from the concentrate on digestion in dairy cows fed corn silage-based diets. Six cows with ruminal cannulas were assigned to 6 treatments in a 6x6 Latin square. Treatments were arranged in a 3x2 factorial design. Three proportions of neutral detergent fiber from forage [FNDF; 7.6, 13.2, and 18.9% of dry matter (DM)] were obtained by modifying F:C (20:80, 35:65, and 50:50). These F:C were combined with concentrates with either high or low content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates. The dietary content of rapidly degradable carbohydrates from the concentrate was estimated from the DM disappearance of concentrate after 4h of in sacco incubation (CRDM). Thus, 2 proportions of CRDM were tested (20 and 30% of DM). Wheat and corn grain were used as rapidly and slowly degradable starch sources, respectively. Soybean hulls and citrus pulp were used as slowly and rapidly degradable fiber sources, respectively. Concentrate composition was adjusted to maintain dietary starch and neutral detergent fiber contents at 35.9 and 28.9% of DM, respectively. There was no effect of the interaction between F:C and CRDM on DM intake (DMI), ruminal fermentation, chewing activity, and fibrolytic activity. When F:C decreased, DMI increased, the mean ruminal pH linearly decreased, and the pH range linearly increased from 0.95 to 1.27 pH unit. At the same time, the acetate-to-propionate ratio decreased linearly. Decreasing F:C linearly decreased the average time spent chewing per kilogram of DMI from 35.2 to 19.5min/kg of DMI and decreased ruminal liquid outflow from 11.6 to 9.2L/kg of DMI, suggesting a decrease in the salivary flow. Increasing CRDM decreased DMI and increased the time during which pH was below 6.0 (3.1 vs. 4.8h), the pH range (0.90 vs. 1.33), and the initial rate of pH drop. It also increased the volatile fatty acid range (35 vs. 59mM), thus

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  8. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  9. Consumo e digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia de silagens de quatro genótipos de sorgo (Sorghum bicolor (L. Moench por ovinos Voluntary intake and digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and energy of silages of four sorghum genotype in sheep

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.G.R. Martins

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliaram-se o consumo e a digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca, da proteína bruta e da energia e o balanço de nitrogênio de silagens dos sorgos BR601, BR700, BR701 e AG2002 em ovinos. O consumo de matéria seca e de energia bruta não diferiu entre os híbridos. Quanto à digestibilidade aparente da matéria seca e da energia bruta e ao consumo de matéria seca digestível e de energia digestível, observaram-se maiores valores para o BR601. O maior consumo de proteína bruta foi observado no BR700 e o menor no AG2002. A maior digestibilidade aparente da proteína bruta ocorreu para o BR601 e a menor para o BR701. O consumo de proteína digestível foi maior para os híbridos BR601 e BR700. Todos os tratamentos apresentaram balanço de nitrogênio positivo e não diferiram entre si.The nitrogen balance, the consumption and the apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and the energy of the silages of four genotypes of sorghum were evaluated. The consumption of dry matter and crude energy did not differ among the hibrids. The largest apparent digestibility of dry matter, crude energy and the consumption of digestible dry matter and energy, were observed for BR601 genotype. The largest consumption of crude protein, was observed for BR700 and the smalest for AG2002 genotypes (P<0.05. The largest apparent digestibility of protein was observed for BR601 and the smalest one for BR701 (P<0.05 genotype. The consumption of digestible protein was larger for BR601 and BR700. All treatments showed positive nitrogen balance and did not differ among them.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  11. Temperature Impact on the Forage Quality of Two Wheat Cultivars with Contrasting Capacity to Accumulate Sugars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Máximo Lorenzo

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Wheat is increasingly used as a dual-purpose crop (for forage and grain production worldwide. Plants encounter low temperatures in winter, which commonly results in sugar accumulation. High sugar levels might have a positive impact on forage digestibility, but may also lead to an increased risk of bloat. We hypothesized that cultivars with a lower capacity to accumulate sugars when grown under cold conditions may have a lower bloat risk than higher sugar-accumulating genotypes, without showing significantly lower forage digestibility. This possibility was studied using two wheat cultivars with contrasting sugar accumulation at low temperature. A series of experiments with contrasting temperatures were performed in controlled-temperature field enclosures (three experiments and growth chambers (two experiments. Plants were grown at either cool (8.1 °C–9.3 °C or warm (15.7 °C–16.5 °C conditions in field enclosures, and at either 5 °C or 25 °C in growth chambers. An additional treatment consisted of transferring plants from cool to warm conditions in the field enclosures and from 5 °C to 25 °C in the growth chambers. The plants in the field enclosure experiments were exposed to higher irradiances (i.e., 30%–100% than those in the growth chambers. Our results show that (i low temperatures led to an increased hemicellulose content, in parallel with sugar accumulation; (ii low temperatures produced negligible changes in in vitro dry matter digestibility while leading to a higher in vitro rumen gas production, especially in the higher sugar-accumulating cultivar; (iii transferring plants from cool to warm conditions led to a sharp decrease in in vitro rumen gas production in both cultivars; and (iv light intensity (in contrast to temperature appeared to have a lower impact on forage quality.

  12. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  13. Organic carbon accumulation and reactivity in central Swedish lakes during the Holocene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chmiel, H.; Kokic, J.; Niggemann, J.; Dittmar, T.; Sobek, S.

    2012-04-01

    Sedimentation and burial of particulate organic carbon (POC), received from terrestrial sources and from lake internal primary production, are responsible for the progressive accumulation and long-term storage of organic matter in lake basins. For lakes in the boreal zone of central Sweden it can be presumed, that the onset of POC accumulation occurred during the early Holocene (˜8000 BP.) after the retreat of the Scandinavian ice sheet. In this study we investigated carbon mass accumulation rates (CMARs), as well as sources and reactivity of deposited organic material, for seven lakes in central Sweden (60°N, 15°E), in order to obtain a detailed temporal resolution of carbon burial and preservation in boreal lakes. Sediment long-cores were sampled in March 2011 from the ice, and CMARs were calculated from water contents, dry bulk densities, carbon contents and radiocarbon (14C) ages of the depth profiles. To indicate the sources of the organic material and characterize its diagenetic state, we determined carbon-nitrogen ratios (C/N) as well as amounts and compositions of lignin phenols. The transitions from organic rich sediment layers to glacial till deposits were found to be in sediment depths of ˜3 m in each lake. POC contents were on average highest (25-34 wt. % C), in small lakes (≤ 0.07 km2) and lowest (10-18 wt. % C) in the larger lakes (≥ 165 km2). The CMARs over the Holocene showed significant variations and were on average lower in the early Holocene, compared to recent accumulation rates. C/N values and the composition of lignin phenols further provided indications of important changes in organic matter source and reactivity over the Holocene. In summary, our data suggest that boreal lake sediments were a significantly stronger sink for organic carbon during the last ~150 years than during earlier periods of the Holocene.

  14. Comparative Transcriptome Analysis Reveals Critical Function of Sucrose Metabolism Related-Enzymes in Starch Accumulation in the Storage Root of Sweet Potato

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Zhang

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The starch properties of the storage root (SR affect the quality of sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas (L. Lam.. Although numerous studies have analyzed the accumulation and properties of starch in sweet potato SRs, the transcriptomic variation associated with starch properties in SR has not been quantified. In this study, we measured the starch and sugar contents and analyzed the transcriptome profiles of SRs harvested from sweet potatoes with high, medium, and extremely low starch contents, at five developmental stages [65, 80, 95, 110, and 125 days after transplanting (DAP]. We found that differences in both water content and starch accumulation in the dry matter affect the starch content of SRs in different sweet potato genotypes. Based on transcriptome sequencing data, we assembled 112336 unigenes, and identified several differentially expressed genes (DEGs involved in starch and sucrose metabolism, and revealed the transcriptional regulatory network controlling starch and sucrose metabolism in sweet potato SRs. Correlation analysis between expression patterns and starch and sugar contents suggested that the sugar–starch conversion steps catalyzed by sucrose synthase (SuSy and UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase (UGPase may be essential for starch accumulation in the dry matter of SRs, and IbβFRUCT2, a vacuolar acid invertase, might also be a key regulator of starch content in the SRs. Our results provide valuable resources for future investigations aimed at deciphering the molecular mechanisms determining the starch properties of sweet potato SRs.

  15. NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA DE MILHO SUBMETIDO A CALAGEM E ADUBAÇÃO SULFATADA MAIZE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD UNDER LIMING AND SULFUR FERTILIZATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aretusa Daniela Resende Mendes

    2011-04-01

    -3, 30 mg dm-3 e 60 mg dm-3, mais o tratamento sem adição de enxofre. As plantas de milho foram colhidas aos 45 dias após a semeadura, sendo separada a parte aérea do sistema radicular. O método mais eficiente de recomendação de calagem para o milho foi o método da elevação da saturação por bases. A aplicação de doses de enxofre não teve efeito no desenvolvimento do milho, até o estádio avaliado.


    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Zea mayz; acidez do solo; matéria seca; desenvolvimento radicular.


    Liming is essential for obtaining high yield levels in tropical acid soils. The objective of this study was to evaluate maize nutrition and dry matter yield in soil under

  16. Microbial accumulation of uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Wei; Dong Faqin; Dai Qunwei

    2005-01-01

    The mechanism of microbial accumulation of uranium and the effects of some factors (including pH, initial uranium concentration, pretreatment of bacteria, and so on) on microbial accumulation of uranium are discussed briefly. The research direction and application prospect are presented. (authors)

  17. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol...... parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray...... drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome...

  18. Dark Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Einasto J.

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available I give a review of the development of the concept of dark matter. The dark matter story passed through several stages from a minor observational puzzle to a major challenge for theory of elementary particles. Modern data suggest that dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, and that it consists of some unknown non-baryonic particles. Dark matter is the dominant matter component in the Universe, thus properties of dark matter particles determine the structure of the cosmic web.

  19. Dark matter universe.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A

    2015-10-06

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter--a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations--from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is "cold" (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology--a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)--fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle.

  20. Dry matter yield and nutritional value of Marandu grass under nitrogen fertilization and irrigation in cerrado in São Paulo Produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu sob adubação nitrogenada e irrigação no cerrado paulista

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisângela Dupas

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate dry matter yield and nutritional value of palisade grass (Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu using nitrogen doses and sprinkler irrigation in two periods of the year, aiming at reducing seasonality of forage production. It was used a randomized block design in a split-plot scheme, with five doses of nitrogen (0, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kg/ha/cut, and the sub-plots were defined by the seasons of the year (wet and dry season, with and without irrigation. During the wet season, in the plots with and without irrigation, doses of 175 and 161 kg/ha/cut promoted the highest dry matter yields. During the dry season, 171 kg ha-1N with irrigation resulted in the highest dry matter yield. During the same season, there was no response to N fertilization in the lack of irrigation. Average contents of CP were 10% with and without irrigation. Contents of neutral detergent fiber decreased with nitrogen doses, while acid detergent fiber was not affected by fertilization. Plots under irrigation reached the maximal acid detergent fiber content at N dose of 60 kg ha-1. Irrigation promotes increase of 15% increase in dry matter yield and it increases contents of neutral detergent fiber.Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar a produtividade de matéria seca e valor nutritivo do capim-marandu (Brachiaria brizantha, cv. Marandu utilizando doses de nitrogênio e irrigação por aspersão em dois períodos do ano, visando à redução da estacionalidade de produção de forragem. O delineamento experimental foi de blocos ao acaso em esquema de parcelas subdivididas com cinco doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100, 150 e 200 kg/ha/corte e as subparcelas definidas pelos períodos do ano (período das águas e da seca, com e sem irrigação. No período das águas, nas parcelas com e sem irrigação, as doses de 175 e 161 kg/ha/corte promoveram as máximas produções de MS. No período da seca, a dose 171 kg ha-1 de N com irrigação propiciou a

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  3. LIMING EFFECTS ON THE NUTRITION AND DRY MATTER YIELD OF TIFTON 85 GRASS EFEITOS DA CALAGEM NA NUTRIÇÃO E PRODUÇÃO DE MASSA SECA DO CAPIM TIFTON 85

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato de Mello Prado

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Soil acidity is the most limiting factor to the productivity of crops and, in the livestock context, the non-correction implies in a low animal performance. The objective of this study was the evaluation of the effects of liming in nutrition, growth, and production of Tifton 85 grass. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse, in pots filled with 3 dm3 of samples of an oxisol. The experimental design was completely randomized, with five treatments and four replications: zero (control, half (0.77 g dm-3, once (1.55 g dm-3, one and a half times (2.32 g dm-3, and twice the dose of reference for this crop (3.10 g dm-3. The reference dose was calculated to increase the soil base saturation to 70%. It was observed that liming promoted significant effects on the growth of grass, in the second and third cuts, and that the maximum production of dry matter occurred with a soil base saturation of 67%. These results demonstrate the need of soil acidity correction for the development and production of grass.

    KEY-WORDS: Cynodon ssp.; grass; oxisol; soil base saturation; soil acidity.

    Organic carbon accumulation in Brazilian mangal sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, Christian J.; Smoak, Joseph M.; Sanders, Luciana M.; Sathy Naidu, A.; Patchineelam, Sambasiva R.

    2010-12-01

    This study reviews the organic carbon (OC) accumulation rates in mangrove forests, margins and intertidal mudflats in geographically distinct areas along the Brazilian coastline (Northeastern to Southern). Our initial results indicate that the mangrove forests in the Northeastern region of Brazil are accumulating more OC (353 g/m 2/y) than in the Southeastern areas (192 g/m 2/y) being that the sediment accumulation rates, 2.8 and 2.5 mm/y, and OC content ˜7.1% and ˜5.8% (dry sediment weight) were contributing factors to the discrepancies between the forests. The intertidal mudflats on the other hand showed substantially greater OC accumulation rates, sedimentation rates and content 1129 g/m 2/y and 234 g/m 2/y; 7.3 and 3.4 mm/y; 10.3% and ˜2.7% (OC of dry sediment weight content), respectively, in the Northeastern compared to the Southeastern region. Mangrove forests in the South-Southeastern regions of Brazil may be more susceptible to the rising sea level, as they are geographically constricted by the vast mountain ranges along the coastline.

  4. DISPONIBILIDADE DE ENXOFRE EM SOLOS BRASILEIROS: AVALIAÇÃO CONJUNTA DAS ANÁLISES DE SOLOS E PLANTAS EM FUNÇÃO DA PRODUÇÃO DE MATÉRIA SECA E ABSORÇÃO DE ENXOFRE PELO MILHO SULPHUR AVAILABILITY IN BRAZILIAN SOILS: JOINT EVALUATION OF DRY MATTER YIELD AND SULPHUR UPTAKE AS A FUNCTION OF SOIL AND PLANT ANALYSES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huberto José Kliemann

    2007-09-01

    of São Paulo, Minas Gerais and Goiás (Brazil. Carbon contents varied from 0.5 to 3.03%, sulphur from 0.0104 to 0.0310% and clay from 8 to 60%. Corn (Zea mays L. was grown in two successive crops, with three rates of gypsum (0, 20 and 40 ppm S, previously incubated in absence and presence of lime. Soil analyses were made before and after the first cropping. Plant material was analysed after each harvest of the top. By using data from both soil and plant analyses multiple regression equations were calculated. Close relationships were found in the following cases: sandy soils: dry matter production as a function of total S and N/S ratio in the plants and extractable S-SO4= in the soil; accumulation of S in the plants as related to the same variables and soil pH; clayey soils: dry matter as a function of total S and N/S ratio in plants and pH, Ca++, Mg++, H+ + Al+++ and carbon in soils; accumulation of S in the plants as against their N/S and P/S ratios, and calcium phosphate extractable S-SO4=, pH, H+ + Al+++ and carbon in the soils. In sandy soils, sulphur availability depends only on extractable sulphur contents, being unaffected by liming in clayey soils, it is influenced by liming (pH and CTC and carbon contents. Independently of texture and carbon content of the soils, dry matter yield and sulphur uptake show inverse relationships with corn leaf tissue N/S and P/S ratios.

    KEY-WORDS: Sulphur; soil-plant; multiple regression; joint analysis.

  5. Water dephts and macronutrients accumulation in 'pérola' pineapple irrigated by drip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uirá do Amaral

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Brazil is one of the largest pineapple producers worldwide, and those fruits are for the juice industry and the in natura market. Its cultivation requires high technology investment by using irrigation and balanced fertilization. However, little is known about the influence of drip irrigation on nutrient uptake by pineapple plants. This study aimed to evaluate the influence of different irrigation depths on nutrients accumulation by 'Pérola' pineapples grown in northern region of Minas Gerais State, Brazil. The experimental design was in randomized blocks with five treatments referring to: 30% of Class A Evaporation Pan (ECA; 50% of ECA; 70% of ECA; 100% of ECA; and 150% of ECA. To determine the levels of macronutrients and dry matter, the plants were separated in root, stem, leaves, 'D' leaf, crown, fruit and whole plant. The sequence of macronutrients accumulated in the whole plant was K>N>Ca>P>Mg. The fruits exported from the cultivated area the following amounts of macronutrients: 17.52 kg ha-1 of K (12.8%; 16.91 kg ha-1 of N (20.7%; 10.77 kg ha-1 of Ca (15.9%, 1.29 kg ha-1 of P (12.4% and 1.04 kg ha-1 of Mg (20.5%. The irrigation depths that provided the maximum N, P, K and Ca accumulation in the whole plant are 53.6, 61.6, 54.5 and 60.2% of ECA, respectively.

  6. Belowground in situ redox dynamics and methanogenesis recovery in a degraded fen during dry-wet cycles and flooding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Estop-Aragonés

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Climate change induced drying and flooding may alter the redox conditions of organic matter decomposition in peat soils. The seasonal and intermittent changes in pore water solutes (NO3, Fe2+, SO42−, H2S, acetate and dissolved soil gases (CO2, O2, CH4, H2 under natural water table fluctuations were compared to the response under a reinforced drying and flooding in fen peats. Oxygen penetration during dryings led to CO2 and CH4 degassing and to a regeneration of dissolved electron acceptors (NO3, Fe3+ and SO42−. Drying intensity controlled the extent of the electron acceptor regeneration. Iron was rapidly reduced and sulfate pools ~ 1 mM depleted upon rewetting and CH4 did not substantially accumulate until sulfate levels declined to ~ 100 μmol L−1. The post-rewetting recovery of soil methane concentrations to levels ~ 80 μmol L−1 needed 40–50 days after natural drought. This recovery was prolonged after experimentally reinforced drought. A greater regeneration of electron acceptors during drying was not related to prolonged methanogenesis suppression after rewetting. Peat compaction, solid phase content of reactive iron and total reduced inorganic sulfur and organic matter content controlled oxygen penetration, the regeneration of electron acceptors and the recovery of CH4 production, respectively. Methane production was maintained despite moderate water table decline of 20 cm in denser peats. Flooding led to accumulation of acetate and H2, promoted CH4 production and strengthened the co-occurrence of iron and sulfate reduction and methanogenesis. Mass balances during drying and flooding indicated that an important fraction of the electron flow must have been used for the

  7. Solid Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    Supported by a generous quantity of full-color illustrations and interesting sidebars, Solid Matter introduces the basic characteristics and properties of solid matter. It briefly describes the cosmic connection of the elements, leading readers through several key events in human pre-history that resulted in more advanced uses of matter in the solid state. Chapters include:. -Solid Matter: An Initial Perspective. -Physical Behavior of Matter. -The Gravity of Matter. -Fundamentals of Materials Science. -Rocks and Minerals. -Metals. -Building Materials. -Carbon Earth's Most Versatile Element. -S

  8. Dark matter universe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahcall, Neta A.

    2015-01-01

    Most of the mass in the universe is in the form of dark matter—a new type of nonbaryonic particle not yet detected in the laboratory or in other detection experiments. The evidence for the existence of dark matter through its gravitational impact is clear in astronomical observations—from the early observations of the large motions of galaxies in clusters and the motions of stars and gas in galaxies, to observations of the large-scale structure in the universe, gravitational lensing, and the cosmic microwave background. The extensive data consistently show the dominance of dark matter and quantify its amount and distribution, assuming general relativity is valid. The data inform us that the dark matter is nonbaryonic, is “cold” (i.e., moves nonrelativistically in the early universe), and interacts only weakly with matter other than by gravity. The current Lambda cold dark matter cosmology—a simple (but strange) flat cold dark matter model dominated by a cosmological constant Lambda, with only six basic parameters (including the density of matter and of baryons, the initial mass fluctuations amplitude and its scale dependence, and the age of the universe and of the first stars)—fits remarkably well all the accumulated data. However, what is the dark matter? This is one of the most fundamental open questions in cosmology and particle physics. Its existence requires an extension of our current understanding of particle physics or otherwise point to a modification of gravity on cosmological scales. The exploration and ultimate detection of dark matter are led by experiments for direct and indirect detection of this yet mysterious particle. PMID:26417091

  9. Estimativa do consumo de matéria seca de vacas em lactação em pastejo rotativo em capim coastcross (Cynodon dactylon, (L. Pers cv. coast-cross Estimative of the dry matter intake of lactating cows in intensive grazing coastcross grass [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz Januário Magalhães Aroeira

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento teve como objetivo estimar o consumo total de MS de vacas das raças gir e girolanda, em pastagem de capim coastcross [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Foram utilizadas oito vacas gir e oito girolanda com 30 a 90 dias de lactação. Foi utilizada uma área de cinco hectares (ha, dividida em 10 piquetes de um hectare, e a pastagem manejada em pastejo rotacionado, com três dias de ocupação e 27 dias de descanso e taxa de lotação de 1,6 animais/ha no final da seca e 3,2 animais/ha nas demais épocas experimentais. Para a estimativa do consumo, foi utilizado o marcador cromo mordente. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos casualizados com dois tratamentos (gir e girolanda, oito repetições e quatro blocos (épocas. O consumo total médio foi de 7,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça girolanda e 5,71kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir, correspondentes a 1,58% e 1,38% do peso vivo, respectivamente. Os consumos médios de capim coastcross estimados foram de 2,70kg e 4,68kg de MS/animal/dia para a raça gir e girolanda, correspondendo a 0,66 e 1,16% de PV, respectivamente.The objective of this experiment was to estimate the total dry matter intake of gir and girolanda breed cows kept in coastcross pasture [Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers cv. coastcross]. Eight gir and eight girolanda cows were used, all between 30 and 90 days of lactation period. The pasture (five ha was divided in 10 paddocks, grazed for three days with 27 days of resting period with stocking rate of 1.6 cows/ha at the end of the dry season and 3.2 cows/ha in the other experimental periods. Chromic mordant marker was used to estimate dry matter intake. The experimental design was a randomized complete block with two treatments (gir and girolanda, eight replications and four blocks (seasons. The total mean dry matter intake for girolanda cows was of 7.68 kg DM/cow/day and 5.71 kg DM/cow/day for gir cows, corresponding to 1.58% and 1.38% live weight

  10. Cultivar variation in silicon accumulation and distribution in Petunia ×hybrida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silicon (Si) is a plant-beneficial element that can alleviate the effects of abiotic and biotic stress. Plants are typically classified as Si accumulators or non-accumulators based on foliar Si concentrations (= 1% Si on a dry weight basis for accumulators). Based on this definition, most greenhou...

  11. An earth system model for evaluation of dry deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arritt, R.W. [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)

    1994-12-31

    A coupled model of atmosphere, soil, and vegetation showed that interactions among the various components can have important effects on dry deposition of SO{sub 2}. In particular, dry soil (near or below the wilting point) leads to an increase of stomatal resistance and a decrease in deposition. Once the soil moisture is at least twice the wilting point, the model results indicate that additional moisture has little effect on the accumulated daytime dry deposition.

  12. Drying-induced physico-chemical changes in cranberry products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Honke, Joanna; Ciska, Ewa; Andlauer, Wilfried

    2018-02-01

    Sugar-free cranberry juice (XAD) and juice with 15% of maltodextrin were dried by freeze-, vacuum and spray drying methods. Total phenolics (589-6435mg/kg dry matter) including 5 flavonols, 3 phenolic acids, 2 procyanidins and 5 anthocyanins were stronger affected by juice formulation than by drying methods. Spray drying of juice, regardless of its formulation, was competitive to freeze drying in terms of polyphenols' retention. Increase in temperature up to 100°C during vacuum drying of XAD extracts resulted in degradation of polyphenolics (down to 4%), except chlorogenic acid. Its content increased with rise in temperature and accelerated hydroxymethylfurfural formation. The stronger the impact of drying, the more chlorogenic acid is present in cranberry products. In all powders analysed, formation of furoylmethyl amino acids was noted. Antioxidant capacity of cranberry products was influenced by juice formulation and was linked to content of polyphenols. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Earthworms accumulate alanine in response to drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmstrup, Martin; Slotsbo, Stine; Henriksen, Per G; Bayley, Mark

    2016-09-01

    Earthworms have ecologically significant functions in tropical and temperate ecosystems and it is therefore important to understand how these animals survive during drought. In order to explore the physiological responses to dry conditions, we simulated a natural drought incident in a laboratory trial exposing worms in slowly drying soil for about one month, and then analyzed the whole-body contents of free amino acids (FAAs). We investigated three species forming estivation chambers when soils dry out (Aporrectodea tuberculata, Aporrectodea icterica and Aporrectodea longa) and one species that does not estivate during drought (Lumbricus rubellus). Worms subjected to drought conditions (alanine that was significantly upregulated in all tested species. Alanine was the most important FAA reaching 250-650μmolg(-1) dry weight in dehydrated Aporrectodea species and 300μmolg(-1) dry weight in L. rubellus. Proline was only weakly upregulated in some species as were a few other FAAs. Species forming estivation chambers (Aporrectodea spp.) did not show a better ability to conserve body water than the non-estivating species (L. rubellus) at the same drought level. These results suggest that the accumulation of alanine is an important adaptive trait in drought tolerance of earthworms in general. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Speech Matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasse Jørgensen, Stina

    2011-01-01

    About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011.......About Speech Matters - Katarina Gregos, the Greek curator's exhibition at the Danish Pavillion, the Venice Biannual 2011....

  15. Memory Matters

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Staying Safe Videos for Educators Search English Español Memory Matters KidsHealth / For Kids / Memory Matters What's in ... of your complex and multitalented brain. What Is Memory? When an event happens, when you learn something, ...

  16. MATÉRIA SECA E ABSORÇÃO DE NUTRIENTES EM FUNÇÃO DO ESPAÇAMENTO E DA DENSIDADE DE SEMEADURA EM ARROZ DE TERRA ALTA DRY MATTER AND NUTRIENT UPTAKE OF DRYLAND RICE RELATED TO ROW SPACING AND PLANT POPULATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Alexandre Costa Crusciol

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Foi instalado um experimento em condições de campo, em um Latossolo Vermelho escuro, epi-eutrófico, textura argilosa, em Selvíria-MS, com arroz de sequeiro cv. IAC 201, estudando-se três espaçamentos entre fileiras (30, 40 e 50 cm e três densidades de semeadura (100, 150 e 200 sementes viáveis/m2. Foram avaliadas a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea no momento do florescimento e determinados os teores e quantidades de N, P, K, Ca, Mg e S absorvidos, assim como a eficiência de utilização de nutrientes. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras aumentou a produção de matéria seca da parte aérea e a quantidade de nutrientes absorvidos. A variação da densidade de semeadura não afetou os parâmetros estudados. A redução do espaçamento entre fileiras proporcionou maior eficiência de utilização do Ca e diminuiu a do N e Mg. Os teores de nutrientes na matéria seca da parte aérea não foram afetados pela variação do espaçamento entre fileiras.A field experiment was conducted in a clayey Dark Red Latosol in Selviria, MS, Brazil, to study the effect of three row spacings (30, 40 and 50 cm and three seed densities (100, 150 and 200 viable seeds/m2 on plant dry matter yield, macronutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg and S uptake at flowering, and the nutrient use efficiency. A decrease in row spacing led to an increase in shoot dry matter production and nutrient uptake. There was no effect of plant densities on dry matter or nutrient uptake. The decrease in row spacing allowed a higher Ca use efficiency, but not for N and Mg. The concentration of the macronutrients in the shoots was not affected by spacing.

  17. Macronutrient uptake, accumulation and export by the irrigated 'vitória' pineapple plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodinei Facco Pegoraro

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The nutritional state of the pineapple plant has a large effect on plant growth, on fruit production, and fruit quality. The aim of this study was to assess the uptake, accumulation, and export of nutrients by the irrigated 'Vitória' pineapple plant during and at the end of its development. A randomized block statistical design with four replications was used. The treatments were defined by different times of plant collection: at 270, 330, 390, 450, 510, 570, 690, 750, and 810 days after planting (DAP. The collected plants were separated into the following components: leaves, stem, roots, fruit, and slips for determination of fresh and dry matter weight at 65 ºC. After drying, the plant components were ground for characterization of the composition and content of nutrients taken up and exported by the pineapple plant. The results were subjected to analysis of variance, and non-linear regression models were fitted for the significant differences identified by the F test (p N > S > Ca > Mg > P, which corresponded to 898, 452, 134, 129, 126, and 107 kg ha-1, respectively, of total accumulation. The export of macronutrients by the pineapple fruit was in the following decreasing order: K > N > S > Ca > P > Mg, which was equivalent to 18, 17, 11, 8, 8, and 5 %, respectively, of the total accumulated by the pineapple. The 'Vitória' pineapple plant exported 78 kg ha-1 of N, 8 kg ha-1 of P, 164 kg ha-1 of K, 14 kg ha-1 of S, 10 kg ha-1 of Ca, and 6 kg ha-1 of Mg by the fruit. The nutrient content exported by the fruits represent important components of nutrient extraction from the soil, which need to be restored, while the nutrients contained in the leaves, stems and roots can be incorporated in the soil within a program of recycling of crop residues.

  18. Impact of saline-alkali stress on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, N.E.; Din, J.U.; Kawabata, S

    2014-01-01

    Growing of tomato plants in saline conditions, having high rhizospheric EC, is often reported with high solid content in fruits. However, saline-alkali stress conditions, having high rhizospheric pH as well as high EC, have never been studied to evaluate its impact on the solid content of tomato fruits. In this study, we investigated the impact of saline-alkali stress (0, 30, 60, 90, and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/) on the accumulation of solids in tomato fruits. Addition of sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO/sub 3/) to plants highly increased pH as well as EC of the soil leachate in 90 and 120 mM NaHCO/sub 3/ treatments in comparison to control treatment. Saline-alkali stress treatments did not influence the fruit dry weight, nonetheless, the content of fruit dry matter was increased significantly from 6.5% at control to 8.5% at 90 and 120 mM treatments. The content of soluble sugar was increased to 3% in 90 mM treatment in comparison to control (2%), owing to significant accumulation of hexose as well as sucrose in ripe fruits. In addition to carbohydrates, saline-alkali stress influenced the accumulation of organic acids in fruits, as well. Citric acid, being the major acid, showed positive correlation with the salt concentration, and was significantly high at stress treatments of higher than 30 mM. These results suggested that saline-alkali stress conditions, in spite of high pH, can increase the contents of fruit solids in tomato, as is usually observed in saline stress conditions. (author)

  19. Dark Matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    What You See Ain't What. You Got, Resonance, Vol.4,. No.9,1999. Dark Matter. 2. Dark Matter in the Universe. Bikram Phookun and Biman Nath. In Part 11 of this article we learnt that there are compelling evidences from dynamics of spiral galaxies, like our own, that there must be non-luminous matter in them. In this.

  1. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  3. Parametric resonance in neutrino oscillations in matter

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    specific phase relationships has an interesting property that it can accumulate if the matter .... In Д 3 we discuss the physical interpretation of the parametric reso- nance in neutrino ..... long-baseline accelerator and reactor experiments [12,29].

  4. Strategies to gain body condition score in pasture-based dairy cows during late lactation and the far-off nonlactating period and their interaction with close-up dry matter intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roche, J R; Heiser, A; Mitchell, M D; Crookenden, M A; Walker, C G; Kay, J K; Riboni, M Vailati; Loor, J J; Meier, S

    2017-03-01

    In pasture-based systems, cows are generally thinner at the end of lactation than cows fed total mixed rations and, as a result, over-feeding of metabolizable energy (ME) during the far-off nonlactating period is a standard management policy to achieve optimum calving body condition score (BCS). An alternative would be to manage cows to gain BCS through late lactation, such that cows ended lactation close to optimum calving BCS and maintenance of BCS through to calving. We sought to quantify the effect of moderate or excessive ME intakes during the far-off nonlactating period in cows that had been managed to gain or maintain BCS through late lactation and whether the far-off management strategy interacted with close-up level of feeding. Effects on milk production and circulating indicators of energy balance and metabolic health in early lactation were evaluated. A herd of 150 cows was randomly assigned to 1 of 2 feeding levels in late lactation to achieve a low and high BCS at the time of dry-off (approximately 4.25 and 5.0 on a 10-point scale). Following dry-off, both herds were managed to achieve a BCS of 5.0 one month before calving; this involved controlled feeding (i.e., maintenance) and over-feeding of ME during the far-off dry period. Within each far-off feeding-level treatment, cows were offered 65, 90, or 120% of their pre-calving ME requirements for 3 wk pre-calving in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement (i.e., 25 cows/treatment). Body weight and BCS were measured weekly before and after calving, and milk production was measured weekly until wk 7 postcalving. Blood samples were collected weekly for 4 wk pre-calving and 5 wk postcalving, and on d 0, 1, 2, 3, and 4 relative to calving, and analyzed for indicators of energy balance (e.g., blood fatty acids, β-hydroxybutyrate), calcium status, and inflammatory state. No interaction was observed between far-off and close-up feeding levels. Over-feeding of ME to low BCS cows during the far-off nonlactating period

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  6. Plastids and Carotenoid Accumulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Li; Yuan, Hui; Zeng, Yunliu; Xu, Qiang

    Plastids are ubiquitously present in plants and are the organelles for carotenoid biosynthesis and storage. Based on their morphology and function, plastids are classified into various types, i.e. proplastids, etioplasts, chloroplasts, amyloplasts, and chromoplasts. All plastids, except proplastids, can synthesize carotenoids. However, plastid types have a profound effect on carotenoid accumulation and stability. In this chapter, we discuss carotenoid biosynthesis and regulation in various plastids with a focus on carotenoids in chromoplasts. Plastid transition related to carotenoid biosynthesis and the different capacity of various plastids to sequester carotenoids and the associated effect on carotenoid stability are described in light of carotenoid accumulation in plants.

  7. Rendimento de massa seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho afetado pela aplicação de fósforo, calcário e inoculação com fungos micorrízicos Dry matter of corn and phosphorus uptake as affected by liming, rates of phosphorus, and mycorrhizae inoculation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Pires Santos

    1996-04-01

    Full Text Available A colonização do sistema radicular com micorrizas pode aumentar a absorção de P e com isto aumentar o crescimento das plantas, o que parece ser mais comum em solos com baixa disponibilidade de P. No presente trabalho, a inoculação com fungos micorrízicos arbusculares (FMA, objetivou avaliar seu efeito na morfologia do sistema radicular, na produção de massa seca e na absorção de fósforo pelo milho. Utilizou-se o latossolo bruno argiloso, e os tratamentos consistiram de dois valores de pH (4,8 e 5,5, duas doses de fósforo (25 e 100mg P/kg de solo e inoculação com FMA. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação com cinco repetições, distribuídas no delineamento experimental completamente casualisado. Aos 46 dias após a emergência as plantas foram colhidas, e nelas determinou-se a produção de massa seca de parte aérea e de raízes, o comprimento e o raio médio radicular. a porcentagem e intensidade de colonização micorrízica e a absorção de fósforo. A inoculação com FMA aumentou a CM mas não afetou a produção de massa seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho, embora as raízes mostrassem menor comprimento, indicando que as hifas extraradiculares compensaram o crescimento radicular. A adição de fósforo e a elevação do pH aumentaram a massa seca da parte aérea e raízes, a absorção de fósforo e o comprimento radicular.The existence of mycorrhiza in the plant roots may increase phosphorus uptake and thus crop yield. This effect, however, seems to occur only in phosphorus deficient soils. The objetive of this work was to evaluate the effect of soil pH, rates of phosphorus addition, and mycorrhiza inoculation on dry matter yield of corn and on phosphorus uptake. The experiment was run in a greenhouse, using an oxisol, with five replicates per treatment distributed in a completely randomized experimental design. The treatments, a 2x2x2 factorial, were two rates of phosphorus (25 and 100mg P/kg, two p

  8. Deficiência nutricional em bastão-do-imperador (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: efeito na produção de matéria seca e índices biométricos Nutritional deficiency in torch ginger (Etlingera elatior (Jack R. M. Smith: effect on dry matter production and biometrical index

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jussara Ellen Morais Frazão

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho, objetivou-se avaliar os efeitos de omissões de nutrientes na produção de matéria seca e nos parâmetros de crescimento do bastão-do-imperador. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação da área experimental do Departamento de Ciência do Solo da Universidade Federal de Lavras (Lavras, MG, no período de janeiro de 2007 a janeiro de 2008. O delineamento experimental foi inteiramente casualizados com quatro repetições e oito tratamentos: Solução Hoagland & Arnon completa, soluções nutritivas com as omissões de N, de P, de K, de Ca, de Mg, de S e de B. Foram avaliadas a altura das plantas, diâmetro das hastes, número de hastes, número de folhas por hastes e volume da raiz. Posteriormente, as plantas foram divididas em folhas, hastes, rizoma e raiz para determinação da massa de matéria seca de cada parte. A omissão de nutrientes afetou os parâmetros de crescimento das plantas e a produção de matéria seca. Observou-se que o bastão-do-imperador mostrou-se mais exigente em B, K, N, P e S na fase inicial de crescimento do que em Ca e Mg. A redução da matéria seca total das plantas foi influenciada na seguinte ordem: B > K > N > P > S > Mg > Ca.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of simple and multiple nutrient omissions on the dry matter production and growth parameters of torch ginger plants. The experiment was carried out under greenhouse conditions at the Soil Science Department of Federal University of Lavras (Lavras-MG. The experiment was started in January 2007 and lasted for 12 months, following a completely randomized design, with four replicates and eight treatments: Complete Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution, and nutrient solutions without N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, and B. Plant height, stem diameter, number of stems, number of leaves per stem, and volume of root were evaluated. Subsequently the plants were divided into leaf + pseudostem, rhizome, root and tillers for dry matter

  9. Valor nutritivo de silagens de capim-marandu submetidas aos efeitos de umidade, inoculação bacteriana e estação do ano Nutritive value of palisadegrass silages affected by year season, dry matter level and bacterial inoculant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Leonardo Ribeiro

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available O estudo foi realizado para avaliar o efeito da estação do ano, do teor de matéria seca (MS e da inoculação bacteriana sobre o valor nutritivo de silagens de Brachiaria brizantha cv. Marandu. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, disposto em arranjo fatorial (2 × 3 × 3, com duas estações do ano (verão e inverno, três teores de MS (com ou sem emurchecimento ou adição de polpa cítrica peletizada, PCP e ausência ou presença de inoculante (Lactobacillus plantarum ou Lactobacillus buchneri, perfazendo 18 tratamentos, cada um com quatro repetições. As silagens foram confeccionadas em baldes de plástico de 20 L. Após 90 dias do fechamento, os silos foram abertos para as avaliações. O emurchecimento elevou os teores de matéria seca (MS, fibra em detergente neutro (FDN e lignina (LIG em ambas as estações, porém não alterou o coeficiente de digestibilidade verdadeira in vitro da MS (DVIVMS das silagens. A adição de PCP aumentou os teores de proteína bruta (PB e carboidratos solúveis (CHO e reduziu os teores de FDN, o que resultou em silagens com maior DVIVMS em ambas as estações. A inoculação não alterou a fração fibrosa e não aumentou a DVIVMS das silagens. As silagens de verão apresentaram maiores teores de PB e menores constituintes da parede celular, com exceção da hemicelulose (HEMI, o que resultou no maior coeficiente médio de DVIVMS dessas silagens. O baixo valor nutritivo das silagens de inverno contraria os resultados descritos na literatura, principalmente em virtude da maior idade de rebrotação do capim-marandu nesta estação. Desta forma, silagens de verão podem ser recomendadas como volumoso suplementar, principalmente quando acrescidas de PCP.The objectives of this work were to evaluate the effect of year season, dry matter concentration (DM, and bacterial inoculation on the nutritive value of palisadegrass silages. The trial was carried out in a complete randomized

  10. Mushroom drying with solar assisted heat pump system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Şevik, Seyfi; Aktaş, Mustafa; Doğan, Hikmet; Koçak, Saim

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system. • Developing of a computer program for a drying system with different scenarios by using PLC. • Obtained less energy input with high coefficients of performance of system and more quality products. • Determination of mushroom drying properties such as moisture content, moisture ratio and drying ratio. - Abstract: In this study, a simple and cost effective solar assisted heat pump system (SAHP) with flat plate collectors and a water source heat pump has been proposed. Mushroom drying was examined experimentally in the drying system. Solar energy (SE) system and heat pump (HP) system can be used separately or together. A computer program has been developed for the system. Drying air temperature, relative humidity, weight of product values, etc. were monitored and controlled with different scenarios by using PLC. This system is cheap, good quality and sustainable and it is modeled for good quality product and increased efficiency. Thus, products could be dried with less energy input and more controlled conditions. Mushrooms were dried at 45 °C and 55 °C drying air temperature and 310 kg/h mass flow rate. Mushrooms were dried from initial moisture content 13.24 g water/g dry matter (dry basis) to final moisture content 0.07 g water/g dry matter (dry basis). Mushrooms were dried by using HP system, SE system and SAHP system respectively at 250–220 min, at 270–165 min and at 230–190 min. The coefficients of performance of system (COP) are calculated in a range from 2.1 to 3.1 with respect to the results of experiments. The energy utilization ratios (EURs) were found to vary between 0.42 and 0.66. Specific moisture extraction rate (SMER) values were found to vary between 0.26 and 0.92 kg/kW h

  11. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  12. THE DEPENDENCE OF GLYCEROL ACCUMULATION AND STARCH HYDROLYZATES FERMENTATION FROM WORT CONCENTRATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Оliynichuk S. Т.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to study the dependence of ethanol accumulation by-products and secondary products (glycerol and propionic acid during the fermentation in the case of increasing the wort concentration from 12 to 21% by weight of sugar as an example of commonly used in the alcohol industry the commercial dry yeast company “Danisco” and experimental osmophilic strain Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E, isolated from a concentrated (80% DM of rye malt wort which spontaneously fermented. The enzyme preparations “AMYLEX 4T”, “ALPHALASE AFP” and “DIAZYME SSF” were used for the liquefaction and saccharification of starch wort. The finished industrial of both yeast strains were added to the fermentation flasks in an amount of 10% by volume of the primary wort. In the mature brew the unfermented carbohydrates content was determined by colorimetric method with anthrone reagent, alcohol — by glass areometer-alcoholometer, acidity — potentiometrically, the concentration of dry matter — by areometer, glycerol content — by photocolorimetry method. In the brew distillate a volatile impurities content, namely propionic acid, was determined using gas chromatography. Statistical processing of the results of three series of experiments were carried out by calculating the arithmetical mean value of 5 measurements, their standard deviations and errors. To determine the probable differences between the mean values were used Student’s t test. Differences were considered statistically significant at P < 0.05. Reduction for accumulation of glycerol (between 38 till 53% at higher concentrations of nutrient medium in the case of the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae DS-02-E as compared with commercial dry yeast, reduction the formation of unwanted by-product of fermentation — propionic acid (up to 34%, a better ability of the experimental strain to accumulate sugar of wort and to accumulate ethanol (up to 0.1–0.25% vol. were shown. It

  13. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  14. Accumulation by Conservation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Büscher, Bram; Fletcher, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Following the financial crisis and its aftermath, it is clear that the inherent contradictions of capitalist accumulation have become even more intense and plunged the global economy into unprecedented turmoil and urgency. Governments, business leaders and other elite agents are frantically

  15. Creation / accumulation city

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Doevendans, C.H.; Schram, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    A distinction between basic archetypes of urban form was made by Bruno Fortier: the accumulation city as opposed to the creation city. These archetypes derive from archaeology - being based on the Roman and the Egyptian city - but are interpreted as morphological paradigms, as a set of assumptions

  16. Different Phosphorus Supplies Altered the Accumulations and Quantitative Distributions of Phytic Acid, Zinc, and Iron in Rice (Oryza sativa L.) Grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Da; Zhou, Lujian; Zhao, Qian; Pan, Gang; Cheng, Fangmin

    2018-02-21

    Development of rice cultivars with low phytic acid (lpa) is considered as a primary strategy for biofortification of zinc (Zn) and iron (Fe). Here, two rice genotypes (XS110 and its lpa mutant) were used to investigate the effect of P supplies on accumulations and distributions of PA, Zn, and Fe in rice grains by using hydroponics and detached panicle culture system. Results showed that higher P level increased grain PA concentration on dry matter basis (g/kg), but it markedly decreased PA accumulation on per grain basis (mg/grain). Meanwhile, more P supply reduced the amounts and bioavailabilities of Zn and Fe both in milled grains and in brown grains. Comparatively, lpa mutant was more susceptive to exogenous P supply than its wild type. Hence, the appropriate P fertilizer application should be highlighted in order to increase grain microelement (Zn and Fe) contents and improve nutritional quality in rice grains.

  17. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  18. SILAGE CANE SUGAR ADDED WITH DRIED BREWER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. J. R. Castro

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the fermentative parameters and chemical composition of silage cane sugar added with residue dried brewery. The experimental design was completely randomized with four treatments and four replications: 100% cane sugar; 90% of cane sugar + 10% residue dried brewer; 80% of cane sugar + 20% residue dried brewer and 70% cane sugar + 30% dried brewer based on natural matter, composed silages. The sugar cane was chopped in a stationary machine with forage particle size of approximately 2 cm, and homogenized manually with the additives. For storage chopped fresh weight were used in experimental silos capacity of about 4 liters. The results showed that the contents of dry matter and crude protein showed positive linear (P0.05 with mean value of 3.81, while for ether extract and ash results were positive linear (P0.05 for N ammonia presented average value of 4.18. It is concluded that the addition of brewer dehydrated improves the fermentation process of silage cane sugar, in addition to improving their nutritional characteristics.

  19. Dark matter and particle physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Masiero, A [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy); Pascoli, S [SISSA-ISAS, Trieste (Italy) and INFN, Sezione di Trieste (Italy)

    2001-11-15

    Dark matter constitutes a key-problem at the interface between Particle Physics, Astrophysics and Cosmology. Indeed, the observational facts which have been accumulated in the last years on dark matter point to the existence of an amount of non-baryonic dark matter. Since the Standard Model of Particle Physics does not possess any candidate for such non-baryonic dark matter, this problem constitutes a major indication for new Physics beyond the Standard Model. We analyze the most important candidates for non-baryonic dark matter in the context of extensions of the Standard Model (in particular supersymmetric models). The recent hints for the presence of a large amount of unclustered 'vacuum' energy (cosmological constant?) is discussed from the Astrophysical and Particle Physics perspective. (author)

  20. D matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shiu, Gary; Wang Liantao

    2004-01-01

    We study the properties and phenomenology of particlelike states originating from D branes whose spatial dimensions are all compactified. They are nonperturbative states in string theory and we refer to them as D matter. In contrast to other nonperturbative objects such as 't Hooft-Polyakov monopoles, D-matter states could have perturbative couplings among themselves and with ordinary matter. The lightest D particle (LDP) could be stable because it is the lightest state carrying certain (integer or discrete) quantum numbers. Depending on the string scale, they could be cold dark matter candidates with properties similar to that of WIMPs or wimpzillas. The spectrum of excited states of D matter exhibits an interesting pattern which could be distinguished from that of Kaluza-Klein modes, winding states, and string resonances. We speculate about possible signatures of D matter from ultrahigh energy cosmic rays and colliders

  1. Determination of dry matter and organic matter content in input material for solid-matter fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of tests made on various samples of biogenous wastes taken from four fermentation plants in Switzerland. The aims of the tests made on the fermentation input materials that were sampled on a weekly basis are discussed. Various relevant data on the samples noted include the characterisation of the material and even weather data. The spread of the data acquired is discussed. The results obtained are examined in detail, including seasonal variations. The basic findings of the project are presented and differences between countryside and city areas as well as garden and catering wastes are discussed. A comprehensive appendix presents details on the data collected.

  2. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holt, S. S.; Bennett, C. L.

    1995-01-01

    These proceedings represent papers presented at the Astrophysics conference in Maryland, organized by NASA Goddard Space Flight Center and the University of Maryland. The topics covered included low mass stars as dark matter, dark matter in galaxies and clusters, cosmic microwave background anisotropy, cold and hot dark matter, and the large scale distribution and motions of galaxies. There were eighty five papers presented. Out of these, 10 have been abstracted for the Energy Science and Technology database

  3. Determination of the most economical drying schedule and air velocity in softwood drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salin, J.G.

    2001-12-01

    Simulation models for conventional softwood drying have been available and have also been used by kiln operators for many years. For instance models for Scots pine and Norway spruce, dried at temperatures below about 80 deg C, are in use in Sweden, Finland and Norway. These models predict drying rates as a function of climate (schedule) and air velocity. The models thus give a direct basis for calculation of instantaneous energy demand for moisture evaporation and ventilation. There is further a direct relationship between the air velocity in the space between the board layers in the kiln stack and the electrical power demand by the circulation fans. Finally, the smaller energy consumption associated with heat losses through kiln walls and the accumulated heat in timber etc. can be estimated with sufficient accuracy. Instantaneous energy costs can thus be calculated for each part of a drying schedule. Capital costs associated with kiln investment and maintenance, personnel, insurance etc can be accounted for as an hourly cost, which is basically independent of whether timber is dried fast or slowly. A slow drying process thus accumulates more capital costs per m 3 timber. In this way it is possible to calculate the total instantaneous drying cost (Euro/m{sup 3}/h or Euro/m3/MC%) and the overall total cost (Euro or Euro/m{sup 3}). Some results obtained with a simulation model equipped with such a cost calculation are presented in the paper. A rapidly increasing drying cost is seen when the final MC is lowered. By minimising the instantaneous cost, an optimal drying schedule can be determined for a given fixed air velocity. Finally an optimal air velocity - constant or varying - can be found in the same way.

  4. Wet and dry atmospheric deposition on TiO2 coated glass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chabas, Anne; Gentaz, Lucile; Lombardo, Tiziana; Sinegre, Romain; Falcone, Roberto; Verita, Marco; Cachier, Helene

    2010-01-01

    To prevent the soiling of glass window used in the built environment, the use TiO 2 coated products appears an important application matter. To test the cleaning efficiency and the sustainability of self-cleaning glass, a field experiment was conducted under real life condition, on a site representative of the background urban pollution. Samples of float glass, used as reference, and commercialized TiO 2 coated glasses were exposed to dry and wet atmospheric deposition during two years. The crossed optical, chemical and microscopic evaluations performed, after withdrawal, allowed highlighting a sensible difference between the reference and the self-cleaning substrate in terms of accumulation, nature, abundance and geometry of the deposit. This experiment conducted in real site emphasized on the efficacy of self-cleaning glass to reduce the maintenance cost. - This paper evaluates the self-cleaning glass efficiency highlighting its ability to prevent soiling and to be used as a mean of remediation.

  5. Dark Matter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashir, A.; Cotti, U.; De Leon, C. L.; Raya, A; Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    One of the biggest scientific mysteries of our time resides in the identification of the particles that constitute a large fraction of the mass of our Universe, generically known as dark matter. We review the observations and the experimental data that imply the existence of dark matter. We briefly discuss the properties of the two best dark-matter candidate particles and the experimental techniques presently used to try to discover them. Finally, we mention a proposed project that has recently emerged within the Mexican community to look for dark matter

  6. Response of Physiological Growth Indices and Bulb Dry Yield of Onion (Allium cepa L. Genotypes to Priming and Seed Size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Izadkhah

    2016-02-01

    randomized complete block design with three replications. Experiment treatments included priminig at four levels: hydropriming, osmopriming (in %2KNO3, priminig with falomin amino acid (in 2% and control (without priming. Seed samples of the two cultivars were sieved by slotted screens and placed into three groups of seed diameter size: small, medium and large and cultivars at two levels: Red Azarshahr and Zarghun. The physiological growth indices such as total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, net assimilation rate, bulb growth rate and bulb fresh and dry yield were studied. Results and Discussion Results of field experiment showed that seed priming improved growth indices such as dry matter accumulation (DMA, crop growth rate (CGR, net assimilation rate (NAR, relative growth rate (RGR, bulb growth rate (BGR and leaf aria index (LAI in both cultivars. The highest bulb fresh, dry yield and dry matter percentage (54400, 6800 kg/ha and11/80 % belonged to priminig with folammine amino acid, respectively. The results of growth analysis indicated that the maximum and minimum growth indices values were obtained from large and small seeds, respectively. Mean comparison showed that the highest bulb fresh yield (53.26 ton/ha, bulb dry yield (9.95 ton/ha and bulb dry matter (11.47 % were achieved from large seeds. Mean comparison indicated that the highest bulb fresh yield (43.40 ton/ha, bulb dry yield (5.43 ton/ha and bulb dry matter (11.47 % were observed in Red Azarshahr. Conclusions Seed priming treatments improved bulb fresh and dry yield, total dry matter, leaf area index, crop growth rate, bulb growth rate, relative growth rate and net assimilation rate as compared to the unprimed. Among the treatments, seed priming with Falomin Amino Acid 2% was more effective than the potassium nitrite 2% and hydropriming. Large seed size significantly increased the bulb fresh and dry yield and physiological growth indices. The highest bulb fresh and dry yield, total dry matter

  7. Fermentation profile, chemical composition and dry matter losses of orange pulp silage with different microbial inoculantsPerfil fermentativo, composição bromatológica e perdas em silagem de bagaço de laranja com diferentes inoculantes microbianos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Chaves Françozo

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of microbial inoculants on the reduced concentration of gases and effluent, dry matter recovery, pH, volatile fatty acids, and chemical composition of orange pulp silage, using a completely randomized design, with four treatments and four replicates per treatment. The treatments were: orange pulp silage (CONT, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH, citrus pulp silage + Lactobacillus plantarum and buchneri (LACBUCH. Inoculants were applied at a rate of 25 liters of solution per ton of citrus pulp containing 1x103 CFU respectively of Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactobacillus buchneri per gram of silage. There was no effect of the usage of different inoculants on the reduction of gas and effluent, as well as the pH of the silage. The dry matter (DM, crude protein (CP, non-fibrous carbohydrate (NFC, mineral matter (MM, ether extract (EE and the profile of fatty acids did not change significantly with the inclusion of the inoculants. The contents of neutral detergent fiber (NDF and acid detergent fiber (ADF were higher for silage with Lactobacillus buchneri compared to control. The administration of microbial inoculants in orange pulp silage did not result in benefits relative to the dry matter losses during ensiling or the nutritional components. Objetivou-se com este experimento avaliar os efeitos de inoculantes microbianos sobre as perdas por gases e efluentes, recuperação de matéria seca, pH, ácidos graxos voláteis e composição bromatológica de silagens de polpa cítrica, usando-se um delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro tratamentos e quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: silagem de polpa cítrica (CONT, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum (LAC, silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus buchneri (BUCH; silagem de polpa cítrica + Lactobacillus plantarum e buchneri (LACBUCH. Os

  8. Degradabilidade da matéria seca e da fração fibrosa da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio Dry matter and fiber fraction degradability of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claithiane Oliveira Soares

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar os parâmetros de degradação ruminal da matéria seca, da fibra em detergente neutro e fibra em detergente ácido da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio nas doses zero, 1; 2 e 3% (com base na matéria natural. Foram incubados no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de zero; seis; 12; 24; 48; 72; 96; 120 e 144 horas, sacos de náilon contendo amostras de 2,5g da cana de açúcar tratada com óxido de cálcio. Verificou-se degradabilidade potencial de 80,7% na matéria seca para cana de açúcar tratada com 3% de óxido de cálcio. Os resultados da fração degradável para fibra em detergente neutro e para fibra em detergente ácido no tratamento com 3% de óxido de cálcio foram de 59,7 e 59,9%, respectivamente, enquanto, a cana sem aditivo, apresentou valores de degradação de 44,5% para fibra em detergente neutro e de 39,5% para fibra em detergente ácido. Houve incremento nos parâmetros da degradabilidade da matéria seca da fração “a” de 37,5 vs 46,8% da cana sem aditivo para a cana de açúcar com a dose de 3% de óxido de cálcio. Para a degradabilidade da fibra em detergente ácido foi observado efeito semelhante ao da degradabilidade da fibra em detergente neutro, com valores da fração potencialmente degradável “b” que corresponderam a 64,2 e 68,7%, respectivamente, na dose de 3% de óxido de cálcio.The objective of this work was to evaluate the parameters of ruminal degradation of dry matter, neutral detergent fiber and acid detergent fiber of the sugar cane treated with calcium oxide in the doses of 0; 1; 2 and 3 % (with basis of the natural matter. The samples were incubated in the rumen of three steers for 0; 6; 12; 24; 48; 72; 96; 120 and 144 hours, on nylon bags containing 2.5g of sugar cane treated with calcium oxide. There was 80.7% of potential degradability in dry matter for sugar cane treated with 3% calcium oxide. The results for degradable fraction for neutral detergent

  9. Accumulation of satellites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Safronov, V.S.; Ruskol, E.L.

    1977-01-01

    Formation and evolution of circumplanetary satellite swarms are investigated. Characteristic times of various processes are estimated. The characteristic time for the accumulation of the bodies in the swarm was several orders of magnitude shorter than that of the planet, i.e. than the time of the replenishment of the material by the swarm (10 8 yr). The model of the accumulation of the swarm is constructed taking into account the increase of its mass due to trapping of heliocentrically moving particles and its decrease due to outfall of the inner part of the swarm onto the growing planet. The accumulation of circumplanetary bodies is also considered. The main features of the evolution of the swarm essentially depend on the size distribution of bodies in the swarm and in the zone of the planet and also on the degree of the concentration of the swarm mass toward the planet. If the sum of the exponents of the inverse power laws of these distributions is less than 7, the model of the transparent swarm developed in this paper should be preferred. When this sum is greater than 7, the model of opaque swarm suggested by A. Harris and W.M. Kaula is better. There is predominant trapping of small particles into the swarm due to their more frequent collisions. Optical thickness of the protoplanetary cloud in radial direction is estimated. It is shown that at the final stage of the planetary accumulation, the cloud was semitransparent in the region of terrestrial planets and volatile substances evaporated at collisions could be swept out from the outer parts of the satellite swarm by the solar wind

  10. Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    Photographic Service

    1980-01-01

    The AA in its final stage of construction, before it disappeared from view under concrete shielding. Antiprotons were first injected, stochastically cooled and accumulated in July 1980. From 1981 on, the AA provided antiprotons for collisions with protons, first in the ISR, then in the SPS Collider. From 1983 on, it also sent antiprotons, via the PS, to the Low-Energy Antiproton Ring (LEAR). The AA was dismantled in 1997 and shipped to Japan.

  11. Modelling accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems originating from a long-term groundwater contamination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaerdenaes, Annemieke I. [Dept. of Soil and Environment, Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences (SLU), P.O. Box 7001, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Eckersten, Henrik [Dept. of Ecology and Crop Production, SLU, P.O. Box 7042, 750 07 Uppsala (Sweden); Reinlert, Andre [Dept. of Physical Geography and Ecosystems Analysis, Lund University, 223 62 Lund (Sweden); MMT, Sven Kaellfelts Gata 11 SE 426 71 Vaestra Froelunda (Sweden); Gustafsson, David; Jansson, Per-Erik [Dept. Land and Water Resources, KTH, SE 100 44, Stockholm (Sweden); Ekstroem, Per-Anders [Facilia AB, Gustavlundsvaegen 151A, 167 51 Bromma (Sweden); Greger, Maria [Dept. of Ecology, Environment and Plant Sciences, Stockholm University, 106 91 Stockholm (Sweden)

    2014-07-01

    This study was conducted as part of the risk assessment of final deposits of nuclear fuel waste. The overall objective is to assess the possible accumulation of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems after an eventual long-term groundwater contamination. The specific objectives are to assess: i) What proportion of the contamination will accumulate in the soil-plant-system? ii) Where in the soil-plant- system will it accumulate? iii) Which ecosystem characteristics and radionuclides properties are important for the accumulation? and iv) Under which circumstances do losses from the ecosystems occur? We developed the dynamic model Tracey (Gaerdenaes et al. 2009) describing cycling of radionuclides in terrestrial ecosystems with high temporal resolution (1 day). The model is a multi-compartmental model in which fluxes and storage of radionuclides are described for different plant parts and soil pools in each of the 10 soil layers. The radionuclide fluxes are driven either by water or carbon fluxes. The water and the carbon fluxes are simulated with the dynamic, bio-geophysical Coup Model (Jansson and Karlberg, 2004). Tracey includes two root uptake approaches of radionuclides; (i) passive uptake driven by root water uptake and (ii) active uptake driven by plant growth. A linear approach describes the adsorption of radionuclides to soil particles and organic matter. Tracey was applied on two ecosystems with contrasting hydrology, the mixed Pinus-Picea forests found in the dry, elevated areas and the Alnus forests found in the wet, low-land areas of Uppland in central east Sweden. Different varieties of the two forest types were created by varying the root depth and radiation use efficiency. The climate was cold-temperate and based on 30-year daily weather data from Uppsala. The assumed groundwater contamination was close to 1 mg of an unspecified radionuclide per m2 and year. This load corresponds to 1 Bq per m{sup 2} and year of {sup 238}U, a common long

  12. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  13. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  14. Hydraulic conductance as well as nitrogen accumulation plays a role in the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis of the most productive variety of rice in Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylaran, Renante D; Adachi, Shunsuke; Ookawa, Taiichiro; Usuda, Hideaki; Hirasawa, Tadashi

    2011-07-01

    An indica variety Takanari is known as one of the most productive rice varieties in Japan and consistently produces 20-30% heavier dry matter during ripening than Japanese commercial varieties in the field. The higher rate of photosynthesis of individual leaves during ripening has been recognized in Takanari. By using pot-grown plants under conditions of minimal mutual shading, it was confirmed that the higher rate of leaf photosynthesis is responsible for the higher dry matter production after heading in Takanari as compared with a japonica variety, Koshihikari. The rate of leaf photosynthesis and shoot dry weight became larger in Takanari after the panicle formation and heading stages, respectively, than in Koshihikari. Roots grew rapidly in the panicle formation stage until heading in Takanari compared with Koshihikari. The higher rate of leaf photosynthesis in Takanari resulted not only from the higher content of leaf nitrogen, which was caused by its elevated capacity for nitrogen accumulation, but also from higher stomatal conductance. When measured under light-saturated conditions, stomatal conductance was already decreased due to the reduction in leaf water potential in Koshihikari even under conditions of a relatively small difference in leaf-air vapour pressure difference. In contrast, the higher stomatal conductance was supported by the maintenance of higher leaf water potential through the higher hydraulic conductance in Takanari with the larger area of root surface. However, no increase in root hydraulic conductivity was expected in Takanari. The larger root surface area of Takanari might be a target trait in future rice breeding for increasing dry matter production.

  15. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  16. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  17. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  19. Dinâmica do nitrogênio no solo e produção de fitomassa por plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno com o uso de dejetos de suínos Dynamics of soil nitrogen and cover crops dry matter production in the fall/winter as affected by pig slurry use

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Celso Aita

    2006-10-01

    favoreceu o crescimento da aveia em detrimento da ervilhaca, ocorrendo o melhor equilíbrio entre a produção de fitomassa e a adição de N na dose de 20 m³ ha-1 de dejetos. Os resultados deste estudo evidenciam a eficiência das plantas de cobertura no outono/inverno em ciclar nutrientes fornecidos pelos dejetos de suínos e a importância da utilização de espécies com elevado potencial de produção de matéria seca e que sejam exigentes em N.The use of pig slurry before implanting cover crops in the fall/winter is becoming a common practice in southern Brazil, although its effects on crops and soil are still poorly investigated. The objective of the present study was to analyze the dynamics of soil N as well as to study the cover crop yields under use of pig slurry in the fall/winter. The study was developed in the growing season 2000 on an experimental area of the Soils Department of UFSM, RS. The experiment was set up in a randomized complete block design with split-plots and three replications. The main plots had black oat, black oat (30 % + common vetch (70 % mixture and spontaneous vegetation of the area (fallow. Four pig slurry rates (0, 20, 40 and 80 m³ ha-1 were applied on the split-plots. The mineral N contents (N-NH4+ and N-NO2- + N-NO3- were evaluated at seven dates in the layers of 0-5, 5-15, 15-30 and 30-60 cm depth. The dry matter production and N, P and K concentration of cover crops and spontaneous vegetation were evaluated. Mineral soil N increased with liquid manure application, with similar N dynamics when applied on residues of oat/corn or on weeds/corn residues. After application of 80 m³ ha-1 there was evidence of N-NO3- leaching to depths below 60 cm, higher in weeds/corn system than oat/corn crop system. Dry matter production as well as the content of N, P and K in cover crops increased with the use of slurry. For single oat the increase of dry matter production with a slurry dose of 40 was 2.7 mg ha-1 compared to no-slurry treatment. In

  20. Growth, biomass production and ions accumulation in Atriplex nummularia Lindl grown under abiotic stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidelblandi F. de Melo

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Atriplex nummularia is a halophyte of great importance in the recovery of saline soils and is considered as a model plant to study biosaline scenarios. This study aimed to evaluate biometric parameters, biomass production and the accumulation of ions in A. nummularia grown under abiotic stresses. Cultivation was carried out in a Fluvic Neosol for 100 days, adopting two water regimes: 37 and 70% of field capacity. Plants were irrigated with saline solutions containing two types of salts (NaCl and a mixture of NaCl, KCl, MgCl2 and CaCl2 at six levels of electrical conductivity: 0, 5, 10, 20, 30 and 40 dS m-1, arranged in a 6 x 2 x 2 factorial with 4 replicates, forming 96 plots. At the end of the experiment, plants were divided into leaves, stem and roots, for the determination of fresh matter (FM, dry matter (DM and estimated leaf area (LA, besides the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl-. The type of salt did not influence plant growth or biomass production; however, it influenced the levels of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+ and Cl- in the leaves and Mg2+, K+ and Cl- in the roots. Increase in salinity reduced the contents of Ca2+, Mg2+, Na+, K+ and Cl- for all treatments.

  1. Performance of dairy goats fed diets with dry yeast from sugar cane as protein source

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Soares de Lima

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The effects of inactive dry yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae from sugar cane were studied in 18 primiparus Saanen dairy goats (51.07±1.43 on dry matter intake and digestibility, milk production and quality. Animals were distributed in a completely randomized design during 90 days (from day 60 of milking. Diets were composed of soybean meal; soybean meal + dry yeast; or dry yeast, as protein sources, and ground corn, mineral supplement and corn silage (40%. Animals fed the dry yeast diet showed lower intake of dry matter (DM, organic matter (OM, crude protein, ether extract and neutral detergent fiber. Diets did not influence milk yield; however the milk production efficiency (kg of milk produced/kg of crude protein ingested was better in goats fed the dry yeast diet. Acidity, somatic cell counts and milk urea nitrogen values were not affected by treatments. Animals fed the soybean + dry yeast diet had higher fat and total solids than those fed the dry yeast diet. The digestibility of DM, OM and total carbohydrate was lower for soybean only and soybean + dry yeast diets. Total digestible nutrients were higher for dry yeast and soy bean diets than soybean + dry yeast diet. Dry yeast from sugar cane is a good alternative protein source for feeding lactating dairy goats and can be recommended because it maintains the production performance.

  2. Interferência de Euphorbia heterophylla no crescimento e acúmulo de macronutrientes da soja Interference of Euphorbia heterophylla in the growth and macronutrient accumulation of soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.B. Carvalho

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available O grau de interferência depende da densidade de plantas daninhas que infestam a soja. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar características de crescimento e nutrição mineral da soja mantida em convivência com densidades crescentes de Euphorbia heterophylla. O experimento foi conduzido em Jaboticabal, SP, Brasil, entre outubro e dezembro de 2008, em vasos mantidos em campo aberto. Os tratamentos consistiram em submeter uma planta de soja por vaso à convivência com 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 e 16 plantas de E. heterophylla por vaso, da semeadura até o início do florescimento. Nesse período, avaliaram-se, apenas na soja, a altura e o número de trifólios, e em ambas as espécies, a matéria seca e o acúmulo de macronutrientes. Observou-se variação na altura de plantas e redução no número de trifólios e no acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes da soja devido ao maior acúmulo de matéria seca e macronutrientes por densidades crescentes de E. heterophylla. Conclui-se que a soja mantida em convivência com E. heterophylla teve o crescimento e o acúmulo de macronutrientes reduzidos em razão da interferência imposta pela planta daninha.The degree of weed interference depends on the density of the weeds infesting the soybean crop. The objective of this work was to evaluate the growth and mineral nutrition characteristics in soybean maintained in coexistence with increasing densities of Euphorbia heterophylla. The experiment was carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil, from October through December 2008, in pots maintained under open field conditions. The treatments consisted in submitting one soybean plant per pot to coexistence with 0, 1, 2, 4, 8 and 16 plants of E. heterophylla per pot, from sowing until the beginning of soybean flowering. At this period, only height and number of leaves were evaluated in soybean, while dry matter and macronutrient accumulation were evaluated in both species. Variation in plant height and reduction in the

  3. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  4. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  5. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  6. Accumulation of Radiocesium in Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugiura, Y.; Takenaka, C.; Kanasashi, T. [Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 464-8601, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture (Japan); Deguchi, S. [School of Agricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, Nagoya City, Aichi Prefecture, 464-8601 (Japan); Matsuda, Y. [Graduate School of Bioresources, Mie University, Tsu City, Mie Prefecture, 514-0102 (Japan); Ozawa, H. [Fukushima Prefectural Forestry Research Centre, Koriyama City Fukushima Prefecture, 963-0112 (Japan)

    2014-07-01

    1. Introduction: After Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident, radiocesium ({sup 137}Cs) had deposited on forests in Fukushima Prefecture. In order to comprehend radiocesium circulation in forest ecosystem, it is important to understand about properties of {sup 137}Cs accumulation of each plant species. In addition, {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants would be candidates of phyto-remediation, which is a remediation method using plants to remove pollutants from environment. We aimed to find {sup 137}Cs accumulator plants and to clarify the accumulate mechanisms. 2. Materials and Methods: We collected soil and plant samples at 22 points in Fukushima Prefecture more than once a year from May 2011 to October 2013. Surface (0-5 cm) soils were collected at the same site as the plant sampling. The soil samples were air-dried for 2-3 weeks and then passed through a 2 mm sieve. Foliar samples were washed with tap water to remove soil particles and rinsed with deionized water for {sup 137}Cs and other elements analysis. The samples were dried at 80 deg. C for 48 hr and ground with a mill mixer. {sup 137}Cs activities in soil and plant samples were determined by means of high-purity Ge detector (HPGe). The elements concentrations of the plant samples were determined by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) after wet digestion with HNO{sub 3}. 3. Results and Discussion: As a whole trend, evergreen tree species such as Camellia japonica and Cryptomeria japonica contained {sup 137}Cs at high concentration due to the deposited {sup 137}Cs on old leaves and foliar absorption. The activities in leaves of deciduous tree species were lower than those in evergreen trees. However, we confirmed that a deciduous tree species, Eleutherococcus sciadophylloides, collected in 2012 and 2013 accumulated {sup 137}Cs, whereas that collected in 2011 did not accumulate {sup 137}Cs. The {sup 137}Cs concentration of E. sciadophylloides in 2012 and 2013 were higher than those of

  7. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  8. Accumulation of cadmium, zinc, and copper by Helianthus annuus L.: impact on plant growth and uptake of nutritional elements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivelli, Anna Rita; De Maria, Susanna; Puschenreiter, Markus; Gherbin, Piergiorgio

    2012-04-01

    We investigated the effects on physiological response, trace elements and nutrients accumulation of sunflower plants grown in soil contaminated with: 5 mg kg(-1) of Cd; 5 and 300 mg kg(-1) of Cd and Zn, respectively; 5, 300, and 400 mg kg(-1) of Cd, Zn, and Cu, respectively. Contaminants applied did not produce large effects on growth, except in Cd-Zn-Cu treatment in which leaf area and total dry matter were reduced, by 15%. The contamination with Cd alone did not affect neither growth nor physiological parameters, despite considerable amounts of Cd accumulated in roots and older leaves, with a high bioconcentration factor from soil to plant. By adding Zn and then Cu to Cd in soil, significant were the toxic effects on chlorophyll content and water relations due to greater accumulation of trace elements in tissues, with imbalances in nutrients uptake. Highly significant was the interaction between shoot elements concentration (Cd, Zn, Cu, Fe, Mg, K, Ca) and treatments. Heavy metals concentrations in roots always exceeded those in stem and leaves, with a lower translocation from roots to shoots, suggesting a strategy of sunflower to compartmentalise the potentially toxic elements in physiologically less active parts in order to preserve younger tissues.

  9. The influence of dietary microbial phytase and calcium on the accumulation of cadmium in different organs of pigs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zacharias, B.; Lantzsch, H.J.; Drochner, W. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. fuer Tierernaehrung

    2001-07-01

    A total of 72 barrows (initial body weight 16.7 kg) was used, to evaluate the influence of microbial phytase supplementation alone or in combination with calcium to barley soybean meal diets on the accumulation of cadmium (Cd) in kidney, liver, muscle, brain and bone. The control group received the basal diet with 6 g Ca and a low native Cd concentration of 0.03 mg/kg dry matter (DM). In the experimental groups 2, 3, 4 and 5 dietary cadmium concentration was elevated to 0.78 mg/kg DM. The diet of group 3 was supplemented with 800 U microbial phytase/kg, the diet of group 4 with 6 g Ca/kg. The diet of group 5 contained both supplements. The addition of microbial phytase caused an increase of Cd retention in kidney and liver at 30 and 50 kg body weight. This effect was counteracted by the contemporary addition of calcium. A supplementation of Ca alone showed no effect on the Cd accumulation in kidney and liver. In muscle, brain and bone no effects of phytase and calcium on the accumulation of Cd could be found. (orig.)

  10. IN SITU DEGRADABILITY OF DRY MATTER AND FIBROUS FRACTION SUGARCANE BAGASSE TREATED WITH UREA DEGRADABILIDADE IN SITU DA MATÉRIA SECA E DA FRAÇÃO FIBROSA DO BAGAÇO DE CANA-DE-AÇÚCAR TRATADO COM URÉIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabrício Bacelar Lima Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The experiment was conducted to evaluate the in situ degradability of dry matter (iDMD, neutral detergent fiber (iNDFD, acid detergent fiber (iADFD and hemicel-lulosis of sugar cane bagasse submitted to ammoniation with urea. The treatments consisted of four urea levels (0%, 2.5%, 5.0% and 7.5% on dry matter – DM basis added to the sugar cane bagasse and addition of 1.2% (DM basis of ground soybean as urease source. Samples of 3 g of the bagasses were incubated in the rumen of three steers during periods of 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 and 96 hours. The urea addiction to sugar cane bagasse provided increase not only on the iDMD, but also in degradability of cell wall con-tents. The degradability increased of 73.6, 61.3, 45.6 and 65.7% for DM, NDF, ADF and hemicellulosis, respective-ly, at the longer incubation time (96 hours. The iDMD, iNDFD, iADFD and in situ hemicellusosis degradability of sugar cane bagasse were improved by urea treatment.

    KEY-WORDS: Ammoniation, by product, dry matter, cellular wall.

    O experimento foi desenvolvido para avaliar a de-gradabilidade in situ da matéria seca (DiMS, da fibra em detergente neutro (DiFDN, da fibra em detergente ácido (DiFDA e da hemicelulose do bagaço de cana-de-açúcar submetido à amonização com uréia. Os tratamentos cons-taram de quatro níveis de uréia (0%, 2,5%, 5,0% e 7,5% na base da matéria seca – MS adicionados ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar e adição de 1,2% (base da MS de soja grão moída como fonte de urease. Amostras de 3 g dos bagaços foram incubadas no rúmen de três novilhos por períodos de 0, 12, 24, 48, 72 e 96 horas. A adição de uréia ao bagaço de cana-de-açúcar promoveu aumento tanto na DiMS como também na degradabilidade dos constituintes da parede celular. Houve incrementos nas degradabilidades de 73,6%, 61,3%, 45,6% e 65,7% para a MS, FDN, FDA e hemice-lulose, respectivamente, no maior tempo de incubação (96 horas. A DiMS, DiFDN, DiFDA e a

  11. Production of dry matter of Stylosanthes capitata submitted to phosphorus in soil with different textures Produção de matéria seca de Stylosanthes capitata submetido à adubação fosfatada em solos com diferentes texturas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Hugo Nakase Otsubo

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The low availability of phosphorus is among the factors that limit the development of the Stylosanthes. Only with the appropriate management aiming to increase the phosphorus liberation in the soil we can provide the increase in yield of this leguminous plant. The study was conducted in a greenhouse at the University of Londrina (UEL, the objective was to evaluate the effect of P shoots of Stylosanthes capitata in soil with sandy texture (Typical Yellow Dystropic – LVAd and clay (Typical Eutrophic – Lvef. The experimental design used was completely randomized with four replications in a 2x5x2 factorial design, in which the factors were two soil types, five shots of phosphorus (0, 40, 80, 120 and 160 kg ha-1 of P2O5 and two cuts. For the sowing, seeds of Stylosanthes capitata were used. The aerial part’s cuts were made at 60 and 105 days after sowing. Regardless of the texture and cut, the phosphated fertilization increased the dry matter production of Stylosanthes’ aerial part, and the maximum yield was obtained with a shot of 105 kg ha-1 P2O5. Among the soils the biggest production was obtained in the second cut and soil of sandy texture. With the increase of the doses, the phosphorus content increases in dry matter yield, improving their nutritional quality for animal feed. The maximum dry matter production (2.39 g / plant in sandy soil and 1.36 g / plant in clay soil were obtained with doses of 102.69 and 113.25 kg ha-1 P2O5, respectively.A baixa disponibilidade de fósforo (P está entre os fatores que limitam o desenvolvimento do estilosante. Somente com manejo adequado que vise aumentar a liberação do fósforo no solo se consegue altos rendimentos desta leguminosa. O trabalho foi desenvolvido em casa de vegetação na Universidade Estadual de Londrina (UEL, com o objetivo de avaliar o efeito de doses de P na produção de matéria seca de Stylosanthes capitata em solos com texturas arenosa (Latossolo Vermelho-Amarelo Distr

  12. Compactação do solo e manejo da água. I: efeitos sobre a absorção de N, P, K, massa seca de raízes e parte aérea de plantas de arroz Soil compaction and water management. I: effects upon uptake of N, P, K, root and shoot dry matter of rice plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberto Dantas de Medeiros

    2005-10-01

    the greatest soil water availability favored the average of P and K contents in the shoot of the plants, root dry matter yield, number of tillers per pot and dry matter of the shoot of rice plant, regardless of soil compaction levels. On the other hand, soil compaction decreased the averages of all the characteristics evaluated, regardless water management. Nevertheless, water management had the most limiting effect on the uptake of nutrients and shoot dry matter of the plants than soil compaction.

  13. Gaseous Matter

    CERN Document Server

    Angelo, Joseph A

    2011-01-01

    aseous Matter focuses on the many important discoveries that led to the scientific interpretation of matter in the gaseous state. This new, full-color resource describes the basic characteristics and properties of several important gases, including air, hydrogen, helium, oxygen, and nitrogen. The nature and scope of the science of fluids is discussed in great detail, highlighting the most important scientific principles upon which the field is based. Chapters include:. Gaseous Matter An Initial Perspective. Physical Characteristics of Gases. The Rise of the Science of Gases. Kinetic Theory of

  14. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis; Larsen, Niels Bent; Hinrichs, Wouter Leonardus Joseph; Andersen, Peter; Rantanen, Jukka; Nielsen, Hanne Mørck; Yang, Mingshi; Foged, Camilla

    2013-05-10

    Dry powder vaccine formulations are highly attractive due to improved storage stability and the possibility for particle engineering, as compared to liquid formulations. However, a prerequisite for formulating vaccines into dry formulations is that their physicochemical and adjuvant properties remain unchanged upon rehydration. Thus, we have identified and optimized the parameters of importance for the design of a spray dried powder formulation of the cationic liposomal adjuvant formulation 01 (CAF01) composed of dimethyldioctadecylammonium (DDA) bromide and trehalose 6,6'-dibehenate (TDB) via spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol. Trehalose and lactose were in the glassy state upon co-spray drying with the liposomes, whereas mannitol appeared crystalline, suggesting that the ability of the stabilizer to form a glassy matrix around the liposomes is one of the prerequisites for stabilization. Systematic studies on the effect of process parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome formulations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Gas exchange, phisiological indexes and ionic accumulation in Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer seedlings in nutrients solution

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Baron

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available "Araticum-de-terra-fria" (Annona emarginata (Schltdl. H. Rainer has been consider a good alternative in rootstock production for the main commercial Annonaceae species. Although this species develops in different soil and climate conditions, there is no understanding by the physiological responses of this species at different nutritional levels. Thus, the objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of different ionic strengths on development of vegetative species known as "Araticum-de-terra-fria". It was evaluated in seedlings grown in different ionic strengths (25% I, 50% I, 75% I and 100% I of the complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, for 140 days, the following characteristics: Gas Exchange (CO2 assimilation rate, stomatal conductance, internal CO2 concentration, transpiration rate, water use efficiency, Rubisco carboxylation efficiency; Vegetative growth characteristics (diameter, leaf number, dry matter; Physiological Indexes (leaf area ratio, specific leaf area, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate, leaf weight ratio and Ionic Accumulation (nutrients leaf analysis. Seedlings grown under 50% I showed the highest values of Leaf CO2 assimilation rate, water use efficiency, carboxylation efficiency, growth, relative growth rate, net assimilation rate and ionic accumulation in the total dry matter. So it is concluded that "Araticum-de-terra-fria" seedlings grown under intermediate nutrient concentrations of complete nutrient solution Hoagland and Arnon (1950 nº 2, explored more adequately their physiological potential that justify their adaptation in different nutritional conditions and allow reducing the amount of mineral nutrition of seedlings production.

  16. Uso de matéria seca de cará e de mandioquinha-salsa na composição da ração para frangos de corte Yam and Peruvian carrot dry matter use in ration composition for broiler feed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria do Carmo Vieira

    1999-03-01

    ration formulas for broiler feed were studied: 1 - 30% concentrated ration (CR + 70% corn (C; 2 - 30% CR + 15% yam dry matter + 55% C; 3 - 30% CR + 15% Peruvian carrot dry matter + 55% C; 4 - 30% CR + 30% yam dry matter + 40% C. Each bird represented one experimental unit and treatments were arranged in a randomized block design, with ten replications. Yam dry matter (rhizomes and tubers and Peruvian carrot residues (sprouts, crowns and non-commercial roots were obtained from propagated plants at the NCA-UFMS vegetable garden and then sun dried. Birds were weighed 7, 14, 21, 28, 35 and 42 days after the beginning of the beginning of the experiment. Broiler average weight curves were characteristics to the species and growth rates were significantly dependent on treatments. Broilers fed with ration formula 3 had an average final weight of 2.1137 kg and a feed conversion of 2.1186 kg of ration/kg of broiler weight, which was 2.2%, 9.7% and 23.9% lower when compared with rations 1, 2 and 4, respectively. The amount of broiler meat available for consumption, broiled or roasted, (with cost/kg of R$ 0.7158 and R$ 0.9825, respectively was greater in broilers fed with ration 3. Comparing qualitatively taste and fat content, it was observed that those broilers fed with ration 4 had a "yokel" broiler taste and minimum fat.

  17. Cadmium tolerance and accumulation characteristics of mature flax, cv. Hermes: Contribution of the basal stem compared to the root

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douchiche, Olfa, E-mail: olfa.douchiche@hotmail.fr [Laboratory Glyco-MEV EA 4358, IFRMP 23, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France); Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Chaiebi, Wided [Laboratory Biologie et Physiologie Cellulaires Vegetales, Department of Biology, University of Tunis, 1060 Tunis (Tunisia); Morvan, Claudine, E-mail: claudine.morvan@univ-rouen.fr [Laboratory PBS-UMR 6270 CNRS, FR 3038, University of Rouen, 76821 Mont Saint Aignan Cedex (France)

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd accumulated in stem bottom part exceeded the defined hyperaccumulator threshold. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer No toxic symptoms occurred and TI of all growth parameters ranged between 0.7 and 1. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The high level of Zn, Mn and Cu may contribute to the absence of chlorosis in stem. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Cd/Ca synergistic effect observed in the stem may alleviate Cd toxicity. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Hermes variety accumulated more Cd than the other flax varieties ever described. - Abstract: The potential of mature flax plants (cv. Hermes) to tolerate and accumulate cadmium (Cd) was studied to determine which part of the plant would be the key organ for phytoremediation purposes. After 4 month-growth on sand substrate containing 0.1 mM Cd in a greenhouse, the roots and stems were separated and the stems were divided into three parts. The effects of Cd were studied on growth parameters, histology and mineral nutrition. No visible toxic symptoms were observed. Tolerance-index values calculated from growth parameters and nutrients remained relatively high, allowing the development of the plant until maturity and formation of seeds. The roots and bottom stem accumulated the highest quantity of Cd (750 and 360 mg/kg dry matter), values which largely exceeded the threshold defined for hyperaccumulators. On the other hand, basal stem had a high bioconcentration factor (BCF = 32) and translocation factor TF Prime (2.5) but a low TF (0.5), indicating that this basal part would play a major role in phytoremediation (phytostabilization rather than phytorextraction). Therefore, the high tolerance to Cd and accumulation capacity make possible to grow Hermes flax on Cd-polluted soils.

  18. Influência do método e tempo de armazenamento de colmos de capim-cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca Influence of method and storage time of stem fractions of cameroongrass on tillering and dry matter production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benedito Marques da Costa

    2004-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi conhecer as influências dos métodos e tempos de armazenamentos de frações de colmos do capim-Cameroon (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. cv. Cameroon no seu perfilhamento e produção de matéria seca, aos 70 dias após o plantio. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, em esquema de parcelas divididas no tempo, com três repetições. Os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos foram: 1 amarradas em feixes; 2 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno com pequenos furos; 3 amarradas em feixes e colocadas em sacos de polietileno sem furos. Os tempos de armazenamento foram: 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 e 30 dias. Verificou-se uma diferença entre os métodos de armazenamento das frações de colmos para número de perfilhos e para produção de matéria seca. O teor de umidade das frações de colmos foi afetado pelo método e pelo tempo de armazenamento. As frações de colmos de capim-cameroon podem ser armazenadas dentro de sacos de polietileno, perfurados ou não, durante 20 a 30 dias antes do plantio.The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of methods and storage times of stem fractions upon tillering and dry matter production of Cameroongrass (Pennisetum purpureum cv. Cameroon at 70 days after planting. Its propagation was carried out by planting culm fractions, each one containing four nodes. A split plot experiment design by time with 3 replications was used. Sorage methods of the stem fractions were: 1 tied bundles; 2 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags with small holes; 3 tied bundles and kept in plastic bags without holes. The storage times were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 days. A difference among storage methods of stem fractions for number of tillers and for dry matter production was observed. The water contents of stem fractions were affected by the storage methods as well as the storage times. The stem fractions of Cameroongrass could be stored in plastic

  19. Produção de matéria seca de forragem e acúmulo de nutrientes em pastagem anual de inverno tratada com esterco líquido de suínos Forage dry matter production and nutrient uptake of a hibernal pasture under application of pig slurry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Mari Assmann

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available O Esterco líquido de suínos (ELS pode ser usado como fertilizante orgânico, mas seu uso incorreto pode contaminar o solo e os mananciais de água. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito da adição de nutrientes ao solo, através do ELS, sobre a produção de matéria seca (MS e o acúmulo de nutrientes de uma pastagem de aveia branca+azevém (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum. Um experimento foi realizado de 2004 a 2006, no campo experimental da UTFPR, em Pato Branco, Paraná, Brasil. O solo era um Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico. Diferentes doses (0, 20, 40, 80 e 120m³ ha-1 de ELS foram aplicadas na pastagem, aos 20 e 61 dias após a emergência (DAE da pastagem, em 2004, e aos 30 e 67DAE, em 2005. Outras duas aplicações foram realizadas nas culturas de verão, milho em 2004 e soja em 2005, respectivamente. A maior produção de MS foi obtida com a dose de 120m³ ha-1 de ELS, tanto no primeiro, quanto no segundo ano. A absorção de nutrientes pelas plantas respondeu de forma linear à aplicação de esterco líquido de suínos.The pig slurry can be used as an organic fertilizer but its improper use can contaminate water and soil. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of nutrient addition to the soil on pasture oat + ryegrass (Avena sativa + Lolium multiflorum dry matter production and nutrient uptake. One experiment was carried out from 2004 to 2006, installed in the experimental farm of UTFPR in Pato Branco, Paraná State, Brazil. The soil was an Oxisol (Latossolo Vermelho distroférrico, Brazil systems. Different rates (0, 20, 40, 80 and 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry were applied in the pasture. The pig slurry applications were performed 20 and 61 days after emergence (DAE of pasture, in 2004, and 30 and 67DAE of pasture in 2005. Another two applications were performed in summer crops, corn in 2004 and soybean in 2005. In both years the rate 120m³ ha-1 of pig slurry resulted in the highest dry matter production

  20. Dark matters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silk, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    One of the greatest mysteries in the cosmos is that it is mostly dark. That is, not only is the night sky dark, but also most of the matter and the energy in the universe is dark. For every atom visible in planets, stars and galaxies today there exists at least five or six times as much 'Dark Matter' in the universe. Astronomers and particle physicists today are seeking to unravel the nature of this mysterious but pervasive dark matter, which has profoundly influenced the formation of structure in the universe. Dark energy remains even more elusive, as we lack candidate fields that emerge from well established physics. I will describe various attempts to measure dark matter by direct and indirect means, and discuss the prospects for progress in unravelling dark energy.

  1. Dirac matter

    CERN Document Server

    Rivasseau, Vincent; Fuchs, Jean-Nöel

    2017-01-01

    This fifteenth volume of the Poincare Seminar Series, Dirac Matter, describes the surprising resurgence, as a low-energy effective theory of conducting electrons in many condensed matter systems, including graphene and topological insulators, of the famous equation originally invented by P.A.M. Dirac for relativistic quantum mechanics. In five highly pedagogical articles, as befits their origin in lectures to a broad scientific audience, this book explains why Dirac matters. Highlights include the detailed "Graphene and Relativistic Quantum Physics", written by the experimental pioneer, Philip Kim, and devoted to graphene, a form of carbon crystallized in a two-dimensional hexagonal lattice, from its discovery in 2004-2005 by the future Nobel prize winners Kostya Novoselov and Andre Geim to the so-called relativistic quantum Hall effect; the review entitled "Dirac Fermions in Condensed Matter and Beyond", written by two prominent theoreticians, Mark Goerbig and Gilles Montambaux, who consider many other mater...

  2. Moisture accumulation in a building envelope

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, T.W.; Checkwitch, K.

    1988-09-01

    In a large number of cases, the failure of a building envelope can be traced to the accumulation of moisture. In a cold winter climate, characteristic of the Canadian prairies, moisture is deposited in the structure by the movement of warm, moist air through the envelope. Tests on the moisture accumulation in a building envelope were initiated in a test house at an Alberta research facility during the 1987/88 heating season. The indoor moisture generation rate was measured and compared with the value inferred from the measured air infiltration rate. With the flue open, the moisture generation rate was approximately 5.5 kg/d of which 0.7 kg/d entered the building envelope; the remainder was exhausted through the flue. With the flue blocked, the moisture generation rate decreased to 3.4 kg/d, while the amount of moisture migrating through the envelope increased to 4.0 kg/d. The moisture accumulation in wall panels located on the north and south face of the test house was also monitored. Moisture was allowed to enter the wall cavity via a hole in the drywall. The fiberglass insulation remained dry throughout the test period. The moisture content of the exterior sheathing of the north panel increased to a maximum of 18% wt in the vicinity of the hole, but quickly dried when the ambient temperatures increased towards the end of the season. The south panel showed very little moisture accumlation due to the effects of solar radiation. 14 refs., 9 figs.

  3. Effects of soil properties on food web accumulation of heavy metals to the wood mouse (Apodemus sylvaticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brink, van den N.W.; Lammertsma, D.R.; Dimmers, W.J.; Boerwinkel, M.C.; Hout, van der A.

    2010-01-01

    Effects of soil properties on the accumulation of metals to wood mice (Apodemus sylvaticus) were evaluated at two sites with different pH and organic matter content of the soil. pH and organic matter content significantly affected accumulation of Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn in earthworms and vegetation. For

  4. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  5. The Antiproton Accumulator (AA)

    CERN Multimedia

    1980-01-01

    Section 06 - 08*) of the AA where the dispersion (and hence the horizontal beam size) is large. One can distinguish (left to right): A vacuum-tank, two bending magnets (BST06 and BST07 in blue) with a quadrupole (QDN07, in red) in between, another vacuum-tank, a wide quadrupole (QFW08) and a further tank . The tanks are covered with heating tape for bake-out. The tank left of BST06 contained the stack core pickup for stochastic cooling (see 7906193, 7906190, 8005051), the two other tanks served mainly as vacuum chambers in the region where the beam was large. Peter Zettwoch works on BST06. *) see: H. Koziol, Antiproton Accumulator Parameter List, PS/AA/Note 84-2 (1984)

  6. Solids Accumulation Scouting Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duignan, M. R.; Steeper, T. J.; Steimke, J. L.

    2012-09-26

    The objective of Solids Accumulation activities was to perform scaled testing to understand the behavior of remaining solids in a Double Shell Tank (DST), specifically AW-105, at Hanford during multiple fill, mix, and transfer operations. It is important to know if fissionable materials can concentrate when waste is transferred from staging tanks prior to feeding waste treatment plants. Specifically, there is a concern that large, dense particles containing plutonium could accumulate in poorly mixed regions of a blend tank heel for tanks that employ mixing jet pumps. At the request of the DOE Hanford Tank Operations Contractor, Washington River Protection Solutions, the Engineering Development Laboratory of the Savannah River National Laboratory performed a scouting study in a 1/22-scale model of a waste staging tank to investigate this concern and to develop measurement techniques that could be applied in a more extensive study at a larger scale. Simulated waste tank solids: Gibbsite, Zirconia, Sand, and Stainless Steel, with stainless steel particles representing the heavier particles, e.g., plutonium, and supernatant were charged to the test tank and rotating liquid jets were used to mix most of the solids while the simulant was pumped out. Subsequently, the volume and shape of the mounds of residual solids and the spatial concentration profiles for the surrogate for heavier particles were measured. Several techniques were developed and equipment designed to accomplish the measurements needed and they included: 1. Magnetic particle separator to remove simulant stainless steel solids. A device was designed and built to capture these solids, which represent the heavier solids during a waste transfer from a staging tank. 2. Photographic equipment to determine the volume of the solids mounds. The mounds were photographed as they were exposed at different tank waste levels to develop a composite of topographical areas. 3. Laser rangefinders to determine the volume of

  7. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  8. The effect of gamma irradiation on the digestibility of organic matter of poultry excreta (In vitro)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Masri, M.R.

    1993-07-01

    The changes in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter by enzyme (in vitro) for two types of the excreta of laying hens were studied. In type I, excreta were dried at 170-180 C for 10 minutes whereas in type II dried at 55-60 C for several days. Each type was divided into two parts, the first stored for 3 months with the control. The second part was irradiated by gamma irradiation at 100 KGy and stored for 3 months with the control. The results indicated that there was significant (0.05) difference in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter and the percentage of crude fibre between samples and the control for the types I and II before and after storage. The dry matter digestibility for types I and II increased by 7%, and the organic matter digestibility increased by 17% for type I and by 11% for type II before and after storage. The increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter is attributed to the decrease in crude fibre obtained by irradiation. The storage of excreta after drying has no effects on the rate of increase in the digestibility of dry matter and organic matter due to irradiation in both types (I and II). (author). 19 refs., 5 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Accumulation of copper and zinc by balanus amphitrite in a tropical estuary

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Anil, A.C.; Wagh, A.B.

    @iBalanus amphitrite@@ (Cirripedia: Thoracica) a dominant fouling organism was analysed to assess the accumulation potentialities of copper and zinc. It was observed that it could accumulate Cu to 864.77 mu g g-1 dry wt. and Zn to 1937.50 mu g g-1...

  10. Changes on sewage sludge stability after greenhouse drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soriano-Disla, J. M.; Houot, S.; Imhoff, M.; Valentin, N.; Gómez, I.; Navarro-Pedreño, J.

    2009-04-01

    The progressive implementation of the Urban Waste Water Treatment Directive 91/271/EEC in all the European member states is increasing the quantities of sewage sludge requiring disposal. Sludge application onto cultivated soils as organic fertilizers allows the recycling of nutrients. The application of only dehydrated sludges has generated many problems including unpleasant odours and difficult management (regarding transport and application) related to their high water content. One way to overcome these problems, in a cheap and clean way, is the drying of sludges using the energy of the sun under greenhouse conditions. This drying may affect sludge chemical characteristics including organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, parameters which have to be controlled for the proper management of dry sludge application onto soils. For this reason, the main aim of this work was to study the impact of greenhouse drying of different sewage sludges on their organic matter stability and nitrogen availability, assessed by biochemical fractionation and mineralization assays. Three sewage sludges were sampled before (dehydrated sludges) and after greenhouse drying (dried sludges). The analyses consisted of: humidity, organic matter, mineral and organic N contents, N and C mineralization during 91-day laboratory incubations in controlled conditions, and biochemical fractionation using the Van Soest procedure. Greenhouse drying decreased the water content from 70-80% to 10% and also the odours, both of which will improve the management of the final product from the perspective of application and transport. We also found that drying reduced the organic matter content of the sludges but not the biodegradability of the remaining carbon. Organic N mineralization occurred during greenhouse drying, explaining why mineral N content tended to increase and the potential mineralization of organic nitrogen decreased after greenhouse drying. The biochemical stability did not

  11. Metal accumulation in marine bivalves under various tributyltin burdens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Chuan-Ho; Lin, Chan-Shing; Wang, Wei-Hsien

    2009-11-01

    In the present study, a field survey was conducted to measure the accumulation of