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Sample records for dry hot rock

  1. Hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heiken, G.; Murphy, H.; Nunz, G.; Potter, R.

    1981-08-01

    Man-made geothermal systems are discussed which make it possible to extract heat from hot rocks in areas where natural fluids are insufficient for the development of hydrothermal energy. The location and magnitude of high- and low-temperature geothermal resources in the USA for such hot dry rock (HDR) systems are examined. An HDR concept is described in which water is injected into one of two nearly parallel wells connected at depth by man-made fractures; the injected water circulates through the fracture system, where it is heated by conduction from the hot rock, and hot fluid, which can be used for heating or for electric power generation, rises through the second well. Some heat-extraction experiments using the described concept are reviewed which are being conducted in a complex volcanic field in New Mexico. The economics of HDR energy is evaluated.

  2. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  3. Hot-dry-rock feasibility study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-08-01

    The hot-dry-rock project tasks are covered as follows: hot-dry-rock reservoir; generation facilities; water resources; transmission requirements; environmental issues; government and community institutional factors; leasing, ownership and management of facilities; regulations, permits, and laws; and financial considerations. (MHR)

  4. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  5. Hot-dry-rock geothermal resource 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heiken, G.; Goff, F.; Cremer, G. (ed.)

    1982-04-01

    The work performed on hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resource evaluation, site characterization, and geophysical exploration techniques is summarized. The work was done by region (Far West, Pacific Northwest, Southwest, Rocky Mountain States, Midcontinent, and Eastern) and limited to the conterminous US.

  6. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Hendron, R.H.; Murphy, H.D.; Wilson, M.G.

    1989-12-01

    During Fiscal Year 1987, emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program was on preparations for a Long-Term Flow Test'' of the Phase II'' or Engineering'' hot dry rock energy system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. A successful 30-day flow test of the system during FY86 indicated that such a system would produce heat at a temperature and rate that could support operation of a commercial electrical power plant. However, it did not answer certain questions basic to the economics of long-term operation, including the rate of depletion of the thermal reservoir, the rate of water loss from the system, and the possibility of operating problems during extended continuous operation. Preparations for a one-year flow test of the system to answer these and more fundamental questions concerning hot dry rock systems were made in FY87: design of the required surface facilities; procurement and installation of some of their components; development and testing of slimline logging tools for use through small-diameter production tubing; research on temperature-sensitive reactive chemical tracers to monitor thermal depletion of the reservoir; and computer simulations of the 30-day test, extended to modeling the planned Long-Term Flow Test. 45 refs., 34 figs., 5 tabs.

  7. Hot dry rock venture risks investigation:

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-01-01

    This study assesses a promising resource in central Utah as the potential site of a future commerical hot dry rock (HDR) facility for generating electricity. The results indicate that, if the HDR reservoir productivity equals expectations based on preliminary results from research projects to date, a 50 MWe HDR power facility at Roosevelt Hot Springs could generate power at cost competitive with coal-fired plants. However, it is imperative that the assumed productivity be demonstrated before funds are committed for a commercial facility. 72 refs., 39 figs., 38 tabs.

  8. Hot dry rock energy: Hot dry rock geothermal development program. Progress report. Fiscal year 1993

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salazar, J.; Brown, M. [eds.

    1995-03-01

    Extended flow testing at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock (HDR) test facility concluded in Fiscal Year 1993 with the completion of Phase 2 of the long-term flow test (LTFT) program. As is reported in detail in this report, the second phase of the LTFT, although only 55 days in duration, confirmed in every way the encouraging test results of the 112-day Phase I LTFT carried out in Fiscal Year 1992. Interim flow testing was conducted early in FY 1993 during the period between the two LTFT segments. In addition, two brief tests involving operation of the reservoir on a cyclic schedule were run at the end of the Phase 2 LTFT. These interim and cyclic tests provided an opportunity to conduct evaluations and field demonstrations of several reservoir engineering concepts that can now be applied to significantly increase the productivity of HDR systems. The Fenton Hill HDR test facility was shut down and brought into standby status during the last part of FY 1993. Unfortunately, the world`s largest, deepest, and most productive HDR reservoir has gone essentially unused since that time.

  9. Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.; Potter, R.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Peake, R.A. [California Energy Commission, CA (United States)

    1995-01-01

    The Hot Dry Rock resources of the Clear Lake area of northern California are hot, large and areally uniform. The geological situation is special, probably overlying a slabless window caused by interaction between tectonic plates. Consequent magmatic processes have created a high-grade resource, in which the 300{degree}C isotherm is continuous, subhorizontal, and available at the shallow depth of 2.4 to 4.7 km over an area of 800 km{sup 2}. The region is very favorable for HDR development.

  10. Potential for hot-dry-rock geothermal resources: Experimental results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowley, J. C.; Heiken, G.; Murphy, H. D.; Kuriyagawa, M.

    Hot dry rock (HDR) contains insufficient permeability and fluid for natural hydrothermal development, but water pumped in a circulation loop through a HDR reservoir (hydraulically fractured between two drill holes) is being tested and evaluated. The formation of such in situ heat transfer systems, and subsequent testing of the man-made geothermal reservoirs in the Jemez volcanic field, New Mexico have already indicated the technical feasibility of the hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal concept. Documented production history and heat-extraction data obtained during the period from 1978 to 1980 have confirmed heat transfer, low water loss, and predictable thermal drawdown models for the HDR systems. During a nine month test of closed-loop heat extraction operations, 15 x 10 to the 6th power kWh of thermal energy were produced. The effective heat-transfer area and volume of the reservoir increased due to secondary fracturing caused by thermal contraction of the reservoir rock, and sustained pressurization. Drilling, fracturing, and testing of a larger, hotter reservoir system is now underway on a HDR geothermal reservoir of commercial size.

  11. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D. V.

    1992-07-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  12. Industrial applications of hot dry rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-09-01

    Geothermal resources in the form of naturally occurring hot water or steam have been utilized for many years. While these hydrothermal resources are found in many places, the general case is that the rock at depth is hot, but does not contain significant amounts of mobile fluid. An extremely large amount of geothermal energy is found around the world in this hot dry rock (HDR). Technology has been under development for more than twenty years at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in the United States and elsewhere to develop the technology to extract the geothermal energy from HDR in a form useful for electricity generation, space heating, or industrial processing. HDR technology is especially attractive for industrial applications because of the ubiquitous distribution of the HDR resource and the unique aspects of the process developed to recover it. In the HDR process, as developed at Los Alamos, water is pumped down a well under high pressure to open up natural joints in hot rock and create an artificial geothermal reservoir. Energy is extracted by circulating water through the reservoir. Pressurized hot water is returned to the surface through the production well, and its thermal energy is extracted for practical use. The same water is then recirculated through the system to mine more geothermal heat. Construction of a pilot HDR facility at Fenton Hill, NM, USA, has recently been completed by the Los Alamos National Laboratory. It consists of a large underground reservoir, a surface plant, and the connecting wellbores. This paper describes HDR technology and the current status of the development program. Novel industrial applications of geothermal energy based on the unique characteristics of the HDR energy extraction process are discussed.

  13. Hot Dry Rock energy annual report fiscal year 1992

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Winchester, W.W. [ed.; Duchane, D.V.

    1993-04-01

    Hot Dry Rock technology took a giant leap forward this year as the long-awaited long-term flow test (LTFT) of the Phase 2 HDR reservoir at Fenton Hill got underway. Energy was produced on a twenty-four hour a day basis for a continuous period of nearly four months of steady-state testing. Hot water was brought to the surface at 90--100 gallons per minute (gpm) with temperatures of 180{degrees}C (356{degrees}F) and higher. During that time, the HDR plant achieved an on-line record of 98.8%. Surface temperature measurements and temperature logging deep within the wellbore confirmed that no decline in the average temperature of fluid produced from the reservoir occurred. Tracer experiments indicated that flow paths within the reservoir were undergoing continuous change during the test. Remarkably, it appeared that longer flow paths carried a larger proportion of the flow as the test proceeded, while more direct fluid pathways disappeared or carried a significantly reduced flow. In sum, access to hot rock appeared to improve over the span of the test. Water losses during the test averaged 10--12% and showed a slow long-term decline. These results confirmed what had been previously discovered in static pressurization testing: Water consumption declines significantly during extended operation of an HDR reservoir. In combination with a recent demonstration by the Japanese that water losses can be greatly reduced by the proper placement of multiple production wells, the recent results at Fenton Hill have effectively demonstrated that excessive water consumption should not be an issue for a properly engineered HDR facility at a well chosen site.

  14. Hot-dry-rock energy: review of environmental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O' Banion, K.

    1981-10-13

    The potential environmental and socioeconomic impacts of the production of energy contained in hot dry rock (HDR) is surveyed here. In general, careful siting and timing and routine control measures should be adequate to prevent significant environmental harm; sites of particular ecological or visual and recreational value, however, may require more extensive (and more expensive) precautions such as using multiwell pads to reduce land disturbance and dry or wet and dry cooling towers to reduce or eliminate the consumptive use of water. The most important uncertainty among the environmental concerns is the seismic response of HDR formations to short-duration fluid injections at pressures above fracture thresholds; continued monitoring at HDR development sites is necessary. The direct socioeconomic impacts of HDR development should be relatively minor, owing to its capital-intensive nature. Of greater potential importance are the indirect jobs resulting from such development, which could cause significant demographic (and thus fiscal and social) impacts in sparsely populated regions. However, such indirect growth is not expected to begin until a large, stable HDR industry is established in a region, and thus its impacts are expected to be permanent rather than transient.

  15. Hot dry rock geothermal potential of Roosevelt Hot Springs area: review of data and recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    East, J.

    1981-05-01

    The Roosevelt Hot Springs area in west-central Utah possesses several features indicating potential for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development. The area is characterized by extensional tectonics and a high regional heat flow of greater than 105 mW/m/sup 2/. The presence of silicic volcanic rocks as young as 0.5 to 0.8 Myr and totaling 14 km/sup 3/ in volume indicates underlying magma reservoirs may be the heat source for the thermal anomaly. Several hot dry wells have been drilled on the periphery of the geothermal field. Information obtained on three of these deep wells shows that they have thermal gradients of 55 to 60/sup 0/C/km and bottom in impermeable Tertiary granitic and Precambrian gneissic units. The Tertiary granite is the preferred HDR reservoir rock because Precambrian gneissic rocks possess a well-developed banded foliation, making fracture control over the reservoir more difficult. Based on a fairly conservative estimate of 160 km/sup 2/ for the thermal anomaly present at Roosevelt Hot Springs, the area designated favorable for HDR geothermal exploration may be on the order of seven times or more than the hydrogeothermal area currently under development.

  16. Hot dry rock geothermal energy: status of exploration and assessment. Report No. 1 of the hot dry rock assessment panel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1977-06-01

    The status of knowledge of attempts to utilize hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy is summarized. It contains (1) descriptions or case histories of the ERDA-funded projects at Marysville, MT, Fenton Hill, NM, and Coso Hot Springs, CA; (2) a review of the status of existing techniques available for exploration and delineation of HDR; (3) descriptions of other potential HDR sites; (4) definitions of the probable types of HDR resource localities; and (5) an estimate of the magnitude of the HDR resource base in the conterminous United States. The scope is limited to that part of HDR resource assessment related to the determination of the extent and character of HDR, with emphasis on the igneous-related type. It is estimated that approximately 74 Q (1 Q = 1,000 Quads) of heat is stored in these sites within the conterminous U.S. at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C, the minimum for power generation. (Q = 10/sup 18/ BTU = 10/sup 21/J; the total U.S. consumption for 1972 was approximately 0.07 Q). Approximately 6300 Q are stored in the conduction-dominated parts of the crust in the western U.S. (23% of the total surface area), again at depths less than 10 km and temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. Nearly 10,000 Q are believed to be contained in crustal rocks underlying the entire conterminous U.S., at temperatures above 150/sup 0/C. The resource base is significantly larger for lower grade heat. (JGB)

  17. Cumulative experience of the US Hot Dry Rock Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1993-01-01

    In over 20 years of research on the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy concept at Los Alamos National Laboratory, no obstacle has yet been found that would prevent its development as a major new energy source for the nation. To put the continuing development of the HDR concept in perspective, the most appropriate comparison is with fusion energy, the only other nonrenewable energy resource of the magnitude of HDR geothermal energy. In this context, research on fusion energy is currently so far from the demonstration stage that obstacles to its ultimate commercial development, such as induced radiation or neutron damage to structural materials, cannot yet be addressed from the standpoint of engineered solutions. For the commercialization of the HDR concept, on the other hand, we know what technical problems remain and are presently developing engineered solutions to address each of them. This document presents learned information on: the formation of HDR reservoirs; the structure of the deep precambrian basement; the mechanics of creating an HDR geothermal reservoir; peripheral water loss from deep HDR reservoirs; the determination of the size, orientation, and internal structure of the stimulated HDR region; and results from geochemical analyses and tracer testing.

  18. Cumulative experience of the US Hot Dry Rock Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1993-04-01

    In over 20 years of research on the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy concept at Los Alamos National Laboratory, no obstacle has yet been found that would prevent its development as a major new energy source for the nation. To put the continuing development of the HDR concept in perspective, the most appropriate comparison is with fusion energy, the only other nonrenewable energy resource of the magnitude of HDR geothermal energy. In this context, research on fusion energy is currently so far from the demonstration stage that obstacles to its ultimate commercial development, such as induced radiation or neutron damage to structural materials, cannot yet be addressed from the standpoint of engineered solutions. For the commercialization of the HDR concept, on the other hand, we know what technical problems remain and are presently developing engineered solutions to address each of them. This document presents learned information on: the formation of HDR reservoirs; the structure of the deep precambrian basement; the mechanics of creating an HDR geothermal reservoir; peripheral water loss from deep HDR reservoirs; the determination of the size, orientation, and internal structure of the stimulated HDR region; and results from geochemical analyses and tracer testing.

  19. Expectations for a second US Hot Dry Rock Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1993-04-01

    The worlds first hot dry rock (HDR) reservoir was created at Fenton Hill, NM in the late 1970`s. Today, Fenton Hill is the site of the largest, deepest, and hottest HDR reservoir. Over the past two decades, HDR systems have also been developed in a number of other countries. However, HDR reservoirs to date have always been created as part of research and development programs aimed at understanding the fundamentals of HDR technology. The time has come to begin planning the construction of a commercial-scale facility which will show the world that HDR can be a practical source of power. The second domestic HDR facility should demonstrate that commercial production of energy from HDR is feasible at a variety of locations. Day-today operating data should provide the cost figures needed in order to unambiguously design and build future commercial HDR power production plants. Successful construction and operation of the second HDR plant will both supply needed electric power at competitive costs and set the stage for the widespread application of HDR technology both domestically and throughout the world. If preliminary work is begun promptly, it should be possible to develop a fully operational second site by 1997. The Clearlake region of northern California may be an ideal area in which to locate the second HDR site.

  20. Hot dry rock: A versatile alternative energy technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States). Earth and Environmental Sciences Div.

    1995-01-01

    Hot dry rock (HDR) is the most abundant geothermal resource, and is found almost everywhere at depth. The technology to extract energy from HDR for practical use has been under development at the Los Alamos National Laboratory for more than twenty years. During the 1970`s, the possibility of mining the heat from HDR by circulating water through an engineered geothermal reservoir was first demonstrated on a small scale. Between 1980 and 1986 a larger, deeper, and hotter HDR reservoir was constructed. This large reservoir was subsequently mated to a permanent surface plant. A number of flow tests of this large HDR reservoir were conducted between 1991 and 1995. The results of these tests have indicated that it should be practical to operate an HDR heat mining facility to produce power on a sustained basis. An industry-led, government cost-shared project to produce and market energy generated from HDR is currently being put in place. That project should help demonstrate that HDR reservoirs can be operated to provide energy for long periods of time at rates sufficient to be commercially viable. In the longer run, additional applications of HDR technology such as water and waste treatment, and steam generation for oil field flooding may come into widespread use.

  1. Experimentally determined rock-fluid interactions applicable to a natural hot dry rock geothermal system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Charles, R.W.; Holley, C.E. Jr.; Tester, J.W.; Blatz, L.A.; Grigsby, C.O.

    1980-02-01

    The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory is pursuing laboratory and field experiments in the development of the Hot Dry Rock concept of geothermal energy. The field program consists of experiments in a hydraulically fractured region of low permeability in which hot rock is intercepted by two wellbores. These experiments are designed to test reservoir engineering parameters such as: heat extraction rates, water loss rates, flow characteristics including impedance and buoyancy, seismic activity and fluid chemistry. Laboratory experiments have been designed to provide information on the mineral reactivity which may be encountered in the field program. Two experimental circulation systems have been built to study the rates of dissolution and alteration in dynamic flow. Solubility studies have been done in agitated systems. To date, pure minerals, samples of the granodiorite from the actual reservoir and Tijeras Canyon granite have been reacted with distilled water and various solutions of NaCl, NaOH, and Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. The results of these experimental systems are compared to observations made in field experiments done in a hot dry rock reservoir at a depth of approximately 3 km with initial rock temperatures of 150 to 200/sup 0/C.

  2. Progress of the LASL dry hot rock geothermal energy project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, M. C.

    1974-01-01

    The possibilities and problems of extracting energy from geothermal reservoirs which do not spontaneously yield useful amounts of steam or hot water are discussed. The system for accomplishing this which is being developed first is a pressurized-water circulation loop intended for use in relatively impermeable hot rock. It will consist of two holes connected through the hot rock by a very large hydraulic fracture and connected at the surface through the primary heat exchanger of an energy utilization system. Preliminary experiments in a hole 2576 ft (0.7852 km) deep, extending about 470 ft (143 m) into the Precambrian basement rock underlying the Jemez Plateau of north-central New Mexico, revealed no unexpected difficulties in drilling or hydraulically fracturing such rock at a temperature of approximately 100 C, and demonstrated a permeability low enough so that it appeared probable that pressurized water could be contained by the basement rock. Similar experiments are in progress in a second hole, now 6701 ft (2.043 km) deep, about 1.5 miles (2.4 km) south of the first one.

  3. Proceedings of the second NATO-CCMS information meeting on dry hot rock geothermal energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mortensen, J.J. (comp.)

    1977-11-01

    A summary is presented of the second and last NATO-CCMS (North Atlantic Treaty Organization--Committee on Challenges of Modern Society) Geothermal Pilot Study Information Meeting on Dry Hot Rock Geothermal Energy. Only summaries of the formal presentations are included. Overviews of the Energy Research and Development Administration (ERDA) and the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) geothermal projects are included with emphasis on the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Reports of developments in nine foreign countries and on geothermal projects in US universities are also presented.

  4. Hot Dry Rock Project modification and expansion, Fenton Hill, Sandoval County, New Mexico: Environmental assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-09-01

    This environmental assessment (EA) addresses the modification and expansion of the ongoing Hot Dry Rock Project at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Modifications to the Project include the upgrading and improvement of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat transfer system and the onsite support facilities. At least one new heat extraction well will be drilled to accommodate a large thermal loop experiment. The existing wells will be redrilled to greater depth. Expansion of the Project includes the construction and operation of heat utilization facilities (that is, 60 kW electric generator and greenhouse), wellbore equipment test station, large-capacity water supply and storage system, water treatment facility, and additional seismic monitoring stations. This EA addresses the potential environmental impacts of the total facility as expanded to accommodate the large thermal loop and heat utilization experiments.

  5. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Project. Annual report, fiscal year 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-02-01

    The feasibility of extracting geothermal energy from hot dry rock in the earth's crust was investigated. The concept being investigated involves drilling a deep hole, creating an artificial geothermal reservoir at the bottom of the hole by hydraulic fracturing, and then intersecting the fracture with a second borehole. At the beginning of FY77, the downhole system was complete, but the impedance to the flow of fluid was too high to proceed confidently with the planned energy extraction demonstration. Therefore, in FY77 work focused on an intensive investigation of the characteristics of the downhole system and on the development of the necessary tools and techniques for understanding and improving it. Research results are presented under the following section headings: introduction and history; hot dry rock resource assessment and site selection; instrumentation and equipment development; drilling and fracturing; reservoir engineering; energy extraction system; environmental studies; project management and liaison; and, looking back and ahead. (JGB)

  6. Candidate sites for future hot-dry-rock development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Decker, E.R.

    1982-12-01

    Generalized geologic and other data are tabulated for 24 potential hot dry rock (HDR) sites in the contiguous United States. The data show that HDR resources occur in many geologic and tectonic settings. Potential reservoir rocks at each prospect are described and each system is cateogrized accoridng to inferred heat sources. The Fenton Hill area in New Mexico is discussed in detail because this region may be considered ideal for HDR development. Three other prospectively valuable localities are described: The Geysers-Clear lake region in California, the Roosevelt Hot Springs area in Utah, and the White Mountains region in New Hampshire. These areas are singled out to illustrate the roles of significantly different geology and geophysics, reservoir rocks, and reservoir heat contents in possible HDR developments.

  7. Hot-dry-rock geothermal-energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Ponder, G.M. (comps.)

    1981-01-01

    During fiscal year 1981, activities of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program were concentrated in four principal areas: (1) data collection to permit improved estimates of the hot dry rock geothermal energy resource base of various regions of the United States and of the United States as a whole, combined with detailed investigations of several areas that appear particularly promising either for further energy extraction experiments or for future commercial development; (2) successful completion of a 9-month, continuous, closed-loop, recirculating flow test in the enlarged Phase I System at Fenton Hill, New Mexico - a pressurized-water heat-extraction loop developed in low-permeability granitic rock by hydraulic fracturing; (3) successful completion at a depth of 4084 m (13,933 ft) of well EE-3, the production well of a larger, deeper, and hotter, Phase II System at Fenton Hill. Well EE-3 was directionally drilled with control of both azimuth and inclination. Its inclined section is about 380 m (1250 ft) vertically above the injection well, EE-2, which was completed in FY80; and (4) supporting activities included new developments in downhole instrumentation and equipment, geochemical and geophysical studies, rock-mechanics and fluid-mechanics investigations, computer analyses and modeling, and overall system design. Under an International Energy Agency agreement, the New Energy Development Organization, representing the Government of Japan has joined Kernforschungsanlage-Juelich GmbH, representing the Federal Republic of Germany, and the US Department of Energy as an active participant in the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Project.

  8. Hot dry rock geothermal energy for U.S. electric utilities. Draft final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-06-01

    In order to bring an electric utility component into the study of hot dry rock geothermal energy called for in the Energy Policy Act of 1992 (EPAct), EPRI organized a one-day conference in Philadelphia on January 14,1993. The conference was planned as the first day of a two-day sequence, by coordinating with the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) and the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). These two federal agencies were charged under EPAct with the development of a report on the potential for hot dry rock geothermal energy production in the US, especially the eastern US. The USGS was given lead responsibility for a report to be done in association with DOE. The EPRI conference emphasized first the status of technology development and testing in the U.S. and abroad, i.e., in western Europe, Russia and Japan. The conference went on to address the extent of knowledge regarding the resource base in the US, especially in the eastern half of the country, and then to address some practical business aspects of organizing projects or industries that could bring these resources into use, either for thermal applications or for electric power generation.

  9. Summary of talks third annual hot dry rock geothermal information conference

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaddy, James

    1980-10-29

    Three basic comparisons can be made between weapon system development and energy system development in the US--driving factors, system lifetime, and development time. Weapon system development and response is determined by a perceived threat to national security. Because the threat can change radically in this high technology atmosphere, weapon systems are usually designed for a 5 to 20 year lifetime. Development time from idea to capability is about 20 years on the average. In contrast, energy system development has been influenced by economics--demand, supply, return on investment--until the recent threat created by our dependence on oil. Energy systems are expected to operate 20 to 50 years and even longer. Development time is correspondingly long, i.e., 40 years from idea to large-scale use. The US needs to adopt a ''defense-oriented'' approach to protect its threatened energy security. Geothermal energy from hot dry rock is a new concept. The Hot Dry Rock Program is designed to minimize development time and may become a prime example of how a recognized threat to energy security can be answered by combined government/industry effort.

  10. Water geochemistry and hydrogeology of the shallow aquifer at Roosevelt Hot Springs, southern Utah: A hot dry rock prospect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vuataz, F.D.; Goff, F.

    1987-12-01

    On the western edge of the geothermal field, three deep holes have been drilled that are very hot but mostly dry. Two of them (Phillips 9-1 and Acord 1-26 wells) have been studied by Los Alamos National Laboratory for the Hot Dry Rock (HDR) resources evaluation program. A review of data and recommendations have been formulated to evaluate the HDR geothermal potential at Roosevelt. The present report is directed toward the study of the shallow aquifer of the Milford Valley to determine if the local groundwater would be suitable for use as make-up water in an HDR system. This investigation is the result of a cooperative agreement between Los Alamos and Phillips Petroleum Co., formerly the main operator of the Roosevelt Hot Springs Unit. The presence of these hot dry wells and the similar setting of the Roosevelt area to the prototype HDR site at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, make Roosevelt a very good candidate site for creation of another HDR geothermal system. This investigation has two main objectives: to assess the water geochemistry of the valley aquifer, to determine possible problems in future make-up water use, such as scaling or corrosion in the wells and surface piping, and to assess the hydrogeology of the shallow groundwaters above the HDR zone, to characterize the physical properties of the aquifer. These two objectives are linked by the fact that the valley aquifer is naturally contaminated by geothermal fluids leaking out of the hydrothermal reservoir. In an arid region where good-quality fresh water is needed for public water supply and irrigation, nonpotable waters would be ideal for an industrial use such as injection into an HDR energy extraction system. 50 refs., 10 figs., 10 tabs.

  11. Evaluation of the hot-dry-rock geothermal potential of an area near Mountain Home, Idaho

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arney, B.H.; Goff, F.

    1982-05-01

    Evaluation of an area near Mountain Home, Idaho, was performed to assess the hot dry rock (HDR) potential of the prospect. The techniques reported include telluric and gravity profiling, passive seismic, hydrology and water chemistry surveys, and lineament analysis. Gravity and telluric surveys were unsuccessful in locating fractures buried beneath recent volcanics and sediments of the plain because density and conductivity contrasts were insufficient. Gravity modeling indicated areas where granite was not likely to be within drilling depth, and telluric profiling revealed an area in the northwest part of the prospect where higher conductivity suggested the presence of fractures or water or both, thereby making it unsuitable for HDR. Water geochemistry indicated that (hot water) reservoir temperatures do not exceed 100/sup 0/C. An area in the east central part of the prospect was delineated as most favorable for HDR development. Temperature is expected to be 200/sup 0/C at 3-km depth, and granitic rock of the Idaho Batholith should be intersected at 2- to 3-km depth.

  12. Prospects for the commercial development of hot dry rock geothermal energy in New Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duchane, D. V.; Goff, F.

    A vast store of energy is available to the world in the form of hot dry rock (HDR) which exists almost everywhere beneath the surface of the earth. The Los Alamos National Laboratory has developed technology to mine the heat from HDR by using techniques developed in the petroleum industry. In practice, an artificial reservoir is created in the hot rock and water is circulated through the reservoir to extract the thermal energy and bring it to the surface. There are virtually no adverse environmental effects from an HDR plant when the system is operated in a closed-loop mode with the process water continually recirculated. An experimental plant at Fenton Hill, NM is now undergoing long-term testing to demonstrate that energy can be obtained from HDR on a sustained basis with operational procedures which are readily adaptable to industry. Significant HDR resources exist in the state of New Mexico. Resources in the Valles Caldera, Zuni Uplift, and Rio Grande Rift have been evaluated in detail. Studies indicate that it should be possible to economically develop high grade HDR resources with technology available today. As advanced concepts for developing and operating HDR systems are investigated, even more widespread utilization of the technology will be commercially feasible.

  13. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Semiannual report, October 1, 1978-March 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Cremer, G.M.; Smith, M.C.

    1979-09-01

    The potential of energy extracted from hot dry rock (HDR) was investigated as a commercailly feasible alternate energy source. Run Segments 3 and 4 were completed in the prototype reservoir of the Phase I energy-extraction system at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. Results of these tests yielded significant data on the existing system and this information will be applicable to future HDR systems. Plans and operations initiating a Phase II system are underway at the Fenton Hill site. This system, a deeper, hotter commercial-size reservoir, is intended to demonstrate the longevity and economics of an HDR system. Major activity occurred in evaluation of the national resource potential and in characterizing possible future HDR geothermal sites. Work has begun in the institutional and industrial support area to assess the economics and promote commercial interest in HDR systems as an alternate energy source.

  14. Hot dry rock resources of the Clear Lake Area, Northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1994-10-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal area of northern California is underlain by an asthenospheric upwarp. The upwarp was generated at a slabless window trailing the northward-moving Mendocino triple junction. The geothermal area lies immediately east of the Rodgers Creek rather than the San Andreas fault because of a transform jump in progress. Decompression melting of the mantle has led to basaltic underplating, and crustal anatexis. The high heat flow is due to conduction through a thin lithosphere and the latent heat of solidifying basalt, while the uniformity is due to the distribution of sources over a wide area of large flatlying sills, The Hot Dry Rock resource has heat flow exceeding 4 HFU over an area exceeding 800 km2.

  15. Exploration methods for hot dry rock. Report of the panel held June 22, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    West, F.G.; Shankland, T.J. (comps.)

    1977-03-01

    The geological and geophysical characteristics of hot dry rock (HDR) necessary for an effective exploration program were discussed. The type of HDR project discussed, that being developed by the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL), would utilize hydraulic fracturing to develop a large surface area in rock of low permeability, 10/sup -6/ darcys, and at temperatures greater than 200/sup 0/C. A better definition of the thermal regime in the crust and mantle at reconnaissance (hundreds to tens of kilometers) and exploration (tens of kilometers to 1 km) scales is needed. Geophysical methods capable of deep investigation would be used with the near-surface geologic information to extrapolate conditions at the depth of interest. Detection of HDR per se may be difficult because the contrast in physical properties of HDR and other rock is not always unambiguous, but boundaries between rock environments can be delineated. When patterns and coincidence of various types of geophysical anomalies and geologic maps are used, the probability of the detection of HDR is greatly increased, especially when a consistent picture is described. Various geophysical methods are required to detect these anomalies: (a) electromagnetic techniques can map deep electrically conductive structures, which to some extent can be used to infer isotherms. (b) Bouguer gravity maps corrected for regional topography are found to correlate with large silicic intrusive bodies, which are often associated with high heat flow. (c) isotherms and open crack systems at depth can be inferred from seismic wave attenuations, dispersions, and delay times. (d) heat flow measurements are useful as a primary tool and as a check on the results of other methods. Abstracts for individual presentations by the twelve panel members are included. 111 references.

  16. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program. Annual report, fiscal year 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M.; Duffield, R.B.; Smith, M.C.; Wilson, M.G. (comps.)

    1980-08-01

    The Fenton Hill Project is still the principal center for developing methods, equipment, and instrumentation for creating and utilizing HDR geothermal reservoirs. The search for a second site for a similar experimental system in a different geological environment has been intensified, as have the identification and characterization of other HDR areas that may prove suitable for either experimental or commercial development. The Phase I fracture system was enlarged during FY79. Drilling of the injection well of the Phase II system began at Fenton Hill in April 1979. Environmental monitoring of the Fenton Hill area continued through FY79. The environmental studies indicate that the hot dry rock operations have caused no significant environmental impact. Other supporting activities included rock physics, rock mechanics, fracture mapping, and instrumentation development. Two closely related activities - evaluation of the potential HDR energy resource of the US and the selection of a site for development of a second experimental heat-extraction system generally similar to that at Fenton Hill - have resulted in the collection of geology, hydrology, and heat-flow data on some level of field activity in 30 states. The resource-evaluation activity included reconnaissance field studies and a listing and preliminary characterization of US geothermal areas in which HDR energy extraction methods may be applicable. The selection of Site 2 has taken into account such legal, institutional, and economic factors as land ownership and use, proximity to possible users, permitting and licensing requirements and procedures, environmental issues, areal extent of the geothermal area, and visibility to and apparent interest by potential industrial developers.

  17. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cremer, G.M. (comp.)

    1981-07-01

    Investigation and flow testing of the enlarged Phase I heat-extraction system at Fenton Hill continued throughout FY80. Temperature drawdown observed at that time indicated an effective fracture of approximately 40,000 to 60,000 m/sup 2/. In May 1980, hot dry rock (HDR) technology was used to produce electricity in an interface demonstration experiment at Fenton Hill. A 60-kVA binary-cycle electrical generator was installed in the Phase I surface system and heat from about 3 kg/s of geothermal fluid at 132/sup 0/C was used to boil Freon R-114, whose vapor drove a turboalternator. A Phase II system was designed and is now being constructed at Fenton Hill that should approach commercial requirements. Borehole EE-2, the injection well, was completed on May 12, 1980. It was drilled to a vertical depth of about 4500 m, where the rock temperature is approximately 320/sup 0/C. The production well, EE-3 had been drilled to a depth of 3044 m and drilling was continuing. Environmental monitoring of Fenton Hill site continued. Development of equipment, instruments, and materials for technical support at Fenton Hill continued during FY80. Several kinds of models were also developed to understand the behavior of the Phase I system and to develop a predictive capability for future systems. Data from extensive resource investigations were collected, analyzed, and assembled into a geothermal gradient map of the US, and studies were completed on five specific areas as possible locations for HDR Experimental Site 2.

  18. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  19. Estimate of Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Resource in Daqing Oilfield, Northeast China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzheng Jiang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Development and utilization of deep geothermal resources, especially a hot dry rock (HDR geothermal resource, is beneficial for both economic and environmental consideration in oilfields. This study used data from multiple sources to assess the geothermal energy resource in the Daqing Oilfield. The temperature logs in boreholes (both shallow water wells and deep boreholes and the drilling stem test temperature were used to create isothermal maps in depths. Upon the temperature field and thermophysical parameters of strata, the heat content was calculated by 1 km × 1 km × 0.1 km cells. The result shows that in the southeastern part of Daqing Oilfield, the temperature can reach 150 °C at a depth of 3 km. The heat content within 3–5 km is 24.28 × 1021 J, wherein 68.2% exceeded 150 °C. If the recovery factor was given by 2% and the lower limit of temperature was set to be 150 °C, the most conservative estimate for recoverable HDR geothermal resource was 0.33 × 1021 J. The uncertainties of the estimation are mainly contributed to by the temperature extrapolation and the physical parameter selections.

  20. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  1. Surface water supply for the Clearlake, California Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jager, A.R.

    1996-03-01

    It is proposed to construct a demonstration Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal plant in the vicinity of the City of Clearlake. An interim evaluation has been made of the availability of surface water to supply the plant. The evaluation has required consideration of the likely water consumption of such a plant. It has also required consideration of population, land, and water uses in the drainage basins adjacent to Clear Lake, where the HDR demonstration project is likely to be located. Five sources were identified that appear to be able to supply water of suitable quality in adequate quantity for initial filling of the reservoir, and on a continuing basis, as makeup for water losses during operation. Those sources are California Cities Water Company, a municipal supplier to the City of Clearlake; Clear Lake, controlled by Yolo County Flood Control and Water Conservation District; Borax Lake, controlled by a local developer; Southeast Regional Wastewater Treatment Plant, controlled by Lake County; and wells, ponds, and streams on private land. The evaluation involved the water uses, water rights, stream flows, precipitation, evaporation, a water balance, and water quality. In spite of California`s prolonged drought, the interim conclusion is that adequate water is available at a reasonable cost to supply the proposed HDR demonstration project.

  2. Hot dry rock: What does it take to make it happen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1993-06-01

    The ubiquitous heat in hot dry rock (HDR) is an abundant, widely distributed form of geothermal energy. Until recently, development of this energy source has been largely focused on understanding the scientific and engineering principles involved in forming and operating HDR reservoirs. During the past year, however, a pilot facility at Fenton Hill, NM has been run under steady-state conditions simulating the operation of a commercial HDR energy plant. Issues important to commercialization such as sustainability of thermal production, water loss, operating costs, and others have been addressed to the extent possible. The results, while not always definitive, have been encouraging. The stage is now set for the formation of an initiative led by private industry to take HDR technology from its current state of scientific and engineering demonstration to the production and marketing of energy in commercial quantities. Because of the technology risks involved, this can probably only be accomplished through a cost-shared industry/government effort. The potential rewards are great, since HDR represents the best, and perhaps the only, opportunity for geothermal energy to take its rightful place as a major energy source for the 21st century.

  3. Hot dry rock geothermal energy development program. Annual report, fiscal year 1982

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.; Nunz, G.J.; Ponder, G.M. (eds.)

    1983-09-01

    Emphasis in the Hot Dry Rock Program was on development of methods to produce the hydraulic fractures required to connect the deep, inclined wells of the Phase II system at Fenton Hill. Environmental surveillance, instrument development, laboratory and modeling studies, and other supporting activities were continued. After two unsuccessful attempts to fracture hydraulically through inflatable packers, formation breakdown was produced in an uncased section near the bottom of well EE-2 by pumping water through a cemented-in steel liner. Breakdon occurred at a wellhead pressure of 33.1 MPa and a total of 8539 m/sup 3/ of water was injected. Mapping of source locations of microseismic events indicated opening of an extensive set of planar features dipping about 40/sup 0/W, striking about N20/sup 0/W, and apparently passing beneath the bottom of well EE-3. An attempt was then made to fracture at a higher level where the relative positions of the two wells increased the probability that an inclined fracture would connect them. Repeated failures of drill pipe, tubing, couplings, and packers terminated most pumping experiments prematurely. Important advances were made in thermal protection of downhole instruments, real-time mapping source locations of microseismic signals, modeling of heat and mass transport, and the mechanics of hydraulic fracturing.

  4. Hot dry rock: What does it take to make it happen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1993-01-01

    The ubiquitous heat in hot dry rock (HDR) is an abundant, widely distributed form of geothermal energy. Until recently, development of this energy source has been largely focused on understanding the scientific and engineering principles involved in forming and operating HDR reservoirs. During the past year, however, a pilot facility at Fenton Hill, NM has been run under steady-state conditions simulating the operation of a commercial HDR energy plant. Issues important to commercialization such as sustainability of thermal production, water loss, operating costs, and others have been addressed to the extent possible. The results, while not always definitive, have been encouraging. The stage is now set for the formation of an initiative led by private industry to take HDR technology from its current state of scientific and engineering demonstration to the production and marketing of energy in commercial quantities. Because of the technology risks involved, this can probably only be accomplished through a cost-shared industry/government effort. The potential rewards are great, since HDR represents the best, and perhaps the only, opportunity for geothermal energy to take its rightful place as a major energy source for the 21st century.

  5. Economic modeling of electricity production from hot dry rock geothermal reservoirs: methodology and analyses. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cummings, R.G.; Morris, G.E.

    1979-09-01

    An analytical methodology is developed for assessing alternative modes of generating electricity from hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy sources. The methodology is used in sensitivity analyses to explore relative system economics. The methodology used a computerized, intertemporal optimization model to determine the profit-maximizing design and management of a unified HDR electric power plant with a given set of geologic, engineering, and financial conditions. By iterating this model on price, a levelized busbar cost of electricity is established. By varying the conditions of development, the sensitivity of both optimal management and busbar cost to these conditions are explored. A plausible set of reference case parameters is established at the outset of the sensitivity analyses. This reference case links a multiple-fracture reservoir system to an organic, binary-fluid conversion cycle. A levelized busbar cost of 43.2 mills/kWh ($1978) was determined for the reference case, which had an assumed geothermal gradient of 40/sup 0/C/km, a design well-flow rate of 75 kg/s, an effective heat transfer area per pair of wells of 1.7 x 10/sup 6/ m/sup 2/, and plant design temperature of 160/sup 0/C. Variations in the presumed geothermal gradient, size of the reservoir, drilling costs, real rates of return, and other system parameters yield minimum busbar costs between -40% and +76% of the reference case busbar cost.

  6. Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy--- A new energy agenda for the twenty-first century

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tester, J.W.; Brown, D.W.; Potter, R.M.

    1989-07-01

    Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal energy, which utilizes the natural heat contained in the earth's crust, can provide a widely available source of nonpolluting energy. It can help mitigate the continued warming of the earth through the ''greenhouse effect,'' and the accelerating destruction of forests and crops by acid rain, two of the major environmental consequences of our ever-increasing use of fossil fuels for heating and power generation. In addition, HDR, as a readily available source of indigenous energy, can reduce our nation's dependence on imported oil, enhancing national security and reducing our trade deficit. The earth's heat represents an almost unlimited source of energy that can begin to be exploited within the next decade through the HDR heat-mining concept being actively developed in the United States and in several other countries. On a national scale, we can begin to develop this new energy source, using it directly for geothermal power or indirectly in hybrid geothermal/fossil-fueled systems, in diverse applications such as: baseload power generation, direct heat use, feedwater heating in conventional power plants, and pumped storage/load leveling power generation. This report describes the nature of the HDR resource and the technology required to implement the heat-mining concept in several applications. An assessment of the requirements for establishing HDR feasibility is presented in the context of providing a commercially competitive energy source. 37 refs., 6 figs.

  7. Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Development Program Annual Report Fiscal Year 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dash, Zora V.; Murphy, Hugh D.; Smith, Morton C.

    1988-01-01

    The complete list of HDR objectives is provided in Reference 10, and is tabulated below in Tables 1 and 2 for the reader's convenience. The primary, level 1, objective for HDR is ''to improve the technology to the point where electricity could be produced commercially from a substantial number of known HDR resource sites in a cost range of 5 to 8 cents/kWh by 1997''. A critically important milestone in attaining this cost target is the level II objective: ''Evaluate the performance of the Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir''. To appreciate the significance of this objective, a brief background is helpful. During the past 14 years the US DOE has invested $123 million to develop the technology required to make Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy commercially useful. The Governments of Japan and the Federal Republic of Germany have contributed an additional $32 million to the US program. The initial objectives of the program were met by the successful development and long-term operation of a heat-extraction loop in hydraulically-fractured hot dry rock. This Phase I reservoir produced pressurized hot water at temperatures and flow rates suitable for many commercial uses such as space heating and food processing. It operated for more than a year with no major problems or detectable environmental effect. With this accomplished and the technical feasibility of HDR energy systems demonstrated, the program undertook the more difficult task of developing a larger, deeper, hotter reservoir, called ''Phase II'', capable of supporting pilot-plant-scale operation of a commercial electricity-generating power plant. As described earlier in ''History of Research'', such a system was created and operated successfully in a preliminary 30-day flow test. However, to justify capital investment in HDR geothermal technology, industry now requires assurance that the reservoir can be operated for a long time without

  8. Heat flow and hot dry rock geothermal resources of the Clearlake Region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal anomaly is an area of high heat flow in northern California. The anomaly is caused by abnormally high heat flows generated by asthenospheric uplift and basaltic magmatic underplating at a slabless window created by passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The Clear Lake volcanic field is underlain by magmatic igneous bodies in the form of a stack of sill-form intrusions with silicic bodies generally at the top and basic magmas at the bottom. The tabular shape and wide areal extent of the heat sources results in linear temperature gradients and near-horizontal isotherms in a broad region at the center of the geothermal anomaly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) portion of The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal field is that part of the geothermal anomaly that is external to the steamfield, bounded by geothermal gradients of 167 mW/m2 (4 heat flow units-hfu) and 335 mW/m2 (8 hfu). The HDR resources, to a depth of 5 km, were estimated by piece-wise linear summation based on a sketch map of the heat flow. Approximately, the geothermal {open_quotes}accessible resource base{close_quotes} (Qa) is 1.68E+21 J; the {open_quotes}HDR resource base{close_quotes} (Qha) is 1.39E+21 J; and the {open_quotes}HDR power production resource{close_quotes} (Qhp) is 1.01E+21 J. The HDR power production resource (Qhp) is equivalent to 2.78E+ 11 Mwht (megawatt hours thermal), or 1.72E+11 bbls of oil.

  9. Heat flow and hot dry rock geothermal resources of the Clearlake Region, northern California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, K.L.

    1996-08-01

    The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal anomaly is an area of high heat flow in northern California. The anomaly is caused by abnormally high heat flows generated by asthenospheric uplift and basaltic magmatic underplating at a slabless window created by passage of the Mendocino Triple Junction. The Clear Lake volcanic field is underlain by magmatic igneous bodies in the form of a stack of sill-form intrusions with silicic bodies generally at the top and basic magmas at the bottom. The tabular shape and wide areal extent of the heat sources results in linear temperature gradients and near-horizontal isotherms in a broad region at the center of the geothermal anomaly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) portion of The Geysers-Clear Lake geothermal field is that part of the geothermal anomaly that is external to the steamfield, bounded by geothermal gradients of 167 mW/m2 (4 heat flow units-hfu) and 335 mW/m2 (8 hfu). The HDR resources, to a depth of 5 km, were estimated by piece-wise linear summation based on a sketch map of the heat flow. Approximately, the geothermal {open_quotes}accessible resource base{close_quotes} (Qa) is 1.68E+21 J; the {open_quotes}HDR resource base{close_quotes} (Qha) is 1.39E+21 J; and the {open_quotes}HDR power production resource{close_quotes} (Qhp) is 1.01E+21 J. The HDR power production resource (Qhp) is equivalent to 2.78E+ 11 Mwht (megawatt hours thermal), or 1.72E+11 bbls of oil.

  10. LASL Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project. Progress report, July 1, 1975--June 30, 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blair, A.G.; Tester, J.W.; Mortensen, J.J. (comps.)

    1976-10-01

    Successful drilling into hard crystalline rock was accomplished to depths of about 3 km. Hydraulic fractures in the crystalline rock with radii as large as 150 m were produced. Values of in situ permeability of the Fenton Hill granite were measured. Directional drilling at depths of up to 3 km was accomplished. At least 90 to 95 percent of water injected into fractured regions was recovered. A connection was established between two deep boreholes through a fractured region of hot granite for the first time. Instruments were developed to operate for several hours under the downhole conditions. The compressional and shear components of seismic signals produced by fracture extension and inflation were detected downholes. Acoustic ranging has generally identified the relative positions of two boreholes at several depths. Self-potential and induced potential techniques have determined vertical fracture lengths at the borehole. Pressure-flow and fluid residence time distribution studies have measured properties of the downhole system. Core sample studies have provided physical and chemical data. Techniques were developed to examine reservoir performance. A geothermal power-production model was formulated. (MHR)

  11. Evaluation of the second hot dry rock geothermal energy reservoir: results of Phase I, Run Segment 5

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zyvoloski, G.A.; Aamodt, R.L.; Aguilar, R.G.

    1981-09-01

    The results of a long-term (286 day) flow test of the second hot dry rock reservoir at the Fenton Hill field site are presented. This second reservoir was created by fracturing an interval of granitic rock located at a depth of 2.93 km (9620 ft) in the same wellbore pair used in the creation of the first, smaller reservoir. The new fracture system has a vertical extent of at least 320 m (1050 ft), suggesting that the combined heat-transfer area of the old and new fracture systems is much greater than that of the old system. The virgin rock temperature at the bottom of the deeper interval was 197/sup 0/C (386/sup 0/F). Downhole measurements of the water temperature at the reservoir outlet, as well as temperatures inferred from geothermometry, showed that the thermal drawdown of the reservoir was about 8/sup 0/C, and preliminary estimates indicate that the minimum effective heat-transfer area of the new reservoir is 45,000 m/sup 2/ (480,000 ft/sup 2/), which is six times larger than the first reservoir.

  12. Environmental monitoring for the hot dry rock geothermal energy development project. Annual report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettitt, R.A. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    The objectives of this environmental monitoring report are to provide a brief conceptual and historical summary of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project, a brief overview of the environmental monitoring responsibilities and activities of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and descriptions of the studies, problems, and results obtained from the various monitoring programs. Included are descriptions of the work that has been done in three major monitoring areas: (1) water quality, both surface and subsurface; (2) seismicity, with a discussion of the monitoring strategy of regional, local, and close-in detection networks; and (3) climatology. The purpose of these programs is to record baseline data, define potential effects from the project activities, and determine and record any impacts that may occur.

  13. A Brief History With Lessons Learned From The Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program At Fenton Hill, New Mexico, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, S.; Woldegabriel, G. W.; Rehfeldt, K. R.

    2009-12-01

    Important lessons were learned that continue to be relevant today from the world’s first successful demonstration of a Hot Dry Rock (HDR) system for extracting underground geothermal energy conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico. This experiment, conducted in hot, low-permeability, low-water context, crystalline basement rock was fundamentally different from the Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS) development currently underway at several sites in the U.S. and world. The HDR concept was developed in 1970’s at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). Two HDR reservoirs with two wells each were created and tested at the Fenton Hill site. In spite of its proximity to the Valles caldera and the Rio Grande rift, geological information and heat-flow data were used successfully to select the Fenton Hill experimental site within a block of intact crystalline basement rocks. Deep crystalline basement rocks marginal to active fault/recent volcanic centers were good candidates for HDR systems: these rocks had high heat content, and low matrix permeability leading to low water losses. Reconnaissance surveys indicated significant potential HDR geothermal resources through out the USA. Drilling and completion operations in hot crystalline rocks were challenging requiring further R&D. Hydraulic stimulation activities were carried out successfully in deep, hot crystalline rocks. Logging tools and instruments were developed that could operate successfully in the ~250oC environment. Development of techniques and tools for microseismic data monitoring, analysis, and interpretation was found to be enormously valuable. It was found that the systematic process that should be followed in developing HDR reservoirs is to drill and stimulate the first well, use the microseismic data to locate the target zone, and then complete the additional wells. The largest fraction of the flow impedance was found to be near the production well. Combined interpretation of the pressure testing, microseismic

  14. Subsurface Geology of the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levey, Schon S.

    2010-12-01

    The Precambrian rock penetrated by wells EE-2A and -3A belongs to one or more granitic to granodioritic plutons. The plutonic rock contains two major xenolith zones of amphibolite, locally surrounded by fine-grained mafic rock of hybrid igneous origin. The granodiorite is cut by numerous leucogranite dikes that diminish in abundance with depth. The most prominent structural feature is the main breccia zone, in which the rock is highly fractured and moderately altered. This zone is at least 75 m thick and is of uncertain but near-horizontal orientation. Fracture abundance decreases with increasing depth below the main breccia zone, and fractures tend to be associated with leucogranite dikes. This association suggests that at least some of the fractures making up the geothermal reservoir are of Precambrian age or have long-range orientations controlled by the presence of Precambrian-age granitic dikes.

  15. Thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, California: Implications for conventional and hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stimac, J.; Goff, F.; Wohletz, K.

    1997-06-01

    The combination of recent volcanism, high heat flow ({ge} HFU or 167 mW/m{sup 2}), and high conductive geothermal gradient (up to 120{degree} C/km) makes the Clear Lake region of northern California one of the best prospects for hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal development in the US. The lack of permeability in exploration wells and lack of evidence for widespread geothermal reservoirs north of the Collayomi fault zone are not reassuring indications for conventional geothermal development. This report summarizes results of thermal modeling of the Clear Lake magmatic system, and discusses implications for HDR site selection in the region. The thermal models incorporate a wide range of constraints including the distribution and nature of volcanism in time and space, water and gas geochemistry, well data, and geophysical surveys. The nature of upper crustal magma bodies at Clear Lake is inferred from studying sequences of related silicic lavas, which tell a story of multistage mixing of silicic and mafic magma in clusters of small upper crustal chambers. Thermobarometry on metamorphic xenoliths yield temperature and pressure estimates of {approximately}780--900 C and 4--6 kb respectively, indicating that at least a portion of the deep magma system resided at depths from 14 to 21 km (9 to 12 mi). The results of thermal modeling support previous assessments of the high HDR potential of the area, and suggest the possibility that granitic bodies similar to The Geysers felsite may underlie much of the Clear Lake region at depths as little as 3--6 km. This is significant because future HDR reservoirs could potentially be sited in relatively shallow granitoid plutons rather than in structurally complex Franciscan basement rocks.

  16. A study of pumps for the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy extraction experiment (LTFT (Long Term Flow Test))

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tatro, C.A.

    1986-10-01

    A set of specifications for the hot dry rock (HDR) Phase II circulation pumping system is developed from a review of basic fluid pumping mechanics, a technical history of the HDR Phase I and Phase II pumping systems, a presentation of the results from experiment 2067 (the Initial Closed-Loop Flow Test or ICFT), and consideration of available on-site electrical power limitations at the experiment site. For the Phase II energy extraction experiment (the Long Term Flow Test or LTFT) it is necessary to provide a continuous, low maintenance, and highly efficient pumping capability for a period of twelve months at variable flowrates up to 420 gpm and at surface injection pressures up to 5000 psi. The pumping system must successfully withstand attacks by corrosive and embrittling gases, erosive chemicals and suspended solids, and fluid pressure and temperature fluctuations. In light of presently available pumping hardware and electric power supply limitations, it is recommended that positive displacement multiplex plunger pumps, driven by variable speed control electric motors, be used to provide the necessary continuous surface injection pressures and flowrates for LTFT. The decision of whether to purchase the required circulation pumping hardware or to obtain contractor provided pumping services has not been made.

  17. Renewable hot dry rock geothermal energy source and its potential in Pakistan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaigham, Nayyer Alam [Department of Geology, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan); Nayyar, Zeeshan Alam [Department of Applied Physics, University of Karachi, Karachi 75270 (Pakistan)

    2010-04-15

    Geothermal energy source, one of the viable renewable energy sources, has encouraging potential to generate full base-load electricity, which has not been explored so far in Pakistan. Though the country can be benefited by harnessing the hydro-geothermal options of energy generation in areas where sources exist, but most of these sources lie in extreme remote and inaccessible rugged mountainous ranges away from the urban-industrial centers. On the other hand, the present study shows that the HDR geothermal option is one of the most viable renewable sources considering the tectonic setup of Pakistan. Results of the study highlight the HDR geothermal energy prospects at relatively deeper depths than hydro-geothermal resources in water-free condition. The basement tectonic analyses reveal that the HDR prospects could be found even just below the urban-industrial centers of Pakistan where there are no hot springs and/or geysers like southern Indus basin in Sindh province or the Kharan trough in the western Balochistan province. Presence of high earth-skin temperature gradient trends derived from satellite temperature data and the high geothermal gradient anomalous zone derived from scanty data of bottom-hole temperatures of some of the oil and gas exploratory wells, indicates encouraging prospects for HDR energy sources in southern Indus and Thar Desert regions inclusive of Karachi synclinorium area. These high geothermal gradients have been inferred to be the result of the deep-seated southern Indus and the Thar fossil-rift structures. Moreover, the prospects of the HDR geothermal energy sources have also been inferred in the Chagai Arc region and the Kharan-Panjgur tectonic depression in the western part of Pakistan based on the analysis of integrated geophysical data. If HDR prospects are developed, they can offer the sustainable, CO{sub 2}-free and independent of time, of day, of weather or season, and the base-load energy-generation resource. (author)

  18. The furnace in the basement: Part 1, The early days of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Energy Program, 1970--1973

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, M.C.

    1995-09-01

    This report presents the descriptions of the background information and formation of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory Geothermal Energy Group. It discusses the organizational, financial, political, public-relations,geologic, hydrologic, physical, and mechanical problems encountered by the group during the period 1970--1973. It reports the failures as well as the successes of this essential first stage in the development of hot dry rock geothermal energy systems.

  19. Hydrogeochemical evaluation of conventional and hot dry rock geothermal resource potential in the Clear Lake region, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.

    1993-05-01

    Chemistry, stable isotope, and tritium contents of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region were used to evaluate conventional and hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal potential for electrical generation. Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connate types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connate (generic) end-members. The latter end-member has enriched {delta}D as well as enriched {delta}{sup 18}O, from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data indicate most Clear Lake region waters are mixtures of old and young fluid components. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is {le}150{degree}C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures {le}150{degree}C (except for Sulphur Bank mine). HDR technologies are probably the best way to commercially exploit the known high-temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region particularly within and near the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  20. Geochemistry of thermal/mineral waters in the Clear Lake region, California, and implications for hot dry rock geothermal development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goff, F.; Adams, A.I.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Mansfield, J.

    1993-02-01

    Thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region are broadly classified as thermal meteoric and connote types based on chemical and isotopic criteria. Ratios of conservative components such as B/Cl are extremely different among all thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region except for clusters of waters emerging from specific areas such as the Wilbur Springs district and the Agricultural Park area south of Mt. Konocti. In contrast, ratios of conservative components in large, homogeneous geothermal reservoirs are constant. Stable isotope values of Clear Lake region waters show a mixing trend between thermal meteoric and connote end-members. The latter end-member has enriched [delta]D as well as enriched d[sup l8]O, very different from typical high-temperature geothermal reservoir waters. Tritium data and modeling of ages indicate most Clear Lake region waters are 500 to > 10,000 yr., although mixing of old and young components is implied by the data. The age of end-member connate water is probably > 10,000 yr. Subsurface equilibration temperature of most thermal/mineral waters of the Clear Lake region is [le] 150[degrees]C based on chemical geothermometers but it is recognized that Clear Lake region waters are not typical geothermal fluids and that they violate rules of application of many geothermometers. The combined data indicate that no large geothermal reservoir underlies the Clear Lake region and that small localized reservoirs have equilibration temperatures [le] 150[degrees]C (except for Sulphur Bank Mine). Hot dry rock technologies are the best way to commercially exploit the known high temperatures existing beneath the Clear Lake region, particularly within the main Clear Lake volcanic field.

  1. Development of permeable fracture zones for exploitation of geothermal energy from hot dry rock systems; Erschliessung permeabler Risszonen fuer die Gewinnung geothermischer Energie aus heissen Tiefengesteinen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, R. [Bundesanstalt fuer Geowissenschaften und Rohstoffe, Hannover (Germany); Baumgaertner, J. [SOCOMINE, Soultz-sous-Forets (France); Rummel, F. [Bochum Univ. (Germany); Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    The article describes the main results of the European Hot-Dry-Rock Project Soultz of the last 2 years. After a series of successful stimulation experiments and single-well hydraulic tests in the first deep well GPK1 (3590 m) in the previous project period the second deep well GPK2 (3876 m) was drilled during the winter 1994/95 in order to complete the doublet-system. Through the second well successfully penetrated the southern wing of the fracture system created in GPK1 the hydraulic connection was poor and a massive stimulation test had to be performed in GPK2 too. During this test a fracture system of about 1 km{sup 2} in size was stimulated in the depth range below 3200 m. This fracture system overlaps and penetrates the fracture system of borehole GPK1. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Der Artikel beschreibt die wesentlichen Ergebnisse des Hot-Dry-Rock Projekts Soultz der letzten beiden Jahre. Nach den erfolgreichen Einbohrloch-Tests in der Bohrung GPK1 in der vorangehenden Projektphase, bei denen ein ca. 1,5 km{sup 2} grosses kuenstliches Risssystem geschaffen wurde, aus dem infolge eines hydraulischen Anschlusses an grossraeumige permeable Stoerungszonen beachtliche Produktionsraten erzielt werden konnten, wurde im Winter 1994/95 die zweite Tiefbohrung GPK2 abgeteuft, um das Dublettensystem zu komplettieren. Trotz des erfolgreichen Abteufens der zweiten Bohrung in den Suedfluegel des bestehenden Risssystems, erwies sich der hydraulische Anschluss zunaechst als unzureichend, so dass ein massiver Stimulationstest in der neuen Bohrung angesetzt werden musste. Bei diesem Test wurden im Teufenbereich unterhalb 3200 m ein ca. 1 km{sup 2} grosses Risssystem erzeugt, das das Risssystem der Bohrung GPK1 ueberlappt und teilweise durchdringt. (orig./AKF)

  2. Primary Analysis on Exploitation and Utilization Condition of Hot Dry Rock in Lij in County%利津县干热岩开发利用条件探析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王浩; 卢建荣; 兰善治

    2015-01-01

    As a clean and new energy,hot dry rock has many advantages,such as great heat,wide distribu-tion,small affect of development and utilization to environment,and not affected by seasons and natural conditions.In 70's of 20 century,development and utilization of hot dry rock have been carried out in A-merica,while geological exploration and exploitation work of hot dry rock in China are still at the initial stage.It has a very practical significance to carry out exploration and development technologies of hot dry rock.In this paper,on the basis of introducing present study condition of hot dry rock in domestic and for-eign countries,geothermal and geological conditions,characteristics of heat reservoir,development and u-tilization of hot dry rock in Lijin county have been analyzed,the amount of resources have been calculated, and suggestions for development and utilization of hot dry rock have been put forward.%干热岩作为一种清洁的新能源,具有热能大、分布广、开发利用对环境影响小、不受季节等自然条件影响的优势。美国在20世纪70年代即进行了干热岩开发利用研究工作,而干热岩的勘查开发利用在我国尚处于起步阶段,因此对干热岩勘查、开发技术开展研究有着非常现实的意义。该文在简述国内外对干热岩研究现状的基础上,对利津县干热岩的地热地质条件、干热岩的热储特征及开发利用条件进行了分析,计算了资源量,并提出了干热岩开发利用的建议。

  3. Characterization of a hot dry rock reservoir at Acoculco geothermal zone, Pue.; Caracterizacion de un yacimiento de roca seca caliente en la zona geotermica de Acoculco, Pue.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorenzo Pulido, Cecilia; Flores Armenta, Magaly Ramirez Silva, German [Comision Federal de Electricidad, Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)]. E-mail: cecilia-lorenzo@cfe.gob.mx

    2011-01-15

    Hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal resources, also called enhanced (or engineered) geothermal systems (EGS), have been researched for a long time. The HDR concept is simple. Most of the reservoirs are found at depths of around 5000 m and comprised of impermeable rocks at temperatures between 150 degrees Celsius and 300 degrees Celsius -lacking fluid. Rock temperature is a main economic criterion, since to generate electric energy initial temperatures above 200 degrees Celsius are required. To develop a HDR system, two wells are drilled. Cold water is introduced in one well and hot water is obtained from the other well by passing the water through the hot rock. Since June 2008, a 1.5 MWe power plant has been operating in France, part of the Soultz-sous-Foret project financed by the European Deep Geothermal Energy Programme. To characterize the HDR reservoir multi-disciplinary information was gathered regarding: (1) the heat source origin, (2) qualitative information on temperature and transfer mechanisms of natural heat, (3) natural faults and fractures, (4) local stresses, and (5) the basement rock. The information was applied to a geothermal zone in Acoculco, Pue.. The zone was explored by the Exploration Department with wells EAC-1 and EAC-2, defining the presence of a high temperature reservoir (from 220 degrees Celsius to more than 250 degrees Celsius ). The zone presents the following features: (1) heat source origin: volcano-tectonic, (2) temperature logs show values of 263.8 degrees Celsius and 307.3 degrees Celsius at depths of 1900 m and 2000 m, respectively, (3) the exploration wells are located in a graben-like structure, and the core and cutting samples show evidences of natural faults and fractures partially or completely sealed by hydrothermal minerals such as epidote, quartz and pyrite, (4) stress analyses indicate the local NW-SE and E-W systems are the main systems in the geothermal zone, and (5) the basement rock is composed of limestones with contact

  4. Exploration for Hot Dry Rock geothermal resources in the Midcontinent USA. Volume 1. Introduction, geologic overview, and data acquisition and evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hinze, W.J.; Braile, L.W.; von Frese, R.R.B.; Lidiak, E.G.; Denison, R.E.; Keller, G.R.; Roy, R.F.; Swanberg, C.A.; Aiken, C.L.V.; Morgan, P.

    1986-02-01

    The Midcontinent of North America is commonly characterized as a stable cratonic area which has undergone only slow, broad vertical movements over the past several hundreds of millions of years. This tectonically stable crust is an unfertile area for hot dry rock (HDR) exploration. However, recent geophysical and geological studies provide evidence for modest contemporary tectonic activity in limited areas within the continent and, therefore, the possibility of localized thermal anomalies which may serve as sites for HDR exploration. HDR, as an energy resource in the Midcontinent, is particularly appealing because of the high population density and the demand upon conventional energy sources. Five generalized models of exploration targets for possible Midcontinent HDR sites are identified: (1) radiogenic heat sources, (2) conductivity-enhanced normal geothermal gradients, (3) residual magnetic heat, (4) sub-upper crustal sources, and (5) hydrothermal generated thermal gradients. Three potential sources of HDR, each covering approximately a 2/sup 0/ x 2/sup 0/ area, were identified and subjected to preliminary evaluation. In the Mississippi Embayment test site, lateral thermal conductivity variations and subcrustal heat sources may be involved in producing abnormally high subsurface temperatures. Studies indicate that enhanced temperatures are associated primarily with basement rift features where vertical displacement of aquifers and faults cause the upward migration of hot waters leading to anomalously high local upper crustal temperatures. The Western Nebraska test site is a potential low temperature HDR source also related, at least in part, to groundwater movement. The Southeast Michigan test site was selected for study because of the possible presence of radiogenic plutons overlain by a thickened sedimentary blanket.

  5. Economics of a 75-MW(e) hot-dry-rock geothermal power station based upon the design of the Phase II reservoir at Fenton Hill

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, H.; Drake, R.; Tester, J.; Zyvoloski, G.

    1982-02-01

    Based upon EE-2 and EE-3 drilling costs and the proposed Fenton Hill Phase II reservoir conditions the break-even cost of producing electricity is 4.4 cents per kWh at the bus bar. This cost is based upon a 9-well, 12-reservoir hot dry rock (HDR) system producing 75 MW(e) for 10 yr with only 20% drawdown, and an assumed annual finance charge of 17%. Only one-third of the total, potentially available heat was utilized; potential reuse of wells as well as thermal stress cracking and augmentation of heat transfer was ignored. Nearly half the bus bar cost is due to drilling expenses, which prompted a review of past costs for wells GT-2, EE-1, EE-2, and EE-3. Based on comparable depth and completion times it is shown that significant cost improvements have been accomplished in the last seven years. Despite these improvements it was assumed for this study that no further advancements in drilling technology would occur, and that even in commercially mature HDR systems, drilling problems would continue nearly unabated.

  6. Exploration of the crystalline underground by extension drilling of the Urach 3 well in the framework of a feasibility study for a hot dry rock demonstration project; Erkundung des kristallinen Untergrunds mit der Vertiefungsbohrung Urach 3 im Rahmen einer Machbarkeitsstudie fuer ein Hot-Dry-Rock-Demonstrationsprojekt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenzer, H. [Stadtwerke Bad Urach (Germany); Genter, A.; Hottin, A.M. [BRGM/GIG, Orleans (France)

    1997-12-01

    The prerequisites for specific research into the use of Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy at great depths and temperatures of up to 147 C. In Europe were created with the drilling and completition of the 3334 m deep research drill hole Urach 3 in its phase I (1977/78), and its subsequent extension to 3488 m in phase II (1982/83) within the metamorphic gneiss rock of Urach. A single hole circulation system was tested. Basic results concerning the temperature field, joint system, stress field and hydraulic behavior of the rock were achieved. According to the European HDR guidelines data from depths were a mean reservoir temperature of 175-180 C prevails were necessary to carry out a HDR pilot project. Within the scope of a feasibility study the already existing drill hole Urach 3 was extended from 3488 m to 4445 m depth where the required rock temperature of >170 C was expected. The objective of the project was to determine rock parameters at depth of high temperatures. The bottom hole temperature at true vertical depth of 4394.72 m was determined with 170 C. It can be proved that the temperature gradient is constant with 2.9 K/100 m depth. Due to the results of the investigations it is proposed that the Urach site located in a widespread tectonic horizontal strike-slip system is suitable for a HDR demonstration project. The results can be applied in south German and northern Swiss regions and in other large regions of Europe. Many potential consumers of geothermal energy produced by the HDR concept are situated close around the Urach 3 drill site. (orig./AKF) [Deutsch] Die Forschungsarbeiten zur Weiterentwicklung des Hot-Dry-Rock-Verfahrens begannen am Standort Bad Urach im Jahr 1975. In einer ersten Phase wurde die Bohrung Urach 3 1977/78 auf 3334 m mit einer Gesteinstemperatur von 143 C abgeteuft. Umfangreiche Hydraulische Tests und Frac-Versuche erfolgten. Hiermit wurden die Voraussetzungen fuer die Erkundung des Hot-Dry-Rock-Konzeptes in grossen Tiefen und

  7. Fluid geochemistry and soil gas fluxes (CO2-CH4-H2S) at a promissory Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System: The Acoculco caldera, Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peiffer, L.; Bernard-Romero, R.; Mazot, A.; Taran, Y. A.; Guevara, M.; Santoyo, E.

    2014-09-01

    The Acoculco caldera has been recognized by the Mexican Federal Electricity Company (CFE) as a Hot Dry Rock Geothermal System (HDR) and could be a potential candidate for developing an Enhanced Geothermal System (EGS). Apart from hydrothermally altered rocks, geothermal manifestations within the Acoculco caldera are scarce. Close to ambient temperature bubbling springs and soil degassing are reported inside the caldera while a few springs discharge warm water on the periphery of the caldera. In this study, we infer the origin of fluids and we characterize for the first time the soil degassing dynamic. Chemical and isotopic (δ18O-δD) analyses of spring waters indicate a meteoric origin and the dissolution of CO2 and H2S gases, while gas chemical and isotopic compositions (N2/He, 3He/4He, 13C, 15N) reveal a magmatic contribution with both MORB- and arc-type signatures which could be explained by an extension regime created by local and regional fault systems. Gas geothermometry results are in agreement with temperature measured during well drilling (260 °C-300 °C). Absence of well-developed water reservoir at depth impedes re-equilibration of gases upon surface. A multi-gas flux survey including CO2, CH4 and H2S measurements was performed within the caldera. Using the graphical statistical analysis (GSA) approach, CO2 flux measurements were classified in two populations. Population A, representing 95% of measured fluxes is characterized by low values (mean: 18 g m- 2 day- 1) while the remaining 5% fluxes belonging to Population B are much higher (mean: 5543 g m- 2 day- 1). This low degassing rate probably reflects the low permeability of the system, a consequence of the intense hydrothermal alteration observed in the upper 800 m of volcanic rocks. An attempt to interpret the origin and transport mechanism of these fluxes is proposed by means of flux ratios as well as by numerical modeling. Measurements with CO2/CH4 and CO2/H2S flux ratios similar to mass ratios

  8. The conversion of biomass to ethanol using geothermal energy derived from hot dry rock to supply both the thermal and electrical power requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.W.

    1997-10-01

    The potential synergism between a hot dry rock (HDR) geothermal energy source and the power requirements for the conversion of biomass to fuel ethanol is considerable. In addition, combining these two renewable energy resources to produce transportation fuel has very positive environmental implications. One of the distinct advantages of wedding an HDR geothermal power source to a biomass conversion process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating process is flexibility, both in plant location and in operating conditions. The latter obtains since an HDR system is an injection conditions of flow rate, pressure, temperature, and water chemistry are under the control of the operator. The former obtains since, unlike a naturally occurring geothermal resource, the HDR resource is very widespread, particularly in the western US, and can be developed near transportation and plentiful supplies of biomass. Conceptually, the pressurized geofluid from the HDR reservoir would be produced at a temperature in the range of 200{degrees} to 220{degrees}c. The higher enthalpy portion of the geofluid thermal energy would be used to produce a lower-temperature steam supply in a countercurrent feedwater-heater/boiler. The steam, following a superheating stage fueled by the noncellulosic waste fraction of the biomass, would be expanded through a turbine to produce electrical power. Depending on the lignin fraction of the biomass, there would probably be excess electrical power generated over and above plant requirements (for slurry pumping, stirring, solids separation, etc.) which would be available for sale to the local power grid. In fact, if the hybrid HDR/biomass system were creatively configured, the power plant could be designed to produce daytime peaking power as well as a lower level of baseload power during off-peak hours.

  9. 文登地区浅部干热岩地热资源的赋存条件分析%Analysis on Occurrence Conditions of Geothermal Resources in Shallow Hot Dry Rock in Wendeng Area

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田立强; 范士彦

    2016-01-01

    Five natural hot springs in Wendeng area distributed on the edge of the Hetao with enough water, high water quality and high water temperature. It is considered that there are multiple abnormal geothermal gradient in the region. The geothermal gradient anomaly has close relation with the subduction of the Pacific plate edge belt, Sulu UHP metamorphic belt heat of radioactive elements of abnormal and deep fracture zone thermal interaction. According to the analysis on thermal conductivity of various lithology, it is regarded that quartzite granite, granitic gneiss and gneiss are favorable optimal objective layers for development and utilization of hot dry rock resources. It is suggesed that in five natural hot springs in the area, by using geophysical prospecting, drilling and other explora⁃tion means, the deep fracture zone has been found out, geothermal gradient anomaly area has been surveyed, and shallow geothermal resources of hot dry rock storage area has been looked for.%文登地区的5处天然温泉,多分布于河套边沿,水源足,水质优,水温高,证明该地区存在多处地温梯度异常。分析认为该地温梯度异常与太平洋板块边沿俯冲带、苏鲁超高压变质带放射性元素生热异常、深大断裂带的导热作用有关。根据各种岩性的导热性分析,认为含石英岩脉的花岗岩、花岗片麻岩或片麻岩为有利于干热岩资源开发利用的最优目的层。建议在5处天然温泉区域内,利用物探、钻探等勘查手段相结合,查明深大断裂带,调查地温梯度异常区,寻找浅部干热岩地热资源赋存区。

  10. Microwave applications to rock specimen drying in laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihwan; Park, Hyeong-Dong

    2014-05-01

    Microwave heating is the process in which electromagnetic wave with 300 MHz - 300 GHz heats dielectric material. Although in the beginning microwave was mainly used in food industry to cook or heat the food, it soon became clear that microwave had a large potential for other applications. It was thus introduced in geological fields of investigation like mineral processing, oil sand and oil shale extraction, soil remediation, waste treatment. However, the drying techniques using microwave was rarely treated in geology field. According to the ISRM suggested methods, experimental rock specimens in laboratory test were dried in 105°C oven for a period of at least 24 hours. In this method, hot air transmits heats to material by means of thermal conduction, and the heat was transferred from the surface to the inside of the rock specimens. The thermal gradient and moisture gradient can deteriorate the specimens, and energy can be wasted in bulk heating the specimens. The aim of our study was to compare physical property, microstructural property, and energy efficiency between microwave drying method and conventional oven drying method, and to suggest new method for rock drying. Granite, basalt, and sandstone were selected as specimens and were made in cylinder shape with 54 mm diameter. To compare two different methods, one set of saturated specimens were dried in 105°C conventional oven and the other set of saturated specimens were dried in microwave oven. After dried, the specimens were cooled and saturated in 20°C water 48 hours. The saturation-drying were repeated 50 cycles, and the physical property and microstructural property were measured every 10 cycles. Absorption and elastic wave velocity were measured to investigate the change of physical property, and microscope image and X-ray computed tomography image were obtained to investigate the change of microstructural property of rock specimens. The electricity consumption of conventional oven and microwave oven

  11. Hot Air Drying of Green Table Olives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sayit Sargin

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The characteristics of hot air-drying of green table olives (Domat variety by using a tray dryer were studied. Air temperature varied from 40 to 70 °C with an air velocity of 1 m/s. Drying rate curves were determined and quality of dried green olives was evaluated by instrumental analysis (bulk density, particle density, porosity, shrinkage, moisture content, water activity, colour value, protein content, oil content, peroxide value and acidity. Consumers’ acceptance test and microbiological analysis were also applied.

  12. Permeability Measurements On Hot Rock Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, S.; Spieler, O.; Scheu, B.; Dingwell, D. B.

    Gas permeability is an important issue with regards to the explosive behaviour of Si- rich volcanoes. It directly affects the gas pressure within the volcano which influences the eruptive behaviour of the volcano. To date permeability measurements have only been performed on cold porous rocks (e.g. Eichelberger et al. 1986, Klug &Cashman 1996), because measurements with higher temperatures are not possible with common gas permeameters. Investigating the permeability of volcanic rocks in a hot state (up to 850 C) provides a better insight into the degassing processes under natural condi- tions. Therefore, any new experimental setup is expected to yield information about the temperature dependency of permeability in volcanic rocks. The present experi- ments have been performed on samples with a wide range of porosities. The samples were collected from block-and-ash flows on Merapi (Indonesia), Unzen (Japan) and pumices on Lipari Island (Italy). Permeabiltiy was measured using a modified setup of the fragmentation apparatus. A cylindrical rock sample (Æ = 25mm, l = 60 mm), glued gas tight in a sample container, was placed in a steel autoclave. Below the sample was a defined volume of argon gas at a known pressure. After the rupture of a diaphragm, the pressure above the sample drops rapidly to atmospheric conditions and the pres- surized gas flows through the porous rock sample until the pressure is equalized. The length of time from the beginning of the pressure drop to equilization delivers the basis for the calculation of the gas flow rate. The measurements we have performed at room temperature and at 850C to study the temperature dependency of the permeability.

  13. Estimation on the effective heat extraction area of the reservoir at Hijiori hot dry rock test site; Hijiori kooon gantai ni keisei sareta jinko choryuso no kiretsumen no netsukokan menseki no suitei

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenma, N.; Matsunaga, I.; Kuriyagawa, M. [National Inst. for Resources and Environment, Tsukuba (Japan); Yamaguchi, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo (Japan); Miyairi, M. [JAPEX Research Center, Tokyo (Japan). Technical Lab.; Zyvoloski, G.

    1994-06-25

    Tests for development of hot dry rock at Hijiori caldera (Yamagata Pref.) started in 1984 and the well SKG-2 (depth: 1,802m, 254{degree}C at well bottom) was dug. In 1986, water pressure crushing being carried out, artificial reservoir was made near the well bottom. On the reservoir, wells HDR-1 (depth: 2,206m), -2 (1,910m) and -3 (1,907m) were dug. In 1991, three month circulation test was conducted using the well SKG-2 as an injection well and other three wells as production ones. Being guessed that there exist several flow paths in the reservoir, a model for investigation was developed for each flow path using the simulation code FEMM. According to the data of temperature and flow rate at every depth (zone) in the production wells, calculations were repeated many times under various conditions. Consequently, positions and heat extraction areas of plural fractures taking part in heat exchange have been estimated. 14 refs., 11 figs., 5 tabs.

  14. Evaluation of a solar-biomass-rock bed storage drying system, and its application for chilli drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Augustus Leon, M.; Kumar, S. [Energy Field of Study, Asian Inst. of Tech. Klong Luang, Pathumthani (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    A renewable energy-based air heating system that does not require a conventional auxiliary heater, but can still meet a daily load fraction exceeding 90% and supply hot air at a steady temperature and flow rate continuously for 24 hours a day, has been developed. It combines an unglazed transpired solar collector (UTC), rock bed, and a biomass gasifier stove with heat exchanger. The system utilises part of the rock bed to supply supplementary heat. The UTC supplies the required hot air during the day (to meet the load), and the stove-heat exchanger unit supplies hot air to the rock bed (to charge it), also during the daytime. The rock bed stores the thermal energy during the daytime, and supplies heat during off-sunshine hours - both during day and night. The system was evaluated by drying 22 kg of red chilli, using hot air at 60 C and 90 m{sup 3}/h, from an initial moisture content of 76.7% (w.b) to 8.4% over 32.5 hours of continuous drying. The dryer contributed to a reduction of 66% in drying time compared to open sun drying. The temperature of hot air supplied was stable at 60{+-}3 C for over 24 hours during the entire drying duration. Providing a load fraction of 91.6% during the 24-hour operation, the air heating system can successfully dry red chilli in a continuous drying operation, at required air temperature and flow rate, which can be maintained fairly constant. (orig.)

  15. Hot rock energy projects : Australian context

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldstein, B.A.; Malavazos, M. [Society of Petroleum Engineers, Richardson, TX (United States); Hill, A.J.; Coda, J. [Primary Industries and Resources South Australia, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Australian Geothermal Energy Group, Adelaide (Australia); Budd, A.R.; Holgate, F.L. [Australian Geothermal Energy Group, Adelaide (Australia)]|[Geoscience Australia, Adelaide (Australia)

    2008-10-15

    The Australia Geothermal Energy Group is an alliance of companies, government agencies and research organizations with an interest in promoting geothermal energy use. Hot rocks (HR) geothermal energy is a valued addition to the portfolio of safe, secure and competitive energy supplies because it offers the potential of inexhaustible geothermal heat energy with zero emissions. Australia's vast HR resources have attracted global interest and government support for HR projects, which call upon integrated expertise from the petroleum minerals and power industries. Funding from the Australian government is aimed at reducing critical, sector-wide uncertainties and equates to nearly 25 per cent of the cost of the private sector's field efforts to date. A national HR resource assessment and a road-map for the commercialization of Australian HR plays will be published in 2008 to help in the decision making process by portfolio managers. The challenges and prospects for HR projects in Australia were presented. It has been estimated that converting only 1 per cent of Australia's crustal energy from depths of 5 km and 150 degrees C to electricity would supply 26,000 years of Australia's 2005 primary power use. The factors that distinguish Australian HR resources include abundant radioactive granites and areas of recent volcanic activity; and, Australia is converging with Indonesia on a plate scale resulting in common, naturally occurring subhorizontally fractured basement rocks that are susceptible to hydraulic fracture stimulation. Most projects are focused on HR to develop enhanced or engineered geothermal systems (EGS) to fuel binary power plants. Approximately 80 percent of these projects are located in South Australia. 14 refs., 3 tabs., 3 figs.

  16. Drying characteristics of ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae

    OpenAIRE

    LIU, YUNHONG; Sun, Yue; Miao, Shuai; Li, Fang; Luo, Denglin

    2014-01-01

    Ultrasound assisted hot air drying of Flos Lonicerae was investigated in this study. The effects of drying parameters such as ultrasonic radiation distance, ultrasonic power and drying temperature on drying characteristics were discussed. The results showed that ultrasound application has positive and significant effects on hot air drying. Shortening ultrasonic radiation distance is beneficial to improve both ultrasonic energy efficiency and drying rate. Higher ultrasonic power had more posit...

  17. 中国大陆干热岩地热资源潜力评估%Estimate of Geothermal Resources Potential for Hot Dry Rock in the Continental Area of China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪集旸; 罗璐; 李卫卫; 胡圣标; 庞忠和; 何丽娟; 赵平; 朱传庆; 饶松; 唐晓音; 孔彦龙

    2012-01-01

    As one of the clean renewable energy, geothermal energy is very competitive. According to its genesis and exploration conditions, geothermal resources could be divided into two kinds, that is, one is hydrothermal resources and the other one is Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal resources. Because of its universality and high temperature, HDR geothermal resources have great potential for projecting future development. The assessment of HDR geothermal resources potential is the base of HDR resources exploration. Here the heat flow map in the continental area of China is updated on the basis of more new heal flow data. Then the HDR geothermal resources are estimated using volume methods with a thermal physical access in the continental area of China (3 km -10 km). Results show that the total HDR geothermal energy is 20.9×10EJ, which is equivalent to standard coal of 714.9×l012t. If the recoverable energy is 2% by computing, then it is 168 times of conventional hydrothermal energy, and it is equivalent to 4,400 times of total annual energy consumption during the year of 2010 in China. Nevertheless, due to the limitation of economics and technology, the HDR geothermal resources exploration within the depth of 4-7km accompanied with an expected temperature of 150-250℃. should be conducted in the near future. Several target regions for HDR geolliermal resources exploration are proposed, including South Tibet, West Yunnan (Tengchong), the southeast coast of China (Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong), North China (BBB basin), the southeast regions of Ordos Basin (Fenwei Graben), and Northeast China (Songliao Basin). Finally, the future tasks involving geothermal resources research are listed.%地热资源是一种极具竞争力的清洁可再生能源,按其成因和产出条件可分为水热型和干热岩型,其中,干热岩型地热资源以其分布的普遍性和高热储温度而更具开发潜力与前景.干热岩地热资源潜力评估是干热岩开发的基础工

  18. Characterization of Thin Layer Hot Air Drying of Celery Root

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaohong Wei

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The hot air drying characteristics of celery root were evaluated in a laboratory scale dryer at the drying temperatures of 50, 60, 70 and 80°C. The effect of hot air drying on drying time, drying rate, moisture content, moisture ratio and effective moisture diffusivity of celery root was investigated. Fifteen thin layer drying models were fitted by using experimental drying data. The fitting effect of model predictions was evaluated by using the values of coefficient of determination, sum squared error, root mean square error and chi-square. The results showed fitting accuracy of model 15 (Hii et al.,2009 gave a better fit for all drying conditions applied. The average values of effective moisture diffusivities of celery root ranged from 1.957×10-9 to 9.016×10-9 within the given drying temperature range. With in a certain temperature range (50-70°C, the average effective moisture diffusivities of celery root increased with increased temperature. The activation energy was estimated as 21.817 KJ/mol using an exponential expression based on the Arrhenius equation.

  19. Dry Mars: Parched Rocks and Fallen Dust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Treiman, Allan H.

    2001-01-01

    While "following the water" to find life on Mars, it is easy to overlook evidence that Mars is harshly dry, and to neglect ideas that do not invoke water. Direct evidence for a dry Mars comes from the ALH 84001 meteorite, which has seen little or no liquid water during its last 3.9 billion years on Mars. Its aridity is difficult to reconcile with a Mars of abundant near-surface surface water or with episodes of warm wet climate. Alternative scenarios are also possible, even likely, for the martian gullies and debris flows that have been cited as evidence of liquid water. It is reasonable that the gullies flows are the remnants of massive dust avalanches, comparable to large climax snow avalanches seen on Earth. Mars' surface is now desiccated, and at least part of it has been equally desiccated for the past 3.9 billion years. With this background, and the wealth of atmospheric, imaging, and chemical data available from Mars, one must be very cautious in evaluating claims for liquid water recently at or near Mars' surface. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  20. Drying Strategy of Shrimp using Hot Air Convection and Hybrid Infrared Radiation/Hot Air Convection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Supawan TIRAWANICHAKUL

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of the research was to study the effect of drying temperatures using infrared irradiation and electric heating convection on dehydration and was to investigate the effect of drying conditions on the quality of the shrimp. Two sizes of fresh shrimp (100 shrimp/kg and 200 shrimp/kg with initial moisture content of 270 - 350 % dry-basis were dried under various conditions while the final moisture content of dried shrimp was in ranges between 20 and 25 % dry-basis. Hot air flow rates of 1.0 -   1.2 m/s, drying temperatures of 40 - 90 °C and infrared intensities of 1,785.7 - 3,571.4 W/m2 were used in these experiments. The experimental results showed that the rate of moisture content transfer of both sizes of shrimps decreased exponentially with drying time while increasing drying temperature significantly affected to the drying kinetics and quality of the shrimps. Effective diffusion coefficients of both shrimps were determined by a diffusion model forming a finite cylindrical shape was in order of 10-7 m2/s and this effective diffusion coefficient value was relatively dependent on the drying temperature compared to the initial moisture content. The quality analysis of dried shrimp using an infrared source and electric heating source found that the redness value (Hunter a-value of dried samples using hybrid infrared radiation and electric heating had a higher colour uniformity than other drying methods. Additionally, shrinkage and rehydration properties were insignificantly different for all drying strategies (p < 0.05 and drying using infrared radiation had higher drying rates compared to electric heat convection, corresponding to relatively low drying times.

  1. Drying of hot chilli using solar tunnel drier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hossain, M.A. [Farm Machinery and Postharvest Process Engineering Division, Bangladesh Agricultural Research Institute, Gazipur-1701 (Bangladesh); Bala, B.K. [Department of Farm Power and Machinery, Bangladesh Agricultural University, Mymensingh-2202 (Bangladesh)

    2007-01-15

    A mixed mode type forced convection solar tunnel drier was used to dry hot red and green chillies under the tropical weather conditions of Bangladesh. The drier consisted of transparent plastic covered flat-plate collector and a drying tunnel connected in series to supply hot air directly into the drying tunnel using two fans operated by a photovoltaic module. The drier had a loading capacity of 80 kg of fresh chillies. Moisture content of red chilli was reduced from 2.85 to 0.05 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 20 h in solar tunnel drier and it took 32 h to reduce the moisture content to 0.09 and 0.40 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. In case of green chilli, about 0.06 kg kg{sup -1} (db) moisture content was obtained from an initial moisture content of 7.6 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in 22 h in solar tunnel drier and 35 h to reach the moisture content to 0.10 and 0.70 kg kg{sup -1} (db) in improved and conventional sun drying methods, respectively. The use of a solar tunnel drier and blanching of sample led to a considerable reduction in drying time and dried products of better quality in terms of colour and pungency in comparison to products dried under the sun. The solar tunnel drier and blanching of chilli are recommended for drying of both red and green chillies. (author)

  2. Dynamics of convective hot air drying of filiform Lagenaria siceraria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Aishi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was used for the thin-layer drying of filiform Lagenaria siceraria and the influences of the drying temperature and air velocity on the drying process were investigated. The drying temperature and the air velocity were varied in the range of 60-80°C and 0.6-1.04 m•s-1, respectively. The experimental data of moisture ratio of filiform Lagenaria siceraria were used to fit the mathematical models, and the dynamics parameters such as convective heat transfer coefficient α and mass transfer coefficient kH were calculated. The results showed that the drying temperature and air velocity influenced the drying process significantly. The Logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data. It was also found that, the air velocity and the drying temperature influence notable on both of the convective heat transfer coefficient α and the mass transfer coefficient kH. With the increase of hot air velocity from 0.423 to 1.120 ms-1, the values of α varied from 111.3 to 157.7 W•m-2•K-1, the values of kH varied from 13.12 to 18.58 g•m-2• s-1•ΔH-1. With the increase of air temperature from 60 to 80°C, the values of α varied between 150.2 and 156.9 W•m-2•K-1, the values of kH varied between 18.26 and 18.75 g•m-2•s-1•ΔH-1.

  3. Fragmentation Speed and Permeability of hot Volcanic Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheu, B.; Mueller, S.; Spieler, O.; Dingwell, D. B.

    2002-12-01

    The speed of fragmentation may control the explosive behaviour of silicic volcanoes. It is directly affected by the gas pressure within the volcano, which else influences the eruptive behaviour of the volcano. We used two techniques to analyse the speed of fragmentation. At both the fragmentation is triggered by the rapid decompression inside a high-pressure autoclave. Firstly at room temperature a set of two pressure transducers record the differential pressure loss above and below the cylindrical sample (d = 25mm, l = 60 mm). Secondly at temperatures of 850°C two platinum wires are inserted at known distance into the sample cylinder and used as electrical conductors to record the rupture time. The recorded time difference and the distance between the conductors are used to recalculate the speed of the fragmentation wave. This speed depends on porosity, texture and initial pressure difference. Further, the results show a decrease of fragmentation speed while propagating through the rock sample. We propose this effect to be linked to the density changes of the gas and therefore the reducing flow rates through the rock sample (gas permeability). Up to today permeability measurements have only been performed on cold porous rocks (e.g. Eichelberger et al. 1986, Klug & Cashman 1996), because measurements with higher temperatures are not possible with common gas permeameters. Investigating the permeability of volcanic rocks in a hot state (up to 850°C) provides a better insight into the degassing processes under natural conditions. Therefore, any new experimental set-up is expected to yield information about the temperature dependency of permeability in volcanic rocks. The present experiments have been performed on samples with a wide range of porosities, collected from block-and-ash flows on Merapi (Indonesia), Unzen (Japan) and from pumices on Lipari Island (Italy). Permeability was measured using a modified set-up of the fragmentation apparatus. Below the sample a

  4. Microwave Assisted Hot Air Convective Dehydration of Fish Slice: Drying Characteristics, Energy Aspects and Colour Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd Rozainee Taib

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dried fish is commonly produced by convective hot air drying. Microwave technology was presented in this paper to improve both process and product quality. Catfish (order Siluriformes slices were dehydrated in a microwave assisted hot air convective dehydration (MWHA system to investigate the effects of microwave power and hot air temperature on drying time, dehydration behaviour, energy consumption and colour of dried fish. Three different microwave power outputs namely medium (373 W, medium low (217 W and low (91 W combined with convective hot air temperature of 40°C, 70°C and 130°C accordingly were employed in the drying experiments. Results show that microwave accelerates drying time up to 120 folds faster compared to drying with hot air convective alone. It was also noted that increasing the hot air temperature was not as significant as increasing the microwave power in reducing the drying time. Experiments show that drying time was reduced about 75 % when an increase of microwave power from low (91 W to medium mode (373 W combining with convective hot air. However, drying with microwave alone required longer drying time. Energy consumption analysis shows that microwave assisted drying process requires less energy usage. Drying fish with microwave assisted hot air dehydration treatment make the colour brighter, shifting towards red and yellow.

  5. Generation of Hot Water from Hot-Dry for Heavy-Oil Recovery in Northern Alberta, Canada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pathak, V.; Babadagli, T.; Majorowicz, J. A.; Unsworth, M. J.

    2011-12-01

    The focus of prior applications of hot-dry-rock (HDR) technology was mostly aimed at generating electricity. In northern Alberta, the thermal gradient is low and, therefore, this technology is not suitable for electricity generation. On the other hand, the cost of steam and hot water, and environmental impacts, are becoming critical issues in heavy-oil and bitumen recovery in Alberta. Surface generation of steam or hot-water accounts for six percent of Canada's natural gas consumption and about 50 million tons of CO2 emission. Lowered cost and environmental impacts are critical in the widespread use of steam (for in-situ recovery) and hot-water (for surface extraction of bitumen) in this region. This paper provides an extensive analysis of hot-water generation to be used in heavy-oil/bitumen recovery. We tested different modeling approaches used to determine the amount of energy produced during HDR by history matching to example field data. The most suitable numerical and analytical models were used to apply the data obtained from different regions containing heavy-oil/bitumen deposits in northern Alberta. The heat generation capacity of different regions was determined and the use of this energy (in the form of hot-water) for surface extraction processes was evaluated. Original temperature gradients were applied as well as realistic basement formation characteristics through an extensive hydro thermal analysis in the region including an experimental well drilled to the depth of 2,500m. Existing natural fractures and possible hydraulic fracturing scenarios were evaluated from the heat generation capacity and the economics points of view. The main problem was modeling difficulties, especially determination and representation of fracture network characteristics. A sensitivity analysis was performed for the selected high temperature gradient regions in Alberta. In this practice, the characteristics of hydraulic fractures, injection rate, depth, the distance between

  6. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of hot air drying of coconut coir pith.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernando, J A K M; Amarasinghe, A D U S

    2016-01-01

    Drying kinetics of coir pith was studied and the properties of compressed coir pith discs were analyzed. Coir pith particles were oven dried in the range of temperatures from 100 to 240 °C and the rehydration ability of compressed coir pith was evaluated by finding the volume expansion. The optimum drying temperature was found to be 140 °C. Hot air drying was carried out to examine the drying kinetics by allowing the coir pith particles to fluidize and circulate inside the drying chamber. Particle motion within the drying chamber closely resembled the particle motion in a flash dryer. The effective moisture diffusivity was found to increase from 1.18 × 10(-8) to 1.37 × 10(-8) m(2)/s with the increase of air velocity from 1.4 to 2.5 m/s respectively. Correlation analysis and residual plots were used to determine the adequacy of existing mathematical models for describing the drying behavior of coir pith. The empirical models, Wang and Singh model and Linear model, were found to be adequate for accurate prediction of drying behavior of coir pith. A new model was proposed by modifying the Wang and Singh model and considering the effect of air velocity. It gave the best correlation between observed and predicted moisture ratio with high value of coefficient of determination (R(2)) and lower values of root mean square error, reduced Chi square (χ(2)) and mean relative deviation (E%).

  7. The natural seismic hazard and induced seismicity of the european HDR (hot dry rock) geothermal energy project at Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France); Alea sismique naturel et sismicite induite du projet geothermique europeen RCS (roche chaude seche) de Soultz-sous-Forets (Bas-Rhin, France)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Helm, J.A.

    1996-06-07

    Development of the Soultz-sous-Forets HDR (Hot Dry Rock) geothermal energy project will involve important fluid injections which will induce micro-seismic events. This thesis discusses the natural seismicity of the region and induced seismicity associated with fluid injections. A catalogue of all historical and instrument seismicity of the Soultz-sous-Forets (SSF) region has been compiled. This seismicity does not correspond to movements along the major tectonic features of the region. The area around SSF has been identified as being one where high heat flow corresponds to low seismicity. The largest well documented seismic event in the region which took place in 1952 had an epicentral intensity of VI. All important data pertaining to the series of seismic events which took place in the region from August to October 1952 have been collected and are presented. This work details the installation and operation of a permanent 3 station network of accelerometers and seismometers around the HDR site. Also the installation and operation of a mobile network of vertical seismometers during fluid injections. 167 micro-seismic events were recorded on the surface network, with magnitudes from -0.5 to 1.9. The preferential alignment of the micro-seismic cloud is N160 deg. Individual focal mechanisms of the larger seismic events correspond to an extensional tectonic regime. Stress inversion of P wave polarities indicates that the maximum stress is vertical and the intermediate and minimum stress axes horizontal. The largest of the horizontal stresses is orientated N124 deg and the smallest N34 deg. Induced seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing fractures controlled by the in situ stress seismic movement is taking place on pre-existing tectonic fractures controlled by the in situ stress field, and the largest of the induced events had a magnitude 1.9. This level of seismicity does not pose any environmental hazard to the region around Soultz-sous-Forets. (author) 151

  8. Revised plans for Hot Dry Rock geothermal program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murphy, Hugh D. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    1987-03-10

    This letter is our response to your February 13 letter directing us to respond to Headquarters' request for new HDR program plans. This request was initiated by John E. Mock, CE-342, HQ. Our response is organized as three attachments.

  9. A Strategic Plan for Marketing Hot Dry Rock Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-09-01

    This appears to be run of the mill market analysis and planning. Its premature nature (there is no HDR on line in the U.S. in 2005) bespeaks the optimism of the managers of the LASL HDR program in its early year. ( DJE 2005)

  10. Hot melt extrusion versus spray drying: hot melt extrusion degrades albendazole.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hengsawas Surasarang, Soraya; Keen, Justin M; Huang, Siyuan; Zhang, Feng; McGinity, James W; Williams, Robert O

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to enhance the dissolution properties of albendazole (ABZ) by the use of amorphous solid dispersions. Phase diagrams of ABZ-polymer binary mixtures generated from Flory-Huggins theory were used to assess miscibility and processability. Forced degradation studies showed that ABZ degraded upon exposure to hydrogen peroxide and 1 N NaOH at 80 °C for 5 min, and the degradants were albendazole sulfoxide (ABZSX), and ABZ impurity A, respectively. ABZ was chemically stable following exposure to 1 N HCl at 80 °C for one hour. Thermal degradation profiles show that ABZ, with and without Kollidon(®) VA 64, degraded at 180 °C and 140 °C, respectively, which indicated that ABZ could likely be processed by thermal processing. Following hot melt extrusion, ABZ degraded up to 97.4%, while the amorphous ABZ solid dispersion was successfully prepared by spray drying. Spray-dried ABZ formulations using various types of acids (methanesulfonic acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid) and polymers (Kollidon(®) VA 64, Soluplus(®) and Eudragit(®) E PO) were studied. The spray-dried ABZ with methanesulfonic acid and Kollidon(®) VA 64 substantially improved non-sink dissolution in acidic media as compared to bulk ABZ (8-fold), physical mixture of ABZ:Kollidon(®) VA 64 (5.6-fold) and ABZ mesylate salt (1.6-fold). No degradation was observed in the spray-dried product for up to six months and less than 5% after one-year storage. In conclusion, amorphous ABZ solid dispersions in combination with an acid and polymer can be prepared by spray drying to enhance dissolution and shelf-stability, whereas those made by melt extrusion are degraded.

  11. Effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene and carotenoid content of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawson, A; Tiwari, B K; Tuohy, M G; O'Donnell, C P; Brunton, N

    2011-09-01

    The effect of ultrasound and blanching pretreatments on polyacetylene (falcarinol, falcarindiol and falcarindiol-3-acetate) and carotenoid compounds of hot air and freeze dried carrot discs was investigated. Ultrasound pretreatment followed by hot air drying (UPHD) at the highest amplitude and treatment time investigated resulted in higher retention of polyacetylenes and carotenoids in dried carrot discs than blanching followed by hot air drying. Freeze dried samples had a higher retention of polyacetylene and carotenoid compounds compared to hot air dried samples. Color parameters were strongly correlated with carotenoids (p<0.05). This study shows that ultrasound pretreatment is a potential alternative to conventional blanching treatment in the drying of carrots.

  12. GEOLOGICAL-GEOPHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF ENHANCED GEOTHERMAL SYSTEMS (HOT DRY ROCKS) IN GONGHE-GUIDE BASIN%青海共和—贵德盆地增强型地热系统(干热岩)地质—地球物理特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛建球; 甘斌; 李百祥; 王志林

    2013-01-01

    drilling evidence, the authors believe that the gravity and magnetic anomaly is caused by Yanshanian granite. As the deep drill holes intersect heat but no water, the authors hold that there may exist hot dry rock as the heat source of this basin.

  13. Hot climate inhibits volcanism on Venus: Constraints from rock deformation experiments and argon isotope geochemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhail, Sami; Heap, Michael J.

    2017-07-01

    The disparate evolution of sibling planets Earth and Venus has left them markedly different. Venus' hot (460 °C) surface is dry and has a hypsometry with a very low standard deviation, whereas Earth's average temperature is 4 °C and the surface is wet and has a pronounced bimodal hypsometry. Counterintuitively, despite the hot Venusian climate, the rate of intraplate volcano formation is an order of magnitude lower than that of Earth. Here we compile and analyse rock deformation and atmospheric argon isotope data to offer an explanation for the relative contrast in volcanic flux between Earth and Venus. By collating high-temperature, high-pressure rock deformation data for basalt, we provide a failure mechanism map to assess the depth of the brittle-ductile transition (BDT). These data suggest that the Venusian BDT likely exists between 2 and 12 km depth (for a range of thermal gradients), in stark contrast to the BDT for Earth, which we find to be at a depth of ∼25-27 km using the same method. The implications for planetary evolution are twofold. First, downflexing and sagging will result in the sinking of high-relief structures, due to the low flexural rigidity of the predominantly ductile Venusian crust, offering an explanation for the curious coronae features on the Venusian surface. Second, magma delivery to the surface-the most efficient mechanism for which is flow along fractures (dykes; i.e., brittle deformation)-will be inhibited on Venus. Instead, we infer that magmas must stall and pond in the ductile Venusian crust. If true, a greater proportion of magmatism on Venus should result in intrusion rather than extrusion, relative to Earth. This predicted lower volcanic flux on Venus, relative to Earth, is supported by atmospheric argon isotope data: we argue here that the anomalously unradiogenic present-day atmospheric 40Ar/36Ar ratio for Venus (compared with Earth) must reflect major differences in 40Ar degassing, primarily driven by volcanism. Indeed

  14. Airless drying: energy savings are not just hot air

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffiths, Joyce

    1994-07-01

    The airless dryer provides substantial energy cost and drying time savings and sometimes product quality benefits. Originally developed and applied to laundry tumble drying, the technique was subsequently adapted as a batch process for brick drying and drying of ceramic slurries in trays. Most recently, the process has been extended to a large scale, continuous dryer which should allow the airless drying of minerals and many other materials, almost certainly with similar advantages. This feature outlines the principles of the airless dryer and illustrates with some case histories the economies which can be achieved. (Author)

  15. Anti-Browning of Mushroom (Agaricus bisporus Slices by Glutathione during Hot Air Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhenqiang Xia

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Browning of mushroom tends to occur during hot air drying due to Poly Phenol Oxidase (PPO, while glutathione is known for its ability to inhibit the activity of PPO and browning. In this study, the efficacy of glutathione in inhibiting browning on mushroom slices was estimated. Browning of mushroom slices treated with glutathione was monitored during hot air drying. PPO activity in mushroom was inhibited by 98.2 with 0.08% glutathione. Compared with the control, mushroom slices treated with glutathione showed no browning during hot air drying. These results indicate that application of glutathione is a promising method of Anti-browning of mushroom by glutathione during hot air drying.

  16. SLOPE LITHOLOGIC PROPERTY, SOIL MOISTURE CONDITION AND REVEGETATION IN DRY-HOT VALLEY OF JINSHA RIVER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIONG Dong-hong; ZHOU Hong-yi; YANG Zhong; ZHANG Xin-bao

    2005-01-01

    The dry-hot valley of the Jinsha River is one of the typical eco-fragile areas in Southwest China, as well as a focus ofrevegetation study in the upper and middle reaches of the Changjiang River. Due to its extremely dry and hot climate, severely degraded vegetation and the intense soil and water loss, there are extreme difficulties in vegetation restoration in this area and no great breakthrough has ever been achieved on studies of revegetation over the last several decades. Through over ten years' research conducted in the typical areas-the Yuanmou dry-hot valley, the authors found that the lithologic property is one of the crucial factors determining soil moisture conditions and vegetation types in the dry-hot valley, and the rainfall infiltration capability is also one of the key factors affecting the tree growth. Then the revegetation zoning based on different slopes was conducted and revegetation patterns for different zones were proposed.

  17. Radiation control by the green wall in hot and dry climates

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Farnaz Ghadiri Garakani

    2016-01-01

    .... In this article, it has been tried to investigate the radiation control in hot and dry climates by the green walls which can be controlled by examining the amount of solar radiation as well as proper...

  18. Building America Residential System Research Results. Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hendron, R. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Eastment, M. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jalalzadeh-Azar, A. [National Renewable Energy Lab. (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2006-01-01

    This report summarizes Building America research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost-neutral basis.

  19. STATISTIC MODELING OF DRYING KINETHIC OF SPINACH LEAVES USING MICROWAVE AND HOT AIR METHODS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Nouri

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The target of this study was to model of spinach leaves drying using microwave and hot air dryer. This test performed in combination treatment of temperatures (50°C, 60°C, and 70°C and microwave (90, 180, 360, 600 and 900w in 3 replications. Sample moisture measured within drying. All the results were fitted and analyzed with 8 mathematical models base on 3 parameters including determination (R2, Chi square(X2, root mean square errors(RSME. Results also revealed that temperature and microwave power effectively reduce the drying time when increase. Drying occurs in degrading stage; moreover the comparison of results exhibited that Page and Two sentences models were fitted appropriately to estimate moisture changing and drying description. Regarding all the results, it is cleared that microwave method is an appropriate method in spinach drying as a result of reducing drying temperature and its high efficiency.

  20. Empirical Modeling on Hot Air Drying of Fresh and Pre-treated Pineapples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanongkankit Yardfon

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This research was aimed to study drying kinetics and determine empirical model of fresh pineapple and pre-treated pineapple with sucrose solution at different concentrations during drying. 3 mm thick samples were immersed into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution before hot air drying at temperatures of 60, 70 and 80°C. The empirical models to predict the drying kinetics were investigated. The results showed that the moisture content decreased when increasing the drying temperatures and times. Increase in sucrose concentration led to longer drying time. According to the statistical values of the highest coefficients (R2, the lowest least of chi-square (χ2 and root mean square error (RMSE, Logarithmic model was the best models for describing the drying behavior of soaked samples into 30, 40 and 50 Brix of sucrose solution.

  1. From 'true' glaciers to rock glaciers? The case of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier, dry Andes of Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monnier, S.; Kinnard, C.

    2012-04-01

    In the dry Andes of Chile, rock glaciers are the most widespread and remarkable superficial landforms, and may constitute important solid water reservoirs. The existence of huge (up to 2-3 kilometres of length) rock glaciers located in deep cirques questions possible derivation from former 'true' glaciers. The issue is of importance (i) for understanding the mechanisms of the landscape evolution from glacial realm to periglacial realm, and (ii) because it may determine the ice content of the concerned rock glaciers. In the Colorado Río valley, in the upper part of the Elqui catchment (~30.15 deg. S and 70.80 deg. W), we investigated the internal structure of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier using ground-penetrating radar (GPR). With 50 MHz antennas and a constant offset of 2 m between antennas, we performed various GPR profiles, especially a ~2.2 km-long one almost covering the entire length of the rock glacier. The processing and the subsequent interpretation of the GPR data were mainly based on the modelling of the radar wave velocity. Hence, the final representation of the internal structure of the rock glacier integrates the reconstructed stratigraphy, the 2-D velocity model, and first attempts for estimating the ice/water contents. The most striking results are: the neat identification of the base of the superficial blocky layer and of the rock glacier floor; the occurrence of stratigraphic patterns reminiscent of 'true' glaciers; the supremacy of high radar wave velocities in the upper part of the rock glacier. On the latter bases and taking into account the whole geomorphology of the site, the derivation of the Llanos la Liebre rock glacier from a former, buried glacier is debated.

  2. Comparative study of two drying techniques used in radioactive source preparation: freeze-drying and evaporation using hot dry nitrogen jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, T; Bobin, C; Iroulart, M-G; Lépy, M-C; Le Garrères, I; Morelli, S; Lacour, D; Plagnard, J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative solid sources are used widely in the field of radionuclide metrology. With the aim to improve the detection efficiency for electrons and x-rays, a comparative study between two source drying techniques has been undertaken at LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB, France). In this paper, freeze-drying using commercial equipment is compared with a system of drying using hot jets of nitrogen developed at Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Belgium). In order to characterize the influence of self-absorption, the detection efficiencies for (51)Cr sources have been measured by coincidence counting and photon spectrometry.

  3. Mathematical Modeling and Effect of Various Hot-Air Drying on Mushroom (Lentinus edodes)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GUO Xiao-hui; XIA Chun-yan; TAN Yu-rong; CHEN Long; MING Jian

    2014-01-01

    An experimental study was performed to determine the characteristics and drying process of mushroom (Lentinus edodes) by 6 different hot-air drying methods namely isothermal drying, uniform raise drying, non-uniform raise drying, uniform intermittent drying, non-uniform intermittent drying and combined drying. The chemical composition (dry matter, ash, crude protein, crude fat, total sugars, dietary ifber, and energy), color parameters (L, a*, b*, c*, and h0) and rehydration capacities were determined. Among all the experiments, non-uniform intermittent drying reached a better comprehensive results due to the higher chemical composition, better color quality associated with high bright (26.381±5.842), high color tone (73.670±2.975), low chroma (13.349±3.456) as well as the highest rehydration (453.76%weigh of dried body). Nine kinds of classical mathematical model were used to obtained moisture data and the Midili-kucuk model can be described by the drying process with the coefifcient (R2 ranged from 0.99790 to 0.99967), chi-square (χ2 ranged from 0.00003 to 0.00019) and root mean square error (RMSE ranged from 0.000486 to 0.0012367).

  4. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2016-03-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln(D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  5. Drying kinetics, rehydration and colour characteristics of convective hot-air drying of carrot slices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doymaz, İbrahim

    2017-01-01

    The effects of air drying temperature, slice thickness and pre-treatment application on the drying kinetics of carrot slices during convective drying in the range 50-70 °C were investigated. Results indicated that drying time, rehydration ratio and colour characteristics of carrot slices were more affected by drying air temperature, followed by pre-treatment applications. Five thin-layer drying models were applied to describe the drying kinetics. Midilli et al. model was the best model to characterize the drying kinetics of carrot slices. The moisture effective diffusivity calculated from the second Fick's law of diffusion ranged from 3.46 × 10-10 to 1.02 × 10-9 m2/s. The values of activation energy determined from the slope of the Arrhenius plot, ln( D eff ) versus 1/(T + 273.15), were 35.53, 43.42, and 37.75 kJ/mol for blanch, potas and control samples, respectively.

  6. Influence of Water Content on Mechanical Properties of Rock in Both Saturation and Drying Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zilong; Cai, Xin; Cao, Wenzhuo; Li, Xibing; Xiong, Cheng

    2016-08-01

    Water content has a pronounced influence on the properties of rock materials, which is responsible for many rock engineering hazards, such as landslides and karst collapse. Meanwhile, water injection is also used for the prevention of some engineering disasters like rock-bursts. To comprehensively investigate the effect of water content on mechanical properties of rocks, laboratory tests were carried out on sandstone specimens with different water contents in both saturation and drying processes. The Nuclear Magnetic Resonance technique was applied to study the water distribution in specimens with variation of water contents. The servo-controlled rock mechanics testing machine and Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar technique were used to conduct both compressive and tensile tests on sandstone specimens with different water contents. From the laboratory tests, reductions of the compressive and tensile strength of sandstone under static and dynamic states in different saturation processes were observed. In the drying process, all of the saturated specimens could basically regain their mechanical properties and recover its strength as in the dry state. However, for partially saturated specimens in the saturation and drying processes, the tensile strength of specimens with the same water content was different, which could be related to different water distributions in specimens.

  7. Field station for dry-hot valley ecosystem in the pipeline

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ A panel of experts recently gave the nod to a proposal and feasibility study to set up a research station for monitoring the dry-hot valley ecosystem in Yuanjiang of southwest China's Yunnan Province. The proposal was presented by the CAS Xishuangbannan Tropical Botanical Garden.

  8. 30 CFR 77.305 - Access to drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. 77.305 Section 77.305 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY... drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and ductwork; installation and maintenance. Drying chambers, hot gas inlet chambers and all ductwork in which coal dust may accumulate shall be equipped with...

  9. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-01-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  10. Drying kinetics of apricot halves in a microwave-hot air hybrid oven

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-06-01

    Drying behavior and kinetics of apricot halves were investigated in a microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at 120, 150 and 180 W microwave power and 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperature. Drying operation was finished when the moisture content reached to 25% (wet basis) from 77% (w.b). Increase in microwave power and air temperature increased drying rates and reduced drying time. Only falling rate period was observed in drying of apricot halves in hybrid oven. Eleven mathematical models were used for describing the drying kinetics of apricots. Modified logistic model gave the best fitting to the experimental data. The model has never been used to explain drying behavior of any kind of food materials up to now. Fick's second law was used for determination of both effective moisture diffusivity and thermal diffusivity values. Activation energy values of dried apricots were calculated from Arrhenius equation. Those that obtained from effective moisture diffusivity, thermal diffusivity and drying rate constant values ranged from 31.10 to 39.4 kJ/mol, 29.56 to 35.19 kJ/mol, and 26.02 to 32.36 kJ/mol, respectively.

  11. Biomimicry as an approach for sustainable architecture case of arid regions with hot and dry climate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouabdallah, Nabila; M'sellem, Houda; Alkama, Djamel

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to study the problem of thermal comfort inside buildings located in hot and arid climates. The principal idea behind this research is using concepts based on the potential of nature as an instrument that helps creating appropriate facades with the environment "building skin". The biomimetic architecture imitates nature through the study of form, function, behaviour and ecosystems of biological organisms. This research aims to clarify the possibilities that can be offered by biomimicry architecture to develop architectural bio-inspired building's design that can help to enhance indoor thermal ambiance in buildings located in hot and dry climate which helps to achieve thermal comfort for users.

  12. Antioxidant activity changes during hot-air drying of Moringa oleifera leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wiwat Wangcharoen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Dried Moringa oleifera leaf powder in capsule is now a popular food supplement in Thailand. To investigate its health benefits, antioxidant activities of M. oleifera leaves (3 varieties: Num Phrae, Ang Thong and PKM1 during drying in hot-air oven at 50C and 100C were studied by 3 different methods, viz. ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, DPPH free radical scavenging activity and ABTS radical cation decolourisation, together with the determination of total phenolic content and browning pigment formation. It was found that the antioxidant activities and total phenolic content tend to decrease in the early stage of drying and then increase in the later stage, and that the dried leaves still have at least 60% of antioxidant activities compared to fresh leaves.

  13. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying Kinetics of Momordica Charantia Slices and Its Color Change

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Chen

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This study presented the drying characteristics of fresh Momordica Charantia slices at different drying temperatures (50, 60, 70 and 80°C and different thicknesses (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 cm. Three mathematical models including Page, Henderson and Pabis and Wang and Singh equations were compared and discussed. The results showed that the Page model provided the best correlation capacity with the decision coefficient R2 of 0.998. The color change of Momordica Charantia slices during hot air drying at different temperatures were also studied by the measuring of color parameters such as the values of Hunter L* (whiteness/darkness, a* (redness/greenness and b* (yellowness/blueness. The total color change (ΔE of the samples was observed to increase as drying temperature increased. The results show that the color ofMomordica Charantia slices changed sharply when temperature was higher than about 70°C. The study could provide theoretical bases of the equipment design and process optimization for hot air drying of Momordica Charantia

  14. Performance analysis and improvement of the use of wind tower in hot dry climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bouchahm, Yasmina; Bourbia, Fatiha [Universite Mentouri, Departement d' Architecture, Laboratoire d' architecture bioclimatique et d' environnement, Constantine (Algeria); Belhamri, Azeddine [Universite Mentouri, Departement de Genie Climatique, Constantine (Algeria)

    2011-03-15

    Wind towers for passive evaporative cooling offer real opportunity for improving the ambient comfort conditions in building whilst reducing the energy consumption of air-conditioning systems. This study aims at assessing the thermal performance of a bioclimatic housing using wind towers realized in a hot dry region of Algeria. Performance monitoring and site measurement of the system provide data which assist model validation. The analysis and site measurement are encouraging, and they confirm the advantage of the application of this passive cooling strategies in hot dry climate. A mathematical model is developed using heat and mass transfer balances. For a more effective evaporative cooling, a number of improvements on wind tower configurations are proposed. (author)

  15. Microwave drying of granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug: a promising alternative to fluid bed and hot air oven drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chee, Sze Nam; Johansen, Anne Lene; Gu, Li; Karlsen, Jan; Heng, Paul Wan Sia

    2005-07-01

    The impact of microwave drying and binders (copolyvidone and povidone) on the degradation of acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) and physical properties of granules were compared with conventional drying methods. Moist granules containing ASA were prepared using a high shear granulator and dried with hot air oven, fluid bed or microwave (static or dynamic bed) dryers. Percent ASA degradation, size and size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules were determined. Granules dried with the dynamic bed microwave dryer showed the least amount of ASA degradation, followed by fluid bed dryer, static bed microwave oven and hot air oven. The use of microwave drying with a static granular bed adversely affected ASA degradation and drying capability. Dynamic bed microwave dryer had the highest drying capability followed by fluid bed, static bed microwave dryer and conventional hot air oven. The intensity of microwave did not affect ASA degradation, size distribution, friability and flow properties of the granules. Mixing/agitating of granules during drying affected the granular physical properties studied. Copolyvidone resulted in lower amount of granular residual moisture content and ASA degradation on storage than povidone, especially for static bed microwave drying. In conclusion, microwave drying technology has been shown to be a promising alternative for drying granules containing a moisture-sensitive drug.

  16. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  17. Forming of High-strength Steels Using a Hot-melt Dry Lubricant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hörnström, Sven-Erik; Karlsson, Erik; Olsson, Mikael

    2008-01-01

    steel grades and improved surface engineering treatments such as the deposition of low friction CVD and PVD coatings. In the present study the performance of a hot-melt dry lubricant in the forming of hot and cold rolled and hot-dip galvanized high strength steel has been evaluated and compared...... with a conventional rust protection oil using four different tests methods, i.e. a strip reduction test, a bending under tension test, a stretch-forming test and a pin-on disc test. In the tests, two different cold work tool steels, a conventional steel grade and a nitrogen alloyed PM steel grade were evaluated......The increasing use of high strength steels in a variety of mechanical engineering applications has illuminated problems associated with galling in sheet metal forming operations. Galling is a tribological phenomenon associated with transfer of material from the steel sheet to the tool surface...

  18. Mathematical Modeling on Combined Mid-infrared and Hot Air Drying of Beef Meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiao-Lei Xie

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the drying models and characteristics of Combined Mid-Infrared and Hot Air (CMIHA drying BEEF MEAT (BM, a laboratory scale CMIHA dryer was applied to the treatment of BM samples in a temperature range from 40-70°C, with air velocity of 1m/s and mid-infrared of 2.8-3.1 m. Microsoft visual C sharp (C# was used to develop a Moisture Prediction System (MPS to digitize the prediction process. The results indicated that the Modified Henderson and Pabis model could present better predictions for the moisture transfer than others and the MPS could predict the moisture ratio through the whole drying process conveniently. Besides, higher temperature could accelerate effective diffusivities to increase drying rate, thus shorten the drying time. The activation energy of BM dried with CMIHA was 32.83 kJ/mol. All of these could be used in the design and operation of the combination drying beef meat.

  19. Permafrost distribution map of San Juan Dry Andes (Argentina) based on rock glacier sites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esper Angillieri, María Yanina

    2017-01-01

    Rock glaciers are frozen water reservoirs in mountainous areas. Water resources are important for the local populations and economies. The presence of rock glaciers is commonly used as a direct indicator of mountain permafrost conditions. Over 500 active rock glaciers have been identified, showing that elevations between 3500 and 4500 m asl., a south-facing or east-facing aspect, areas with relatively low solar radiation and low mean annual air temperature (-4 to 0 °C) favour the existence of rock glaciers in this region. The permafrost probability model, for Dry Andes of San Juan Province between latitudes 28º30‧S and 32°30‧S, have been analyzed by logistic regression models based on the active rock glaciers occurrence in relation to some topoclimatic variables such as altitude, aspect, mean annual temperature, mean annual precipitation and solar radiation, using optical remote sensing techniques in a GIS environment. The predictive performances of the model have been estimated by known rock glaciers locations and by the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC). This regional permafrost map can be applied by the Argentinean Government for their recent initiatives which include creating inventories, monitoring and studying ice masses along the Argentinean Andes. Further, this generated map provides valuable input data for permafrost scenarios and contributes to a better understanding of our geosystem.

  20. Estimation of whole lemon mass transfer parameters during hot air drying using different modelling methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi; Ghanbarian, Davoud; Sadeghi, Morteza

    2015-08-01

    To design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments, accurate values of mass transfer parameters is of great importance. In this study, an experimental and theoretical investigation of drying whole lemons was carried out. The whole lemons were dried in a convective hot air dryer at different air temperatures (50, 60 and 75 °C) and a constant air velocity (1 m s-1). In theoretical consideration, three moisture transfer models including Dincer and Dost model, Bi- G correlation approach and conventional solution of Fick's second law of diffusion were used to determine moisture transfer parameters and predict dimensionless moisture content curves. The predicted results were then compared with the experimental data and the higher degree of prediction accuracy was achieved by the Dincer and Dost model.

  1. The Solubility of Rock in Steam Atmospheres of the Early Earth and Hot Rocky Exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fegley, Bruce

    2016-07-01

    Extensive experimental studies show all major rock-forming elements (e.g., Si, Mg, Fe, Ca, Al, Na, K) dissolve in steam to a greater or lesser extent. We use these results to compute chemical equilibrium abundances of rocky element - bearing gases in steam atmospheres equilibrated with silicate magma oceans. Rocky elements partition into steam atmospheres as volatile hydroxide gases (e.g., Si(OH)4, Mg(OH)2, Fe(OH)2, Ni(OH)2, Al(OH)3, Ca(OH)2, NaOH, KOH) and via reaction with HF and HCl as volatile halide gases (e.g., NaCl, KCl, CaFOH, CaClOH, FAl(OH)2) in much larger amounts than expected from their vapor pressures over volatile-free solid or molten rock at high temperatures expected for steam atmospheres on the early Earth and hot rocky exoplanets. We quantitatively compute the extent of fractional vaporization by defining gas/magma distribution coefficients and show Earth's sub-solar Si/Mg ratio may be due to loss of a primordial steam atmosphere. We conclude hot rocky exoplanets that are undergoing or have undergone escape of steam-bearing atmospheres may experience fractional vaporization and loss of Si, Mg, Fe, Ni, Al, Ca, Na, and K. This loss can modify their bulk composition, density, heat balance, and interior structure. This work was supported by NSF Astronomy Program Grant AST-1412175.

  2. Proposed moduli of dry rock and their application to predicting elastic velocities of sandstones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    2005-01-01

    Velocities of water-saturated isotropic sandstones under low frequency can be modeled using the Biot-Gassmann theory if the moduli of dry rocks are known. On the basis of effective medium theory by Kuster and Toksoz, bulk and shear moduli of dry sandstone are proposed. These moduli are related to each other through a consolidation parameter and provide a new way to calculate elastic velocities. Because this parameter depends on differential pressure and the degree of consolidation, the proposed moduli can be used to calculate elastic velocities of sedimentary rocks under different in-place conditions by varying the consolidation parameter. This theory predicts that the ratio of P-wave to S-wave velocity (Vp/Vs) of a dry rock decreases as differential pressure increases and porosity decreases. This pattern of behavior is similar to that of water-saturated sedimentary rocks. If microcracks are present in sandstones, the velocity ratio usually increases as differential pressure increases. This implies that this theory is optimal for sandstones having intergranular porosities. Even though the accurate behavior of the consolidation parameter with respect to differential pressure or the degree of consolidation is not known, this theory presents a new way to predict S-wave velocity from P-wave velocity and porosity and to calculate elastic velocities of gas-hydrate-bearing sediments. For given properties of sandstones such as bulk and shear moduli of matrix, only the consolidation parameter affects velocities, and this parameter can be estimated directly from the measurements; thus, the prediction of S-wave velocity is accurate, reflecting in-place conditions.

  3. Changes in viscoelastic properties of longan during hot-air drying in relation to its indentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jatuphong Varith

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Changes in viscoelastic properties are related to the indentation of whole longan (Dimocarpus longan Lour. in the drying process. The objective of this research is to determine parameters from a creep test to characterise the viscoelastic properties of on-progress dried longan. During 65C hot-air drying, the whole longan was sampled every 2 hours to perform the creep test with a constant stress of 44 kPa using a texture analyser. Viscoelastic properties, viz. retardation time (ret, instantaneous compliance (J0, retarded compliance (J1, creep compliance (J, Newtonian viscosity (0, and modulus of elasticity (E were analysed using the four-element Burger’s model. The ret and E decreased linearly as the moisture content decreased from approximately 70% to 64-57%, then they linearly increased as the moisture content further decreased to 11%. The J and J1 increased linearly and then decreased linearly as the moisture content decreased, showing the transition moisture content of 64%. The J0 decreased as the moisture content decreased. There was no marked change in , thus it was not involved in the indentation of dried longan. The moisture content of 64-57% was found to be the critical range leading to the indentation of longan during the drying process.

  4. Validating the Heat Stress Indices for Using In Heavy Work Activities in Hot and Dry Climates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajizadeh, Roohalah; Golbabaei, Farideh; Farhang Dehghan, Somayeh; Beheshti, Mohammad Hossein; Jafari, Sayed Mohammad; Taheri, Fereshteh

    2016-01-01

    Necessity of evaluating heat stress in the workplace, require validation of indices and selection optimal index. The present study aimed to assess the precision and validity of some heat stress indices and select the optimum index for using in heavy work activities in hot and dry climates. It carried out on 184 workers from 40 brick kilns workshops in the city of Qom, central Iran (as representative hot and dry climates). After reviewing the working process and evaluation the activity of workers and the type of work, environmental and physiological parameters according to standards recommended by International Organization for Standardization (ISO) including ISO 7243 and ISO 9886 were measured and indices were calculated. Workers engaged in indoor kiln experienced the highest values of natural wet temperature, dry temperature, globe temperature and relative humidity among studied sections (Pstress index (HSI) indices had the highest correlation with other physiological parameters among the other heat stress indices. Relationship between WBGT index and carotid artery temperature (r=0.49), skin temperature (r=0.319), and oral temperature (r=0.203) was statistically significant (P=0.006). Since WBGT index, as the most applicable index for evaluating heat stress in workplaces is approved by ISO, and due to the positive features of WBGT such as ease of measurement and calculation, and with respect to some limitation in application of HSI; WBGT can be introduced as the most valid empirical index of heat stress in the brick workshops.

  5. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter

    2017-01-01

    Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior, and stability. Results were compared to those of spray-dried formulations with the same compositions and to spray-dried indomethacin-copovidone. Overall, stable co-amorphous systems could be prepared by extrusion without or with copovidone, which exhibited comparable molecular interaction properties to the respective spray-dried products, while phase separation was detected by differential scanning calorimetry in several cases. The formulations containing indomethacin in combination with arginine and copovidone showed enhanced dissolution behavior over the formulations with only copovidone or arginine.

  6. 香菜热风干燥的试验研究%Experimental Study on Hot Air Drying of Coriander

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵昆; 赵士杰; 滕竹竹

    2016-01-01

    首先通过试验分析了漂烫预处理对香菜热风干燥特性的影响,然后用单因素试验设计方法探讨热风温度、热风速度和铺料层厚度对香菜热风干燥特性的影响,之后又对香菜干制品进行复水试验,得出了香菜干制品在不同干燥条件下的复水特性.结果表明:热风温度越高,热风速度越大,铺料层厚度越小,干燥速率越大,干燥过程所需时间越短;但是,过高的热风温度、热风速度和过小的铺料层厚度都会降低香菜干制品的复水性能.%In this paper, the effect of blanching pretreatment on drying characteristics of coriander was investigated through the experiment.The impacts of hot air temperature, hot air velocity and thickness of materials on the hot air dr-ying characteristics of coriander were investigated by single factor experiment design, and the rehydration test further ob-tained the rehydration characteristics of dried materials under different drying conditions.The results show that higher hot air temperature, faster hot air velocity and smaller thickness of the material will cause greater drying rate and shorten the whole drying time.However, too high hot air temperature, hot air velocity and too small thickness of the material layer can reduce the rehydration capacity of the dried coriander.

  7. Research of Interindividual Differences in Physiological Response under Hot-Dry and Warm-Wet Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shilei Lu

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Somatotype and habitus parameters may affect physiological control system, so the changes of physiological parameters are not the same when various people work in hot-dry and warm-wet climates. In this paper, a chamber built in Tianjin University was used to simulate comfortable, hot-dry and warm-wet climates. Sixty healthy university students were selected as subjects who were divided into four groups based on somatotype and habitus differences. The subjects were asked to exercise on a treadmill at moderate and heavy work intensities. Physiological parameters (rectal temperature and heart rate were measured after every 10-min work in the climate chamber. For different groups, the change trends of physiological parameters were different. With the enhancement of experimental conditions, the differences among four groups were weakened. Body surface area per unit of body mass (BSA/mass, percentage of body fat (%fat, and maximum oxygen consumption per unit of body mass (VO2max/mass were adopt to establish a revised body characteristic index (RBCI. RBCI was proved having significant correlation with physiological parameters, which means RBCI as the combined factors of somatotype and habitus parameters can be applied to evaluate the effect of individual characteristics on physiological systems.

  8. Irradiation Maintains Functional Components of Dry Hot Peppers (Capsicum annuum L. under Ambient Storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Hot peppers used as natural flavoring and coloring agents are usually irradiated in prepacked form for decontamination. The effects of gamma radiation on the stability of functional components such as capsaicinoids and antioxidant compounds (carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics were investigated in hot peppers (Capsicum annuum. Whole dried peppers packed in polyethylene bags were gamma irradiated at 0 (control, 2, 4, and 6 kGy and subsequently stored at 25 °C for 90 days. The irradiation dose did not substantially affect the initial contents of capsaicinoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolics, though the concentration of carotenoids declined by 8% from the control (76.9 mg/100 g to 6 kGy radiation dose (70.7 mg/100 g. Similarly, during storage for 90 days at ambient temperature the concentrations of capsaicinoids and total phenolics remained fairly stable with mean percent reductions from 3.3% to 4.2%, while the levels of total carotenoids and ascorbic acid significantly (p < 0.05 declined by 12% and 14%, respectively. Overall, neither irradiation nor subsequent ambient storage could appreciably influence the contents of functional components in hot peppers. These results revealed that gamma irradiation up to 6 kGy can be safely used for decontamination to meet the needs for overseas markets without compromising product quality.

  9. Drying Characteristics and Product Quality of Lemon Slices Dried with Hot Air Circulation Oven and Hybrid Heatpump Dryers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Hong Lee

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available In this research, drying characteristics and product quality of Coulomb-force-assisted heatpump and oven dried lemon slices were studied. Lemon slices with 3 mm thickness each, were dried using oven and Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump dryer with and without auxiliary heater at different drying conditions. It was found that the drying rate of the lemon slices dried by all drying methods showed only falling rate states, which indicates the drying kinetics were controlled by internal moisture diffusion. Oven drying of lemon slices at 60°C showed the highest drying rate among all, followed by oven dried slices at 50°C, Coulomb-force-heater-assisted-heatpump (CF-HT-HP dried slices at 31°C, Coulomb-force-assisted-heatpump (CF-HP dried slices at 22°C, oven dried slices at 40°C and heatpump dried slices at 22°C. The average effective moisture diffusivity value for the slices dried with these drying methods was found in the range of 16.2 to 63.8´10-4 mm2min-1. In terms of quality assessment, CF-HP dried lemon slices retained the highest amount of Vitamin C as compared to the lemon slices dried by other drying methods. However, it retained relatively lower amount of total phenolic content (TPC as compared to oven dried products. Among of all, CF-HP drying method produced dried lemon slices with the highest Vitamin C (6.74 mg AA / g dry weight whereas oven dried lemon slices at 50°C preserved most of the TPC in the dried slices, which recorded as 13.76 mg GA / g dry weight.

  10. Experimental Study on Ginger Hot Air Drying%生姜热风干燥试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张涛; 赵士杰; 冉雪

    2014-01-01

    First, the temperature of hot air , speed of hot air and thickness of slice are elected as the ginger dryer ’ s in-fluencing factors in this experiment to carry the ginger dryer and dynamic experiment .According to test, the curve of drying characteristics and drying rate of ginger hot air dryer are obtained .After the ginger hot air dryer test , the ginger rehydration test further obtained the relationships between the rehydration characteristics and drying conditions of ginger in different drying conditions .The hot air temperature is higher , hot air speeds greater , slice thickness as small as ginger dry faster , higher drying efficiency , but rehydration of dried increase decrease with increasing temperature and wind speed .%通过选取热风温度、热风速度和切片厚度作为生姜干燥的影响因素进行生姜干燥动力学试验,得到了生姜热风干燥的干燥特性曲线和干燥速率曲线。热风干燥后对干品进行复水试验,从而进一步得出了不同干燥条件下的生姜干品复水特性与干燥条件的关系:热风温度越高,热风速度越大,切片厚度越小,生姜干燥速度越快,干燥效率也越高;但干品的复水特性随温度的升高和风速的增大反而降低。

  11. S-wave velocity self-adaptive prediction based on a variable dry rock frame equivalent model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng-Ying, Yang; Xing-Yao, Yin; Bo, Liu

    2014-08-01

    Seismic velocities are important reservoir parameters in seismic exploration. The Gassmann theory has been widely used to predict velocities of fluid-saturated isotropic reservoirs at low frequency. According to Gassmann theory, dry rock frame moduli are essential input parameters for estimating reservoir velocities. A variable dry rock frame equivalent model called VDEM based on the differential effective medium (DEM) theory is constructed in this paper to obtain the dry rock frame moduli. We decouple the DEM equations by introducing variable parameters, then simplify these decoupled equations to get the equivalent dry rock fame model. The predicted dry rock frame moduli by the VDEM are in good agreement with the laboratory data. The VDEM is also utilized to predict S-wave velocity combined with Gassmann theory. A self-adaptive inversion method is applied to fit the variable parameters with the constraint of P-wave velocity from well logging data. The S-wave velocity is estimated from these inversed parameters. A comparison between the self-adaptive method and the Xu-White model on S-wave velocity estimation is made. The results corroborate that the self-adaptive method is flexible and effective for S-wave velocity prediction.

  12. Simplified architectural method for the solar control optimization of awning and external wall in houses in hot and dry climates

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Muñoz, Víctor Manuel; Porta Gándara, Migual Ángel

    2003-01-01

    In extremely hot and dry climates, like northwestern Mexico, solar gain reduction in houses using solar passive techniques is important for improving comfort inside the construction and to save costs in electrical cooling during the whole year, because the winter season is also hot in those regions. A new one-dimension method is proposed to analyze the interaction between two common shading devices: awnings and external walls to reduce insulation on the facade and inside the house due to fene...

  13. Hot Melt Extrusion and Spray Drying of Co-amorphous Indomethacin-Arginine With Polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lenz, Elisabeth; Löbmann, Korbinian; Rades, Thomas

    2017-01-01

    in a larger scale. In this study, the feasibility of hot melt extrusion for continuous manufacturing of co-amorphous drug-amino acid formulations was examined, challenging the fact that amino acids melt with degradation at high temperatures. Furthermore, the need for an addition of a polymer in this process...... was evaluated. After a polymer screening via the solvent evaporation method, co-amorphous indomethacin-arginine was prepared by a melting-solvent extrusion process without and with copovidone. The obtained products were characterized with respect to their solid-state properties, non-sink dissolution behavior......Co-amorphous drug-amino acid systems have gained growing interest as an alternative to common amorphous formulations which contain polymers as stabilizers. Several preparation methods have recently been investigated, including vibrational ball milling on a laboratory scale or spray drying...

  14. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2; Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2005-09-01

    This guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  15. Thermal comfort design of traditional houses in hot dry region of Algeria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khoukhi, Maatouk [Univ. of Sultan Qaboos, Muscat (Oman). Civil and Architectural Engineering Dept.; Fezzioui, Naima [Bechar Univ. (Algeria). Dept. of Sciences

    2012-07-01

    The new architecture produced recently in the south of Algeria, known as 'modern construction' following the trend of the northern cities, which have different climate, is completely non-adapted to the harsh climate of the south of Algeria and therefore has high-energy consumption. The Ksar of Kenadsa is considered among the most important old cities of the south-west region of Algeria by its cultural and religious dimensions. In this area, the traditional architecture has been built to achieve the comfort in hot season. The new constructed houses have been built following the north architectural design neglecting the very harsh climate of the south region of Algeria characterized by very hot and dry climate. To evaluate the thermal comfort of this modern housing, a comparative analysis for the existing traditional housing is carried out using TRNSYS software. The simulation results show that the modern typical house seems to be inappropriate for desert climate. Indeed, except the use of the air-conditioning in summer there is no other solution which can ensure thermal comfort. (orig.)

  16. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); German, A. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States); Porse, E. [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation, Davis, CA (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story Tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  17. Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weitzel, E.; German, A.; Porse, E.

    2014-06-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  18. Carbon farming in hot, dry coastal areas: an option for climate change mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Becker

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available We present a comprehensive, interdisciplinary project which demonstrates that large-scale plantations of Jatropha curcas – if established in hot, dry coastal areas around the world – could capture 17–25 tonnes of carbon dioxide per hectare per year from the atmosphere (averaged over 20 yr. Based on recent farming results it is confirmed that the Jatropha curcas plant is well adapted to harsh environments and is capable of growing alone or in combination with other tree and shrub species with minimal irrigation in hot deserts where rain occurs only sporadically. Our investigations indicate that there is sufficient unused and marginal land for the widespread cultivation of Jatropha curcas to reduce significantly the current upward trend in atmospheric CO2 levels.

    In a system in which desalinated seawater is used for irrigation and for delivery of mineral nutrients, the sequestration costs were estimated to range from 42–63 € per tonne CO2. This result makes carbon farming a technology that is competitive with carbon capture and storage (CCS. In addition, high-resolution simulations using an advanced land-surface-atmosphere model indicate that a 10 000 km2 plantation could produce a reduction in mean surface temperature and an onset or increase in rain and dew fall at a regional level.

  19. Stability of Capsaicinoids and Antioxidants in Dry Hot Peppers under Different Packaging and Storage Temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qumer Iqbal

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The maintenance of the quality and storage life of perishable fruits and vegetables is a major challenge for the food industry. In this study, the effects of different temperatures, packaging materials and storage time on the stability of capsaicinoids and antioxidants, such as total carotenoids, ascorbic acid and total phenolic compounds, were studied in three commercially cultivated hot pepper hybrids, namely Sky Red, Maha and Wonder King. For this purpose, dry whole pods were packed in jute bags and low-density polyethylene bags (LDPE, stored for five months under controlled conditions at 20, 25 or 30 ○C and analyzed on Day 0 and at 50-day intervals until Day 150. The three hot pepper hybrids differed significantly with respect to their capsaicinoids and antioxidant concentrations, but the results indicated that with the increase in storage temperature and time, a gradual and steady decrease in these levels was equally observed for all hybrids. Overall, mean concentrations after five months were significantly reduced by 22.6% for ascorbic acid, 19.0% for phenolic compounds, 17% for carotenoids and 12.7% for capsaicinoids. The trends of capsaicinoids and antioxidants evolution were decreasing gradually during storage until Day 150, this effect being more pronounced at higher temperature. Furthermore, the disappearance rates of capsaicinoids and antioxidants were higher in peppers packed in jute bags than in those wrapped with LDPE. In conclusion, despite the sensitivity of capsaicinoids and antioxidants to oxygen, light and moisture, the packaging in natural jute or synthetic LDPE plastic bags, as well as the storage at ambient temperature preserved between 77.4% and 87.3% of the initial amounts of these health- and nutrition-promoting compounds during five months’ storage.

  20. Novel DNA Extraction Method Unveiled the Ancient Hot Deep Biosphere Concealed in Terrestrial Sedimentary Rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouduka, M.; Suko, T.; Okuzawa, K.; Fukuda, A.; Nanba, K.; Yamamoto, M.; Sakata, S.; Ito, K.; Suzuki, Y.

    2009-12-01

    It has been proposed that the hot deep biosphere is distributed deeply in the crust of the Earth. Below the upper limit of life, prokaryotic habitats extend at a depth of 4 km within a typical range of thermal gradients (2.5-3°C/100m). In contrary, large geothermal gradients allow the hot deep biosphere approaching to the Earth’s surface. We conducted aseptic and deoxygenated drilling targeting Miocene marine siliceous rocks in a tectonically stable inland fore-arc basin in central Japan. Although the in-situ groundwater temperature was 30.2°C at a maximum drilling depth of 352 mbgl, opal-CT and clinoptilolite, which commonly form as a result of progressive burial at 30-60°C and over 70°C, respectively, were detected by XRD analysis. However, burial-driven degradation and transformation of sterols (sterene to sterane) was not evident in the core samples. As presented by Y. Suzuki et al. in this meeting, extant microbial populations were dominated by Pseudomonas spp. and Flavobacterium spp. with cell numbers ranging ~107-108 cells/cm3 rock. Despite the abundance of microbial cells, DNA were not extracted from the core samples by conventional methods. We developed a DNA extraction method to avoid binding of DNA onto the siliceous mineral matrix by heating under alkaline conditions, which resulted in the successful retrieval of PCR-amplifiable DNA. Unexpectedly, 16S rRNA gene sequences closely related thermophilic Geobacillus stearothermophilus and Thermus thermophilus were dominant in the clone libraries from 300- and 350-m deep core samples, while those almost identical to the Pseudomonas spp. were minor. Based on the correlation between the GC contents of 16S rRNA gene sequences and growth temperatures of prokaryotes, the estimated growth temperatures were 90.0°C (G+C=66.3%) and 67.5°C (G+C=61.3%) for G. stearothermophilus and T. thermophilus, respectively. From these results, it is implied that temperature rise in the past led to the colonization of

  1. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  2. Hot air drying characteristics of mango ginger: Prediction of drying kinetics by mathematical modeling and artificial neural network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, Thirupathihalli Pandurangappa Krishna; Manohar, Balaraman

    2014-12-01

    Mango ginger (Curcuma amada) was dried in a through-flow dryer system at different temperatures (40-70 °C) and air velocities (0.84 - 2.25 m/s) to determine the effect of drying on drying rate and effective diffusivity. As the temperature and air velocity increased, drying time significantly decreased. Among the ten different thin layer drying models considered to determine the kinetic drying parameters, semi empirical Midilli et al., model gave the best fit for all drying conditions. Effective moisture diffusivity varied from 3.7 × 10(-10) m(2)/s to 12.5 × 10(-10) m(2)/s over the temperature and air velocity range of study. Effective moisture diffusivity regressed well with Arrhenius model and activation energy of the model was found to be 32.6 kJ/mol. Artificial neural network modeling was also employed to predict the drying behaviour and found suitable to describe the drying kinetics with very high correlation coefficient of 0.998.

  3. Mathematical Modeling of Drying Kinetics of Bird’s Eye Chilies in a Convective Hot-Air Dryer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kongdej LIMPAIBOON

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The drying kinetics of red bird’s eye chilies and the color of the product were investigated in a laboratory scale hot-air dryer under 3 air temperatures of 55, 60 and 65 °C. The 6 mathematical models (Lewis model; Page model; Henderson and Pabis model; Logarithmic model; Modified Page model; and Wang and Singh model were used to fit the experimental data obtained in order to estimate the moisture ratio as the function of drying time. The results showed that operating temperature enhanced the kinetics of the drying of chilies; the drying times of chilies at 55, 60 and 65 °C were 510, 360 and 330 min, respectively. The experimental drying curves obtained at all operating conditions took place in the falling rate period. Comparing the dried products, it was observed that the red bird’s eye chilies dried at a lower temperature had higher Hunter L (lightness, a* (redness and b* (yellowness values. The experimental data were fitted to different drying models. The performance of these models was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the observed and predicted moisture ratios. Among the 6 mathematical models, the Wang and Singh model satisfactorily described the drying kinetics of chilies.

  4. Theoretical Performance Analysis of Indirect-Direct Evaporative Cooler in Hot and Dry Climates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.K.KULKARNI,

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper theoretically analyses the performance of indirect-direct two stage cooler in hot and dry climate of Bhopal, India. Indirect cooling stage consisting of plate type wet surface heat exchangerfollowed by direct cooling stage consisting of rigid cellulose and aspen fiber in rectangular, semicylindrical and semi-hexagonal shapes as cooling media is considered. Based on summer weather data ofBhopal, most frequently occurring condition of 39.9 0C DBT and 32.8 % RH is selected for the analysis. Indirect evaporative cooler effectiveness is estimated in the range of 0.95 to 0.82 for primary air flow rate of 0.3 to 1.25 kg/s. Saturation efficiency in the direct cooling mode is obtained in the range of 89.1 to 63.4 % and cooling capacity from 11472 to 52576 kJ/h for different combinations. In combined mode saturation efficiency is obtained between 121.5 and 106.7 % and cooling capacity between 18244 to 73809 kJ/h. The final outlet temperature of air in combined mode ranges between 22.5 0C and 24.6 0C.

  5. Characterization and performance assessment of solid dispersions prepared by hot melt extrusion and spray drying process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrawal, Anjali M; Dudhedia, Mayur S; Patel, Ashwinkumar D; Raikes, Michelle S

    2013-11-30

    The present study investigated effect of manufacturing methods such as hot melt extrusion (HME) and spray drying (SD) on physicochemical properties, manufacturability, physical stability and product performance of solid dispersion. Solid dispersions of compound X and PVP VA64 (1:2) when prepared by SD and HME process were amorphous by polarized light microscopy, powder X-ray diffractometry, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry analyses with a single glass transition temperature. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Raman spectroscopic analyses revealed similar molecular level interactions between compound X and PVP VA64 as evident by overlapping FT-IR and FT Raman spectra in SD and HME solid dispersions. The compactibility, tabletability, disintegration and dissolution performance were similar for solid dispersions prepared by both processing techniques. Differences in material properties such as surface area, morphological structure, powder densities, and flow characteristics were observed between SD and HME solid dispersion. The SD solid dispersion was physically less stable compared to HME solid dispersion under accelerated stability conditions. Findings from this study suggest that similar product performance could be obtained if the molecular properties of the solid dispersion processed by two different techniques are similar. However differences in material properties might affect the physical stability of the solid dispersions.

  6. Livelihood Capital and Livelihood Diversification for Different Farmers in Yuanjiang Dry- Hot River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wenjuan ZHAO; Shilong YANG; Xiao WANG

    2016-01-01

    Under the analytical framework of sustainable livelihoods,we establish the evaluation indicator system for farmers’ livelihood capital,to evaluate the current livelihood capital and livelihood diversification for different farmers in the Dai nationality region of Xinping County in the Yuanjiang dry-hot river valley area,and discuss the relationship between livelihood capital and livelihood diversification. Studies have shown that the mode dominated by agriculture,supplemented by non-agricultural activities,combined with breeding,is the commonly used livelihood strategy for farmers in this region. As farmers change from pure agriculture to non-agriculture,their total livelihood capital and nonagricultural livelihood diversification index will increase,while agricultural livelihood diversification index will decrease. In the meantime,their livelihood activities gradually shift from agricultural to non-agricultural ones,which is mainly reflected in the combination of both agricultural and non-agricultural activities. Regression analysis on livelihood capital and livelihood diversification shows that natural and physical capital is the basis of realizing agricultural livelihood diversification. Farmers with rich natural and physical capital will prefer agricultural livelihood strategies. While financial and human capital is the driving force for farmers’ transition from pure agriculture to non-agriculture.

  7. Shrinkage modeling of concrete reinforced by palm fibres in hot dry environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akchiche, Hamida; Kriker, Abdelouahed

    2017-02-01

    The cement materials, such as concrete and conventional mortar present very little resistance to traction and cracking, these hydraulic materials which induces large withdrawals on materials and cracks in structures. The hot dry environments such as: the Saharan regions of Algeria, Indeed, concrete structures in these regions are very fragile, and present high shrinkage. Strengthening of these materials by fibers can provide technical solutions for improving the mechanical performance. The aim of this study is firstly, to reduce the shrinkage of conventional concrete with its reinforcement with date palm fibers. In fact, Algeria has an extraordinary resources in natural fibers (from Palm, Abaca, Hemp) but without valorization in practical areas, especially in building materials. Secondly, to model the shrinkage behavior of concrete was reinforced by date palm fibers. In the literature, several models for still fiber concrete were founded but few are offers for natural fiber concretes. To do so, a still fiber concretes model of YOUNG - CHERN was used. According to the results, a reduction of shrinkage with reinforcement by date palm fibers was showed. A good ability of molding of shrinkage of date palm reinforced concrete with YOUNG - CHERN Modified model was obtained. In fact, a good correlation between experimental data and the model data was recorded.

  8. Building America Best Practices Series, Volume 9: Builders Challenge Guide to 40% Whole-House Energy Savings in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, Michael C.; Gilbride, Theresa L.; Hefty, Marye G.; Williamson, Jennifer L.; Ruiz, Kathleen A.; Bartlett, Rosemarie; Love, Pat M.

    2009-10-23

    This best practices guide is the ninth in a series of guides for builders produced by the U.S. Department of Energy’s Building America Program. This guide book is a resource to help builders design and construct homes that are among the most energy-efficient available, while addressing issues such as building durability, indoor air quality, and occupant health, safety, and comfort. With the measures described in this guide, builders in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates can achieve homes that have whole house energy savings of 40% over the Building America benchmark (a home built to mid-1990s building practices roughly equivalent to the 1993 Model Energy Code) with no added overall costs for consumers. These best practices are based on the results of research and demonstration projects conducted by Building America’s research teams. The guide includes information for managers, designers, marketers, site supervisors, and subcontractors, as well as case studies of builders who are successfully building homes that cut energy use by 40% in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates.

  9. Experimental Study of Cowpeas Hot Air Drying%豇豆热风干燥实验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段罗佳; 赵士杰; 杜文亮; 周超

    2015-01-01

    通过对豇豆进行恒温干燥与变温干燥这两种不同的干燥方式,研究了豇豆在不同预处理方式、温度和风速下的热风干燥特性,并绘制了湿基含水率曲线和干燥速率曲线。结果表明:恒温干燥时,温度及风速是影响干燥的主要因素,长度影响干燥程度较小;变温干燥时,豇豆色泽及表面质量比恒温干燥时要好。%The experiments were carried out cowpea drying with variable temperature and thermostat drying .Under different pretreatments, temperature and wind speed ,researching of cowpea hot air drying characteristics and drawing wet basis moisture content and drying rate curves .The results showed that:at a constant temperature drying , temperature and wind speed on the drying effects of greater , but length the impact is relatively small .When the variable temperature dr-ying , color and surface quality is better than constant dry .

  10. Rainfall infiltration on hilly slopes under various lithology and its effect on tree growth in the dry-hot valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG; Zhong; XIONG; Donghong; ZHOU; Hongyi; ZHANG; Xinbao

    2003-01-01

    Revegetation is very difficult in dry-hot valleys in China. Rainfall infiltration capability on hilly slopes is one of the key factors determining soil moisture conditions and tree growth in the dry-hot valley. Low rainfall infiltration often results in soil drought on slopes under the dry-hot valleys climate. Rainfall infiltration capability varies greatly with the difference of slope lithologic porosity. The infiltration rates of five lithologic slope-types, Schist Slope, Grit Slope, Gravel Slope, the slightly eroded Mudstone Slope and the intensively eroded Mudstone Slope, are 1.40-8.67, 6.33, 0.69-2.20, 0.6-1.3 and 0.03-0.63 mm/min, respectively. With its viscid compact soil body and low infiltration capability which causes little infiltrating rainfall, mudstone slope can afford little effective supply to soil water and leads to serious drought of soil in dry seasons, resulting in cessation of growth or even wide-spread death of trees due to physiological damage for the excessive deficit of water in dry season and also the low productivity of stands. Hence, it is extremely difficult to restore vegetation on this type of slope. The other four lithologic slope-types, however, with well-developed soil crevice, high infiltration capability and thus more infiltrating rainfall, can afford more available soil water supply and the trees on them can obtain better growth and relatively higher productivity, compared with those on Mudstone Slope. Revegetation in dry-hot valleys is controlled by the soil moisture conditions of different slope-types, and it can be implemented by relying on the dominative life-form plant species, the suitable spatial arrangement of different life-forms of arbor-shrub-herb species, and the establishment of ecological community relationship between vegetation and soil moisture in habits. On the other hand, ground making measures for forestation and the runoff-collecting engineering measures to increase the rainfall infiltration are the major

  11. Haematology and behaviour of pullets transported by road and administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2008-10-01

    The effects of ascorbic acid (AA) on pullets transported by road for 6h during the hot-dry season were investigated. Forty Shika Brown pullets administered orally with AA just before transportation served as experimental, while another 40 pullets given sterile water only served as control. Blood samples analyzed before and after transportation in control pullets showed a decrease (P0.05) from those obtained pre-transportation. The result showed that the transportation was stressful in control pullets. The behavioural activities of the pullets' post-transportation period indicated that AA facilitated the transition of the state of depression that followed excitation back to excitation immediately after transportation. In conclusion, AA administration ameliorated the adverse effect of road transportation stress during the hot-dry season.

  12. Modulating Role of Vitamins C and E against Transport-Induced Stress in Pullets during the Hot-Dry Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2011-01-01

    The modulating effects of ascorbic acid (AA), vitamin E (E), and a combination of AA and E (AA + E) against eight-hour road transportation stress were investigated in 120 pullets during the hot-dry season. The result obtained showed that handling, loading and transportation induced lymphopenia, neutrophilia, liveweight loss, and mortality, which was alleviated by oral administration of AA, E, and AA + E at doses of 60 mg, 30 mg, and 60 + 30 mg per kg bodyweight, respectively, 30 minutes before being loaded and transported. The meteorological conditions recorded during the study period were higher (P < .05) than the thermoneutral values established for chickens in the zone. In conclusion, the administration of vitamins AA, E, and AA + E, especially AA, ameliorated the risk of adverse effects of handling, loading, transportation, and thermal stress in pullets during the hot-dry season.

  13. LIQUEFACTION OF CORN DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS IN HOT-COMPRESSED PHENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasu Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to liquefy corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS, a by-product in corn ethanol production, to produce liquid products as a potential substitute for petroleum-derived phenol or an additive in the manufacturing of phenolic resins. Efficient liquefaction of DDGS has been realized with hot-compressed phenol at 200-450oC. Effects of liquefaction temperature, initial phenol/DDGS ratio, residence time and catalysts on yields of liquefaction products, as well as characterizations of typical liquid and solid products, have been investigated. The yield of liquid products increased with temperature, while it peaked at around 300oC, due to condensation/cracking reactions of the liquid intermediates/products to form solid products (i.e., coke/char at temperatures higher than 300oC. The liquid yield increased monotonically with the initial phenol/DDGS ratio for a specified treatment time and temperature. An increased residence time generally produced a lower yield of liquid products, and a higher yield of solid residue, which was likely due to the increased coke/char formation from liquid products for a prolonged residence time. The yield of liquid products reached a maximum of 97% at 300oC for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 2/1. K2CO3, Rb2CO3 and NaOH were found very effective catalysts for enhancing the liquid yields. The use of these catalysts resulted in 25% increase in the liquid yields for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 1/1 at 300oC.

  14. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2017-05-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human (R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  15. Effect of freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil on house dust mites in soft toys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chin-Fu; Wu, Francis Fu-Sheng; Chen, Chi-Ying; Crane, Julian; Siebers, Rob

    2011-09-01

    Soft toys are a major source of house dust mites (HDM) and HDM allergens, and sleeping with soft toys is a significant risk factor for HDM sensitization. We studied three techniques to eliminate HDM from soft toys, namely freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil. Thirty-six toys (12 in each treatment group) were enumerated for live HDM by the heat escape method before and after freezing overnight, hot tumble drying for 1 h and washing in 0.2% to 0.4% eucalyptus oil. Freezing, hot tumble drying and washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in significant reductions in live HDM, an average reduction of 95.1%, 89.1% and 95.1%, respectively. Additionally, washing with eucalyptus oil resulted in a significant reduction in HDM allergens as well from a geometric mean of 9.12 μg/g to 0.37 μg/g (p = 0.033). These three HDM elimination techniques give parents of infants effective and acceptable methods of limiting HDM exposure.

  16. Simultaneous application of microwave energy and hot air to whole drying process of apple slices: drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy aspect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horuz, Erhan; Bozkurt, Hüseyin; Karataş, Haluk; Maskan, Medeni

    2017-09-01

    Drying kinetics, modeling, temperature profile and energy indices were investigated in apple slices during drying by a specially designed microwave-hot air domestic hybrid oven at the following conditions: 120, 150 and 180 W microwave powers coupled with 50, 60 and 70 °C air temperatures. Both sources of energy were applied simultaneously during the whole drying processes. The drying process continued until the moisture content of apple slices reached to 20% from 86.3% (wet basis, w.b). Drying times ranged from 330 to 800 min and decreased with increasing microwave power and air temperatures. The constant rate period was only observed at low microwave powers and air temperatures. Two falling rate periods were observed. Temperature of apple slices sharply increased within the first 60 min, then reached equilibrium with drying medium and finally increased at the end of the drying process. In order to describe drying behavior of apple slices nine empirical models were applied. The Modified Logistic Model fitted the best our experimental data (R 2 = 0.9955-0.9998; χ 2 = 3.46 × 10-5-7.85 × 10-4 and RMSE = 0.0052-0.0221). The effective moisture and thermal diffusivities were calculated by Fick's second law and ranged from 1.42 × 10-9 to 3.31 × 10-9 m2/s and 7.70 × 10-9 to 12.54 × 10-9 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy (Ea) values were calculated from effective moisture diffusivity (Deff), thermal diffusivity (α) and the rate constant of the best model (k). The Ea values found from these three terms were similar and varied from 13.04 to 33.52 kJ/mol. Energy consumption and specific energy requirement of the hybrid drying of apple slices decreased and energy efficiency of the drying system increased with increasing microwave power and air temperature. Apples can be dried rapidly and effectively by use of the hybrid technique.

  17. Modeling of mass transfer performance of hot-air drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L. slices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhu Aishi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to investigate the transfer characteristics of the sweet potato drying process, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was applied to study the influences of drying temperature, hot air velocity and thickness of sweet potato slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of sweet potato slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated. The result showed that temperature, velocity and thickness influenced the drying process significantly. The Logarithmic model showed the best fit to experimental drying data for temperature and the Wang and Singh model were found to be the most satisfactory for velocity and thickness. It was also found that, with the increase of temperature from 60 to 80°C, the effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.962×10-10 to 4.694×10-10 m2×s-1, and it fitted the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy was 23.29 kJ×mol-1; with the increase of hot air velocity from 0.423 to 1.120 m×s-1, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 2.877×10-10 to 3.760×10-10 m2•s-1; with the increase of thickness of sweet potato slice from 0.002 m to 0.004 m, the values of effective moisture diffusion coefficient varied from 3.887×10-10 to 1.225×10-9 m2•s-1.

  18. Motion analysis of waste rock in gas-solids fluidized bed in coal dry beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭迎福; 陈安华; 张永忠; 邓志鹏; 毛树楷

    2002-01-01

    Through the analysis of forces acting on the waste rock in the gas-solid fluidized bed, the waste rock velocity equations and displacement equations in the gas-solids fluidized bed were achieved and the influential factors of the waste rock motion in the fluidized bed were studied in this paper. The conclusions show that the primary factors influencing the waste rock motion are the waste rock grain size and the scraper velocity according to the computer simulation. This has provided the theoretical foundation both for improving the separating effect and ascertaining the length of the separating cell.

  19. Oil sands thickened froth treatment tailings exhibit acid rock drainage potential during evaporative drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, Petr; Kuznetsova, Alsu; Foght, Julia M; Siddique, Tariq

    2015-02-01

    Bitumen extraction from oil sands ores after surface mining produces different tailings waste streams: 'froth treatment tailings' are enriched in pyrite relative to other streams. Tailings treatment can include addition of organic polymers to produce thickened tailings (TT). TT may be further de-watered by deposition into geotechnical cells for evaporative drying to increase shear strength prior to reclamation. To examine the acid rock drainage (ARD) potential of TT, we performed predictive analyses and laboratory experiments on material from field trials of two types of thickened froth treatment tailings (TT1 and TT2). Acid-base accounting (ABA) of initial samples showed that both TT1 and TT2 initially had net acid-producing potential, with ABA values of -141 and -230 t CaCO₃ equiv. 1000 t(-1) of TT, respectively. In long-term kinetic experiments, duplicate ~2-kg samples of TT were incubated in shallow trays and intermittently irrigated under air flow for 459 days to simulate evaporative field drying. Leachates collected from both TT samples initially had pH~6.8 that began decreasing after ~50 days (TT2) or ~250 days (TT1), stabilizing at pH~2. Correspondingly, the redox potential of leachates increased from 100-200 mV to 500-580 mV and electrical conductivity increased from 2-5 dS m(-1) to 26 dS m(-1), indicating dissolution of minerals during ARD. The rapid onset and prolonged ARD observed with TT2 is attributed to its greater pyrite (13.4%) and lower carbonate (1.4%) contents versus the slower onset of ARD in TT1 (initially 6.0% pyrite and 2.5% carbonates). 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing analysis revealed rapid shift in microbial community when conditions became strongly acidic (pH~2) favoring the enrichment of Acidithiobacillus and Sulfobacillus bacteria in TT. This is the first report showing ARD potential of TT and the results have significant implications for effective management of pyrite-enriched oil sands tailings streams/deposits. Copyright © 2014

  20. Solar heating and hot water system installed at Shoney's Restaurant, North Little Rock, Arkansas

    Science.gov (United States)

    1980-01-01

    A solar heating system designed to supply a major portion of the space and water heating requirements for a restaurant is described. The restaurant has a floor space of approximately 4,650 square feet and requires approximate 1500 gallons of hot water daily. The solar energy system consists of 1,428 square feet of Chamberlain flat plate liquid collector subsystem, and a 1500 gallon storage subsystem circulating hot water producing 321 x 10 to the 6th power Btu/Yr (specified) building heating and hot water heating.

  1. Hot Resistance Estimation for Dry Type Transformer Using Multiple Variable Regression, Multiple Polynomial Regression and Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents a novel method for the determination of average winding temperature rise of transformers under its predetermined field operating conditions. Rise in the winding temperature was determined from the estimated values of winding resistance during the heat run test conducted as per IEC standard. Approach: The estimation of hot resistance was modeled using Multiple Variable Regression (MVR, Multiple Polynomial Regression (MPR and soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The modeled hot resistance will help to find the load losses at any load situation without using complicated measurement set up in transformers. Results: These techniques were applied for the hot resistance estimation for dry type transformer by using the input variables cold resistance, ambient temperature and temperature rise. The results are compared and they show a good agreement between measured and computed values. Conclusion: According to our experiments, the proposed methods are verified using experimental results, which have been obtained from temperature rise test performed on a 55 kVA dry-type transformer.

  2. Generation of pyroclastic flows and surges by hot-rock avalanches from the dome of Mount St. Helens volcano, USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellors, R.A.; Waitt, R.B.; Swanson, D.A.

    1988-01-01

    Several hot-rock avalanches have occurred during the growth of the composite dome of Mount St. Helens, Washington between 1980 and 1987. One of these occurred on 9 May 1986 and produced a fan-shaped avalanche deposit of juvenile dacite debris together with a more extensive pyroclastic-flow deposit. Laterally thinning deposits and abrasion and baking of wooden and plastic objects show that a hot ash-cloud surge swept beyond the limits of the pyroclastic flow. Plumes that rose 2-3 km above the dome and vitric ash that fell downwind of the volcano were also effects of this event, but no explosion occurred. All the facies observed originated from a single avalanche. Erosion and melting of craterfloor snow by the hot debris caused debris flows in the crater, and a small flood that carried juvenile and other clasts north of the crater. A second, broadly similar event occured in October 1986. Larger events of this nature could present a significant volcanic hazard. ?? 1988 Springer-Verlag.

  3. Preliminary Study on Biological Characteristics of Degraded Soil Ecosystems in Dry Hot Valley of the Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Distribution characteristics of soil animals, microorganisms and enzymatic activity were studied in thedry red soil and Vertisol ecosystems with different degradation degrees in the Yuanmou dry hot valley of theJinsha River, China. Results showed that Hymenoptera, Araneae and Collembola were the dominant groupsof soil animals in the plots studied. The numbers of groups and individuals and density of soil animals in thedry red soil series were higher than those in the Vertisol series, and the numbers of individuals and density ofsoil animals decreased with the degree of soil degradation. Bacteria dominated microbiocoenosis not only inthe dry red soils but also in the Vertisols. Microbial numbers of the dry red soil series were higher than thoseof Vertisol series, and decreased with the degree of soil degradation. The activities of catalase, invertase,urease and alkaline phosphatase declined with the degradation degree and showed a significant decline withdepth in the profiles of both the dry red soils and the Vertisols, but activities of polyphenol oxidase andacid and neutral phosphatase showed the same tendencies only in the Vertisols. It was concluded that thecharacteristics of soil animals, microorganisms and enzymatic activity could be used as the bio-indicators toshow the degradation degree of the dry red soils and Vertisols. Correlation among these soil bio-indicatorswas highly significant.

  4. Drying characteristics of garlic ( Allium sativum L) slices in a convective hot air dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demiray, Engin; Tulek, Yahya

    2014-06-01

    The effects of drying temperatures on the drying kinetics of garlic slices were investigated using a cabinet-type dryer. The experimental drying data were fitted best to the Page and Modified Page models apart from other theoretical models to predict the drying kinetics. The effective moisture diffusivities varied from 4.214 × 10-10 to 2.221 × 10-10 m2 s-1 over the temperature range studied, and activation energy was 30.582 kJ mol-1.

  5. Effects of Slice Processing on Hot Air Drying Characteristics of Semi-dry Original Red Jujube%切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩志慧; 郭婷; 何新益; 程莉莉

    2013-01-01

      The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of slice processing on hot air drying characteristics of semi-dry red jujube. Drying characteristics of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube under different hot air drying temperature were compared. The drying kinetics model of red jujube slice and origine semi-dry original red jujube were founded. Results showed that slice processing could decrease the drying time of semi-dry original red jujube. Page model provided better simulation of drying curves for red jujube slice at different hot drying temperature. While Henderson and Pabis model provided better simulation of drying curves for origine semi-dry original red jujube at different hot air drying temperature. The effective moisture diffusivity of red jujube was 10 times that of origine semi-dry original red jujube, among 1.77×10-5 m2/s-2.99×10-5 m2/s and 4.56×10-6 m2/s-7.20×10-6 m2/s, respectively. Slice processing has the significant effects on drying characteristics of semi-dry original red jujube dried by hot air drying.%  为探索切片处理对半干红枣热风干燥特性的影响,以半干原枣果作参照,比较了不同热风干燥温度下枣片和枣果的干燥特性,分别建立了干燥动力学模型。研究结果表明,切片处理可以缩短红枣的干燥时间;枣片的热风干燥过程符合Page方程,而枣果的热风干燥过程符合Henderson and Pabis方程。枣片的有效扩散系数是枣果有效扩散系数的的10倍左右,分别为1.77×10-5 m2/s~2.99×10-5 m2/s、4.56×10-6 m2/s~7.20×10-6 m2/s。结果表明切片处理对红枣的干燥特性有明显的影响。

  6. Simplified architectural method for the solar control optimization of awnings and external walls in houses in hot and dry climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gomez-Munoz, V.M. [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Mexico City (Mexico). Centro Interdisciplinario de Ciencias Marinas; Porta-Gandara, M.A. [Centro de Investigaciones Biologicas del Noroeste, Mexico City (Mexico)

    2003-01-01

    In extremely hot and dry climates, like northwestern Mexico, solar gain reduction in houses using solar passive techniques is important for improving comfort inside the construction and to save costs in electrical cooling during the whole year, because the winter season is also hot in those regions. A new one-dimension method is proposed to analyze the interaction between two common shading devices: awnings and external walls to reduce insulation on the facade and inside the house due to fenestration. The method is demonstrated by optimizing a typical dwelling with an azimuth of 90{sup o} (east), which, achieves 45% reduction in direct solar insulation during the summer solstice on the profile of the facade. Results showed that this method is simple and reliable in increasing the shadow on the facade and to block completely the solar beam radiation on the windowpane with optimal relations between these shading devices. (author)

  7. Growth, Mineral Deposition, and Physiological Responses of Broiler Chickens Offered Honey in Drinking Water during Hot-Dry Season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monsuru Oladimeji Abioja

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Growing broilers were offered either 0 (0H, 10 (10H, 20 mL (20H honey, or 0.5 g vitamin C/litre water (AA during hot-dry season. Honey had no significant (>0.05 effect on feed intake (FI, weight gain (WG, feed conversion ratio (FCR, water intake (WI, survival (SURV, dressed percentage (DRE, breast meat (BRE, gizzard (GIZ, drumstick (DRU, shank (SHA, thigh (THI, tibia volume (VOL, and magnesium (MAG. Effect of honey was significant (0.005. Higher dose of honey lowered PR and HR. Honey significantly (0.05 affected. 20H broilers had higher THY than 0H and 10H groups. In conclusion, honey did not affect growth but might improve broilers’ welfare when offered up to 20H during hot periods.

  8. Mass transfer characteristics of bisporus mushroom ( Agaricus bisporus) slices during convective hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanbarian, Davoud; Baraani Dastjerdi, Mojtaba; Torki-Harchegani, Mehdi

    2016-05-01

    An accurate understanding of moisture transfer parameters, including moisture diffusivity and moisture transfer coefficient, is essential for efficient mass transfer analysis and to design new dryers or improve existing drying equipments. The main objective of the present study was to carry out an experimental and theoretical investigation of mushroom slices drying and determine the mass transfer characteristics of the samples dried under different conditions. The mushroom slices with two thicknesses of 3 and 5 mm were dried at air temperatures of 40, 50 and 60 °C and air flow rates of 1 and 1.5 m s-1. The Dincer and Dost model was used to determine the moisture transfer parameters and predict the drying curves. It was observed that the entire drying process took place in the falling drying rate period. The obtained lag factor and Biot number indicated that the moisture transfer in the samples was controlled by both internal and external resistance. The effective moisture diffusivity and the moisture transfer coefficient increased with increasing air temperature, air flow rate and samples thickness and varied in the ranges of 6.5175 × 10-10 to 1.6726 × 10-9 m2 s-1 and 2.7715 × 10-7 to 3.5512 × 10-7 m s-1, respectively. The validation of the Dincer and Dost model indicated a good capability of the model to describe the drying curves of the mushroom slices.

  9. The Research Status and Prospects of the Hot Air Drying and Freeze Drying for Papaya%木瓜热风干燥和冷冻干燥的研究现状和展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李铭; 陈冬梅; 侯萍; 赵鹤飞; 余善鸣

    2013-01-01

    果蔬的干燥主要有热干、微波、冻干和组合干燥。木瓜的干燥以热干为主,冻干能最大程度保持木瓜的色泽、风味和营养价值,但研究报道较少。今后木瓜干燥研究的主要内容将是提高品质和降低产品成本。因此,木瓜的热干和冻干的组合干燥将是研究的重点。%The primary drying technologys of fruits and vegetables are hot-air drying , microwave drying , freeze drying and combined drying. The mainly drying method of papaya is hot-air drying. The freeze-dried can keep the greatest degree of color, flavor and nutritional value of papaya, However, it is lack of references on that. Future research of the drying technology of papaya will be improvement of the quality and to reduce product cost. Therefore, the combined drying technology of hot-air and freeze of papaya will become a study emphasis in further research.

  10. Effect of ascorbic acid administration on erythrocyte osmotic fragility of pigs transported by road during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asala, Olayinka O; Ayo, Joseph O; Rekwot, Peter I; Minka, Ndazo S; Omoniwa, David O; Adenkola, Adeshina Y

    2011-04-01

    The experiments were performed in order to determine the effect of 8-h road transportation of pigs on erythrocytes osmotic fragility during the hot-dry season, and the ameliorative role of ascorbic acid. Twenty-three adult pigs comprising of both sexes served as subjects for the study. Thirteen pigs administered ascorbic acid (AA) per os 30 min before transportation, at a dose rate of 100 mg/kg served as experimental animals, while ten pigs administered with distilled water per os served as control, and were transported for 8 h during the hot-dry season. EDTA blood samples collected a day before (pre-transportation), immediately after 8-h transportation and 7 days post-transportation were used to determine erythrocyte osmotic fragility. The ambient temperature (AT) and relative humidity (RH) measured within the vehicle ranged between 30.5-39.0 °C and 40.0-71.0% respectively. These values were outside the thermoneutral zone for the pig, indicating that the season was thermally stressful. Results obtained showed a significant difference (p<0.05) in percent haemolysis recorded at NaCl concentrations of 0.4% and 0.6% immediately after transportation in experimental pigs and at 0.5, 0.6, 0.8 and 0.9% NaCl concentrations in experimental pigs 7 days post-transportation. In conclusion, result from the present study indicated that 8-h road transportation during the hot-dry season could induce stress resulting in haemolysis of erythrocytes and AA administration ameliorated the stress.

  11. Inactivation of Bacillus cereus Spores on Red Chili Peppers Using a Combined Treatment of Aqueous Chlorine Dioxide and Hot-Air Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Songyi; Lee, Huyong; Ryu, Jee-Hoon; Kim, Hoikyung

    2017-08-01

    The effect of a combined treatment using aqueous chlorine dioxide (ClO2 ) and hot-air drying to inactivate Bacillus cereus spores on red chili peppers was evaluated. Ten washed and dried pepper samples, each comprising half of a single pepper (Capsicum annuum L.), were inoculated with B. cereus spore suspension. The inoculated samples were washed with sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl; 50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) or ClO2 (50, 100, or 200 μg/mL) solution for 1 min and then air-dried (25 ± 1 °C, 47 ± 1% relative humidity), which was followed by drying with hot air at 55 °C for up to 48 h. The spore populations on the samples were enumerated and their aw and chromaticity values were measured. The spore numbers immediately after treatment with NaOCl and ClO2 were not significantly different. A more rapid reduction in spore numbers was observed in the samples treated with ClO2 than those treated with NaOCl during drying. A combined treatment of ClO2 and hot-air drying significantly reduced the spore populations to below the detection limit (1.7 log CFU/sample). B. cereus spores on chili peppers were successfully inactivated by washing with ClO2 solution followed by hot-air drying whereas the pepper color was maintained. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  12. 柠檬热风干燥特性及数学模型%Hot-air drying characteristics and mathematical model of lemon

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄艳斌; 郑优; 陈海桥; 李颖; 陈厚荣

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics hot-air drying of lemon and its mathematical model were studied with taking the fresh lemon as raw material. Effects of different factors which were lemon slice of thickness, hot-air temperature and wind speed,on the hot-air drying characteristics of lemon were studied to get lemon drying of drying characteristics of curve,drying rate curve. The experimental data was processed base on the SAS8.0 software to establish the drying mathematical model of lemon. Results showed that the hot-air temperature and the lemon slice of thickness had a greater impact on drying rate,while the wind speed on drying rate was less affected. And the hot-air drying model of lemon agreed with Page model.%以新鲜柠檬为原料,研究其热风干燥特性及数学模型。以柠檬片厚度、热风温度、热风风速为因素,分析其对柠檬热风干燥特性的影响,建立柠檬热风干燥的干燥特性曲线、干燥速率曲线,并利用SAS8.0软件对试验数据进行拟合,构建柠檬热风干燥数学模型。结果表明:热风温度、柠檬片厚度对柠檬热风干燥的速率有较大影响,而热风风速对干燥速率的影响较小;柠檬热风干燥符合Page模型。

  13. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arawwawala, Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka; Hewageegana, Horadugoda Gamage Sujatha Pushpakanthi; Arambewela, Lakshmi Sriyani Rajapaksha; Ariyawansa, Hettiarachchige Sami

    2011-04-01

    The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae) possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a) determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b) screening for phytochemicals; and (c) development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  14. Standardization of spray-dried powder of Piper betle hot water extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liyanage Dona Ashanthi Menuka Arawwawala

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Piper betle Linn. (Family: Piperaceae possess several bioactivities and are used in the Traditional Medical systems of Sri Lanka. The present investigation was carried out to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle by (a determination of physicochemical parameters, presence or absence of heavy metals, and microbial contamination; (b screening for phytochemicals; and (c development of High Pressure Liquid Chromatography (HPLC fingerprint and densitogram. The percentages of moisture content, total ash, acid insoluble ash, water-soluble ash, and ethanol extractable matter of spray-dried powder of P. betle were 2.2-2.5, 6.8-7.0, 0.003-0.005, 4.1-4.3, and 15.8-16.2, respectively. The concentrations of all the tested heavy metals were below the WHO acceptable limits and bacterial species, such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella spp, Staphylococcus aureus, and Pseudomonas aeroginosa were not present in the P. betle spray-dried powder. Phenolic compounds, tannins, flavonoids steroids, and alkaloids were found to be present in the spray-dried powder of P. betle and HPLC fingerprint and densitogram clearly demonstrated the proportional differences of these chemical constituents. In conclusion, the results obtained from this study can be used to standardize the spray-dried powder of P. betle.

  15. Building America Residential System Research Results: Achieving 30% Whole House Energy Savings Level in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Building Industry Research Alliance (BIRA); Building Science Consortium (BSC); Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB); Davis Energy Group (DEG); Florida Solar Energy Center (FSEC); IBACOS; National Association of Home Builders Research Center (NAHBRC); National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL)

    2006-01-01

    The Building America program conducts the system research required to reduce risks associated with the design and construction of homes that use an average of 30% to 90% less total energy for all residential energy uses than the Building America Research Benchmark, including research on homes that will use zero net energy on annual basis. To measure the program's progress, annual research milestones have been established for five major climate regions in the United States. The system research activities required to reach each milestone take from 3 to 5 years to complete and include research in individual test houses, studies in pre-production prototypes, and research studies with lead builders that provide early examples that the specified energy savings level can be successfully achieved on a production basis. This report summarizes research results for the 30% energy savings level and demonstrates that lead builders can successfully provide 30% homes in the Hot-Dry/Mixed-Dry Climate Region on a cost neutral basis.

  16. Summer Indoor Heat Pump Water Heater Evaluation in a Hot-Dry Climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Seitzler, Matthew [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2017-05-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water energy savings.

  17. Numerical Study on the Stomatal Responses to Dry-Hot Wind Episodes and Its Effects on Land-Atmosphere Interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Hui; Liu, Shuhua; Miao, Yucong; Li, Jing

    2016-01-01

    The wheat production in midland China is under serious threat by frequent Dry-Hot Wind (DHW) episodes with high temperature, low moisture and specific wind as well as intensive heat transfer and evapotranspiration. The numerical simulations of these episodes are important for monitoring grain yield and estimating agricultural water demand. However, uncertainties still remain despite that enormous experiments and modeling studies have been conducted concerning this issue, due to either inaccurate synoptic situation derived from mesoscale weather models or unrealistic parameterizations of stomatal physiology in land surface models. Hereby, we investigated the synoptic characteristics of DHW with widely-used mesoscale model Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) and the effects of leaf physiology on surface evapotranspiration by comparing two land surface models: The Noah land surface model, and Peking University Land Model (PKULM) with stomata processes included. Results show that the WRF model could well replicate the synoptic situations of DHW. Two types of DHW were identified: (1) prevailing heated dry wind stream forces the formation of DHW along with intense sensible heating and (2) dry adiabatic processes overflowing mountains. Under both situations, the PKULM can reasonably model the stomatal closure phenomena, which significantly decreases both evapotranspiration and net ecosystem exchange of canopy, while these phenomena cannot be resolved in the Noah simulations. Therefore, our findings suggest that the WRF-PKULM coupled method may be a more reliable tool to investigate and forecast DHW as well as be instructive to crop models. PMID:27648943

  18. Damage escape and repair in dried Chroococcidiopsis spp. from hot and cold deserts exposed to simulated space and martian conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billi, Daniela; Viaggiu, Emanuela; Cockell, Charles S; Rabbow, Elke; Horneck, Gerda; Onofri, Silvano

    2011-01-01

    The cyanobacterium Chroococcidiopsis, overlain by 3 mm of Antarctic sandstone, was exposed as dried multilayers to simulated space and martian conditions. Ground-based experiments were conducted in the context of Lichens and Fungi Experiments (EXPOSE-E mission, European Space Agency), which were performed to evaluate, after 1.5 years on the International Space Station, the survival of cyanobacteria (Chroococcidiopsis), lichens, and fungi colonized on Antarctic rock. The survival potential and the role played by protection and repair mechanisms in the response of dried Chroococcidiopsis cells to ground-based experiments were both investigated. Different methods were employed, including evaluation of the colony-forming ability, single-cell analysis of subcellular integrities based on membrane integrity molecular and redox probes, evaluation of the photosynthetic pigment autofluorescence, and assessment of the genomic DNA integrity with a PCR-based assay. Desiccation survivors of strain CCMEE 123 (coastal desert, Chile) were better suited than CCMEE 134 (Beacon Valley, Antarctica) to withstand cellular damage imposed by simulated space and martian conditions. Exposed dried cells of strain CCMEE 123 formed colonies, maintained subcellular integrities, and, depending on the exposure conditions, also escaped DNA damage or repaired the induced damage upon rewetting.

  19. Fluxed-melting of shallow and hot high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Namcha Barwa Massif: A new mechanism for the generation of adakitic melts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, L.; Liu, J.; Hou, Z.; Gao, L.; Xie, K.

    2008-12-01

    Extremely rapid exhumation has been a major factor leading to rapid advection of relatively hot crustal rocks into shallow crustal levels in the Namcha Barwa massif. In such a hot tectonic regime, it is conceivable that hot crustal material can undergo partial melting assisted by excessive water. Previous studies indeed have documented extremely young Na-rich granitic rocks (63.5 and up to 237.1), consistent with garnet either as a non-reactant phase or as a residue phase; (2) these leucosomes have similar Sr isotope compositions to their host rocks, but some of them have Nd isotope compositions significantly deviated from their host by ~4-5 epsilon units. Since high-grade metamorphic rocks in the Namcha Barwa were already shallower than 10 km in the past 5 million years, these data is best explained by water- fluxed melting of granitic components in the source rocks. This interpretation is also consistent with at water- present and relatively lower temperature conditions, both apatite and garnet behaves as non-reactant phases during a partial melting event, which could lead to depletion of garnet-compatible elements as well as negative shift in Nd isotope compositions in the amphibolite- or metapelite-derived melts. Our data emphasize that at rapidly exhumed and relatively hot tectonic regimes (e.g. the Nanga Parbat and Namcha Barwa areas), fluxed-melting of high-graded metamorphic rocks at relatively shallower crustal levels could be another important mechanism to produced adakitic magma and associated porphyritic Cu-Au deposits.

  20. Soil erosion risk evaluation using GIS in the Yuanmou County,a dry-hot valley of Yunnan, China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Soil erosion is a major threat to sustainable agriculture. Evaluating regional erosion risk is increasingly needed by national and in-ternational environmental agencies. This study elaborates a model (using spatial principal component analysis [SPCA]) method for the evaluation of soil erosion risk in a representative area of dry-hot valley (Yuanmou County) at a scale of 1:100,000 using a spatial database and GIS. The model contains seven factors: elevation, slope, annual precipitation, land use, vegetation, soil, and population density. The evaluation results show that five grades of soil erosion risk: very low, low, medium, high, and very high. These are divided in the study area, and a soil erosion risk evaluation map is created. The model may be applicable to other areas of China because it utilizes spatial data that are generally available.

  1. Thermal comfort requirements in hot dry regions with special reference to Riyadh Part 2: for Friday prayer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saeed, S.A.R. [King Saud University, Riyadh (Saudi Arabia). Dept. of Architecture and Building Science

    1996-01-01

    This study is an attempt to define thermal comfort requirements for Friday prayer during the hot season of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. According to Islam, a Muslim should perform his prayers five times a day. The obligatory five prayers are Subuh prayer immediately before dawn, Thohor prayer in the afternoon, Assor prayer in late afternoon, Maghreb prayer immediately after sunset, and Ishaa prayer early evening. Generally, Muslims are encouraged to perform all five prayers in a mosque. Friday prayer that replaces Thohor prayer once a week, should take place in one of the main mosques of the neighbourhood. The mosque where Friday prayer could be performed is known as Friday mosque. Usually Friday prayer is attended by hundreds of worshippers and takes place in the afternoon. Since the summer of Riyadh is characterised by a very high temperature and a very low relative humidity, the indoor climate of the Friday mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Gamae) need a special study. This is the second part of a series of field investigations dealing with thermal comfort requirements in the hot-dry region of Saudi Arabia. (author)

  2. Building America Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole House Retrofit, Stockton, California (Fact Sheet)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    ARBI

    2014-09-01

    The Stockton house retrofit is a two-story tudor style single family deep retrofit in the hot-dry climate of Stockton, CA. The home is representative of a deep retrofit option of the scaled home energy upgrade packages offered to targeted neighborhoods under the pilot Large-Scale Retrofit Program (LSRP) administered by the Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI). Deep retrofit packages expand on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Site energy savings with the deep retrofit were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case, and 15% higher than the savings estimated for the standard retrofit package. Energy savings were largely a result of the water heater upgrade, and a combination of the envelope sealing, insulation and HVAC upgrade. The HVAC system was of higher efficiency than the building code standard. Overall the financed retrofit would have been more cost effective had a less expensive HVAC system been selected and barriers to wall insulation remedied. The homeowner experienced improved comfort throughout the monitored period and was satisfied with the resulting utility bill savings.

  3. Serum biochemical activities and muscular soreness in transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry season

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ndazo S Minka

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of handling, loading and 12 h of road transportation during the hot-dry season on muscular metabolism of 20 experimental goats administered orally with 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA dissolved in 10 ml of sterile water, and other 20 control goats given equivalent of sterile water 40 min prior to transportation were investigated. The result obtained post-transportation showed that handling, loading and transportation were stressful to the goats, especially the control goats and resulted into muscular damage and the development of delayed-onset-muscular-soreness (DOMS, which may lead to dark-firm-dry (DFD syndrome meat with undesirable effects on its quality. In the experimental goats administered AA such transportation effects were minimal or completely abolished. The result demonstrated that AA reduced the incidence of DOMS and muscular damage in transported goats, therefore it may be used to improve the welfare and quality of meat obtained from goats subjected to long period of road transportation under adverse climatic conditions.

  4. Comparison of hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride and oxalic acid leaching of stream sediment and coated rock samples as anomaly enhancement techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filipek, L.H.; Chao, T.T.; Theobald, P.K.

    1982-01-01

    A hot hydroxylamine hydrochloride (H-Hxl) extraction in 25% acetic acid is compared with the commonly used oxalic acid extraction as a method of anomaly enhancement for Cu and Zn in samples from two very different metal deposits and climatic environments. Results obtained on minus-80-mesh stream sediments from an area near the Magruder massive sulfide deposit in Lincoln County, Georgia, where the climate is humid subtropical, indicate that H-Hxl enhances the anomaly for Cu by a factor of 2 and for Zn by a factor of 1.5, compared to the oxalic method. Analyses of Fe oxide-coated rock samples from outcrops overlying the North Silver Bell porphyry copper deposit near Tucson, Arizona, where the climate is semi-arid to arid, indicate that both techniques effectively outline the zones of hydrothermal alteration. The H-Hxl extraction can also perform well in high-carbonate or high-clay environments, where other workers have suggested that oxalic acid is not very effective. Therefore, the H-Hxl method is recommended for general exploration use. ?? 1982.

  5. Evaluating two different evaporative cooling management systems for dairy cows in a hot, dry climate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, D P; Boland, M P; Kopel, E; Armstrong, D; Munyakazi, L; Godke, R A; Ingraham, R H

    1992-04-01

    Milk production, rectal temperature, live weight gain, reproductive performance, and weather data were obtained on 150 Holstein cows managed under two cooling systems on a large dairy farm in Saudi Arabia during the summer months. Cows were paired at the onset of the trial according to days postpartum, lactation number, and current milk production. Females were then allocated either to a system that forced air, precooled by evaporative cooling, over the cows or to a system that alternately showered a fine mist onto the surface of the cows and then forced air at ambient temperature over them. The cows receiving evaporative cooling and those with spray and fan cooling were on sand and on slatted concrete floor, respectively, during the periods of cooling. The onset of estrus was observed during the night when the cows preferred the unshaded corral. For the 120-d trial period, 84% (62 of 75) of the cows receiving evaporative cooling and 60% (44 of 75) of the cows receiving spray and fan cooling became pregnant. In the evaporative cooling system, the pregnancy rate per insemination was 35.2% (179 inseminations) versus 23.2% (194 inseminations) for spray and fan cooling. The mean postpartum interval to pregnancy was 117.6 d for the evaporative cooling cows and 146.7 d for spray and fan cooling cows. The evaporative cooling system, with its open shades and sand bedding, enhanced reproductive performance and milk production compared with that of cows cooled with a spray and fan system with slatted flooring in this hot climate.

  6. Change in color and other fruit quality characteristics of tomato cultivars after hot-air drying at low final-moisture content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashebir, Dereje; Jezik, Karoline; Weingartemann, Herbert; Gretzmacher, Ralph

    2009-01-01

    The present study aimed to evaluate the drying quality of three tomato cultivars (Amoroso, Berlinto and Messina) at low final-moisture content. Tomatoes were cut into slices and hot-air-dried from 92% (wet basis) to 12% final moisture content at 55 degrees C, 65 degrees C and 75 degrees C at 1.5 m/sec air flow. Color, total soluble solids (TSS), titratable acidity (TA) and ascorbic acid (AA) content were measured in both fresh and dried tomatoes. Brightness of the dried tomato slices was significantly decreased, while intensity of the red and yellow colors and brightness of the red color (a*/b*) increased. Low overall color change (DeltaE) was obtained at the lowest drying temperature (55 degrees C). Messina and Amoroso showed a higher a* value and lower DeltaE, respectively. The TSS content was increased, while the TA and AA contents were decreased through drying. This study shows that it is possible to hot-air dry tomato slices to a final moisture content of 12% maintaining quality that is comparable with studies where the final-moisture content was higher (15% or more).

  7. Modeling heat stress effect on Holstein cows under hot and dry conditions: selection tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carabaño, M J; Bachagha, K; Ramón, M; Díaz, C

    2014-12-01

    Data from milk recording of Holstein-Friesian cows together with weather information from 2 regions in Southern Spain were used to define the models that can better describe heat stress response for production traits and somatic cell score (SCS). Two sets of analyses were performed, one aimed at defining the population phenotypic response and the other at studying the genetic components. The first involved 2,514,762 test-day records from up to 5 lactations of 128,112 cows. Two models, one fitting a comfort threshold for temperature and a slope of decay after the threshold, and the other a cubic Legendre polynomial (LP) model were tested. Average (TAVE) and maximum daily temperatures were alternatively considered as covariates. The LP model using TAVE as covariate showed the best goodness of fit for all traits. Estimated rates of decay from this model for production at 25 and 34°C were 36 and 170, 3.8 and 3.0, and 3.9 and 8.2g/d per degree Celsius for milk, fat, and protein yield, respectively. In the second set of analyses, a sample of 280,958 test-day records from first lactations of 29,114 cows was used. Random regression models including quadratic or cubic LP regressions (TEM_) on TAVE or a fixed threshold and an unknown slope (DUMMY), including or not cubic regressions on days in milk (DIM3_), were tested. For milk and SCS, the best models were the DIM3_ models. In contrast, for fat and protein yield, the best model was TEM3. The DIM3DUMMY models showed similar performance to DIM3TEM3. The estimated genetic correlations between the same trait under cold and hot temperatures (ρ) indicated the existence of a large genotype by environment interaction for fat (ρ=0.53 for model TEM3) and protein yield (ρ around 0.6 for DIM3TEM3) and for SCS (ρ=0.64 for model DIM3TEM3), and a small genotype by environment interaction for milk (ρ over 0.8). The eigendecomposition of the additive genetic covariance matrix from model TEM3 showed the existence of a dominant

  8. EFFECT OF FEEDING CORN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF COW UNDER HOT CLIMATE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS is a co-product of ethanol industry made from grains through fermentation process and it can be used for animal feeding especially for dairy cows. A feeding trial on US corn DDGS was conducted at commercial dairy farm in Vietnam during hot condition in 2010. One hundred and fifty six dairy cows in a later stage of milk production were allotted randomly in three groups of 52 cows with similar milk production. Three dietary treatments offered comprised control diet, diet with 7.5% DDGS and diet with 15% DDGS. The diets were formulated to contain similar nutrient profiles and comprised forages (corn, elephant grass and alfalfa hay, brewery waste, soybean curd waste, corn, soybean meal, molasses and commercial dairy supplement. The diet was manufactured locally in total mixed ration system and delivered two times per day. Milk production, feed consump-tion and milk quality were measured for 5 days before the trial and 45 days after the trial. The result demonstrated that feeding DDGS could support higher milk production without affecting feed consumption. Feeding DDGS at 7.5% and 15% resulted in higher milk production of 2 and 4 kg per day respectively compared to cows fed control diet. Feed intake remained unaffected at around 35 kg per day. Milk quality as measured by total solid and fat content was similar in cows fed the control diet and DDGS at 7.5%. Feeding DDGS at 15% tended to have slightly better total solid and fat content. Feeding DDGS was able to reduce cost of the diets; diet cost for control, DDGS 7.5% and DDGS 15% were VND 2537, 2460 and 2399 per kg, respectively. It is concluded that DDGS can be economically used for feeding dairy cows in hot climate condition and improving milk production.

  9. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  10. Proceedings of the 11. Annual British Columbia MEND Metal Leaching and Acid Rock Drainage (ML/ARD) Workshop : Performance of Dry Covers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Price, B. [Natural Resources Canada, Smithers, BC (Canada); Tremblay, G. [Natural Resources Canada, Ottawa, ON (Canada). Mine Environment Neutral Drainage Program; Bellefontaine, K. [British Columbia Ministry of Energy and Mines, Victoria, BC (Canada)] (eds.)

    2005-03-01

    Metal leaching and acid rock drainage (ML/ARD) are considered to be the largest environmental challenge facing the mining industry. This Mine Environment Neutral Drainage (MEND) workshop focused on the development and application of new technologies to prevent and control acid mine drainage. Significant progress has been made with an objective for new mines to open without long-term consequences of acid drainage upon closure. The mining industry now has access to a range of options to address this issue, including the application of dry covers. The theme of this workshop was the performance of dry covers. The topics of discussion ranged from the design requirements of dry covers, evaluation of the long-term performance of dry cover systems, soil covers in the Canadian north, dry cover projects in Sweden, field scale hydrology of dry covers, dry cover systems at open pit mines, the application of alternative covers for potash mining, and soil covers on waste rock and tailings. The importance of watershed, the major building block of landscapes, was also emphasized. The conference featured 20 presentations, of which 1 has been catalogued separately for inclusion in this database. refs., tabs., figs.

  11. Deep Heat Mining - Development of the hot dry rock and hot wet rock technologies for power and heat production in Switzerland; Deep Heat Mining. Entwicklung der Hot-Dry-Rock / Hot-Wet-Rock Technologie zur Strom- und Waermeproduktion in der Schweiz, insbesondere Deep Heat Mining, Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M. O.; Hopkirk, R. J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the progress and achievements made for two heat mining projects in Basle and Geneva. Work initialised at further sites in southern Switzerland and in the Bernese 'Oberland' alpine area is also mentioned. Project organisation and planning topics are examined. Seismic monitoring aspects are discussed and first practical studies on using the geothermal heat in Basle using hybrid energy conversion systems are discussed. For the Geneva project, details on site selection are given and ideas on combined geothermal and gas turbine plant are discussed.

  12. Deep Heat Mining - Development of the hot dry rock and hot wet rock technologies for power and heat production in Switzerland; Deep Heat Mining. Entwicklung der Hot-Dry-Rock / Hot-Wet-Rock Technologie zur Strom- und Waermeproduktion in der Schweiz, insbesondere Deep Heat Mining, Basel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haering, M. O.; Hopkirk, R. J.

    2003-07-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the progress and achievements made for two heat mining projects in Basle and Geneva. Work initialised at further sites in southern Switzerland and in the Bernese 'Oberland' alpine area is also mentioned. Project organisation and planning topics are examined. Seismic monitoring aspects are discussed and first practical studies on using the geothermal heat in Basle using hybrid energy conversion systems are discussed. For the Geneva project, details on site selection are given and ideas on combined geothermal and gas turbine plant are discussed.

  13. Air quality assessment in the periurban area of Mexico Megacity during dry hot season in 2011 and 2012

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Reynoso, Agustin; Santos Garcia-Yee, Jose; Barrera-Huertas, Hugo; Gerardo Ruiz-Suárez, Luis

    2016-04-01

    Air quality is a human health threat not only in urbanized areas, it also affects the surrounding zones. Interaction between urban and rural areas can be evaluated by measurements and using models for regional areas that includes in its domain the peri-urban regions. The use of monitoring sites in remote areas is useful however it is not possible to cover all the region the use of models can provide valuable information about the source and fate of the pollution and its transformation. In order to evaluate the influence of the Mexico Megacity in the air quality of the region, two field campaigns were performed during the dry hot season during 2011 and 2012. Meterological and pollutant measurements were made during February and march 2011, in three sites towards the south east of Mexico Megacity, and from march to April 2012 towards the west after the Popocatepetl-Iztaccihuatl mountain range. Air quality modeling were performed by using the National Emissions Inventory 2008 during the studied periods, a comparison between measurements and the air quality model was performed. This type of studies can offer information about the pollutant distribution, the meteorological conditions and the exactness of emissions inventories. The latest can be useful for emissions inventory developers and policy makers.

  14. Melatonin modulates tonic immobility and vigilance behavioural responses of broiler chickens to lighting regimens during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor Olusegun; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2016-10-15

    Experiments were conducted with the aim of determining the influence of melatonin administration on vigilance and tonic immobility (TI) responses of Marshall broiler chickens. The broiler chickens were reared on different lighting regimens and subjected to heat stress during the hot-dry season. Simple random sampling was used to assign 300 broiler chicks into three groups, comprising 100 broiler chicks each. Group I (12D:12L cycle) was raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation. Group II (CL) was kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Group III (CL+MEL) was raised under 24-h continuous lighting; with melatonin supplementation at 0.5mg/kg per os, via drinking water using a syringe. Beginning from day-old, broiler chickens in group III were individually administered with melatonin once daily for 8weeks at 17:00h. TI was induced by manual restraint, and vigilance elicited at self-righting graded for three days, two weeks apart, in 15 labeled broiler chickens from each of the three groups; at 06:00h, 13:00h and 18:00h, starting from week 4-8. Each broiler chicken was laid on its back in a U-shaped cradle, covered with cloth. Thermal microenvironment parameters of dry bulb temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) were recorded at the experimental site, concurrently during the vigilance and TI tests. Inside the broiler chickens' house, the weekly temperature-humidity index (THI) was lowest at week 4 of the study, with the value of 48.60±0.08°C. At week 4, the relationship between the THI and TI induction attempts was stronger in 12D:12L cycle (r=0.589, P0.05) or CL+MEL (r=0.096, P>0.05) broiler chickens. This indicated that the broiler chickens on 12D:12L cycle were more active compared to their melatonin-treated counterparts, apparently due to adverse effects of high DBT and high RH on the broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. The highest numbers of TI induction trial

  15. 自然干燥与热风干燥对甘薯粉丝质量的影响%Effcets of Natural Drying and Hot-air Drying on Quality of Sweet Potato Vermicelli

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周洁; 孔晓玲

    2011-01-01

    This article researches on the quality comparison of natural drying and hot air drying of sweet potato vermicelli, by the appearance of shape, swelling rate, break off rate, tensile properties . Analyses the effect of different dry methods on sweet potato vermicelli, points out the reasonable dry method of vermicelli.%对自然干燥与热风干燥的甘薯粉丝进行了质量对比,通过外观形状、膨润度、断条率、抗拉性等几个方面的观察与检测,分析了不同的干燥方法对粉丝干燥特性的影响,并给出了粉丝干燥方式的合理化建议.

  16. An improved high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in freeze-dried and hot-air-dried Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kao, Tsai Hua; Chen, Chia Ju; Chen, Bing Huei

    2011-10-30

    Rhinacanthus nasutus (L.) Kurz, a traditional Chinese herb possessing antioxidant and anti-cancer activities, has been reported to contain functional components like carotenoids and chlorophylls. However, the variety and amount of chlorophylls remain uncertain. The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-photodiode array detection-atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-DAD-APCI-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in hot-air-dried and freeze-dried R. nasutus. An Agilent Eclipse XDB-C18 column and a gradient mobile phase composed of methanol/N,N-dimethylformamide (97:3, v/v), acetonitrile and acetone were employed to separate internal standard zinc-phthalocyanine plus 12 cholorophylls and their derivatives within 21 min, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', hydroxychlorophyll a, 15-OH-lactone chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, chlorophyll b', hydroxychlorophyll b, pheophytin a, pheophytin a', hydroxypheophytin a, hydroxypheophytin a' and pheophytin b in hot-air-dried R. nasutus with flow rate at 1 mL/min and detection at 660 nm. But, in freeze-dried R. nasutus, only 4 chlorophylls and their derivatives, including chlorophyll a, chlorophyll a', chlorophyll b and pheophytin a were detected. Zinc-phthalocyanine was found to be an appropriate internal standard to quantify all the chlorophyll compounds. After quantification by HPLC-DAD, both chlorophyll a and pheophytin a were the most abundant in hot-air-dried R. nasutus, while in freeze-dried R. nasutus, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b dominated.

  17. Research and Application of Drying Oven to Hot Galvanizing Strip Coating%热镀锌带钢涂层烘干设备研究与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王良兵

    2011-01-01

    就某厂红外烘干炉和热风烘干系统对热镀锌带钢镀后涂层加热和干燥工艺技术进行分析阐述,为国内同类工艺及设备改造提供值得借鉴的宝贵经验和依据.%Author analysed hot galvanizing strip coating heating and dry process technical what used infrared oven and sirocco dry system, it provides valuable experience and bases for the sake of coordinate equipment reforming in the domestic.

  18. 热风干燥联合真空降温缓苏提升黄秋葵干制品品质%Hot air drying combined vacuum ventilation tempering improving quality of dried okra products

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段续; 刘文超; 任广跃

    2016-01-01

    world. Like others vegetables, okra is susceptible to rapid deterioration because of its high moisture content. Various physiological and morphological changes occur after harvest, which make these okras unacceptable for consumption, and thus it is necessary to remove the moisture of okras. Hot air drying is the most widely used and inexpensive drying technique for okra. Nevertheless, long-time drying at relatively high temperature during the falling rate period often leads to the overheating of dried products, and undesirable thermal degradation of the finished products may occur. Hence, it is necessary to apply innovative techniques on hot air drying to solve these drawbacks, which can increase drying rate and reduce quality loss. One of the methods that may be recommended is drying with tempering cycles. Tempering allows moisture diffusion from the interior to the external surface of the sample kernels to decrease the moisture gradients. Hence, the material structure can be well protected during drying process, and with the uniform distribution of moisture, the drying rate of next stage will be higher. While in a vacuum environment, the oxygen (O2) content is in a low level, which can reduce many undesirable oxidation reaction and slow down the physiological activity of materials. Moreover, many researchers have reported the vacuum tempering method can obviously reduce the tempering time compared to traditional natural tempering. Ventilation tempering is carried out under the condition of decreasing temperature, the moisture can be uniformly distributed not only by moisture gradient but also by temperature gradient. Consequently, combining the vacuum tempering method with ventilation tempering can reduce tempering time more significantly along with obtaining good product quality. As above introduction, applying the combined tempering method on hot air drying may overcome some limitations of traditional hot air drying process, which can be called as vacuum ventilation

  19. Hydration state of goats transported by road for 12 hours during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, Salka Ndazo; Ayo, Joseph Olusegun

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 12 hr of road transportation during the hot-dry conditions and the modulating role of ascorbic acid (AA) on the hydration state of goats. Twenty goats who served as treatment goats received oral administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA, whereas another 20 control goats received sterile water; thereafter, the goats were loaded and transported. The study determined changes in skin thickness; albumin (Alb); total protein (TP); elimination of the gut content; fecal water; urine specific gravity (SG); and pH before, during, and after the transportation. The result obtained in the control goats showed significant (p .05). In conclusion, 12-hr road transportation of goats induced dehydration, which may affect the welfare and health status of the goats. The administration of AA ameliorated the risk of adverse effects of handling, loading, transportation, and hot-dry conditions on hydration state of goats.

  20. Anthropogenic Impacts on the Sediment Flux in the Dry-hot Valleys of Southwest China-an Example of the Longchuan River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Yue; LU Xixi; HUANG Ying; ZHU Yunmei

    2004-01-01

    The sediment flux data, measured from a dry-hot valley of the Longchuan River, a tributary of the lower Jinsha River, were analyzed with Mann-Kendall test, Seasonal Mann-Kendall test and Sen's test. In both the upper reaches (Xiaohekou) and the lower reaches (Xiaohuangguayuan), the sediment fluxes showed a significant increase from 1970 to 2001, despite the fact that the water discharge did not change significantly during the period and numerous reservoir constructions which contribute to the trap of sediment. This can be attributed to the intensification of human activities, especially the activities related to land surface disturbances such as deforestation and afforestation, expansion of agriculture land, and road constructions. This increase is more significant in the lower reaches of the river observed at the place of Xiaohuangguayuan due to the dry-hot climate. The profound increase in sediment flux has significant implications for effective management of the sedimentation problems of the on-going Three Gorges Reservoir.

  1. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N S; Ayo, J O

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant (P < 0.05). They reflect the degree of stress imposed by each THI value during the transportation, and may be used as recommended ranges and limit thermal load values in transported goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  2. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N. S.; Ayo, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant ( P < 0.05). They reflect the degree of stress imposed by each THI value during the transportation, and may be used as recommended ranges and limit thermal load values in transported goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  3. Hot balls dry sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmann, L.

    2004-01-01

    Each year some 25 million m3 of mineral sludge are dredged from rivers, canals and harbours in the Netherlands alone, twenty percent of which is polluted. The unpolluted sludge is usually dumped at sea. The remaining five million m3 may only be dumped in a few selected landfill locations, at conside

  4. 豇豆隧道式热风干燥特性和模型%Drying characteristics and model of cowpea in tunnel hot air dryer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    师建芳; 吴辉煌; 娄正; 吴中华; 刘清

    2013-01-01

    Cowpea, also known as beans, black-eyed peas, is an important leguminous vegetable, which is extensively grown in China. Fresh cowpeas having relatively high moisture content must be distributed to customers or processed as quickly as possible in order to prevent microbial fermentation and thermal degradation. Cowpeas resources have great losses as which are putrescible at normal temperatures and pressures, and this severely limits the transportation, storage and process of cowpea, therefore the development of cowpea deep processing is necessary. As Asian people have the habit of eating dried vegetables such as dried cowpea, drying can not only solve the serious problem of huge losses, but also create more economic benefits for farmers;and because most of deep processing technology needs dried cowpea, drying is of great importance as a preprocessing method. The tunnel type of hot air drying technology has been widely utilized in the drying of carrots, preserved fruits, and plums etc. In this paper, hot air drying characteristics and a drying model of tunnel type of hot air drying technology was studied in drying Cowpea, in order to establish the best model to simulate and predict the water ratio and to provide a technical basis for the industrial application of the control and prediction of the drying process and the tunnel type of hot air drying for cowpea. The tunnel dryer was made by the Institute of Agricultural Product Processing, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Engineering and College of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University of Science and Technology. According to the pre-test results, the drying characteristics of Cowpea was investigated under different air temperatures (70℃、80℃and 90℃), air velocities (0.3、0.4 and 0.5 m/s) and material thickness (6 mm、18 mm and 30 mm). The empirical relationships between Cowpea moisture then natural logarithmic lnMR and drying time, water effective diffusion coefficient Deff and drying air temperature was

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Hot Air Drying of Thin Layer Litchi Flesh%荔枝果肉热风干燥薄层模型

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    关志强; 王秀芝; 李敏; 蒋小强; 谢晶

    2012-01-01

    The influences of drying temperature and hot air speed on the moisture ratio MR and the drying velocity U of litchi were studied by self-building heat pump drying device. The results showed that drying process of litchi occurred in the falling rate period, and the moisture transfer was controlled by internal diffusion. Nine different dynamic models were fitted nonlinearly by using the drying test data of litchi in the heat pump device. The results of comparing the values of the correlation coefficient R , the reduced chi-square X2 and the root mean square error eRMSE and the verification testing showed the Page model was the best suitable to descript the relationship of litchi moisture and drying time by hot air drying. The effective moisture diffusion coefficient Deff and the activation energy Ea were also obtained by experiments under different conditions, the values of Deff would increase with the addition of drying temperature and hot air speed, the average value of Ea was 29. 939 kJ/mol.%利用热泵干燥装置探讨了热风温度和热风风速对荔枝果肉干燥水分比MR和干燥速率U的影响.结果表明:荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥是内部水分扩散控制的降速干燥过程.对9种常见食品薄层干燥模型进行试验数据非线性拟合,通过比较评价决定系数R2、卡方x2和标准误差eRMSE以及试验验证,结果显示Page模型是描述荔枝果肉薄层热风干燥过程的最优模型.不同干燥条件下有效水分扩散系数Deff和活化能Ea的求解结果表明,有效水分扩散系数Deff随热风温度和风速的增加而变大,平均活化能Ea为29.939 kJ/mol.

  6. A Structural-Thermal Model of the Karkonosze Pluton (Sudetes Mountains, SW Poland) for Hot Dry Rock (HDR) Geothermal Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bujakowski, Wiesław; Barbacki, Antoni; Miecznik, Maciej; Pająk, Leszek; Skrzypczak, Robert

    2016-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to develop a spatial temperature distribution of the Karkonosze Pluton to indicate optimum locations for HDR systems at drillable depth. HDR geothermal technology makes it possible to extract heat from the Earth in areas where no hydro-geothermal resources are present. To produce electricity in a binary cycle, system temperatures of > 100°C are usually required. In this paper, the authors have analysed the potential opportunities for applying HDR technology in the area of the Karkonosze Pluton, which is regarded as an optimum location for the application of the HDR concept (due to the potential for stimulation offered by the mechanical properties of the granites, radiogenic heat production, modern tectonic activity, and the thickness of the pluton). The model used in the analysis, which takes into account a hypothetical assessment of the manner and paths of fluid migration within the pluton, provides an insight into the spatial distribution of subsurface temperatures. It thus allows the location of relatively shallow high-temperature zones, which are optimal for the efficient application of HDR technology, to be identified. With respect to this technology, the Szklarska Poręba area and the NE part of the pluton seem to be better targets than the Cieplice central area, where the model indicated much lower temperatures (e.g. at a depth of 5,000 m, estimated temperatures in the vicinity of Szklarska Poręba were about 185°C and in the vicinity of Cieplice they were about 140°C).

  7. Dynamics of thin layer hot-air drying of lagenaria leucantha rusby%瓠瓜薄层热风干燥动力学研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸爱士; 夏凯

    2011-01-01

    为掌握瓠瓜薄层热风干燥特性,研究了一定条件下风温与风速对瓠瓜薄层热风干燥过程的影响,拟合了干燥曲线方程,计算了对流传热系数α与传质系数KH等动力学参数.结果表明:风温、风速均对干燥速度影响较大,以75℃、1.04 m/s为宜;干燥方程符合Page模型:随风速增大α与KH均增大,但风温对两者影响不大.结果可以为瓠瓜干制工业化生产和控制提供理论依据.%In order to master the thin layer hot-air drying character of lagenaria leucantha rusby, the influences of the wind temperature and speed on the drying process of thin layer hot-air drying of the lagenaria leucantha rusby under certain condition were studied. The equations of drying curve were fitted, and the dynamics parameters such as convective heat-transfer coefficient a, and quality transmission coefficient kH, were calculated. The results showed that the wind temperature and speed had greater influence on the dehydrating rate, and 75℃、 1.04 m/s were suitable parameters. The drying procedure could accurately be described by the Page model. With the wind speed rising, a and kH increased, but the wind temperature had a little effect on the two coefficients. The results can provide a theoretical basis for industrialization production and control of drying lagenaria leucantha rusby.

  8. 康乃馨热风干燥特性研究%Research on hot-air drying characteristics of carnation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张亚晶; 杨薇

    2012-01-01

    选取康乃馨为研究对象,以热风温度、风速、装载量为试验因素进行单因素试验,分析各个因素对干燥特性的影响.结果表明,3个因素对康乃馨的干燥特性影响均显著,温度越高,风速越大,装载量越少,康乃馨达到安全水分所用的时间就越短.采用3种常用的干燥模型单项扩散模型、指数模型、Page模型对试验数据进行线性回归分析和模型的拟合,得出Page模型适合描述康乃馨的干燥进程,并建立康乃馨的干燥模型.通过试验验证,Page模型的预测值与实测值的最大误差仅为6.7%,很好地描述了康乃馨的干燥进程.%Hot-air temperature, wind velocity and loading weight were taken as experimental factors to study the drying characteristics of carnation. Experimental results showed that all of the three factors significantly influence the drying characteristics of carnation. It was favorable to strengthen the drying process by increasing drying temperature and wind velocity. But the increase of loading weight could reduce drying rate. The experimental datum was simulated with different mathematical models. The results also showed that Page model was fitted to the hot-air drying curves of carnation. The change regulation of hot-air drying of carnation could be described and predicted very well by Page model according to the comparison of experimental and calculated values.

  9. Secagem de café cereja descascado por ar quente e microondas Drying pulped coffee cherry beans by means of hot air ond microwaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.L. Cunha

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho objetivou estudar a viabilidade de produzir café cereja descascado seco pela aplicação de microondas para assistir a secagem convencional a ar quente, a fim de reduzir o tempo de processo, com o aumento do rendimento industrial e da qualidade do produto perante os métodos tradicionais de secagem. Dois ciclos de secagem foram testados: a processo em secador rotativo convencional a ar quente, com umidade do produto reduzida de 45-50 a 11-13% b.u.; b processo subdividido em uma primeira etapa de pré-secagem convencional a ar quente de 45-50 a 30% b.u., seguida de etapa de secagem final por ar quente e microondas, com redução de 30 a 11-13% b.u. de umidade do produto. O tempo global do primeiro para o segundo ciclo de secagem foi reduzido de 15 a 37,5 para pouco mais de 10 horas, respectivamente. A qualidade sensorial do produto foi avaliada pela "prova da xícara", complementada por análises de microscopia eletrônica de varredura (MEV, com resultados satisfatórios. Um estudo preliminar dos aspectos econômicos envolvidos na ampliação de escala para uma linha industrial de processamento de café com a inclusão de um sistema a microondas foi também delineado.This research concerns a process development study focussing the application of microwaves to pulped coffee cherries production, in order to reduce the drying time and increase the industrial yield and product quality when compared to conventional drying processes. Two drying cycles were tested: a a hot air drying process using a conventional batch rotary dryer from 45-50 to 11-13% w.b. product moisture; b a two stage process, whereby the product was pre dried with hot air from 45-50 to 30% w.b., followed by a final microwave and hot air drying stage, to reduce product moisture from 30 to 11-13% w.b. The overall drying time was reduced from 15 to 37.5 hours to about 10 hours, respectively. The sensory quality of the product was evaluated by the "cup test", complemented

  10. 'Earhart' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock informally named 'Earhart' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the pilot Amelia Earhart. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe fractures in Earhart could have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Rover team members do not have plans to investigate Earhart in detail because it is located across potentially hazardous sandy terrain. This image was taken on sol 219 (Sept. 4) by the rover's panoramic camera, using its 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters.

  11. Rock-inhabiting fungi originated during periods of dry climate in the late Devonian and middle Triassic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gueidan, C.; Ruibal, C.; de Hoog, G.S.; Schneider, H.

    2012-01-01

    Non-lichenized rock-inhabiting fungi (RIF) are slow-growing melanized ascomycetes colonizing rock surfaces in arid environments. They possess adaptations, which allow them to tolerate extreme abiotic conditions, such as high UV radiations and extreme temperatures. They belong to two separate lineage

  12. 圣女果分段式变温变湿热风干燥特性%Dried characteristics of cherry tomatoes using temperature and humidity by stages changed hot-air drying method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王庆惠; 李忠新; 杨劲松; 谢龙; 张世湘; 高振江

    2014-01-01

    Cherry tomato decays easily. Generally, it can be preserved only for 5-7days under normal pressure and temperature. The dehydration of cherry tomatoes into dried or preserved fruits can prolong their shelf life and enrich the market of the fruit. Currently, cherry tomatoes is dehydrated through natural drying. The advantage of this method is simple, and low cost. But the drying time is long and is affected by the climate and sanitary conditions. The product quality is difficult to control. In order to shorten the drying time and prevent mildew, cherry tomatoes are often soaked or sprayed with the alkaline solution. These chemicals are bad for our health. Multi-stage temperature-and-humidity drying is conducted through the material drying characteristics. This method can speed up the drying rate, improve drying quality, and reduce energy consumption. It has been successfully applied for apricot,lyceum barbarum, grapes and other materials. In this study, internal recycling hot-air drying technology was employed for the drying of cherry tomatoes. The effects of drying temperatures, humidity, drying stages and slicing forms on the drying characteristics and the appearance quality of the cherry tomatoes were investigated. Each experiment was composed of four drying stages. The drying temperatures were fixed, the humidity of the environment was changed in processⅠ,Ⅱ andⅢ. The drying temperature was low, the humidity was high at the beginning of processⅣ. Gradually, the temperature was raised, the humidity was reduced. At the end of the process, the drying temperature was higher, the humidity was lower compared with their values at the beginning. The experimental results indicated that pre-heated and falling rate periods exist during the drying of cherry tomato. Previous studies only shown falling rate period. The increase in temperature and humidity has bad effects on the nutrition, color and the appearance quality of cherry tomato. Even though cherry tomato can

  13. Study on Photosynthesis Characters of Tamarindus indica L.in Dry Season in Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley%元谋干热河谷罗望子旱季光合特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘志贤; 杨艳鲜; 方海东; 彭辉; 岳学文; 钱坤建; 纪中华

    2011-01-01

    ln order to analyze the photosynthesis characters of Tamarindus indica L . in dry-hot valley, The Pn, Gs and other indexea were studied in the dry season in Yuanmou county. The results ahowed that the diumal course of Pn presented a single peak cutve and did not showed the midday depression of photoaynthesis. There was a positive correlation between Pn and PAR , the same correlation between pn , Tr, Gs and VPD. There was a negative correlation between Pn and RH. Pn was more affected by PAR than other factors. In sum the Tamarind was stmngly adapted to planting in dry-hot valley.%通过对罗望子的光合速率、气孔导度及其相应环境因子的测定,探讨元谋干热河谷罗望子旱季的光合生理生态特征.结果表明,罗望子旱季的光合速率Pn日变化曲线呈单蜂型,无光合"午休"现象发生.Pn与PAR、Tr呈极显著正相关,与RH呈极显著负相关.对Pn影响最大的因子PAR,其次是RH、Tr、Gs、VPD.罗望子在元谋干热河谷有较强的适应性.

  14. Research on Solar Steamy Hot-air Drying Technology%太阳能蒸汽热风干燥技术的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴坤; 孔晓玲; 段凤江; 于鹏

    2012-01-01

    The technology of solar steamy hot-air drying uses the vacuum tube collector to heat water and produce steam, then converted it into hot air through the heat exchanger. The purpose is to realize the drying of agricultural products. This paper develops a set of test device. The experiments of drying carrots were carried out to test the drying system' s performance. The results show that when solar power reaches above 750W/ m2, the steam can stable work for about 5 ~7 hours;The temperature of the dryer's high temperature section can be stabilized at around 551 ,and the temperature of the low can be stabilized at around 40t. The drying effect of carrots is good.%太阳能蒸汽热风干燥技术利用真空集热管对水加热产生的水蒸气,通过换热器转换成热风,实现对农产品的干燥作业.本文研制了一套试验装置,以胡萝卜作为样品进行了干燥机的干燥性能试验,结果表明:当太阳辐射值达到750W/m2以上时,蒸汽可以稳定工作5~7h;干燥室内高温工作段温度可以稳定在55℃左右,低温工作段温度可以稳定在40℃左右.胡萝卜干燥效果良好.

  15. Evaluation of browning ratio in an image analysis of apple slices at different stages of instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot-air drying (AD-DIC).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Kun; Zhou, Linyan; Bi, Jinfeng; Yi, Jianyong; Wu, Xinye; Zhou, Mo; Wang, Xueyuan; Liu, Xuan

    2017-06-01

    Computer vision-based image analysis systems are widely used in food processing to evaluate quality changes. They are able to objectively measure the surface colour of various products since, providing some obvious advantages with their objectivity and quantitative capabilities. In this study, a computer vision-based image analysis system was used to investigate the colour changes of apple slices dried by instant controlled pressure drop-assisted hot air drying (AD-DIC). The CIE L* value and polyphenol oxidase activity in apple slices decreased during the entire drying process, whereas other colour indexes, including CIE a*, b*, ΔE and C* values, increased. The browning ratio calculated by image analysis increased during the drying process, and a sharp increment was observed for the DIC process. The change in 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (5-HMF) and fluorescent compounds (FIC) showed the same trend with browning ratio due to Maillard reaction. Moreover, the concentrations of 5-HMF and FIC both had a good quadratic correlation (R(2)  > 0.998) with the browning ratio. Browning ratio was a reliable indicator of 5-HMF and FIC changes in apple slices during drying. The image analysis system could be used to monitor colour changes, 5-HMF and FIC in dehydrated apple slices during the AD-DIC process. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  16. Modeling of Efficient Hot Air Drying of Apple Snails (Pomacea canaliculata for Use as a Fishmeal Protein Substitute

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Luo

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Snails are a kind of important aquatic products and dehydration is the main technique in production of snail meal. Apple snail (Pomacea canaliculata dehydration meets both the demand for a fishmeal substitute in aquaculture and invasive species control in agriculture. In this study, we investigated the percentage of the nutritive material, examined the drying characteristics at 60, 80, 100 and 120°C, respectively, established a drying kinetics model and explored the effect of body morphology on drying efficiency. The results showed that the wet weight percentage of the soft parts was 46.61±6.18%. The drying efficiency was significantly improved with an increase of drying temperature from 60 to 120°C. The drying time increased rapidly when the final moisture content approached its equilibrium value. The Hii et al. model was selected as the best model to describe the drying curves (R2>0.99. It provided a relatively accurate prediction between the requirements of moisture content and drying time. There were statistically significant differences (p<0.01 in the drying time at 10.0 and 1.0% moisture content level among the four temperature groups. The drying efficiency was significantly correlated to the mass of the soft parts. It was found that 100°C was an appropriate temperature to effectively dehydrate the fresh apple snails, whereas 60°C was not suitable when air velocity ≤0.5 m/s. This study explored an integrated approach to efficiently dehydrate snails for snail meal production, which will benefit both aquaculture and agriculture.

  17. Geochemistry of the volcanic rocks from Bioko Island (“Cameroon Hot Line”: Evidence for plume-lithosphere interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fadimatou Ngounouno Yamgouot

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Bioko Island (3008 m a.s.l is located in the presently more active volcanic zone of the Cameroon Line and composed essentially of alkaline basalts and hawaiites, and lesser mugearites. The rocks show microlitic porphyritic texture with phenocrysts of olivine (83% < Fo < 87% and clinopyroxene in a matrix of plagioclase, clinopyroxene and oxides. Hawaiites and mugearites also include phenocrysts of plagioclase (An62-67Ab35-32Or3-1. Major element variation diagrams show an increase in SiO2, Al2O3, Na2O and K2O with increasing MgO for the studied rock groups. The rocks are characterized by low (86Sr/87Sri ratios (0.70320–0.70406, high ɛNd(t values (2.56–4.33 and high (206Pb/204Pbi ratios (20.032–20.035 values. Basalts are enriched in LILE and LREE, and have (Hf/SmN = 0.57–1.16. These geochemical signatures are similar to those of the Mount Cameroon rocks, and might be attributed to low degrees of partial melting from a garnet-amphibole-bearing mantle source. The trace elements and isotopic compositions suggest that the parental magma source might have involved HIMU- and EM1-components.

  18. Building America Best Practices Series: Volume 2. Builders and Buyers Handbook for Improving New Home Efficiency, Comfort, and Durability in the Hot-Dry and Mixed-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baechler, M. C. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Taylor, Z. T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Bartlett, R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Gilbride, T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Hefty, M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Love, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2005-09-01

    This best practices guide is part of a series produced by Building America. The guidebook is a resource to help builders large and small build high-quality, energy-efficient homes that achieve 30% energy savings in space conditioning and water heating in the hot-dry and mixed-dry climates. The savings are in comparison with the 1993 Model Energy Code. The guide contains chapters for every member of the builder's team—from the manager to the site planner to the designers, site supervisors, the trades, and marketers. There is also a chapter for homeowners on how to use the book to provide help in selecting a new home or builder.

  19. Theoretical and experimental drying of a cylindrical sample by applying hot air and infrared radiation in an inert medium fluidized bed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Honarvar

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of a cylindrical sample in a fluidized bed dryer containing inert particles was studied. For this purpose, a pilot-scaled fluidized bed dryer was constructed in which two different heat sources, hot air and infrared radiation were applied, and pieces of carrot were chosen as test samples. The heat transfer coefficient for cylindrical objects in a fluidized bed was also measured. The heat absorption coefficient for carrot was studied. The absorption coefficient can be computed by dividing the absorbed heat by the carrot to the heat absorbed for the water and black ink. In this regard, absorbed heat values by the carrot, water and black ink were used A mathematical model was proposed based on the mass and heat transfer phenomena within the drying sample. The results obtained by the proposed model were in favorable agreement with the experimental data.

  20. Effects of extended dry storage of powdered infant milk formula on susceptibility of Enterobacter sakazakii to hot water and ionizing radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Al-Nabulsi, Anas A; Shaker, Reyad R; Ayyash, Mutamed M; Olaimat, Amin N; Al-Hasan, Ashraf S Abu; Kadora, Khaled M; Holley, Richard A

    2008-05-01

    Infant milk formula has been identified as a potential source of Enterobacter sakazakii, which has been implicated in neonatal meningitis and necrotizing enterocolitis. This study was undertaken to determine whether the length of E. sakazakii storage in powdered infant milk formula (PIMF) affected the ability of the pathogen to survive subsequent reconstitution of the powder with hot water or treatment with gamma radiation. Five E. sakazakii strains were mixed individually with PIMF and kept for up to 12 months at 25 degrees C. After storage PIMF was reconstituted with water at 60 to 100 degrees C or was exposed to radiation. Without any treatment secondary to drying, E. sakazakii counts decreased Dry storage decreased thermal resistance but increased resistance of E. sakazakii to ionizing radiation in PIMF. Reconstitution of contaminated powder with water at 70 degrees C after 1 month of dry storage reduced E. sakazakii viability slightly, > 2 log/g, and after powder was stored for 12 months all E. sakazakii strains were eliminated. In contrast, desiccation substantially increased the resistance of E. sakazakii strains to ionizing radiation. Although the D-value for E. sakazakii IMF1 following overnight storage in PIMF was 0.98 kGy, > 4 kGy was required to kill 1.5 log/g of the same strain that had survived 12 months in dry PIMF. Results suggested that low-dose irradiation will more effectively eliminate E. sakazakii from PIMF if the treatment is applied shortly after PIMF manufacture.

  1. Modeling of mass transfer performance of hot-air drying of sweet potato (Ipomoea Batatas L.) slices

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Zhu Aishi; Jiang Feiyan

    2014-01-01

    ... velocity and thickness of sweet potato slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of sweet potato slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the effective diffusion coefficients were calculated...

  2. Study on dry-hot tolerance of Rhizobium of Acacia confusa isolated from dry-hot valley%干热河谷台湾相思树种根瘤菌的耐干热研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    沙桦欣; 伍建榕; 周利平; 王芳; 张东华; 马焕成

    2013-01-01

    Through studying the high temperature and drought resistance of Rhizobium sp.of Acacia confuse in the dry-hot valley,the Rhizobium's growth rhythm under the condition of high temperature was revealed in order to provide a theoretical basis for screening out excellent Rhizobium germplasm resources.Through field investigation,the Rhizobium sp.of A.confuse were collected from dryhot valley area,then were separated and purified.The cultivation of symbiotic tumor of the purified Rhizobium stains of A.confuse and aseptic seedlings of A.confuse was conducted,some new Rhizobium stains were selected and vaccinated to YMA culture medium,then cultured with constant temperature under different temperature gradients and the colony numbers and vertical and horizontal diameters were recorded.Through artificially simulating drought conditions,the Rhizobium stains were inoculated and cultured in the PEG culture fluid with concentration gradient of 0,5%,10%,20%,30%,the OD600 values of the bacterial suspension was determined by using spectrophotometer and the corresponding curve figure was drawn out.The experimental results show that the high temperature can significantly inhibit the growth of Rhizobium colonies; the OD values of YMA-PEG solution decreased with the increase of concentration; M-08,M-10,M-11 strains are the swains type that strongly adapted to high temperature and drought; CK,M-05,M-06,M-07,M-09,M-12,M-15 moderately adapted to high temperatures and drought; M-01,M-02,M-03,M-04,M-13 and M-14 strains had weaker adaptability to high temperatures and drought.%通过对干热河谷地区台湾相思树种根瘤菌进行高温干旱等抗性研究,揭示干热河谷地区台湾相思树种根瘤菌在高温条件下生长规律,为发掘优良的根瘤菌种质资源提供理论依据.通过野外调查、采集、分离纯化采自干热河谷地区台湾相思树种的根瘤菌;经与相思树种无菌苗共生接瘤培养,将筛选出的各根瘤菌菌株接种

  3. 响应面分析法优化热风微波耦合干燥油茶籽工艺%Optimizing of coupled hot-air and microwave drying of tea camellia seeds by response surface analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈桂芬; 宋春芳; 崔政伟

    2012-01-01

    为了优化油茶籽干燥,分别研究了油茶籽的热风和热风微波耦合干燥工艺。热风微波耦合干燥利用Box-Benhnken中心组合实验设计和响应面分析法,以过氧化值(POV)和干燥时间为响应值,优化了不同热风温度、热风速度和微波功率密度时油茶籽的热风微波耦合干燥工艺。经响应面分析得油茶籽的干燥工艺为:在热风温度为58.9℃、热风速度为1.262m/s、微波功率密度为1.972W/g、干燥时间为306min时,油脂的过氧化值为1.0472nmol/kg。热风微波耦合干燥时间比热风干燥节约近3倍,过氧化值减小了7.46%。%Drying of tea camellia seeds were conducted by hot-air,coupled hot-air and microwave drying in order to optimize its drying technology.Coupled hot-air microwave drying was done at different temperatures,air velocities and microwave power densities.The Box-Benhnken design and the response surface analysis were adopted,and both peroxide values of unsaturated fatty acids and drying time were taken as evaluation indexs to optimize the drying parameters.The analysis of response values of peroxide value and drying time showed that the optimum coupled hot-air and microwave drying parameters were:hot-air temperature of 58.9℃,microwave density 1.972W/g,drying time 306min and peroxide value 1.0472nmol/kg when drying was conducted in above parameters.Comparing to hot-air drying,coupled hot-air microwave drying save drying time nearly three times while the peroxide value reduced 7.46%.

  4. Acid-base interactions in amorphous solid dispersions of lumefantrine prepared by spray-drying and hot-melt extrusion using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Yang; Zemlyanov, Dmitry; Chen, Xin; Su, Ziyang; Nie, Haichen; Lubach, Joseph W; Smith, Daniel; Byrn, Stephen; Pinal, Rodolfo

    2016-12-05

    This study investigates drug-excipient interactions in amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) of the model basic compound lumefantrine (LMN), with five acidic polymers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to measure the extent of the protonation of the tertiary amine in LMN by the five acidic polymers. The extent/efficiency of protonation of the ASDs was assessed a function of polymer type, manufacturing process (hot-melt extrusion vs. spray drying), and drug loading (DL). The most strongly acidic polymer, polystyrene sulfonic acid (PSSA) was found to be the most efficient polymer in protonating LMN, independently of manufacturing method and DL. The rank order for the protonation extent of LMN by each polymer is roughtly the same for both manufacturing processes. However, protonation efficiency of polymers of similar acidic strength ranged from ∼0% to 75% (HPMCAS and Eudragit L100-55, respectively), suggesting an important role of molecular/mixing effects. For some polymers, including Eudragit L100 55 and HPMCP, spray-drying resulted in higher protonation efficiency compared to hot-melt extrusion. This result is attributable to a more favorable encounter between acid and base groups, when exposed to each other in solution phase. Increasing DL led to decreased protonation efficiency in most cases, particularly for polyacrylic acid, despite having the highest content of acidic groups per unit mass. These results indicate that the combined effects of acid strength and mixing phenomena regulate the efficiency of acid-base interactions in the ASDs.

  5. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  6. 'Escher' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Chemical Changes in 'Endurance' Rocks [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1 This false-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a rock dubbed 'Escher' on the southwestern slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists believe the rock's fractures, which divide the surface into polygons, may have been formed by one of several processes. They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock's formation dried up. A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed, and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments. This image was taken on sol 208 (Aug. 24, 2004) by the rover's panoramic camera, using the 750-, 530- and 430-nanometer filters. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before (red and blue lines) and after (green line) the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks. As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia. Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer.

  7. Performance evaluation of two wet bulb globe temperature equipment for heat stress assessment in hot/dry and hot/wet conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibollah Dehghan

    2014-01-01

    Conclusion: Since there is a high correlation between the values recorded by two devices and a remarkable cost - efficacy of WBGT Model 686 , using WBGT Model 686 is an acceptable method for measuring the heat stress if the prediction equations are utilized. According to the different temperature conditions, was obtained dry temperature, wet temperature and globe temperature both devices measurement in different climatic conditions equation WBGT Casella = 2.04 + 1.03 (WBGT Model 686 . About 2 units WBGT Model 686 lower than the WBGT Casella and recommend the measures to be considered in this case as well as the manufacturers also, recommend doing that the reform of sensor measurements and the calculation methods.

  8. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M. Hoeschele, M. Seitzler

    2017-06-01

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners.

  9. Existing Whole-House Solutions Case Study: Performance of a Hot-Dry Climate Whole-House Retrofit, Stockton, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-09-01

    The Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI) team conducted a deep retrofit project within Stockton’s Large-Scale Retrofit Program that expanded on the standard package by adding HVAC, water heater and window upgrades to the ducting, attic and floor insulation, domestic hot water insulation, envelope sealing, lighting and ventilation upgrades. Post-retrofit site energy savings were 23% compared to the pre-retrofit case.

  10. Building America Case Study: Indoor Heat Pump Water Heaters During Summer in a Hot-Dry Climate, Redding, California

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    2017-06-15

    Heat pump water heaters offer a significant opportunity to improve water heating performance for the over 40% of U.S. households that heat domestic hot water using electric resistance storage water heaters. Numerous field studies have also been completed documenting performance in a variety of climates and applications. More recent evaluation efforts have focused attention on the performance of May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored. May through September 2014, with ongoing winter monitoring being sponsored by California utility partners. Summer results show favorable system performance with extrapolated annual water heating savings of 1,466 to 2,300 kWh per year, based on the observed hot water loads. Additional summer space cooling benefits savings of 121 to 135 kWh per year were projected, further increasing the water heating savings by 5-9%. Given the project schedule for 2014 completion, no heating season impacts were able to be monitored.

  11. Can forced hot air quickly dry feces on transport cage flooring and eliminate campylobacter before cage re-use?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allowing feces left on transport coops to dry is an effective way to reduce numbers of viable Campylobacter left by positive flocks. The problem with this approach is that poultry processors do not have the time, space or resources to maintain several times the minimum number of transport cages that...

  12. 热风干燥温度对马蹄产品品质的影响%Effect of Temperature on the Product Quality of Hot Air Drying for Water Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭婷; 黎润凤; 陈振林; 张志; 梁璇; 莫玉菲

    2016-01-01

    In order to investigate the temperature on the quality of water chestnut slice by hot air drying,the col-or,rehydration capacity,hardness,porosity and sensory value of the water chestnut slice were compared. Results showed that hot air drying temperature had a significantly influence on the color parameters and porosity of water chestnut (P<0.05). With the drying temperature rising,the dry basis moisture content decreased faster,the dry-ing time shortened. The water chestnut slice hardness prepared at hot air drying temperature 65℃was small,the porosity and color was good.%为探究热风干燥温度对马蹄品质的影响,比较不同干燥温度对马蹄色泽、复水性、硬度、多孔性、及感官等的影响。结果表明:热风干燥温度对马蹄的色泽和多孔性含量有显著影响(P<0.05);随着干燥温度升高,失水速率增加,干燥时间缩短,干燥温度为65℃时,马蹄片的硬度小,多孔性好,呈现出较好色泽。

  13. Comparative Study of 28 and 18 Years Field Aged Siemens-Arco M55 Modules in Temperate and Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chicca, Matthew; Wohlgemuth, John; TamizhMani, GovindaSamy

    2016-11-21

    The primary objective of this research work is two-fold: (i) determine the degradation rates of Siemens-Arco M55 modules exposed over 18 and 28 years in a hot-dry climate of Arizona and a temperate climate of California, and; (ii) identify the potential modes responsible for these degradation losses. The degradation rates were determined based on the I-V data obtained on exposed modules and on the corresponding control modules which were not exposed in the fields. The degradation modes responsible for these degradations were determined using several nondestructive tests and destructive tests performed on these control and exposed modules. The nondestructive tests included: current-voltage, visual inspection, cell-module quantum efficiency, and module level reflectance spectroscopy. The destructive tests included: transmittance spectroscopy of glass superstrates, and FTIR, DSC and TGA of encapsulant materials.

  14. Building America Case Study: High Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates; Technology Solutions for New and Existing Homes, Energy Efficiency & Renewable Energy (EERE)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2015-08-01

    ?Ducts in conditioned space (DCS) represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. Various strategies exist for incorporating ducts within the conditioned thermal envelope. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of various DCS strategies. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, diagnostic testing, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into California's 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project complemented information collected in the California project with BEopt simulations of DCS performance in hot/dry climate regions.

  15. Isolation and Characterization of Microsatellite Loci for Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae, an Endangered Plant Endemic to the Dry-Hot Valleys of Jinsha River in Southwest China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaiyun Guan

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Hibiscus aridicola (Malvaceae is an endangered ornamental shrub endemic to the dry-hot valleys of Jinsha River in southwest China. Only four natural populations of H. aridicola exist in the wild according to our field investigation. It can be inferred that H. aridicola is facing a very high risk of extinction in the wild and an urgent conservation strategy is required. By using a modified biotin-streptavidin capture method, a total of 40 microsatellite markers were developed and characterized in H. aridicola for the first time. Polymorphisms were evaluated in 39 individuals from four natural populations. Fifteen of the markers showed polymorphisms with two to six alleles per locus; the observed heterozygosity ranged from 0.19 to 0.72. These microsatellite loci would be useful tools for population genetics studies on H. aridicola and other con-generic species which are important to the conservation and development of endangered species.

  16. Using terrestrial laser scanning for differential measurement of interannual rock glacier movement in the Argentine Dry Andes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kane, Renato R.

    Argentina has recently implemented laws to protect glaciers and buried ice in the Andes to improve the sustainability of scarce, long-term water resources. Therefore, all glaciers and buried ice terrains must be located and avoided in any commercial alterations of the landscape. Buried ice in this remote and often dangerous terrain typically is located via the use of remote-sensing techniques. This thesis applies one such technique, Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR) in the form of Terrestrial Laser Scanning (TLS), to detect rock glacier movement that is indicative of flowing, buried ice not visible in near surface excavations. TLS surveys were completed at two locales, Los Azules and El Altar, in both AD 2013 and AD 2014 on landscapes where buried ice is suspected to have produced the current surface forms. Multiple TLS scans were co-registered with the use of benchmarks, both between scans and between years, which introduced quantifiable positional errors. Digital Elevation Models (DEMs) were derived from the point cloud data by standardizing the spacing of the points in the horizontal direction, creating 0.1 m by 0.1 m cells with elevation as the cell value. The DEMs for each year were subtracted from each other to yield a change in elevation. The surface roughness of the rock glaciers (vertical variability within each cell) was empirically determined and evaluated as a threshold for results. Both sites showed sub-decimeter interannual movements, and the direction of their movement is typical of forms with buried ice. The results of the study were validated using independent GPS data showing annual movement rates. Despite the downslope movement of these rock glaciers, the volume of ice contained within them remains unclear, and further study is required to assess the volume of water contained.

  17. Hot topic: prevention of parturient paresis and subclinical hypocalcemia in dairy cows by zeolite A administration in the dry period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thilsing-Hansen, T; Jørgensen, R J; Thilsing, Trine

    2001-01-01

    To test the effects of a zeolite feed supplement on parturient calcium status and milk fever, two groups of dry cows were treated with either 1 kg of zeolite/d or none for 4 wk prepartum. At calving and d 1 and 2 after calving all cows were given 250 g of calcium carbonate as a drench, and a bloo...... taken, none of the zeolite-treated cows contracted milk fever or experienced subclinical hypocalcemia.......To test the effects of a zeolite feed supplement on parturient calcium status and milk fever, two groups of dry cows were treated with either 1 kg of zeolite/d or none for 4 wk prepartum. At calving and d 1 and 2 after calving all cows were given 250 g of calcium carbonate as a drench, and a blood...... sample was taken. Serum calcium analysis revealed a greater calcium concentration in zeolite-treated cows. While three control cows contracted milk fever, necessitating intravenous calcium therapy, and six out of eight control cows experienced serum calcium levels below 2 mmol/L in one or more samples...

  18. Experimental studies on the coolability of packed beds. Flooding of hot dry packed beds; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Kuehlbarkeit von Schuettbetten. Fluten heisser, trockener Schuettungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leininger, S.; Kulenovic, R.; Laurien, E. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Inst. fuer Kernenergetik und Energiesysteme (IKE)

    2013-07-01

    In case of a severe accident in a nuclear power plant meltdown of the reactor core can occur and form a packed bed in the lower plenum of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV) after solidification due to contact with water. The removal of after-heat and the long-term coolability is of essential interest. The efficient injection of cooling water into the packed bed has to be assured without endangering the structural integrity of the reactor pressure vessel. The experiments performed aimed to study the dry-out and the quenching (flooding) of hot dry packed beds. Two different inflow variants, bottom- and top-flooding including the variation of the starting temperature of the packed bed and the injection rate were studied. In case of bottom flooding the quenching time increases with increasing packed bed temperature and decreasing injection rate. In case of top flooding the flow pattern is more complex, in a first phase the water flows preferentially toward the RPV wall, the flow paths conduct the water downwards. The flow resistance of the packed bed increases with increasing bed temperatures. The quenching temperatures increase significantly above average.

  19. Daily rhythms of cloacal temperature in broiler chickens of different age groups administered with zinc gluconate and probiotic during the hot-dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aluwong, Tagang; Sumanu, Victory O; Ayo, Joseph O; Ocheja, Benjamin O; Zakari, Friday O; Minka, Ndazo S

    2017-06-01

    The aim of the experiment was to evaluate effects of zinc gluconate (ZnGlu) and probiotic administration on the daily rhythm of cloacal temperature (tcloacal) in broiler chickens of different age groups during the hot-dry season. One-day-old broiler chicks (n = 60) were divided into groups I-IV of 15 chicks per group, and treated for 35 days: Group I (control) was given deionized water; Group II, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg); Group III, probiotic (4.125 × 10(6 )cfu/100 mL), and Group IV, ZnGlu (50 mg/kg) + probiotic (4.125 × 10(6 )cfu/100 mL). Air dry-bulb temperature (tdb), relative humidity (RH), and temperature-humidity index (THI) inside the pen, and tcloacal of each broiler chick were obtained bihourly over a 24-h period; on days 21, 28, and 35 of the study. Values of tdb (32.10 ± 0.49°C), RH (49.94 ± 1.91%), and THI (38.85 ± 0.42) obtained were outside the thermoneutral zone for broiler chickens, and suggested that the birds were subjected to heat stress. Application of the periodic model showed disruption of daily rhythm of tcloacal in broilers on day 21, which was synchronized by probiotic administration. The administration of probiotics or ZnGlu + probiotics to a greater extent decreased the mesor and amplitude, delayed the acrophases of tcloacal in broilers, especially at day 35, as compared to the controls. Overall, the tcloacal values in broiler chickens administered with probiotic alone (41.25 ± 0.05°C) and ZnGlu + probiotic (41.52 ± 0.05°C) were lower (P heat stress on broiler chickens during the hot-dry season. © 2017 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of The Physiological Society and the American Physiological Society.

  20. Development and test of continuous combined mid-infrared with hot air drying equipment%连续式中红外-热风组合干燥设备的研制与试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢小雷; 张春晖; 贾伟; 李侠; 王兆进; 穆国锋

    2015-01-01

    Drying efficiency was always considered to be the most important factor by factories, however, low thermal conductivity and case hardening of the material slowed the moisture migration in hot air drying, and resulted in more time and energy consumption. So to solve the existing problems of present drying equipment, a continuous drying equipment of combined mid-infrared and hot air (CMIHA) was developed in this paper. This drying equipment included feed section, heating sections and cooling section, of which each heating section was made up of four parts, i.e. conveying system, heating system, convective circulation system and control system. As we all know, since infrared energy is converted into heat only when material absorbs the radiation, it was essential to select a heat source emitting radiation with the range in which the material to be processed had maximum absorption. So, the radiation wavelength of infrared was selected by the infrared spectra of meats, and the radiation intensity could be controlled by changing the amount of working lamps to make good use of the radiation energy. At the same time, this equipment was developed by calculating the main technological parameters of convection system, cooling system and heating system, and then the production verification test was also done to compare the difference between CMIHA drying and hot air drying on beef jerky. Results showed that, in the same conditions (heating power 105 kW, heating temperature 70℃, wind velocity 1 m/s, cooling wind velocity 3 m/s, heating distance 8 cm), compared with hot air drying, the continuous CMIHA drying equipment could speed up muscle protein denaturation, reduce activation energy, reduce the energy that jerky needed to accelerate moisture migration, and improve drying efficiency. The time consumption that the beef samples in the first row on the conveyor dehydrated from raw to weight reduction by 50%for CMIHA drying equipment was 120 min, and the production efficiency

  1. ASSESSMENT OF DROUGHT TOLERANCE IN FEW CLONES OF NATURAL RUBBER (Hevea brasiliensis UNDER DRY HOT CLIMATE OF ODISHA, INDIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishan B

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A preliminary study was conducted to assess the drought tolerance at the early stages of growth in different clones of natural rubber (Hevea brasiliensis at the Regional Research Station of Rubber Research Institute of India at Kadalipal, Dhenkanal, Odisha in eastern region of India. Poly bag plants of five clones RRII 430, RRII 105, RRIM 600, RRII 208 and IRCA 111 were assessed for the drought tolerance and compared drought injury indices status with same clones growing naturally in the adjoining field. Results of drought injury indicated scorching, leaf yellowing, drying and leaf fall at regular intervals, since imposition of drought stress conditions. Among various tested clones RRIM 600 and RRII 430 have comparatively higher drought tolerant. Plants under field condition showed drought injury symptoms much later than the poly bag plants. Drought indices, tolerance of drought of different clones and possible reasons have been also discussed

  2. 粮食热风干燥热能结构与解析法%Thermal energy structure of grain hot air drying and analytical method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李长友; 马兴灶; 方壮东; 张烨

    2014-01-01

    experiment was studied under the conditions of temperature was 26 to 35 ℃, relative humidity was 40%to 55%of ambient air, and the initial temperature and dry basis moisture content of paddy was 36℃ and 38.6%, respectively. The results showed that the paddy temperature reduced 11℃ and the average drying rate was 1.2%/h in drying 2 hours. The paddy temperature picked up to 29℃ when the dry basis moisture content of paddy reduced to 17%. Another experiment was investigated on a 3100kg circulating paddy dryer with hot air, which the air volume was 9556.645 kg/h and the ratio of drying and tempering is 1:3.2. The results showed that the unit gas consumption increased 3.8 times from 113.0 kg/kg to 546.4 kg/kg, the unit heat consumption increased 5.4 times from 2548.9 kJ/kg to 16352.7 kJ/kg, and the exhaust gas heat loss of drying chamber increased 3.9 times from 6.2%to 30.6%, when the dry basis moisture content of paddy decreased from 27.06%to 16.96%. The main reason that the average exhaust gas heat loss was higher, the average heat rate and exergy efficiency of drying chamber was lower, was the poor performance of the energy matching in drying process. The change of energy efficiency in dryer chamber was from-3.9%to 59.9%, which indicated that the energy consumption of grain drying not only had subjective exergy, but also contained objective exergy. This paper pointed out that the evaluation of drying process and dryer energy utilization efficiency could not just stay on the subjective thermal efficiency, and must consider the effect of objective energy. The result provided the reference for reasonably evaluating energy matching of drying system and dryer energy utilization efficiency, and forming a fair evaluation standard.

  3. Hydrothermal alteration at the Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah: modal mineralogy, and geochemistry of sericite, chlorite, and feldspar from altered rocks, Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballantyne, J.M.

    1978-11-01

    Sericites, chlorites, feldspars, biotite and hornblende from hydrothermally altered rocks at several depths in Thermal Power Company well Utah State 14-2, Roosevelt Hot Springs Thermal Area, Utah, have been analyzed using the electron microprobe. Sericites and ferromagnesian minerals have been analyzed for 12 major elements, and feldspars for 3. The results have been used, along with whole rock chemical analyses, to computer calculate modal mineralogy for samples from the drillhole. Calculated modes for hydrothermal minerals are in reasonable agreement with observations from thin sections.

  4. Drying kinetics and mathematical modeling of abalone during the hot-air drying process%鲍鱼热风干燥动力学及干燥过程数学模拟

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾敏; 丛海花; 薛长湖; 薛勇; 孙兆敏; 李金章

    2012-01-01

    研究了鲍鱼在不同热风干燥温度下的干燥动力学特点,并构建了干燥过程的数学模型。热风干燥温度选取60、65、70、75、80℃;风速恒定为1m/s。干燥方法采取间歇干燥,分两个阶段进行。利用理论模型—扩散模型,和常见经验模型—Newton模型、Henderson and Pabis模型、Logaritmic模型、Two-terms模型、Page模型及Modified Page模型,对鲍鱼干燥过程的两个阶段分别进行描述。实验结果表明:鲍鱼热风干燥只经历降速阶段,水分扩散在鲍鱼干燥的过程中起主导作用。通过对实验数据进行统计分析,得到适合鲍鱼热风干燥的模型为Page模型(第一阶段干燥)和Two-terms模型(第二阶段干燥),模型的预测值与实际值比较吻合(Page模型r2〉0.999,s〈1%;Two-terms模型r2〉0.997,s〈2%),可以用来描述鲍鱼的热风干燥过程。%The drying dynamics characteristics and drying model of abalone were studied and constructed respectively,using a hot air dryer at five levels of drying air temperatures in the range of 60~80℃,and a fixed air flow velocity,1m/s.The drying process was intermittent,divided into two stages,during which the drying behaviors of abalone were estimated respectively by mechanistic and empirical models:the diffusion model,Newton model,Henderson and Pabis model,Logaritmic model,Two-terms model,Page model,and Modified Page model.It could be seen that the drying process of abalone only contained deceleration stage and the removal of moisture from the material was governed by diffusion phenomenon.Among the models,the Page model and the Two-terms models were found to be the most suitable(Page model:r20.999,s1%;Two-terms model:r20.997,s2%) for predicting moisture ratio of the product in the first and second stage of the drying process.

  5. 鲜块菌片热风干燥工艺参数的优化%Hot-air Drying Technical Parameters Optimization of Fresh Truffle Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苗玉志; 张微帷; 何兵

    2013-01-01

    To provide a theoretical foundation for drying and industrialized production of fresh truffle slices, the quadratic orthogonal rotation method with three factors and five levels for each factor was employed. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the main influence factors. And synthetic score of sensory quality, dehydration rate and rehydrate ratio of dried truffle slices were used as experimental indices. The relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed. The regression mathematical models describing the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established to analyze the interaction effects and the influence degree of the factors on the experimental indices. The optimal combination of technological parameters for drying materials was obtained by multi-objective linear weighted optimization method. The optimal parameters were as follows: hot-air temperature 50 ℃, material load 2.81 kg/m2, and airflow rate 0.3 m/s. Under these conditions, score for sensory quality indicator was 86.1. Dehydration rate was 10.98%/h and rehydrate ratio was 3.7:1. There was a close agreement between experimental and predicted values.%为了为鲜块菌的干燥和工业化生产提供理论依据,通过3因素5水平的二次正交旋转组合实验,分析了风温、风速及装量与干燥产品质量、干燥速率及复水率比间的关系,建立了二次回归数学模型,并研究了3因素对各指标的交互作用及显著性影响;利用多目标线性加权优化法,确定了鲜块菌热风干燥的最佳工艺参数,即风温50℃、风速0.3 m/s、装量2.81 kg/m2.在此条件下,干燥产品质量得84.68分、脱水速率为10.98%/h、复水率比为3.7:1,验证结果与优化预测值接近,优化结果可信.

  6. Failure and Degradation Modes of PV modules in a Hot Dry Climate: Results after 4 and 12 years of field exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallineni, Jaya krishna

    This study evaluates two photovoltaic (PV) power plants based on electrical performance measurements, diode checks, visual inspections and infrared scanning. The purpose of this study is to measure degradation rates of performance parameters (Pmax, Isc, Voc, Vmax, Imax and FF) and to identify the failure modes in a "hot-dry desert" climatic condition along with quantitative determination of safety failure rates and reliability failure rates. The data obtained from this study can be used by module manufacturers in determining the warranty limits of their modules and also by banks, investors, project developers and users in determining appropriate financing or decommissioning models. In addition, the data obtained in this study will be helpful in selecting appropriate accelerated stress tests which would replicate the field failures for the new modules and would predict the lifetime for new PV modules. The study was conducted at two, single axis tracking monocrystalline silicon (c-Si) power plants, Site 3 and Site 4c of Salt River Project (SRP). The Site 3 power plant is located in Glendale, Arizona and the Site 4c power plant is located in Mesa, Arizona both considered a "hot-dry" field condition. The Site 3 power plant has 2,352 modules (named as Model-G) which was rated at 250 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 12 years old modules are 0.95%/year and 0.96%/year, respectively. The major cause of degradation found in Site 3 is due to high series resistance (potentially due to solder-bond thermo-mechanical fatigue) and the failure mode is ribbon-ribbon solder bond failure/breakage. The Site 4c power plant has 1,280 modules (named as Model-H) which provide 243 kW DC output. The mean and median degradation of these 4 years old modules are 0.96%/year and 1%/year, respectively. At Site 4c, practically, none of the module failures are observed. The average soiling loss is 6.9% in Site 3 and 5.5% in Site 4c. The difference in soiling level is attributed

  7. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor O; Ayo, Joseph O; Adelaiye, Alexander B; Hambolu, Joseph O

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C (P chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  8. Ameliorative effects of melatonin administration and photoperiods on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinkalu, Victor O.; Ayo, Joseph O.; Adelaiye, Alexander B.; Hambolu, Joseph O.

    2015-01-01

    Experiments were performed with the aim of determining the effect of melatonin administration on diurnal fluctuations in cloacal temperature (CT) of Marshall broiler chickens during the hot dry season. Birds in group I (12L:12D cycle) were raised under natural photoperiod of 12-h light and 12-h darkness, without melatonin supplementation, while those in group II (LL) were kept under 24-h continuous lighting, without melatonin administration. Broiler chickens in group III (LL + melatonin) were raised under 24-h continuous lighting, with melatonin supplementation at 0.5 mg/kg per os. The cloacal temperatures of 15 labeled broiler chickens from each group were measured at 6:00, 13:00, and 19:00 h, 7 days apart, from days 14-42. Temperature-humidity index was highest at day 14 of the study, with the value of 36.72 ± 0.82 °C but lowest at day 28 with the value of 30.91 ± 0.80 °C ( P melatonin-treated group but lower than that of 41.65 ± 0.03 °C obtained in the LL birds. Mortality due to hyperthermia commenced at day 28 in both 12L:12D cycle and LL broiler chickens but was delayed till day 42 in LL + MEL broiler chickens. In conclusion, melatonin administration alleviated the deleterious effects of heat stress on broiler chickens by maintaining their cloacal temperature at relatively low values.

  9. Up-regulation of milk secretion with modified microclimate through manipulating plasminogen-plasmin system in Murrah buffaloes during hot dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Singh, M.; Hossain, S. A.

    2016-12-01

    The present study was aimed at determining changes in milk yield and composition along with the plasminogen-plasmin system of milk, plasma hormones, and metabolites of buffaloes during hot dry season (air temperature range 39.7 to 44.8 °C) under two different management systems. Buffaloes were divided in two groups of six animals each: control and treatment, where treatment group animals accessed benefit of mist and fan cooling from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., while control group animals were devoid of it. Duration of experiment was 6 weeks. Under mist and fan cooling system, buffaloes experienced better comfort by alleviating environmental stress as their physiological responses such as rectal temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate, and forehead and middorsal temperatures were significantly ( P milk yield by 4.44 % ( P milk samples revealed higher concentration of plasminogen (7.99 vs 6.27 μg/ml; P calcium content of milk, GH, and epinephrine level in plasma. Hence, it may be concluded that provision of cooling system during summer was effective to minimize environmental stress and improve milk production by manipulation of the PG-PL system in buffaloes.

  10. Up-regulation of milk secretion with modified microclimate through manipulating plasminogen-plasmin system in Murrah buffaloes during hot dry season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haque, N.; Singh, M.; Hossain, S. A.

    2016-05-01

    The present study was aimed at determining changes in milk yield and composition along with the plasminogen-plasmin system of milk, plasma hormones, and metabolites of buffaloes during hot dry season (air temperature range 39.7 to 44.8 °C) under two different management systems. Buffaloes were divided in two groups of six animals each: control and treatment, where treatment group animals accessed benefit of mist and fan cooling from 9:30 a.m. to 5:00 p.m., while control group animals were devoid of it. Duration of experiment was 6 weeks. Under mist and fan cooling system, buffaloes experienced better comfort by alleviating environmental stress as their physiological responses such as rectal temperature, respiration rate, pulse rate, and forehead and middorsal temperatures were significantly (P animals. However, exposure of buffaloes to cooling system did not alter composition and calcium content of milk, GH, and epinephrine level in plasma. Hence, it may be concluded that provision of cooling system during summer was effective to minimize environmental stress and improve milk production by manipulation of the PG-PL system in buffaloes.

  11. Characterization of 15 selected coccal bacteria isolated from Antarctic rock and soil samples from the McMurdo-Dry Valleys (South-Victoria Land)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siebert, J.; Hirsch, P.; Friedmann, E. I. (Principal Investigator)

    1988-01-01

    Approximately 1500 cultures of microorganisms were isolated from rocks and soils of the Ross Desert (McMurdo-Dry Valleys). From these, 15 coccoid strains were chosen for more detailed investigation. They were characterized by morphological, physiological and chemotaxonomical properties. All isolates were Gram-positive, catalase-positive and nonmotile. Six strains showed red pigmentation and could be identified as members of the genera Micrococcus (M. roseus, M. agilis) or Deinococcus. In spite of their coccoid morphology, the remaining nine strains had to be associated with coryneform bacteria (Arthrobacter, Brevibacterium), because of their cell wall composition and G+C ratios. Most of the strains were psychrotrophic, but one strain was even obligately psychrophilic, with a temperature maximum below 20 degrees C. Red cocci had in vitro pH optima above 9.0 although they generally originated from acid samples. Most isolates showed a preference for sugar alcohols and organic acids, compounds which are commonly known to be released by lichens, molds and algae, the other components of the cryptoendolithic ecosystem. These properties indicate that our strains are autochthonous members of the natural Antarctic microbial population.

  12. Clinical observations made in nonheat acclimated horses performing treadmill exercise in cool (20 degrees C/40%RH), hot, dry (30 degrees C/40%RH) or hot, humid (30 degrees C/80%RH) conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harris, P A; Marlin, D J; Mills, P C; Roberts, C A; Scott, C M; Harris, R C; Orme, C E; Schroter, R C; Marr, C M; Barrelet, F

    1995-11-01

    Four horses (H, J, N and M) undertook a treadmill competition exercise test (CET), designed to simulate the physiological and metabolic stresses of the Speed and Endurance phase of a 3-day-event, under 3 different environmental conditions: 20 degrees C/40% relative humidity (RH) (cool, dry [CD]: 2 sessions); 30 degrees C/40%RH (hot, dry [HD]) and 30 degrees C/80%RH (hot, humid [HH]) (Marlin et al. 1995). A number of subjective clinical observations were made at designated time points throughout the exercise test and initial recovery period including buccal mucous membrane colouration, capillary refill time, neck and point of shoulder skin pinch recovery time, grade of abdominal sounds; anal sphincter tone as well as the presence or absence of fatigue and ataxia. The aim was to investigate their value in predicting performance in the final canter phase of the CET equivalent to the cross-country or Phase D of a field competition. In addition, the use of a more objective assessment, the cardiac recovery index (CRI), was investigated together with the heart rate, rectal temperature and respiratory frequency at the end of Phase C and at the 8 min point of the 10 Minute Box (8'X). The CRI was calculated according to the formula CRI = P2-P1 where P2 = the heart rate in beats/min at the 8 min point of the '10 Minute Box' (Phase X) of the CET. P1 = the heart rate (beats/min) at the 7 min point just before the horse was made to trot over a distance of 80 m at a speed of 3.7 m/s (at a 3 degrees incline) before returning to a walk. The study suggested that the subjective tests carried out at the 'End-C' and/or '8'X' time points were not useful in predicting subsequent performance in the final canter phase (Phase D) and neither were heart rate, rectal temperature or respiratory frequency. However, the only horse (Horse H) to complete the full CET under HH conditions was the only animal to show a decrease in respiratory frequency between the End-C and 8'X time points. All others

  13. 华北冬麦区干热风发生规律及风险区划%Occurrence rules and risk zoning of dry-hot wind in winter wheat producing areas of north China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨霏云; 朱玉洁; 刘伟昌

    2013-01-01

    Based on the index of the occurrence of dryhot wind in winter wheat region,an index of its occurrence intensity was established and the occurrence rule of dry-hot wind was inverted for the main winter wheat producing areas in the North China Plain since 1961.According to the results,the winter wheat area of the middle and south of Hebei,the west and north of Shandong and the north of Henan are the high risk zones of dry-hot wind,and the occurrence has reduced since the beginning of 1980' s.Thus,using the winter wheat observatory meteorological data,production structure material,yield,growth phase and other data,a dry-hot wind risk assessment model was established after the construction of the dry-hot wind risk evaluation index system that cover the dry-hot wind strength risk index and integrated disaster resisting capability index of the winter wheat.The dry-hot risk in main winter wheat producing areas of north China was then assessed using the model,and the dry-hot wind risk zoning assessment map was made for the areas.Assessment results show that,southeast of Hebei and northwest of Shandong are areas with high risk of the dry-hot wind influence,while south of Henan,east of Shandong and Hebei are low risk areas.%基于冬小麦干热风发生指标,构建了冬小麦干热风的发生强度指标,反演了华北平原冬小麦主产区1961年以来干热风的发生规律.通过分析发现,河北中南部、山东西部和北部、河南北部等冬小麦区属于干热风高发区,而进入20世纪80年代以来,干热风发生呈减少趋势.利用冬小麦观测站的气象资料、产量及其结构资料和发育期资料等数据,构建了包括干热风强度风险指数、综合抗灾能力指数的干热风风险评估指标体系,建立了干热风风险评估模型,对华北冬小麦主产区的干热风风险进行了评估,制作了华北平原冬小麦区干热风风险区划评估图.评估结果显示,河北东南部和山东西北部为干热

  14. [Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Bin; Tang, Guo-Yong; Li, Kun; Gao, Cheng-Jie; Liu, Fang-Yan; Wang, Xiao-Fei

    2013-06-01

    By using layering harvest method, a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation, Leucaena leucocephala plantation, and E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yunnan Province, Southwest China. The stand biomass in the mixed E. camaldulensis-L. leucocephala plantation (82.99 t x hm(-2)) was between that of monoculture E. camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t x hm(-2)) and L. leucocephala plantation (127.79 t x hm(-2)). The individual tree biomass of E. camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg). The branch and leaf biomass of L. leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E. camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation, and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L. leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E. camaldulensis (73.4%). The roots of L. leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer, while those of E. camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm, respectively. The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots, small roots, and fine roots of L. leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation, but it was contrary for E. camaldulensis. It was suggested that introducing L. leucocephala in E. camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E. camaldulensis, especially for its aboveground biomass, and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer, which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area.

  15. The Effect of Passive Design Strategies on Thermal Performance of Female Secondary School Buildings during Warm Season in Hot Dry Climate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahar eZahiri

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes a series of field studies and simulation analysis to improve the thermal performance of school buildings in the city of Tehran in Iran during warm season. The field studies used on-site measurement and questionnaire-based survey in the warm spring season in a typical female secondary school building. The on-site monitoring assessed the indoor air temperature and humidity levels of six classrooms while the occupants completed questionnaires covering their thermal sensations and thermal preferences. Moreover, thermal simulation analysis was also carried out to evaluate and improve the thermal performance of the classrooms based on the students’ thermal requirements and passive design strategies. In this study, the environmental design guidelines for female secondary school buildings were introduced for the hot and dry climate of Tehran, using passive design strategies. The study shows that the application of passive design strategies including south and south-east orientation, 10cm thermal insulation in wall and 5cm in the roof, and the combination of 30cm side fins and overhangs as a solar shading devices, as well as all-day ventilation strategy and the use of thermal mass materials with 25cm-30cm thickness, has considerable impact on indoor air temperatures in warm season in Tehran and keeps the indoor environment in an acceptable thermal condition. The results of the field studies also indicated that most of the occupants found their thermal environment not to be comfortable and the simulation results showed that passive design techniques had a significant influence on the indoor air temperature and can keep it in an acceptable range based on the female students’ thermal requirement. Therefore, in order to enhance the indoor environment and to increase the learning performance of the students, it is necessary to use the appropriate passive design strategies, which also reduce the need for mechanical systems and

  16. Technology of Hot Air Recycle from FCC Catalyst Spray Drying%催化裂化催化剂喷雾干燥热风再循环技术

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶金应

    2012-01-01

    Analysised the relative humidity of the hot air from the tail gas of FCC catalyst spray drying. Technology of hot air recycle was adapted in the process of spray drying during FCC catalyst production. The operation parameters were optimized by comparing the thermal efficiency and energy saving under different recycle ratio. Technology of hot air recycle from spray drying improved the thermal efficiency of the unit and reached apparent energy saving.%分析了催化裂化催化剂喷雾干燥尾气热风的相对湿度;在催化裂化催化剂喷雾干燥生产过程中,采用热风再循环技术;比较不同循环比下的热效率和节能效果,优化操作参数;喷雾干燥热风再循环技术提高了装置的热效率,节能效果明显。

  17. Application of a Natural Gas Fired Hot Blast Stove in Drying Industry%天然气热风炉在干燥行业中的节能应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张丽丽; 姜谋

    2012-01-01

    An application of a natural gas fired hot blast stove in drying industry is introduced. Using natural gas fired hot blast stove instead of vapor heat exchanger, thermal efficiency of drying industry is improved significantly, and remarkable energy -saving effect is obtained. According to the retrofitting practice of drying system in a biopharmacy corporation, satisfactory results were obtained. After the retrofitting, the temperature of drying -medium can exceed 180℃ , and maintain stable, which improve production by 20%. The temperature of drying - medium can adjusted automatically according to moisture content of biomass feed, so drying quality can be guaranteed. The thermal efficiency of drying system is increased from 44% to above 96%.%介绍了天然气直燃热风炉在干燥行业的节能应用.采用天然气直燃热风炉代替蒸汽换热装置,可大幅提高干燥系统的热效率,节能效果显著.通过对某生物制药公司干燥系统的改造实践,取得了比较满意的改造效果.改造后,干燥介质温度可达到180℃以上,出力稳定,使设备生产能力提高20%.另外,干燥介质的温度可以根据生物质饲料所含水分自动调节,确保了干燥品质.系统热效率由改造前的44%提高到96%以上.

  18. 干燥介质相对湿度对胡萝卜片热风干燥特性的影响%Effect of hot air relative humidity on drying characteristics of carrot slabs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    巨浩羽; 肖红伟; 郑霞; 郭秀良; 刘嫣红; 张卫鹏; 袁婧; 高振江

    2015-01-01

    Drying is one of the most common processing methods for fruits and vegetables. Enhancing drying rate and dried products’ quality as well as energy efficiency is very tempting for drying industry. Recently, a lot of investigations have illustrated that drying temperature, air velocity and sample’s thickness have a significant influence on drying process. High drying temperature and velocity can extensively reduce drying time and enhance drying rate. However, few investigations take into account hot air relative humidity (RH) as important drying parameter in drying process. Some literatures showed that decreasing RH would lead to a steeper slope of moisture ratio decreasing. Whereas, some researches pointed out that there was no effect of RH on the drying rate in specified range of RH. In general, high RH can contribute to a rapid increase of product temperature. It is expected that with high RH pretreatment, the temperature and moisture tend to be equivalent and after that the RH can be reduced to enhance drying rate. In this circumstance, the temperature and moisture gradient between sample and drying air become consistent and the high efficient drying process could be achieved. Drying process refers to heat and mass transfer efficiency, energy consuming and products quality. Theoretical models, semi-theoretical and empirical models are widely used to describe drying process. However, those models neglect the fundamentals of the drying process and their parameters have no physical meaning and do not help in the optimization. Recently, Weibull model was used to describe drying process because of its applicability. Based on Weibull model, the relationship between scale parameters as well as shape parameters and drying process could be developed. So in current work, carrot slabs were used to explore the drying characteristics under the drying condition of constant RH and of decreasing RH step by step, together with constant drying temperature and constant air

  19. Location, age, and rock type of volcanic rocks younger than 5 million years in Arizona and New Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aldrich, M.J. Jr.; Laughlin, A.W.

    1981-04-01

    As part of the assessment of the Hot Dry Rock geothermal energy potential of Arizona and New Mexico, a compilation of the locations and ages of volcanic rocks less than 5 Myr was made. The locations of those rocks less than 3 Myr are shown on a map of the region. Because the compiled information has many uses in addition to geothermal exploration, the entire compilation is presented as a tabulation. The table is organized first by state and secondly by latitude and longitude within each state. Rock type, age and error, method of dating, and original reference are also given. The K-Ar dates have not been recalculated using the most recent decay constants for /sup 40/K. A few references gave only verbal descriptions of sample location; these locations were converted to approximate latitude and longitude.

  20. 干制专用辣椒新品种‘航椒7号’%A New Hot Pepper Cultivar‘Hangjiao 7’for Dry Fruit Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建泰; 李晓峰; 罗爱玉; 袁辉; 张建东; 李想荣; 李亚利; 胡小明; 高彦辉; 蒲永鸿

    2012-01-01

    ‘航椒7号’是中熟干制专用辣椒一代杂种,结果集中,果实线形,干椒紫红色,平均果长18.0cm,果宽1.1cm,单果质量2.6g,果面皱纹细密,光泽好,商品性优,辣味强,风味佳。耐瘠薄,耐盐碱,耐高温干旱,抗疫病、病毒病,干椒产量5600kg·hm-2以上,适合北方露地栽培。%‘Hangjiao 7’is a new hot pepper hybrid for dry fruit production. The fruit is linear shaped. The dry pepper is purplish red and bright,the fruit is 18.0 cm × 1.1 cm in size. Single dry fruit weights about 2.6 g. The fruit is wrinkle-skinned,strong pungent. It has good marketability and good flavor. This cultivar is tolerant to barren,salt,high temperature and drought,resistant to epidemics and viruses. The yield of dry hot pepper is up to 5 600 kg · hm-2. It is suitable for cultivation in open field in the north of China.

  1. 西南地区的干热河谷及其森林培育%The dry-hot valleys and forestation in southwest china

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The dry-hot valleys (DHV) are located mainly in the deeply incised valleys along the upper streams of several international and domestically rivers, like Yangtz, Zhu, Lanchang, Hong, and Nu rivers. This paper briefly described the reasons of formation of DHV from view of climate and geographical conditions, and by referring to great deal of documents, analyzed the historical case and present status of the vegetations in DHV. The environment in DHV is facing the serious vulnerable period in the history due to its nature situation of half-year dry period, fragile geological structure and shallow soil, and its social situation of over dense population and over farming. The primary vegetation is broad leaf forest and it was denuded in the history. The current local vegetation is the degraded secondary vegetation: savanna and succulent thorny shrub. Since the environmental situation in valley influenced directly the water body of river, the soil erosion control and re-vegetation in DHV is the most urgent task in the process of environmental harness along the rivers. Quite a few pilot research projects have been carried out.on demonstrating new silviculture techniques for re-vegetation in DHV, but there still exist great difficulties in carrying out large-scale afforestation engineering.%干热河谷主要分布于长江、珠江、澜沧江、红河和怒江等国内和国际性河流的上游深切河谷地段。本文对干热河谷形成的地理和气候原因进行了阐述,并通过引证大量文献,分析了干热河谷植被的历史情况和现状。由于干热河谷地区的地质结构不稳定、土层浅薄、人口膨胀、过度耕种,尤其长达半年的旱季等原因,导致该地区的生态环境处于极端的脆弱阶段。当地的原始植被为常绿阔叶林和落叶阔叶林,但均遭到严重的破坏。现有植被为次生的稀树草坡和肉质化刺灌木。由于干热河谷的植被情况直接影响河流水体的质量

  2. 微波热风两段式干燥法生产婴幼儿保健糯米粉%Production of infant health glutinous rice powder by two stages method of microwave and hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李凤霞; 蒋欣欣; 陈守江; 于雷; 江铃

    2012-01-01

    In order to prevent the taste cold empty and abdominal distension diarrhea of infants,the edible traditional Chinese medicine poria cocos,dioscorea opposita thunb,lotus seed,and jujube were added into glutinous rice powder,and then the health glutinous rice powder was developed for infants.The curves of hot air and microwave drying were drawn based on a single factor experiment,and the best drying parameters were determined according to the orthogonal test under two dry optimal conditions,the best proportion of raw materials was determined by other orthogonal experiments.The results showed that the best parameters of dying were microwave 300W,1.5min,and then hot air drying 70℃,2h.The best ratio of raw material was 14g poria cocos and jujube,10g dioscorea opposita thunb,8g lotus seed were added into 100g glutinous rice,and 24% xylitol was added after being smashed.The combination drying method of hot-air drying with microwave drying could effectively keep raw natural composition and good sensory properties when health care glutinous rice powder was produced.%以糯米粉为基料,添加药食同源的中药茯苓、淮山药、莲子、红枣,开发一种能调理婴幼儿脾胃虚寒、腹胀腹泻的即食型糯米粉。依据单因素实验绘制热风和微波干燥曲线,并根据两种干燥的最适条件进行正交实验,确定最佳干燥参数;然后用正交实验对原辅料进行最佳配比实验。结果表明:原辅料最佳配比为100g基料中添加茯苓和红枣各14g,淮山药10g,莲子8g;先用300W微波干燥1.5min,后70℃热风干燥2h;粉碎后添加24%的木糖醇。采用微波热风联合干燥法生产即食型保健糯米粉可有效保持原料固有成分,且具有良好的感官性状。

  3. 香蕉太阳能热风真空组合干燥设备设计%Design of Solar Hot-air Vacuum Combination Drying Device for Bananas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    童亚子; 杨福孙

    2014-01-01

    为了缩短香蕉的干燥时间,降低干燥成本,将太阳能技术、真空技术和自动控制技术相结合,提出了一种能耗低、干燥效率高且能最大限度保存香蕉中各种生理活性营养成分和风味的香蕉太阳能热风真空组合干燥设备。该设备主要由空气预热器、智能控制器、太阳能热水器、真空泵、干燥箱、热风辅助加热器和引风机等组成,并通过理论计算、分析及实验,验证了该设备的科学性。该设备的成功设计对我国热带等地区的香蕉干燥具有积极的影响作用。%In order to shorten banana drying time and reduce drying costs ,low energy consumption ,high efficiency drying and keeping various physiological active nutrients in bananas of Solar Hot -air vacuum combination drying Device was pro-posed , which combined solar technology , vacuum technology with automatic control technology .The device contains air preheated , intelligent controller , solar water heater , vacuum pump , oven , hot-air auxiliary heater , fan and other compo-nents .According to theoretical analysis and experimental , the device is scientific .The successful design of the device plays a positive impact which dried banana in tropical area of China .

  4. Degradation kinetics of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside during hot air and vacuum drying in mulberry (Morus alba L.) fruit: A comparative study based on solid food system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Mo; Chen, Qinqin; Bi, Jinfeng; Wang, Yixiu; Wu, Xinye

    2017-08-15

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the degradation kinetic of anthocyanin in dehydration process of solid food system. Mulberry fruit was treated by hot air and vacuum drying at 60 and 75°C. The contents of cyanidin 3-O-glucoside and cyanidin 3-O-rutinoside were determined by using high performance liquid chromatography. Kinetic and thermodynamic parameters were calculated for analysing the degradation characteristics. Model fitting results showed monomeric anthocyanin degradations were followed the second-order kinetic. Vacuum drying presented high kinetic rate constants and low t1/2 values. Thermodynamic parameters including the activation energy, enthalpy change and entropy change appeared significant differences between hot air and vacuum drying. Both heating techniques showed similar effects on polyphenol oxidase activities. These results indicate the anthocyanin degradation kinetic in solid food system is different from that in liquid and the oxygen can be regarded as a catalyst to accelerate the degradation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. 生物多孔介质热风干燥数学模型及数值模拟%Mathematical model and numerical simulation of biological porous medium during hot air drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王会林; 卢涛; 姜培学

    2014-01-01

    Drying is a very important unit operation in many industries such as food, pharmaceuticals, chemicals and ceramics. In most cases, wet materials are dried by forced convection using hot air flow. Heat and mass transfer processes during drying have been studied by both experimental and numerical simulation methods. For the purpose of studying the mechanism of heat and mass transfer and stress-strain distribution during the hot air drying of biological porous medium, two-way coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical mathematical model has been developed to simulate the hot air convective drying process of biological porous media on basis of Fickian diffusion theory, Fourier’s law of heat conduction and thermoelasticity mechanics. The following assumptions were made in order to find a solution to the hot air drying model: the biological porous medium was homogeneous and isotropic; the deformation during drying was elastic. The transient model, composed of a system of partial differential equations, was solved by finite difference methods. The computational procedure was programmed using C language. Some physical and mechanical properties of carrot changing with dry basis moisture content and temperature were considered. The numerical results were compared with available experimental data obtained during the drying of potatoes and carrots. The relative errors between numerical results and experimental data were both less than 5%, which showed the numerical results obtained using the mathematical model were in good agreement with the experimental data. Numerical simulations of the drying curve variations and the spatio-temporal distributions of moisture, temperature and drying stresses and strains of carrot were also evaluated. The temperature and moisture content showed a gradient inside carrot slice during drying. As the drying process proceeded, the temperature inside the carrot slice initially increased to reach the wet bulb temperature of the environment and eventually

  6. Optimization of the Hot-air Drying Technical Parameters for Ginkgo Fruit Based on Response Surface Methodology%银杏果热风干燥工艺参数响应面法优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张黎骅; 徐中明; 夏磊; 马志远

    2012-01-01

    The effects of drying temperature, material load and airflow rate on hot-air drying characteristics of the moisture content and dehydrating rate of ginkgo fruit were investigated by applying self-made hot-air drying online testing device. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the influence factors, and moisture content, dehydration rate, average energy consumption of drying process, protein retention rate and sensory quality of dried ginkgo were the experimental indices, and the relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed through the responsesurface analysis method and sub-stepping method. The quadratic regression mathematical models that described the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established. The optimal combination of technological parameters for drying materials was obtained through conducting a multi-objective function optimization by function expected optimization. The hot air drying process of ginkgo is mainly concentrated in constant-speed phase and decelerated phase, and the optimal parameters are as follows; hot-air temperature of 68℃ , airflow rate of 1. 15 m/s, and material load of 15. 58 kg/m2. Under these conditions, the energy consumption is 11. 86 Kw·h/kg, the dehydration rate is 9. 77%/h, protein retention rate is 90. 30% and the sensory score is 8. 57. The results can provide a theoretical basis for drying and industrialized production of ginkgo fruit.%利用自制的热风干燥在线测试装置,对银杏果的热风干燥进行了试验研究,探讨了热风温度、热风速度及装载量对含水率、干燥速率的影响,通过响应面分析和逐步逼近法分析了热风温度、热风速度及装载量与干燥过程平均能耗、平均干燥速率、蛋白质保存率以及干燥后的感官品质之间的关系,建立了二次回归数学模型.并利用函数期望优化方法进行了多目标函数

  7. Design and research on solar steamy hot-air drying system%太阳能蒸汽热风干燥系统的设计与研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    裴坤; 段凤江; 孔晓玲; 于鹏

    2012-01-01

    研制一套太阳能干燥系统,采用真空集热管对水加热,产生水蒸气,并转换成热风,实现对农产品的干燥作业.以胡萝卜作为样品进行干燥机的干燥性能试验,结果表明:当太阳辐射值达到750 W/m2以上时,蒸汽可以稳定工作5~7 h;干燥室内高温工作段温度可以稳定在55℃左右,低温工作段温度可以稳定在40℃左右.干燥后的胡萝卜脱水率为82.3%~86.5%,干燥效果良好.%Designed and developed a set of solar drying systems, use the vacuum tube collector to heal water, the system can produce steam, and then converted it into hot air, realize the drying of agricultural products. The experiments of drying carrots were carried out to test the drying system's performance. The results show that when solar power reaches above 750 W/m2, the steam can stable work for 5~7 hours;The temperature of the dryer's high temperature section can be stabilized at around 55?,artd the temperature of the low can be stabilized at around 40?. The dehydration rate of dried carrots is between 82. 3% -~ 86. 5% ,drying effect is good.

  8. Hot-air drying characteristics and technical parameters optimization of kernel hickory (Carya cathayensis Sarg.)%山核桃坚果热风干燥特性及其工艺参数优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱德泉; 曹成茂; 丁正耀; 刘伟伟; 张念生; 王继先

    2011-01-01

    针对山核桃坚果热风干燥质量难以控制、干后品质差等问题,采用单因素试验方法,研究了热风温度、装载量及风速对山核桃坚果干燥特性的影响.通过3因素5水平的二次回归正交试验,分析了热风温度、装载量及风速与干燥过程单位时间干燥速率、单位质量干燥能耗以及干后物料蛋白质保存率、不饱和脂肪酸保存率、感官品质指标综合分值的关系,建立了二次同归数学模型,分析了3因素对各指标影响的显著性;利用多目标非线性优化方法,确定了山核桃坚果热风干燥的最佳工艺参数组合,即热风温度为72℃,装载量为0.08 kg,风速为65 m/min.在此条件下,单位时间干燥速率为0.458%/min、单位质量干燥能耗为5.986 kWh/kg、蛋白质保存率为92.12%、不饱和脂肪酸保存率为90.65%、感官品质指标综合分值为32.89分,综合评分为0.802.研究结果为山核桃坚果的干燥和工业化生产提供一定的理论依据.%According to the proplems of difficult control for hot-air drying process and poor quality of dried hickory kernels (Carya cathayensis Sarg.), the effects of drying temperature, material load and airflow rate on hot-air drying characteristics of kernels were investigated by the single factor experimental method. The quadratic regression orthogonal experimental method with three factors and five levels for each factor was employed. Drying temperature, material load and airflow rate were the influence factors, and dehydration rate, energy consumption of drying process, protein retention ratio, unsaturated fatty acid retention ratio and synthetic score of sensory quality indicator of dried kernels were the experimental indices. The relationships between the experimental indices and the influence factors were analyzed. The regression mathematical models describing the relations between the experimental indices and the influence factors were established to analyze the

  9. 苦杏仁去皮热风干燥适宜温度提高油脂品质%Suitable hot air drying temperature improving quality of apricot kernel oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    焦中高; 吕真真; 刘杰超; 张春岭; 刘慧; 杨文博; 王思新

    2016-01-01

    为探索适宜的杏仁热风干燥温度,以热烫去皮处理后的湿杏仁为试验材料,研究了热风干燥不同温度对杏仁及其油脂的感官、理化和营养品质的影响。结果表明,经热烫去皮、干燥处理后可以得到颜色较浅的杏仁油,有利于提高杏仁油的感官品质,但会造成杏仁油过氧化值显著升高(P0.05);过氧化值呈上升趋势,且80℃以上干燥处理显著高于40℃和60℃干燥处理(P<0.05);总不饱和脂肪酸、油酸、亚油酸、十七碳烯酸、二十碳烷酸的比例及β-生育酚、δ-生育酚及总生育酚含量总体呈下降趋势,棕榈油酸、棕榈酸、硬脂酸的比例和β-谷甾醇、总甾醇含量总体呈升高趋势。低温干燥有利于提高杏仁油中生育酚含量,而提高干燥温度则有利于杏仁油中植物甾醇含量的提高。尤其是干燥温度为80℃以上时,杏仁油的品质变化加快。因此,为提高杏仁油理化与营养品质,杏仁脱皮后的干燥宜在80℃以下的较低温度条件下进行。研究结果可为杏仁干燥和高品质杏仁油加工提供参考。%In order to explore optimal drying method and technological conditions, the effects of different conditions of hot air drying on sensory quality, physico-chemical characteristics and nutrition properties of apricot kernels and apricot kernel oil were studied using the wet apricot kernels after decorticating with blanching treatment as test materials. The apricot kernels with a moisture content of 4.61% were blanched in boiling water for 10 min and decorticated, and then the decorticated wet apricot kernels with a moisture content of 17.93% were dried with hot air at different temperatures (40, 60, 80, 100 and 120℃) till the moisture content of apricot kernels was decreased to about 4%-5%. After extracting the oils from cooled apricot kernels using the petroleum ether with boiling point from 60 to 90℃ under ultrasonic

  10. 金沙江干热河谷区优质晚熟芒果栽培技术%Cultivation Techniques of High Quality Late Mango in Dry and Hot Valley Areas of Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马学林; 郭学红

    2013-01-01

    根据华坪晚熟芒果生长特性,结合金沙江干热河谷区自然气候特点,借鉴10多年的生产经验,集成金沙江干热河谷区优质晚熟芒果规范化栽培技术,包括品种选择、培育初生壮苗、果园规划、定植、嫁接改良、幼树管理、花期管理、幼果期管理、果实膨大期管理、果实成熟期管理、采果后的管理等方面内容,以供参考。%According to the growth characteristics of Huaping late ripening mango ,combined with the natural climate characteristic of dry and hot valley areas of Jinsha River ,based on 10 years of production experiences ,the cultivation technologies of high-quality late mango in dry and hot valley areas of Jinsha River were integrated ,which contained variety choice ,nuture nascent seedlings ,orchard planning ,field planting ,engrafting and improving,young trees management,blooming period management,young fruit stage management,fruit expanding process management,fruit maturation period management ,management after mining furit and so on ,in order to provide references.

  11. Effect of Spray Drying and Hot Air Drying on the Nutritional and Sensory Properties of Pumpkin Powder%喷雾干燥及热风干燥对南瓜粉营养特性和感官品质的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周爱梅; 万艳娟; 李少华; 赵力超; 林淑苑; 李启圣

    2011-01-01

    以新鲜南瓜为原料,分别研究了喷雾干燥及热风干燥两种不同干燥工艺对南瓜粉营养特性和感官性能的影响,重点研究了喷雾干燥的干燥温度、压缩空气流量与改良剂添加量(南瓜固形物与麦芽糊精比例)及热风干燥的干燥温度,物料厚度与改良剂添加量(南瓜固形物与麦芽糊精比例)三个因素的影响,以南瓜粉成品的Vc和β-胡萝卜素含量及感官评分作为评价指标,确定最佳干燥工艺.结果表明,南瓜粉最佳的喷雾干燥工艺条件为:进风温度180℃、压缩空气流量480L/h、麦芽糊精添加量3:1;最佳热风干燥条件为:干燥温度75℃、物料厚度0.8 cm、麦芽糊精添加量2:1.在此条件下所得南瓜粉成品的Vc和β-胡萝卜素含量及感官评分分别为64.49%、67.35%、85分及50.84%、52.04%、77分.%The effects of spray drying and hot air drying on the nutritional and sensory properties of pumkin powder using fresh pumkin as raw material were investigated. Emphases were laid on the effects of spray drying temperature, the flow of condensed air, the addition level of drying aid (the ratio ofpumkin solid to maltodextrin) and the temperature of hot air drying, thickness of material and the addition level of drying aid (the ratio ofpumkin solid to maltodextrin) on the quality ofpumkin powder using the content of Vc and β- carotene and sensory score as indicators.Results showed pumkin powder with best quality produced by spray drying could be obtained under the optimum conditions: spray drying temperature 180 ℃, the flow of condensed air 480L/h, and the addition of maltodextrin 3:1. For hot air drying, pumkin powder with best quality could be achieved under the following conditions: hot air drying temperature of 75 ℃, the thickness of 0.8 cm, and the addition of maltodextrin of 2:1. Under the above optimal conditions, the contents of Vc and β-carotone and sensory scores ofpumkin powder were {64.49%, 67.35%, 85

  12. Hot Money, Hot Potato

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    International hot money flowing into Chinese capital markets has caught the attention of Chinese watchdogs The Chinese are not the only ones feasting on the thriving property and stock markets. Apparently, these markets are the targets of international h

  13. 再生火山岩骨料混凝土抗压强度及干缩性能试验%Experimental study on compressive strength and dry-shrinkage property of recycled volcanic rock coarse aggregate concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2015-01-01

    A recycled volcanic rock coarse aggregate concrete is developed,which the aggregate replacement rate is 100%. The compressive strength and dry-shrinkage performance of recycled volcanic rock aggregate concrete are studied. The results show that the compressive strength of recycled concrete after curing 28 days than that of normal concrete is reduced by about 13%,and the dry-shrinkage strain is about 1. 25 times of the reference concrete.%配置了骨料取代率为100%的再生火山岩粗骨料混凝土,并对其抗压强度和干缩性能进行试验研究,结果表明:再生火山岩混凝土28 d抗压强度比基准混凝土抗压强度降低约13%;干燥收缩应变约为基准混凝土的1.25倍。

  14. 茭白片热风对流干燥模型与传质性能%The Model and Mass Transfer Performance of Convective Hot Air Drying of Water-Oat Slices

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    诸爱士

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the transfer characteristics of the water-oat drying process, a laboratory convective hot air dryer was applied to study the influences of drying temperature and thickness of water-oat slice on the drying process. The experimental data of moisture ratio of water-oat slices were used to fit the mathematical models, and the diffusion coefficients under different drying temperatures were calculated, the relative relations between the diffusion coefficient and drying temperature were also related. The results show that the drying temperature influences the drying process significantly, and the thinner slice benefits the moisture diffusion. Among several familiar numerical moisture ratio models, Page model of moisture ratio was found to be the most satisfactory one for the description of the kinetics of the hot air drying water-oat slices process. It was also found that, when the thickness of water-oat slice is 0.003 m, with the increase of temperature from 55℃ to 75℃, the water diffusion coefficient varies from 3.440×10-9 m2·s-1 to 6.357×10-9 m2·s-1; and it fits the Arrhenius equation, the activation energy is 27.86 kJ·mol-1. Under the same temperature, the experiments show that the thickness of the drying material has almost no influence on the water diffusion coefficient%为了探讨茭白干燥的传递特性,在对流热风干燥实验装置中进行了茭白片薄层干燥实验,研究了干燥温度、片的厚度对干燥过程的影响,将试验的水分比与数学模型进行了拟合,计算了不同温度下的水分扩散系数,并关联了其与干燥温度的关系.结果表明:干燥温度对干燥过程影响显著,薄片有利于水分扩散:用Page模型来描述茭白片热风干燥动力学令人满意;茭白片厚度为0.003m时,随风温升高,水分扩散系数从3.440×10-9 m2·s-1增大到6.357×10-9m2·s-1,并符合阿累尼乌斯方程,活化能为27.86 kj·mol-1.相同温度下,物料中水分的扩散系数基本不受厚度影响.

  15. Hot study: Investigating the risk for violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine

    Science.gov (United States)

    The objective was to complete a pilot study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on label, with cephapirin benzathine. First milking colostrum was collected from cows that...

  16. An Eocene-Miocene continuous high resolution rock magnetic record from the sediments in the Xining Basin, NW China: indication for Cenozoic persistent drying driven by global cooling and Tibetan Plateau uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zan, J.; Fang, X.; Appel, E.; Yan, M.; Song, C.

    2013-12-01

    Tibetan Plateau uplift and global cooling have generally been thought to have caused the drying of the Asian inland. But how and when these factors drove the aridification is unknown. The Xining Basin at the NE Tibetan Plateau received continuous Eocene-Miocene fine-grained sediments, providing an excellent opportunity to assess this question. We carried out firstly detailed rock magnetic measurements and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analyses for a well-dated Cenozoic sedimentary record from the Xiejia section in the basin. Magnetic susceptibility (χ) in this section shows a long-term decreasing trend from ~52 Ma to ~25 Ma, well coinciding with global cooling and drying in the region, and an increasing trend since ~25 Ma, which is in contrast to the further progressing aridification of the basin. Thermomagnetic results and DRS-determined hematite contents suggest that the relative content of magnetite and hematite is the main control on the χ values. We argue that the long-term Eocene-Oligocene global cooling increased the drying of the Asian inland, lowering the lake level and exposing a larger area to low temperature oxidation for longer times, thus producing more hematite and leading to the decreasing trend of χ from ~52 Ma to ~25 Ma. An intensive uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau since ~25 Ma, associated with a change in the sedimentary source, might be responsible for the increase of χ after 25 Ma.

  17. Effects of Two Types of Packages on Quality of Dried Hot Pepper Fruit in Room-Temperature Storage%常温贮藏条件下两种包装对干椒品质的影响研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋占锋; 滕有德; 李跃建; 吴剑

    2012-01-01

    研究了常用的两种包装材料在常温贮藏条件下,干椒外观品质和干椒色泽、辣(气)味、脆度、水分含量、辣椒素含量、含油率等指标的变化规律。结果表明:采用编织袋常温贮藏干椒,贮藏时间短于6个月,且品质变化快;而采用塑料袋常温贮藏干椒,贮藏时间可达12个月,且品质变化慢。采用编织袋和塑料袋常温贮藏干椒,都会引起干椒辣椒素和含油率的下降,但采用编织袋贮藏的干椒下降幅度比塑料袋大。采用编织袋常温贮藏的干椒,水分含量变化幅度大,明显高于采用塑料袋常温贮藏的干椒,且干椒霉变速度快。%This study investigated some effects of 2 types of common packaging materials on dried hot pepper fruit's appearance quality, colour, pungency, crispness, moisture content, capsaicinoid content and oil rate in room-temperature storage. The results showed that the storage life of the dried fruit packaged in woven bags was shorter than 6 months with the fruit quality changing quickly; but the storage life of the dried fruit packaged in plastic bags could be up to 12 months with the fruit quality changing slowly. The room-temperature storage of the dried fruit packaged in the woven bags or plastic bags could cause the capsaicin and oil rate of the dried fruit to decline, but the decline rates of capsaicin and oil rate of the woven bag treatment were greater than those of the plastic bag treatment. The change rate of moisture content of the woven bag treatment was greater than that of the plastic bag treatment, and the dried fruit in the woven bags mildewed more easily.

  18. Hot topic: investigating the risk of violative meat residues in bob veal calves fed colostrum from cows treated at dry-off with cephapirin benzathine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausler, K; Godden, S M; Schneider, M J; Lightfield, A R; Bulthaus, M; Haines, D

    2013-04-01

    The objective was to conduct a study to investigate if violative meat residues are detected in very young bob veal calves that are fed first-milking colostrum harvested from cows that were dry treated, on-label, with cephapirin benzathine. First-milking colostrum was collected from cows that were given intramammary treatment at dry off, on-label, with cephapirin benzathine (ToMORROW, Boehringer Ingelheim Vetmedica Inc., St. Joseph, MO). Newborn bull calves meeting study inclusion criteria were removed from their dams shortly after birth and before suckling, and assigned to 1 of 2 trials. For the first trial, 6 treated calves were fed 3.8L of fresh maternal colostrum and 1 control calf was fed 1.5 doses of a plasma-derived colostrum replacer (Secure Calf Colostrum Replacer, VitaPlus Inc., Madison, WI) within 1h after birth. For the second trial, 5 treated calves were fed 3.8L of fresh maternal colostrum and 1 control calf was fed 1.5 doses of Secure Calf Colostrum Replacer within 1h after birth. All calves were humanely euthanized at 24h (trial 1) or 48h (trial 2) of age, and tissues were harvested for antimicrobial residue testing. Samples of maternal colostrum and colostrum replacer were also submitted for antimicrobial residue testing. Kidneys collected from all study calves tested negative for cephapirin benzathine residues when using both the KIS assay (Charm Sciences, Lawrence, MA) and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry analysis. The potential transfer of cephapirin from cows treated on-label at dry off to calves via colostrum may not be a significant source of cephapirin residues in veal tissues.

  19. 利用核磁共振成像技术分析胡萝卜干燥过程中内部水分传递%Moisture transport in carrot during hot air drying using magnetic resonance imaging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐建国; 徐刚; 张绪坤; 顾震; 张森旺; 李华栋

    2013-01-01

    not an accurate method because of low precision and moisture loss during cutting process, although it could give inside moisture distribution. In recent years, the applicability of nuclear magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to measure mass transport phenomena in porous systems, especially in foodstuffs and biological materials, including drying processes, has been demonstrated. NMR imaging as a non-destructive, non-invasive, promising technique has been used to obtain moisture profiles during drying of vegetables and fruits. In this paper, the moisture transport in a cylindrical carrot sample was visualized and studied using nuclear magnetic resonance images obtained from the drying experiments. The transient moisture profile distributions in carrot were measured during the hot-air drying process with air temperatures of 40 and 70℃, respectively. Experimental results showed that the moisture profiles moved irregularly toward the center of the carrot sample in both the axial and radial directions, indicating a muti-dimensional and unsteady-state mass transfer process that has non-Fickian moisture transport characteristics. In the initial drying stage, a sharp moisture gradient was found indicating significant moisture flux at the surface of the carrot. With the process of drying, the ratio of the MRI diameter declined faster than that of the optical diameter, which indicated that the dried layer appeared at the surface and moisture profile moved inside. The Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.003e-0.01114t, R2=0.9994) achieved better predictive accuracy than other models and satisfactorily described drying characteristics of the carrot cylinder at 70℃. The maximum relative error of prediction compared with the measured results was 7.69%, with relative errors during the drying process at 70℃ commonly remaining less than 4%. The moisture transport of the carrot center layer was simulated by the Henderson-Pabis model (MR=1.005e-0.00286t,R2=0.9978) during the drying process at

  20. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  1. A New Hot Pepper F1 Hybrid Specially for Drying Use——'Hangjiao No. 10'%制干专用型辣椒新品种航椒10号的选育

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    霍建泰; 罗爱玉; 高彦辉; 危金彬; 李想荣; 胡小明; 张建东; 蒲永鸿

    2011-01-01

    ‘Hangjiao No.10’ is a new hot pepper F1 hybrid specially for dry use. It is developed by crossing inbred lines 022-5-1 and 023-3-2. It has vigorous growth and middle maturity. It has about 34 fruits per plant. The fruit is of long tapered shape. The dried peper is purplish red in color with strong pungent flavor. It is 13.6 cm in length, 1.6 cm in diameter, 2.6 g in weight. This cultivar is resistant to Phytophthora capsici Leonian and virus disease. The average dried-pepper yield is 5.25 t · hm-2. It adapts to open field cultivation in northwest and North China planting.%航椒10号是以经航天诱变处理选育的自交系022-5-1为母本,以023-3-2为父本配制而成的制干专用型辣椒一代杂种.植株生长势强,中熟,单株结果34个左右.果实长指形,干椒紫红色,有光泽,辣昧极强,纵径13.6 cm,横径1.6 cm,单果质量2.6 g.田间凋查表明:抗辣椒疫病、病毒病,每667 m2产干椒350 kg左右.适宜西北、华北地区露地种植.

  2. An Eocene-Miocene continuous rock magnetic record from the sediments in the Xining Basin, NW China: indication for Cenozoic persistent drying driven by global cooling and Tibetan Plateau uplift

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Xiaomin; Zan, Jinbo; Appel, Erwin; Lu, Yin; Song, Chunhui; Dai, Shuang; Tuo, Shibo

    2015-04-01

    Tibetan Plateau uplift and global cooling have generally been thought to have caused the drying of the Asian inland, but how and when these factors drove the aridification is unknown. The Xining Basin at the NE Tibetan Plateau received continuous Eocene-Miocene fine-grained sediments, providing an excellent opportunity to address this question. Here we present detailed rock magnetic and diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS) analyses for a well-dated Cenozoic sedimentary record from the Xiejia section in the basin. Magnetic susceptibility (χ), saturation magnetization (Ms) and saturation isothermal remanent magnetization (SIRM) in this section show a long-term decreasing trend from ˜52 to ˜25 Ma, well coinciding with global cooling and drying in the region, and an increasing trend since ˜25 Ma, which is in contrast to the further progressing aridification of the basin. Thermomagnetic results and DRS-determined hematite contents suggest that the relative content of magnetite and hematite is the main control on the χ, Ms and SIRM values. We argue that the long-term Eocene-Oligocene global cooling increased the drying of the Asian inland, lowering the lake level and exposing a larger area to low temperature oxidation for longer times, thus producing more hematite and leading to the decreasing trend of magnetic concentration parameters from ˜52 to ˜25 Ma. An intensive uplift of the NE Tibetan Plateau since ˜25 Ma, associated with a change in the sedimentary source, might be responsible for the increase of χ, Ms and SIRM after 25 Ma.

  3. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... moisture Hot, dry air in desert environments Air conditioners that cool the air and remove moisture Taking ... scrubbing your skin. Shave right after bathing, when hair is soft. Wear soft, comfortable clothing next to ...

  4. Characteristics of Architecture in Iran's Hot and Dry Climate%伊朗炎热干旱地区的建筑特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莎莎·阿纱飞; 张炯

    2012-01-01

    伊朗历史荟萃了丰富的建筑杰作,比如萨删时代( 540 AD)的“Tagh-i-Kasra”以及那个年代建造的规模最大的墓穴.经过1400年前阿拉伯人的劫掠,那时曾经是索罗亚斯德教徒的伊朗人开始转而信仰伊斯兰教.这次转变造就了伊朗建筑与伊斯兰建筑的相互融合.该文探讨了伊朗建筑师在设计适合伊朗不同气候地区(如炎热干旱地区或温带和寒带地区)的建筑时所采用的可持续性传统方法,对建筑形式与环境的协调进行了重新解读,以期人们反思现代建筑与现代规划.%Iran's history has a rich collection of architectural masterpieces, such as Tagh-i-Kasra from the Sassanid era(540 AD) with the biggest vault built in that era. With the raid of Arabs about 14 centuries ago, Iranians were Zoroastrians at the time who began to convert to Islam .With this conversion both Iranian and Islamic architecture got influences from each other. We study traditional sustainable methods that local Iranian architects have adapted to design buildings. which are suitable for different climatic areas of Iran such as hot and arid or mild and cold, we also give a new explanation on architectural form and the environment, so as to guide people to reflect modern architecture and modern planning.

  5. Construction solutions for the exterior walls in the process of increasing the width of residential buildings of brownfield construction in seismic hazardousand dry hot conditions of Central Asia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Usmonov Shukhrat Zaurovich

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The main object of this study is the reconstruction, renovation and modernization of the housing built in the period 1975—1985. These buildings have low energy efficiency due to the poor thermal insulation properties of the walls. These apartments do not meet the necessary requirements for year round warmth and comfort.Reconstruction is more preferable, than new-build, because of the cost saving for the land acquisition. Reconstruction is generally 1.5 times cheaper than new-build with 25—40 % reduced cost on building materials and engineering infrastructure.Increasing the width of the apartment blocks from 12 to 15 m can save 9—10 % on the consumption of thermal energy for heating and reduce the m2 construction cost by 5.5—7.0 %. In—5-9 storey high-rise buildings the savings are 3—5 %.Therefore, the width of the apartment block should preferably be between 9—12 m but could be extended to 18 m. The depth of the apartments themselves will be 5.4 — 6.0 —7.2 or 9.0 m. During the reconstruction of 5-storey residential buildings (Building Type105 in a seismic zone, an increase in the width of the block and the lateral stiffness of the building is achieved by building a new reinforced concrete (RC frame on both sides of the building with a depth of between 2 and 6 m. This technique is especially effective in increasing the seismic resistance of the building. Self-supporting walls of cellular concrete blocks (density 600 kg/m3 and a thickness of 300 mm are constructed on the outside of the frame, taking care to avoid cold bridges.Model studies have shown that in the conditions of hot-arid climate the thickness of the air gap in a ventilated facade does not significantly change the cooling-energy consumption of the building, and heating consumption is significantly increased. The building's energy consumption is most influenced by the volume of the air in the air gap. By increasing the ventilation rate in the air gap, the energy

  6. Ecological Adaptability of Eight Tree Species in Dry and Hot Valley of Jinsha River%金沙江干热河谷区8个造林树种的生态适应性变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李昆; 孙永玉; 张春华; 崔永忠

    2011-01-01

    The water ecophysiology of eight tree species growing in dry and hot valley of Jinsha River was studied. The result showed that in rain season the index of water saturation deficit ( WSD) of indigenous tree species Dodonaea viscosa Jacg, and three eucalyptus species were higher than that of the other tree species. The plant with high WSD index and low relative water content (RWC) has strong drought tolerance. Enlargement of the rate of leaf area and fresh leaf weight is beneficial to enhance the drought tolerance of a plant, while increasing the accumulation of dry materials and the density of cytoplasm is also an effective way. Dry and hot stress may induce chlorophyll content reduced, while the chlorophyll content may increase in rainy seasons with increasing the rate of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. In dry seasons, the sugar content of test trees is higher than that in rainy seasons and the starch and sugar contents are lower in dry reasons than in rainy reasons except Acacia manguim De Willd. Under the arid condition, the free proline content of 7 tree species increased with different degrees except Eucalyptus urophylla S. T. Blake. The tree species which are prone to wither and defoliation in dry seasons can accumulate more free pro-line. There are more ecophysiological similarities among the seven tree species which are suitable for afforestation except Acacia manguim De Willd. ; and there exists obvious consistency in ecophysiological characteristics amongsame genus. Some ecophysiological characteristics of D. Viscosa Jacg. , the indigenous tree species, are similar to that of Acacia and some others are similar to that of Eucalyptus. Three Eucalyptus species, three Acacia species and D. Viscosa Jacg. Showed stronger ecological adaptability and grow well in dry and hot valley of Jinsha River.%对金沙江干热河谷区8个造林树种的有关生理生态特性进行了研究.结果表明:相思类树种在旱季水分自然饱和亏

  7. Collecting Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙铮

    2007-01-01

    My hobby is collecting rocks.It is very special,isn’t it?I began to collect rocks about four years ago.I usually go hiking in the mountains,or near the river to look for rocks.When I find a rock,I pick it up and clean it with the brush and water.Then I put it into my bag.Most of the rocks I have collected are quartzite~*.They are really

  8. Soil Aggregate Features under Tamarindus indica Forest with Different Plant Compositions in Dry-hot Valley%干热河谷不同酸豆林土壤团聚体特征分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    彭辉; 周红敏; 徐肇友; 瞿虹; 纪中华

    2014-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on the soil aggregates underTamarindus indica forest with bared land(L+G)CK), with fireweed(L+Z), with Paspalum notatum (L+B), withPhyllanthus emblica (L+Y), and withCajanus cajan (L+M) in dry-hot valley of Yunnan. R0.25(percentage of soil aggregates with diameter larger than 0.25mm), mean weight diameter (MWD), geometric mean diameter (GMD) and fractal dimension (D) were determined at 3 soil layers (0 - 10 cm, >10 - 20 cm, >20 – 40 cm). The results showed that L+B promoted the conservation of soil macro-aggregates, L+Z and L+G could improve the soil aggregate structure, L+Y and L+M forestlands reduced the proportion of macro-aggregates in the soil but increased micro-aggregates content. The experiment demonstrated that in dry-hot valley, conservation tillage was conducive to the sustainable management ofT. indica.%采用干筛法对金沙江干热河谷区酸豆林+光板地(裸地)、酸豆林+杂草、酸豆林+百喜草、酸豆林+余甘子、酸豆林+木豆5种酸豆林地在0~10 cm、>10~20 cm、>20~40 cm的3个土层中的R0.25、MWD、GMD和分形维数D变化进行研究,结果表明:5种酸豆林模式中,酸豆林+百喜草模式有利于土壤大团聚体的保存,酸豆林+杂草模式和酸豆林+光板地模式提升土壤团聚结构,但是效果并不显著,而酸豆林+余甘子模式和酸豆林+木豆模式则降低了土壤中大团聚体的比例,使土壤中的微团聚体含量增加;在干热河谷实施保护性耕作有利于酸豆林的可持续经营。

  9. Species composition and diversity characteristics of Quercus franchetii communities in dry-hot valley of Jinsha River%金沙江干热河谷锥连栎群落物种组成与多样性特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘方炎; 王小庆; 李昆; 孙永玉; 张志翔; 张春华

    2012-01-01

    金沙江干热河谷元谋段残存的锥连栎群落中植物种类组成较为简单,共发现68种植物,隶属于35科60属,其中,禾本科、蝶形花科、菊科、唇形科等科植物占有较大优势;从植物生活型和功能型来看,群落内以草本植物和多年生植物数量居多,分别占所有植物种类的58.8%和63.2%.不同类型群落中,除了扭黄茅始终为各群落中最为重要的优势种之外,同一草本植物在不同群落中的作用和地位存在较大差异;群落物种多样性及相似性程度较为低下,其Shannon-Weiner指数在1.7~2.6之间,且与群落受干扰程度存在较大关联.%Species composition and diversity characteristics of different Quercus franchetii communities in dry-hot valley of Jinsha River were studied based on the plots data. The results showed that there was a simple plant species composition in remained Q. franchetii communities in Jinsha River dry-hot valley of YuanMou section. In communities,68 plant species were found,which belong to 35 families 60 genera,and Poaceae,Papilionaceae, Asteraceae,and Lamiaceae plants had a large advantage; in the plant life form and functional type,the majority of the plants within communities were herbs and perennials,which occupied respectively 58. 8% and 63. 2%. In Q. franchetii communities , excepted that Heteropogon contortus was eventually the most important dominant species, the same herb in different communities were quite different in the role and status. Simultaneously,Q. franchetii communities had lower species diversity and similarity,and Shannon-Weiner index was between 1. 7 and 2. 6,which was correlated with the degree of disturbance of communities.

  10. 云南干热河谷地区台湾相思树根瘤菌的抗逆性%Stress Resistance of Rhizobia Isolated from Acacia confusa in Hot-dry Valley of Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王芳; 沙桦欣; 马焕成; 高瑾; 张东华; 伍建榕

    2014-01-01

    为探明云南干热河谷台湾相思树根瘤菌的抗逆性,筛选优良的根瘤菌菌株,对分离自云南干热河谷台湾相思的32株根瘤菌进行了耐盐、耐高温和耐干旱的抗逆性试验。结果表明:在供试的32株根瘤菌中,对干旱适应性较强的菌株占21.9%,多数菌株对高温具有较强的耐受性,31.25%的菌株可以在45℃的高温下生长,表现出极强的抗热性;有78.13%的菌株可在0.5%的盐浓度下生长,具有一定的耐盐性,其中有31.25%的菌株耐盐浓度可达2%、3%甚至5%。SWF-01、SWF-02、SWF-06和 SWF-19为抗干旱、抗高温和抗盐性能均较强的优良菌株。%In order to explore the stress resistance of rhizobia isolated from A.confusa in hot-dry valley of Yunnan,screen the fine rhizobia strains,32 rhizobia strains isolated from A.confuse grown in hot-dry valley of Yunnan were tested on their tolerance to NaCl,temperature and drought variation.The results indicated that the strains that strongly adapted to drought accounted for 21.9%.Most of the strains were of strong tolerance to high temperature,31.25% strains could grow at high temperature of 45℃.78.13% strains could grow in 1% concentration of NaCl,and 31.25% strains tolerated NaCl stress in 2%,3% and 5% concentration.Four strains of SWF-01,SWF-02,SWF-06 and SWF-19 showed high tolerance to drought,salt and high temperature.

  11. Hot microswimmers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroy, Klaus; Chakraborty, Dipanjan; Cichos, Frank

    2016-11-01

    Hot microswimmers are self-propelled Brownian particles that exploit local heating for their directed self-thermophoretic motion. We provide a pedagogical overview of the key physical mechanisms underlying this promising new technology. It covers the hydrodynamics of swimming, thermophoresis and -osmosis, hot Brownian motion, force-free steering, and dedicated experimental and simulation tools to analyze hot Brownian swimmers.

  12. Gully erosion processes impacted by vegetation on gully beds based on an in situ scouring experiment in a Dry-hot Valley of Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Yifan; Xiong, Donghong; Su, Zhengan

    2015-04-01

    Vegetation can protect soil from water erosion. Some previous researches on the subjects of vegetation and gully erosion were mainly focused on the topography changes cause by vegetation and the conservation effects and techniques. While the mechanics of vegetation effects on the hydraulic processes of gully bed to influence the erosion processes were still not very clear. In this study, an in situ scouring experiment was conducted 11 times assuming a consistent flow condition (7 times with a flow discharge of 83.3L/min and 4 times with a flow discharge of 166.7 L/min on five gully head plots with gully bed lengths of 20 m, which were constructed with similar initial topography (height of the headcuts were 0.5m, the slope of gully beds were from 18.2% to 19.1%) and same soil type (Dry red soil which classified as Rhodoxeralfs in USDA Soil Taxonomy ). Five vegetation condition levels were set on gully bed (the same vegetation density and different lengths of the vegetation sites as 0 m, 4m, 8m, 12m and 16m). Each scouring last 1h and the flow rate, flow depth and flow width were recorded every 10 minutes, after each scouring the topography changes were measured by RTK GPS. The total gully bed erosion volume (TEV) exhibited a significant exponentially decreasing relationship with increasing length of the vegetation sites (VL) due to the similar relationship between the VL and the runoff erosion capacity. The hydrodynamic parameters in the vegetation sites were clearly lower than those in bare sites and caused the average TEV of the vegetation sites to be approximately 3.3 times lower than that of the bare gully bed. However, the vegetation protection efficiency did not increase as the length of the vegetation sites increased. The hydrodynamics of the bare site sections showed a good relationship with TEV, while in the vegetation sites, the relationship was quite weak, indicating that hydraulics conditions were not the main factors influencing gully bed erosion in the

  13. Combined effects of grain size, flow volume and channel width on geophysical flow mobility: three-dimensional discrete element modeling of dry and dense flows of angular rock fragments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cagnoli, Bruno; Piersanti, Antonio

    2017-02-01

    We have carried out new three-dimensional numerical simulations by using a discrete element method (DEM) to study the mobility of dry granular flows of angular rock fragments. These simulations are relevant for geophysical flows such as rock avalanches and pyroclastic flows. The model is validated by previous laboratory experiments. We confirm that (1) the finer the grain size, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows; (2) the smaller the flow volume, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows and (3) the wider the channel, the larger the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows. The grain size effect is due to the fact that finer grain size flows dissipate intrinsically less energy. This volume effect is the opposite of that experienced by the flow fronts. The original contribution of this paper consists of providing a comparison of the mobility of granular flows in six channels with a different cross section each. This results in a new scaling parameter χ that has the product of grain size and the cubic root of flow volume as the numerator and the product of channel width and flow length as the denominator. The linear correlation between the reciprocal of mobility and parameter χ is statistically highly significant. Parameter χ confirms that the mobility of the center of mass of granular flows is an increasing function of the ratio of the number of fragments per unit of flow mass to the total number of fragments in the flow. These are two characteristic numbers of particles whose effect on mobility is scale invariant.

  14. Improvement in the water solubility of drugs with a solid dispersion system by spray drying and hot-melt extrusion with using the amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and d-mannitol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogawa, Noriko; Hiramatsu, Tomoki; Suzuki, Ryohei; Okamoto, Ryohei; Shibagaki, Kohei; Fujita, Kosuke; Takahashi, Chisato; Kawashima, Yoshiaki; Yamamoto, Hiromitsu

    2017-09-08

    The aim of this study was to prepare and characterize solid dispersion particles with a novel amphiphilic polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer, as a water-soluble carrier. Solid dispersion particles were prepared by hot-melt extrusion and spray drying. Indomethacin (IMC) was used as a model comprising drugs with low solubility in water and d-mannitol (MAN) was used as an excipient. The physicochemical properties of prepared particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, thermal analysis, powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD) analysis, FTIR spectra analysis, and drug release studies. Stability studies were also conducted under stress conditions at 40°C, 75% relative humidity. We found that dissolution behavior of the original drug crystal could be improved by solid dispersion with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer. The PXRD pattern and thermal analysis indicated that the solid dispersion prepared with the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC was in an amorphous state. FTIR spectra analysis indicated that the interaction manner between the polyvinyl caprolactam-polyvinyl acetate-polyethylene glycol graft copolymer and IMC may differ with the preparation method and formulation of solid dispersions. Stability studies proved that the amorphous state of IMC in solid dispersion particles was preserved under stress conditions for more than two weeks. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Rock Stars

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国平

    2000-01-01

    Around the world young people are spending unbelievable sums of money to listen to rock music. Forbes Magazine reports that at least fifty rock stars have incomes between two million and six million dollars per year.

  16. KREEP Rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹永廖; 徐琳; 欧阳自远

    2004-01-01

    KREEP rocks with high contents of K, REE and P were first recognized in Apollo-12 samples, and it was confirmed later that there were KREEP rock fragments in all of the Apollo samples, particularly in Apollo-12 and-14 samples. The KREEP rocks distributed on the lunar surface are the very important objects of study on the evolution of the moon, as well as to evaluate the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks. Based on previous studies and lunar exploration data, the authors analyzed the chemical and mineral characteristics of KREEP rocks, the abundance of Th on the lunar surface materials, the correlation between Th and REE of KREEP rocks in abundance, studied the distribution regions of KREEP rocks on the lunar surface, and further evaluated the utilization prospect of REE in KREEP rocks.

  17. Study of the effect of the nature of aggregates on the mechanical behaviour of the concrete in hot and dry zones «Contribution of the curing» Etude de l’effet de la nature des granulats sur le comportement mécanique du béton en zones chaudes et arides «Contribution de la cure»

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bendjillali K.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Laghouat est parmi les villes de l’Algérie riches en matériaux de différentes natures, tels que les roches calcaires massives et les matériaux alluvionnaires meubles siliceux et silico-calcaires. L’objectif premier de ce travail est d’établir une comparaison des performances mécaniques des bétons préparés avec de granulats de natures différentes. Nôtre second objectif est l’étude de l’influence de la cure sur la résistance à la compression et la résistance à la flexion des bétons étudiés. Les échantillons sont conservés sous un climat chaud et sec réel qui est le climat de Laghouat. Nous avons utilisé comme cure: le film plastique, la toile de jute mouillée et l’immersion dans l’eau. A travers ce travail expérimental, nous avons pu constater que les meilleures résistances à la compression sont obtenues dans les bétons à sable siliceux et celles à la flexion sont obtenues dans les bétons à granulats calcaires. La conservation du béton dans une ambiance aride sans protection augmente sa résistance mécanique à jeune âge, mais à long terme, cette dernière chute d’une façon significative. L’étude a mis en évidence la nécessité de l’emploi d’un super plastifiant et de l’application immédiate de la cure pour le bétonnage en climat chaud. Laghouat is among the cities of Algeria rich in materials of various natures, such as the massive limestone rocks and the natural river materials. The first objective of this work is to establish a comparison of the mechanical performances between concretes with aggregates of different natures. The second objective is to study the effect of curing on the compressive and the flexural strength of concretes. Samples are conserved under a real hot and dry climate which is the climate of Laghouat. We used as curing: plastic film, wet hessian and immersing in water. Through this work, we noticed that the best compressive strengths are obtained in concretes

  18. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  19. Rock Art

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henn, Cynthia A.

    2004-01-01

    There are many interpretations for the symbols that are seen in rock art, but no decoding key has ever been discovered. This article describes one classroom's experiences with a lesson on rock art--making their rock art and developing their own personal symbols. This lesson allowed for creativity, while giving an opportunity for integration…

  20. Rock Finding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rommel-Esham, Katie; Constable, Susan D.

    2006-01-01

    In this article, the authors discuss a literature-based activity that helps students discover the importance of making detailed observations. In an inspiring children's classic book, "Everybody Needs a Rock" by Byrd Baylor (1974), the author invites readers to go "rock finding," laying out 10 rules for finding a "perfect" rock. In this way, the…

  1. Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical modeling of hydraulic fracturing in quasi-brittle rocks using BPM-DEM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ingrid Tomac

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an improved understanding of coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical (HTM hydraulic fracturing of quasi-brittle rock using the bonded particle model (BPM within the discrete element method (DEM. BPM has been recently extended by the authors to account for coupled convective–conductive heat flow and transport, and to enable full hydro-thermal fluid–solid coupled modeling. The application of the work is on enhanced geothermal systems (EGSs, and hydraulic fracturing of hot dry rock (HDR is studied in terms of the impact of temperature difference between rock and a flowing fracturing fluid. Micro-mechanical investigation of temperature and fracturing fluid effects on hydraulic fracturing damage in rocks is presented. It was found that fracture is shorter with pronounced secondary microcracking along the main fracture for the case when the convective–conductive thermal heat exchange is considered. First, the convection heat exchange during low-viscosity fluid infiltration in permeable rock around the wellbore causes significant rock cooling, where a finger-like fluid infiltration was observed. Second, fluid infiltration inhibits pressure rise during pumping and delays fracture initiation and propagation. Additionally, thermal damage occurs in the whole area around the wellbore due to rock cooling and cold fluid infiltration. The size of a damaged area around the wellbore increases with decreasing fluid dynamic viscosity. Fluid and rock compressibility ratio was found to have significant effect on the fracture propagation velocity.

  2. Study on drying rate in contact drying with flexible screen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王伟宏; 陆仁书; 张显权

    2000-01-01

    The moisture contents (MC) of popular veneers were tested in Composition Board Laboratory of Northeast Forestry University by contact drying with flexible screen. The influence factors considered included temperature, initial moisture contents (IMC), and veneer thickness. Veneer-drying laws under different hot press conditions were analyzed. The results showed that the drying rate increased with temperature rising. 160℃ was considered to be more efficient than 140℃ and 180℃ because excessive high temperature has no significant contribution to drying rate. IMC had significant effect on drying rate. The veneer with high IMC had a higher drying rate at above fiber saturation point (FSP) and a lower drying rate at below FSP, compared to the veneer with low IMC. Average drying rate also varied with thickness in power law.

  3. HOT 2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund, Henriette Romme

    Undersøgelse af, hvad der er hot - og hvad der burde være hot på læseområdet med 21 læsekyndige. Undersøgelsen er gennemført siden 2010. HOT-undersøgelsen er foretaget af Nationalt Videncenter for Læsning - Professionshøjskolerne i samarb. med Dansklærerforeningen...

  4. Introduction experiment of leguminous forages in the dry and hot valley of Yuanmou region%元谋干热河谷豆科牧草的引种试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙会英; 张德; 朱红业; 金杰; 史亮涛; 张明忠

    2011-01-01

    2003—2006年元谋干热河谷对16个豆科牧草进行引种试验,结果表明,参试材料中,除蝴碟豆(Centrosemapubescens)、大叶千斤拔(Flemingiamacrophylla)和卵叶山蚂蝗(Desmodiumovalifolium)由于气候差异性不能结实外,其他牧草均能适应该地区种植。其中,银合欢属表现出产量高、叶量大、适口性好等特点。产量排列前3名的牧草为银合欢(Leucaenaleucocephala)K636、新银合欢和热研1号银合欢,干草产量分别为26933.9、24882.6和22%An experiment was conducted to select the suibtable plant legume forages from 16 legume fora ges for the dry and hot valley in the Yuanmou region. This study showed that Centrosema pubescens, Flemingia macropylla, and Desmodium ovalifolium did not seed and the other 13 plant species grew well. Leucaena leucocephala showed the highest yield with a lange number of leaves and good palatability. The top yield was L. leucocephala K636, L. leucocephala, L. leucocephala cv. Reyan No. 1 with 26 93a. 9 kg/ha, 24 882.6 kg/ha, 22 459.2 kg/ha, respectively. The sheep preference for these plants was 5. The Neotononis wightii cv. Tinarroo, Acacia farnesiana and Sesbania grandiflora came to the second due to higher yield and good palatability, and ratio of dry weight to fresh weight and stem/leaf ratio of N. wightii cv. Tinarroo was 0.27 and 0.73. The lowest yield forage was Desmodium ovalifolium with 920.8 kg/ha, and its DW/FW ratio was 1.96. This study suggested that D. ovalifolium was not suitable to be planted in Yuanmou region; and the pest control for Cratylia argentea should be taken during its bloomin5 period to increase pod numbers.

  5. 元谋干热河谷强侵蚀区陷穴发育特征与演化过程%Development Characteristics and Evolution Process of the Sink Holes in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    舒成强; 张斌; 蒋良群; 刘守江; 罗明良

    2014-01-01

    元谋干热河谷潜蚀地貌发育,是造成当地水土流失的重要原因之一。而陷穴属于潜蚀地貌的一种,因此有必要了解陷穴特征及演化过程。2009-2013年,通过多次现场测定陷穴形态特征、陷穴发育地地形地貌、周边植被特征等,并对土壤进行取样分析。结果表明:1)元谋陷穴主要发育于元谋组地层,土壤具有易崩解性、湿陷性等特征;2)陷穴主要分布于冲沟中上游沟底及支冲沟沟头部位;3)元谋陷穴形态规模总体不大,早期多呈近圆形,中晚期多为椭圆形,直至消失后成为沟中之沟;4)陷穴一般呈单个和串珠状分布,较少出现集群现象;5)演化过程遵循一般事物的发展规律,分为萌芽期、年轻期、成熟期、消亡期4个阶段;6)陷穴发育过程与冲沟、土桥、淘洞等地貌密切相关。%Yuanmou dry-hot valley is located in Jinsha River Basin in the upper reaches of the Yangtze River. It is a typical subtropical climate area with special geographical position and geologic environment. The development of erosional landforms is one of the main reasons for water and soil loss in Yuanmou dry-hot valley. Sink hole is a type of erosional landforms. From 2009 to 2013, field survey was made on the morphological features of the sink holes, the topography and geomorphology of their surrounding areas, and the vegetation and soil around the sink holes. Also the soil of the areas was sampling and analyzed. The results show that the sink holes mainly develop in the strata of Yuanmou formation, where the soil is characterized by its easy disintegration and collapsibility. The sink holes are located at the bottom in the middle and upper reaches of gully and at the top of gully branches. The shape and scale of the sink holes in Yuanmou are generally small. In early stage they are approximately circular in shape, in middle and late stages they are elliptic, and in last stage

  6. 金沙江干热河谷人T林土壤水分研究%A Study on Soil Moisture in Different Plantations in Dry-Hot Valley of Jinsha River

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳学文; 方海东; 钱坤建; 方晋; 奎建蕊; 潘志贤; 杨艳鲜; 纪中华; 彭辉

    2011-01-01

    以金沙江干热河谷6种人工林为例,采用TRIME-PICO-IPH TDR测定雨季(6-10月)土壤水分,每个样地设3个重复,分析不同人工林内的土壤水分变化特征.罗望子纯林土壤含水量稳定,变异系数小,且含水量较其他人工林高.随着深度的增加,不同人工林之间的土壤含水量差异逐渐变小.根据土壤对降雨的蓄积、利用情况,将0-100cm的土壤剖面分为水分剧烈变化层、弱利用层,草本植物水分利用层、土壤水分微调节层.%Six kinds of plantations in Yuanmou County of Yunnan Province,a typical dry-hot area in the valley of Jinsha River, were selected. Soil moisture was determined with TRIME-PICO-IPH TDR in rainy season (from June to October). Each sample area was selected in triplicate to analysis the variety characteristics of the soil moisture. Soil moisture is vey stable and the variation coefficient is much less in the pure forest of tamarindus indica and its soil moisture content is higher than the others. With the increase of the soil depth,the soil moisture differences among the plantations diminish gradually. The soil profile at 0- 100 cm was divided into 4 layers by saving and using the rainfall of soil, i.e. moisture dramatical-change layer, moisture weak-utilization layer, herbaceous plant moisture utilization layer and soil moisture slight-adjustment layer.

  7. 基于BIOCLIM模型的元江干热河谷稀树灌木草丛空间分布研究%The Spatial Distribution Research of Savanna Shrub and Grass of Yuanjiang Dry-hot Valleys Based on the BIOCLIM Model

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王一凯; 张蒙蒙; 段卫虎; 杨凯悦; 黄诚; 周汝良

    2015-01-01

    According to the three factors affecting the temperature ,digital elevation model (DEM ) and the normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) of Savanna shrub and grass of Yuanjiang dry -hot valleys , the article uses the BIOCLIM model to simulate the spatial distribution of Savanna shrub and grass of Yuan‐jiang dry -hot valleys ,w hich realizes the visual expression of spatial distribution of the dry -hot valleys in Yuanjiang County .The results show that the distribution of dry -hot valleys mainly concentrates on both sides outside Yuanjiang County .The dry -hot valleys'distribution is more concentrated in the east area but more dispersed in south area .Moreover ,in recent years ,the increasing human activities have some influences on the ecological environment of Yuanjiang river valley .The model forecasts the future distribution of dry ar‐ea in Yuanjiang County ,w hich aims to provide decision support for biodiversity conservation and vegetation restoration in the area .%根据影响干热河谷稀树灌木草丛分布的温度、数字高程模型(DEM )以及归一化植被指数(NDVI)三个因子,使用BIOCLIM模型模拟元江县干热河谷稀疏灌木草丛空间分布,实现了元江县干热河谷空间分布的可视化表达。结果表明:干热河谷分布主要集中于除元江县城外的河谷两侧,其中东部分布较为集中,而在南部地区分布较为分散。加之近年来人为活动的加剧,对元江河谷生态环境的变化也有一定影响,该模型很好地预测了未来元江县干热面积的分布情况,以期对生物多样性保护和植被恢复提供决策支持。

  8. Rock Art

    OpenAIRE

    Huyge, Dirk

    2009-01-01

    Rock art, basically being non-utilitarian, non-textual anthropic markings on natural rock surfaces, was an extremely widespread graphical practice in ancient Egypt. While the apogee of the tradition was definitely the Predynastic Period (mainly fourth millennium BCE), examples date from the late Palaeolithic (c. 15,000 BCE) until the Islamic era. Geographically speaking, “Egyptian” rock art is known from many hundreds of sites along the margins of the Upper Egyptian and Nubian Nile Valley and...

  9. Rock blocks

    OpenAIRE

    Turner, W.

    2007-01-01

    Consider representation theory associated to symmetric groups, or to Hecke algebras in type A, or to q-Schur algebras, or to finite general linear groups in non-describing characteristic. Rock blocks are certain combinatorially defined blocks appearing in such a representation theory, first observed by R. Rouquier. Rock blocks are much more symmetric than general blocks, and every block is derived equivalent to a Rock block. Motivated by a theorem of J. Chuang and R. Kessar in the case of sym...

  10. ESTABILIDADE OXIDATIVA DE AMÊNDOAS DE NOZ MACADÂMIA SECAS POR MICRO-ONDAS COM AR QUENTE OXIDATIVE STABILITY OF MACADAMIA NUTS DRYED WITH HOT AIR MICROWAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ássima Bittar Gonçalves

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    A nogueira macadâmia (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche produz amêndoas de alto valor comercial, que se destacam pelo fino sabor e qualidade de seu óleo. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar a estabilidade oxidativa de amêndoas secas, com aplicação de energia de micro-ondas com ar quente, em comparação ao processo de secagem convencional. As análises, realizadas no início (tempo zero, com 90 dias e 180 dias de armazenamento, avaliaram ácidos graxos livres, índice de peróxido, período de indução, composição em ácidos graxos e teor de tocoferol/tocotrienol. O teor de ácidos graxos livres (% das amêndoas de noz macadâmia variou de 0,095 (MW1 a 0,124 (MW3 e de 0,123 a 0,148 (CVL; os índices de peróxidos (meq O2 kg-1 de óleo entre 0,77 (MW2  e 2,57 (MW1 e de 1,52 a 3,29 (CVL; o período de indução (h de 16,7 (MW2 a 13,6 (MW4 e entre 11,9 e 10,6 (CVL; o teor de ?-Tocotrienol (mg 100 g-1 de 1,75 a 2,19 (MW1 e de 2,14 a 2,19 (CVL, respectivamente, para a secagem com micro-ondas e convencional. Os valores da composição em ácidos graxos não se alteraram durante o armazenamento, com os processos de secagem utilizados. O método de secagem com micro-ondas mostrou-se mais eficiente, em relação à estabilidade oxidativa das amêndoas de noz macadâmia, quando comparado ao processo de secagem convencional.

     

    The macadamia tree (Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche produces a nut of highly commercial value, distinguishable from other nuts by its delicate flavour and oil quality. This study aimed to compare the oxidative stability of dried nuts, with the application of hot air microwave energy, in relation to conventional drying. The analyses were performed at the

  11. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  12. DRYING WITH SOLAR COLLECTOR BY HEAT PIPE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hikmet DOĞAN

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In this research, heating pipe was used in the solar collector in order to take better advantage of the solar energy. The energy obtained from the sun was transferred to the drying air by means of heating pipes and this hot air was blown on the material to be dried. The water on the material to be dried vaporised with the effect of the hot air and drying took place. Because drying took place in the shade, distant from the direct radiation effects of the sun, some of the disadvantages seen in drying outside, under the sun were eliminated. Additionally, it was observed that it took less time to dry in this method than it takes to dry under the open sun.

  13. Study on Key Technology of Orangery Intercropping Models in Binchuan Dry Hot Valley%宾川干热河谷区柑橘园套种模式关键技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯光恒; 杨艳鲜; 江功武; 徐兴才; 杨红钧

    2013-01-01

    为了充分利用宾川干热河谷区丰富的光、热、水、土资源,提高柑橘园建园初期(1~3年)的综合效益和复种指数,促进果农增收,采用“乔(灌)+农经作物”的建园方法,建立柑橘园套种模式,提出典型模式建设关键技术,并进行效益分析.结果表明:柑橘园前3年幼树期进行作物套种,能以短养长,使柑橘园每年平均增收32 340元/hm2,套种经济作物每年最高增收达55 200元/hm2;能改善柑橘园小气候,培肥土壤;改善土壤物理性状;抑制杂草,减少虫害,保持果园生态系统平衡,保护人类健康;提高柑橘园的资源利用率,节本增效,社会效益得到充分体现.%In order to made the best of abundant photo-thermal resources,water and soil resources in Binchuan Dry Hot Valley,and improved comprehensive benefits and multiple cropping index in 1 to 3 years of orangery development preliminary stage,promoted orchardist increase income,the study adopted the orangery intercropping ways of "arbor(shrub) + agricultural and industrial crop",set up orangery intercropping models,put forward key technology of representative models,carried out benefit analysis.The results showed that the peasants got annual average income 32 340 CNY/hm2 by intercropping in the front 3 years,and the income from intercropping supplied management funds for the orangery.The most annual income was 55 200 CNY/hm2 if the intercropping crop was cash crop.The intercropping ameliorated the microclimate and soil physical behavior of the orangery,and increased the soil nutrient.The intercropping could control rank grass,and reduce insect pest,and keep the balance of orangery ecosystem,and protect the human health.The orangery intercropping not only improved resource utilization rate of the orangery,but also saved costing,and embodied social benefits fully.

  14. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  15. Art Rocks with Rock Art!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bickett, Marianne

    2011-01-01

    This article discusses rock art which was the very first "art." Rock art, such as the images created on the stone surfaces of the caves of Lascaux and Altimira, is the true origin of the canvas, paintbrush, and painting media. For there, within caverns deep in the earth, the first artists mixed animal fat, urine, and saliva with powdered minerals…

  16. Spray drying technique. I: Hardware and process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sollohub, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    Spray drying is a transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The main aim of drying by this method in pharmaceutical technology is to obtain dry particles with desired properties. This review presents the hardware and process parameters that affect the properties of the dried product. The atomization devices, drying chambers, air-droplet contact systems, the collection of dried product, auxiliary devices, the conduct of the spray drying process, and the significance of the individual parameters in the drying process, as well as the obtained product, are described and discussed.

  17. ROCK ON

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Thomas Grose

    2014-01-01

    ..., however, was music - especially the high-pitched sounds of pop and rock, which boosted energy output by up to 40 percent. By contrast, classical music's lower pitches barely raised effectiveness. O...

  18. Jupiter's Hot, Mushy Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, G. Jeffrey

    2003-01-01

    Jupiter's moon Io is the most volcanically active body in the Solar System. Observations by instruments on the Galileo spacecraft and on telescopes atop Mauna Kea in Hawai'i indicate that lava flows on Io are surprisingly hot, over 1200 oC and possibly as much as 1300 oC; a few areas might have lava flows as hot as 1500 oC. Such high temperatures imply that the lava flows are composed of rock that formed by a very large amount of melting of Io's mantle. This has led Laszlo Keszthelyi and Alfred S. McEwen of the University of Arizona and me to reawaken an old hypothesis that suggests that the interior of Io is a partially-molten mush of crystals and magma. The idea, which had fallen out of favor for a decade or two, explains high-temperature hot spots, mountains, calderas, and volcanic plains on Io. If correct, Io gives us an opportunity to study processes that operate in huge, global magma systems, which scientists believe were important during the early history of the Moon and Earth, and possibly other planetary bodies as well. Though far from proven, the idea that Io has a ocean of mushy magma beneath its crust can be tested with measurements by future spacecraft.

  19. Petrography and geochemistry of precambrian rocks from GT-2 and EE-1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laughlin, A.W.; Eddy, A.

    1977-08-01

    During the drilling of GT-2 and EE-1, 27 cores totaling about 35 m were collected from the Precambrian section. Samples of each different lithology in each core were taken for petrographic and whole-rock major- and trace-element analyses. Whole-rock analyses are now completed on 37 samples. From these data four major Precambrian units were identified at the Fenton Hill site. Geophysical logs and cuttings were used to extrapolate between cores. The most abundant rock type is an extremely variable gneissic unit comprising about 75% of the rock penetrated. This rock is strongly foliated and may range compositionally from syenogranitic to tonalitic over a few centimeters. The bulk of the unit falls within the monzogranite field. Interlayered with the gneiss is a ferrohastingsite-biotite schist which compositionally resembles a basaltic andesite. A fault contact between the schist and gneiss was observed in one core. Intrusive into this metamorphic complex are two igneous rocks. A leucocratic monzogranite occurs as at least two 15-m-thick dikes, and a biotite-granodiorite body was intercepted by 338 m of drill hole. Both rocks are unfoliated and equigranular. The biotite granodiorite is very homogeneous and is characterized by high modal contents of biotite and sphene and by high K/sub 2/O, TiO/sub 2/, and P/sub 2/O/sub 5/ contents. Although all of the cores examined show fractures, most of these are tightly sealed or healed. Calcite is the most abundant fracture filling mineral, but epidote, quartz, chlorite, clays or sulfides have also been observed. The degree of alteration of the essential minerals normally increases as these fractures are approached. The homogeneity of the biotite granodiorite at the bottom of GT-2 and the high degree of fracture filling ensure an ideal setting for the Hot Dry Rock Experiment.

  20. Study of fine particles (PM{sub 2.5}) during the dry-hot time in the Toluca city; Estudio de las particulas finas (PM{sub 2.5}) durante la epoca seca-caliente en la ciudad de Toluca

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosendo G, V. [ITT, 50000 Toluca (Mexico); Aldape U, F. [ININ, 52750 La Marquesa, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vero_rosen2108@yahoo.com.mx

    2007-07-01

    The first obtained results of the analysis of the fine fraction particulate material (PM{sub 2.5}) samples collected in the Toluca City are presented. The samples analyzed are part of a more extensive campaign that contemplates the low project the one which one carries out this work and that it integrates three climatic times (dry-hot, of rains and dry-cold time) with the purpose of investigating the events of contamination in one complete year. The obtained results correspond to the dry-hot time and its include mainly the database starting from which the temporal variation graphs were obtained, the correlations among elements and the enrichment factor, as well as a multiple correlation analysis. Additionally the gravimetry was measured. Its are not observed significant episodes, however, it was found an element of the traces order, little common in other atmospheric studies as it is arsenic. From the gravimetry it was deduced that the air quality standard of fine particle, it does not violate. (Author)

  1. Drying characteristics and quality of bananas under infrared radiation heating

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hot air (HA) drying of banana has low drying efficiency and results in undesirable product quality. The objectives of this research were to investigate the feasibility of infrared (IR) heating to improve banana drying rate, evaluate quality of the dried product, and establish models for predicting d...

  2. Hot Tickets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fox, Bette-Lee; Hoffert, Barbara; Kuzyk, Raya; McCormack, Heather; Williams, Wilda

    2008-01-01

    This article describes the highlights of this year's BookExpo America (BEA) held at the Los Angeles Convention Center. The attendees at BEA had not minded that the air was recycled, the lighting was fluorescent, and the food was bad. The first hot book sighting came courtesy of Anne Rice. Michelle Moran, author of newly published novel, "The…

  3. Analysis of shrinkage characteristics of sludge in superheated steam and hot air drying processes based on image processing%基于图像处理的过热蒸汽与热风干燥污泥收缩特性分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张绪坤; 王高敏; 温祥东; 邹加富; 姚斌; 吴青荣; 邢普

    2016-01-01

    Large amounts of sewage sludge with high moisture content are generated every year. There are varieties of methods to manage sewage sludge such as land filling, composting, pyrolysis, incineration and thermal drying. Decreasing the moisture content of sludge is a critical step in harmlessness, bulkiness reduction, and resource utilization. Thermal drying has been proven to be an effective approach to reduce solid volumes compared with other ways. Drying is a complex process which may consist of molecular diffusion, capillary flow, Knudsen flow, surface diffusion and so on. Generally, the phenomena of shrinkage crack and skin layer formation can be observed during the drying process and each of them occurs can modify the drying kinetics. Currently, there are many studies on sludge shrinkage in hot air drying but lack of studies in superheated steam drying which has the advantages of energy saving, high efficiency and great heat and mass transfer coefficients. Furthermore, most of moisture diffusion models proposed by researchers are not consider the shrinkage and regard the finite regular geometry as an infinite one when they deal with the drying process, it may result in large error or erroneous results. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the shrinkage characteristics of sludge in superheated steam and hot air drying processes and their influences on the effective diffusion coefficients. The experimental devices for superheated steam drying under atmospheric pressure and hot air drying were built. The drying experiments were carried out with caky sludge samples of 10 mm in thickness and 50 mm in diameter at the temperature of 160 and 200℃. During the drying process, the photographs of sludge samples were obtained with digital camera by taking out the sludge samples from the drying chamber every tem minutes. In order to study the shrinkage phenomenon and its characteristic of caky sludge, the image processing technique was used to processing and analyze

  4. Effect of different drying methods on moisture ratio and rehydration of pumpkin slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seremet Ceclu, Liliana; Botez, Elisabeta; Nistor, Oana-Viorela; Andronoiu, Doina Georgeta; Mocanu, Gabriel-Danut

    2016-03-15

    This study was carried to determine the influence of hot air drying process and combined methods on physicochemical properties of pumpkin (Cucurbita moschata) samples. The experiments in hot air chamber were lead at 50, 60 and 70 °C. The combined method consists of a triple combination of the main drying techniques. Thus, in first stage the samples were dried in hot air convection at 60 °C followed by hot air ventilation at 40 °C simultaneous with microwave. The time required to reduce the moisture content to any given level was highly dependent on the drying conditions. So, the highest value of drying time in hot air has been 540 min at 50 °C, while the lowest time has been 189 min in hot air combined by microwave at 40 °C and a power of 315 W. The samples dried by hot air shows a higher rehydration capacity than samples dried by combined method.

  5. 基于生物气候条件的城市设计生态策略研究——以干热地区城市设计为例%Research on Eco-strategies for Urban Design Based on Bio-climate Conditions:Taking the Urban Design in Dry-hot Areas as Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐小东; 王建国; 陈鑫

    2011-01-01

    以干热地区城市设计为例,从宏观、中观和微观3个层面进行研究,并在此基础上总结出适应干热气候条件的城市设计生态策略和方法.%Taking an urban design for dry.hot area as example, and on the basis of macro micro and medium studies the paper puts forward some eco-tactics and methods for dryhot climate adapted urban design

  6. The pathogen causing mango malformation in Jinsha River Dry-hot Valley, China%金沙江干热河谷地区芒果畸形病的病原菌

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨顺锦; 詹儒林; 柳凤; 赵艳龙; 常金梅; 何衍彪

    2011-01-01

    从金沙江干热河谷地区采集芒果畸形病组织,运用柯赫氏法则证实分离物MG6为该病的致病菌.菌株MG6在马铃薯蔗糖琼脂培养基(PSA)上菌丝白色,无色素产生,米饭培养基浅粉红色;在康乃馨叶片培养基(CLA)上以单瓶梗或复瓶梗假头状产孢,不产生链状孢子;小型分生孢子卵形或长椭圆形,具0-1个分隔,3.1-10.2×1.5-2.2μm;大型分生孢子呈镰刀形,通常3个分隔,18-38×1.8-2.4μm.EF-Iα测序结果在Fusarium数据库中进行同源性分析显示,菌株MG6与F.mangiferae的同源性最高,达99.68%.综合培养性状、形态学特征和EF-Iα序列分析,将菌株MG6鉴定为Fusarium mangiferae.%Mango tissue samples infected by malformation disease were collected from Jinsha River Dry-hot Valley and the fungal strains were isolated after surface sterilization. Isolate MG6 was confirmed to be the pathogen of this disease through Koch's rules.Based on morphological characteristics and EF-1α sequencing, isolate MG6 was identified as Fusarium mangiferae. The colony of the strain was white and pigment was not formed on Potato Sugar Agar (PSA). Pigmentation on rice medium was pink. On Carnation Leaf Agar (CLA) medium, microconidia formed false head on branched monophialides or polyphialidas, and conidia in chains were not observed. Microconidia are ovate to long-oval, 0-1-septate, 3.1-10.2× 1.5-2.2μm. Macroconidia are falculate, 3-5-septate,18-38× 1.8-2.4μm. Chlamydospores are absent. The EF-1α region of the pathogen was amplified and sequenced. A BLAST search through the Fusarium database (http://isolate.fusariumdb.org) showed that the identity of EF-1α sequence of isolate MG6 to that of Fusarium mangiferae NRRL 25226, the closest match was 99.68%, confirming the morphological identification of the isolate.

  7. 金沙江干热河谷银合欢人工林对土壤养分的影响%Effects of Soil Nutrients on Planted Leucaena leucocephala Forest in the Dry-hot Jinshajiang River Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方海东; 魏雅丽; 刘刚才; 杨艳鲜; 潘志贤; 纪中华

    2011-01-01

    通过干热河谷银合欢人工林对土壤改良效应5年的研究,结果表明:银合欢林具有很好的土壤改良效应,土壤有机质明显高于CK,在0~20 cm,20~40cm和40~60cm的土层中,比CK分别高52.61%,51.09%和43.52%,土壤有机质随着土壤深度的增加而减少.pH在0~20cm,20~40cm和40~60cm的土层中,比CK分别低8.28%,2.41%和2.19%.全N含量上层土壤明显高于下层,水解N比CK高43.75%,随着土壤深度的增加,水解N呈现下降趋势,并具有显著性相关关系.全P含量比CK高0.05mg/kg,相差不是很明显.有效P含量与CK相差不是很明显,在不同土层深度有效P含量的变化非常一致.全K含量比CK高0.98 mg/kg,银合欢的生长对土壤全K含量的影响并不明显.速效K含量平均为136.79 mg/kg,变化幅度较大,比CK高69.45 mg/kg,银合欢的生长对土壤速效K含量的影响明显.%The soil improvement effect on the planted Leucaena leucocephala forest in the dry-hot Jinshajiang River Valley was researched for five years. The results show that the soil improvement effect on the forest was obvious. Soil organic matter content was obviously higher than CK, its values at soil depths of 0 - 20 cm, 20-40 cm and 40 -60 cm under the forest were 52. 61% , 51. 09% and 43. 52% higher than CK respectively, and it decreased with the increase of soil depth. At soil depths of 0 -20 cm, 20 -40 cm and 40 -60 cm, the Ph values of forest soil were 8. 28% , 2.41% and 2. 19% lower than CK respectively. Total soil N content was 43. 75% higher than CK, it decreased with the increase of soil depth, and there was a significant correlation between total soil N content and soil depth. Total soil P content was 0. 05 mg/kg higher than CK only. The difference of available P content between the forest soil and CK was not obvious. Total soil K content was 0. 98 mg/kg higher than CK, and the effect of total K content on the forest was not obvious. The available K content in the forest soil was 136

  8. 金沙江干热河谷扭黄茅花粉微形态及活力研究%Study on the Pollen Micro-morphological Characters and Viability of Heteropogon contortus from Jinshajiang Dry-hot Valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢勇; 毕玉芬; 浦卫琼; 王海宁

    2012-01-01

    [目的]为丰富抗旱耐热的育种材料来源提供依据.[方法]对来自金沙江干热河谷不同地区的扭黄茅花粉形态进行了电镜扫描观察,并采用碘-碘化钾(I-KI)染色法进行活力测定.[结果]扭黄茅花粉粒为中等大小花粉粒,花粉形态为近球型,花粉壁纹饰为粗糙型,萌发孔为单一萌发孔,萌发孔有孔环,表明扭黄茅具有进化性状,但是进化程度较低,仍属于原始状态,与扭黄茅为野生状态相一致.金沙江沿岸永胜、攀枝花、元谋扭黄茅的花粉活力为80.00% ~ 87.10%,差异不显著(P>0.05).永胜地区扭黄茅花粉活力为82.19%~87.00%,不同扭黄茅材料间的花粉活力差异也不显著(P>0.05).[结论]金沙江沿岸各地区的扭黄茅花粉形态与结构基本一致,表明其是一个自然类群.%[Objective] The research aimed to provide basis for enriching the breeding materials with heat-resistance and drought-resistance. [ Method ] The pollen morphology of Heteropogon contortus from different areas of Jinshajiang dry-hot valley was observed by using electron microscope scanning. And the pollen viability was measured by using iodine-iodine kalium staining method. [ Result] The pollen grains were medium size, spheroidal shape, with rough type extine sculpture and single germinal aperture and annular ring. This indicated that H. contortus had the typical evolutionary character, with low evolutionary level, belonging to the original state, which was accordant with the wild strain of//. contortus. The pollen viability of H. contortus from Yongsheng, Panzhihua and Yuanmou along Jinshajiang River was 80. 00% - 87. 10% , without significant difference(P >0. 05). The pollen viability of H, contortus from Yongsheng area was 82. 19% -87.00% , and the difference of pollen viability among different materials of H. contortus was not significant P > 0. 05 ) . [ Conclusion ] The pollen grains micro-morphological characters and its viability of H

  9. 'Wopmay' Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-01-01

    This approximate true-color image taken by NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows an unusual, lumpy rock informally named 'Wopmay' on the lower slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' The rock was named after the Canadian bush pilot Wilfrid Reid 'Wop' May. Like 'Escher' and other rocks dotting the bottom of Endurance, scientists believe the lumps in Wopmay may be related to cracking and alteration processes, possibly caused by exposure to water. The area between intersecting sets of cracks eroded in a way that created the lumpy appearance. Rover team members plan to drive Opportunity over to Wopmay for a closer look in coming sols. This image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 248 (Oct. 4, 2004), using its 750-, 530- and 480-nanometer filters.

  10. Source rock

    OpenAIRE

    Abubakr F. Makky; Mohamed I. El Sayed; Ahmed S. Abu El-Ata; Ibrahim M. Abd El-Gaied; Mohamed I. Abdel-Fattah; Zakaria M. Abd-Allah

    2014-01-01

    West Beni Suef Concession is located at the western part of Beni Suef Basin which is a relatively under-explored basin and lies about 150 km south of Cairo. The major goal of this study is to evaluate the source rock by using different techniques as Rock-Eval pyrolysis, Vitrinite reflectance (%Ro), and well log data of some Cretaceous sequences including Abu Roash (E, F and G members), Kharita and Betty formations. The BasinMod 1D program is used in this study to construct the burial history ...

  11. Seismic properties of polyphase rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qin

    2005-11-01

    Knowledge about the seismic properties of polyphase rocks is fundamental for interpreting seismic refraction and reflection data and for establishing lithospheric structure and composition models. This study aims to obtain more precise relationships between seismic properties of rocks and controlling factors (e.g., pressure, temperature, mineralogical and chemical compositions, microstructure of rocks), particularly for those rocks imprinted by ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) metamorphism. These relationships will be very helpful to extrapolate calculated and measured seismic properties of rocks to depths of interest and to engender interpretations relevant to petrological composition and tectonic process. An Internet Database of Rock Seismic Properties (DRSP) was set up and a Handbook of Seismic Properties of Minerals, Rocks and Ores was published. They comprise almost all data available in the literature during the past 4 decades and can serve as a convenient, comprehensive and concise information source on physical properties of rocks to the earth sciences and geotechnical communities. Statistical results of the DRSP reveal the dependence of seismic properties on density, porosity, humidity, and mineralogical and chemical compositions. Using 16 different averaging methods, we calculated P-wave velocities of 696 dry samples according to the volume fraction and elastic constants of each constituent mineral. Although only 22 common minerals were taken into account in the computation, the calculated P-wave velocities agree well with laboratory values measured at about 300 MPa, where most microcracks are closed and the mean Vp of a polymineralic rock is exclusively controlled by its modal composition. However, none of these mixture rules can simultaneously fit measured P-wave velocities for all lithologies or at all pressures. Therefore, more prudence is required in selecting an appropriate mixture rule for calculation of seismic velocities of different rock types.

  12. Rock Paintings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Julienne Edwards

    1998-01-01

    Discusses the integration of art and academics in a fifth-grade instructional unit on Native American culture. Describes how students studied Native American pictographs, designed their own pictographs, made their own tools, and created rock paintings of their pictographs using these tools. Provides a list of references on Native American…

  13. Ayers Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王慧茹

    2002-01-01

    Ayers Rock is right in the centre of Australia.It's nearly two thousand kilometres______Sydney.So we flew most of the way.h was rather cloudy______But after we left the mountains behind us, there was hardly a cloud in thesky.

  14. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  15. Intellektuaalne rock

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    2007-01-01

    Briti laulja-helilooja ja näitleja Toyah Willcox ning Bill Rieflin ansamblist R.E.M. ja Pat Mastelotto King Krimsonist esinevad koos ansamblitega The Humans ja Tuner 25. okt. Tallinnas Rock Cafés ja 27. okt Tartu Jaani kirikus

  16. 安徽省小麦干热风、高温逼熟、贪青晚熟、雪灾、倒伏灾害的防御%Defense of Wheat Dry-hot Wind,Heat-forced Matu-rity,Over-green and Late-maturing,Snow Disaster and Lodging Disaster in Anhui Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈磊

    2014-01-01

    Dry-hot wind,heat-forced maturity,over-green and late-maturing, snow disaster and lodging disaster of wheat were easy to occur in Anhui Province.Therefore,this paper emphatical-ly introduced preventive and remedial measures of wheat dry-hot wind,heat-forced maturity,over-green and late-ma-turing,snow disaster and lodging disaster, there would be has great significance for improving yield and quality and promot-ing productivity of wheat in Anhui Province.%安徽省小麦易发生干热风、高温逼熟、贪青晚熟、雪灾、倒伏灾害,故着重介绍了小麦的干热风、高温逼熟、贪青晚熟、雪灾、倒伏灾害的预防与补救措施,对提高安徽省小麦的产量和品质,促进其稳产增收具有重要意义。

  17. Hot Money,Hot Problems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    After emerging from the economic doldrums, developing economies are now confronted with a new danger-a flood of international hot money. But how has the speculative capital circumvented regulatory controls and what are the consequences concerning the stability of the developing world? Zhao Zhongwei, a senior researcher with the Institute of World Politics and Economics at the Chinese Academy of Social Sciences, discussed these issues in an article recently published in the China Securities Journal. Edited excerpts follow

  18. Study of polysaccharide sulfate cream combined with dry and hot com-press in the prevention of mechanical phlebitis caused by PICC in cancer patients%喜辽妥加局部干热敷预防肿瘤患者PICC致机械性静脉炎的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋志萍; 潘丽萍; 李雪琴; 杜红梅; 姚志英

    2015-01-01

    Objective To observe the preventive effect of polysaccharide sulfate cream combined with dry and hot com-press in mechanical phlebitis caused by PICC in cancer patients. Methods Fifty-five tumor patients undergone PICC in our hospital from September 2012 to November 2014 were selected and randomly divided into control group (n=24) and research group (n=31).All participants were imbedded with PICC following standard operating procedures.In re-search group,when catheterization was successful,polysaccharide sulfate cream was externally applied,and hot water was poured into double-end empty infusion bag for local dry and hot compress.Each time lasted 20 to 30 minutes,twice per day for 3 consecutive days.In control group,regular nursing was provided.The incidence of mechanical phlebitis between two groups was observed and calculated. Results The incidence of phlebitis in research group was 3.2%,while in con-trol group,the incidence was 20.8%,with statistical difference (P<0.05). Conclusion Polysaccharide sulfate cream com-bined with local dry and hot compress plays preventive effect on phlebitis caused by PICC in cancer patients.%目的:观察喜辽妥加局部干热敷对肿瘤患者PICC致机械性静脉炎的预防作用。方法选取2012年9月~2014年11月本院收治行PICC置管肿瘤患者55例,将其随机分成对照组(24例)与研究组(31例)。全部患者均按照标准的操作程序进行PICC置入,研究组在置管成功后给予喜辽妥外涂,加局部干热敷,20~30 min/次,2次/d,持续3d。对照组给予常规护理,观察统计两组患者机械性静脉炎的发生率。结果研究组静脉炎的发生率为3.2豫,对照组为20.8豫,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论喜辽妥加局部干热敷对肿瘤患者PICC所致静脉炎有预防作用。

  19. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  20. Drying of peat and wood biomass. Literature review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tapanainen, J. (Valtion Teknillinen Tutkimuskeskus, Espoo (Finland). Poltto- ja Voiteluainelaboratorio)

    1982-06-01

    Peat drying agrees with the typical drying curve of capillary porous materials, where a constant rate zone and a zone of decreasing rate of drying are distinguished. It depends on the way of water binding, how easily the moisure of pea can be removed. Wood is a hygroscopic porous material, and its drying can be described with the aid of diffusion theory. Milled peat is usually dried artificially in flash driers. Drum driers are also used for peat to some extent. The best known indirectly heated equipment is Peco-drier, where saturated steam and hot water are used as heat transfer media. A back-pressure drier developed in Sweden is also suitable for peat drying. In this equipment, indirect drying with back-pressure steam from the turbine is applied. Wood biomass (chips, bark) can be dried for example by hot-grinding, vibrating conveyor or drum drying methods. Cascade and pneumatic driers are also used for drying bark.

  1. Are 'hot spots' hot spots?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foulger, Gillian R.

    2012-07-01

    The term 'hot spot' emerged in the 1960s from speculations that Hawaii might have its origins in an unusually hot source region in the mantle. It subsequently became widely used to refer to volcanic regions considered to be anomalous in the then-new plate tectonic paradigm. It carried with it the implication that volcanism (a) is emplaced by a single, spatially restricted, mongenetic melt-delivery system, assumed to be a mantle plume, and (b) that the source is unusually hot. This model has tended to be assumed a priori to be correct. Nevertheless, there are many geological ways of testing it, and a great deal of work has recently been done to do so. Two fundamental problems challenge this work. First is the difficulty of deciding a 'normal' mantle temperature against which to compare estimates. This is usually taken to be the source temperature of mid-ocean ridge basalts (MORBs). However, Earth's surface conduction layer is ˜200 km thick, and such a norm is not appropriate if the lavas under investigation formed deeper than the 40-50 km source depth of MORB. Second, methods for estimating temperature suffer from ambiguity of interpretation with composition and partial melt, controversy regarding how they should be applied, lack of repeatability between studies using the same data, and insufficient precision to detect the 200-300 °C temperature variations postulated. Available methods include multiple seismological and petrological approaches, modelling bathymetry and topography, and measuring heat flow. Investigations have been carried out in many areas postulated to represent either (hot) plume heads or (hotter) tails. These include sections of the mid-ocean spreading ridge postulated to include ridge-centred plumes, the North Atlantic Igneous Province, Iceland, Hawaii, oceanic plateaus, and high-standing continental areas such as the Hoggar swell. Most volcanic regions that may reasonably be considered anomalous in the simple plate-tectonic paradigm have been

  2. 干热河谷乡土树种清香木幼苗生长对不同水分梯度的响应%Responses of Pistacia weinmannifolia seedling to different water gradient in dry-hot valley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王妍; 张超; 李昆

    2014-01-01

    根据土壤的田间持水量设置不同的土壤水分含量梯度,通过对不同梯度下清香木幼苗的株高、叶片性状、生物量以及幼苗生长状态的观测和分析,旨在探讨清香木幼苗在水分缺失及过量的情况下对水分的利用情况及清香木幼苗在不同水分条件下生长的性状,了解幼苗对水分过多或过少胁迫的响应,以期在云南干热河谷地区的植被恢复、清香木的培育种植中能提供一定的理论指导和技术参考。研究结果表明,清香木幼苗期需水量较多,在田间持水量充足的条件下,幼苗生长较好,在相对田间持水量较小的条件下,幼苗虽然较正常水分条件下生长减慢,但仍能生长。研究结果表明,清香木幼苗对极端干旱的耐受性要高于对极端降水,同时随植株的生长,清香木对水分需求的敏感度降低。研究还表明,在不构成胁迫的环境中,幼苗的地上部分生物量的增加明显高于地下部分的生物量的增加,而在水分过多或过少胁迫下幼苗的地下部分生物量的增加会高于地上部分,而且在胁迫强度和胁迫时间的推移下,表现的更为明显,此种适应对策可以帮助幼苗吸收更多的水分和养分,以及减少蒸腾等损耗,从而适应逆境。%Seedling plant height, leaf traits, biomass, and seedling growth state of Pistacia weinmannifolia under different precipitation gradients were observed and analyzed in order to explore the seedling water use efficiency traits in the case of water loss or excessive condition and response to the water stress in dry and hot valley in Yunnan province, and which can provide some theoretical guidance and technical reference to region vegetation restoration. The results show that in the early stage, P. weinmannifolia seedling requires high water condition and better seedling growth in conditions of adequate moisture, but in drought conditions, seedling

  3. Drying of Pigment-Cellulose Nanofibril Substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleg Timofeev

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available A new substrate containing cellulose nanofibrils and inorganic pigment particles has been developed for printed electronics applications. The studied composite structure contains 80% fillers and is mechanically stable and flexible. Before drying, the solids content can be as low as 20% due to the high water binding capacity of the cellulose nanofibrils. We have studied several drying methods and their effects on the substrate properties. The aim is to achieve a tight, smooth surface keeping the drying efficiency simultaneously at a high level. The methods studied include: (1 drying on a hot metal surface; (2 air impingement drying; and (3 hot pressing. Somewhat surprisingly, drying rates measured for the pigment-cellulose nanofibril substrates were quite similar to those for the reference board sheets. Very high dewatering rates were observed for the hot pressing at high moisture contents. The drying method had significant effects on the final substrate properties, especially on short-range surface smoothness. The best smoothness was obtained with a combination of impingement and contact drying. The mechanical properties of the sheets were also affected by the drying method and associated temperature.

  4. Effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaobei; Feng, Tao; Zhou, Feng; Zhou, Shuai; Liu, Yanfang; Li, Wen; Ye, Ran; Yang, Yan

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research was to study effects of drying methods on the tasty compounds of Pleurotus eryngii, a common commercial edible fungus. In order to maximally maintain the taste of P. eryngii, several different drying methods, including hot air, vacuum, microwave, freeze drying and naturally air-drying, were compared. Results showed that freeze drying and hot air were capable of the conservation of the taste compounds maximally in P. eryngii, followed by natural air drying and vacuum, while microwave drying was not suitable for P. eryngii due to the loss of taste compounds. Moreover, concentrations of free amino acids in freeze drying were significantly reduced, so as to 5'-nucleotides in hot air drying. In addition, the umami concentration of the sample using hot air dry was significantly (p<0.05) higher than that using microwave.

  5. Technical and cost analysis of rock-melting systems for producing geothermal wells. [GEOWELL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Altseimer, J.H.

    1976-11-01

    The drilling of wells makes up a large fraction of the costs of geothermal energy-extraction plants, and billions of dollars for wells will be needed before geothermal energy is nationally significant. Technical and economic systems studies are summarized regarding the application of the Subterrene concept, i.e., excavating and penetrating rocks or soils by melting, to the production of deep wells such as may be used for dry hot rock or geopressurized geothermal energy-extraction systems. Technically, it was found that Subterrene features are compatible with those of current rotary drilling practices. In fact, some special features could lead to improved well production techniques. These include the buildup of a glass lining along the borehole wall which provides structural resistance to collapse; close control of hole geometry; the existence of a barrier between the drilling fluids and the formations being penetrated; nonrotation; potentially better bit life; and faster rates of penetration in deep, hard rock. A typical optimum-cost well would be rotary-drilled in the upper regions and then rock-melted to total depth. Indicated cost savings are significant: a 30 percent or 3.9 million dollar (1975 $) reduction from rotary-drilled well costs are estimated for a 10-km depth well with a bottom hole temperature of 673 K. Even for relatively cool normal geothermal gradient conditions, the savings for the 1..pi..-km well are estimated as 23 percent of 2.1 million dollars.

  6. Moisture impact on building rocks - the laboratory and in situ investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidríková, M. Sc.; Kubičár, D. Sc.

    2012-04-01

    Rocks are influenced by moisture that in combination with temperature, hydrological conditions, climatic conditions, etc. leads to changes of physical and chemical properties. These changes can be observed in the laboratory, where different conditions can be simulated in which the rocks can be found. This work is focused on water transport and moisture determination in various sandstones observed in laboratory conditions and also directly in environment. Porosity affects transport properties of rocks. Experiments are focused on the mechanism distributing the water in sandstones with different porosities. Measurements were carried out by thermal conductivity sensors (Hot-ball sensor) which measure local temperature and local thermal conductivity. The sensor in connection with the RTM device is used for monitoring of the moisture in various sandstones with different porosity. For in situ measurements a moisture sensor is constructed. The sensor is made of the original stone in a form of the cylinder (diameter and length around 20 mm) in which thermal conductivity sensor is placed. The moisture sensor must be calibrated for dry and water saturated state, and then it is inserted into the original site to start monitoring of the impact of surrounding weather conditions on the rock. Meteorological data are correlated to the measured data. Results from water transport and change of moisture in sandstones at various monitoring conditions are presented.

  7. Origin of lunar feldspathic rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, D.; Grove, T. L.; Longhi, J.; Stolper, E. M.; Hays, J. F.

    1973-01-01

    Melting experiments and petrographic studies of lunar feldspathic rocks reveal possible genetic relationships among several compositionally and mineralogically distinct groups of lunar rocks and soil fragments. Dry, low PO2 partial melting of crustal anorthositic norites of the anorthositic-noritic-troctolitic (ANT) suite produces liquids of the KREEP-Fra Mauro basalt type; dry, low PO2 partial melting of pink spinel troctolite (PST) produces liquids of the 'very high alumina basalt' or microtroctolite type. Both ANT and PST are probable components of the primitive terra crust. If crystal fractionation in a cooling basaltic liquid could have produced such a crust, it would also produce a mafic interior capable of yielding mare basalts by later remelting at depth.

  8. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  9. Effects of Differential Reinforcement, Physical Restraint and Verbal Reprimand on Stereotyped Body-Rocking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jena, S. P. K.

    1995-01-01

    A boy with severe mental retardation was unresponsive to his environment and spent 80% of his day body-rocking. Stereotyped body-rocking was greatly reduced via differential reinforcement of incompatible responding (DRI), physical restraint, and reprimand. (JDD)

  10. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  11. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1979-August 31, 1980

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1980-09-01

    Progress is reported in the following research areas: a synthesis of seismic experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot-Dry-Rock System; attenuation of high-frequency shear waves in the lithosphere; a new kinematic source model for deep volcanic tremors; ground motion in the near-field of a fluid-driven crack and its interpretation in the study of shallow volcanic tremor; low-velocity bodies under geothermal areas; and operation of event recorders in Mt. St. Helens and Newberry Peak with preliminary results from them. (MHR)

  12. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1980-August 31, 1981

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1981-09-01

    Progress is reported on the following: interpretation of seismic data from hydraulic fracturing experiments at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Site, interpretation of 3-D velocity anomalies in the western US with special attention to geothermal areas, theoretical and observational studies of scattering and attenuation of high-frequency seismic waves, theoretical and observational studies of volcanic tremors in relation to magma transport mechanisms, and deployment and maintenance of 9 event-recorders around Mt. St. Helens. Abstracts of papers submitted for publication are included. (MHR)

  13. Effects of Drying Processes on the Antioxidant Properties in Sweet Potatoes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Jing; CHEN Jin-feng; ZHAO Yu-ying; MAO Lin-chun

    2010-01-01

    The effects of different drying methods (hot-air drying, microwave drying and vacuum-freeze drying) on the antioxidant activity and antioxidants in sweet potato (Ipomoea batatas L. Lam.) tubers were investigated to determine the potential drying process. Sweet potato tubers were cut into 5 mm thick slices, steamed at 100~C for 10 rain, then dried in either hot-air, microwave, or vacuum-freeze. The dried sweet potatoes in microwave possessed the highest antioxidant activity,while the lowest activity was observed in hot-air dried samples. The phenolic contents were positively correlated with scavenging activity and reducing power of DPPH+. The microwave drying retains the highest antioxidant activity with the highest content of phenolic compounds in dried sweet potatoes. β-carotene and ascorbic acid showed minor contribution to the antioxidant activity in dried sweet potatoes.

  14. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  15. 干热气候地区城市设计策略探析--以攀枝花市民商务办公区城市设计为例%Analysis on City Design Strategy of Dry Hot Climate Region--Taking the City Design of Civic Commerce Office Area in Panzhihua as an Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李和平; 万国凯

    2014-01-01

    Taking the civic commerce office district city desi-gn of Panzhihua as an example, this paper proposes design str-ategies separately from three levels of the macro, meso, micro to the local climate, in order to build ef icient, clean, healthy, comfortable urban environment, and provide reference for city planning and construction of town in dry and hot region.%本文以攀枝花市民商务办公区城市设计为例,分别从宏观、中观、微观三个层面提出应对当地干热气候的城市设计策略,以营造高效、清洁、健康、舒适的城镇建筑环境,为干热地区城镇的城市规划与建设提供借鉴与参考。

  16. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  18. Solar-powered hot-air system

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-01-01

    Solar-powered air heater supplies part or all of space heating requirements of residential or commercial buildings and is interfaced with air to water heat exchanger to heat domestic hot water. System has potential application in drying agricultural products such as cotton, lumber, corn, grains, and peanuts.

  19. Nitrogen-fixation Potential of Nodules in Four Types of Nitrogen-fixation Plants and Their Influencing Factors in Dry-hot Valley%干热河谷4种固氮植物根瘤固氮潜力及其影响因素

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    唐国勇; 李昆; 孙永玉; 张春华

    2012-01-01

    In addition to water, Nitrogen ( N) is often the key limiting factor for biological activity in Dry-hot Valleys, Biological N-fixation by nitrogen-fixation plants is of important source of N for vegetations in those areas. The nitrogenase activities (NAs) of nodules in Acacia auriliformis A. Cunn, Leucaena leucacephala (Lara. ) de Wit, Cajanus cajan ( L). Millspangh and Albiza kalkora Prain plantations were determined at the Dry red soils and Verti-sol spots at four different sampling times in a Dry-hot Valley with the acetylene reduction assay. The results showed that the NAs of nodules in L. leucacephala (16, 25 μmol·g -1·h-1 ) and A. auriliformis ( 15. 85μmol·g-1·h-1) were significantly higher than those in A. kalkora (9,60 μmol·g-1·h-1) and C. cajan (9.42 μmol·g-1h-1 )·The NAs of nodules in rainy season were significantly higher than those in dry season, and approximated 2. 3 times that in dry season. The NAs of nodules at the Dry red soils spots were 1.3 -1.6 times higher than those at the Vertisol spots. The research revealed besides plant type, the NAs of nodules were primarily affected by soil type, season and soil water content, but less affected by soil temperature.%氮是除水分之外影响干热河谷生物活性的关键因子,豆科植物生物固氮是该地区氮素的重要来源之一.采用乙炔还原法测定了干热河谷不同季节燥红土和变性土林地中大叶相思、新银合欢、木豆和山合欢根瘤固氮酶活性(NAs).结果表明:新银合欢(16.25 μmol · g-1·h-1)和大叶相思(15.85 μmol·g-1·h-1)根瘤NAs显著(P<0.001)高于山合欢(9.60 μmol·g-1·h-1)和木豆(9.42 μmol·g-1·h-1).雨季根瘤NAs显著高于旱季,约为旱季的2.3倍.燥红土样地上植物根瘤NAs是变性土样地的1.3~1.6倍.研究揭示:除植被类型外,干热河谷植物根瘤NAs主要受土壤类型、季节和土壤含水量的影响,而受土壤温度的影响较小.

  20. CERN Rocks

    CERN Document Server

    2004-01-01

    The 15th CERN Hardronic Festival took place on 17 July on the terrace of Rest 3 (Prévessin). Over 1000 people, from CERN and other International Organizations, came to enjoy the warm summer night, and to watch the best of the World's High Energy music. Jazz, rock, pop, country, metal, blues, funk and punk blasted out from 9 bands from the CERN Musiclub and Jazz club, alternating on two stages in a non-stop show.  The night reached its hottest point when The Canettes Blues Band got everybody dancing to sixties R&B tunes (pictured). Meanwhile, the bars and food vans were working at full capacity, under the expert management of the CERN Softball club, who were at the same time running a Softball tournament in the adjacent "Higgs Field". The Hardronic Festival is the main yearly CERN music event, and it is organized with the support of the Staff Association and the CERN Administration.

  1. 元江干热河谷牛角瓜种质资源调查及果实性状的多元统计分析%Investigation on germplasm resources and multivariate statistical analysis on fruit characters ofCalotropis gigantea in Yuanjiang dry-hot valley in Yunnan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑元; 高柱; 罗明灿; 刘鹏; 黄北; 唐军荣; 王连春; 马焕成; 刘惠民

    2015-01-01

    对元江干热河谷区29个牛角瓜种质资源地点进行实地调查,并对收集的不同种源牛角瓜的18个果实性状进行了相关分析、变异度分析、主成分分析、方差分析、聚类分析。结果表明:该区大量分布的野生牛角瓜种质资源具有丰富的多样性;牛角瓜果实的单果长、单果宽、单果高、单果鲜质量、果壳鲜质量这5个指标相互之间均呈极显著正相关,果实各组分的含水量与单果干质量的相关性高于单果鲜质量,果实长度、果实干质量、种子干质量是影响单果棉干质量与出棉率这2个重要棉纺指标的关键因子;果实性状指标的变异度范围在3.99%~42.84%之间,表明调查区内牛角瓜果实在不同种源之间存在广泛的遗传变异性;筛选出单果长、单果干质量、单果棉干质量、单果含水量、芯含水量、种子含水量、单果种子数、出棉率为牛角瓜的主要果实性状指标;筛选出GJ05、HH01、HH06、GJ02、GJ04、JS03为元江干热河谷区牛角瓜不同种源地点的优良单株,表现为果实品质性状与棉纺经济性状均较高,确定红河、个旧为元江干热河谷区牛角瓜不同地理分布的优良种源。%Twenty-nine germplasm resource sites ofCalotropis gigantea in Yuanjiang dry-hot valley were surveyed in theifeld, and eighteen fruit characters of collected fruits from different provenances were analyzed in multivariables, which including correlation analysis, variation analysis, principal component analysis, variance analysis, and cluster analysis. The results show that the large numbers of germplasm resources of wildC. gigantea in the distribution areas had abundant diversities; There were signiifcantly positive correlations among fruit length, fruit width, fruit height, fruit fresh weight, and shell fresh weight ofCalotropis gigantea; Fruit dry weight had higher correlation with the water content of each fruit component than

  2. Sedimentology and Chronology of Paleogene Coarse Clastic Rocks in East-Central Tibet and Their Relationship to Early Tectonic Uplift

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Jiangyu; WANG Jianghai; K. H. BRIAN; A. YIN; M. S. MATTHEW

    2007-01-01

    A systematic sedimentological and chronological study of typical Paleogene basins in eastcentral Tibet suggests that the depositional characteristics of extensively developed huge-bedded,purplish-red coarse clastic rocks formed in a tectonic setting of regional thrusting and strike-slipping represent a typical dry and hot subaerial alluvial fan environment formed in a proximal and rapidaccumulating sediment body in debris flows and a fan-surface braided river. Combining results from basin-fill sequences, sequences of coarse clastic rocks, fauna and sporo-pollen associations and thermochronological data, it is concluded that the coarse clastic rocks formed in the period of 54.2-belt), middle (Batang-Lijiang fault belt), and disintegration of large basins in the southern (LanpingSimao fold belt) segments of Tibet. The widespread massive-bedded coarse clastic rocks, fold thrusting and strike-slip, thrust shortening, and igneous activities in the Paleogene basins of eastcentral Tibet indicate that an early diachronous tectonic uplift might have occurred in the Tibetan Plateau from Middle Eocene to Oligocene, related to the initial stage of collision of the Indian and Asian plates.

  3. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norris, Richard D; Norris, James M; Lorenz, Ralph D; Ray, Jib; Jackson, Brian

    2014-01-01

    The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  4. Sliding rocks on Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park: first observation of rocks in motion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard D Norris

    Full Text Available The engraved trails of rocks on the nearly flat, dry mud surface of Racetrack Playa, Death Valley National Park, have excited speculation about the movement mechanism since the 1940s. Rock movement has been variously attributed to high winds, liquid water, ice, or ice flotation, but has not been previously observed in action. We recorded the first direct scientific observation of rock movements using GPS-instrumented rocks and photography, in conjunction with a weather station and time-lapse cameras. The largest observed rock movement involved > 60 rocks on December 20, 2013 and some instrumented rocks moved up to 224 m between December 2013 and January 2014 in multiple move events. In contrast with previous hypotheses of powerful winds or thick ice floating rocks off the playa surface, the process of rock movement that we have observed occurs when the thin, 3 to 6 mm, "windowpane" ice sheet covering the playa pool begins to melt in late morning sun and breaks up under light winds of -4-5 m/s. Floating ice panels 10 s of meters in size push multiple rocks at low speeds of 2-5 m/min. along trajectories determined by the direction and velocity of the wind as well as that of the water flowing under the ice.

  5. Aluminum-matrix composite materials with shungite rock fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalashnikov, I. E.; Kovalevski, V. V.; Chernyshova, T. A.; Bolotova, L. K.

    2010-11-01

    A method is proposed for the introduction of shungite rocks into aluminum melts by mechanical mixing with carriers, namely, aluminum granules and reactive titanium powders taking part in exothermic in situ reactions. The structures of composite materials with shungite rock additions are studied, and a stabilizing effect of these additions on dry sliding friction is revealed.

  6. Low-cost personal cooling in hot humid offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunnarsen, Lars Bo; Santos, A.

    This report presents a low cost solution to avoid heat stress in a hot and humid environment based on a solar powered drying of supply air. The air drying facilities and a validation of the benefits through comprehensive human exposure studies are described. The study represents an example...

  7. Rollerjaw Rock Crusher

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Gregory; Brown, Kyle; Fuerstenau, Stephen

    2009-01-01

    The rollerjaw rock crusher melds the concepts of jaw crushing and roll crushing long employed in the mining and rock-crushing industries. Rollerjaw rock crushers have been proposed for inclusion in geological exploration missions on Mars, where they would be used to pulverize rock samples into powders in the tens of micrometer particle size range required for analysis by scientific instruments.

  8. Geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains, Churchill County, Nevada

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voegtly, Nickolas E.

    1981-01-01

    A geologic reconnaissance of the Hot Springs Mountains and adjacent areas, which include parts of the Brady-Hazen and the Stillwater-Soda Lake Known Geothermal Resource Areas, during June-December 1975, resulted in a reinterpretation of the nature and location of some Basin and Range faults. In addition, the late Cenozoic stratigraphy has been modified, chiefly on the basis of radiometric dates of volcanic rocks by U.S. Geological Survey personnel and others. The Hot Springs Mountains are in the western part of the Basin and Range province, which is characterized by east-west crustal extension and associated normal faulting. In the surrounding Trinity, West Humboldt, Stillwater, and Desert Mountains, Cenozoic rocks overlie ' basement ' rocks of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic age. A similar relation is inferred in the Hot Springs Mountains. Folding and faulting have taken place from the late Tertiary to the present. (USGS)

  9. Geochemical characteristics of modern hot springs from northwest Hunan

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王蔚; 张景荣; 胡桂兴; 杨帆; 许祖鸣

    1995-01-01

    The studies of chemical compositions of modern hot spring water and gases,isotopiccompositions of H2O,He,Ar,CH4,CO2 in northwest Hunan show that the chemical characteristics of springwater are markedly different,which indicates the difference of background value of country rocks and the dif-ference of the effect of water-rock reaction.The geothermal systems in the studied regions are middle-hightemperature geothermal systems.The distributions of springs are controlled by the press and press-shearfaults that do not dissect deeply to the mantle.The hot spring water is of meteoric water.The origin of ma-terials in the hot springs is correlated with the sedimentary rocks.

  10. 60Co γ射线辐照预处理对甘薯热风干燥特性的影响%INFLUENCE OF 60Co γ IRRADIATION PRE-TREATMENT ON CHARACTERISTICS OF HOT AIR DRYING SWEET POTATO SLICES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江宁; 刘春泉; 李大婧; 刘霞; 严启梅

    2012-01-01

    The influences of irradiation, hot air temperature and thicknesses of the slices on the characters of dehydration and surface temperature of 60Co γ-rays irradiated sweet potato were investigated. Meanwhile, microscopic observation and determination of water activity of irradiated sweet potato were conducted. The results show that the drying rate and the surface temperature rised with the increasing of irradiation dose. When the dry basis moisture content was 150% , the drying rate of the samples were 1.92, 1.97, 2.05, 2.28, 3.12%/min while the irradiation dose were 0, 2, 5, 8, 10kGy, and the surface temperature were 48.5℃ , 46.3℃ , 44.5℃, 42.2℃, 41.5℃ , respectively. With higher air temperature and thinner of the sweet potato slices, the dehydration of the irradiated sweet potato slices were faster. The drying speed of sweet potato slices at 85℃ was 170min faster than that of 65℃. The drying speed of 7mm sweet potato slices was 228min faster than that of 3mm sample. The cell wall and the vacuole of the sweet potato slices were broken after irradiation, and its water activity increased with the inorease is radiation dose. The water activity of the irradiated samples were 0. 92, 0. 945, 0. 958, 0. 969, 0. 979 with the irradiation doses of 0, 2, 5, 8, 10kGy, respectively. The hot air drying rate, surface temperature and water activity of sweet potato are significantly impacted by irradiation. The conclusion provids a theoretical foundation for further processing techonology of combined radiation and hot air drying sweet potato.%采用60Coγ射线对甘薯进行辐照预处理,考察辐照、热风温度和切片厚度对其干燥特性和表面温度的影响,同时对不同剂量辐照的甘薯样品进行了显微观察和水分活度测定。结果表明,甘薯的干燥速率和表面温度随着辐照剂量的升高而升高。当干基含水率为150%时,辐照剂量为0、2、5、8和10kGy的样品干燥速率分别为1.92、1.97、2.05、2.28和3

  11. FHL2 prevents cardiac hypertrophy in mice with cardiac-specific deletion of ROCK2

    OpenAIRE

    Okamoto, Ryuji; Li, Yuxin; Noma, Kensuke; Hiroi, Yukio; Liu, Ping-Yen; Taniguchi, Masaya; Ito, Masaaki; Liao, James K.

    2013-01-01

    The Rho-associated coiled-coil containing kinases, ROCK1 and ROCK2, are important regulators of cell shape, migration, and proliferation through effects on the actin cytoskeleton. However, it is not known whether ROCK2 plays an important role in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. To determine whether the loss of ROCK2 could prevent cardiac hypertrophy, cardiomyocyte-specific ROCK2-null (c-ROCK2−/−) were generated using conditional ROCK2flox/flox mice and α-myosin heavy-chain promoter-dri...

  12. Laboratory spectra of hot molecules: Data needs for hot super-Earth exoplanets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tennyson, Jonathan; Yurchenko, Sergei N.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of stars are now thought to support exoplanets. Many of those exoplanets discovered thus far are categorized as rocky objects with an atmosphere. Most of these objects are however hot due to their short orbital period. Models suggest that water is the dominant species in their atmospheres. The hot temperatures are expected to turn these atmospheres into a (high pressure) steam bath containing remains of melted rock. The spectroscopy of these hot rocky objects will be very different from that of cooler objects or hot gas giants. Molecules suggested to be important for the spectroscopy of these objects are reviewed together with the current status of the corresponding spectroscopic data. Perspectives of building a comprehensive database of linelist/cross sections applicable for atmospheric models of rocky super-Earths as part of the ExoMol project are discussed. The quantum-mechanical approaches used in linelist productions and their challenges are summarized.

  13. Catalytic gasification of dry and wet biomass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rossum, G.; Potic, B.; Kersten, Sascha R.A.; van Swaaij, Willibrordus Petrus Maria

    2009-01-01

    Catalytic gasification of dry biomass and of wet biomass streams in hot compressed water are reviewed and discussed as potential technologies for the production of synthesis gas, hydrogen- and methane-rich gas. Next to literature data also new experimental results from our laboratory on catalytic

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  15. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  16. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  17. Progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yuemin Zhao; Xuliang Yang; Zhenfu Luo; Chenlong Duan; Shulei Song

    2014-01-01

    China’s energy supply heavily relies on coal and China’s coal resource and water resource has a reverse distribution. The problem of water shortages restricts the applications of wet coal beneficiation technologies in drought regions. The present situation highlights the significance and urgency of developing dry beneficiation technologies of coal. Besides, other countries that produce large amounts of coal also encounter serious problem of lack of water for coal beneficiation, such as American, Australia, Canada, South Africa, Turkey and India. Thus, dry coal beneficiation becomes the research hot-points in the field of coal cleaning worldwide in recent years. This paper systematically reviewed the promising research efforts on dry coal beneficiation reported in literature in last 5 years and discussed the progress in developments of dry coal beneficiation worldwide. Finally, we also elaborated the prospects and the challenges of the development of dry coal beneficiation.

  18. Microwave-assisted drying of blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) fruits: Drying kinetics, polyphenols, anthocyanins, antioxidant capacity, colour and texture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Michalska, Anna

    2016-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of hot air convective drying (HACD), microwave vacuum drying (MWVD) and their combination (HACD+MWVD) on the drying kinetics, colour, total polyphenols, anthocyanins antioxidant capacity and texture of frozen/thawed blueberries. Drying resulted in reduction of total polyphenols content and antioxidant capacity (69 and 77%, respectively). The highest content of total polyphenols was noted after HACD at 90°C. Lower air temperature and prolonged exposure to oxygen resulted in greater degradation of polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. Drying processes caused a significant decrease (from 70 to 95%) in the content of anthocyanins. The highest content of anthocyanins and the strongest antioxidant capacity was found in blueberries dried using HACD at 90°C+MWVD. Among drying methods, HACD at 90°C+MWVD satisfied significant requirements for dried fruits i.e. short drying time and improved product quality.

  19. Hot-dome anemometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Brian E.

    1998-05-01

    Hot-dome anemometry obtains three components of flow velocity using an array of sensors, specifically five hot films in the present contribution, which are mounted around the hemispherical tip of a cylindrical support. Calibration for speed and angle resembles that of hot wires and split films except that the procedures accommodate heat transfer dominated by forced convection from the surface of a sphere rather than single or multiple cylinders. Measurements are obtained with hot domes, conventional hot wires, and impact probes in the wake of a wing to quantify measurement uncertainties.

  20. Geotechnical Descriptions of Rock and Rock Masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1985-04-01

    weathering is presented by Dornbusch (1982). 39. Mechanical, or physical, weathering of rock occurs primarily by (a) freeze expansion (or frost wedging...34Engineering Classifica- tion of In-Situ Rock," Technical Report No. AFWL-TR-67-144, Air Force Weapons Laboratory, Kirtland Air Force Base, N. Mex. Dornbusch , W

  1. The Rock Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Raman J.; Bushee, Jonathan

    1977-01-01

    Presents a rock cycle diagram suitable for use at the secondary or introductory college levels which separates rocks formed on and below the surface, includes organic materials, and separates products from processes. (SL)

  2. Gafsa rock phosphate and triple superphosphate for dry matter production and P uptake by corn Fosfato de Gafsa e superfosfato triplo na produção de matéria seca e absorção de fósforo pelo milho

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rossini Mattos Corrêa

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available Crops in general make poor use of phosphorous fertilizer and, as a result, recommended rates and production costs are very high. Phosphorus can be made more readily available to plants by proper management of phosphate fertilization, selecting both, type of fertilizer and application method. This study was carried out to evaluate the efficiency of the natural Gafsa rock phosphate and the triple superphosphate on dry matter production and P uptake by corn plants cultivated in a greenhouse. Fertilizers were applied localized and broadcast/incorporated on to two soils with contrasting phosphorus capacity factors (PCF. Rock phosphate broadcast application was as efficient as triple superphosphate in increasing corn plant dry matter in the Tropudult, with lower PCF. This effect was not observed on the Haplustox, owing to the lower P solubility due to the higher Ca concentration in this soil. Triple superphosphate rates increased plant P uptake in both soils and for both application forms. Rock phosphate resulted in higher P-content in plants, but only for broadcast application on the Ultisol.Os fertilizantes fosfatados, de modo geral, apresentam baixa eficiência de utilização pelas culturas. Essa realidade faz com que as doses aplicadas sejam altas, elevando o custo de produção. O aumento da disponibilidade de fósforo para as plantas pode ser obtido mediante o manejo correto da adubação fosfatada, com ênfase na fonte utilizada e no modo de aplicação mais adequado para solos com diferentes capacidades de adsorção do elemento. Avaliou-se a eficiência do fosfato natural de Gafsa e do superfosfato triplo, em amostras de dois solos (Argissolo Amarelo e Latossolo Amarelo com diferentes fatores capacidade de fósforo (FCP, em diferentes doses aplicadas de forma incorporada e localizada, sobre a produção de matéria seca e absorção de fósforo por plantas de milho cultivadas em casa de vegetação. No Argissolo Amarelo (menor FCP o fosfato

  3. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  4. My Pet Rock

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lark, Adam; Kramp, Robyne; Nurnberger-Haag, Julie

    2008-01-01

    Many teachers and students have experienced the classic pet rock experiment in conjunction with a geology unit. A teacher has students bring in a "pet" rock found outside of school, and the students run geologic tests on the rock. The tests include determining relative hardness using Mohs scale, checking for magnetization, and assessing luster.…

  5. An analytical method for determining the temperature dependent moisture diffusivities of pumpkin seeds during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Can, Ahmet [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Trakya, 22030 Edirne (Turkey)

    2007-02-15

    This paper presents an analytical method, which determines the moisture diffusion coefficients for the natural and forced convection hot air drying of pumpkin seeds and their temperature dependence. In order to obtain scientific data, the pumpkin seed drying process was investigated under both natural and forced hot air convection regimes. This paper presents the experimental results in which the drying air was heated by solar energy. (author)

  6. Effect of hot air-pulsed sudden decompression flashing drying on moisture and microstructure in apple slices%热风-脉动压差闪蒸干燥对苹果片水分及微观结构的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王雪媛; 陈芹芹; 毕金峰; 高琨; 周林燕; 吴昕烨; 吕健

    2015-01-01

    该文应用菲克第二定律、采用低场核磁共振及磁共振成像系统(MRI,magnetic resonance imaging)、差示量热扫描、扫描电子显微镜等技术,分析不同预干燥温度对苹果片脉动压差闪蒸干燥过程中水分扩散和微观结构的变化.试验结果显示:随预干燥温度升高,水分扩散速率加快,有效水分扩散系数随温度升高而变大,整体范围在 9.84×10-9~7.24×10-8 m2/s;干燥作用引起水分状态由高自由度向低自由度迁移,自由水含量在干燥初期迅速降低,不易流动水含量先增加后降低;MRI结果表明:苹果鲜样水分集中于中心部位,随干燥进行,水分向外扩散并均匀分布于样品中,含水率的降低,导致图像亮度呈现降低趋势,同时样品表现出向中心收缩的现象;脉动压差闪蒸干燥过程中,含水率与玻璃化转变(Tg)和水分活度(aw)之间表现出极显著相关性(R>0.90,p0.81);水分的散失导致微观结构发生变化,细胞破裂形成空腔,脉动瞬间的真空作用促使苹果片多孔海绵状结构进一步形成,赋予其酥脆口感.该试验可以为苹果片在脉动压差闪蒸干燥方面提供理论依据和技术参考.%Food processing is designed to meet the supply for better shelf life for food and its materials, where pulsed sudden decompression flashing drying (PSDFD) is a kind of new type, environmental protection and not fried fruit and vegetable drying technology that give better quality to products. In this experiment, drying technology of hot air joint PSDFD was adopted. Moreover, on the basis of calculating moisture diffusion coefficient, with the combination technology of low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR), magnetic resonance imaging system (MRI), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and scanning electron microscope (SEM), the effect of different pre-drying temperature on change of water diffusion, water state, glass transition temperature and microstructure was analyzed

  7. Thin layer drying of tomato slices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das Purkayastha, Manashi; Nath, Amit; Deka, Bidyut Chandra; Mahanta, Charu Lata

    2013-08-01

    The hot air convective drying characteristics of blanched tomato (Lycopersicon esculantum L.) slices have been investigated. Drying experiments were carried out at four different temperatures (50, 60, 65 and 70 °C). The effect of drying temperatures on the drying behavior of the tomato slices was evaluated. All drying experiments had only falling rate period. The average effective diffusivity values varied from 0.5453 × 10(-9) to 2.3871 × 10(-9) m(2)/s over the temperature range studied and the activation energy was estimated to be 61.004 kJ/mol. In order to select a suitable form of the drying curve, six different thin layer drying models (Henderson-Pabis, Page, Diamante et al., Wang and Singh, Logarithmic and Newton models) were fitted to the experimental data. The goodness of fit tests indicated that the Logarithmic model gave the best fit to experimental results, which was closely followed by the Henderson-Pabis model. The influence of varied drying temperatures on quality attributes of the tomato slices viz. Hunter color parameters, ascorbic acid, lycopene, titratable acidity, total sugars, reducing sugars and sugar/acid ratio of dried slices was also studied. Slices dried at 50 and 60 °C had high amount of total sugars, lycopene, sugar/acid ratio, Hunter L- and a-values. Drying of slices at 50 °C revealed optimum retention of ascorbic acid, sugar/acid ratio and red hue, whereas, drying at higher temperature (65 and 70 °C) resulted in a considerable decrease in nutrients and colour quality of the slices.

  8. Rock History and Culture

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalez, Éric

    2013-01-01

    Two ambitious works written by French-speaking scholars tackle rock music as a research object, from different but complementary perspectives. Both are a definite must-read for anyone interested in the contextualisation of rock music in western popular culture. In Une histoire musicale du rock (i.e. A Musical History of Rock), rock music is approached from the point of view of the people – musicians and industry – behind the music. Christophe Pirenne endeavours to examine that field from a m...

  9. Evaluation of energy consumption in different drying methods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Motevali, Ali; Minaei, Saeid; Khoshtagaza, Mohammad Hadi [Department of Agricultural Machinery Engineering, Agricultural Faculty, Tarbiat Modares University, Tehran 14115-111 (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2011-02-15

    This study was conducted to evaluate energy consumption in various drying systems including hot-air convection, use of microwave pretreatment with convection dryer, microwave drying, vacuum drying and infrared drying. Tests were conducted using pomegranate arils under various experimental conditions as follows. In convection dryer at six temperature levels (45, 50, 55, 60, 65 and 70 C) and three air velocity levels (0.5, 1 and 1.5 m/s) at three pretreatments of control, 100 W microwave pretreatment for 20 min and 200 W microwave pretreatment for 10 min. Experiments in the microwave dryer were done at three power levels of 100, 200 and 300 W and in vacuum dryer at five temperature levels (50, 60, 70, 80, and 90 C) under 250 kPa pressure. For infrared drying, there were four air velocity levels (0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 m/s) and three illumination levels (0.22, 0.31 and 0.49 W/cm{sup 2}). Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum energy consumption in pomegranate drying were associated with microwave and vacuum dryers, respectively. The use of microwave pretreatment in drying pomegranate arils in hot air dryer decreased drying time and energy consumption in comparison with pure convection drying. In infrared drying, it was found that drying time increased with air velocity which resulted in increased energy consumption. (author)

  10. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Springer, David [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); Dakin, Bill [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States); German, Alea [Alliance for Residential Building Innovation (ARBI), Davis, CA (United States)

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist. To support this activity, in 2013 the Pacific Gas & Electric Company initiated a project with Davis Energy Group (lead for the Building America team, Alliance for Residential Building Innovation) to solicit builder involvement in California to participate in field demonstrations of high performance wall systems. Builders were given incentives and design support in exchange for providing site access for construction observation, cost information, and builder survey feedback. Information from the project was designed to feed into the 2016 Title 24 process, but also to serve as an initial mechanism to engage builders in more high performance construction strategies. This Building America project utilized information collected in the California project.

  11. High-Performance Ducts in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, Marc [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Chitwood, Rick [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); German, Alea [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Weitzel, Elizabeth [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2015-07-30

    Duct thermal losses and air leakage have long been recognized as prime culprits in the degradation of heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system efficiency. Both the U.S. Department of Energy’s Zero Energy Ready Home program and California’s proposed 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards require that ducts be installed within conditioned space or that other measures be taken to provide similar improvements in delivery effectiveness (DE). Pacific Gas & Electric Company commissioned a study to evaluate ducts in conditioned space and high-performance attics (HPAs) in support of the proposed codes and standards enhancements included in California’s 2016 Title 24 Residential Energy Efficiency Standards. The goal was to work with a select group of builders to design and install high-performance duct (HPD) systems, such as ducts in conditioned space (DCS), in one or more of their homes and to obtain test data to verify the improvement in DE compared to standard practice. Davis Energy Group (DEG) helped select the builders and led a team that provided information about HPD strategies to them. DEG also observed the construction process, completed testing, and collected cost data.

  12. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, C.; Aldrich, R.; Arena, L.

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  13. Retrofitting Air Conditioning and Duct Systems in Hot, Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shapiro, Carl [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Aldrich, Robb [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States); Arena, Lois [Consortium for Advanced Residential Buildings (CARB), Norwalk, CT (United States)

    2012-07-01

    This technical report describes CARB's work with Clark County Community Resources Division in Las Vegas, Nevada, to optimize procedures for upgrading cooling systems on existing homes in the area to implement health, safety, and energy improvements. Detailed monitoring of five AC systems showed that three of the five systems met or exceeded air flow rate goals.

  14. High Performance Walls in Hot-Dry Climates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoeschele, M.; Springer, D.; Dakin, B.; German, A.

    2015-01-01

    High performance walls represent a high priority measure for moving the next generation of new homes to the Zero Net Energy performance level. The primary goal in improving wall thermal performance revolves around increasing the wall framing from 2x4 to 2x6, adding more cavity and exterior rigid insulation, achieving insulation installation criteria meeting ENERGY STAR's thermal bypass checklist, and reducing the amount of wood penetrating the wall cavity.

  15. Loss of essential oil of tarragon (Artemisia dranunculus L.) due to drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Padhye, S.; Beek, van T.A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Posthumus, M.A.; Müller, J.

    2006-01-01

    The effect of hot air-drying on the essential oil constituents and yield in French and Russian tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves was studied. The tarragon leaves were dried at air temperatures ranging from 40 to 90 °C. The drying stopped when the moisture content of the samples reached 10%

  16. Heat and Mass Transfer Modeling of Rough Rice Under Convective and Infrared Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Infrared drying of rice can reduce drying time, perform disinfestations and reduce rice fissuring compared to traditional hot air drying method. Fissures in the rice kernels are caused by high moisture content gradients within the kernels. To understand the moisture distributions within a rice ker...

  17. Principles of rock mechanics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turchaninov, I.A.; Iofis, M.A.; Kasparyan, E.V.

    1979-01-01

    This book presents the principles of rock mechanics in a systematic way, reflecting both the historic development and the contemporary status of theoretical and experimental techniques used for the determination of the properties and stress state of rock masses, calculation of elements of systems for exploitation of useful mineral deposits and the design of mine openings. The subject of rock mechanics is discussed and methods and basic approaches are analyzed. The most widely used methods for determining the properties of rock in specimens and in situ are described. Problems of determining the stress strain state of the rock around mine openings by both experimental and analytic methods are discussed. The primary results of the study of the stress state of rock around main, development and production openings are presented. Problems of the movement of rock due to extraction of minerals are analyzed in detail, as are the conditions and causes of the development of rock bursts and sudden release of rock and gas in both surface and underground mines. Procedures for preventing or localizing rock bursts or sudden outbursts are described. (313 refs.)

  18. Modelling strategies for the management of the critically endangered Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) of northern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brook, Barry W; Griffiths, Anthony D; Puckey, Helen L

    2002-08-01

    The Carpentarian rock-rat (Zyzomys palatalis) is a critically endangered endemic rodent known from only four sandstone gorges in the southeast Gulf of Carpentaria, Northern Territory, Australia. These gorges harbour thickets of monsoon rainforest and broadleaf woodland, surrounded by a Eucalypt savanna matrix. The long-term persistence of Z. palatalis is threatened by altered fire regimes, grazing by feral animals and stock, weed intrusion, and the stochastic hazards associated with small, fragmented populations. To assess the relative importance of these threats and develop practical management options, a population and habitat simulation model was developed, based on the best existing data. Population viability was predicted to be highly sensitive to the frequency of hot, late dry-season fires. Progressive habitat degradation (due predominantly to intense late dry-season fires) is likely to substantially reduce population size and lead to the probable extinction of the species within the next 100 years. The most effective management strategy to counteract this threat would be regular, controlled, fuel reduction burns in the vegetation around the gorge entrances during the early dry season. Establishing a new population (through translocation of captive-bred individuals) would not appreciably reduce extinction risk, but could provide valuable additional data on the impact of threats, if conducted as an adaptive management experiment.

  19. Breeding, Characteristics and Cultivation Techniques of New Hot Pepper( Capsicum annuum) Varieties Eating as Fresh and Dry Fruits%干鲜两用型辣椒新品种皖椒18的选育·特征特性·栽培要点

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    江海坤; 张其安; 方凌; 严从生; 王明霞; 王艳; 董言香; 田红梅

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective] The purpose was to supply a theoretical basis for the popularization and cultivation of new hot pepper variety Wanjiao18. [ Method] Through comparing the yield,quality and disease resistance indices of Wanjiao18 with control,the production potential and popularization value of Wanjiao18 were discussed. [Result] The mid-early maturity hot pepper hybrid Wanjiao18 has conical fruit with smooth skin; Its fruit length is 17 -20 cm,fruit shoulder is 1.6 - 1.8 cm; Its fresh weight per fruit is 20 - 25 g,and dry weight per fruit is 3.0 - 4.5 g; Its fruit shape index is 10.9,thickness is 0.23 cm,ventricle number is 2 - 3; Its fresh fruit is dark green,and dry fruit is dull - red and bright. Wan-jiao18 has strong continuous fruit - setting ability,and yield is over 3 × 104 kg/hm2 in general,is significant higher than that of control 8819; Its dry matter content,crude fat content,crude fibre content and total sugar content are all lower than those of control Xiangla2hao,but the red pigment value, VC content and capsaicine content are all higher that those of control Xiangla2hao; As a whole, its quality is superior to control Xian-gla2hao. Wanjiao18 is resistant to virus disease,and is high resistant to anthracnose,phytophthora disease and bacterial wilt,so has strong disease resistance. [Conclusion] Wanjiao18 has characteristics of early maturity,good quality and high yield,is a multiple usages variety as green pepper, red pepper and producing into dry pepper,and is suitable for growing in Anhui,Hunan,Jiangsu and Yunnan and so on,has a good and application future, popularization.%[目的]为辣椒(Capsicum annuum)新品种皖椒18的推广种植提供理论依据.[方法]通过比较皖椒18和对照品种的产量、品质和抗病性等指标,探讨了皖椒18的生产潜力和推广价值.[结果]皖椒18中早熟;果实羊角形,果长17 ~ 20 cm、果肩1.6~1.8 cm;鲜椒单果重20~25 g,干椒单果重3.0~4.5 g;果面光滑,果指10.9,肉厚0

  20. Effects of bioleaching on the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Sheng-Hua; Wu, Ai-Xiang; Wang, Shao-Yong; Ai, Chun-Ming

    2012-01-01

    Bioleaching processes cause dramatic changes in the mechanical and chemical properties of waste rocks, and play an important role in metal recovery and dump stability. This study focused on the characteristics of waste rocks subjected to bioleaching. A series of experiments were conducted to investigate the evolution of rock properties during the bioleaching process. Mechanical behaviors of the leached waste rocks, such as failure patterns, normal stress, shear strength, and cohesion were determined through mechanical tests. The results of SEM imaging show considerable differences in the surface morphology of leached rocks located at different parts of the dump. The mineralogical content of the leached rocks reflects the extent of dissolution and precipitation during bioleaching. The dump porosity and rock size change under the effect of dissolution, precipitation, and clay transportation. The particle size of the leached rocks decreased due to the loss of rock integrity and the conversion of dry precipitation into fine particles.

  1. Study on Wood Drying Properties under Vacuum-floating Pressure

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANGBiguang; YISonghn; CHANGJianmin; LIXianjun

    2004-01-01

    Using Masson pine as specimens, when drying mediums are overheated steam and hot-air respectively, preheating characteristics of wood under vacuum-floating pressure drying are discussed by measurement of internal temperature field and variation of moisture content during period of preheating. The relationship between drying medium conditions and drying rate of wood reveals that, firstly, compared with process of air-drying, time needed to be preheated under vacuum-floating decreased dramatically, meanwhile,the magnitude of condensation on the surface is relatively larger. Secondly, drying rate of wood under vacuum-floating pressure increases coupled with temperature of medium, reduction of absolute pressure,and raise of fluctuation rate of pressure. The sequence of factors contribution to drying rate is listed as following: temperature of medium (t) > fluctuation rate of pressure (f)> absolute pressure (p).

  2. Geothermal Exploration in Hot Springs, Montana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toby McIntosh, Jackola Engineering

    2012-09-26

    The project involves drilling deeper in the Camp Aqua well dri lled in June 1982 as part of an effort to develop an ethanol plant. The purpose of the current drill ing effort is to determine if water at or above 165°F exists for the use in low temperature resource power generation. Previous geothermal resource study efforts in and around Hot Springs , MT and the Camp Aqua area (NE of Hot Springs) have been conducted through the years. A confined gravel aquifer exists in deep alluvium overlain by approximately 250 of si lt and c lay deposits from Glacial Lake Missoula. This gravel aquifer overlies a deeper bedrock aquifer. In the Camp Aqua area several wel l s exist in the gravel aquifer which receives hot water f rom bedrock fractures beneath the area. Prior to this exploration, one known well in the Camp Aqua area penetrated into the bedrock without success in intersecting fractures transporting hot geothermal water. The exploration associated with this project adds to the physical knowledge database of the Camp Aqua area. The dri l l ing effort provides additional subsurface information that can be used to gain a better understanding of the bedrock formation that i s leaking hot geothermal water into an otherwise cold water aquifer. The exi s t ing well used for the explorat ion is located within the center of the hottest water within the gravel aquifer. This lent i t sel f as a logical and economical location to continue the exploration within the existing well. Faced with budget constraints due to unanticipated costs, changing dril l ing techniques stretched the limited project resources to maximize the overa l l well depth which f e l l short of original project goals. The project goal of finding 165°F or hotter water was not achieved; however the project provides additional information and understanding of the Camp Aqua area that could prove valuable in future exploration efforts

  3. Soft rocks in Argentina

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Giambastiani; Mauricio

    2014-01-01

    Soft rocks are a still fairly unexplored chapter in rock mechanics. Within this category are the clastic sedimentary rocks and pyroclastic volcanic rocks, of low to moderate lithification (consolidation, cemen-tation, new formed minerals), chemical sedimentary rocks and metamorphic rocks formed by minerals with Mohs hardness less than 3.5, such as limestone, gypsum, halite, sylvite, between the first and phyllites, graphitic schist, chloritic shale, talc, etc., among the latter. They also include any type of rock that suffered alteration processes (hydrothermal or weathering). In Argentina the study of low-strength rocks has not received much attention despite having extensive outcrops in the Andes and great impact in the design criteria. Correlation between geomechanical properties (UCS, deformability) to physical index (porosity, density, etc.) has shown promising results to be better studied. There are many studies and engineering projects in Argentina in soft rock geological environments, some cited in the text (Chihuído dam, N. Kirchner dam, J. Cepernic Dam, etc.) and others such as International Tunnel in the Province of Mendoza (Corredor Bioceánico), which will require the valuable contribution from rock mechanics. The lack of consistency between some of the physical and mechanical parameters explored from studies in the country may be due to an insufficient amount of information and/or non-standardization of criteria for testing materials. It is understood that more and better academic and professional efforts in improv-ing techniques will result in benefits to the better understanding of the geomechanics of weak rocks.

  4. Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (ACL) procedure compendium. Volume 7, Safety operation procedure for hot cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-08-01

    This volume contains the interim change notice for the safety operation procedure for hot cell. It covers the master-slave manipulators, dry waste removal, cell transfers, hoists, cask handling, liquid waste system, and physical characterization of fluids.

  5. Controlling mechanisms of moisture diffusion in convective drying of leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmakhlouf, Naima; Azzouz, Soufien; Monzó-Cabrera, Juan; Khdhira, Hechmi; ELCafsi, Afif

    2017-04-01

    Leather manufacturing involves a crucial energy-intensive drying stage in the finishing process to remove its residual moisture. It occurs several times in the tanning course. As it is the target of this paper to depict an experimental way to determine moisture diffusion in the convective drying of leather. The effective diffusion coefficient is estimated by a method derived from Fick's law and by analytic method. The effective diffusion coefficients are obtained from drying tests and the diffusivity behaviour is studied versus the controlling parameter such as the convective airflow temperature. The experiments were conducted at hot air temperatures of 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C and hot air speed of 1 m/s. The hot air temperature had significant effect on the effective moisture diffusivity of the leather sample. The average effective moisture diffusivity in rosehip ranged between 5.87 × 10-11 and 14.48 × 10-11 m2/s for leather at the temperatures studied. Activation energy for convective drying was found to be 38.46 kJ/mol for leather. The obtained results fully confirm the theoretical study in which an exponentially increasing relationship between effective diffusivity and temperature is predicted. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the drying mechanisms and may lead to a series of recommendations for leather drying optimization. It opens the possibility for further investigations on the description of drying conditions.

  6. Controlling mechanisms of moisture diffusion in convective drying of leather

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benmakhlouf, Naima; Azzouz, Soufien; Monzó-Cabrera, Juan; Khdhira, Hechmi; ELCafsi, Afif

    2016-08-01

    Leather manufacturing involves a crucial energy-intensive drying stage in the finishing process to remove its residual moisture. It occurs several times in the tanning course. As it is the target of this paper to depict an experimental way to determine moisture diffusion in the convective drying of leather. The effective diffusion coefficient is estimated by a method derived from Fick's law and by analytic method. The effective diffusion coefficients are obtained from drying tests and the diffusivity behaviour is studied versus the controlling parameter such as the convective airflow temperature. The experiments were conducted at hot air temperatures of 40, 45, 50, 55 and 60 °C and hot air speed of 1 m/s. The hot air temperature had significant effect on the effective moisture diffusivity of the leather sample. The average effective moisture diffusivity in rosehip ranged between 5.87 × 10-11 and 14.48 × 10-11 m2/s for leather at the temperatures studied. Activation energy for convective drying was found to be 38.46 kJ/mol for leather. The obtained results fully confirm the theoretical study in which an exponentially increasing relationship between effective diffusivity and temperature is predicted. The results of this study provide a better understanding of the drying mechanisms and may lead to a series of recommendations for leather drying optimization. It opens the possibility for further investigations on the description of drying conditions.

  7. Rock Cycle Roulette.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmidt, Stan M.; Palmer, Courtney

    2000-01-01

    Introduces an activity on the rock cycle. Sets 11 stages representing the transitions of an earth material in the rock cycle. Builds six-sided die for each station, and students move to the stations depending on the rolling side of the die. Evaluates students by discussing several questions in the classroom. Provides instructional information for…

  8. Benefit Analysis of Acacia suma Mixed Forest with Eucalyptus camaldulensis in Yuanmou Dry-Hot Valley%元谋干热河谷苏门答腊金合欢×赤桉混交林的效益分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    路卫华

    2015-01-01

    .In addition,the mixed forest model had a high degree of stability and realization of natural regeneration.The suggests that in the dry-hot valley areas popu-larization of Acacia suma mixed forests not only provide firewood,and non-timber products,and also has important practical significance for vegetation restoration,reconstruction.

  9. Hot plasma dielectric tensor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Westerhof, E.

    1996-01-01

    The hot plasma dielectric tensor is discussed in its various approximations. Collisionless cyclotron resonant damping and ion/electron Bernstein waves are discussed to exemplify the significance of a kinetic description of plasma waves.

  10. The release of organic compounds during biomass drying depends upon the feedstock and/or altering drying heating medium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rupar, K.; Sanati, M. [Vaxjo University (Sweden). School of Biosciences and Process Technology

    2003-12-01

    The release of organic compounds during the drying of biomass is a potential environmental problem, it may contribute to air pollution or eutrophication. In many countries there are legal restrictions on the amounts of terpenes that may be released into the atmosphere. When considering bioenergy in future energy systems, it is important that information on the environmental effects is available. The emissions of organic compounds from different green and dried biofuels that have been dried in hot air and steam medium, were analyzed by using different techniques. Gas chromatography and gas chromatography mass spectrometry have been used to identify the organic matter. The terpene content was significantly affected by the following factors: changing of the drying medium and the way the same biomass was handled from different localities in Sweden. Comparison between spectra from dried and green fuels reveal that the main compounds emitted during drying are monoterpene and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons, while the emissions of diterpene hydrocarbons seem to be negligible. The relative proportionality between emitted monoterpene, diterpene and sesquiterpene change when the drying medium shifts from steam to hot air. The obtained result of this work implies a parameter optimization study of the dryer with regard to environmental impact. With assistance of this result it might be foreseen that choice of special drying medium, diversity of biomass and low temperature reduce the emissions. A thermo-gravimetric analyzer was used for investigating the biomass drying rate. (author)

  11. Computer-Controlled Microwave Drying of Potentially Difficult Organic and Inorganic Soils

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    known to have a saturated, surface dry water content of about 3 percent and then subjecting the material to microwave drying. The gravels were...surface dry water content) of some coarse aggregate of chert, limestone, basalt, and quartz. Clay, at the other extreme, can exist at water contents...excluding such oversize particles from microwave water content specimens. c. The saturated surface dry water content of many rock or gravel particles has an

  12. The analysis of thermal calculation for air stove drying system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Xue

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the existing calculation of heat for a coal-fired hot-blast furnace. By utilizing the standard method of heat calculation for boilers, considering the relation between the theoretical combustion temperature and the excess air coefficient of the boiler, combining some operational parameters of a coal-fired powder hot-blast furnace, the heat calculation of iron ore concentrating dry combustion on a coal-fired hot stove is discussed. It is used to prevent coke and optimize combustion. It also discusses the advantages and disadvantages of flue gas recirculation systems. The conclusion will show the practical applications of this.

  13. Influence of Rock Mineralogy on Subsurface Water in Ado-Ekiti ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nekky Umera

    Abstract. Sudden geometric increase in population of Ado-Ekiti has lead to an increase in ... chemical interference from the geology of the environment (rock type). ... characteristic reduction in volume or total dry up in case of extreme drought.

  14. Effect of pretreatment and drying methods on quality of value-added dried aonla (Emblica officinalis Gaertn) shreds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prajapati, V K; Nema, Prabhat K; Rathore, S S

    2011-02-01

    Value added dried Indian gooseberry (aonla) shreds were prepared using aonla fruits of cv. 'NA-7'. Two blanching methods (hot water and potassium metabisulphite (KMS) at 0.1%) and two drying methods (solar and hot air oven drying) were tried for the production of aonla shreds. Common salt, black salt and ginger juice were mixed for enhancing sensory quality of the product. The best product was obtained with KMS blanching and drying in solar dryer with added common salt at 3%. The most acceptable product had ascorbic acid content 298.3 mg/100 g, tannin 2.4%, acidity 2.6%, reducing sugar 3.0%, non-reducing sugar 21.0% and total sugar 24.0%. The recovery was 8.0-8.5%.

  15. CRITERIA FOR ROCK ENGINEERING FAILURE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHUDeren; ZHANGYuzhuo

    1995-01-01

    A great number of underground rock projects are maintained in the rock mass which is subject to rock damage and failure development. In many cases, the rock. engineering is still under normal working conditions even though rock is already fails to some extent. This paper introduces two different concepts: rock failure and rock engineering failure. Rock failure is defined as a mechanical state under which an applicable characteristic is changed or lost.However, the rock engineering failure is an engineering state under which an applicable function is changed or lost. The failure of surrounding rocks is the major reason of rock engineering failure. The criterion of rock engineering failure depends on the limit of applicable functions. The rock engineering failure state possesses a corresponding point in rock failure state. In this paper, a description of rock engineering failure criterion is given by simply using a mechanical equation or expression. It is expected that the study of rock engineering failure criterion will be an optimal approach that combines research of rock mechanics with rock engineering problems.

  16. Energy Efficient Textile Drying

    OpenAIRE

    Brunzell, Lena

    2006-01-01

    Traditionally, textiles were dried outdoors with the wind and the sun enhancing the drying process. Tumble dryers offer a fast and convenient way of drying textiles independent of weather conditions. Tumble dryers, however, consume large amounts of electrical energy. Over 4 million tumble dryers are sold each year in Europe and a considerable amount of energy is used for drying of clothes. Increasing energy costs and the awareness about environmental problems related to a large energy use has...

  17. Seismological investigation of crack formation in hydraulic rock fracturing experiments and in natural geothermal environments. Progress report, September 1, 1978-August 31, 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aki, K.

    1979-09-01

    An interpretation theory based on the fluid-filled crack model of geothermal systems is being developed and tested against a variety of data from various geothermal areas. Progress is reported on the following subjects: (1) analysis and interpretation of seismic data obtained from the bore holes at the LASL Hot Dry Rock geothermal site. (2) Collection, analysis and interpretation of data on deep volcanic tremors at the USGS Hawaii Volcano Observatory. (3) Development of a new method for determining seismic attenuation at frequencies higher than 1HZ, and initiation of a cooperative work with Mexican seismologists on the attenuation measurements at various geothermal areas in Baja, California using the method. (4) Installation of 3-component digital event-recorders at four stations in the Newberry Peak volcano, Oregon. (5) Developing a computer program for calculating seismic motion generated by the vibration of fluid-filled crack in a layered medium.

  18. Days of Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YUAN

    2004-01-01

    FROM last October 1 st to 3rd, at the foot of Fragrant Hill, a suburban Beijing resort famous for its flaming maple leaves in autumn, more than 20,000 rock fans indulged themselves in music for three days.

  19. Writing Rock Music Reviews.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Donal

    1980-01-01

    Suggests ways student reviewers of rock music groups can write better reviews. Among the suggestions made are that reviewers occasionally discuss the audience or what makes a particular group unique, support general comment with detail, and avoid ecstatic adjectives. (TJ)

  20. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  1. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed totake the breath away from visitors. The areahas another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  2. Rock kinoekraanil / Katrin Rajasaare

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Rajasaare, Katrin

    2008-01-01

    7.-11. juulini kinos Sõprus toimuval filminädalal "Rock On Screen" ekraanile jõudvatest rockmuusikuid portreteerivatest filmidest "Lou Reed's Berlin", "The Future Is Unwritten: Joe Strummer", "Control: Joy Division", "Hurriganes", "Shlaager"

  3. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  4. Pop & rock / Berk Vaher

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Vaher, Berk, 1975-

    2001-01-01

    Uute heliplaatide Redman "Malpractice", Brian Eno & Peter Schwalm "Popstars", Clawfinger "A Whole Lot of Nothing", Dario G "In Full Color", MLTR e. Michael Learns To Rock "Blue Night" lühitutvustused

  5. Art on Rock

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HU YUE

    2010-01-01

    @@ With sprawling deserts and serene lakes, the natural wonders of Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region have never failed to take the breath away from visitors. The area has another major attraction, though: the Helan Mountain rock engravings.

  6. Rock avalanches on glaciers

    OpenAIRE

    Shugar, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    This thesis examines relations between rock avalanches and the glaciers on which they are deposited. I have attempted to understand a geophysical phenomenon from two viewpoints: sedimentology and glaciology. The contributions are both methodological, and practical. I have used a GIS to quantify debris sheet geomorphology. A thorough characterization of rock avalanche debris is a necessary step in understanding the flow mechanics of large landslide. I have also developed a technique for solvin...

  7. Evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a rock association level

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, V. G.

    2017-07-01

    The evolution of sedimentary rock formation of a highly organized level (paragenetic rock associations) is more complex than that of a poorly organized level (rocks). Subjacent rock associations are established for the entire geological evolution of the Earth: they varied in time and were obsolescent or, in contrast, nascent and momentary. A certain cyclicity of evolution is identified along with directed changes.

  8. The Delft Sand, Clay and Rock Cutting Model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miedema, S.A.

    2014-01-01

    Sand, clay and rock have to be excavated for a variety of purposes, such as dredging, trenching, mining (including deep sea mining), drilling, tunnel boring and many other applications. Many excavations take place on dry land, but they are also frequently required in completely saturated conditions,

  9. Preliminary review of Precambrian Shield rocks for potential waste repository

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yardley, D.H.; Goldich, S.S.

    1975-11-01

    This review of the Canadian Shield is primarily concerned with the part (such as in the Lake Superior region) that is seismically the least active of the North American continent. The crystalline metamorphic and igneous rocks of the more stable elements of the shield provide excellent possibilities for dry excavations suitable for long-term storage of radioactive waste materials. (DLC)

  10. Experimental Investigation on Creep Deformation Behavior of Medium-strength Marble Rock

    OpenAIRE

    Li Yong; Zhu Weishen; Li Shucai

    2014-01-01

    The creep deformation behavior of rocks has significant effect on the stability of underground structures. This study presents the short-term and creep deformation behavior of medium-strength marble rock using a conventional uniaxial compression testing machine and a servo-controlled rheology testing machine. The uniaxial compressive strength is obtained by the uniaxial compression testing machine. During the creep behavior test, two types of rock specimens (dry and water-saturated) are speci...

  11. Effects of superheated steam on the drying of rubberwood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanokwan Buaphud

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Rubberwood drying is the most time and energy consuming step in the processing of wood product. This research studied the effect of superheated steam drying on the drying time required and the physical and mechanical properties of rubberwood after drying. In this study, a cylindrical drying chamber with a length of 1.2 m and a diameter of 0.5 m was constructed and injected with superheated steam. The dimensions of the wood lumber were 1 m × 7.62 cm × 2.54 cm. The wood samples were impinged with alternating cycles of superheated steam and hot air at ratios of 6:1, 4:1 and 1:6 hours until the moisture content was less than 15% dry basis. The conditions inside the chamber were 110ºC and ambient pressure. Continuous superheated steam and continuous hot air were also used for comparisons. The drying rate and the temperature profile for each process were determined.Initial acceptability of the dried wood was conducted using the prong test and visual inspection. Results showed that if the drying rate was too fast, the dried wood did not pass the prong test due to stress buildup. Therefore, an optimum drying condition was developed based on minimizing defects and reducing the drying time. For the optimum condition, the following schedule was carried out: (1 saturated steam at 100ºC was used during the first 4 hours of drying to prevent the wood surface from drying too quickly which would minimize the moisture gradient between the center and wood surface, (2 superheated steam at 105ºC and 110ºC was used in alternating cycle with hot air (80ºC during the main drying stages to rapidly remove the free water and majority of the bound water inside the wood, and (3 hot air was used continuously during the final stages of drying to reduce the relative humidity inside the chamber making it possible for the removal of the residual bound water. This process successfully reduced the drying time to less than 2 days without causing any defects which compared

  12. Study of the microwave vacuum drying process for a granulated product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. N. Berteli

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this work were to study and evaluate the process of drying a pharmaceutical granule from 21% to 3 % (d.b. moisture, also determining the power absorbed by the product, using a microwave assisted vacuum dryer with two absolute pressures: 50 and 75 mbar. A specific objective was to compare the drying kinetics of the microwave assisted vacuum process (MAVP with two other drying processes, one using hot air convection and the other combining microwaves with hot air convection. The results of such a study showed that the drying kinetics were not affected by the vacuum levels, whereas the absorbed microwave power was higher for smaller vacuum levels. It was also observed that the samples obtained by the microwave assisted vacuum process, when submitted to compression, complied with the required specifications. The drying kinetics of the MAVP showed the shortest drying times when compared to the other drying processes.

  13. Weathering of rock 'Ginger'

    Science.gov (United States)

    1997-01-01

    One of the more unusual rocks at the site is Ginger, located southeast of the lander. Parts of it have the reddest color of any material in view, whereas its rounded lobes are gray and relatively unweathered. These color differences are brought out in the inset, enhanced at the upper right. In the false color image at the lower right, the shape of the visible-wavelength spectrum (related to the abundance of weathered ferric iron minerals) is indicated by the hue of the rocks. Blue indicates relatively unweathered rocks. Typical soils and drift, which are heavily weathered, are shown in green and flesh tones. The very red color in the creases in the rock surface correspond to a crust of ferric minerals. The origin of the rock is uncertain; the ferric crust may have grown underneath the rock, or it may cement pebbles together into a conglomerate. Ginger will be a target of future super-resolution studies to better constrain its origin.Mars Pathfinder is the second in NASA's Discovery program of low-cost spacecraft with highly focused science goals. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA, developed and manages the Mars Pathfinder mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, D.C. The Imager for Mars Pathfinder (IMP) was developed by the University of Arizona Lunar and Planetary Laboratory under contract to JPL. Peter Smith is the Principal Investigator. JPL is an operating division of the California Institute of Technology (Caltech).

  14. IR Hot Wave

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Graham, T. B.

    2010-04-01

    The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace is a breakthrough heat treatment system for manufacturing metal components. Near-infrared (IR) radiant energy combines with IR convective heating for heat treating. Heat treatment is an essential process in the manufacture of most components. The controlled heating and cooling of a metal or metal alloy alters its physical, mechanical, and sometimes chemical properties without changing the object's shape. The IR Hot Wave{trademark} furnace offers the simplest, quickest, most efficient, and cost-effective heat treatment option for metals and metal alloys. Compared with other heat treatment alternatives, the IR Hot Wave{trademark} system: (1) is 3 to 15 times faster; (2) is 2 to 3 times more energy efficient; (3) is 20% to 50% more cost-effective; (4) has a {+-}1 C thermal profile compared to a {+-}10 C thermal profile for conventional gas furnaces; and (5) has a 25% to 50% smaller footprint.

  15. Hot Air Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Stouffs

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Invented in 1816, the hot-air engines have known significant commercial success in the nineteenth century, before falling into disuse. Nowadays they enjoy a renewed interest for some specific applications. The "hot-air engines" family is made up of two groups: Stirling engines and Ericsson engines. The operating principle of Stirling and Ericsson engines, their troubled history, their advantages and their niche applications are briefly presented, especially in the field of micro-combined heat and power, solar energy conversion and biomass energy conversion. The design of an open cycle Ericsson engine for solar application is proposed. A first prototype of the hot part of the engine has been built and tested. Experimental results are presented.

  16. A new assessment of combined geothermal electric generation and desalination in western Saudi Arabia: targeted hot spot development

    KAUST Repository

    Missimer, Thomas M.

    2014-07-17

    High heat flow associated with the tectonic spreading of the Red Sea make western Saudi Arabia a region with high potential for geothermal energy development. The hydraulic properties of the Precambrian-age rocks occurring in this region are not conducive to direct production of hot water for heat exchange, which will necessitate use of the hot dry rock (HDR) heat harvesting method. This would require the construction of coupled deep wells; one for water injection and the other for steam recovery. There are some technological challenges in the design, construction, and operation of HDR geothermal energy systems. Careful geotechnical evaluation of the heat reservoir must be conducted to ascertain the geothermal gradient at the chosen site to allow pre-design modeling of the system for assessment of operational heat flow maintenance. Also, naturally occurring fractures or faults must be carefully evaluated to make an assessment of the potential for induced seismicity. It is anticipated that the flow heat exchange capacity of the system will require enhancement by the use of horizontal drilling and hydraulic fracturing in the injection well with the production well drilled into the fracture zone to maximum water recovery efficiency and reduce operating pressure. The heated water must be maintained under pressure and flashed to steam at surface to produce to the most effective energy recovery. Most past evaluations of geothermal energy development in this region have been focused on the potential for solely electricity generation, but direct use of produced steam could be coupled with thermally driven desalination technologies such as multi-effect distillation, adsorption desalination, and/or membrane distillation to provide a continuous source of heat to allow very efficient operation of the plants. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  17. Dry vacuum pumps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibuet, R.

    2008-05-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R&D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed.

  18. Study on vitamin D₂ stability in dried mushrooms during drying and storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sławińska, Aneta; Fornal, Emilia; Radzki, Wojciech; Skrzypczak, Katarzyna; Zalewska-Korona, Marta; Michalak-Majewska, Monika; Parfieniuk, Ewa; Stachniuk, Anna

    2016-05-15

    The main objective of this work was to determine the stability of vitamin D2 in dried mushrooms Agaricus bisporus, Pleurotus ostreatus and Lentinula edodes during storage, as well as to examine the possibility of inducing vitamin D2 production in dried mushrooms by UVB irradiation. After 1.5 year storage of dried mushrooms, the level of vitamin D2 in button mushrooms was found to be 6.90 μg/g dw, which is a 48.32% of initial level of vitamin D2. In the case of dried oyster and shiitake mushrooms there was a decrease to the level of 66.90% and 68.40%, respectively. It was determined that dried mushrooms can produce ergocalciferol under UVB irradiation. The highest content of vitamin D2 was observed in A. bisporus. Freeze-dried A. bisporus contained from 42.08 to 119.21 μg/g dw and hot-air dried mushrooms contained from 21.51 to 81.17 μg/g dw vitamin D2.

  19. Effect of Steam Blanching and Drying on Phenolic Compounds of Litchi Pericarp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kessy, Honest N E; Hu, Zhuoyan; Zhao, Lei; Zhou, Molin

    2016-06-03

    The effects of different treatment methods on the stability and antioxidant capacity of the bioactive phenolic compounds of litchi pericarps were investigated. Fresh litchi pericarps were open air-dried, steam-blanched for 3 min in combination with hot air oven drying at 60 and 80 °C, and unblanched pericarps were dried in a hot air oven at 40, 60, 70 and 80 °C until equilibrium weight was reached. The total phenolic compounds, flavonoids, anthocyanins, proanthocyanidins and individual procyanidins, and antioxidant activity were analyzed. The combination of blanching and drying at 60 °C significantly (p phenolic compounds, individual procyanidins, and the extracts' antioxidant capacity compared with the unblanched hot air oven-dried and open air-dried pericarps. Drying of fresh unblanched litchi pericarps in either open air or a hot air oven caused significant losses (p phenolic compounds and individual procyanidins, leading to a reduction in the antioxidant activity. A similar increase, retention or reduction was reflected in flavonoids, proanthocyanidins and anthocyanins because they are sub-groups of phenolic compounds. Ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) and 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryldydrazyl (DPPH) radical-scavenging capacity of the treated pericarps were significantly correlated (r ≥ 0.927, p phenolic compounds. Thus, the combination of steam blanching and drying treatments of fresh litchi pericarps could produce a stable and dry litchi pericarp that maintains phenolic compounds and antioxidant capacity as a raw material for further recovery of the phytochemicals.

  20. Investigation of some pretreatments on energy and specific energy consumption drying of black mulberry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adabi Esmaeili Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Massive consumption of energy in drying industry makes it a matter of challenge regarding economical aspects and limited recourses. Several methods for drying including hot air convection, vacuum, infrared and hot air convection-infrared technologies were applied in order to estimate the consumed energy during the drying of mulberry fruit. Moreover, microwave heating, chemical (ethyl oleate and potassium, mechanical (ultrasonic and blanching (hot water pretreatments were compared. According to the Results, maximum energy consumption was recorded when no pretreatment was performed. Microwave heating in the hot air convection-infrared dryer resulted in the lowest consumption of energy. Total energy requirement decreased with the temperature in the convection dryer res. Conversely, energy increased with air velocity. The vacuum dryer consumed the highest amount of energy which was measured to be 46.95 kWh while the lowest energy was recorded with using infrared-convective dryers. Also Experimental results showed that minimum and maximum specific energy consumption in the drying of black mulberry were associated with microwave pretreatment in IR-hot air dryer and control treatment in vacuum dryer, respectively. The minimum color change (ΔE for drying of black mulberry was found in microwave pretreated samples dried with the vacuum dryer, yet maximum ΔE was observed in hot air dryer when no pretreatment was applied.

  1. Laboratory experiments for defining scaling relations between rock material properties and rock resistance to erosion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklar, L. S.; Beyeler, J. D.; Collins, G. C.; Farrow, J. W.; Hsu, L.; Litwin, K. L.; Polito, P. J.

    2012-12-01

    Rock resistance to erosion is a key variable that limits rates of morphologic change and mass flux in landscapes. However, we have limited knowledge of how measurable material properties influence rock resistance to specific erosion processes. Rock 'erodibility' is commonly a free parameter in surface process models, where users assign or solve for numerical values that lack meaning outside of the model. Moreover, erodibility parameters often lump material resistance to erosion together with aspects of the forces driving erosion that are not explicitly represented in the model. Laboratory experiments in which rock types are varied, while erosive forces are held constant, can be used to develop scaling relationships between rock properties and erosion resistance for individual detachment mechanisms. With knowledge of why erosion rates vary between rock types for constant erosive forces, laboratory and field experiments that vary erosive intensity can be used to quantify the absolute susceptibility to erosion in physically explicit terms. Here we synthesize data collected over the past decade from a suite of laboratory investigations of rock resistance to wear by sediment particle impacts, and wear of sediment particles themselves, in experiments replicating fluvial and granular flow conditions. Materials tested included: field-sampled bedrock and sediment covering the widest feasible range of apparent durability and lithologic type; synthetic sandstones made from mixtures of sand and Portland cement; and water ice, both pure and containing solid impurities, tested over a wide range of temperatures. Material properties measured included: dry-bulk and saturated density, porosity, tensile strength, fracture toughness, elastic moduli, mineralogy, cement type, and the grain size of mineral crystals and cemented clasts. Erosion rates were measured by mass or volume loss divided by run time, in bedrock abrasion mills, barrel tumblers, and a large rotating drum. We find

  2. Economic analysis of wind-powered crop drying. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garling, W.S.; Harper, M.R.; Merchant-Geuder, L.; Welch, M.

    1980-03-01

    Potential applications of wind energy include not only large central turbines that can be utilized by utilities, but also dispersed systems for farms and other applications. The US Departments of Energy (DOE) and Agriculture (USDA) currently are establishing the feasibility of wind energy use in applications where the energy can be used as available, or stored in a simple form. These applications include production of hot water for rural sanitation, heating and cooling of rural structures and products, drying agricultural products, and irrigation. This study, funded by USDA, analyzed the economic feasibility of wind power in crop drying. Drying of corn, soybeans, rice, peanuts, tobacco, and dehydrated alfalfa were addressed.

  3. Ultrasonic Hot Embossing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Werner Karl Schomburg

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Ultrasonic hot embossing is a new process for fast and low-cost production of micro systems from polymer. Investment costs are on the order of 20.000 € and cycle times are a few seconds. Microstructures are fabricated on polymer foils and can be combined to three-dimensional systems by ultrasonic welding.

  4. What's Hot? What's Not?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buczynski, Sandy

    2006-01-01

    When Goldilocks finds three bowls of porridge at different temperatures in the three bears' house, she accurately assesses the situation and comes up with one of the most recognizable lines in children's literature," This porridge is too hot; this porridge is too cold; aahh, this porridge is just right!" Goldilocks' famous line is a perfect…

  5. Hot house bad house

    OpenAIRE

    Azzopardi, Shaun

    2014-01-01

    Shaun Azzopardi met up with a team of researchers led by Eur. Ing. Charles Yousif to take the concrete block to the next level. It is more exciting than it sounds. Photography by Dr Edward Duca. http://www.um.edu.mt/think/hot-house-bad-house/

  6. Fending Off Hot Money

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Amid uncertainties about the amount of hot money,the government strives to curb the harmful capital The benchmark Shanghai Composite Index was plagued by dips, climbs and dives as the stock market slumped from 3,186 to 2,838 points

  7. 干热河谷20年生2种人工恢复植被个体生长特性研究%Individual growth characteristics of two tree species after 20 years of ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley of southwestern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 唐国勇; 李昆; 高成杰; 刘方炎; 王小菲

    2013-01-01

    The growth characteristics of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehuh and Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. ) Dewit in the monocultures and their mixed-species plantations in the Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley of southwestern China were investigated by a stem analysis. The results showed that all the DBH, height and volume of timber of E. camaldulensis in the mixed-species plantations grew faster than those in monoculture. The average increment and current annual increment of height of both the species declined. DBH of the two species declined during 5-10 years but increased during 10-15 years beside E. camaldulensis in the mixed-species plantations, and then all decreased. The changing rates of Logistic growth curve could scale 5-10, 10-25, and > 25 years as the early growth period, rapid growth period and stationary growth stage, respectively. Based on this model, E. camaldulensis in the monoculture and mixed-species plantations will obtain the quantitative maturity at the 23 years and 25 years after the trees were planted, respectively, and both the 24 years for L. leucocephala in the monoculture and mixed-species plantations. Some management measures such as thinning and increasing water and fertilizer supply in the early and rapid growth period were recommended based on this study.%以元谋干热河谷20年生赤桉纯林、新银合欢纯林以及赤桉×新银合欢混交林为研究对象,对其林木单株进行树干解析,研究不同造林模式下2个树种的生长特性.结果表明:1)新银合欢的混植促进了赤桉的生长.2)赤桉、新银合欢树高平均生长量和连年生长量总体均呈下降趋势,胸径的平均生长量和连年生长量在5 ~10年呈下降趋势,在10 ~ 15年期间呈上升趋势(除混交林内赤桉),之后又下降.3)根据Logistic生长曲线的变化率,可将赤桉、新银合欢5 ~10年划分为生长初期,10 ~ 25年为生长快速期,之后为生长稳定期;经模型预测:赤桉纯林在23年时达到

  8. Thermal Waters in Maguarichi, Chihuahua, Mexico: Influence on Volcanic Rocks Alteration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mascote, C. R.; Espejel-Garcia, V. V.; Villalobos-Aragon, A.

    2013-05-01

    Piedras de Lumbre, Maguarichi, is located 294 km. to the SW of Chihuahua city, in northern Mexico, in the Sierra Madre Occidental (SMO). The study area is composed of a set of igneous volcanic rocks affected by hydrothermal flows, which apparently run along a fault. Outcrops of hot springs, going out with high pressure, are active all over the year and have no seasonal flow changes. The hydrothermal flows, approximately 20, that reach the surface area at Piedras de Lumbre, are altering the volcanic rocks that surround the hot springs. The study area is highly altered, and evidenced by a variety range of colors in the rock surfaces. The rock samples collected at the region show a crystal growth due to the influence of the salts from the thermal water. The rocks closest to the water openings have a change in its mineralogy, with the mafic minerals, present in andesites, been replaced by carbonates and sulfates, leaving only the clear mineral pseudomorphs. On the crust of the rocks a white layer of material (salts), product of the thermal waters has precipitated. The alteration is perceived only about 5 m. or less around the hot springs. The water, which has high contents of arsenic and sulfates has exerted a strong alteration in rhyolitic and andesitic rocks.

  9. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  10. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  11. Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-09-30

    Dynamics: Vietnam DRI Robert Pinkel Marine Physical Laboratory Scripps Institution of Oceanography La Jolla California 92093-0213 Phone: (858) 534...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Ocean Dynamics: Vietnam DRI 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM...cycle.. The Thorpe-scale estimates are local to Site III. South China Sea Process Cruise 2014 Under Vietnam DRI funding, Researcher Drew Lucas

  12. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  13. Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) is one of the largest hot cells dedicated to radioactive materials research at Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The nation's...

  14. RESEARCHING AND CREATION OF A DEVICE FOR DRYING CHICKEN MANURE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marchenko A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In this article the authors have proposed a process and arrangement for recycling in the poultry farms of the Krasnodar region of chicken manure and release of mineral fertilizers, аs well as the analysis of existing Russian technologies and devices for drying chicken manure. The study proposed a technology and apparatus for drying chicken manure to not only provide a significant deal of capital investments, but also cut energy costs by the proposed method and apparatus, as well as improving the quality of the finished product (chicken manure. In the method of drying chicken droppings produced removing mechanical impurities, mixing, drying and grinding of the hot gases, wherein the starting slurry is transported in a horizontal direction opposite to the flow direction of the hot gases while performing a gradual heating it with simultaneous comminution and mixing, and then after reaching the zone of maximum temperatures for each of the size fractions of the suspension is achieved by turning its direction on 180ºС and then transported in a direction coinciding with the direction of flow of the hot gases by carrying out the gradual cooling of the heat transfer starting product. We have also presented norms of dry chicken manure application under agricultural crops in the Krasnodar region

  15. Effects of different drying methods on the product quality and volatile compounds of whole shiitake mushrooms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Zhao, Yingting; Huang, Jijun; Zeng, Hongliang; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-04-15

    Various drying methods play important roles in the preservation of foods. However, how the different drying methods affect the quality of some foods is not clear. This paper evaluates the effects of hot air, vacuum, microwave, and microwave vacuum drying techniques on important qualities and volatile compounds of whole shiitake (Lentinus edodes) mushrooms. These four drying methods resulted in a significantly (pdried products. Microwave vacuum drying helped to maintain larger amounts of taste-active amino acids, and improved nutrient retention and color attributes. Furthermore, the uniform honeycomb network created by microwave vacuum drying along with a less collapsed structure of dried samples can be used to explain the observed high rehydration ratio. Therefore, microwave vacuum drying should be a potential method for obtaining high-quality dried mushrooms.

  16. Digital carbonate rock physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saenger, Erik H.; Vialle, Stephanie; Lebedev, Maxim; Uribe, David; Osorno, Maria; Duda, Mandy; Steeb, Holger

    2016-08-01

    Modern estimation of rock properties combines imaging with advanced numerical simulations, an approach known as digital rock physics (DRP). In this paper we suggest a specific segmentation procedure of X-ray micro-computed tomography data with two different resolutions in the µm range for two sets of carbonate rock samples. These carbonates were already characterized in detail in a previous laboratory study which we complement with nanoindentation experiments (for local elastic properties). In a first step a non-local mean filter is applied to the raw image data. We then apply different thresholds to identify pores and solid phases. Because of a non-neglectable amount of unresolved microporosity (micritic phase) we also define intermediate threshold values for distinct phases. Based on this segmentation we determine porosity-dependent values for effective P- and S-wave velocities as well as for the intrinsic permeability. For effective velocities we confirm an observed two-phase trend reported in another study using a different carbonate data set. As an upscaling approach we use this two-phase trend as an effective medium approach to estimate the porosity-dependent elastic properties of the micritic phase for the low-resolution images. The porosity measured in the laboratory is then used to predict the effective rock properties from the observed trends for a comparison with experimental data. The two-phase trend can be regarded as an upper bound for elastic properties; the use of the two-phase trend for low-resolution images led to a good estimate for a lower bound of effective elastic properties. Anisotropy is observed for some of the considered subvolumes, but seems to be insignificant for the analysed rocks at the DRP scale. Because of the complexity of carbonates we suggest using DRP as a complementary tool for rock characterization in addition to classical experimental methods.

  17. Session: Hard Rock Penetration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tennyson, George P. Jr.; Dunn, James C.; Drumheller, Douglas S.; Glowka, David A.; Lysne, Peter

    1992-01-01

    This session at the Geothermal Energy Program Review X: Geothermal Energy and the Utility Market consisted of five presentations: ''Hard Rock Penetration - Summary'' by George P. Tennyson, Jr.; ''Overview - Hard Rock Penetration'' by James C. Dunn; ''An Overview of Acoustic Telemetry'' by Douglas S. Drumheller; ''Lost Circulation Technology Development Status'' by David A. Glowka; ''Downhole Memory-Logging Tools'' by Peter Lysne.

  18. Mathematical Modeling of Microwave-Assisted Convective Heating and Drying of Grapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research studied the processing performance and product quality of Thompson seedless grapes dried using microwave-assisted convective hot air drying as well as the effect of blanching and dipping pretreatments. Two pretreatment methods were compared, dipping into 2% ethyl oleate (V/V) and 5% p...

  19. Halogen control in integrated hot gas cleaning: final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, M.; Kangasmaa, K.; Laatikainen-Luntama, J.; Kurkela, E. [VTT Energy (Finland)

    1998-12-31

    A simple and cost effective dry-scrubbing halogen control method for hot gasification gas cleaning applications was developed. The work aimed to develop a dry scrubbing method for integration into a hot gas cleaning system including particulate removal by cyclones, filtration and possibly a desulphurisation system. Work started by determining the behaviour of halogen compounds in a reducing gasification atmosphere to evaluate the fate of halogens on downstream components, to understand the role of halogens as precursors for environmental emissions, and to give background information for developing halogen control methods. New halogen sampling and analysis methods for pressurised gasification gas conditions were also developed. Mass balances were determined for several gasification conditions, with and without calcium-based bed additives. Several potential dry scrubbing sorbent candidates were evaluated. Chemical, technical, economical and environmental aspects were used as selection criteria, calcium-based sorbents being chosen for development of the halogen removal system. The process concept was based on sorbent feeding into the product gas prior to the hot gas filter unit, where the final step of halogen capture takes place and both sorbent and particulates are removed from the gas. Preliminary screening of calcium-based sorbents and preoptimisation of process conditions was performed in a laboratory scale dry scrubbing test rig. Finally, the performance of the developed dry scrubbing halogen removal system was verified in a PDU scale pressurised fluidised bed gasification and gas cleaning test rig. Preliminary verification showed that, in favourable conditions, the system developed formed a potential halogen control system that could be easily integrated into the other hot gas cleaning systems. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. What Is Hot Yoga (Bikram)?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Healthy Lifestyle Consumer health What is hot yoga? Answers from Edward R. Laskowski, M.D. Hot yoga is a vigorous form of yoga performed in a studio ... you check with your doctor before trying hot yoga if you have any health concerns. If you have heart disease, problems with ...

  1. Hot Subluminous Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, U.

    2016-08-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Most hot subdwarf stars are chemically highly peculiar and provide a laboratory to study diffusion processes that cause these anomalies. The most obvious anomaly lies with helium, which may be a trace element in the atmosphere of some stars (sdB, sdO) while it may be the dominant species in others (He-sdB, He-sdO). Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich versus He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters ω Cen and NGC 2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope (CE) phase of evolution. Because the binaries are detached they provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet poorly understood phase of stellar evolution. Hot subdwarf binaries with sufficiently massive white dwarf companions are viable candidate progenitors of type Ia supernovae both in the double degenerate as well as in the single degenerate scenario as helium donors for double detonation supernovae. The hyper-velocity He-sdO star US 708 may be the surviving donor of such a double detonation supernova. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the acoustic-mode pulsator V391 Peg was the first discovery of a planet that survived the red giant evolution of its host star. Evidence for Earth-size planets to two pulsating sdB stars have been reported and circumbinary giant planets or brown dwarfs have been found around HW

  2. The hot Hagedorn Universe

    CERN Document Server

    Rafelski, Johann

    2016-01-01

    In the context of the half-centenary of Hagedorn temperature and the statistical bootstrap model (SBM) we present a short account of how these insights coincided with the establishment of the hot big-bang model (BBM) and helped resolve some of the early philosophical difficulties. We then turn attention to the present day context and show the dominance of strong interaction quark and gluon degrees of freedom in the early stage, helping to characterize the properties of the hot Universe. We focus attention on the current experimental insights about cosmic microwave background (CMB) temperature fluctuation, and develop a much improved understanding of the neutrino freeze-out, in this way paving the path to the opening of a direct connection of quark-gluon plasma (QGP) physics in the early Universe with the QCD-lattice, and the study of the properties of QGP formed in the laboratory.

  3. The hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1982-05-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  4. Hot chocolate effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  5. Hot Spring Metagenomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olalla López-López

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Hot springs have been investigated since the XIX century, but isolation and examination of their thermophilic microbial inhabitants did not start until the 1950s. Many thermophilic microorganisms and their viruses have since been discovered, although the real complexity of thermal communities was envisaged when research based on PCR amplification of the 16S rRNA genes arose. Thereafter, the possibility of cloning and sequencing the total environmental DNA, defined as metagenome, and the study of the genes rescued in the metagenomic libraries and assemblies made it possible to gain a more comprehensive understanding of microbial communities—their diversity, structure, the interactions existing between their components, and the factors shaping the nature of these communities. In the last decade, hot springs have been a source of thermophilic enzymes of industrial interest, encouraging further study of the poorly understood diversity of microbial life in these habitats.

  6. A numerical model of hydro-thermo-mechanical coupling in a fractured rock mass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bower, K.M.

    1996-06-01

    Coupled hydro-thermo-mechanical codes with the ability to model fractured materials are used for predicting groundwater flow behavior in fractured aquifers containing thermal sources. The potential applications of such a code include the analysis of groundwater behavior within a geothermal reservoir. The capability of modeling hydro-thermo systems with a dual porosity, fracture flow model has been previously developed in the finite element code, FEHM. FEHM has been modified to include stress coupling with the dual porosity feature. FEHM has been further developed to implicitly couple the dependence of fracture hydraulic conductivity on effective stress within two dimensional, saturated aquifers containing fracture systems. The cubic law for flow between parallel plates was used to model fracture permeability. The Bartin-Bandis relationship was used to determine the fracture aperture within the cubic law. The code used a Newton Raphson iteration to implicitly solve for six unknowns at each node. Results from a model of heat flow from a reservoir to the moving fluid in a single fracture compared well with analytic results. Results of a model showing the increase in fracture flow due to a single fracture opening under fluid pressure compared well with analytic results. A hot dry rock, geothermal reservoir was modeled with realistic time steps indicating that the modified FEHM code does successfully model coupled flow problems with no convergence problems.

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  8. The Predication of Relationship Between Harvesting Moisture Content and The Most Convenient Rice Moisture After Drying to Obtained The Highest Head Rice Yield When Rice is Dried in Drying Machine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Ulger

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Rice is dried after harvesting and milled before consumption. But cracklings occur on rice while rice isbeing dried with hot weather. Depending on cracking amount milling rice yield will be high or low. In orderto minimize breakage during the drying process, the relationship between harvesting grain moisture contentand storage moisture content was examined. Thus the highest head rice yield could be obtained. For thatobject , rice samples that were harvested in different harvested moisture content, were dried with hot weatherin prototype dryer which was designed for this object. Rice samples were dried to different moisture andhead rice yield was predicated after drying process , thus the moisture of dried rice which was obtainedmaximum head rice yield was found.According to the data, relationship between harvesting moisture content and the moisture of dried rice onprototypes drying machine is significant as statistical. A regression equation was obtained with data fromdrying process. With this equation, the most convenient moisture to obtained highest head rice yield afterdrying can be predicted. “The most convenient rice moisture after drying =( 4.66 + 0.59 x Harvestingmoisture content±0.54”.

  9. Peppery Hot Bean Curd

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1997-01-01

    Peppery Hot Bean Curd is a famous dish that originated in Chengdu,Sichuan Province.Dating back to the year under the reign of Emperor Tongzhi during the Qing Dynasty(1862-1875),a woman chef named Chen created this dish.In Chinese it is called Mapo Bean Curd. Ingredients:Three pieces of bean curd,100 grams lean pork,25 grams green soy beans or garlic

  10. Teaching the Rock Cycle with Ease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bereki, Debra

    2000-01-01

    Describes a hands-on lesson for teaching high school students the concept of the rock cycle using sedimentary, metamorphic, and igneous rocks. Students use a rock cycle diagram to identify pairs of rocks. From the rock cycle, students explain on paper how their first rock became the second rock and vice versa. (PVD)

  11. Variation in the Deep Gas Composition in Hot Spots on Jupiter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjoraker, Gordon; de Pater, Imke; Wong, Michael H.; Adamkovics, Mate; Hewagama, Tilak; Hesman, Brigette

    2015-11-01

    We used CSHELL on NASA’s Infrared Telescope Facility and NIRSPEC on the Keck telescope in the last two years to spectrally resolve line profiles of CH3D, NH3, PH3, and H2O in 5-micron Hot Spots on Jupiter. The profile of the CH3D lines at 4.66 microns is very broad in both NEB and SEB Hot Spots due to collisions with up to 8 bars of H2, where unit optical depth occurs due to collision-induced H2 opacity. The extreme width of these CH3D features implies that the Hot Spots that we observed do not have significant cloud opacity for P > 2 bars. We retrieved NH3, PH3, and gaseous H2O within Hot Spots in both the NEB and SEB. We had dry nights on Mauna Kea and a sufficient Doppler shift to detect H2O. We will compare line wings to derive H2O profiles in the 2 to 6-bar region. NEB Hot Spots are depleted in NH3 with respect to adjacent regions. Interestingly, SEB Hot Spots exhibit stronger NH3 absorption than NEB Hot Spots. In addition, SEB Hot Spots have very similar 5-micron spectra as neighboring longitudes in the SEB, implying similar deep gas composition. The dynamical origin of SEB Hot Spots is much less studied than that of NEB Hot Spots, so our observations of gas composition in both regions may constrain mechanisms for forming Hot Spots.

  12. Microcraters on lunar rocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, D. A.; Mckay, D. S.; Heiken, G. H.; Moore, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    Microcrater frequency distributions have been obtained for nine Apollo rocks and an exterior chip of an Apollo 12 rock. The frequency distributions indicate that five of the Apollo 14 rocks were tumbled more than once exposing different rock faces whereas four were not tumbled and represent a single exposure interval. The cumulative frequency of craters per square centimeter was extended below optical resolution limits using a SEM scan of an exterior chip of breccia 12073. No craters with central pit diameters less than 15 microns were seen in a total area of 0.44 sq cm. A detailed SEM scan of crystal faces and glassy crater liners revealed no microcraters equal to or larger than the resolution limit of 5 microns. An upper limit of 170 craters per sq cm with central pit diameters larger than 5 microns was set. The slope of the cumulative frequency curve for craters with central pit diameters less than about 75 microns is less than that obtained by other workers.

  13. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the

  14. Rock-hard coatings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Muller, M.

    2007-01-01

    Aircraft jet engines have to be able to withstand infernal conditions. Extreme heat and bitter cold tax coatings to the limit. Materials expert Dr Ir. Wim Sloof fits atoms together to develop rock-hard coatings. The latest invention in this field is known as ceramic matrix composites. Sloof has sign

  15. Slippery Rock University

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnhold, Robert W.

    2008-01-01

    Slippery Rock University (SRU), located in western Pennsylvania, is one of 14 state-owned institutions of higher education in Pennsylvania. The university has a rich tradition of providing professional preparation programs in special education, therapeutic recreation, physical education, and physical therapy for individuals with disabilities.…

  16. Umhlanga Rocks coastal defense

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Jong, L.; De Jong, B.; Ivanova, M.; Gerritse, A.; Rietberg, D.; Dorrepaal, S.

    2014-01-01

    The eThekwini coastline is a vulnerable coastline subject to chronic erosion and damage due to sea level rise. In 2007 a severe storm caused major physical and economic damage along the coastline, proving the need for action. Umhlanga Rocks is a densely populated premium holiday destination on the e

  17. Hot subluminous stars

    CERN Document Server

    Heber, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Hot subluminous stars of spectral type B and O are core helium-burning stars at the blue end of the horizontal branch or have evolved even beyond that stage. Strikingly, the distribution in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram of He-rich vs. He-poor hot subdwarf stars of the globular clusters omega Cen and NGC~2808 differ from that of their field counterparts. The metal-abundance patterns of hot subdwarfs are typically characterized by strong deficiencies of some lighter elements as well as large enrichments of heavy elements. A large fraction of sdB stars are found in close binaries with white dwarf or very low-mass main sequence companions, which must have gone through a common-envelope phase of evolution.They provide a clean-cut laboratory to study this important but yet purely understood phase of stellar evolution. Substellar companions to sdB stars have also been found. For HW~Vir systems the companion mass distribution extends from the stellar into the brown dwarf regime. A giant planet to the pulsator V391 ...

  18. Solar Hot Water Heater

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The solar panels pictured below, mounted on a Moscow, Idaho home, are part of a domestic hot water heating system capable of providing up to 100 percent of home or small business hot water needs. Produced by Lennox Industries Inc., Marshalltown, Iowa, the panels are commercial versions of a collector co-developed by NASA. In an effort to conserve energy, NASA has installed solar collectors at a number of its own facilities and is conducting research to develop the most efficient systems. Lewis Research Center teamed with Honeywell Inc., Minneapolis, Minnesota to develop the flat plate collector shown. Key to the collector's efficiency is black chrome coating on the plate developed for use on spacecraft solar cells, the coating prevents sun heat from "reradiating," or escaping outward. The design proved the most effective heat absorber among 23 different types of collectors evaluated in a Lewis test program. The Lennox solar domestic hot water heating system has three main components: the array of collectors, a "solar module" (blue unit pictured) and a conventional water heater. A fluid-ethylene glycol and water-is circulated through the collectors to absorb solar heat. The fluid is then piped to a double-walled jacket around a water tank within the solar module.

  19. Dry imaging cameras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I K Indrajit

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry imaging cameras are important hard copy devices in radiology. Using dry imaging camera, multiformat images of digital modalities in radiology are created from a sealed unit of unexposed films. The functioning of a modern dry camera, involves a blend of concurrent processes, in areas of diverse sciences like computers, mechanics, thermal, optics, electricity and radiography. Broadly, hard copy devices are classified as laser and non laser based technology. When compared with the working knowledge and technical awareness of different modalities in radiology, the understanding of a dry imaging camera is often superficial and neglected. To fill this void, this article outlines the key features of a modern dry camera and its important issues that impact radiology workflow.

  20. Process and Energy Optimization Assessment Level II Analysis. Rock Island Arsenal, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-08-01

    room was later renovated in the 1960s and a hot zeolite lime/soda ash system was installed. A newer hot zeolite system was in- stalled in the late...University of Chicago Chicago, IL 60607-7054 Final Report Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited. Prepared for Rock Island Arsenal...Arsenal to prepare the DD1391 form for FY07 Army ECIP funding application. Support of project implementation and savings verification can be provided

  1. USE OF SOLAR KILN FOR THE DRYING OF SAWN WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Martins Stangerlin

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed at evaluating the use of a solar kiln for the drying of woods of Eucalyptus tereticornis, Eucalyptus saligna and Corymbia citriodora, as well as comparing such a methodology to the air seasoning practice. In order to do so, it was built a solar kiln composed basically of wood structures, roofing with a double layer of PVC, sunlight internal collector and hot air circulation systems. The efficiency of the solar kiln was compared to the air seasoning in drying time and wood quality. In the same drying schedule, each species was submitted to the two drying approaches using a load of 55 boards in each method. Results indicated that the solar kiln was more efficient in drying time, around 2 to 5 times faster and final moisture content lower than the air drying. Adequate wood quality was observed in both drying methods, and no defects such as cup or collapse were observed. Furthermore, the correct piling up and drying process provided minimization of defects such as bow. The incidence of crook, end and surface checks were not significantly distinct between solar drying and air seasoning for the three woods studied.

  2. Intensification of microalgae drying and oil extraction process by vapor recompression and heat integration

    OpenAIRE

    Song, Chunfeng; Liu, Qingling; Ji, Na; Deng, Shuai; Zhao, Jun; Kitamura, Yutaka

    2016-01-01

    Reducing energy penalty caused by drying and oil extraction is the most critical challenge in microalgae biodiesel production. In this study, vapor recompression and heat integration are utilized to optimize the performance of wet microalgae drying and oil extraction. In the microalgae drying stage, the hot exhaust stream is recompressed and coupled with wet microalgae to recover the condensate heat. In the oil extraction stage, the exergy rate of recovered solvent is also elevated by compres...

  3. Range sections as rock models for intensity rock scene segmentation

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mkwelo, S

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents another approach to segmenting a scene of rocks on a conveyor belt for the purposes of measuring rock size. Rock size estimation instruments are used to monitor, optimize and control milling and crushing in the mining industry...

  4. PREFACE: Hot Quarks 2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antinori, Federico; Bass, Steffen A.; Bellwied, Rene; Ullrich, Thomas; Velkovska, Julia; Wiedemann, Urs

    2005-04-01

    Why another conference devoted to ultra-relativistic heavy-ion physics? As we looked around the landscape of the existing international conferences and workshops, we realized that there was not a single one tailored to the people who are most directly involved with the actual research work: students, post-docs, and junior faculty/research scientists. Of course there are schools, but that was not what we had in mind. We wanted a meeting where young researchers could come together to discuss in depth the physics that they are working on without any hindrance. The major conferences have very limited time for discussions which is often shared amongst the most established. This leaves little room for young people to ask their questions and to get the detailed feedback which they deserve and which satisfies their curiosity. A discussion-driven workshop, centering on those without whom there will be no future—that seemed like what was needed. And thus the Hot Quarks workshop was born. The aim of Hot Quarks was to enhance the direct exchange of scientific information among the younger members of the community, from both experiment and theory. Participation was by invitation only in order to emphasize the contributions from junior researchers. This approach makes the workshop unique among the many forums in the field. For young scientists it represented an opportunity for exposure that they would not have had in one of the major conferences. The hope is that this meeting has helped to stimulate the next generation of scientists in our field and, at the same time, strengthened their sense of community. It all came together from 18 24 July 2004, when the 77 participants met at The Inn at Snakedance in the Taos Ski Valley, New Mexico, USA, for the first Hot Quarks workshop. Photograph Participants gather in the sunshine at the foot of the Taos Ski Valley chairlift. By all accounts, Hot Quarks 2004 was a great success. Every participant had the opportunity to present her or

  5. A state of the art report on the decontamination technology for dry ice blasting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, J. M.; Kim, K. H.; Park, J. J.; Lee, H. H.; Yang, M. S.; Nam, S. H.; Kim, M. J

    2000-05-01

    DUPIC fuel fabrication process is a dry processing technology to manufacture CANDU compatible fuel through a direct reprocessing fabrication process from spent PWR fuel. DUPIC fuel fabrication process consists of the slitting of the spent PWR fuel rods, OREOX processing, homogeneous mixing, pelletizing and sintering. All these processes should be conducted by remote means in a M6 hot cell at IMEF. Since DUPIC fuel fabrication process includes powder handling process of highly radioactive spent fuel, decontamination of highly radioactive particulates from all types of surfaces such as DUPIC fuel manufacturing equipment, hot cell floor, tools is very important to improve the safety of hot cell and reduce the dose exposure to operator, This report describes various technologies for dry ice blasting. It provides the fundamentals of dry ice blasting decontamination and technical review of dry ice blasting on the radioactive decontamination.

  6. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  7. Effect of salt concentrations and drying methods on the quality and formation of histamine in dried milkfish (Chanos chanos).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Chiu-Chu; Lin, Chia-Min; Kung, Hsien-Feng; Huang, Ya-Ling; Hwang, Deng-Fwu; Su, Yi-Cheng; Tsai, Yung-Hsiang

    2012-11-15

    The effects of salt concentrations (0-15.0%) and drying methods on the quality of dried milkfish were studied. The results showed that the levels of aerobic plate counts, total coliform, water activity, moisture contents, total volatile basic nitrogen (TVBN) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) of the dried milkfish samples prepared with the same drying method decreased with increased salt concentrations. The samples prepared with the cold-air drying method had better quality in term of lower TVBN and TBA values than those of samples prepared with other drying methods. The histamine contents in all samples, except two, prepared with various salt concentrations by different drying methods were less than 1.9 mg/100 g. Two unsalted samples prepared with hot-air drying at 35 °C and sun drying methods were found to contain histamine at levels of 249.7 and 67.4 mg/100 g, respectively, which were higher than the potential hazard level of 50 mg/100 g.

  8. Effect of blanching and drying temperatures on the physicochemical characteristics, dietary fiber composition and antioxidant-related parameters of dried persimmons peel powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akter, Mst Sorifa; Ahmed, Maruf; Eun, Jong-Bang

    2010-11-01

    The effects of blanching with hot water at 90°C for 2 min and hot-air drying temperatures (50°C, 60°C and 70°C) on the physicochemical properties, dietary fiber compositions, antioxidant activity and hydration properties of ripe, soft persimmon peels were investigated. Blanching and drying significantly reduced the retention of antioxidant-related parameters. Although there were no significant differences in total phenolics and ß-carotene content at different drying temperatures for both dried unblanched and blanched peels, dried blanched peels had higher dietary fiber compositions and swelling capacity than those of dried unblanched peels at all drying conditions. In addition, blanched peels dried at 50°C had the highest dietary fiber compositions, swelling capacity and antioxidant activity compared with those at high drying temperatures (60°C and 70°C). Therefore, blanched peels dried at 50°C is suggested to obtain better quality dietary fiber powder from persimmon peel for use in food applications or in fiber-fortified foods for health promotion.

  9. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  10. -wave velocity test for assessment of geotechnical properties of some rock materials

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Saffet Yagiz

    2011-07-01

    -wave velocity test, a non-destructive and easy method to apply in both field and laboratory conditions, has increasingly been conducted to determine the geotechnical properties of rock materials. The aim of this study is to predict the rock properties including the uniaxial compressive strength, Schmidt hardness, modulus of elasticity, water absorption and effective porosity, slake durability index, saturated and dry density of rock using -wave velocity (p). For this purpose geotechnical properties of nine different rock types were determined in the laboratory and their mineralogical composition examined using thin section analysis. Utilizing the generated data, sets of empirical equations were developed between p and relevant quantified rock parameters. The validity of the obtained empirical equations was confirmed using statistical analysis. It is evident that rock texture and mineralogical compositions affect the geotechnical properties of rock materials. Therefore, the best relationship obtained between both E and UCS with p in the correlation coefficient of 0.92 and 0.95 in that order. It is concluded that p could be practically used for estimating the measured rock properties except dry and saturated density of rocks ( = 0.58 and 0.46 respectively).

  11. Stripping with dry ice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malavallon, Olivier

    1995-04-01

    Mechanical-type stripping using dry ice (solid CO2) consists in blasting particles of dry ice onto the painted surface. This surface can be used alone or in duplex according to type of substrate to be treated. According to operating conditions, three physical mechanisms may be involved when blasting dry ice particles onto a paint system: thermal shock, differential thermal contraction, and mechanical shock. The blast nozzle, nozzle travel speed, blast angle, stripping distance, and compressed air pressure and media flow rate influence the stripping quality and the uniformity and efficiency obtained.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Min Hye; Kim, Na-Hyun; Heo, Jeong-Doo; Rho, Jung-Rae; Ock, Kwang Ju

    2017-01-01

    Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell) coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o.) apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  13. Comparative Evaluation of Sulfur Compounds Contents and Antiobesity Properties of Allium hookeri Prepared by Different Drying Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Min Hye Yang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the nutritional and medicinal values of Allium hookeri, its unique flavor (onion or garlic taste and smell coming from sulfur containing compounds limits its usage as functional food. For comparative study, A. hookeri roots were prepared under two different drying conditions, namely, low-temperature drying that minimizes the volatilization of sulfur components and hot-air drying that minimizes the garlic odor and spicy taste of A. hookeri. In GC/MS olfactory system, the odorous chemicals and organosulfur compounds such as diallyl trisulfide, dimethyl trisulfide, and dipropyl trisulfide were significantly decreased in hot-air drying compared to low-temperature drying. The spiciness and saltiness taste were noticeably reduced, while sourness, sweetness, and umami taste were significantly increased in hot-air dried A. hookeri according to electronic tongue. Although the content of volatile sulfur components was present at lower level, the administration of hot-air dried A. hookeri extract (100 mg/kg p.o. apparently prevented the body weight gain and improved insulin resistance in C57BL/6J obese mice receiving high fat diet. Results suggested that the hot-air dried A. hookeri possessing better taste and odor might be available as functional crop and bioactive diet supplement for the prevention and/or treatment of obesity.

  14. Vegetation biomass allocation and its spatial distribution after 20 years ecological restoration in a dry-hot valley in Yuanmou, Yunnan Province of Southwest China%元谋干热河谷20年生人工恢复植被生物量分配与空间结构特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李彬; 唐国勇; 李昆; 高成杰; 刘方炎; 王小菲

    2013-01-01

    By using layering harvest method,a comparative study was conducted on the biomass allocation and its spatial distribution of 20-year-old Eucalyptus camaldulensis plantation,Leucaena leucocephala plantation,and E.camaldulensis-L.leucocephala plantation in Yuanmou dry-hot valley of Yurman Province,Southwest China.The stand biomass in the mixed E.camaldulensis-L leucocephala plantation (82.99 t · hm-2) was between that of monoculture E.camaldulensis plantation (60.64 t · hm-2) and L leucocephala plantation (127.79 t · hm-2).The individual tree biomass of E.camaldulensis in the mixed plantation (44.32 kg) was 49.8% higher than that in monoculture plantation (29.58 kg).The branch and leaf biomass of L.leucocephala (25.4%) in monoculture plantation was larger than that of E.camaldulensis (8.9%) in monoculture plantation,and the aboveground biomass distribution ratio (78.0%) of L.leucocephala (25.4%) was also higher than that of E.camaldulensis (73.4%).The roots of L.leucocephala in both monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly distributed in 0-40 cm soil layer,while those of E.camaldulensis in monoculture and mixed plantations were mainly found in 0-80 cm and 0-60 cm,respectively.The proportion of biomass allocated to roots including medium roots,small roots,and fine roots of L.leucocephala in mixed plantation was higher than that in monoculture plantation,but it was contrary for E.camaldulensis.It was suggested that introducing L.leucocephala in E.camaldulensis plantation promoted the growth of E.camaldulensis,especially for its aboveground biomass,and increased the amount of lateral roots in 0-20 cm soil layer,which had significance in soil and water conservation in the study area.%采用分层收获法,对元谋干热河谷20年生赤桉、新银合欢纯林及其混交林的生物量分配与空间结构进行对比研究.结果表明:混交林林分生物量(82.99 t·hm-2)介于赤桉纯林(60.64 t ·hm-2)与新银合欢纯林(127.79 t·hm-2)之

  15. Soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in Jinshajing Hot-Dry River Valley Hillslope vegetation restoration site%金沙江干热河谷山地植被恢复区土壤种子库和地上植被研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗辉; 王克勤

    2006-01-01

    Soil seed bank plays an important role in the composition of different plant communities and especially in their conservation. Although Soil seed bank, aboveground vegetation and their relationship have been the subject of much recent attention, little is known about the size and species composition of soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in semi-arid hillslope grasslands and understanding of how these components interact to determine the importance of seed banks to regeneration is limited.We assessed the size and species composition of a soil seed bank and aboveground vegetation in an experiment with 36 vegetation quadrats and 108 soil samples in terrace, slope, gully and grazing land that represent a range of habitats within a hillslope grassland in Jinshajing hot-dry river valley of Yunnan. Terrace, slope and gully represent restored site and grazing land typifies unrestored site. We identified 21 taxa in the seed bank with a median of 7 species/m2 and a median density of 5498 seeds/m2, while in aboveground vegetation, 19 species were observed with a median of 6 species/m2 and a median density of 1088 plants/m2. Both seed bank density and aboveground vegetation density among grazing land, gully, slope and terrace differed significantly. There was an absolutely high proportion of herbaceous species in the seed bank and aboveground vegetation. Gramineae predominated over both seed bank and vegetation. The most frequent seeds and plants were Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus and Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv that had the highest individual number, importance value and biomass. In the seed bank, the seeds of Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus and Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv accounted for 50.68% and for 33.10% of the total seeds respectively. In aboveground vegetation, the individual number of Bothriochloa pertusa (L.) A. Camus accounted for 55.66% of the total and Heteropogon contortus (L.) Beauv accounted for 29.86%. The biomass of Bothriochloa

  16. Effects of Stylosanthes guianensis Plantations under Different Land Conditions in Dry-hot Valley of Yunnan Province%干热河谷退化山地不同立地条件种植柱花草效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龙会英; 张德; 金杰; 何光熊; 王永林; 保海坤; 史亮涛; 张明忠

    2011-01-01

    Stylosanthes guianensis was introduced to degraded mountain land in Dry-hot valley of Yuanmou County.Its major phonological periods,growth trend,biology and effects of cover in winter were studied in different land conditions.The results showed that S.guianensis could be planted in different land conditions and finish its major phonological periods.In addition,it had a good productivity and cover effect no matter in terrace or sloping field.The phonological periods in terrace and sloping field were similar.Because the water holding capacity was higher in terrace,biomass,rate of growth of S.guianensis and moisture of land surface in terrace were higher than in sloping field.Because the land surface was covered by these plants,evaporation was reduced.So it could be effective to keep moisture of land surface in terrace and sloping field.The soil moisture was higher than no-planted lands in 0~20 cm and 20~40 cm depth in both plantation conditions.It was helpful for S.guianensis to fight against drought and to re-grow in next year.In addition,S.guianensis could regulate ground temperature of plantation soil.The temperature in plantation soil was higher than no-planted soil at 8:00 a.m.and 18:00 p.m.It was helpful for S.guianensis to fight against a cold and survive through winter.Ground temperature of S.guianensis plantation was lower than no-planted soil at 14:00 p.m.and ground temperature of soil was decreased effectively by S.guianensis.Bulk density of soil planting S.guianensis was lower than before in both terrace and sloping field.The infiltration capability and configuration of planting soil were also improved.Soil fertility was increased in S.guianensis plantation due to nitrogen-fixed effect and litter decomposition.The microbial biomass was also increased.%以云南省元谋干热河谷退化山地不同立地条件下种植的柱花草(Stylosanthes guianensis)为供试植物,研究柱花草的物候期、生长速率、生物量及覆盖效应。

  17. Influence factors of morphological development of soil cracks in degraded slopes in Yuanmou dry-hot valley region%元谋干热河谷区退化坡地土壤裂缝形态发育的影响因子

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊东红; 杨丹; 李佳佳; 苏正安; 董一帆; 翟娟

    2013-01-01

      土壤开裂影响土体内水分散失、溶质运移及土体结构,是元谋干热河谷坡地退化的一个重要过程及特征。该文通过对元谋干热河谷退化坡地典型土壤裂缝样方的实地调查及数据的室内分析,系统分析了土壤理化属性对裂缝发育程度的影响。研究结果表明:1)土壤裂缝发育程度与土壤黏粒含量、土壤胀缩度、土壤容重呈正相关,与土壤有机质含量、土壤总孔隙度呈较弱的负相关;2)土壤裂缝发育程度的首要影响因子是土壤结构性因子(土壤容重、总孔隙度和黏粒含量),其次为土壤胀缩度,然后是土壤有机质。该研究可为进一步研究土壤开裂导致的土地退化过程奠定基础,为制定开裂土体的改良措施提供参考。%Soil cracking is an important process and feature of the slope degradation in Yuanmou Dry-hot Valley Region, which influences water evaporation, solutes transport and soil structure. In this paper, 25 soil crack quads were investigated by using the photography method to describe the morphology of soil cracks, and meanwhile, soil samples were also obtained at soil depth 0-30 cm and >30-60 cm in the same quad. The crack area density (Dc) was obtained by ArcGIS 9.0. The values for soil physico-chemical properties were also obtained by laboratory analysis. And then, the influences of soil physico-chemical properties on the development degrees of soil cracks were analyzed by application of statistical analysis methods. The Results indicate that: (1) The development degrees of soil cracks have a positive correlation with clay content, swell-shrink property and bulk density, and are negatively correlated to organic content and soil porosity. Dc, which is the quantitative indicator for the development degrees of soil cracks has been found to have a significant strong correlation with clay content, their coefficients were 0.97 and 0.95 for 0-30 cm layer and for >30-60 cm

  18. Analysis of effects of different modes of irrigation and mulching on water-saving and drought-resistance in sloping orchards of dry-hot valley%干热河谷坡地果园灌溉覆盖方式的抗旱节水效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    米艳华; 陆琳; 黎其万; 陈艺棋; 段曰汤; 杨顺林; 朱红业

    2011-01-01

    在金沙江干热河谷坡地青枣果园设置裸地漫灌,直沟和目字沟埋草沟灌,地面秸秆、生物覆盖浸灌以及直沟埋草沟灌加地面秸秆覆盖等6种灌水疆盖实验,研究干热河谷坡地果园覆盖灌水方式的抗旱节水效应,筛选适宜的节水抗旱灌溉技术.结果表明:土壤保水、蓄水能力表现为覆盖漫灌高干开沟埋革沟灌,显著高于裸地漫灌.灌溉水利用率和经济效益则表现为:目字沟、直沟埋草沟灌>地面秸秆、生物覆盖漫灌>裸地漫灌.直沟埋草沟灌加地面秸秆覆盖处理的灌水次数最少,灌水量不到裸地漫灌对照的28.6%,灌溉水利用率是对照的6.7倍.节水效果依此表现为:直沟埋草沟灌+地面秸秆覆盖>>目字沟埋草沟灌≥地面秸秆覆盖漫灌>直沟埋草沟灌≥地面生物覆盖漫灌>>裸地漫灌(CK).经济效益最好的是直沟埋草沟灌+地面秸秆覆盖处理,其次是目字沟埋草沟灌,纯效益分别是裸地漫灌的2.36倍和2.16倍,产投比是对照的1.9倍和1.8倍.结果说明,在干热河谷燥红土果园,开沟埋草沟灌,地面覆盖,使灌溉水渗透土壤,减少地表径流和蒸散损失,提高土壤的保蓄水能力,能有效提高灌溉水的利用率和果园经济效益.%In jujube orchards of the slope area in the dry-hot valley of Jinsha River, six modes of irrigation and mulching were set in the experiment, namely flood irrigation in bare land(CK), furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditches, furrow irrigation with straw buried in mesh ditches, flood irrigation with plants covering, flood irrigation with soil surface straw mulching, and furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditch + soil surface straw mulching. The results show that, for soil conservation and water storage capacity, flood irrigation with soil surface straw mulching is better than furrow irrigation with straw buried in straight ditches, and much better than CK. As for rrigation water use

  19. Rock selection for nesting in Proformica longiseta Collingwood, 1978 (Hymenoptera, Formicidae) in a Mediterranean high mountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ignacio, Fernández Escudero; Tinaut, Alberto; Ruano, Francisca

    1993-06-01

    Proformica longiseta, an ant species endemic to certain high mountains, has been studied with regard to its tendency to nest underneath rocks. This behaviour led us to investigate whether a particular type of rock is selected, and, if so, the advantages to this species of the selection. This study was located at 2400 m above sea-level in the Sierra Nevada mountains (Granada, Spain). To determine the range of rock sizes available, in eight control plots the thicknesses were recorded and also the maximum and minimum diameters of all rocks with surface area of more than 6 cm2. A total of 1724 rocks were recorded, noting among the rock types available those that were used for nesting. Also as a preliminary estimate of the thermal characteristics of the rocks, we recorded the temperatures of the air, soil surface, soil under a rock covering an ant nest, and soil at 30 cm depth. The results indicate that P. longiseta selects flat rocks with a surface area/thickness ratio of 2 5, the thickness being not less than 1.5 cm, the surface area being 50 250 cm2 and volume less than 1000 cm3. This type of rock offers the nests two beneficial but apparently contradictory effects: (1) protection against high temperatures on hot days, and (2) warmth on colder days by absorbing the diffusing solar heat more effectively than the air or soil around the nest.

  20. 微波真空冷冻干燥对芒果干制品品质特性的影响%Effect of Microwave Vacuum Freeze Drying on the Quality of Dried Mango

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜唯唯; 刘刚; 张晓喻; 范辉建; 张宏

    2012-01-01

    为获得较优的芒果干燥方法,以复水性、感官为评价指标,比较微波真空冷冻干燥、热板真空冷冻干燥和热风干燥3种不同干燥方法对芒果干制品品质的影响。结果表明:真空冷冻干燥法的产品各项指标均优于热风干燥法。微波真空冷冻干燥的产品复水性最好,25℃与100℃最大复水比分别为3.363、3.674;其次为热板真空冷冻干燥,两温度条件下与微波真空冷冻干燥产品复水比相差较小;热风干燥产品复水性最差,分别为2.140、3.028。感官指标中色泽、香气和口味3方面均为:微波真空冷冻干燥〉热板真空冷冻干燥〉热风干燥。%In order to obtain a better drying method for mango products, the effects of microwave vacuum freeze drying, hot- plate vacuum freeze drying and hot air drying on the rehydration rate and sensory quality of dried mango were comparatively analyzed. The results indicated that vacuum freeze drying could provide better indices of dried products when compared with hot-air drying. Microwave vacuum freeze dried mango exhibited the best rehydration performance with rehydration rates of 3.363 and 3.674 at 25 ~C and 100 ~C, respectively, followed by hot-plate vacuum freeze dried