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Sample records for dry fermented sausage

  1. Heterofermentative process in dry fermented sausages - a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Josef Kameník

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In certain circumstances the fermentation process in dry fermented sausages converts to heterofermentation pathway leading to acetic acid and carbon dioxide beside lactic acid. The study describes two cases of undesirable heterofermentation in dry sausages from two different producers. In the sausage samples (n = 7 the pH value and the content of lactic and acetic acids were measured. Microbial analysis focused on quantitative and qualitative detection of lactic acid bacteria. The acetic acid content varied from 24.28 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter, in the case of samples from the second producer the content of acetic acid (48.45 to 67.41 µmol·g-1 dry matter was higher than the lactic acid content (20.98 to 29.02 µmol·g-1 dry matter. The lactobacilli strains from the sausages were assigned to the corresponding species by Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption-Ionization – Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS and classified to three groups according to the sugar fermentation pattern (obligately homofermentative, facultatively heterofermentative and obligately heterofermentative and they caused the heterofermentation process in the samples of dry fermented sausages. The description of the case of heterofermentation process in dry sausages is unique and there is little information about this topic.

  2. Biogenic amines in dry fermented sausages: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzzi, Giovanna; Gardini, Fausto

    2003-11-15

    Biogenic amines are compounds commonly present in living organisms in which they are responsible for many essential functions. They can be naturally present in many foods such as fruits and vegetables, meat, fish, chocolate and milk, but they can also be produced in high amounts by microorganisms through the activity of amino acid decarboxylases. Excessive consumption of these amines can be of health concern because their not equilibrate assumption in human organism can generate different degrees of diseases determined by their action on nervous, gastric and intestinal systems and blood pressure. High microbial counts, which characterise fermented foods, often unavoidably lead to considerable accumulation of biogenic amines, especially tyramine, 2-phenylethylamine, tryptamine, cadaverine, putrescine and histamine. However, great fluctuations of amine content are reported in the same type of product. These differences depend on many variables: the quali-quantitative composition of microbial microflora, the chemico-physical variables, the hygienic procedure adopted during production, and the availability of precursors. Dry fermented sausages are worldwide diffused fermented meat products that can be a source of biogenic amines. Even in the absence of specific rules and regulations regarding the presence of these compounds in sausages and other fermented products, an increasing attention is given to biogenic amines, especially in relation to the higher number of consumers with enhanced sensitivity to biogenic amines determined by the inhibition of the action of amino oxidases, the enzymes involved in the detoxification of these substances. The aim of this paper is to give an overview on the presence of these compounds in dry fermented sausages and to discuss the most important factors influencing their accumulation. These include process and implicit factors as well as the role of starter and nonstarter microflora growing in the different steps of sausage production

  3. Stability of phenolic compounds in dry fermented sausages added with cocoa and grape seed extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Ribas-Agusti, Albert; Gratacós-Cubarsí, Marta; Sárraga, Carmen; Guàrdia, M. Dolors; García-Regueiro, José-Antonio

    2014-01-01

    The level of eleven target phenolic compounds was evaluated in dry fermented sausages added with vegetable extracts. Grape seed (GSE1 and GSE2) and cocoa extracts, rich in phenolic compounds, were added in the formulation of dry fermented sausages (“salchichón” and “fuet”). Evolution of the major monomeric and oligomeric phenolic compounds of these extracts was evaluated during sausage shelf life by UHPLC-MS/MS. Kind of sausage did not affect significantly overall stability of the target comp...

  4. Screening of lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria for potential probiotic use in Iberian dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Nevado, Francisco Pérez; de Guía Córdoba, María

    2008-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to select lactic acid bacteria and bifibobacteria strains as potential probiotic cultures during the processing of Iberian dry fermented sausages. A total of 1000 strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages (363), and human (337) and pig faeces (300) in different culture media. Around 30% of these strains, mainly isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages in LAMVAB agar, were pre-selected for testing as potential probiotics by their ability to grow adequately at the pH values and NaCl concentrations of these meat products during the ripening process. Of the in vitro investigations used to predict the survival of a strain in conditions present in the gastro intestinal tract, exposure to pH 2.5 showed itself to be a highly discriminating factor with only 51 out of 312 pre-selected strains resisting adequately after 1.5h of exposure. All acid-resistant isolates identified as lactobacilli originated from human faeces (Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus fermentum) and pig faeces (Lactobacillus reuteri, Lactobacillus animalis, Lactobacillus murinus, and Lactobacillus vaginalis). Pediococcus acidilactici strains were isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages and pig faeces, whereas the greatest number of Enterococcus strains were identified as Enterococcus faecium, with this species being isolated from Iberian dry fermented sausages, and human and pig faeces. Most of these strains are promising probiotic meat culture candidates suitable for Iberian dry fermented sausages.

  5. Flavour profiles of dry sausages fermented by selected novel meat starter cultures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erkkilä, S; Petäjä, E; Eerola, S; Lilleberg, L; Mattila-Sandholm, T; Suihko, M L

    2001-06-01

    Probiotic or bioprotective Lactobacillus rhamnosus strains GG, LC-705 and E-97800 as well as Pediococcus pentosaceus E-90390 and Lactobacillus plantarum E-98098 were studied for their ability to act as main fermenting organisms in the manufacturing process of dry sausages. In the preliminary tests, their abilities to produce lactic acid and biogenic amines, histamine or tyramine, were studied in MRS broth and analysed by high-performance liquid chromatography. The strains produced higher or equal amounts of lactic acid compared to control and were amine negative. During the actual fermentation process of dry sausages the numbers of inoculated bacteria increased from the level 6.5-7.0 log cfu/g to 8.0-9.0 log cfu/g. The most fast growing strains were P. pentosaceus E-90390 and the control while the growth of L. plantarum E-98098 and L. rhamnosus LC-705 were the slowest. The pH value of the sausages decreased from 5.6 to 4.9-5.0. The presence of these experimental strains as major organisms in the sausages after fermentation and ripening was confirmed on the bases of their genetic fingerprints. The flavour profiles of the experimental sausages produced by these probiotic or protective strains were similar with that produced by the commercial meat starter culture and commercial North European dry sausage recipe.

  6. Aroma components from dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1994-01-01

    Sausages with and without Staphylococcus xylosus were manufactured with four replicates. Antibiotics and a fungicide to inhibit growth of naturally occuring microorganisms were added to the control sausages. The volatile compounds from the sausages were collected and identified by gas chromatogra...... amounts of free fatty acids, it seemed to be of no importance to aroma development. It is therefore questionable whether lipolytic activity of starter cultures has an influence on sausage flavour....

  7. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages

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    Domenico Meloni

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes, together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored “ready to eat” (RTE foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un- published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  8. Presence of Listeria monocytogenes in Mediterranean-Style Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meloni, Domenico

    2015-03-12

    The morphological, physiological and epidemiological features of L. monocytogenes , together with the severity of human listeriosis infections, make L. monocytogenes of particular concern for manufacturers of cold-stored "ready to eat" (RTE) foods. L. monocytogenes has been isolated from a wide variety of RTE foods and is responsible for several outbreaks associated with the consumption of RTE meat, poultry, dairy, fish and vegetable products. Although L. monocytogenes is among the most frequently-detected pathogens in dry fermented sausages, these products could be included in the category of RTE products in which the growth of L. monocytogenes is not favored and have rarely been implicated in listeriosis outbreaks. However, L. monocytogenes is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. In many Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages, an empirical application of the hurdle technology often occurs and the frequent detection of L. monocytogenes in these products at the end of ripening highlights the need for food business operators to properly apply hurdle technology and to control the contamination routes of L. monocytogenes in the processing plants. In the following, through an up-to-date review of (personal and un-) published data, the main aspects of the presence of L. monocytogenes in Mediterranean-style dry fermented sausages will be discussed.

  9. Effects of Freeze-Dried Vegetable Products on the Technological Process and the Quality of Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eisinaite, Viktorija; Vinauskiene, Rimante; Viskelis, Pranas; Leskauskaite, Daiva

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the chemical composition of freeze-dried vegetable powders: celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek. The effect of different freeze-dried vegetables onto the ripening process and the properties of dry fermented sausages was also evaluated. Vegetable products significantly (p products contained higher amounts of nitrates, total phenolic compounds and lower amounts of sucrose, parsnip had higher concentration of proteins, leek was rich in fat. The analysis of pH, water activity, lactic acid bacteria, coagulase-positive staphylococci and coliforms content showed that the incorporation of freeze-dried vegetables had no negative effect on the fermentation and ripening process of dry fermented sausages. In addition, the color parameters for sausages with the added lyophilised celery products were considerable (p products and control. Freeze-dried celery, celery juice, parsnip and leek have some potential for the usage as a functional ingredient or as a source for indirect addition of nitrate in the production of fermented sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Characterisation and detection of spoilage mould responsible for black spot in dry-cured fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lozano-Ojalvo, Daniel; Rodríguez, Alicia; Cordero, Mirian; Bernáldez, Victoria; Reyes-Prieto, Mariana; Córdoba, Juan J

    2015-02-01

    Moulds responsible for black spot spoilage of dry-cured fermented sausages were characterised. For this purpose, samples were taken from those dry-cured fermented sausages which showed black spot alteration. Most of the mould strains were first tentatively identified as Penicillium spp. due to their morphological characteristics in different culture conditions, with one strain as Cladosporium sp. The Cladosporium strain was the only one which provoked blackening in culture media. This strain was further characterised by sequencing of ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 rRNA and β-tubulin genes. This mould strain was able to reproduce black spot formation in dry-cured fermented sausage 'salchichón' throughout the ripening process. In addition, a specific and sensitive real-time PCR method was also developed to detect Cladosporium oxysporum responsible for the black spot formation in sausages. This method could be of great interest for the meat industry to detect samples contaminated with this mould before spoilage of product avoiding economic losses for this sector.

  11. Quantitative microbial risk assessment of Salmonella in dry fermented sausage (salami) in Southern Brazil

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corbellini, Luis Gustavo; Costa, Eduardo de Freitas; Cardoso, Marisa

    2017-01-01

    Dry fermented sausage (salami) is a very popular ready-to-eat product in Southern Brazil, of which the raw materials can be contaminated with pathogens such as Salmonella. This product can put consumers at risk if a failure occurs during the manufacturing process. To investigate this risk...... and heterogeneous). In general, it was observed that the mean exposure to Salmonella due to ingestion of a portion of contaminated salami was very low; "zero risks" (with no cases of salmonellosis among 100,000 consumed portions of salami) were found in 65% of the scenarios (265/405) assessed and low risks were...... low, selling dry fermented sausage before complete maturation of the product and failure in fermentation can pose a risk to the consumers from the studied region. It was found that a maturation period of 24 days can be considered safe, even in a situation with high initial levels of contamination....

  12. Sensory evaluation of dry-fermented sausage containing ground deodorized yellow mustard.

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    Li, Shuliu; Aliani, Michel; Holley, Richard A

    2013-10-01

    Ground deodorized yellow mustard is used as a binder and meat protein substitute in cooked processed meat products. Recent studies have shown that it has the potential to be used in uncooked processed meat products because of its natural antimicrobial properties. In the present study, ground deodorized yellow mustard was added to uncooked dry-fermented sausage during manufacture at 1% to 4% (w/w) and analyzed for its effects on starter cultures, physico-chemical properties, and consumer acceptability. Mustard had a nondose-dependent inhibitory effect on the Staphylococcus starter culture, had no effect on water activity or instrumental texture, and tended to accelerate sausage pH reduction. At 3% and 4% mustard, consumer scores on all sensory attributes as well as overall acceptability were significantly lower. The appearance and color of 3% and 4% mustard-treated sausages were liked slightly, whereas flavor, texture, and overall acceptability scores were reduced. The control without mustard and 1% mustard-treated sausages had similar sensory properties and were the most acceptable, while 2% mustard-treated sausages were given "like moderately" and "like slightly" descriptors. Sensory results mean that at concentrations necessary for mandated regulatory control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in dry sausages, mustard may have a negative effect on consumer acceptance. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effect of starter cultures combinations on lipolytic activity and ripening of dry fermented sausages

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    Enver Baris Bingol

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available The effect of starter culture combinations on the quality of Turkish type dry fermented sausage (sucuk were evaluated during ripening and storage periods. Sucuk formulations were produced without (control and with three different starter culture combinations; i Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus, ii Staphylococcus carnosus+ Lactobacillus sakei, and iii Staphylococcus carnosus+Pediococcus pentosaceus+Lactobacillus sakei. Analysis of microbiological, physico-chemical and lipase enzyme levels of samples were conducted until the 60th day. Interactions among the presence of lipolytic starter cultures, lipase enzyme levels and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were also evaluated both in ripening and drying periods. There were apparent differences on microbiological and chemical properties between samples prepared with starters and control. It has been concluded that the use of lipolytic starter cultures in suitable combination would have positive effect on the acceleration of ripening and improvement of the quality of dry fermented sausages.

  14. Effect of spices commercial mixture with GDL on the quality of fermented dry-cured sausages

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    Miroslav Kročko

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The main fermented meat products are fermented sausages in which lactic acid bacteria (LAB are the essential agents of the ripening process. Their application as starter organisms ensures the dominance of the starter during the whole ripening process. However, when no starter cultures are used, direct addition of acids like a glucono-delta-lactone (GdL is preferred. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of commercial spices mixtur (containing GdL on selected technological parameters of fermented dry-cured sausages - Danube sausage in comparison with currently available conventional spices. Comparison was evaluated also with addition of starter cultures. Determinations of technological (value of pH, water activity, color and microbiological properties (count of Lactobacillus spp., Enterobacteriaceae family, yeasts and moulds were realized after 24 hours, 5 and 30 days. The sensory analysis of sausages was carried out after 30 days of ripening process. In sausages with the addition of commercial spice mixture in combination with starter culture were determined the lowest values of pH and aw at the end of ripening process (30 days. Bacteria of Enterobacteriaceae family were occurred in the samples with the addition of currently available conventional spices at the beginning of ripening, but after 5 days of ripening were bacteria of this family not detected. The counts of yeasts in analyzed samples were not detected. Counts of LAB at the end of ripening proccess (30 days were lower in coparison with result obtained after 5 days; however their count was comparable with count determined at the beginig of the ripening. Our results show, that the combination of starter culture and commercial spice mixture containig GdL may cause excesive sour taste and sensory defect of dry fermented meat products.

  15. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The odour of the sausages was evaluated by a quantitative descriptive...... tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that salami odour was more pronounced in sausages fermented at low temperature than in sausages fermented at high temperature and added nitrite, glucose and P. pentosaceus. High temperature sausages had a more sour...

  16. Dry fermented buffalo sausage with sage oil extract: Safety and quality

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    Ibrahim, Hayam M.

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Sage oil extract was added during the preparation of dry fermented buffalo meat sausage. Some chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics of sausages were evaluated during the ripening period. In particular, pH, lipid oxidation, biogenic amines and micro flora were analyzed. Results of this study pointed out that sage oil extract as natural antioxidant could be utilized in dry fermented sausage, prepared from buffalo meat, in order to obtain a final product within acceptable lipid oxidation and biogenic amine levels, as well as improved sensory quality.Extractos de aceite de salvia fueron añadidos a embutidos de carne de búfalo. Las características químicas, microbiológicas y sensoriales de los embutidos fueron evaluadas durante el periodo de maduración. En particular, pH, oxidación lipídica, aminas biogénicas y microflora fueron analizadas. Los resultados de este estudio indican que los extractos de aceite de salvia, como antioxidantes naturales, podrían ser utilizados en embutidos preparados con carnes de búfalo, con objeto de obtener un producto final con unos niveles de aminas biogénicas y de oxidación lipídica aceptable, así como con una calidad sensorial mejorada.

  17. Microbiological, physicochemical and sensory parameters of dry fermented sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure processed raw meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Prieto, B; Rendueles, E; Alvarez-Ordoñez, A; Lunde, K; Alvseike, O; Prieto, M

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this trial was to describe physicochemical, microbiological and organoleptic characteristics of dry fermented sausages produced from high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) pre-processed trimmings. During ripening of the meat products pH, weight, water activity (aw), and several microbiological parameters were measured at zero, eight, fifteen days and after 6weeks. Sensory characteristics were estimated at day 15 and after six weeks by a test panel by using several sensory tests. Enterobacteriaceae were not detected in sausages from HHP-processed trimmings. Fermentation was little affected, but weight and aw of the HHP-processed sausages decreased faster during ripening. HHP-treated sausages were consistently less favoured than non HHP-treated sausages, but the strategy may be an alternative approach if the process is optimized. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. dry sausage

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    AJB SERVER

    2006-08-17

    Aug 17, 2006 ... production, proximate composition, sensory characteristics and microbial characteristics in sausage. (LAB count and .... flavour were determined by a twelve-member trained flavour and colour descriptive attribute panel using.

  19. Sensory properties and fatty acids profiles of fermented dry sausages made of pork meat from various breeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parunović, N.; Radović, Č.; Savić, R.

    2017-09-01

    In this study, the parallel examinations on fatty acid profiles and sensory properties of fermented dry sausages are presented. Three types of kulen and sremska sausages were made, which varied depending on the percentage of meat and fat derived from different pig breeds: autochthonous (Swallow-Belly Mangalitsa and Moravka) and commercial (Swedish Landrace). In sausages made from meat of commercial pig breed, the highest cholesterol content was detected. However, sausage made from the Mangalitsa pork meat contained higher levels of monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) and unsaturated fatty acid (USFA), and lower saturated fatty acid levels (SFA).The level of polyunsaturated (PUFA) in sausage made of Landrace pork meat was significantly higher than levels in other types. These differences between fatty acids were mostly deriving by higher total n-6 PUFA content. In a sausage made of Mangulitsa meat, the values of atherogenic (IA) and thrombogenic (IT) health lipid indexes are lower. Kulen and sremska sausages made from the Mangalitsa pork meat was superior in terms of colour, odour, taste, after taste and overall acceptability. This study demonstrate that pig breed have an effect on the chemical content, fatty acids profiles and sensory properties of dry fermented sausages.

  20. Effect of freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP) and nitrite level on processing and quality characteristics of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsoukalas, D S; Katsanidis, E; Marantidou, S; Bloukas, J G

    2011-02-01

    Fermented sausages were produced with 0.84% and 1.68% freeze-dried leek powder (FDLP), providing 75 and 150 mg/kg NaNO(3), respectively, and three levels of added nitrite (0, 75, and 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). A control treatment was also produced with 150 mg/kg NaNO(2). Sausages with FDLP were darker and yellower (pnitrite. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    OpenAIRE

    Šojić, Branislav V.; Petrović, Ljiljana S.; Mandić, Anamarija I.; Sedej, Ivana J.; Džinić, Natalija R.; Tomović, Vladimir M.; Jokanović, Marija R.; Tasić, Tatjana A.; Škaljac, Snežana B.; Ikonić, Predrag M.

    2014-01-01

    The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial) in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p

  2. Lipid oxidative changes in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šojić Branislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of drying and ripeninig conditions (traditional and industrial in the production of dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása, on fatty-acid composition and oxidative changes in lipids, during 7 months of storage, was investigated. During the storage period, the sum of unsaturated fatty acids and the content of free fatty acids were significantly higher (p<0.05, while the content of malondialdehyde was significantly lower in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening. At the end of the storage period, contents of pentanal and hexanal in the sausage subjected to traditional conditions of drying and ripening (4.03 μg/g and 1.67 μg/g, respectively were significantly lower (p<0.05 in comparison with these contents in the sausage subjected to industrial conditions of drying and ripening. Traditional conditions of drying and ripening at lower temperatures have led to lower oxidative changes in lipids in traditional dry fermented sausage Petrovská klobása during storage period. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR31032

  3. Listeria monocytogenes presence during fermentation, drying and storage of Petrovská klobása sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janković, V.; Mitrović, R.; Lakićević, B.; Velebit, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    The majority of human listeriosis cases appear to be caused by consumption of ready-to-eat (RTE) foods contaminated at the time of consumption with high levels of Listeria monocytogenes. Although strategies to prevent growth of L. monocytogenes in RTE products are critical for reducing the incidence of human listeriosis, this pathogen is highly difficult to control in fermented sausage processing environments due to its high tolerance to low pH and high salt concentration. The aims of the present study were to investigate the occurrence, presence and elimination of L. monocytogenes in Petrovská klobása sausage during processing, fermentation, drying and storage. L. monocytogenes, which was detected at the beginning of the production cycle, disappeared before day 30. The pathogen decline was much faster in those sausages which were dried in controlled, industrial conditions than in those dried applying the traditional, household technique.

  4. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from Bosnian artisanal dry fermented sausage (sudžuk during fermentation

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    Čolo Josip

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Bosnian sudžuk is a dry fermented sausage produced in a rural household near the town of Visoko in central Bosnia and Herzegovina. This kind of sausage was manufactured only from beef and spices in a traditional way without the addition of a starter cultures. To identify lactic acid bacteria (LAB, a total number of 160 Lstrains were isolated from five samples of Bosnian sudžuk collected over 28 days of fermentation. Preliminary identification by phenotypic tests and 16S rDNA sequencing were performed for all 160 of the Lisolates. Identification of Lstrains from traditionally produced Bosnian sausage at the species level revealed the presence of six genera: Lactococcus sp., Enterococcus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Lactobacillus sp., Pediococcus sp. and Weissella sp.. Among the 15 distinct species identified, the species Lactobacillus plantarum, Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus durans were present throughout the entire process of fermentation. Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactobacillus plantarum and Lactococcus lactis prevailed, with 21.8%, 19.3% and 13.1%, respectively, of total Lstrains during the entire fermentation process. Significant negative correlations (r = 0.892 and r = 0.829, respectively between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactobacillus sp., and between the presence of Weissella sp. and Lactococcus sp. were recorded. Lactobacillus plantarum, Enterococcus durans and Leuconostoc mesenteroides were the best producers of aromogenic compounds while 32.3% of Lactobacillus plantarum and 28.6% of Leuconostoc mesenteroides were produced exopolysaccharides. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 173019

  5. Selected Ion Flow Tube-Mass Spectrometry for Absolute Quantification of Aroma Compounds in the Headspace of Dry Fermented Sausages

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Olivares, A.; Dryahina, Kseniya; Navarro, J. L.; Flores, M.; Smith, D.; Španěl, Patrik

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 82, č. 13 (2010), s. 5819-5829 ISSN 0003-2700 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/09/0256 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : mass spectrometry * aroma compounds * dry fermented sausages Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 5.874, year: 2010

  6. Application of high pressure processing to reduce verotoxigenic E. coli in two types of dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omer, M K; Alvseike, O; Holck, A; Axelsson, L; Prieto, M; Skjerve, E; Heir, E

    2010-12-01

    The effect of high pressure processing (HPP) on the survival of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) in two types of Norwegian type dry-fermented sausages was studied. Two different types of recipes for each sausage type were produced. The sausage batter was inoculated with 6.8 log(10) CFU/g of VTEC O103:H25. After fermentation, drying and maturation, slices of finished sausages were vacuum packed and subjected to two treatment regimes of HPP. One group was treated at 600 MPa for 10 min and another at three cycles of 600 MPa for 200 s per cycle. A generalized linear model split by recipe type showed that these two HPP treatments on standard recipe sausages reduced E. coli by 2.9 log(10) CFU/g and 3.3 log(10) CFU/g, respectively. In the recipe with higher levels of dextrose, sodium chloride and sodium nitrite E. coli reduction was 2.7 log(10) CFU/g in both treatments. The data show that HPP has a potential to make the sausages safer and also that the effect depends somewhat on recipe. Copyright © 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Characterization and Technological Features of Autochthonous Coagulase-Negative Staphylococci as Potential Starters for Portuguese Dry Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semedo-Lemsaddek, Teresa; Carvalho, Laura; Tempera, Carolina; Fernandes, Maria H; Fernandes, Maria J; Elias, Miguel; Barreto, António S; Fraqueza, Maria J

    2016-05-01

    The manufacture of dry fermented sausages is an important part of the meat industry in Southern European countries. These products are usually produced in small shops from a mixture of pork, fat, salt, and condiments and are stuffed into natural casings. Meat sausages are slowly cured through spontaneous fermentation by autochthonous microbiota present in the raw materials or introduced during manufacturing. The aim of this work was to evaluate the technological and safety features of coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS) isolated from Portuguese dry fermented meat sausages in order to select autochthonous starters. Isolates (n = 104) obtained from 2 small manufacturers were identified as Staphylococcus xylosus, Staphylococcus equorum, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, and Staphylococcus carnosus. Genomically diverse isolates (n = 82) were selected for further analysis to determine the ability to produce enzymes (for example, nitrate-reductases, proteases, lipases) and antibiotic susceptibility. Autochthonous CNS producing a wide range of enzymes and showing low antibioresistance were selected as potential starters for future use in the production of dry fermented meat sausages. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®

  8. Sensory characteristics of European, dried, fermented sausages and the correlation to volatile profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller; Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; De Smedt, Anny

    1999-01-01

    In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study was to char......In the European FAIR-project: Control of Bioflavour and Safety in Northern and Mediterranean Fermented Meat Products (FAIR-CT97-3227) four different sausage types were manufactured in five replicates and characterised by sensory and analytical means. The objective of the present study...... was to characterise the flavour pattern of the FAIR sausages with regards to sensory perceived compounds and volatile/sensory profiles. According to gas chromatography-olfactometry the greatest differences between the Northern and Mediterranean sausages were attributed to coffee/roasted, phenolic and vinegar odours...

  9. Impact of casing damaging on aflatoxin B1 concentration during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pleadin, Jelka; Kovačević, Dragan; Perković, Irena

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this article is to investigate the impact of casing damaging on the formation of aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) during the ripening of dry-fermented meat sausages. The level of AFB1 contamination was determined in 24 samples using the ELISA immunoassay throughout a six-month production period. While with intact casing samples no contamination was observed throughout the whole production process, in damaged casing samples AFB1 was detected in the ripening end-stages in the range of 1.62-4.49 μg/kg. The results showed that casing damaging occurring during long-term ripening of dry-fermented sausages can cause AFB1 contamination, possibly arising on the grounds of diffusion of this mycotoxin from the product surface to its interior.

  10. Identification of small peptides arising from hydrolysis of meat proteins in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Constanza M; Bru, Elena; Vignolo, Graciela M; Fadda, Silvina G

    2015-06-01

    In this study, proteolysis and low molecular weight (LMW) peptides (<3kDa) from commercial Argentinean fermented sausages were characterized by applying a peptidomic approach. Protein profiles and peptides obtained by Tricine-SDS-PAGE and RP-HPLC-MS, respectively, allowed distinguishing two different types of fermented sausages, although no specific biomarkers relating to commercial brands or quality were recognized. From electrophoresis, α-actin, myoglobin, creatine kinase M-type and L-lactate dehydrogenase were degraded at different intensities. In addition, a partial characterization of fermented sausage peptidome through the identification of 36 peptides, in the range of 1000-2100 Da, arising from sarcoplasmic (28) and myofibrillar (8) proteins was achieved. These peptides had been originated from α-actin, myoglobin, and creatine kinase M-type, but also from the hydrolysis of other proteins not previously reported. Although muscle enzymes exerted a major role on peptidogenesis, microbial contribution cannot be excluded as it was postulated herein. This work represents a first peptidomic approach for fermented sausages, thereby providing a baseline to define key peptides acting as potential biomarkers. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of sodium ascorbate and sodium nitrite on protein and lipid oxidation in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berardo, A; De Maere, H; Stavropoulou, D A; Rysman, T; Leroy, F; De Smet, S

    2016-11-01

    The effects of sodium nitrite and ascorbate on lipid and protein oxidation were studied during the ripening process of dry fermented sausages. Samples were taken at day 0, 2, 8, 14, 21 and 28 of ripening to assess lipid (malondialdehyde) and protein (carbonyls and sulfhydryl groups) oxidation. Sodium ascorbate and nitrite were separately able to reduce the formation of malondialdehyde. Their combined addition resulted in higher amounts of carbonyl compounds compared to their separate addition or the treatment without any of both compounds. Moreover, sodium nitrite limited the formation of γ-glutamic semialdehyde whereas sodium ascorbate showed a pro-oxidant effect. A loss of thiol groups was observed during ripening, which was not affected by the use of sodium ascorbate nor sodium nitrite. In conclusion, sodium nitrite and ascorbate affected protein and lipid oxidation in different manners. The possible pro-oxidant effect of their combined addition on carbonyl formation might influence the technological and sensory properties of these products. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of caliber size and fat level on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 in dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Souza, James; Ahmed, Rafath; Strange, Philip; Barbut, Shai; Balamurugan, S

    2018-02-02

    Dry fermented sausages (DFS) have been subject to numerous validation studies, as pathogen reduction heavily relies on both ingredients and processing. In this study the effect of product caliber size (32, 55, 80mm), and fat level (low, 9.67%; high, 18.46% wt/wt) on the inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 during DFS production was examined. Sausages containing a five-strain cocktail of E. coli O157:H7 at 10 7 CFU/g were manufactured and monitored for changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated E. coli O157:H7 numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction rates were calculated. Significant (P0.05) different among sausages of different caliber size or fat levels. No significant (P>0.05) reduction in a w was observed during fermentation of the sausages. However, during the drying phase, sausages with larger caliber sizes required a significantly longer duration of drying to achieve the same a w of smaller caliber size sausages. For instance, to achieve an a w of ≤0.9, following 5days of fermentation/curing, 80mm caliber sausages required up to 27days of drying compared with 13 and 6days for 55 and 32mm caliber size sausages, respectively. Fat levels on the other hand did not significantly (P>0.05) effect the reduction of a w during drying of the sausages. During the fermentation stage there was a significant and rapid reduction in E. coli O157:H7 counts by about 1.1- to 1.4-log units, but was not significantly different among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels. Considering the whole process, only caliber size had a significant effect on log reduction of E. coli O157:H7. ANOVA of log reduction rates of E. coli O157:H7 among sausages of different caliber size and fat levels revealed no significant differences during the fermentation, however, during the drying of the sausages, log reduction rate of E. coli O157:H7 was significantly (PE. coli O157:H7 in high fat large caliber sausages was the lowest at -0.082±0.004 log

  13. Effect of irradiation of frozen meat/fat trimmings on microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chouliara, I; Samelis, J; Kakouri, A; Badeka, A; Savvaidis, I N; Riganakos, K; Kontominas, M G

    2006-10-01

    Changes in microbiological and physicochemical quality attributes resulting from the use of irradiation in the production of Greek dry fermented sausage were investigated as a function of fermentation/ripening time. Results showed that irradiating meat/fat trimmings at 2 or 4kGy prior to sausage production eliminated natural contamination with Listeria spp., and reduced pseudomonads, enterococci and pathogenic staphylococci, and enterobacteria, to less than 2 and 1logcfug(-1), respectively. Pseudomonads were very sensitive (>3.4 log reduction) to either radiation dose. Yeasts were the most resistant followed by inherent lactic acid bacteria; their reductions on the trimmings were radiation dose-dependent. Residual effects of irradiation were noted against enterococci, but not against gram-negatives which died off fast during fermentation even in non-irradiated samples. Growth of the starter bacteria, Lactobacillus pentosus and Staphylococcus carnosus, inoculated in the sausage batters post-irradiation was unaffected by the 2 or 4kGy pre-treatment of the trimmings. Irradiation had little or no effect at the end of ripening period (28 days) on pH, moisture content and color (parameters L(∗), a(∗), and b(∗)). Changes in TBA values were small but statistically significant with irradiated samples having higher TBA values than control samples.

  14. COMPARISON OF COMMERCIAL DNA KITS AND TRADITIONAL DNA EXTRACTION PROCEDURE IN PCR DETECTION OF PORK IN DRY/FERMENTED SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivona Djurkin Kušec

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available In the present study four commercially available DNA extraction kits (Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit, High Pure PCR Template Kit, DNeasy mericon Food and GeneJET PCR Purification Kit, as well as standard phenol/chloroform isolation technique have been evaluated regarding their concentration, purity and suitability for amplification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausages. The isolates were assessed for quantity and quality using spectrophotometer (IMPLEN GmbH, Germany. To verify template usability and quality of isolated DNA, the polymerase chain reaction (PCR targeting at porcine cytochrome b by species specific primers was used. The comparison of extraction methods revealed satisfactory efficiency and purity of all extraction kits, while with standard phenol/chloroform isolation method high concentrations of DNA with low A260/280 were obtained. However, all the investigated techniques proved to be suitable for identification of porcine DNA in dry/fermented sausage. Thus, the standard phenol/chloroform DNA extraction method, as the cost-effective one, can be recommended as a good alternative to more expensive isolation kits when investigating the presence of pork DNA in dry/ fermented meat products.

  15. Contribution of the microbial and meat endogenous enzymes to the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hierro, E; de La Hoz, L; Ordóñez, J A

    1999-03-01

    The role of the starter culture and meat endogenous enzymes on the free amino acid and amine contents of dry fermented sausages was studied. Five batches of sausages were prepared. The control batch was manufactured with aseptic ingredients without microbial inoculation. The other four experimental batches were manufactured with aseptic ingredients inoculated with Lactobacillus plantarum 4045 or Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Micrococcus-12 or L. plantarum 4045 and Staphylococcus sp. Their effects on pH, a(w), myofibrillar proteins, and free amino acid and amine contents were studied. Sausages inoculated only with L. plantarum 4045 or with this starter combined with a Micrococcaceae had the lowest pH as a result of carbohydrate fermentation. In all batches similar patterns were observed for myofibrillar proteins and free amino acids which could indicate that meat endogenous proteases play an important role in proteolytic phenomena. No changes were observed in the amine fraction, indicating that the strains used as starter cultures did not show amino acid decarboxylase activity.

  16. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Waade, C.; Waade, Charlotte

    1997-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six-factor fractional design. The amounts of individual amino acids were measured and the effects...... that the amounts of the volatile compounds, 2-methyl propanal, 2- and 3-methyl butanal, were inversely correlated with the amounts of valine, isoleucine and leucine, respectively, indicating that those volatiles were degradation products of the latter. (C) 1997 Elsevier Science Ltd....

  17. Implantation ability of the potential probiotic strain, Lactobacillus reuteri PL519, in "Salchichón," a traditional Iberian dry fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz-Moyano, Santiago; Martín, Alberto; Benito, María José; Aranda, Emilio; Casquete, Rocío; Córdoba, María de Guia

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of incorporating the probiotic L. reuteri PL519 into the manufacturing of Iberian dry fermented sausages, and to observe its effect on the sensory properties of these meat products. Specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was carried out to detect the presence of probiotic strain at high counts in the inoculated sausages. Changes due to probiotic inoculation on physicochemical parameters were determined and the impact on sensory quality evaluated. Dry fermented sausages inoculated with L. reuteri PL519 may be considered as functional products according to the counts of this strain found at the end of processing. Inoculation with L. reuteri PL519 increased the amount of acetic acid, protein, and lipid degradation products in dry fermented sausages. The differences observed in the descriptive sensorial analysis corresponded, however, to a little impact on overall acceptability since no significant changes were found between the control and L. reuteri PL519 batch in the hedonic test. Processing and marketing of Iberian dry fermented sausages with functional characteristics. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    Sausages with added Staphylococcus xylosus were fermented at different temperatures and with different added levels of salt, glucose, nitrite, nitrate and Pediococcus pentosaceus in accordance with a six factor fractional design. The numbers of surviving Staphylococcus xylosus, lactic acid bacteria......, pH, free fatty acids and residual amounts of nitrite and nitrate were measured. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the chemical and bacterial data were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that numbers of surviving Staphylococcus...... of glucose and Pediococcus pentosaceus. On the other hand pH was increased by addition of nitrate. The pH-lowering effect of glucose was small when temperature was low. The residual levels of nitrite and nitrate were increased by addition of nitrate, but then increased and decreased, respectively...

  19. Fat Reduction and Replacement in Dry-Cured Fermented Sausage by Using High Pressure Processing Meat as Fat Replacer and Olive Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bolumar Tomas

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper describes the modification of the lipid fraction of dry-cured fermented sausage through fat reduction (35% and fat replacement of animal fat with olive oil (up to 10%. High pressure processing (HPP treated meat was employed as a novel fat replacer to reduce the fat content and as a new strategy to enable a stable incorporation of olive oil in dry-cured fermented sausages. Chemical (proximate composition and fatty acid profile, physical (water retention, structure formation and colour and sensorial (appearance, texture and flavour properties were evaluated. It is concluded that 35% of fat reduction is possible without reduction of consumer acceptability. Moreover, the addition of HPP-treated meat as a fat replacer resulted in good mimic of the fat particles together with good physical and sensory properties. Therefore, it resulted in an effective and clean alternative (no added-additives for fat reduction. However, the incorporation of olive oil either by direct addition (4.3% oil or within a HPP-created protein network (10% oil resulted in unacceptable products since the oil was not properly retained inside the sausage matrix. Further studies are needed to find processing strategies that permit a stable incorporation of liquid plant oils to dry-cured fermented sausage for the development of healthier and more sustainable dry-cured fermented meat products.

  20. NIR technology for on-line determination of superficial a(w) and moisture content during the drying process of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collell, Carles; Gou, Pere; Arnau, Jacint; Muñoz, Israel; Comaposada, Josep

    2012-12-01

    Three different NIR equipment were evaluated based on their ability to predict superficial water activity (a(w)) and moisture content in two types of fermented sausages (with and without moulds on surface), using partial least squares (PLS) regression models. The instruments differed mainly in wavelength range, resolution and measurement configuration. The most accurate equipment was used in a new experiment to achieve robust models in sausages with different salt contents and submitted to different drying conditions. The models developed showed determination coefficients (R(2)(P)) values of 0.990, 0.910 and 0.984, and RMSEP values of 1.560%, 0.220% and 0.007% for moisture, salt and a(w) respectively. It was demonstrated that NIR spectroscopy could be a suitable non-destructive method for on-line monitoring and control of the drying process in fermented sausages. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Modeling the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes, and Salmonella Typhimurium during fermentation, drying, and storage of soudjouk-style fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, Cheng-An; Porto-Fett, Anna C S; Juneja, Vijay K; Ingham, Steven C; Ingham, Barbara H; Luchansky, John B

    2009-02-28

    This study quantified and modeled the survival of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Typhimurium in soudjouk-style fermented sausage during fermentation, drying, and storage. Batter prepared from ground beef (20% fat), seasonings, starter culture, and dextrose was separately inoculated with a multi-strain mixture of each pathogen to an initial inoculum of ca. 6.5 log(10) CFU/g in the batter. The sausages were subsequently fermented at 24 degrees C with a relative humidity (RH) of 90% to 95% for 3 to 5 days to ca. pH 5.2, pH 4.9 or pH 4.6, then dried at 22 degrees C to a(w) 0.92, a(w) 0.89, or a(w) 0.86, respectively, and then stored at 4, 21, or 30 degrees C for up to 60 days. Lethality of the three pathogens was modeled as a function of pH, a(w) and/or storage temperature. During fermentation to pH 5.2 to pH 4.6, cell reductions ranged from 0 to 0.9 log(10) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, 0.1 to 0.5 log(10) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes, and 0 to 2.2 log(10) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium. Subsequent drying of sausages of pH 5.2 to pH 4.6 at 22 degrees C with 80% to 85% RH for 3 to 7 days to a(w) of 0.92 to a(w) 0.86 resulted in additional reductions that ranged from 0 to 3.5 log(10) CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7, 0 to 0.4 log(10) CFU/g for L. monocytogenes, and 0.3 to 2.4 log(10) CFU/g for S. Typhimurium. During storage at 4, 21, or 30 degrees C the reduction rates of the three pathogens were generally higher (pfermentation, drying, and storage. The applicability of the resulting models for fermented sausage was evaluated by comparing model predictions with published data. Pathogen reductions estimated by the models for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium were comparable to 67% and 73% of published data, respectively. Due to limited published data for L. monocytogenes, the models for L. monocytogenes would need additional validations. Results of pathogen reductions from this study may be used as a reference to assist manufacturers of soudjouk

  2. Effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-/nitrate-free fermented sausage made from deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Karwowska

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study evaluated the effect of acid whey and freeze-dried cranberries on the physicochemical characteristics, lipid oxidation and fatty acid composition of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat and pork fat. Antioxidant interactions between acid whey and cranberry compounds were also explored. Methods Four formulations of fermented venison sausage were prepared: F1 (control, F2 (with 5% liquid acid whey, F3 (with 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries, and F4 (with 5% liquid acid whey and 0.06% of freeze-dried cranberries. Each sample was analyzed for pH, water activity (aw, heme iron content, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS value and conjugated dienes at the end of the manufacturing process and at 30 and 90 days of refrigerated storage. Fatty acid composition was measured once at the end of the manufacturing process. Results At the end of ripening, all samples presented statistically different values for a pH range of 4.47 to pH 4.59. The sum of the unsaturated fatty acids was higher, while the conjugated diene and the TBARS values were lower in sausages with freeze-dried cranberries as compared to the control sausage. The highest content of heme iron (21.52 mg/kg at day 90 was found in the sausage formulation with the addition of freeze-dried cranberries, which suggests that the addition of cranberries stabilized the porphyrin ring of the heme molecule during storage and thereby reduced the release of iron. The use of liquid acid whey in combination with cranberries appears to not be justified in view of the oxidative stability of the obtained products. Conclusion The results suggest that the application of freeze-dried cranberries can lower the intensity of oxidative changes during the storage of nitrite-free fermented sausage made from deer meat.

  3. Selection and evaluation of Debaryomyces hansenii isolates as potential bioprotective agents against toxigenic penicillia in dry-fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Félix; Lara, María S; Peromingo, Belén; Delgado, Josué; Sánchez-Montero, Lourdes; Andrade, María J

    2015-04-01

    Biocontrol using autochthonous Debaryomyces hansenii isolates is a potentially suitable strategy for inhibiting toxigenic moulds in dry-cured meat products. The antifungal activity of 280 D. hansenii isolated from dry-cured meat products as well as the mode of action of the most active isolates against toxigenic penicillia were evaluated in this work. A 13.9% of the D. hansenii isolates showed inhibitory activity in a radial inhibition assay. The effects on penicillia growth of both the cell-free culture filtrate and volatile compounds from active yeast isolates were analysed. Penicillia growth inhibition by D. hansenii was probably based on additive or synergistic effects of several inhibiting factors such as competition for nutrient and space, and production of soluble or volatile compounds. When four D. hansenii isolates were tested on dry-fermented sausage, two of them produced a significantly growth reduction of the ochratoxigenic Penicillium verrucosum, keeping its counts under the level considered as hazardous for the mycotoxin presence. Therefore, the use of these two D. hansenii isolates during the processing of dry-fermented meat product could be a promising tool to control toxigenic moulds in the meat industry. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Optimisation of the addition of carrot dietary fibre to a dry fermented sausage (sobrassada) using artificial neural networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eim, Valeria S; Simal, Susana; Rosselló, Carmen; Femenia, Antoni; Bon, José

    2013-07-01

    An optimisation problem was formulated to maximise the amount of carrot dietary fibre (CDF) in a dry fermented sausage, while maintaining product quality, by using 0-12% CDF as the decision variable, and limiting values of several physico-chemical and textural parameters (moisture content, water activity, pH, colour, non-protein nitrogen, free fatty acid, compression work and hardness) as constraints. The evolution of each quality parameter during the ripening process was estimated by developing a multi-layer feed forward artificial neural network (ANN), taking into consideration the CDF concentration and the ripening time as independent variables. Results indicate an optimum CDF concentration of 4.9% with a good correlation between experimental and estimated values (mean relative error≤3.35%). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Physico-chemical characteristics and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages as affected by the use of various combinations of starter cultures and spices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Lihua; Jin, Ye; Ma, Changwei; Song, Huanlu; Li, Hui; Wang, Zhenyu; Xiao, Shan

    2011-08-01

    The microbiological, physico-chemical and free fatty acid composition of dry fermented mutton sausages were determined during ripening and storage. Three sausage mixtures (starter culture [SC], SC and black pepper [SC+BP] and SC, BP and cumin [SC+BP+C]) were compared with a control (CO). In general, the lactic acid bacteria populations in the SC+BP increased significantly to 9 log CFU/g and were higher than the CO (8 log CFU/g) (P0.05). Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Yersinia enterocolitica in fermented sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitrović, R.; Janković, V.; Baltić, B.; Ivanović, J.

    2017-09-01

    Different types of food, among them meat, can be the cause of food-borne diseases, and infections are commonly caused by Campylobacter, Salmonella, Yersinia enterocolitica, verotoxic Escherichia coli and Listeria monocytogenes. All these bacteria, depending on a number of factors, including animal species, geographical origin, climatic factors, methods of animal breeding and meat production, could cause disease. Here, we summarise results on production of different groups of sausages produced with or without added starter culture, and contaminated with Y.enterocolitica (control sausages were not contaminated). During the ripening, changes in the microbiological status of the fermented sausages and their physical and chemical properties were monitored. For all tests, standard methods were used. In these fermented sausages, the number of Y. enterocolitica decreased during ripening. The number of Y. enterocolitica was statistically significantly lower in sausages with added starter culture on all days of the study Zoonotic pathogens in meat should be controlled through the complete production chain, from the farms to consumers, in order to reduce the probability of disease in humans. However, the necessary controls in the production chain are not the same for all bacteria.

  7. Effective survival of immobilized Lactobacillus casei during ripening and heat treatment of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and investigation of the microbial dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sidira, Marianthi; Karapetsas, Athanasios; Galanis, Alex; Kanellaki, Maria; Kourkoutas, Yiannis

    2014-02-01

    The aim was the assessment of immobilized Lactobacillus casei ATCC 393 on wheat in the production of probiotic dry-fermented sausages and the investigation of the microbial dynamics. For comparison, sausages containing either free L. casei ATCC 393 or no starter culture were also prepared. During ripening, the numbers of lactobacilli exceeded 7 log cfu/g, while a drastic decrease was observed in enterobacteria, staphylococci and pseudomonas counts. Microbial diversity was further studied applying a PCR-DGGE protocol. Members of Lactobacillus, Leuconostoc, Lactococcus, Carnobacterium, Brochothrix, Bacillus and Debaryomyces were the main microbial populations detected. Microbiological and strain-specific multiplex PCR analysis confirmed that the levels of L. casei ATCC 393 in the samples after 66 days of ripening were above the minimum concentration for conferring a probiotic effect (≥ 6 log cfu/g). However, after heat treatment, this strain was detected at the above levels, only in sausages containing immobilized cells. © 2013.

  8. Effect of storage and packaging on fatty acid composition and oxidation in dry fermented sausages made with added olive oil and antioxidants

    OpenAIRE

    Ansorena, D. (Diana); Astiasarán, I. (Iciar)

    2004-01-01

    Dry fermented sausages produced by a partial substitution of pork backfat with preemulsified olive oil were manufactured and stored (2 and 5 months) using different packing conditions (aerobic/ vacuum piece/ vacuum slices) in order to evaluate the intensity of the oxidation process. Also the effect of the addition of BHT and BHA to one of the modified batches was studied. Addition of olive oil, especially with antioxidants, was more effective than using vacuum storing methods in avoiding lipi...

  9. Survival of experimentally induced Toxoplasma gondii tissue cysts in vacuum packed goat meat and dry fermented goat meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neumayerová, Helena; Juránková, Jana; Saláková, Alena; Gallas, Leo; Kovařčík, Kamil; Koudela, Břetislav

    2014-05-01

    Ingestion of raw or undercooked meat is a potential source of human toxoplasmosis. The aim of this study was to determine the viability of Toxoplasma gondii cysts in vacuum packed (VP) goat meat and in dry fermented sausages (DFS), and evaluate certain physical and chemical parameters, like water activity (aw), pH value, content of salt, dry matter and fat. A portion of muscle tissue from experimentally infected animals was used for production of VP meat with or without addition of 2.5% curing salt, and stored at 4 °C or at -20 °C. Results of bioassay showed that, samples of vacuum packed Toxoplasma positive meat without salt addition were alive after six weeks at 4 °C. Incubation at -20 °C supported the viability after 3 h, but not after 4 h. After 7 days in 2.5% of curing salt, samples of T. gondii VP goat meat were still viable, but not after 14 days at 4 °C. All the DFS samples were not positive for infective cysts which mean that, they do not pose a risk of T. gondii transmission. These data suggest that vacuum packaging increases the survival of T. gondii cysts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dried sausages fermented with Staphylococcus xylosus at different temperatures and with different ingredient levels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1995-01-01

    headspace sampling and quantified and identified by gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The effects of temperature and different ingredients on the levels of individual volatiles were tested using multiple linear regression and analysis of variance. The study showed that sausages...

  11. Effect of processing on proteolysis and biogenic amines formation in a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented ripened sausage "Chouriço Grosso de Estremoz e Borba PGI".

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roseiro, L C; Gomes, A; Gonçalves, H; Sol, M; Cercas, R; Santos, C

    2010-01-01

    The influence of alternative drying environmental conditions on the proteolysis of a traditional Portuguese fermented sausage was evaluated, in relation to different ripening periods. Traditional sausages (batch T) had lower pH than counterparts (batch M), with differences (Palanine>taurine>serine>valine and taurine>alanine>leucine>serine>valine sequences in the former product from batches T and M, respectively, and, coincidently, the same sequence for both batches in the later (serine>leucine>alanine>proline>valine). Such effect on FAA concentrations led to a distinct (Psweet, bitter, acidic and aged sensorial attributes between batches, in S8 and S9 products. BA typical quantitative sequences varied between batches according to the ripening stage, with differences in S6 and S7 end products also reflecting the distinct microbial development rates and profiles observed. Overall, the total BA mean concentration was higher (P<0.05) in products from batch T.

  12. Microbiological profiles, pH, and titratable acidity of chorizo and salchichón (two Spanish dry fermented sausages) manufactured with ostrich, deer, or pork meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capita, Rosa; Llorente-Marigómez, Sandra; Prieto, Miguel; Alonso-Calleja, Carlos

    2006-05-01

    Microbial counts, pH, and titratable acidity were determined in 102 Spanish dry fermented sausages (chorizo and salchichón) made with ostrich, deer, or pork meat. Average microbial counts (log CFU per gram) varied from 5.46 +/- 0.24 to 8.25 +/- 0.80 (total viable counts), from 4.79 +/- 0.36 to 7.99 +/- 0.20 (psychrotrophs), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 0.99 +/- 1.10 (undetectable values were assumed to be zero) (Enterobacteriaceae), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 4.27 +/- 1.47 (enterococci), from 5.15 +/- 1.15 to 8.46 +/- 0.49 (lactic acid bacteria), from 3.08 +/- 0.44 to 6.59 +/- 1.76 (Micrococcaceae), from 2.27 +/- 1.53 to 5.11 +/- 1.81 (molds and yeasts), from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 2.25 +/- 0.81 (pseudomonads), and from 0.00 +/- 0.00 to 2.78 +/- 0.46 (Brochothrix thermosphacta). Average pH and titratable acidity varied from 5.07 +/- 0.25 to 5.63 +/- 0.51 (pH units) and from 0.30 +/- 0.01 to 0.86 +/- 0.19 (% lactic acid). Both type of sausage (P < 0.05) and species of meat (P < 0.001) influenced microbial counts. Salchich6n samples showed lower average values than chorizo samples for most microbial groups (significant for Enterobacteriaceae, lactic acid bacteria, and B. thermosphacta) and titratable acidity. Sausages made from pork showed the highest microbial loads for total viable counts, psychrotrophs, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, lactic acid bacteria, and yeasts and molds. Higher counts were observed only for pseudomonads in ostrich sausages. B. thermosphacta levels were similar for all species of meat. The highest average pH value was observed in sausages made from ostrich meat, and the lowest titratable acidity level was found in pork sausages.

  13. Standard working procedures in production of traditionally fermented Sremska sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Investigations conducted within project "Techonological and protective characteristics of autochthonous strains of lactic acid bacteria isolated from traditional fermented sausages and possibilities for their implementation in the meat industry" (Project Number: 20127, financed on behalf of the Ministry for Science and Technology of the Republic of Serbia, have provided an answer on the characteristics of the quality of the used raw materials for the production of Sremska sausage - one of the most well-known Serbian traditionally fermented sausages (choice of meat, fatty tissue, additives and spices, and data have been registered in connection with the procedures of their processing, microclimatic conditions have been established (temperature, relative humidity, and air circulation during the entire process of production and fermentation, as well as the presence and types of microorganisms, primarily lactic acid bacteria (BMK, the carrier of lactic fermentation. The most important characteristics of the filling have been established, the smoking regimen, the regimens of fermentation, maturing, drying, as well as the parameters for quality and safety of the finished product. At the same time, the standard working procedure has been determined for the preparation of the meat, fatty tissue, the forming and inserting of the filling into the wrappers, as well as the characteristics of the finished products. The given standard working procedure should serve as a guideline for the meat industry in the production process of this traditional fermented sausage.

  14. Health and Safety Considerations of Fermented Sausages

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    Askild Holck

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are highly treasured traditional foods. A large number of distinct sausages with different properties are produced using widely different recipes and manufacturing processes. Over the last years, eating fermented sausages has been associated with potential health hazards due to their high contents of saturated fats, high NaCl content, presence of nitrite and its degradation products such as nitrosamines, and use of smoking which can lead to formation of toxic compounds such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Here we review the recent literature regarding possible health effects of the ingredients used in fermented sausages. We also go through attempts to improve the sausages by lowering the content of saturated fats by replacing them with unsaturated fats, reducing the NaCl concentration by partly replacing it with KCl, and the use of selected starter cultures with desirable properties. In addition, we review the food pathogenic microorganisms relevant for fermented sausages (Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, Clostridium botulinum, and Toxoplasma gondii and processing and postprocessing strategies to inhibit their growth and reduce their presence in the products.

  15. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karsloğlu, Betül; Çiçek, Ümran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Candoğan, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p<0.05). After drying stage, free fatty acid values of traditional style and heat processed fermented sausages were between 10.54-13.01% and 6.56-8.49%, respectively. Thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of traditionally processed fermented sausages were between 0.220-0.450 mg·kg(-1), and TBA values of heat processed fermented sausages were in a range of 0.405-0.795 mg·kg(-1). Oleic and linoleic acids were predominant fatty acids in all fermented sausages. It was seen that fermented sausage groups produced with starter culture had lower TBA and FFA values in comparison with the control groups, and heat application inhibited the lipase enzyme activity and had an improving effect on lipid oxidation. As a result of these effects, heat processed fermented sausages had lower FFA and higher TBA values than the traditionally processed groups.

  16. Reduction of sodium and increment of calcium and ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in dry fermented sausages: effects on the mineral content, lipid profile and sensory quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Íñiguez de Ciriano, Mikel; Berasategi, Izaskun; Navarro-Blasco, Iñigo; Astiasarán, Iciar; Ansorena, Diana

    2013-03-15

    A combined technological approach was applied in the development of healthier dry fermented sausages: a partial substitution of the pork back fat by pre-emulsified linseed oil and a partial replacement of sodium chloride with calcium ascorbate at two different levels, leading to low amounts of salt (14gSalt and 10gSalt, with 14 g and 10 g NaCl per kg of mixture, respectively). The developed products (14gSalt and 10gSalt) showed adequate results for a(w) (0.85 and 0.87) and pH (4.98 and 5.21), and low lipid oxidation values (1.4 × 10(-4) and 1.5 × 10(-5) g malondialdehyde (MDA) kg(-1)). The lipid modification led to a significantly higher supply of ω-3 (23.3 g kg(-1) ) compared to the control (3.2 g kg(-1) ). Simultaneously, reductions of 38% and 50% in sodium content and a calcium supply of 4 and 5.2 g kg(-1) were achieved in the 14gSalt and 10gSalt formulations, respectively, compared to the control products (26 g salt and 0.87 g kg(-1) Ca). Instrumental analysis of colour and texture and sensory studies demonstrated that the organoleptic quality of the new formulations was similar to that of traditional products. The developed dry fermented sausages showed healthier properties than traditional ones owing to their reduced sodium and higher calcium content and a significant supply of ω-3 fatty acids. © 2012 Society of Chemical Industry.

  17. Relating physicochemical and microbiological safety indicators during processing of linguiça, a Portuguese traditional dry-fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonzales-Barron, U; Cadavez, V; Pereira, A P; Gomes, A; Araújo, J P; Saavedra, M J; Estevinho, L; Butler, F; Pires, P; Dias, T

    2015-12-01

    Linguiça is a Portuguese traditional fermented sausage whose microbiological quality and safety can be highly variable. In order to elucidate risk factors and the particularities of the manufacturing technology that explain the between-batch variability in total viable counts (TVC), Enterobacteriaceae, Staphylococcus aureus and Listeria monocytogenes in the product; microbiological and physicochemical characterisation of linguiça at five stages of production (i.e., raw pork meat, mixed with ingredients, macerated, smoked and ripened) was carried out. A total of six production batches were surveyed from two factories; one utilised curing salts and polyphosphate in their formulation (Factory II). The delayed fermentation in the nitrite-formulated sausages was partly responsible for the increase (pmeat (3.21logCFU/g, 1.30logCFU/g and 22.2CFU/g, respectively) to the end of maceration (4.14logCFU/g, 2.10logCFU/g and 140CFU/g, respectively) while the better acidification process in the nitrite-free sausages (Factory I) led to lower counts of S. aureus (2.64logCFU/g) and L. monocytogenes (10CFU/g) in the finished products. In Factory II, although L. monocytogenes entered the chain at the point of mixing, it became steadily inactivated during smoking and ripening (Nitrite had a strong effect on reducing Enterobacteriaceae throughout smoking (r=-0.73) and ripening (r=-0.59), while it failed to control the growth of S. aureus. The main hurdle preventing the development of S. aureus in linguiça is the pH, and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening days (p=0.019), low S. aureus in raw meat (p=0.098), properly-washed casings (p=0.094), and less contamination during mixing (p=0.199). In the case of L. monocytogenes, at least three hurdles hinder its development in linguiça: low a w (p=0.004), low pH (p=0.040) and nitrite (p=0.060), and other factors contributing to its control are: longer ripening (p=0.072) and maceration (p=0.106) periods, lower a w

  18. 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline - key aroma compound in Mediterranean dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    2000-01-01

    In a study characterising sausage types from various parts of Europe, ten Mediterranean and Northern European fermented, dried sausages were compared using static headspace gas chromatography-olfactometry and a sniffing panel of five members. The greatest difference between the Northern...

  19. Influence of meat source, pH and production time on zinc protoporphyrin IX formation as natural colouring agent in nitrite-free dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Maere, Hannelore; Chollet, Sylvie; De Brabanter, Jos; Michiels, Chris; Paelinck, Hubert; Fraeye, Ilse

    2018-01-01

    Nitrite is commonly used in meat products due to its plural technological advantages. However, it is controversial because of its detrimental side effects on health. Within the context of nitrite reduction, zinc protoporphyrin IX (Zn(II)PPIX) formation in meat products as natural red colouring agent has been suggested. This investigation presents the evaluation of naturally occurring pigments, namely Zn(II)PPIX, protoporphyrin IX (PPIX) and heme in nitrite-free dry fermented sausages in function of time, meat source (pork, horsemeat and a combination of both meat sources) and pH condition. In function of time, Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX were formed and heme content decreased. Higher pH conditions promoted Zn(II)PPIX and PPIX formation, whereas the influence of pH on heme was less clear. The use of horsemeat also promoted Zn(II)PPIX formation. Moreover, even similar amounts were formed when it was combined with pork. Product redness, however, could not be related to Zn(II)PPIX formation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. MICROBIOLOGICAL EVOLUTION OF DACIA SAUSAGE, A DRY CURED ROMANIAN SAUSAGE

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    Ana Maria Simion Ciuciu

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Selected starter cultures were used to produce the traditional Romanian dry cured sausage, Dacia. A control sausage was produced without starter culture (sausage A, one with L. sakei CECT 5964 and S. equorum SA25 (sausage B and one with L. sakei CECT 5964, S. equorum SA25 and L. acidophilus CECT 903 (sausage C. Samples from each batch of sausages were taken at 0 (mix before stuffing, and after 2, 4, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of ripening. Counts of total aerobic mesophilic flora, lactic acid bacteria, salt tolerant flora, and Enterobacteriaceae and some physical-chemical parameters (moisture, NaCl, pH and aw values were determined. High microbial counts (log CFU were observed with values at the end of ripening period: for lactic acid bacteria 9.77 (A, 11.47 (B and 11.19 (C; for total aerobic mesophilic flora 9.89 (A, 11.38 (B and 11.30 (C; for salt tolerant flora 4.45 (A, 5.31 (B and 5.27 (C. The starter cultures had a significant inhibitory effect on Enterobacteriaceae counts (log CFU, values at the end of ripening period being 1.32 (A, 0.33 (B and not detected (C. A significant decrease in the pH values is observed until the seventh day of ripening, showing a slight, but progressive increase after the 14th day of ripening. Results show that the production and ripening process in a pilot scale chamber under controlled conditions contributes in obtaining safe and homogeneous products.

  1. Comparison of the fate of the top six non-O157 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balamurugan, S; Ahmed, Rafath; Gao, Anli; Strange, Phil

    2017-10-16

    The study examined the relative fate of the top six non-O157 shiga-toxin producing Escherichia coli (STEC) and E. coli O157:H7 during the manufacture of dry fermented sausages (DFS). Three separate batches of sausages containing a five-strain cocktail for each serogroup and uninoculated control were manufactured and subjected to identical fermentation, maturation and dry curing conditions. Changes in physicochemical properties and inoculated STEC numbers were enumerated during the DFS production stages and log reduction and log reduction rates were calculated. Inoculation of very high concentrations (8logCFUg -1 ) of STEC in the sausage batter did not significantly (P>0.05) affect the changes in the pH, a w , moisture, protein, fat content compared to the uninoculated DFS. There was a significant (P0.05) from each other. These results indicate that the lethality of DFS production processes observed against E. coli O157:H7 would result in a similar inactivation of the top six non-O157 STEC. Crown Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Evaluation of antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum and Potentilla fructiosa extracts in Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Miliauskas, G.; Mulder, E.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.; Beek, van T.A.; Venskutonis, P.R.

    2007-01-01

    Antioxidative properties of Geranium macrorrhizum, Potentilla fruticosa and Rosmarinus officinalis (as a reference) extracts were evaluated in Dutch style fermented sausages. Extracts were incorporated into sausages during preparation. The sausages were subsequently fermented, tested and compared to

  3. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sreenath, Hassan K; Jeffries, Thomas W

    2011-11-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented sausages, and other fungi, which were introduced to enable the curing process, produced small amounts of cellulases on RCC in both liquid and solid cultivations. During continued incubation for 15-60 days in solid substrate cultivation (SSC) on RCC support, the fungus Penicillium sp isolate BT-F-1 degraded the casings' dry weights by 15-50% and decreased their tensile strengths by ~75%. Similarly commercial cellulase(s) resulted in 20-50% degradation of RCC in 48 h. During incubation with Penicillium sp BT-F-1, the surface structure of RCC collapsed, resulting in loss of strength and stability of casings. The matrix of industrial RCC comprised 88-93% glucose polymer residues with 0.8-4% xylan impurities. Premature casing failure appeared to result from operating conditions in the manufacturing process that allowed xylan to build up in the extrusion bath. The sausage fungus Penicillium sp BT-F-1 produced xylanases to break down soft xylan pockets prior to slow cellulosic dissolution of RCC.

  4. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickson, J.S.; Maxcy, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product

  5. Irradiation of meat for the production of fermented sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dickson, J. S.; Maxcy, R. B.

    1985-07-15

    A study assessing the potential of gamma irradiation for reducing pathogenic microflora in the production of fermented sausage revealed that an irradiation dose of 500 Krad could reduce total aerobic microflora in commercial sausage meat batter for up to 2.2 log cycles. Coliform and staphylococci counts were reduced to acceptably safe levels, allowing the use of a lower inoculum level, a longer fermentation time, and a more uniform fermentation and fermented product.

  6. Aminogenesis control in fermented sausages manufactured with pressurized meat batter and starter culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M L; Bover-Cid, S; Aymerich, T; Marcos, B; Vidal-Carou, M C; Garriga, M

    2007-03-01

    The application of high hydrostatic pressure (200MPa) to meat batter just before sausage fermentation and the inoculation of starter culture were studied to improve the safety and quality of traditional Spanish fermented sausages (fuet and chorizo). Higher amounts of biogenic amines were formed in chorizo than in fuet. Without interfering with the ripening performance in terms of acidification, drying and proteolysis, hydrostatic pressure prevented enterobacteria growth but did not affect Gram-positive bacteria significantly. Subsequently, a strong inhibition of diamine (putrescine and cadaverine) accumulation was observed, but that of tyramine was not affected. The inoculated decarboxylase-negative strains, selected from indigenous bacteria of traditional sausages, were resistant to the HHP treatment, being able to lead the fermentation process, prevent enterococci development and significantly reduce enterobacteria counts. In sausages manufactured with either non-pressurized or pressurized meat batter, starter culture was the most protective measure against the accumulation of tyramine and both diamines.

  7. THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    THE MICROBIOLOGY OF SOUTH AFRICAN DRIED SAUSAGE. W.H. Holzapfel and A.N. Hail. Receipt of MS s.3.76. Department of Microbiology and Plant Pathology, University of hetoria and. Animol and Dairv Science Reseorch Institute, Irene. OPSOMMING: DIE MIKROBIOLOGIE VAN SUID.AFRIKAANSE DROiWORS.

  8. Interactions of fungi from fermented sausage with regenerated cellulose casings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan K. Sreenath; Thomas W. Jeffries

    2011-01-01

    This research examined cellulolytic effects of fungi and other microbes present in cured sausages on the strength and stability of regenerated cellulose casings (RCC) used in the sausage industry. Occasionally during the curing process, RCC would split or fail, thereby leading to loss of product. The fungus Penicillium sp. BT-F-1, which was isolated from fermented...

  9. Biodiversity of indigenous staphylococci of naturally fermented dry sausages and manufacturing environments of small-scale processing units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Sabine; Giammarinaro, Philippe; Chacornac, Jean-Paul; Lebert, Isabelle; Talon, Régine

    2010-04-01

    The staphylococcal community of the environments of nine French small-scale processing units and their naturally fermented meat products was identified by analyzing 676 isolates. Fifteen species were accurately identified using validated molecular methods. The three prevalent species were Staphylococcus equorum (58.4%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (15.7%) and Staphylococcus xylosus (9.3%). S. equorum was isolated in all the processing units in similar proportion in meat and environmental samples. S. saprophyticus was also isolated in all the processing units with a higher percentage in environmental samples. S. xylosus was present sporadically in the processing units and its prevalence was higher in meat samples. The genetic diversity of the strains within the three species isolated from one processing unit was studied by PFGE and revealed a high diversity for S. equorum and S. saprophyticus both in the environment and the meat isolates. The genetic diversity remained high through the manufacturing steps. A small percentage of the strains of the two species share the two ecological niches. These results highlight that some strains, probably introduced by the meat, will persist in the manufacturing environment, while other strains are more adapted to the meat products.

  10. The effect of kefir starter on Thai fermented sausage product

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marisa Jatupornpipat

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available The effect of kefir starter from Wilderness Family Naturals Company on the initial formulation of Thai fermented sausage were evaluated. The differences found among batches in the main microbial populations and pH were not significant. Only, the total acid of batch D (added the kefir starter 15 ml was significantly higher (P0.05. It is concluded that the addition of kefir starter (7 ml could be useful to improve the final quality of Thai fermented sausages. The addition of kefir starter that initiates rapid acidification of the raw meat and that leads to a desirable sensory quality of the end-product are used for the production of fermented sausages, and represents a way of improving and optimizing the sausage fermentation process and achieving tastier, safer, and healthier products.

  11. Fermented sausage production using E. faecium as starter culture: Physicochemical and microbiological profile, sensorial acceptance and cellular viability

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Catharina Calochi Pires de Carvalho

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages are defined as a mixture of lean meat and fat, curing salts, sucrose and spices, stuffed in a natural or artificial casing and submitted to fermentation and air-drying process. Starter culture and ripening process may affect the quality and acceptability of the final product. Current research evaluates the use of Enterococcus faecium as starter culture in fermented sausage production and its physicochemical and microbiological profile during maturation process, coupled to sausage sensory acceptance after ripening. Enterococcus faecium showed 10.9 log CFU g-1 and remained viable after the ripening period with 8.32 log CFU g-1. Fermented sausage was monitored during the ripening period by physicochemical (pH control, water activity and weight loss and microbiological (analysis of coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, coliforms and Salmonella spp. analyses. All tests complied with standards established by Brazilian legislation and did not interfere in final product quality. Results showed that E. faecium was resistant to curing salt and sodium chloride, maintaining its viability during ripening and conferring beneficial effects on fermented sausage technological characteristics. E. faecium also proved to be in vitro resistant to simulate passage through the human digestive tract. Fermented sausage containing E. faecium had better sensory acceptance than commercial sausage evaluated.

  12. Reduction of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli in production of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holck, Askild L; Axelsson, Lars; Rode, Tone Mari; Høy, Martin; Måge, Ingrid; Alvseike, Ole; L'abée-Lund, Trine M; Omer, Mohamed K; Granum, Per Einar; Heir, Even

    2011-11-01

    After a number of foodborne outbreaks of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli involving fermented sausages, some countries have imposed regulations on sausage production. For example, the US Food Safety and Inspection Service requires a 5 log(10) reduction of E. coli in fermented products. Such regulations have led to a number of studies on the inactivation of E. coli in fermented sausages by changing processing and post-processing conditions. Several factors influence the survival of E. coli such as pre-treatment of the meat, amount of NaCl, nitrite and lactic acid, water activity, pH, choice of starter cultures and addition of antimicrobial compounds. Also process variables like fermentation temperature and storage time play important roles. Though a large variety of different production processes of sausages exist, generally the reduction of E. coli caused by production is in the range 1-2 log(10). In many cases this may not be enough to ensure microbial food safety. By optimising ingredients and process parameters it is possible to increase E. coli reduction to some extent, but in some cases still other post process treatments may be required. Such treatments may be storage at ambient temperatures, specific heat treatments, high pressure processing or irradiation. HACCP analyses have identified the quality of the raw materials, low temperature in the batter when preparing the sausages and a rapid pH drop during fermentation as critical control points in sausage production. This review summarises the literature on the reduction verotoxigenic E. coli in production of fermented sausages. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Physicochemical Properties and Sensory Evaluation of Reduced Fat Fermented Functional Beef Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faleeha Hasan Hussein

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Semi-dry fermented sausages were manufactured from beef meat in three types: without starter culture (control, inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei. Probiotic fermented sausages are safe and healthy meat products, which receive high commercial interest and growing market shares.Material and Methods: The physico–chemical characteristics (Protein, Moisture, Fat, Ash, Lactic acid value and pH, microbiological features (total aerobic, total mold and yeast andlactic acid bacteria count and sensory evaluation (color, flavor, texture and overall acceptability were analyzed after 0, 10, 20, 30, 40 and 45 days of refrigerated storage at 4°C.Results and Conclusion: There was a significant difference (p≤0.05 in moisture content, which decreased in all samples during the period of refrigerated storage. However, all other parameters such as protein, fat and ash increased. The lactic acid produced during the fermentation by lactic acid bacteria resulted in a decrease in the pH value of all samples, and improved sensory evaluation of the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus casei and Lactobacillus paracasei during the storage period. The best results were obtained in the fermented sausage inoculated with Lactobacillus paracasei in physico-chemical, microbial and sensory characteristics. Also we could preserve the product at 4°C for 45 days.Conflict of interest: The authors declare that there is no conflict of interest.

  14. Freezing of meat raw materials affects tyramine and diamine accumulation in spontaneously fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bover-Cid, Sara; Miguelez-Arrizado, M Jesús; Luz Latorre Moratalla, L; Vidal Carou, M Carmen

    2006-01-01

    Biogenic amine accumulation was studied in spontaneously fermented sausages (Fuet) manufactured from unfrozen-fresh meat (U-sausages) and frozen-thawed meat (F-sausages). The aim was to investigate whether the frozen storage of raw materials affects the microbial composition and its aminogenic activity during sausage fermentation. Tyramine was the major amine in all sausages. Although the final levels were similar, tyramine accumulated more rapidly in F-sausages, which contained putrescine as the second amine. By contrast, U-sausages accumulated much more cadaverine than putrescine. F-sausages showed a slightly lower pH and free amino acid content as well as higher counts of technological flora (lactic acid and gram positive catalase positive bacteria) and lower counts of enterobacteria. Therefore, to freeze the meat raw materials for few days before sausage manufacture could be a useful practice, especially for the artisan fermented sausages (without starter), because it helps to reduce enterobacteria development and cadaverine production.

  15. Is there a potential consumer market for low-sodium fermented sausages?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Bibiana A; Campagnol, Paulo C B; da Cruz, Adriano G; Morgano, Marcelo A; Wagner, Roger; Pollonio, Marise A R

    2015-05-01

    The NaCl levels in dry fermented sausages were reduced by 50% or were substituted with KCl, CaCl2 , or a blend of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). The quality, safety, and the potential consumer market of dry fermented sausages were assessed. Neither 50% reduction of the NaCl content nor the substitution of 50% of the NaCl with KCl influenced the fermentation and maturation process. However, when CaCl2 was used as the substitute salt (50%), there was a significant decrease in pH, an increase in the water activity, and a decrease in lactic acid and micrococcus bacterial counts. Overall, the sensory acceptance decreased in dry fermented sausages with reduced sodium content. However, cluster analysis and internal preference mapping revealed potential for commercialization of samples with 50% of the NaCl content substituted with KCl or with a mixture of KCl and CaCl2 (1:1). © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  16. Effects of irradiation on quality of fermented sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yu Hai; Li Xiang; Li Suzheng; Qin Chunjun; Ge Qingfeng; Jiang Yunsheng; Wang Zhijun; Cao Hong; Chen Xiulan

    2010-01-01

    The fermented sausages were irradiated by 60 Co γ-rays at 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy, and the quality of the fermented sausages were studied. The results showed that there were significant differences on the water contents between irradiated sausage and CK (P < 0.05), but no change on NaCl contents. pH values of 0 and 2 kGy groups were significantly higher than that of 4 and 6 kGy groups (P < 0.05). Amino acids contents of 4 kGy irradiated sausage were significantly higher than that of 2 and 6 kGy groups. The highest contents of esters, alkenes, acids and ketone were found in 4 kGy group and the highest content of alcohol was detected in 6 kGy group. SDS-PAGE results showed that the degradation rate of sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein in irradiated fermented sausages were lower than control. (authors)

  17. Influence of starter culture and a protease on the generation of ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant bioactive nitrogen compounds in Iberian dry-fermented sausage “salchichón”

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margarita Fernández

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the addition of an autochthonous starter culture and the protease EPg222 on the generation of angiotensin-I–converting enzyme (ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant compounds by the dry-fermented sausage “salchichón” was investigated. Sausages were prepared with purified EPg222 and Pediococcus acidilactici MS200 and Staphylococcus vitulus RS34 as the starter culture (P200S34, separately and together, ripened for 90 days, and compared to a control batch. Among the ripening time points (20, 35, 65, 90 days studied, batches inoculated with EPg222 had higher nitrogen compound concentrations at 63 days of ripening. ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activities were also highest in both batches with EPg222 at 63 days of ripening, and these activities were stable in most cases after in vitro simulated gastrointestinal digestion. These activities were correlated with the most relevant compounds detected by HLPC-ESI-MS. The principal components analysis (PCA linked the P200S34 + EPg222 batch with the major compounds identified. The antioxidant activity was higher at 63 days of ripening, especially in highly proteolytic batches, such as P200S34 + EPg222. The ACE-inhibitory activity was not associated with any of the major compounds. The use of the enzyme EPg222 in association with the starter culture P200S34 in the preparation of dry-cured meat products could be of great importance due to their demonstrated ability to produce compounds with high biological activity, such as ACE-inhibitory and antioxidant activity.

  18. Behavior of Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus in Chouriço de Vinho, a dry fermented sausage made from wine-marinated meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díez, J García; Patarata, L

    2013-04-01

    Portuguese chouriço de vinho is made by drying coarsely minced meat and fat that has been previously marinated with wine (usually red), salt, and garlic for 1 to 2 days at a low temperature (4 to 8 °C). This procedure may improve the microbiological safety of the product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the behavior of three pathogens in this product, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Staphylococcus aureus, to establish the minimum period of drying and maturation necessary to render safe products. The pathogens were inoculated in the chouriço de vinho batter. A factorial design was used to study the following variables in the fermentation process: (i) the presence or absence of an indigenous Lactobacillus sakei starter culture; (ii) the presence or absence of fermentable carbohydrates; and (iii) the salt level (1.5 or 3%). The samples were analyzed 24 h after the preparation of the batter (at stuffing); after 7, 15, and 30 days of drying; and after 30 days of storage at 4 °C under vacuum. Under all of the conditions studied, the levels of the three pathogens decreased during the drying period. In the early stages of drying, the addition of L. sakei starter culture and/or carbohydrates resulted in lower levels of gram-positive pathogens. After 15 days of drying, populations of all pathogens decreased by ca. 2 log in all samples. At that sampling time, L. monocytogenes was undetectable in the chouriço de vinho with L. sakei starter culture and carbohydrates. The mean count of S. aureus after 15 days of drying was below 1 log CFU/g. After 30 days of drying, no pathogens were detected. The drying period could be shortened to 15 days when considering only the gram-positive pathogens studied and the use of a starter culture and carbohydrates. Due to the low infective dose of Salmonella spp., the product should be considered safe after 30 days, when this pathogen became undetectable.

  19. Development of dry-cured sausages using spent-hen meat: manufacturing practices and product physical, chemical and microbiological quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Boodhoo

    2015-06-01

    No Salmonella was detected in any samples analyzed. Counts of Staphylococcus spp. were high with 104/g to 108/g at the end of the fermentation/drying period. L. plantarum counts increasedduring the first five days of fermentation from 4.9 to 8.7 log10 CFU/g and remained practically at this level for the rest of the drying period. There was unwanted mould growth on the cel­lulose casings as from day 3. In all cases, the sausages lacked the compactness typical of dry-cured sausages. The meat and fat particles in the final sausages were not uniformly distributed. This may be due to the low melting point of the fat thereby caus­ing smearing of fat particles. Overall, the potential of using spent-layer meat for the manu­facture of dry-fermented sausage was shown to be technologi­cally feasible. However there is a need to optimize the process­ing steps, especially with regard to the starter culture, and the temperature and relative humidity of fermentation/drying, to improve the safety and quality of the sausages.

  20. Physicochemical, biochemical and sensory properties for the characterization of Petrovská klobása (traditional fermented sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ikonić Predrag M.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A study was carried out on a typical homemade Petrovská klobasá in order to characterize this traditional dry-fermented sausage, to provide a basis for establishing the quality standard and protecting designation of origin. This paper reviews the chemical composition, some physicochemical, proteolytic and sensory parameters of Petrovská klobasá made by five manufacturers chosen as representatives. Beside the differences between sausages made by different manufacturers the main properties of this traditional product were though recognized. Compared to other dry-fermented sausages Petrovská klobasá is characterized by a high content of protein (23.36-30.45% and low contents of NaCl (2.99-3.28%. With some minor exceptions, the values of other chemical parameters are within the range of those observed for various dry-cured sausages. Weight loss during the processing is high (up to 45.71% and pH value (~ 5.4 corresponds to the values for this parameter in other European traditional fermented sausages. Contents of different nitrogen fractions show that Petrovská klobasá undergoes significant proteolytic changes. At the end of ripening, Petrovská klobasá is characterized by aromatic and spicy-hot flavor, dark-red color and hard consistency.

  1. Lipolytic Changes in Fermented Sausages Produced with Turkey Meat: Effects of Starter Culture and Heat Treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Karslo?lu, Bet?l; ?i?ek, ?mran Ensoy; Kolsarici, Nuray; Cando?an, Kezban

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the effects of two different commercial starter culture mixes and processing methodologies (traditional and heat process) on the lipolytic changes of fermented sausages manufactured with turkey meat were evaluated during processing stages and storage. Free fatty acid (FFA) value increased with fermentation and during storage over 120 d in all fermented sausage groups produced with both processing methodologies (p

  2. Biocontrol strategies for Mediterranean-style fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Márcia; Ferreira, Vânia; Magalhães, Rui; Teixeira, Paula

    2018-01-01

    Naturally fermented meat sausages have a long tradition in Mediterranean countries and are one of the most important groups of traditional foods consumed throughout Europe. Despite all the advances in food science and technology and increased regulatory requirements and concerns for safety and quality during the last decades, the challenge to control important foodborne pathogens in this type of meat products still persists. Simultaneously, growing consumer interest in safe, high quality and minimal processed products, with less additives/preservatives have driven the food industry and scientists in a crusade for innovative technologies to maintain the safety of these products by natural means. Biological control (biocontrol) fits well within this tendency. This review summarizes the latest achievements on biocontrol strategies applied to Mediterranean-style fermented sausages, namely: (i) bioprotective cultures; (ii) bacteriocins; and, (iii) essential oils (EOs). Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Effects of low-level gamma irradiation on the characteristics of fermented pork sausage during storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, I.S.; Jo, C.; Lee, K.H.; Lee, E.J.; Ahn, D.U.; Kang, S.N.

    2012-01-01

    The effect of gamma irradiation (0.5, 1, 2, and 4 kGy) on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. At Day 0 of irradiation, the pH, redness (CIE a ⁎ ), yellowness (CIE b ⁎ ), 2-thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and volatile basic nitrogen (VBN) values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy were higher (p ⁎ values (lightness) were lower than those of the non-irradiated control (p ⁎ , CIE a ⁎ and CIE b ⁎ -value of samples were not significantly influenced by irradiation. The CIE a ⁎ , and CIE b ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 2 and 4 kGy decreased with the increase of storage time. The VBN, TBARS, and CIE L ⁎ -values of samples irradiated at 4 kGy were not changed significantly during refrigerated storage for 90 days (p>0.05). The total plate counts (TPC) and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) in the samples irradiated at 4 kGy were significantly lower (p<0.01) than those with lower irradiation doses. At the end of storage, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the samples were not increased after irradiation at 1, 0.5 and 1 kGy, respectively. TPC and LAB were not detected in samples irradiated at 4 kGy at Day 90. In addition, no coliform bacteria were found in samples irradiated at 1 kGy during refrigerated storage. Sensory evaluation indicated that the rancid flavor of samples irradiated at 4 kGy was significantly higher, but aroma and taste scores were lower than those of the control at Day 3 of storage. Irradiation of dry fermented sausages at 2 kGy was the best conditions to prolong the shelf-life and decrease the rancid flavor without significant quality deterioration. - Highlights: ► Effect of gamma irradiation on the quality of vacuum-packaged dry fermented sausages during refrigerated storage was evaluated. ► At Day 90, the TPC, coliform, and LAB in the dry fermented sausages were not increased after irradiation at 2, 0.5 and 4 kGy, respectively. ► TPC and LAB were not detected in

  4. The influence of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 on selected properties of fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Mati

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Fermented sausages rank among non-heat-treated meat products. Their nutritional properties are similar to the raw material, simultaneously their microbial safety and stability is ensured using additives and specific microbial cultures. The use of probiotic cultures can positively affect the processing of fermented sausages, resulting in the new technological properties and beneficial effect on human health. However, commercial application of probiotic microorganisms in fermented sausages is not common yet. Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 is a gram-positive, non-spore forming, homofermentative rod, which according to studies may modulate immune responses in human organism and survives the passage through the gastrointestinal tract. The main object of this work was to evaluate technological properties of L. paracasei LPC-37, which have not been fully examined. Two groups of fermented sausages were analysed in this work. The first group of fermented sausages was prepared using lyophilized starter culture (Lyocarni RHM-33. The second group of fermented sausages was prepared by the combination of lyophilized starter culture and potential probiotic culture Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37. The processing and ripening of sausages were carried out in meat processing plant to simulate real conditions of production. The changes of the products (water activity, pH, concentration of organic acids and microbial growth were evaluated during ripening (3 weeks, while sensory analysis was carried out in the final stage of the process and during storage (3 weeks. It was found that the environment of raw-fermented sausages is suitable for the growth and survival of Lactobacillus paracasei LPC-37 and the microbiological quality of the final product was very good (absence of Salmonella and Listeria monocytogenes. The counts of lactobacilli reached 107 CFU/g of the product, which meet the requirements for functional foods. The results of the sensory evaluation showed

  5. Control of bioflavour and safety in fermented sausages : first results of a European project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Demeyer, D.; Raemaekers, M.; Rizzo, A.; Holck, A.; Smedt, A. de; Brink, B. ten; Hagen, B.; Montel, C.; Zanardi, E.; Murbrekk, E.; Leroy, F.; Vandendriessche, F.; Lorentsen, K.; Venema, K.; Sunesen, L.; Stahnke, L.; Vuyst, L. de; Talon, R.; Chizzolini, R.; Eerola, S.

    2000-01-01

    Four types of fermented sausages were prepared: two using Northern technology (Norway and Belgium) and two using Mediterranean technology (Belgium and Italy). Mediterranean sausages showed higher pH values and highest residual amounts of myosin and actin. Free fatty acid concentrations reflected the

  6. Quality and shelf life evaluation of fermented sausages of buffalo meat with different levels of heart and fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, S; Srivastava, P K

    2007-04-01

    Investigations were carried to study the effect of heart incorporation (0%, 15% and 20%) and increasing levels of fat (20% and 25%) on physicochemical (pH, moisture content and thiobarbituric acid, TBA number) and microbiological (total plate count and yeast and mold count) quality and shelf life of semi dry sausages of buffalo meat during refrigerated storage (4°C). Different levels of fat significantly (p<0.05) increased the pH of the sausage samples. However different levels of heart incorporation did not significantly (p<0.05) affect pH, moisture content and TBA number of sausage samples. Fresh samples had pH, moisture content and TBA number in the range of 5.15-5.28, 42.4-47.4% and 0.073-0.134 respectively. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) increased TBA number of control samples while storage did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the TBA number of sodium ascorbate (SA) treated samples. Total plate counts of twelve sausage samples were f under the TFTC (too few to count) limit at the initial stage. Incorporation of different levels of heart and also increasing levels of fat did not significantly (p<0.05) increase the log TPC/g values. Yeast and molds were not detected in twelve samples of semi dry fermented sausages in their fresh condition. Storage revealed that there was a consistent decrease in pH, and moisture content. Refrigerated storage significantly (p<0.05) reduced both pH and moisture contents. TBA number and total plate counts and yeast and mold counts of controls were found to increase significantly (p<0.05) during refrigerated storage. However, in SA treated sausage, only TPC and yeast and mold count significantly (p<0.05) increased during refrigerated storage. Shelf life of the sausages was found to be 60 days under refrigerated storage (4°C).

  7. Effects of composite surface coating and pre-drying on the properties of kabanosy dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyburcy, Andrzej; Kozyra, Daniel

    2010-10-01

    Coating of dry sausages with renewable materials could be an alternative to vacuum packaging. In this study kabanosy dry sausage was coated with a composite emulsion and stored for 7 or 15 days at 4-6 degrees C. Effects of different emulsion formulas (0.5 or 1% w/w of kappa-carrageenan and 5 or 10% w/w of glycerol) and pre-drying of coated sausages (at 50 degrees C for 1.5h) were investigated. Carrageenan concentration had a significant effect (Pemulsion adsorbed on the sausage surface but little influence on the barrier properties of the coatings. At both glycerol concentration levels, coatings had no visible cracks and were easily removed from the sausage surface after 7 and 15 days of storage. The colour values of coatings (L*, a*, and b*) changed along with the decreasing water activity during storage. Pre-drying of coated sausages reduced peeled product weight loss after storage. The financial analysis showed that among coatings tested the best proved to be the emulsion containing (w/w): 5% glycerol, 5% gelatin, 0.5% carrageenan, 20% lard, 20% beeswax, and 50% water. Copyright (c) 2010 The American Meat Science Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Laboratory method for fermentation of meat and poultry sausages in fibrous casings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M G; Acton, J C

    1975-06-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to +/-1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%.

  9. Laboratory Method for Fermentation of Meat and Poultry Sausages in Fibrous Casings1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Michael G.; Acton, James C.

    1975-01-01

    The construction and operation of a relatively inexpensive cabinet for sausage fermentation studies is described. Temperature can be controlled to ±1 C with a relative humidity of approximately 95%. PMID:16350019

  10. Growth potential of exponential- and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Birk, Tina; Henriksen, Sidsel; Müller, K.

    2016-01-01

    - and stationary-phase Salmonella Typhimurium (DT12 and DTU292) during freezing at − 18 °C and their subsequent growth potential during 72 h sausage fermentation at 25 °C. After 0, 7 and > 35 d of frozen storage, sausage batters were prepared with NaCl (3%) and NaNO2 (0, 100 ppm) and fermented with and without...

  11. Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov., isolated from raw fermented sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kröckel, L; Schillinger, U; Franz, C M A P; Bantleon, A; Ludwig, W

    2003-03-01

    Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. (KU-3T) was isolated from raw fermented sausages. The new species was present in high numbers, and frequently dominated the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) populations of the products. 16S rDNA sequence data revealed that the isolates are closely related to the species Lactobacillus kimchii DSM 13961T, Lactobacillus paralimentarius DSM 13238T, Lactobacillus alimentarius DSM 20249T and Lactobacillus farciminis DSM 20184T. DNA-DNA reassociation data, however, clearly distinguished the new isolates from these species; they showed a low degree of DNA relatedness with the type strains of this group of phylogenetically closely related lactobacilli. These results warrant separate species status for strain KU-3T, for which the name Lactobacillus versmoldensis sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is KU-3T (=DSM 14857T =NCCB 100034T =ATCC BAA-478T).

  12. Physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented sheepmeat sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Yanjun; Young, Owen A; Brooks, John D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of fermented, cured sausages made from equivalent muscle groups of beef, pork, and sheepmeat. The last has no commercial examples and represents an unexploited opportunity. Using seven replicates of shoulder meat and subcutaneous fat, sausages were made with 64%, 29%, 4%, 2%, 0.2%, and 0.01% of lean meat, fat, NaCl, glucose, sodium pyrophosphate, and lactic culture, respectively. Following anaerobic fermentation (96 h, 30°C), there were no significant differences between the species in mean texture (hardness, springiness, adhesiveness, cohesiveness) and pH, and only minor differences were seen in color. However, although not consumer tested, it is argued that consumers would be able to pick a texture difference due to different fat melting point ranges, highest for sheepmeat. This work was followed by a sensory experiment to find out if characteristic sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. To simulate a very strongly characteristic sheepmeat, beef sausage mixtures (above) were spiked, or not, with 4-methyloctanoic, 4-methylnonanoic acid, and skatole (5.0, 0.35, and 0.08 mg kg−1, respectively). Sodium nitrite (at 0.1 g kg−1) and a garlic/rosemary flavor were variably added to create a 23 factorial design. In a randomized design, 60 consumers found that spiked sheepmeat flavors caused an overall significant decrease in mean liking on a 1–9 scale (5.83 vs. 5.35,P = 0.003), but this was completely negated by the garlic/rosemary addition (5.18 vs. 6.00,P < 0.001). Nitrite had no effect on liking (5.61 vs. 5.58,P = 0.82), although nitrite might be included in commercial examples to minimize fat oxidation and suppress growth of clostridia. Thus, sheepmeat flavors could be suppressed to appeal to unhabituated consumers. Commercial examples could thus be made for these consumers, but the mandatory use of the name “mutton” in some

  13. Effect of wheat bran and dried carrot pomace addition on quality characteristics of chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    Objective Effect of addition of wheat bran (WB) and dried carrot pomace (DCP) on sensory, textural, colour, physico-chemical and nutritional characteristics of chicken sausage were evaluated. Methods WB and DCP were used as a source of dietary fibre at 3%, 6%, and 9% level individually. Different quality attributes of sausages were estimated. One product from each source with very good sensory acceptability was selected to analyze dietary fibre content and shelf life under refrigerated storage. Results Sensory acceptability of 3% fibre enriched sausage was comparable with control and a further increase in fibre level resulted in a decrease in sensory acceptability. Fibre enriched sausages were significantly harder and less cohesive than control sausage. Significant increase in gumminess and chewiness was observed at 6% level in WB treated sausages and 9% level in DCP treated sausages. Moisture content decreased significantly in all treated sausages, protein content decreased significantly in DCP-2 and DCP-3 sausages while fat content decreased in all WB and DCP-3 treated sausages in comparison to control. The fibre enriched sausage had significantly higher dietary fibre and lower cholesterol content. Cooking yield and emulsion stability increased in treated sausages and a significant difference was noticed at 6% level in both types of sausages. pH of WB treated sausages was significantly higher and DCP treated sausage significantly lower in comparison to control. Conclusion The results of present study indicate that fibre enriched chicken sausage with moderate acceptability can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP each up to 9% level. Chicken sausage with very good acceptability, higher dietary fibre content and storability up to 15 days at refrigerated temperature can be developed by incorporating WB and DCP at 6% level each. PMID:28823131

  14. Physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages are not influenced by color differences of turkey breast meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popp, J; Krischek, C; Janisch, S; Wicke, M; Klein, G

    2013-05-01

    It has been suggested that the color of turkey breast meat influences both physico-chemical and microbiological properties of raw fermented sausages. In this study, raw fermented sausages were produced with turkey breast meat in 3 different colors (pale, normal, or dark), which were obtained from 2 fast-growing-genetic-line toms at 2 slaughterhouses. Prior to the sausage production, the breast muscles were sorted into color groups according to the lightness values determined at 24 h postmortem. This meat was subsequently processed to raw fermented sausages using 1.5 or 2.5% curing salt (CS). The pale meat had higher lightness, electrical conductivity, and drip loss, whereas the dark meat showed a darker color only. The physico-chemical (pH, water activity), visual (lightness, redness), and microbial (total plate count) properties of the sausages were not influenced by the color of the turkey breast meat. The sausage made with 2.5% CS had lower aw and higher ash and hardness values than the sausages produced with 1.5% CS. In conclusion, processing of differently colored turkey meat to raw fermented sausages does not influence the quality characteristics of the products. Based on these findings, there is no reason for the sausage producer to separate turkey breast muscles by color before producing raw fermented sausages.

  15. The presence of undesirable mould species on the surface of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vesković-Moračanin Slavica M.

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Transition from manufacture to the industrial way of meat production and processing, as well as contemporary concept of food quality and safety, have led to the application of starter cultures. Their application leads towards the streamlining of the production process in the desired direction, quality improvement and its harmonization, and thereby to its standardization. Application of moulds in the meat industry is based on positive effects of their proteolytic and lipolytic egzoenzymes which, as a consequence, leads to the creation of characteristic sensory properties ('flavor' of fermented products. Penicillium nalgiovense is a typical representative of moulds used in the production of fermented sausages-salamis from our region. Samples of 'zimska salama' (dry sausage, produced with Penicillium nalgiovense, were evaluated as hygienically unacceptable. Their sensory properties changed due to contamination of this mould during the ripening process. Micological analysis discovered the presence of Penicillium aurantiogriseum, which is a frequent mould contaminant in the meat industry. At the same time, thin layer chromatography revealed no possibility of metabolic activity of this mould in the creation of mycotoxins. However, the presence of this mould on the surface of 'zimska salama' is considered as undesirable due to formation of 'off flavor' in products. Such product is considered as hygienically unacceptable and cannot be used for the human consumption.

  16. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lim, D.G.; Seol, K.H.; Jeon, H.J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-01-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage

  17. Control of Biogenic Amines in Fermented Sausages: Role of Starter Cultures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latorre-Moratalla, M.L.; Bover-Cid, Sara; Veciana-Nogués, M.T.; Vidal-Carou, M.C.

    2012-01-01

    Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed. PMID:22586423

  18. Control of biogenic amines in fermented sausages: role of starter cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariluz eLatorre-Moratalla

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Biogenic amines show biological activity and exert undesirable physiological effects when absorbed at high concentrations. Biogenic amines are mainly formed by microbial decarboxylation of amino acids and thus are usually present in a wide range of foods, fermented sausages being one of the major biogenic amine sources. The use of selected starter cultures is one of the best technological measures to control aminogenesis during meat fermentation. Although with variable effectiveness, several works show the ability of some starters to render biogenic amine-free sausages. In this paper, the effect of different starter culture is reviewed and the factors determining their performance discussed.

  19. Application of electron-beam irradiation combined with antioxidants for fermented sausage and its quality characteristic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, D. G.; Seol, K. H.; Jeon, H. J.; Jo, C.; Lee, M.

    2008-06-01

    The effects of various doses of electron-beam irradiation on the changes in microbiological attributes of fermented sausage and the combined effect of electron-beam irradiation and various antioxidants on the oxidative stability and sensory properties during cold storage were investigated. Results indicated that 2 kGy of irradiation was the most effective in manufacturing a fermented sausage, and the addition of rosemary extracts was effective in controlling the production of off-flavor and development of lipid oxidation during cold storage.

  20. Lipid oxidation in n-3 fatty acid enriched Dutch style fermented sausages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pelser, W.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Legger, A.; Houben, J.H.

    2007-01-01

    Dutch style fermented sausages were manufactured with a substitution of 10%, 15% and 20% of pork backfat by flaxseed oil and canola oil, pre-emulsified with soy protein isolate. The 15% and 20% substitution were also reached by adding encapsulated flaxseed oil and encapsulated fish oil and by adding

  1. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  2. Modeling Bacteriocin Resistance and Inactivation of Listeria innocua LMG 13568 by Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 under Sausage Fermentation Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Lievens, Kristoff; De Vuyst, Luc

    2005-01-01

    In mixed cultures, bacteriocin production by the sausage isolate Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 rapidly inactivated sensitive Listeria innocua LMG 13568 cells, even at low bacteriocin activity levels. A small fraction of the listerial population was bacteriocin resistant. However, sausage fermentation conditions inhibited regrowth of resistant cells. PMID:16269805

  3. Addition of alpha-ketoglutarate enhances formation of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus during sausage fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    The effect of leucine and alpha-ketoglutarate addition on transamination of branched-chain amino acids was studied in model minces inoculated with Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus carnosus. Leucine addition changed the ratio of volatile breakdown products of leucine, isoleucine and valine....... The results were verified in real fermented sausages with no, low (0.09% w/w) and high (0.36% w/w) addition of added alpha-ketoglutarate since the levels of the flavour intensive methyl-branched aldehydes and acids were drastically increased in sausages added a-ketoglutarate. The catabolism of phenylalanine...

  4. Application of Baechu-Kimchi Powder and GABA-Producing Lactic Acid Bacteria for the Production of Functional Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Ji Hun; Kang, Ki Moon

    2017-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the physicochemical, microbiological, and quality characteristics of a new type of fermented sausage manufactured by incorporating Baechu-kimchi powder and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-producing lactic acid bacteria (LAB). The LAB count was at the maximum level by day nine of ripening in inoculated sausages, accompanied by a rapid decrease in the pH. The addition of kimchi powder decreased the lightness (L*) and increased the redness (a*) and, yellowness (b*) values, while also significantly increasing the hardness and chewiness of the sausage (p<0.05). Moreover, although the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances values increased in all samples during the study period, this increase was lower in the kimchi-treated samples, indicating a reduction in lipid oxidation. Overall, our results show that the addition of Baechu-kimchi powder to sausages reduced the off-flavor properties and improved the taste profile of the fermented sausage in sensory evaluations. The GABA content of all fermented sausages increased from 17.42-25.14 mg/kg on the third day of fermentation to 60.95-61.47 mg/kg on the thirtieth day. These results demonstrate that Baechu-kimchi powder and GABA-producing LAB could be functional materials in fermented sausage to improve quality characteristics. PMID:29725201

  5. Antioxidant Activities of Lactic Acid Bacteria for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yulong; Hu, Ping; Lou, Lijiao; Zhan, Jianlong; Fan, Min; Li, Dan; Liao, Qianwei

    2017-12-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus (SR6) and Lactobacillus paracasei (SR10-1) were assessed for their antioxidant activities and inoculated into sausages to investigate their effects on quality during fermentation. The results showed that L. curvatus SR6 had better DPPH• scavenging activity (59.67% ± 6.68%) and reducing power (47.31% ± 4.62%) and L. paracasei SR10-1 had better OH• scavenging activity (285.67% ± 2.00%) and anti-lipid peroxidation capacity (63.89% ± 0.93%). The superoxide dismutase activity of the cell culture fluid was greater than 47.00 U/mL, and the catalase activity of the cell-free extracts was greater than 1.00 U/mL. In the sausage model, lactic acid bacteria rapidly became the dominant microflora and reduced the moisture content, water activity, nitrite, and pH. The bacteria significantly enhanced the antioxidant activity of the sausage extracts, which improved the sensory characteristics and safety of the sausages. These results illustrate that both strains have excellent antioxidant activities and can be used as antioxidant starters in fermented meat products. The study illustrated the antioxidant and antioxidase activities of Lactobacillus curvatus SR6 and Lactobacillus paracasei SR10-1 and demonstrated the changes in the quality characteristics and antioxidant activities of fermented sausages. The findings provide valuable information for the meat industry on the application of functional starters in fermented meat products. © 2017 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  6. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne; Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise H; Møller, Jens K S

    2008-04-01

    Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour was followed by L(∗)a(∗)b measurements and the content of nitrosylmyoglobin (MbFe(II)NO) quantified by electron spin resonance (ESR). MbFe(II)NO was rapidly formed in sausages with added nitrite independent of the presence of nitrite reducing bacteria, whereas the rate of MbFe(II)NO formation in sausages with added nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation by autofluorescence and hexanal content, respectively. No significant direct effect of the Staphylococcus addition was observed, however, there was a clear correspondence between high initial amount of MbFe(II)NO in the different sausages and the colour stability during storage. Autofluorescence data correlated well with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial for ensuring optimal colour formation during initial fermentation stages.

  7. Colour formation in fermented sausages by meat-associated staphylococci with different nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gøtterup, Jacob; Olsen, Karsten; Knøchel, Susanne

    2008-01-01

    nitrate depended on the specific Staphylococcus strain. Strains with high nitrate-reductase activity showed a significantly faster rate of pigment formation, but other factors were of influence as well. Product stability for the sliced, packaged sausage was evaluated as surface colour and oxidation......Three Staphylococcus strains, S. carnosus, S. simulans and S. saprophyticus, selected due to their varying nitrite and/or nitrate-reductase activities, were used to initiate colour formation during sausage fermentation. During fermentation of sausages with either nitrite or nitrate added, colour...... with hexanal content, and may be used as predictive tools. Overall, nitrite- and nitrate-reductase activities of Staphylococcus strains in nitrite-cured sausages were of limited importance regarding colour development, while in nitrate-cured sausages strains with higher nitrate reductase activity were crucial...

  8. Outbreak of Salmonella Goldcoast infections linked to consumption of fermented sausage, Germany 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bremer, V; Leitmeyer, K; Jensen, E; Metzel, U; Meczulat, H; Weise, E; Werber, D; Tschaepe, H; Kreienbrock, L; Glaser, S; Ammon, A

    2004-10-01

    Salmonella Goldcoast (SGC), an uncommon serotype in Germany, was identified in 25 isolates between 1 April and 7 May 2001. To determine the cause of the outbreak, we conducted a matched case-control study including 24 cases and 51 controls. In a multivariable regression model, only consumption of a raw fermented sausage manufactured by a local company remained significant (adjusted odds ratio 20.0, 95 % confidence interval 2.7-302.5). SGC isolated from case-patients shared an indistinguishable pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern. A part of the produced raw fermented sausage was sold after only 4 days of fermentation. Samples from the premises and products of the company were negative for SGC. However, short-time raw fermented sausage is more likely to contain pathogens. Irradiation of raw ingredients is not accepted by German consumers, thus strict adherence to good manufacturing practices, the use of HACCP programmes as well as on-farm programmes remain crucial to reduce Salmonella.

  9. Survival of Five Strains of Shiga Toxigenic Escherichia coli in a Sausage Fermentation Model and Subsequent Sensitivity to Stress from Gastric Acid and Intestinal Fluid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tone Mari Rode

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The ability of foodborne pathogens to exhibit adaptive responses to stressful conditions in foods may enhance their survival when passing through the gastrointestinal system. We aimed to determine whether Escherichia coli surviving stresses encountered during a model dry-fermented sausage (DFS production process exhibit enhanced tolerance and survival in an in vitro gastrointestinal model. Salami sausage batters spiked with five E. coli isolates, including enterohaemorrhagic E. coli strains isolated from different DFS outbreaks, were fermented in a model DFS process (20°C, 21 days. Control batters spiked with the same strains were stored at 4°C for the same period. Samples from matured model sausages and controls were thereafter exposed to an in vitro digestion challenge. Gastric exposure (pH 3 resulted in considerably reduced survival of the E. coli strains that had undergone the model DFS process. This reduction continued after entering intestinal challenge (pH 8, but growth resumed after 120 min. When subjected to gastric challenge for 120 min, E. coli that had undergone the DFS process showed about 2.3 log10⁡​ lower survival compared with those kept in sausage batter at 4°C. Our results indicated that E. coli strains surviving a model DFS process exhibited reduced tolerance to subsequent gastric challenge at low pH.

  10. Rapid quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in meat and fermented sausages by real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, Belén; Jofré, Anna; Garriga, Margarita; Pla, Maria; Aymerich, Teresa

    2006-09-01

    A quick and simple method for quantitative detection of Lactobacillus sakei in fermented sausages was successfully developed. It is based on Chelex-100-based DNA purification and real-time PCR enumeration using a TaqMan fluorescence probe. Primers and probes were designed in the L. sakei 16S-23S rRNA intergenic transcribed spacer region, and the assay was evaluated using L. sakei genomic DNA and an artificially inoculated sausage model. The detection limit of this technique was approximately 3 cells per reaction mixture using both purified DNA and the inoculated sausage model. The quantification limit was established at 30 cells per reaction mixture in both models. The assay was then applied to enumerate L. sakei in real samples, and the results were compared to the MRS agar count method followed by confirmation of the percentage of L. sakei colonies. The results obtained by real-time PCR were not statistically significantly different than those obtained by plate count on MRS agar (P > 0.05), showing a satisfactory agreement between both methods. Therefore, the real-time PCR assay developed can be considered a promising rapid alternative method for the quantification of L. sakei and evaluation of the implantation of starter strains of L. sakei in fermented sausages.

  11. Sheep and goat fermented meat sausages — health aspects

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Rodrigues, Sandra; Dias, Teresa; Estevinho, Leticia M.

    2016-01-01

    The most common sausages use only pork meat and are ripened for long periods. However, some countries with great tradition of sheep and goat meat consumption have the habit of eating some processed products of these meats. In Mediterranean countries as well as in other parts of the world, the meat from young lamb or kid is very usual and appreciated. These young milk fed animals producing lightweight carcasses are highly appreciated by consumers and are traditionally comm...

  12. ConFerm - A tool to predict the reduction of pathogens during the production of fermented and matured sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gunvig, A.; Borggaard, C.; Hansen, F.

    2016-01-01

    the dynamics of the sausage environment during fermentation and maturation of fermented sausages.A total of 73 experiments were carried out in sausages containing different levels of NaCl in the water phase (WPS) (3.9-6.8%), NaNO2 (0-200 ppm) and pH(48h) (4.3-5.6). The minced meat was inoculated with approx....... 10(6) cfu/g of a multi-strain cocktail of 3 strains of Salmonella (S. Dublin, S. Typhimurium, S. Derby), 3 strains of STEC (O26:H-, O111:H- and O157) and five L. monocytogenes strains isolated from different meat products and environment. The sausages were fermented at 24 degrees C for 48 h using...... interested parties at http://dmripredict.dk (in English). (C) 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....

  13. Volatile compounds analysis of Dacia sausage, a traditional Romanian dry cured sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Maria SIMION CIUCIU

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Three batches of Dacia sausage were produced as follows: one without starter culture and two with a mix of starter cultures. Volatiles were extracted by a purgeand- trap method and analyzed by gas chromatographic/mass spectrometry. Approximately 43 compounds were identified. The substances identified belong to: aldehydes, alcohols, ketones, hydrocarbons, esters, acids, furans. Results indicated that the most abundant class of chemical substances in flavor at the end of the ripening process was esters, followed by aldehydes, hydrocarbures and terpenes. This could only indicate the high microbial esterification activity that took place in the batches. It was possible to differentiate between the three sausages applying a discriminant analysis.

  14. Fermented meat sausages from game and venison: what are the opportunities and limitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakanya, Chido; Arnaud, Elodie; Muchenje, Voster; Hoffman, Louwrens C

    2018-04-10

    An increase in the acceptance, demand and production of game meat and venison has been experienced globally. Game meat and venison fit into consumers' ideology of healthy and environmentally friendly meat when compared to domesticated animals. Opportunities exist to explore the use of these meat sources in developing new products, particularly as game meat and venison in their fresh state are sometimes perceived as being tough. Consumers have shown a trend for trying exciting new products with different organoleptic qualities, and fermented sausages occupy a special niche in the gastro-economic trade. In this review, the production potential of game meat and venison and its prospective use in the development of fermented sausages are discussed. Emphasis is placed on the importance of meat characteristics in textural and sensorial development as well as the safety of fermented sausages. Additionally, consumers' perception of venison and game meat is discussed. Possible areas of research and knowledge gaps are highlighted, particularly the potential use of meat with high pH and microbial load. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2018 Society of Chemical Industry.

  15. Predicting the concentration of verotoxin-producing Escherichia coli bacteria during processing and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quinto, E J; Arinder, P; Axelsson, L; Heir, E; Holck, A; Lindqvist, R; Lindblad, M; Andreou, P; Lauzon, H L; Marteinsson, V Þ; Pin, C

    2014-05-01

    A model to predict the population density of verotoxigenic Escherichia coli (VTEC) throughout the elaboration and storage of fermented raw-meat sausages (FRMS) was developed. Probabilistic and kinetic measurement data sets collected from publicly available resources were completed with new measurements when required and used to quantify the dependence of VTEC growth and inactivation on the temperature, pH, water activity (aw), and concentration of lactic acid. Predictions were compared with observations in VTEC-contaminated FRMS manufactured in a pilot plant. Slight differences in the reduction of VTEC were predicted according to the fermentation temperature, 24 or 34°C, with greater inactivation at the highest temperature. The greatest reduction was observed during storage at high temperatures. A population decrease greater than 6 decimal logarithmic units was observed after 66 days of storage at 25°C, while a reduction of only ca. 1 logarithmic unit was detected at 12°C. The performance of our model and other modeling approaches was evaluated throughout the processing of dry and semidry FRMS. The greatest inactivation of VTEC was predicted in dry FRMS with long drying periods, while the smallest reduction was predicted in semidry FMRS with short drying periods. The model is implemented in a computing tool, E. coli SafeFerment (EcSF), freely available from http://www.ifr.ac.uk/safety/EcoliSafeFerment. EcSF integrates growth, probability of growth, and thermal and nonthermal inactivation models to predict the VTEC concentration throughout FRMS manufacturing and storage under constant or fluctuating environmental conditions.

  16. Colorimetric and sensory characteristics of fermented cured sausage with Brazilian ostrich meat addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the colorimetric and sensory characteristics of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four treatments were performed: one with no ostrich meat (TC and the others containing 19.08 (T1, 38.34 (T2, and 57.60% (T3 of ostrich meat and pork meat. Colorimetric analyses were measuring L*, a*, b*, C*, and hº. Sensory analysis was conducted assessing color, aroma, flavor, and texture at the end of the sausages' processing. The sausages containing ostrich meat were statistically different from the control in the instrumental colorimetric analysis. In the sensory analysis, no significant differences were observed between the treatments for aroma, flavor, and texture. However, significant differences were found in the color of the sausages due to the high myoglobin content present in the ostrich meat, which resulted in a very dark color in the treatment with the highest percentage of this type of meat.

  17. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiorentini, Angela Maria; Sawitzki, Maristela Cortez; Bertol, Teresinha Marisa; Sant'anna, Ernani S

    2009-01-01

    Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5 showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.

  18. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Salmonella species in meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine of influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 7 Salmonella spp. strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ripened fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus spp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Salmonella strains studied was, depending on the alternate, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The investigations also covered the water activity (a(w)) and pH of the tested products. The results obtained are shown in 12 figures and suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups showed antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella spp. strains. However, these abilities were not observed with respect to some lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. The temperature and length of the incubation period of sausages, but not a(w) and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria.

  19. Sensory properties, consumer liking and choice determinants of Lucanian dry cured sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braghieri, Ada; Piazzolla, Nicoletta; Carlucci, Angela; Bragaglio, Andrea; Napolitano, Fabio

    2016-01-01

    Based on a food choice questionnaire we identified as the most influential aspects affecting consumer choice of Lucanian dry cured sausages: taste, animal health and addition of preservatives. Therefore, as a second step we conducted a study to assess the effect of preservative addition on sausage sensory properties and consumer liking, with a particular emphasis on taste. The addition of preservatives did not change the perception of taste attributes by an experienced panel, whereas differences were detected in terms of odor, texture and color attributes. However, consumers did not express a preference for a particular product in terms of overall liking, taste/flavor liking and texture liking, whereas appearance liking was higher for sausages containing preservatives. Since sausage taste was unaffected by the addition of preservative, in order to prevent the potentially detrimental effect of a label indicating their presence, producers should make an effort to obtain high quality Lucanian dry cured sausages without using them. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Influence of inoculation levels and processing parameters on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni in German style fermented turkey sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alter, Thomas; Bori, Anouchka; Hamedi, Ahmad; Ellerbroek, Lüppo; Fehlhaber, Karsten

    2006-10-01

    This study investigated the influence of inoculum levels and manufacturing methods on the survival of Campylobacter (C.) jejuni in raw fermented turkey sausages. Sausages were prepared and inoculated with C. jejuni. After inoculation, these sausages were processed and ripened for 8 days. Samples were taken throughout the ripening process. The presence of C. jejuni was established bacteriologically. Additionally, lactic acid bacteria were enumerated, pH values and water activity were measured to verify the ripening process. To detect changes in genotype and verify the identity of the recovered clones, AFLP analysis was carried out on the re-isolated strains. Whereas no C. jejuni were detectable when inoculating the sausages with the lowest inoculum (0.08-0.44 log(10) cfu/g sausage emulsion), C. jejuni were detectable for 12-24h by enrichment when inoculated with approximately 2 log(10) cfu/g. After inoculation with 4 and 6 log(10) cfu/g respectively, C. jejuni were detectable without enrichment for 12-48 h and by enrichment for 144 h at the most. The greatest decrease of the C. jejuni population occurred during the first 4 h of ripening. Only a very high inoculum level allowed the survival of the organism during a fermentation process and during ripening to pose a potential risk for consumers. Lower initial Campylobacter inoculums will be eliminated during proper ripening of the sausages, if sufficient decrease in water activity and pH-value is ensured.

  1. Lactobacillus plantarum (KACC 92189) as a Potential Probiotic Starter Culture for Quality Improvement of Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of fermenting temperature on the applicability of Lactobacillus plantarum for production of fermented sausages as starter cultures, and its applicable efficiency was also compared with those inoculated with commercial starter culture or non-inoculated control. The L. plantarum isolated from a naturally-fermented meat, identified by 16S rDNA sequencing and again identified by de novo Assembly Analysis method was used as a starter culture. Six treatments: 3 with L. plantarum at different fermenting temperatures (20, 25 and 30°C), and other 3 treatments (1 with commercial starter culture, 1 with its mixture with L. plantarum and 1 non-inoculated control) fermented under the same conditions (25°C) were prepared. Results revealed that the fermenting temperature considerably affected the pH change in samples added with L. plantarum; the highest pH drop rate (1.57 unit) was obtained on the samples fermented at 30°C, followed by those at 25°C (1.3 unit) and 20°C (0.99 unit) after 4 days fermentation. Increasing the temperature up to 30°C resulted in significantly lower spoilage bacteria count (5.15 log CFU/g) and lipid oxidation level in the products inoculated with L. plantarum. The sensory analysis also showed that the samples added with L. plantarum at 30°C had significantly higher odor, taste and acceptability scores than those fermented at lower temperatures. Under the same processing condition, although the L. plantarum showed slightly lower acidification than the commercial starter culture, however, it significantly improved the eating quality of the product. PMID:29725237

  2. Fate of acid-resistant and non-acid resistant Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in experimentally contaminated French fermented raw meat sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montet, M P; Christieans, S; Thevenot, D; Coppet, V; Ganet, S; Muller, M L Delignette; Dunière, L; Miszczycha, S; Vernozy-Rozand, C

    2009-02-28

    Both pathogenic and nonpathogenic E. coli exhibit a stress response to sublethal environmental stresses. Several studies have reported acid tolerance and survival characteristics of E. coli O157:H7 in foodstuffs, but there are few reports about the tolerance of non-O157 serogroups (STEC) to organic acids in foods. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of the manufacturing process of French fermented raw meat sausages on the growth and survival of acid-resistant (AR) and non-acid resistant (NAR) STEC strains. The six strains, 3 AR and 3 NAR, were inoculated separately into raw sausage mixture at a level of 10(4)-10(5) CFU/g. A total of 19 batches of sausages were manufactured. A rapid and similar decrease in the number of both AR and NAR STEC strains, from less than 1 to 1.5 log(10) CFU/g, was observed during the first 5 days of fermentation at 20-24 degrees C. This rapid decrease was followed by a more gradual but continuous decrease in STEC counts after drying at 13-14 degrees C, up to day 35. The STEC counts were <10 CFU/g after 35 days for the NAR strains and the same concentration for the AR strains on the best before date (day 60). It was not possible to detect any NAR STEC after 60 days. The present study shows that the process used in the manufacture of French sausages results in a complete destruction of NAR STEC strains after 60 days, but it does not have the same effect on the AR STEC strains.

  3. Effect of curing agents on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Morcuende, D; Estévez, M

    2014-07-01

    The effect of increasing concentrations of curing agents, ascorbate (0, 250, and 500 ppm), and nitrite (0, 75, and 150 ppm), on the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins during processing of fermented sausages was studied. The potential influence of these reactions on color and texture of the fermented sausages was also addressed. Nitrite had a pro-oxidant effect on tryptophan depletion and promoted the formation of protein carbonyls and Schiff bases. The nitration degree in the fermented sausages was also dependent on nitrite concentration. On the other hand, ascorbate acted as an efficient inhibitor of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to meat proteins. As expected, nitrite clearly favored the formation of the cured red color and ascorbate acted as an enhancer of color formation. Nitrite content was positively correlated with hardness. The chemistry behind the action of nitrite and ascorbate on muscle proteins during meat fermentation is thoroughly discussed. The results suggest that ascorbate (500 ppm) may be required to compensate the pro-oxidant impact of nitrite on meat proteins. This study provides insight on the action of curing agents on meat proteins during processing of fermented sausages. This chemistry background provides understanding of the potential influence of the oxidative and nitrosative damage to proteins on the quality of processed muscle foods. The study provides novel information on the impact of the combination of nitrite and ascorbate on the chemical deterioration of proteins and the influence on particular quality traits of fermented sausages. These data may be of interest for the design of cured muscle foods of enhanced quality. © 2014 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Prevalence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at small-scale spanish factories producing traditional fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Belen; Garriga, Margarita; Aymerich, Teresa

    2011-05-01

    The manufacturing of fermented sausages is subject to natural contamination processes that can potentially carry foodborne pathogens along the process chain and result in contamination of the final product. The aim of this study was to evaluate the occurrence of Salmonella spp. and Listeria monocytogenes at different sampling points during the manufacturing process of fuet, a type of traditional fermented sausage, at 10 small-scale Spanish factories. The presence of both pathogens was studied in the raw materials (19 casings and 19 meat batters), the final products (19 fermented sausages), and the factory equipment (12 mincing, 12 mixing, and 19 stuffing machines, 19 cutting tables, 11 knives, and 12 cold rooms) by using classical microbiological techniques and real-time PCR. Salmonella was not detected in the equipment analyzed or in the final products, but it was detected in the raw materials (23.7% of samples). L. monocytogenes showed higher incidence than Salmonella and was detected in the equipment (11.8% of samples), the raw materials (28.9%), and the final products (15.8%), confirming its ubiquity throughout the manufacturing process of fermented sausages. Five factories were further investigated to study the changes in the distribution of pathogens in the fuet production process over a period of either 2 or 3 years. There was considerable variation in the incidence of both pathogens at different sampling periods, and there was no relation between seasonal variations or geographic location of the factories.

  5. Identification and tracing of Enterococcus spp. by RAPD-PCR in traditional fermented sausages and meat environment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, B; Corominas, L; Garriga, M; Aymerich, T

    2009-01-01

    Four local small-scale factories were studied to determine the sources of enterococci in traditional fermented sausages. Different points during the production of a traditional fermented sausage type (fuet) were evaluated. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD)-PCR was used to type 596 Enterococcus isolates from the final products, the initial meat batter, the casing, the workers' hands and the equipment. Species-specific PCR-multiplex and the partial sequencing of atpA gene and 16S rRNA gene sequencing allowed the identification of the isolates: Enterococcus faecalis (31.4%), Enterococcus faecium (30.7%), Enterococcus sanguinicola (14.9%), Enterococcus devriesei (9.7%), Enterococcus malodoratus (7.2%), Enterococcus gilvus (1.0%), Enterococcus gallinarum (1.3%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (3.4%), Enterococcus hermanniensis (0.2%), and Enterococcus durans (0.2%). A total of 92 different RAPD-PCR profiles were distributed among the different factories and samples evaluated. Most of the genotypes found in fuet samples were traced back to their source. The major sources of enterococci in the traditional fermented sausages studied were mainly the equipment followed by the raw ingredients, although a low proportion was traced back to human origin. This work contributes to determine the source of enterococcal contamination in fermented sausages and also to the knowledge of the meat environment.

  6. Relationship between ecophysiological factors, growth and ochratoxin A contamination of dry-cured sausage based matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Alicia; Capela, Daniela; Medina, Ángel; Córdoba, Juan J; Magan, Naresh

    2015-02-02

    Dry-cured sausages are colonised by moulds during the ripening process. The temperature and the salt content (which affects water activity, aw) predispose the surface to colonisation by Penicillium species, including Penicillium nordicum and Penicillium verrucosum which can lead to contamination of the sausages with ochratoxin A (OTA). The objective of this work was to obtain scientific data on the impact that interaction between ionic water stress (aw; 0.97, 0.94, 0.90, 0.87 and 0.84) and temperature (30, 25, 20, 15 and 10°C) may have on lag phases prior to growth, growth and OTA production by some P. verrucosum and P. nordicum strains isolated from dry-cured meat products on a dry-cured sausage-based medium over a period of 12days. Although P. nordicum had shorter lag phases than P. verrucosum, the latter grew faster than P. nordicum in most conditions tested. For both species, there was no growth and OTA production at 0.84 aw at all the temperatures tested. The fungi were more tolerant at moderate ionic aw conditions (0.94 and 0.90) and 20 and 25°C. In contrast, the patterns of production of OTA were very different from those for growth. Different OTA production profiles between the two OTA-producing species were found. While P. nordicum began producing OTA in most of the conditions tested by day 6, P. verrucosum only produced the toxin in these conditions when the temperature and aw were >10°C and >0.90, respectively. However, the P. verrucosum strain produced much higher concentrations of OTA than the P. nordicum strain in all conditions. We developed contour maps of the optimum and marginal aw×temperature conditions for growth/OTA production on dry-cured sausage-based medium for the first time. This suggests that these interacting conditions during the early phases of production must be effectively controlled as these favour growth of the toxigenic Penicillia. Knowledge on the ecophysiology of these two important Penicillium species on these matrices

  7. Nitrite promotes protein carbonylation and Strecker aldehyde formation in experimental fermented sausages: are both events connected?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villaverde, A; Ventanas, J; Estévez, M

    2014-12-01

    The role played by curing agents (nitrite, ascorbate) on protein oxidation and Strecker aldehyde formation is studied. To fulfill this objective, increasing concentrations of nitrite (0, 75 and 150ppm) and ascorbate (0, 250 and 500ppm) were added to sausages subjected to a 54day drying process. The concurrence of intense proteolysis, protein carbonylation and formation of Strecker aldehydes during processing of sausages suggests that α-aminoadipic semialdehyde (AAS) and γ-glutamic semialdehyde (GGS) may be implicated in the formation of Strecker aldehydes. The fact that nitrite (150ppm, ingoing amount) significantly promoted the formation of protein carbonyls at early stages of processing and the subsequent formation of Strecker aldehydes provides strength to this hypothesis. Ascorbate (125 and 250ppm) controlled the overall extent of protein carbonylation in sausages without declining the formation of Strecker aldehydes. These results may contribute to understanding the chemistry fundamentals of the positive influence of nitrite on the flavor and overall acceptability of cured muscle foods. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Assertiveness of Lactobacillus sakei and Lactobacillus curvatus in a fermented sausage model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janßen, Dorothee; Eisenbach, Lara; Ehrmann, Matthias A; Vogel, Rudi F

    2018-04-20

    Fresh meat harbors autochthonous microbiota with unknown risk potential, which is introduced in raw fermented sausages. Their growth can be limited by the use of safe, competitive starter strains. In the lack of time and cost-effective methods to track those starters at strain level, their assertiveness upon meat fermentation is widely unknown. Lactobacillus (L.) sakei and L. curvatus, which can be isolated from a variety of habitats, are frequently used as starter cultures. We monitored the assertiveness of 9 L. sakei and 9 L. curvatus strains in a model fermentation using MALDI-TOF-MS. An "in-house" MALDI-TOF-MS database with sub-proteome spectra of L. sakei and L. curvatus strains, as well as members of the autochthonous, spontaneously growing meat microbiota was established, validated and recognition rates were determined for each L. curvatus and L. sakei strain used. Competition studies were performed with standardized sausage batter, which was inoculated with a total of 10 6 cells of sets of 4-5 strains each of L. sakei and L. curvatus and 10 6 Staphylococcus carnosus ssp. carnosus cells. The pH and redox potential were monitored continuously. On days 0, 2 and 5 samples were taken to determine the CfU/g and a total of 96 isolates per sample were identified via MALDI-TOF-MS. MALDI-TOF-MS generally proved suitable for identification of isolates on strain level within the starter sets employed, but the recognition rate varied depending on the strain. Competition studies revealed dominance or co-dominance of strains within each set. However, their assertiveness significantly depended on the composition of the strain sets. Still, co-dominance or cooperation appeared effective to outgrow other members of the autochthonous meat microbiota, rather than dominance of single strains. For the latter, the ability to produce bacteriocins suggested itself for a crucial role in the assertiveness of starter strains. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. RAPD-PCR characterization of lactobacilli isolated from artisanal meat plants and traditional fermented sausages of Veneto region (Italy).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrighetto, C; Zampese, L; Lombardi, A

    2001-07-01

    The study was carried out to evaluate the use of randomly amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) as a method for the identification of lactobacilli isolated from meat products. RAPD-PCR with primers M13 and D8635 was applied to the identification and intraspecific differentiation of 53 lactobacilli isolates originating from traditional fermented sausages and artisanal meat plants of the Veneto region (Italy). Most of the isolates were assigned to the species Lactobacillus sakei and Lact. curvatus; differentiation of groups of strains within the species was also possible. RAPD-PCR could be applied to the identification of lactobacilli species most commonly found in meat products. The method, which is easy and rapid to perform, could be useful for the study of the lactobacilli populations present in fermented sausages, and could help in the selection of candidate strains to use as starter cultures in meat fermentation.

  10. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented ground cassava was studied in order to generate data for design and optimum performance of various dryers used in cassava processing. This research attempts to provide data on the engineering properties such as moisture content, specific heat ...

  11. Consumers' perception and acceptance of boiled and fermented sausages from strongly boar tainted meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier-Dinkel, Lisa; Gertheiss, Jan; Schnäckel, Wolfram; Mörlein, Daniel

    2016-08-01

    Characteristic off-flavours may occur in uncastrated male pigs depending on the accumulation of androstenone and skatole. Feasible processing of strongly tainted carcasses is challenging but gains in importance due to the European ban on piglet castration in 2018. This paper investigates consumers' acceptability of two sausage types: (a) emulsion-type (BOILED) and (b) smoked raw-fermented (FERM). Liking (9 point scales) and flavour perception (check-all-that-apply with both, typical and negatively connoted sensory terms) were evaluated by 120 consumers (within-subject design). Proportion of tainted boar meat (0, 50, 100%) affected overall liking of BOILED, F (2, 238)=23.22, P<.001, but not of FERM sausages, F (2, 238)=0.89, P=.414. Consumers described the flavour of BOILED-100 as strong and sweaty. In conclusion, FERM products seem promising for processing of tainted carcasses whereas formulations must be optimized for BOILED in order to eliminate perceptible off-flavours. Boar taint rejection thresholds may be higher for processed than those suggested for unprocessed meat cuts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Methods for the evaluation of antibiotic resistance in Lactobacillus isolated from fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanna Lethycia Wolupeck

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The present study aimed to assess the antibiotic resistance in 54 indigenous Lactobacillus plantarum isolated from artisanal fermented sausages. The confirmation of the strain species was performed by multiplex-PCR assay. Antibiotic resistance was assessed by disk diffusion (DD and Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC methods. Of 54 L. plantarum, 44 strains were genotypically confirmed as L. plantarum and 3 as Lactobacillus pentosus. The highest resistance rates were to ampicillin and streptomycin. The highest susceptibility rates were shown to tetracycline, chloramphenicol and penicillin G. None of the strains showed multidrug resistance. Resistance rates by DD and MIC were not different (P>0.05 for ampicillin, chloramphenicol, erythromycin and penicillin G. Future research should assess the genetic mechanisms underlying the phenotypic resistance in Lactobacillus strains to screen the potential probiotic strains for the development of functional meat products.

  13. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monique Zagorec

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage.

  14. Lactobacillus sakei: A Starter for Sausage Fermentation, a Protective Culture for Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zagorec, Monique; Champomier-Vergès, Marie-Christine

    2017-01-01

    Among lactic acid bacteria of meat products, Lactobacillus sakei is certainly the most studied species due to its role in the fermentation of sausage and its prevalence during cold storage of raw meat products. Consequently, the physiology of this bacterium regarding functions involved in growth, survival, and metabolism during meat storage and processing are well known. This species exhibits a wide genomic diversity that can be observed when studying different strains and on which probably rely its multiple facets in meat products: starter, spoiler, or protective culture. The emerging exploration of the microbial ecology of meat products also revealed the multiplicity of bacterial interactions L. sakei has to face and their various consequences on microbial quality and safety at the end of storage. PMID:28878171

  15. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60 Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages. - Highlights: ► A fermented dextrose (FD) with γ-irradiation in pork sausages was investigated. ► Pork sausages containing the FD were prepared and then irradiated. ► Combined treatment reduced the bacterial growth compared to the treatments alone. ► Combined treatment increased the shelf-life compared to both treatments alone.

  16. Interactions of meat-associated bacteriocin-producing Lactobacilli with Listeria innocua under stringent sausage fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Frédéric; Lievens, Kristoff; De Vuyst, Luc

    2005-10-01

    The kinetics of the antilisterial effect of meat-associated lactobacilli on Listeria innocua LMG 13568 were investigated during laboratory batch fermentations. During these fermentations, which were performed in a liquid meat simulation medium, a combination of process factors typical for European-style sausage fermentations was applied, such as a temperature of 20 degrees C and a representative pH and salting profile. Two bacteriocin-producing sausage isolates (Lactobacillus sakei CTC 494 and Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174), which have already proven efficacy in sausage trials, and one nonbacteriocinogenic, industrial strain (Lactobacillus sakei I), were evaluated. Staphylococcus carnosus 833 was included in the experiment because of its role in flavor and color development. When grown as a monoculture or upon cocultivation with L. sakei I and S. carnosus 833, L. innocua LMG 13568 developed slightly, despite the stress of low temperature, pH, lactic acid, salt, and nitrite. In contrast, when either of the bacteriocin producers was used, the L. innocua LMG 13568 population was rapidly inactivated with more than 3 log CFU ml(-1) after 2 days of fermentation. A bacteriocin-tolerant L. innocua LMG 13568 subpopulation (4 X 10(-4)) remained after bacteriocin inactivation. Thus, when the initial level of L. innocua LMG 13568 equaled 3 log CFU ml(-1), all cells were inactivated and no bacteriocin-tolerant cells were detected, even after 7 days of incubation. S. carnosus was not inactivated by the Lactobacillus bacteriocins and displayed slight growth.

  17. Image analysis with the computer vision system and the consumer test in evaluating the appearance of Lucanian dry sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Girolami, Antonio; Napolitano, Fabio; Faraone, Daniela; Di Bello, Gerardo; Braghieri, Ada

    2014-01-01

    The object of the investigation was the Lucanian dry sausage appearance, meant as color and visible fat ratio. The study was carried out on dry sausages produced in 10 different salami factories and seasoned for 18 days on average. We studied the effect of the raw material origin (5 producers used meat bought from the market and other 5 producers used meat from pigs bred in their farms) and of the salami factories or brands on meat color, fat color and visible fat ratio in dry sausages. The sausages slices were photographed and the images were analysed with the computer vision system to measure the changes in the colorimetric characteristics L*, a*, b*, hue and chroma and in the visible fat area ratio. The last parameter was assessed on the slice surface using image binarization. A consumer test was conducted to determine the relationship between the perception of visible fat on the sausage slice surface and acceptability and preference of this product. The consumers were asked to look carefully at the 6 sausages slices in a photo, minding the presence of fat, and to identify (a) the slices they considered unacceptable for consumption and (b) the slice they preferred. The results show that the color of the sausage lean part varies in relation to the raw material employed and to the producer or brand (P<0.001). Besides, the sausage meat color is not uniform in some salami factories (P<0.05-0.001). In all salami factories the sausages show a high uniformity in fat color. The visible fat ratio of the sausages slices is higher (P<0.001) in the product from salami factories without pig-breeding farm. The fat percentage is highly variable (P<0.001) among the sausages of each salami factory. On the whole, the product the consumers consider acceptable and is inclined to eat has a low fat percentage (P<0.001). Our consumers (about 70%) prefer slices which are leaner (P<0.001). Women, in particular, show a higher preference for the leanest (P<0.001). © 2013.

  18. Characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces as potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rubio, Raquel; Jofré, Anna; Martín, Belén; Aymerich, Teresa; Garriga, Margarita

    2014-04-01

    A total of 109 lactic acid bacteria isolated from infant faeces were identified by partial 16S rRNA, cpn60 and/or pheS sequencing. Lactobacillus was the most prevalent genus, representing 48% of the isolates followed by Enterococcus (38%). Lactobacillus gasseri (21%) and Enterococcus faecalis (38%) were the main species detected. A further selection of potential probiotic starter cultures for fermented sausages focused on Lactobacillus as the most technologically relevant genus in this type of product. Lactobacilli strains were evaluated for their ability to grow in vitro in the processing conditions of fermented sausages and for their functional and safety properties, including antagonistic activity against foodborne pathogens, survival from gastrointestinal tract conditions (acidity, bile and pancreatin), tyramine production, antibiotic susceptibility and aggregation capacity. The best strains according to the results obtained were Lactobacillus casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678, Lactobacillus rhamnosus CTC1679, L. gasseri CTC1700, L. gasseri CTC1704, Lactobacillus fermentum CTC1693. Those strains were further assayed as starter cultures in model sausages. L. casei/paracasei CTC1677, L. casei/paracasei CTC1678 and L. rhamnosus CTC1679 were able to lead the fermentation and dominate (levels ca. 10(8) CFU/g) the endogenous lactic acid bacteria, confirming their suitability as probiotic starter cultures. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Comparison of the Effect of New Spice Freon Extracts Towards Ground Spices and Antioxidants for Improving the Quality of Bulgarian-Type Dry-Cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balev Dessislav Kostadinov

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Ground spices are a source of hazards for dry-fermented meat products. Since dry-cured sausages are not subjected to heat treatment, there is a high risk of microbial cross-contamination and physical impurities. The aim of this study was to determine effects of the replacement of 3 g/kg of ground black pepper (Piper nigrum L., and cumin (Cuminum cyminum with their aliquots of new freon extracts, and compare them with the effect of 0.2 g/kg antioxidant addition (taxifolin extract from Siberian larch (Larix sibirica Ledeb, rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis L. extract, and butylated hydroxytoluene on sensory properties, color stability, proximate composition, free amino nitrogen and pH of Bulgarian-type dry-cured „Sudjuk“ sausages. The replacement of natural ground spices with aliquots of their extracts improved sensory properties and stabilized the color characteristics of the final product during 30 days of storage at 0–4°C. The addition of 0.2 g/kg rosemary extract was as effective as the addition of freon extracts on the overall assessment to the 14th day of the experiment. It was determined that the addition of antioxidants or spice extracts had no significant effect on proximate composition, pH, and free amino nitrogen accumulation of the “Sudjuk”. The addition of 0.2 g/kg, taxifolin or rosemary extracts and butylated hydroxytoluene was not so efficient in improving the sensory properties and color stabilization in comparison to the new freon spice extracts. The examined spice extracts can be successfully used to improve the quality of “Sudjuk” sausages.

  20. Combined effect of γ-irradiation and bacterial-fermented dextrose on microbiological quality of refrigerated pork sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dussault, D.; Benoit, C.; Lacroix, M.

    2012-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of a concentrated fermented dextrose (FD), a natural antimicrobial product, combined with low dose γ-irradiation (1.5 kGy) on the microbiological quality of fresh pork sausages. Fresh pork sausages containing the FD (0.25%, 0.5% and 0.75%) were prepared in a meat pilot plant and were irradiated using a UC-15A irradiator equipped with a 60Cobalt source. The γ-irradiation treatment alone was able to reduce the initial psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria by more than 2 log CFU/g and kept the lactobacillus population under the detection limit (100 CFU/g). Results also showed that the FD alone was able to extend the shelf life of the sausages from 5 days up to 13 days. At day 13, the FD or irradiation alone showed 2 log CFU/g less mesophilic bacteria than the control. After combining FD and irradiation another reduction of the microbial count of 1 log CFU/g was observed. When combining the irradiation treatment with the FD results it showed a reduced growth rate of the psychrophilic and mesophilic bacteria compared to both treatments alone. This study demonstrated that FD with low dose gamma irradiation act in synergy to reduce the multiplication of the total bacterial flora in fresh sausages.

  1. Characteristic of Lamb Sausages Fermented by Indonesian Meat-Derived Probiotic, Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 and Lactobacillus acidophilus IIA-2B4

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noraimah Binti Sulaiman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Probiotic is a group of microorganism, mainly from lactic acid bacteria (LAB, widely used to increase functionality of various foodstuffs, including lamb which was limited by its goaty odor and short life issue. This study aimed to evaluate the characteristic of lamb sausages fermented by either Lactobacillus plantarum IIA-2C12 or L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 isolated from local cattle in Indonesia, and stored for 21 days at low temperature (4oC. Fermented lamb sausages were made with the addition of L. plantarum IIA-2C12 and L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 with three replications. The result showed that pH value, protein, and cholesterol contents of the sausages with addition of L. acidophilus IIA-2B4 were higher (P<0.05 than that of L. plantarum IIA-2C12. Meanwhile, the sausage fermented with L. plantarum IIA-2C12 had higher titratable acid (TA value, texture, and the content of fat, carbohydrate, tyrosine, lysine, myristoleic (C14:1, pentadecanoic (C15:0, heneicosanoic (C21:0 and cis-11-eicosatrienoic (C20:1 as compared to that of  L. acidophilus 2C12-2B4. Final population of LAB in the sausage fermented by L. plantarum IIA-2C12 was also higher than that of L. acidophilus IIA-2B4, yet both can be categorized as a probiotic. The differences between characteristics of the physicochemical traits and microbiological quality of the sausage fermentation associated with the addition of L. plantarum IIA-2C12 or L. acidophilus IIA-2B4. The 21 days of storage at cold temperatures with probiotics addition could extend shelf life and maintain quality of fermented sausage.

  2. Frequency of contamination Listeria monocytogenes of raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hristo Daskalov

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to collect actual data concerning the frequency of contamination with Listeria monocytogenes of some very popular in Bulgaria raw dried cured vacuum packed sausages, produced from October 2004 till May 2008. 148 vacuum-packed samples were taken from 9 different food business operators during all seasons of the year. The samples were analyzed according to USDA method for meat foods. Ten specimens were positive for presence of Listeria monocytogenes equal to 6,75% of all tested samples. In two other raw dried cured sausages L.welshimeri and L.innocua were found, but these species are not pathogenic for consumers. In the period before the official implementation of HACCP system (01.01.2006 in Bulgaria, 52 samples were examined and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates were found (~10%. 2,5 years after the HACCP implementation, 96 specimens from the same meat factories were tested and 5 Listeria monocytogenes isolates (5,2% were detected. Samples taken from lots, produced in winter time were contaminated with Listeria monocytogenes more often (7 of all 10 than specimens taken during other seasons. Data were discussed through the point of view of the effectiveness of hygienic practices and HACCP system application. Also, application of ‘microbiological criterion’ set in COMMISSION REGULATION (EC No 2073/2005 for ready-to-eat foods unable to support the growth of L. monocytogenes was considered.

  3. Effects of Different Spices Used in Production of Fermented Sausages on Growth of and Curvacin A Production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; de Vuyst, Luc

    2004-01-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (Xmax) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased Xmax. Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing. PMID:15294818

  4. Effects of different spices used in production of fermented sausages on growth of and curvacin A production by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Leroy, Frédéric; De Vuyst, Luc

    2004-08-01

    Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a fermented sausage isolate, produces the listericidal bacteriocin curvacin A. The effect of different spices relevant for the production of fermented sausages was investigated in vitro through laboratory fermentations with a meat simulation medium and an imposed pH profile relevant for Belgian-type fermented sausages. The influence on the growth characteristics and especially on the kinetics of curvacin A production with L. curvatus LTH 1174 was evaluated. Pepper, nutmeg, rosemary, mace, and garlic all decreased the maximum specific growth rate, while paprika was the only spice that increased it. The effect on the lag phase was minor except for nutmeg and especially for garlic, which increased it, yet garlic was stimulatory for biomass production. The maximum attainable biomass concentration (X(max)) was severely decreased by the addition of 0.40% (wt/vol) nutmeg, while 0.35% (wt/vol) garlic or 0.80% (wt/vol) white pepper increased X(max). Nutmeg decreased both growth and bacteriocin production considerably. Garlic was the only spice enhancing specific bacteriocin production, resulting in higher bacteriocin activity in the cell-free culture supernatant. Finally, lactic acid production was stimulated by the addition of pepper, and this was not due to the manganese present because an amount of manganese that was not growth limiting was added to the growth medium. Addition of spices to the sausage mixture is clearly a factor that will influence the effectiveness of bacteriocinogenic starter cultures in fermented-sausage manufacturing.

  5. Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in fermented sausages depending on different processing conditions and different antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanardi, Emanuela; Ghidini, Sergio; Battaglia, Alessandra; Chizzolini, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Lipolysis and lipid oxidation in Mediterranean and North Europe type sausages were studied in relation to raw material, processing conditions and additives. In particular the effect of ascorbic acid, nitrites and spices was evaluated. Lipolysis was measured by the determination of total and free fatty acids of fresh minces and matured products and lipid oxidation was evaluated by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and cholesterol oxidation products. The increase of free fatty acids during maturation appears to be independent from processing conditions and the differences in polyunsaturated fatty acids increment found among the formulations appear to be due to inherent variations of raw materials. The presence of ascorbic acid and/or nitrite seems important for cholesterol protection and, as a consequence, for the safety of fermented meat products while spices at doses up to 0.1% do not seem to have a remarkable effect. The effect on fatty acid oxidation of the same additives and of the different processing technologies is not significantly different and the variations linked to raw material may play the greatest role.

  6. Nutritional value and influence of the thermal processing on a traditional Portuguese fermented sausage (alheira).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campos, Sílvia D; Alves, Rita C; Mendes, Eulália; Costa, Anabela S G; Casal, Susana; Oliveira, Maria Beatriz P P

    2013-04-01

    Alheiras are a traditional, smoked, fermented meat sausage, produced in Portugal, with an undeniable cultural and gastronomic legacy. In this study, we assessed the nutritional value of this product, as well as the influence of different types of thermal processing. Alheiras from Mirandela were submitted to six different procedures: microwave, skillet, oven, charcoal grill, electric fryer and electric grill. Protein, fat, carbohydrate, minerals, NaCl, and cholesterol contents, as well as fatty acid profile were evaluated. The results show that alheiras are not hypercaloric but an unbalanced foodstuff (high levels of proteins and lipids) and the type of processing has a major impact on their nutritional value. Charcoal grill is the healthiest option: less fat (12.5 g/100 g) and cholesterol (29.3 mg/100 g), corresponding to a lower caloric intake (231.8 kcal, less 13% than the raw ones). Inversely, fried alheiras presented the worst nutritional profile, with the highest levels of fat (18.1 g/100 g) and cholesterol (76.0 g/100 g). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Generation of flavour compounds in fermented sausages-the influence of curing ingredients, Staphylococcus starter culture and ripening time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Pelle Thonning; Meyer, Anne Boye Strunge; Stahnke, Louise Heller

    2004-01-01

    The volatile profiles of fermented sausages made with either Staphylococcus xylosus or Staphylococcus carnosus starter cultures were studied with regard to the influence of salt concentration, ripening time and three different combinations of curing ingredients-nitrate, nitrite or nitrite...... throughout maturation. Curing salts had a pronounced effect on the level of volatile compounds. In particular, curing with nitrate instead of nitrite resulted in a striking difference. Generally, nitrate increased the level of volatile compounds compared to nitrite, whereas ascorbate had only a small...... observed depending on whether S. xylosus or S. carnosus were used as starter culture. In particular the effects of nitrate was much more predominant in the sausages made with S. carnosus than S. xylosus....

  8. Microbial ecology involved in the ripening of naturally fermented llama meat sausages. A focus on lactobacilli diversity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, Cecilia; Bassi, Daniela; López, Constanza; Pisacane, Vincenza; Otero, Maria Claudia; Puglisi, Edoardo; Rebecchi, Annalisa; Cocconcelli, Pier Sandro; Vignolo, Graciela

    2016-11-07

    Llama represents for the Andean regions a valid alternative to bovine and pork meat and thanks to the high proteins and low fat content; it can constitute a good product for the novel food market. In this study, culture-dependent and independent methods were applied to investigate the microbial ecology of naturally fermented llama sausages produced in Northwest Argentina. Two different production technologies of llama sausage were investigated: a pilot-plant scale (P) and an artisanal one (A). Results obtained by High-Throughput Sequencing (HTS) of 16S rRNA amplicons showed that the production technologies influenced the development of microbial communities with a different composition throughout the entire fermentation process. Both sequencing and microbiological counts demonstrated that Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB) contributed largely to the dominant microbiota. When a total of 230 isolates were approached by RAPD-PCR, presumptive LAB strains from P production exhibited an initial variability in RAPD fingerprints switching to a single profile at the final of ripening, while A production revealed a more heterogeneous RAPD pattern during the whole fermentation process. The constant presence of Lactobacillus sakei along the fermentation in both productions was revealed by HTS and confirmed by species-specific PCR from isolated strains. The technological characterization of Lb. sakei isolates evidenced their ability to grow at 15°C, pH4.5 and 5% NaCl (95%). Most strains hydrolyzed myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins. Bacteriocins encoding genes and antimicrobial resistance were found in 35% and 42.5% of the strains, respectively. An appropriate choice of a combination of autochthonous strains in a starter formulation is fundamental to improve and standardize llama sausages safety and quality. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Extraction and determination of biogenic amines in fermented sausages and other meat products using reversed-phase-HPLC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straub, B; Schollenberger, M; Kicherer, M; Luckas, B; Hammes, W P

    1993-09-01

    A convenient method is described for the analysis of biogenic amines (BA) by means of reversed-phase-HPLC. The method is characterized by multi-channel UV detection (diodearray), subsequent post-column derivatization with o-phthaldialdehyde and 3-mercaptopropionic acid, and fluorescence detection. For the analysis of meat products and especially fermented sausages an optimized perchloric acid extraction process was introduced to determine putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine and 2-phenylethylamine. BA recoveries from meat ranged between 96 and 113% with a detection limit for amines of 0.5 mg/kg.

  10. The substitution of a traditional starter culture in mutton fermented sausages by Lactobacillus acidophilus and Bifidobacterium animalis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holko, I; Hrabě, J; Šalaková, A; Rada, V

    2013-07-01

    Common starter cultures used in fermented mutton sausages were substituted by probiotic strains of Lactobacillus acidophilus CCDM 476 and Bifidobacterium animalis 241a. Technological properties of the traditional and the probiotic sausages were compared. The potential probiotic effect was evaluated by enumeration of bifidobacteria and lactobacilli in stool samples of 15 volunteers before and after a 14-day consumption period. The numbers of lactobacilli (10(7) cfu/g) and bifidobacteria (10(3) cfu/g) in the final product did not affect the technological properties. The use of L. acidophilus as a starter culture was found more beneficial than the use of B. animalis. Even after 60 days of storage, high counts of L. acidophilus (10(6) cfu/g) were detected; on the other hand, the counts of B. animalis were under the detection limit. Regarding sensory properties, the probiotic products showed better texture, and, curiously, a reduction of the typical smell of mutton. The numbers of lactobacilli in stool samples increased significantly after the consumption of the probiotic sausages. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Fatty acid profile, color and lipid oxidation of organic fermented sausage during chilling storage as influenced by acid whey and probiotic strains addition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karolina Maria Wójciak

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Organic fermented sausages typically spoil during long-term storage due to oxidative rancidity. The application of natural antioxidants to meat stuffing is a major practice intended to inhibit the oxidation process and color changes. This study aimed to assess the effect of two unusual starter cultures: three probiotic strains (Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0900, Lactobacillus casei LOCK 0908 and Lactobacillus paracasei LOCK 0919 and lactic acid bacteria from acid whey on model fermented sausage type products focusing on oxidative stability by measuring instrumental color (L*, a*, b* values, conjugated dienes (CD, TBARS immediately after 21 days of ripening (0 and after 90 and 180 days of refrigerated storage (4 ºC. Determination of fatty acid composition, in meat product was performed after ripening and after 180 days of storage. At the end of the storage period, the salted sausages were characterized by the same content of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA compared to cured samples. The addition of acid whey and a mixture of probiotic strains to nitrite-free sausage formulation was barely able to protect lipids against oxidation in comparison to nitrite during vacuum storage. Surprisingly, the use of acid whey has an influence on the desired red-pinkish color of organic fermented sausage after ripening and after 180 days of storage period.

  12. Effect of micro-encapsulated n-3 fatty acids on quality properties of two types of dry sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zdeněk Pavlík

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry sausages are popular traditional meat products. As these products are a rich source of animal fat, there is an effort to improve their fatty acid ratio. The aim of this work was to study the effect of micro-encapsulated n-3 fatty acids added into dry sausages. Samples of dry sausages (Poličan and Vysočina enriched with unsaturated fatty acids (36 g for 6 kg of mixture and rosemary extract (0.3 g·kg-1 were made along with control samples. Physicochemical, instrumental analyses were performed, fatty acid profile was measured by gas chromatography, and oxidation processes were monitored by determination of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances. No significant differences (P ≥ 0.05 in quality indicators were found between samples, however, there were differences in oxidation processes. Sausages enriched with unsaturated fatty acids showed an increase in thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (> 2 mg·kg-1 and > 3 mg·kg-1 in Poličan and Vysočina, respectively, compared to control. Sausages enriched with unsaturated fatty acids and also with rosemary extract have the similar concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances as the control. An increase in the proportion of monounsaturated fatty acids and polyunsaturated fatty acids was seen in samples of Poličan supplemented with unsaturated fatty acids in combination with rosemary extract. The addition of rosemary extract had also a significant effect in increasing the proportion of unsaturated fatty acids in samples of Vysočina. From the viewpoint of quality indicators, changes in the properties of the product were not seen in any samples.

  13. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage....... for multivariate data analysis. Growth of lactic acid bacteria was comparable for model and sausages, whereas survival of S. xylosus was better in the model. Multivariate analysis of volatiles showed that differences between fast and slowly acidified samples were identical for model and sausage. For both sausage...

  14. The characterization of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the traditional production of Užička sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borović, B.; Velebit, B.; Vesković, S.; Lakićević, B.; Baltić, T.

    2017-09-01

    Užička sausage is a traditionally fermented dry sausage that is produced in western Serbia. It is made of beef and pork with the addition of solid fat and natural spices. The whole manufacturing process lasted for 21 days. The goal of this study was to create a collection of lactic acid bacteria isolated during the ripening and identify them using molecular methods. A total of 50 isolates from different stages of ripening (fermentation and drying) were identified by molecular methods. Leuconococcus mesenteroides, Lactobacillus brevis, and Lactobacillus sakei were the predominant microorganisms in Užička sausage.

  15. Effect of fermentation and drying on cocoa polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albertini, Barbara; Schoubben, Aurélie; Guarnaccia, Davide; Pinelli, Filippo; Della Vecchia, Mirco; Ricci, Maurizio; Di Renzo, Gian Carlo; Blasi, Paolo

    2015-11-18

    Cocoa seed polyphenols have demonstrated interesting beneficial effects in humans. Most polyphenols contained in fresh seeds are chemically modified during fermentation, drying, and cocoa powder or chocolate production. The improvement of these procedures to obtain a high-polyphenol-content cocoa is highly desirable. To this aim, a field investigation on the effect of fermentation and natural drying on fine flavor National cocoa (cacao Nacional) was performed. Cocoa seeds were fermented for 6 days and, every day, samples were sun-dried and analyzed for polyphenol content and antioxidant power. During the first 2 days of fermentation, Folin-Ciocalteu and FRAP tests evidenced a significant reduction of polyphenol content and antioxidant capacity, respectively. Changes during the following days of fermentation were less significant. Epicatechin, the most studied member of the catechin family, followed a similar pathway of degradation. Data confirmed the high impact of fermentation and drying on cocoa seed polyphenols. Fermentation and drying are, on the one hand, necessary to obtain cocoa flavor and palatability but, on the other hand, are responsible for greatly compromising polyphenol content. To obtain high-polyphenol-content cocoa, the existing fermentation, drying, and manufacturing protocols should be scientifically reviewed to understand and modify the critical steps.

  16. A novel polymerase chain reaction (PCR) - denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) for the identification of Micrococcaceae strains involved in meat fermentations. Its application to naturally fermented Italian sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, L; Manzano, M; Aggio, D; Cantoni, C; Comi, G

    2001-05-01

    A new molecular method consisting of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) of a small fragment from the 16S rRNA gene identified the Micrococcaceae strains isolated from natural fermented Italian sausages. Lactic acid bacteria, total aerobic mesophilic flora, Enterobacteriaceae and faecal enterococci were also monitored. Micrococcaceaea control strains from international collections were used to optimise the method and 90 strains, isolated from fermented sausages, were identified by biochemical tests and PCR-DGGE. No differences were observed between the methods used. The results reported in this paper prove that Staphylococcus xylosus is the main bacterium involved in fermented sausage production, representing, from the tenth day of ripening, the only Micrococcaceaea species isolated.

  17. Effect of the type of fat on the physicochemical, instrumental and sensory characteristics of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mora-Gallego, Héctor; Serra, Xavier; Guàrdia, Maria Dolors

    2013-01-01

    Four batches of reduced fat non-acid fermented sausages were manufactured with pork-ham lean, and the addition of no fat (Lean), 5% pork backfat (BF), 5% sunflower oil (SO) and 5% diacylglycerols (DAGs). The effect of the type of fat as pork-fat substitute on some physicochemical parameters, inst...

  18. Quality characteristics of Dutch-style fermented sausages manufactured with partial replacement of pork back-fat with pure, pre-emulsified or encapsulated fish oil

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Josquin, N.M.; Linssen, J.P.H.; Houben, J.H.

    2012-01-01

    Dutch-style fermented sausages were manufactured with 15% and 30% pork back-fat substitution by pure or commercial encapsulated fish oil, either added as such or as pre-emulsified mixture with soy protein isolate. Adding commercial encapsulated fish oil was the most important factor influencing the

  19. Maturity acceleration of Italian dried sausage by Staphylococcus carnosus - Relationship between maturity and flavor compounds

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stahnke, Louise Heller; Holck, A.; Jensen, Anni

    2002-01-01

    . Sausages with S. carnosus 833 matured more than 2 wk faster than control sausages. Maturity correlated significantly with higher amounts of branched-chain aldehydes and alcohols and both branched- and straight-chain methyl ketones-compounds arising from the breakdown of the amino acids leucine, isoleucine...

  20. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miriam T. Nediani

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product.

  1. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nediani, Miriam T; García, Luis; Saavedra, Lucila; Martínez, Sandra; López Alzogaray, Soledad; Fadda, Silvina

    2017-05-17

    Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product.

  2. Adding Value to Goat Meat: Biochemical and Technological Characterization of Autochthonous Lactic Acid Bacteria to Achieve High-Quality Fermented Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nediani, Miriam T.; García, Luis; Saavedra, Lucila; Martínez, Sandra; López Alzogaray, Soledad; Fadda, Silvina

    2017-01-01

    Quality and safety are important challenges in traditional fermented sausage technology. Consequently, the development of a tailored starter culture based on indigenous microbiota constitutes an interesting alternative. In the present study, spontaneously fermented goat meat sausages were created and analyzed using a physicochemical and microbiological approach. Thereafter 170 lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains were isolated and preliminary characterized by phenotypic assays. The hygienic and technological properties, and growth and fermentative potential of isolates using a goat-meat-based culture medium were evaluated. All strains proved to have bioprotective features due to their acidogenic metabolism. Almost all grew optimally in meat environments. LAB isolates presented proteolytic activity against meat proteins and enriched amino acid contents of the goat-meat-based model. The most efficient strains were four different Lactobacillus sakei isolates, as identified by genotyping and RAPD analysis. L. sakei strains are proposed as optimal candidates to improve the production of fermented goat meat sausages, creating a new added-value fermented product. PMID:28513575

  3. Consumer attitude towards sodium reduction in meat products and acceptability of fermented sausages with reduced sodium content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guàrdia, M D; Guerrero, L; Gelabert, J; Gou, P; Arnau, J

    2006-07-01

    Lowering salt content in meat products is possible from a technological and sensorial point of view, although little information is available about the consumers' attitude and acceptance of these products. Attitude towards low salt meat products, following the Theory of Planned Behaviour (TPB) proposed by Ajzen, was evaluated by 392 consumers. Acceptability of small calibre fermented sausages with 50% molar substitution of NaCl by six different mixtures of KCl (0-50%) and K-lactate (0-50%) and the control (22g NaCl/kg) was determined by 98 consumers. The preference of the previous best two treatments was compared to the batch control by 279 consumers. In general consumers had a positive attitude towards low salt meat products, being higher for women than for men. Women showed stronger ideas and higher Perceived Control on the Behaviour towards reduced sodium meat products than men. Smokers showed lower intense beliefs than non-smokers. Consumers with a basic level of education were more affected by what other people important for them thought they should do. The final model obtained using the Theory of Planned Behaviour showed a good predictive capacity (R(2)=0.60) and a good internal consistency. Regarding the acceptability study, batches with substitution levels of 50% and 40% by K-lactate, showed lower overall acceptance than the control batch. Significant differences in acceptability were found regarding the gender and place of residence of the consumers. The preference study showed no differences between the batch control and batches with 50% KCl and 40% KCl + 10% of K-lactate substitution levels. According to these results and from a sensorial point of view, it is possible to reduce NaCl content in small calibre fermented sausages by 50% and obtain a product acceptable for consumers.

  4. Growth and production of volatiles by Staphylococcus carnosus in dry sausages:

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2004-01-01

    Three sausage batches inoculated with normal inoculation level of Pediococcus pentosaceus (5 x 10(6) CFU/g) and with low, intermediate, and high inoculation levels of Staphylococcus carnosus (10(5), 5 x 10(6), 5 x 10(7) CFU/g, respectively) were produced. Cell counts and formation of volatiles were...... followed throughout a ripening period of three weeks. The staphylococci exhibited the fastest growth in sausages with a low inoculation level, whereas growth was only moderate in sausages with a high initial level. Analysis of volatiles showed that methyl-branched aldehydes and acids, phenylacetaldehyde, 2......-methyl-l-butanol, dimethyldisulphide and dimethyltrisulphide were produced in higher amounts in sausages with a high inoculation level of S. carnosus, whercas a low inoculation level correlated with high amounts of diacetyl, ethanol and ethyl esters. The levels of most compounds increased over time...

  5. Steam drying compared to drum drying markedly increases early phase rumen fermentability of sugar beet pulp

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Olaf; Larsen, Kasper; Jensen, Arne Sloth

    2017-01-01

    Freshly pressed and dried sugar beet pulp was sampled from 2 different factories located within a distance of 30 km and on 4 different dates. One factory was equipped with a steam dryer and the other with a drum dryer. A recognized in vitro technique was used to establish, how the drying process...... affected rumen fermentability of the pulp, since fibrous feeds (such as sugar beet pulp) rely on microbial fermentation in the rumen to be digestible to the cow. Steam dried pulp had a remarkable >60% higher fermentability compared to drum dried pulp during the first 12(-15) hours of fermentation...... (such as pectin) and small particles as low as 6.7-13.3 hours. Future feeding trials are needed to establish exactly how much the feeding value is increased in steam dried sugar beet pulp....

  6. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Mara Cristina Romero; Ana María Romero; Mirtha Marina Doval; Maria Alicia Judis

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this work was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat) of meat products elaborated in the northeast of Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, PUFA/SFA ratio, n-6/n-3 relation, and CLA content. Thirty traditional meat products from different processes were used. Samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage), chorizos (raw sausage), chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked s...

  7. Role of commercial starter cultures on microbiological, physicochemical characteristics, volatile compounds and sensory properties of dry-cured foal sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rubén Domínguez

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To assess the effect of three commercial starter cultures on microbial counts, physicochemical changes, volatile profile and sensory characteristics of dry-cured foal sausage. Methods: Microbial counts (lactic acid bacteria, Enterobacteriaceae, total viable counts and yeast, proximate parameters (moisture, fat and protein, colour analysis, texture analysis (texture profile analysis test, volatile compounds (solid-phase microextraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometer technique and sensory analysis were evaluated in the drycured foal sausages using the standard food analysis techniques. Results: The results revealed that the use of starter cultures increased the number of lactic acid bacteria and total viable counts, while completely reduced Enterobacteriaceae count. Started sausages presented the lowest value of pH, while CX and FL batches had the highest protein amount. In contrast, the use of starter cultures did not affect the other physicochemical parameters. According to volatile profile, there were no differences between batches in total volatile compounds, however, control batch presented the highest amount of aldehydes, derived from lipid oxidation. The sensory analysis showed low differences. Control batch presented higher flavour intensity and lower acid taste score and black pepper odour than inoculated batches. Conclusions: As a general conclusion, the use of starter cultures contributed to improve the hygienic quality with low impact in physicochemical and sensory properties.

  8. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP as a natural alternative to sodium nitrite. Materials and Methods: The effect of two levels of DRGP (1 and 2% on the proximate composition, microbial counts, pH values and residual nitrite level of the samples formulated with two levels of sodium nitrite (30 and 60 mg/kg, as well as the comparison of these sausages with the blank (nitrite-free  and control (full nitrite added samples on the 1rst, 10th, 20th and 30th days of storage at 3-5 °C were evaluated. Results: The results showed that all chemical compositions were in the ranges reported by other researchers, and nitrite was very effective in preventing the microbial growth. Also about 50 % of the ingoing nitrite could be analyzed in the samples after processing. Moreover, the residual nitrite level declined both during the storage of sausage and after the addition of DRGP. Conclusions: The use of DRGP in combination with nitrite for sausages was more effective in keeping the quality and safety of the refrigerated consumer products as indicated by the lower nitrite levels, microbial count and similar composition as compared to the samples treated with nitrite and without nitrite. Keywords: Dry red grape pomace (DRGP, Sausage, Nitrite, Microbial count

  9. Effect of the use of a commercial phosphate mixture on selected quality characteristics of 2 Spanish-style dry-ripened sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonseca, Beatriz; Kuri, Victor; Zumalacárregui, José M; Fernández-Diez, Ana; Salvá, Bettit K; Caro, Irma; Osorio, M Teresa; Mateo, Javier

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of the addition of a commercial phosphate mixture in 2 dry-ripened Spanish-style sausages: "salchichón" and "chorizo." Three batches of each of those sausages were prepared with low and high levels of phosphates, and selected quality variables (moisture, pH, a(w) , lactic and acetic acid, α-amino nitrogen, total free fatty acids, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, microbial counts, color, and texture analysis) were compared against controls. Furthermore, phosphate-added and control sausages were ranked by consumers in order of preference. In "salchichón," phosphate addition resulted in a significant (P sausages, phosphates can be considered as additives with potential enhancement effect in drying and eating quality. The main outcome from the present study is to find evidence on which points of reference could be drawn for the technological application of phosphates in dry-ripened sausages. It has been observed that the drying rate and several eating quality characteristics can be enhanced with the use of phosphates. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  10. Effect of starter cultures on survival of Listeria monocytogenes in Čajna sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bošković, M.; Tadić, V.; Đorđević, J.; Glišić, M.; Lakićević, B.; Dimitrijević, M.; Baltić, M. Ž.

    2017-09-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the survival of Listeria monocytogenes during the production of Čajna sausage with short maturation time. Sausage batter was inoculated with three different serotypes 4b and serotype 1/2a of L. monocytogenes. Control sausages were without any starter culture added; the second batch was inoculated with strains of Lactobacillus sakei, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus, and the third batch was inoculated with strains of Debaryomyces hansenii, Lactobacillus sakei, Pediococcus acidilactici, Pediococcus pentosaceus, Staphylococcus carnosus and Staphylococcus xylosus. After 18 days of ripening, L. monocytogenes was not detected in any of the sausages, but during this fermentation and drying, the numbers of this pathogen was lower in the sausages inoculated with starter cultures.

  11. The Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model for the production of Thai fermented pork sausage (Nham).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paukatong, K V; Kunawasen, S

    2001-01-01

    Nham is a traditional Thai fermented pork sausage. The major ingredients of Nham are ground pork meat and shredded pork rind. Nham has been reported to be contaminated with Salmonella spp., Staphylococcus aureus, and Listeria monocytogenes. Therefore, it is a potential cause of foodborne diseases for consumers. A Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points (HACCP) generic model has been developed for the Nham process. Nham processing plants were observed and a generic flow diagram of Nham processes was constructed. Hazard analysis was then conducted. Other than microbial hazards, the pathogens previously found in Nham, sodium nitrite and metal were identified as chemical and physical hazards in this product, respectively. Four steps in the Nham process have been identified as critical control points. These steps are the weighing of the nitrite compound, stuffing, fermentation, and labeling. The chemical hazard of nitrite must be controlled during the weighing step. The critical limit of nitrite levels in the Nham mixture has been set at 100-200 ppm. This level is high enough to control Clostridium botulinum but does not cause chemical hazards to the consumer. The physical hazard from metal clips could be prevented by visual inspection of every Nham product during stuffing. The microbiological hazard in Nham could be reduced in the fermentation process. The critical limit of the pH of Nham was set at lower than 4.6. Since this product is not cooked during processing, finally, educating the consumer, by providing information on the label such as "safe if cooked before consumption", could be an alternative way to prevent the microbiological hazards of this product.

  12. Antagonistic effect of chosen lactic acid bacteria strains on Yersinia enterocolitica species in model set-ups, meat and fermented sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomółka-Pawlicka, M; Uradziński, J

    2003-01-01

    The present study was aimed at determining the influence of 15 strains of lactic acid bacteria on the growth of 8 Yersinia enterocolitica strains in model set-ups, and in meat and ageing fermented sausages. The investigations were performed within the framework of three alternate stages which differed in respect to the products studied, the number of Lactobacillus sp. strains and, partly, methodological approach. The ratio between lactic acid bacteria and Yersinia enterocolitica strains studied was, depending on the variant of experiment, 1:1, 1:2 and 2:1, respectively. The study also considered water activity (aw) and pH of the products investigated. The results suggest that all the lactic acid bacteria strains used within the framework of the model set-ups had antagonistic effect on all the Salmonella sp. strains. However, this ability was not observed with respect to of tested lactic acid bacteria strains in meat and fermented sausage. This ability was possessed by one of the strains investigated--Lactobacillus helveticus T 78. The temperature and time of the incubation of sausages, but not aw and pH, were found to have a distinct influence on the antagonistic interaction between the bacteria tested.

  13. An evaluation of the proteolytic and lipolytic potential of Penicillium spp. isolated from traditional Greek sausages in submerged fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, Maria

    2014-01-01

    A number of novel Penicillium strains belonging to Penicillium nalgiovense, Penicillium solitum, Penicillium commune, Penicillium olsonii, and Penicillium oxalicum species, isolated from the surface of traditional Greek sausages, were evaluated for their proteolytic and lipolytic potential in a solid substrate first and next in submerged fermentations, using complex media. Extracellular proteolytic activity was assessed at acid, neutral, and alkaline pH, while the lipolytic activity was assessed using olive oil, the short-chain triacylglycerol tributyrin, and the long-chain triolein, as substrates. The study revealed that although closely related, the tested strains produce enzymes of distinct specificities. P. nalgiovense PNA9 produced the highest alkaline proteolytic activity (13.2 unit (U)/ml) and the highest lipolytic activity with tributyrin (92 U/ml). Comparisons with known sources show that proteases and/or lipases can be secreted effectively by some Penicillia (P. nalgiovense PNA4, PNA7, and PNA9 and P. solitum PSO1), and further investigations on their properties and characteristics would be promising.

  14. Desenvolvimento de embutido fermentado por Lactobacillus probióticos: características de qualidade Production of fermented sausage using probiotic Lactobacillus strains: quality characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Ernlund Freitas de Macedo

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Os probióticos têm sido largamente utilizados em produtos lácteos. Recentemente, seu uso em produtos cárneos tem despertado interesse, principalmente em embutidos fermentados consumidos na forma crua e sem aquecimento prévio. Verificou-se a influência da utilização de Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei e L. rhamnosus sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de embutido fermentado, bem como o desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das culturas no produto cárneo. Os embutidos foram processados em quatro tratamentos, sendo o primeiro tratamento usado como controle, enquanto os demais receberam a adição de uma espécie de Lactobacillus probiótico, seguindo procedimento de fabricação descrito para salame italiano por um período de 25 dias. A presença das culturas probióticas promoveu redução mais rápida do pH dos embutidos em relação ao tratamento controle, proporcionando gosto ácido mais intenso na avaliação sensorial, principalmente para cepa de L. rhamnosus. O crescimento de Staphylococcus xylosus da cultura starter sofreu redução com a adição dos probióticos, porém o desenvolvimento de Pediococcus pentosaceus não foi afetado. Os probióticos testados mostraram crescimento durante o processamento e permaneceram viáveis no produto final. Ficou demonstrada a viabilidade da utilização das culturas probióticas em embutido cárneo fermentado, principalmente L. casei e L. paracasei, preservando suas propriedades tecnológicas e sensoriais.Probiotic Lactobacillus strains have been widely used in dairy products. Recently, attention has been directed to the use of probiotics in meat products, mainly in fermented sausages. The effect of the utilization of Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei and L. rhamnosus strains on physical-chemical, microbiological and sensory quality of fermented sausage was evaluated. The sausages were processed in four batches: one was used as the control, while the other three batches

  15. Sensory and chromatographic evaluations of water soluble fractions from air-dried sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Anders Peter; Stahnke, Marie Louise Heller

    1997-01-01

    Low molecular weight water soluble compounds were extracted from Danish salami, Italian sausage, and Spanish Chorizo. The extracts were fractionated by gel filtration chromatography revealing peptides with a molecular weight less than 4200 Dalton. Fractions consisting of smaller peptides and free...... amino acids had enhanced savory taste impressions described as mainly bouillon, bitter, sour, salty and plastic with odor notes of boiled potato. Determination of amino acids in the fractions before and after hydrolysis revealed the presence of mainly hydrophilic peptides in all fractions. Partial least...

  16. Preservation of ferm ented sausage by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Hong; Xiao Huan; Zhai Jianqing; Han Yan; Chen Xiulan; Yu Hai; Jiang Yunsheng

    2014-01-01

    To extend the shelf time of the fermented sausages. The fermented sausages were irradiated by different irradiation dose, and the quality of the fermented sausages were studied. The aerobic bacterial count of above 4 kGy irradiated sample was less than l.2 × lO"3 cfu/g at 90 d storage and lower than that of the state standards. The sensory evaluation of fermented sausages was acceptable. There were significant differences on the water contents between irradiated sausage and CK (p 0.05). pH values of 0∼2 kGy groups were significantly higher than that of 4∼6 kGy groups. The content of flavor, sarcoplasmic and myofibrillar protein in irradiated fermented sausages were higher than unirradiated. By irradiation, we can improve the fermented sausages hygiene, extend its shelf time and also increase the content and type of flavor in the fermented sausages, easy to form the unique flavor irradiated products accepted by customers. (authors)

  17. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Liu, Gang–Jin [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Bioprocess Control AB, Scheelevägen 22, 223 63 Lund (Sweden); Deng, Liang–Wei, E-mail: dengliangwei@caas.cn [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Laboratory of Development and Application of Rural Renewable Energy, Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China); Southwest Collaborative Innovation Center of Swine for Quality & Safety, Chengdu 611130 (China); Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui [Biogas Institute of Ministry of Agriculture, Chengdu 610041 (China)

    2015-04-15

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L{sup −1}. Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L{sup −1}. The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d){sup −1} and biogas yield of 0.649 L g{sup −1}VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s{sup −1} when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield.

  18. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang–Jin; Deng, Liang–Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan–Hui

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production is feasible. • The feedstock TS concentration exerted a significant impact on biogas production. • Influences of ammonia and digestate liquidity were investigated in this study. • The results showed that the feedstock TS of swine manure should not exceed 30%. - Abstract: A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g −1 VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L −1 . Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L −1 . The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L·(L d) −1 and biogas yield of 0.649 L g −1 VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25 °C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s −1 when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield

  19. A fermented meat model system for studies of microbial aroma formation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjener, Karsten; Stahnke, Louise Heller; Andersen, L.

    2003-01-01

    A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starte......H, microbial growth and volatile profiles was similar to sausage production. Based on these findings, the model system was considered valid for studies of aroma formation of meat cultures for fermented sausage.......A fermented meat model system was developed, by which microbial formation of volatiles could be examined The model was evaluated against dry, fermented sausages with respect to microbial growth, pH and volatile profiles. Fast and slowly acidified sausages and models were produced using the starter...... cultures Pediococcus pentosaceus and Staphylococcus xylosus. Volatiles were collected and analysed by dynamic headspace sampling and GC MS. The analysis was primarily focused on volatiles arising from amino acid degradation and a total of 24 compounds, of which 19 were quantified, were used...

  20. Continuous dry fermentation of swine manure for biogas production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Liu, Gang-Jin; Deng, Liang-Wei; Long, Yan; Fan, Zhan-Hui

    2015-04-01

    A down plug-flow anaerobic reactor (DPAR) was designed for the feasibility study on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure without any additional stirring. Using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration (w/w) of 20%, 25%, 30%, and 35%, stable volumetric biogas production rates of 2.40, 1.92, 0.911, and 0.644L · (Ld)(-1) and biogas yields of 0.665, 0.532, 0.252, and 0.178 L g(-)(1)VS were obtained respectively, and the TS degradation rates were 46.5%, 45.4%, 53.2%, and 55.6%, respectively. With the increase of feedstock TS concentration, the concentration of ammonia nitrogen grew up to the maximum value of 3500 mg L(-1). Biogas production was obviously inhibited when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was above 3000 mg L(-1). The maximal volumetric biogas production rate of 2.34 L ·(Ld)(-1) and biogas yield of 0.649 L g(-1)VS were obtained with TS concentration of 25% at 25°C without inhibition. Liquidity experiments showed that TS concentration of digestate could be less than 15.8%, and the flow rate of digestate more than 0.98 m s(-1) when the feedstock TS concentration was less than 35%, which indicated the digestate could be easily discharged from a DPAR. Therefore, it is feasible to conduct a continuous dry fermentation in a DPAR using fresh swine manure as the feedstock with TS concentration less than 35%, whereas the feedstock TS concentration should not exceed 30% to achieve the maximal biogas production rate and biogas yield. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH 4 + and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  2. Elaboração de embutido fermentado tipo salame utilizando carne de ovelhas de descarte Elaboration of fermented sausage type salami using meat from culling ewe

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Fernando Vilani De Pelegrini

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi produzir embutido fermentado com carne de ovelhas de descarte de dois grupos genéticos em dois sistemas de alimentação. Foram utilizadas 10 ovelhas da raça Ideal e 10 da raça Texel, as quais foram aleatoriamente distribuídas de acordo com o grupo racial, em dois sistemas alimentares: confinamento e pastagem cultivada. Os animais foram abatidos quando atingiram um escore corporal médio de 3,5 pontos. Na produção dos embutidos utilizou-se 80% de carne ovina e 20% de carne suína. Foram realizadas as determinações de pH, atividade de água, quebra de peso e análise sensorial, utilizando uma escala hedônica de 7 pontos, avaliando os atributos de cor, odor, textura e sabor. Não foram encontradas diferenças entre grupos genéticos (p > 0,05 e sistema alimentar (p > 0,05. Os valores médios no painel sensorial, considerando os grupos genéticos, variaram de 4,90 a 5,41 para a coloração; 4,53 a 4,81 para o odor; 5,25 a 5,75 para o sabor e 5,40 a 5,69 para a textura, já para os métodos de alimentação variaram de 5,03 a 5,25; 4,56 a 4,78; 5,50 e 5,34 a 5,75 para a coloração, odor, sabor e textura, respectivamente. Pode-se concluir que os embutidos fermentados foram aprovados sensorialmente pelos provadores.The aim of this work was producing fermented sausage with meat of culling ewe of two genetic groups in two feeding systems. 10 ewes of the Ideal breed and 10 of the Texel breed were used in the experiment, which were randomly distributed in agreement with the breed group in two alimentary systems: confinement and cultivated pasture. The animals were slaughtered when they reached a medium corporal score of 3.5 points. For the production of the sausages, a proportion of 80% of ewe meat and 20% of pork meat were used. The pH, water activity, weight loss, and sensorial analysis, were determinated using a scale of 7 points evaluating the color, odor, texture, and flavor attributes of the fermented sausages

  3. Lactobacillus plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages and their technological properties for application as starter cultures Lactobacillus plantarum isolados de salames artesanais naturalmente fermentados e suas propriedades tecnológicas como culturas iniciadoras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maristela Cortez Sawitzki

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, technological properties of L. plantarum strains isolated from naturally fermented sausages manufactured in the South region of Brazil were investigated in order to obtain a starter culture. The technological properties evaluated were the following: ability to growth at different pH values, at different temperatures, in different salt concentrations and in the presence of commercial curing salt, fast production of acid, determination of D - and L - lactic acid; nitrate reductase activity; antagonistic activity and stability of the isolated cultures after fermentation, concentration, and freeze-drying process. The isolated strains showed effectiveness to improve technological properties as starter cultures.No presente estudo foram investigadas as propriedades tecnológicas de culturas de L. plantarum, isoladas de salames artesanais, naturalmente fermentados, manufaturados na região Sul do Brasil, a fim de obter um cultivo iniciador. As propriedades tecnológicas investigadas foram as seguintes: habilidade das culturas para crescer em diferentes valores de pH, em diferentes concentrações de sal e na presença de sal de cura comercial; rápida produção de ácido, produção do isômero D - ou L - ácido láctico, atividade nitrato redutase, atividade antagonística e estabilidade das culturas após processo de fermentação, concentração e liofilização. Todas as culturas apresentaram eficiência quanto às propriedades tecnológicas investigadas.

  4. Salame elaborado com Lactobacillus plantarum fermentado em meio de cultura de plasma suíno Salami sausage prepared with Lactobacillus plantarum fermented in porcine plasma culture medium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Cezar Bastianello Campagnol

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivo produzir uma cultura starter com uma cepa de Lactobacillus plantarum em um meio de cultura com plasma suíno e verificar a viabilidade de sua aplicação em salame. O meio de cultura foi preparado com plasma suíno e água destilada (1:1, pH 11,0. Após a esterilização, 300 mL foram adicionados de 400 mL de uma solução estéril de glicose e difosfato de potássio. A cepa de Lb. plantarum foi semeada no meio de cultura e submetida à fermentação em pH 7,0, durante 36 horas (100 rpm, 37 ± 0,1 °C. Ao alcançar a fase estacionária, a cultura foi centrifugada e ressuspendida em leite desnatado estéril, liofilizada e aplicada em salame. A influência do inóculo foi avaliada nas características microbiológicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais de salames. Os resultados encontrados foram comparados com tratamentos sem adição de cultura starter e com uma cultura comercial. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum teve um crescimento máximo de 9,82 Log UFC.mL-1, após 30 horas de fermentação. Os salames elaborados com a cultura starter produzida apresentaram uma queda de pH significativamente maior, e menor valor de atividade de água que os demais tratamentos. O microrganismo Lb. plantarum melhorou significativamente o sabor dos salames.The purpose of this work was to produce a starter culture with a strain of Lactobacillus plantarum in a porcine plasma culture medium and ascertain the viability of applying it in salami sausage. The culture medium was prepared with porcine plasma and distilled water (1:1, pH 11.0. After sterilization, 300 mL were added of 400 mL of a sterile solution of glucose and potassium diphosphate. The Lb. plantarum strain was inoculated into the culture medium and subjected to fermentation at pH 7.0 for 36 hours (100 rpm, 37 ± 0.1 °C. When the stationary phase was reached, the culture was centrifuged and resuspensed in sterile skimmed milk, lyophilized and applied to salami. An evaluation was

  5. Enhancement of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in Nham (Thai fermented pork sausage) using starter cultures of Lactobacillus namurensis NH2 and Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratanaburee, Anussara; Kantachote, Duangporn; Charernjiratrakul, Wilawan; Sukhoom, Ampaitip

    2013-10-15

    The aim was to produce Nham that was enriched with γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA); therefore two GABA producing lactic acid bacteria (Pediococcus pentosaceus HN8 and Lactobacillus namurensis NH2) were used as starter cultures. By using the central composite design (CCD) we showed that addition of 0.5% monosodium glutamate (MSG) together with an inoculum size of roughly 6logCFU/g of each of the two strains produced a maximal amounts of GABA (4051 mg/kg) in the 'GABA Nham' product. This was higher than any current popular commercial Nham product by roughly 8 times. 'GABA Nham' with the additions of both starters and MSG (TSM) supported maximum populations of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) with a minimum of yeasts and no staphylococci or molds when compared to the controls that had no addition of any starters or MSG (TNN), or only the addition of MSG (TNM), or with only the starter (TSN). Based on proximate analysis among the Nham sets, 'GABA Nham' was low in fat, carbohydrate and energy although its texture and color were slightly different from the control (TNN). However, sensory evaluations of 'GABA Nham' were more acceptable than the controls and commercial Nham products for all tested parameters. Hence, a unique novel 'GABA Nham' fermented pork sausage was successfully developed. © 2013.

  6. Management of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages using the Food Safety Objective concept underpinned by stochastic modeling and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mataragas, M; Alessandria, V; Rantsiou, K; Cocolin, L

    2015-08-01

    In the present work, a demonstration is made on how the risk from the presence of Listeria monocytogenes in fermented sausages can be managed using the concept of Food Safety Objective (FSO) aided by stochastic modeling (Bayesian analysis and Monte Carlo simulation) and meta-analysis. For this purpose, the ICMSF equation was used, which combines the initial level (H0) of the hazard and its subsequent reduction (ΣR) and/or increase (ΣI) along the production chain. Each element of the equation was described by a distribution to investigate the effect not only of the level of the hazard, but also the effect of the accompanying variability. The distribution of each element was determined by Bayesian modeling (H0) and meta-analysis (ΣR and ΣI). The output was a normal distribution N(-5.36, 2.56) (log cfu/g) from which the percentage of the non-conforming products, i.e. the fraction above the FSO of 2 log cfu/g, was estimated at 0.202%. Different control measures were examined such as lowering initial L. monocytogenes level and inclusion of an additional killing step along the process resulting in reduction of the non-conforming products from 0.195% to 0.003% based on the mean and/or square-root change of the normal distribution, and 0.001%, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. A procedure for the sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo, a typical fermented sausage produced in the Emilia Romagna Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coloretti, Fabio; Grazia, Luigi; Gardini, Fausto; Lanciotti, Rosalba; Montanari, Chiara; Tabanelli, Giulia; Chiavari, Cristiana

    2015-03-30

    Salama da sugo is a fermented sausage from the Ferrara tradition (Italy, Emilia-Romagna region), subjected to a long ripening period (4-6 months) and characterised by a high content of wine and spices in the mixture. It can be consumed after cooking and it is served with its sugo, i.e. the liquid extracted by cooking process. The aim of this work was to set up a method for the sensory profile of Salama da sugo as a request for Protected Geographical Indication (PGI) has been made to the European Commission. A system of sample preparation that provides for the precooking in an autoclave and cooking in boiling water was set up. A specific sheet for sensory evaluation of Salama da sugo has been created and reports 23 descriptors identified during the lexicon development. The differences in sensory profile of four samples were evaluated and principal component analysis highlighted the more discriminant parameters, i.e. odour intensity, wine odour, spicy aroma, fat/lean connection, sweet, bitter, juiciness, chewiness and pricking. The proposed method allows the standardisation of sensory profiling of Salama da sugo, and is also to verify compliance with the specification PGI. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  8. Nutritive value of palm oil sludge fermented with Aspergillus niger after therma1 drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Purwadaria

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available Solid substrate fermentation by Aspergillus niger has been carried out to improve the nutritive value of palm oil sludge (POS. POS was fermented aerobically for four days in a fermentor chambers (28°C, RH 80%, with 60% moisture content Some of the product was further incubated anaerobically for 2 days at 28°C. Both products from aerobic and anaerobic fermentation processes were dried by various methods, i.e. sunlight, oven at 60°C, oven with blower at 40°C, at the moisture content less than 11%. Results of the drying methods were also compared with the fresh fermented product. Statistic analysis using factorial design (2 x 4 showed that there was no interaction between kind of fermentation processes (aerobic and anaerobic and drying methods (fresh, sunlight, oven 60°C, and blower 40°C for almost all parameters except total a-amino acid content Significant results (p<0.05 were obtained on the drying methods for parameters of crude protein, true protein, in vitro dry matter and protein digestibilities, and mannanase and cellulase activities. There were no significant results between treatments in the crude fiber analysis and soluble nitrogen content Significant results also did not occur between treatment of aerob and anaerob fermentation processes for almost all parameters except for dry matter digestibilities. Results from true protein and in vitro digestibilities show that the fresh fermented product has the best nutritive value, while product dried by sunlight was best among other drying processes. Results from in vivo of protein and energy digestibilities show that there were better metabolizable energy and protein for product with aerobic process and dried with oven and blower treatments, while sunlight drying was best for product processed in anaerobic condition. Although fresh fermented product gave better result from in vitro digestibilities and enzyme activity analyses, for some reasons (easy handling and preservation sunlight

  9. Utilização de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos Use of different starter cultures in processing of goat meat fermented sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata Tieko Nassu

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho verifica o efeito de diferentes culturas starter no processamento de embutido fermentado elaborado com carne de caprinos, avaliando pH, atividade de água e produção de ácido lático além de determinar a aceitação sensorial e a segurança dos produtos finais obtidos. Foram testadas culturas comerciais contendo 1. Staphylococcus xylosus e Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. mistura 50:50 de duas cepas de Pediococcus sp. e 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus e Staphylococcus carnosus. Os embutidos fermentados contendo as diferentes culturas, apresentaram durante o processamento comportamentos distintos (p0,05 entre os atributos estudados. A segurança do processo avaliada por cálculo de graus hora indicou que todas as culturas forneceram produtos seguros, em relação ao microrganismo Staphylococcus aureus. Concluiu-se que todas as culturas podem ser utilizadas para o processamento de embutido fermentado de carne de caprinos.The effect of different starter cultures in the processing of goat meat fermented sausages was evaluated by using pH, water activity and lactic acid production besides sensory acceptance and safety of final products were determined. Commercial starter cultures containing 1. Staphylococcus xylosus and Pediococcus pentosaceus; 2. a mixture (50:50 of two strains of Pediococcus sp 3. Lactobacillus farciminis, Staphylococcus xylosus and Staphylococcus carnosus were tested. During processing, fermented sausages containing the different starter cultures showed distinct behaviour in relation to pH, water activity and lactic acid production, although sensory acceptance did not present significative differences. The safety of products evaluated by calculation of hours-degree in obtaining the products indicated that all tested cultures resulted in safe products in relation to Staphylococcus aureus growth. Results showed that all tested cultures can be used for processing of goat meat fermented sausages.

  10. Direct spray drying and microencapsulation of probiotic Lactobacillus reuteri from slurry fermentation with whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jantzen, M; Göpel, A; Beermann, C

    2013-10-01

    Formulations of dietary probiotics have to be robust against process conditions and have to maintain a sufficient survival rate during gastric transit. To increase efficiency of the encapsulation process and the viability of applied bacteria, this study aimed at developing spray drying and encapsulation of Lactobacillus reuteri with whey directly from slurry fermentation. Lactobacillus reuteri was cultivated in watery 20% (w/v) whey solution with or without 0·5% (w/v) yeast extract supplementation in a submerged slurry fermentation. Growth enhancement with supplement was observed. Whey slurry containing c. 10(9)  CFU g(-1) bacteria was directly spray-dried. Cell counts in achieved products decreased by 2 log cycles after drying and 1 log cycle during 4 weeks of storage. Encapsulated bacteria were distinctively released in intestinal milieu. Survival rate of encapsulated bacteria was 32% higher compared with nonencapsulated ones exposed to artificial digestive juice. Probiotic L. reuteri proliferate in slurry fermentation with yeast-supplemented whey and enable a direct spray drying in whey. The resulting microcapsules remain stable during storage and reveal adequate survival in simulated gastric juices and a distinct release in intestinal juices. Exploiting whey as a bacterial substrate and encapsulation matrix within a coupled fermentation and spray-drying process offers an efficient option for industrial production of vital probiotics. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Change in enzyme production by gradually drying culture substrate during solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ito, Kazunari; Gomi, Katsuya; Kariyama, Masahiro; Miyake, Tsuyoshi

    2015-06-01

    The influence of drying the culture substrate during solid-state fermentation on enzyme production was investigated using a non-airflow box. The drying caused a significant increase in enzyme production, while the mycelium content decreased slightly. This suggests that changes in the water content in the substrate during culture affect enzyme production in fungi. Copyright © 2014 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Influence of Fermentation and Drying Materials on the Contamination of Cocoa Beans by Ochratoxin A

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sébastien Djédjé Dano

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Ochratoxin A (OTA is a mycotoxin produced mainly by species of Aspergillus and Penicillium. Contamination of food with OTA is a major consumer health hazard. In Cote D’Ivoire, preventing OTA contamination has been the subject of extensive study. The current study was conducted to evaluate the influence of fermentation and drying materials on the OTA content in cocoa. For each test, 7000 intact cocoa pods were collected, split open to remove the beans, fermented using 1 of 3 different materials, sun-dried on 1 of 3 different platform types and stored for 30 days. A total of 22 samples were collected at each stage of post-harvesting operations. The OTA content in the extracted samples was then quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography. OTA was detected in beans at all stages of post-harvesting operations at varying levels: pod-opening (0.025 ± 0.02 mg/kg, fermentation (0.275 ± 0.2 mg/kg, drying (0.569 ± 0.015 mg/kg, and storage (0.558 ± 0.04 mg/kg. No significant relationships between the detected OTA level and the materials used in the fermentation and drying of cocoa were observed.

  13. Solid-state fermentation from dried sweet sorghum stalk for bioethanol production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Omidi, A. [Univ. of Isfahan, Biology Dept., Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Due to depletion of global crude oil, countries are interested to alternate fuel energy resources. Presently bioethanol as a source of energy has been a subject of great interest for the industrialized countries. Therefore, there is need for efficient bioethanol production with low cost raw material and production process. Among energy crops, sweet sorghum is the best candidate for bioethanol production. It has been identified as having higher drought tolerance, lower input cost and higher biomass yield than other energy crops. In addition it has wide adoptability and tolerance to abiotic stresses. Moreover due to the shortage of water in dry and hot countries there is a need to reduce water requirement for bioethanol production and solid state fermentation could be the best process for making bioethanol in these countries. The purpose of this study is to achieve the highest ethanol production with lowest amount of water in solid state fermentation using sweet sorghum stalk. In this study the sweet sorghum particles were used for solid state fermentation. Fermentation medium were: sweet sorghum particles with nutrient media, active yeast powder and different moisture contents. The fermentation medium was incubated for 2-3 days at 30 deg C temperature. The results showed sweet sorghum particles (15% w/w) fermented in medium containing 0.5% yeast inoculums, 73.5% moisture content and 3 days incubation period produced the highest amount of ethanol (13% w/w sorghum)

  14. Sabah snake grass extract pre-processing: Preliminary studies in drying and fermentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solibun, A.; Sivakumar, K.

    2016-06-01

    Clinacanthus nutans (Burm. F.) Lindau which also known as ‘Sabah Snake Grass’ among Malaysians have been studied in terms of its medicinal and chemical properties in Asian countries which is used to treat various diseases from cancer to viral-related diseases such as varicella-zoster virus lesions. Traditionally, this plant has been used by the locals to treat insect and snake bites, skin rashes, diabetes and dysentery. In Malaysia, the fresh leaves of this plant are usually boiled with water and consumed as herbal tea. The objectives of this study are to determine the key process parameters for Sabah Snake Grass fermentation which affect the chemical and biological constituent concentrations within the tea, extraction kinetics of fermented and unfermented tea and the optimal process parameters for the fermentation of this tea. Experimental methods such as drying, fermenting and extraction of C.nutans leaves were conducted before subjecting them to analysis of antioxidant capacity. Conventional oven- dried (40, 45 and 50°C) and fermented (6, 12 and 18 hours) whole C.nutans leaves were subjected to tea infusion extraction (water temperature was 80°C, duration was 90 minutes) and the sample liquid was extracted for every 5th, 10th, 15th, 25th, 40th, 60th and 90th minute. Analysis for antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content (TPC) were conducted by using 2, 2-diphenyl-1-pycryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) and Folin-Ciocaltheu reagent, respectively. The 40°C dried leaves sample produced the highest phenolic content at 0.1344 absorbance value in 15 minutes of extraction while 50°C dried leaves sample produced 0.1298 absorbance value in 10 minutes of extraction. The highest antioxidant content was produced by 50°C dried leaves sample with absorbance value of 1.6299 in 5 minutes of extraction. For 40°C dried leaves sample, the highest antioxidant content could be observed in 25 minutes of extraction with the absorbance value of 1.1456. The largest diameter of disc

  15. Water binding of proteins in the processing frankfurter-type sausages. Part. 1. Water-binding ability of freeze-dried meat fractions containing myofibrillar and stromal proteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinevetter, L; Gassmann, B; Kroll, J

    1987-01-01

    As soon as possible and 48 h after slaughter respectively, from both blade-bone muscle groups of cattle and pig carcasses the "thick pieces" were excised, extracted, and fractionated. Residues and precipitates from water and salt extracts resulted were freeze-dried, and an improved Baumann capillary suction apparatus was used to measure their water binding capacity (WBC) with and without addition of 2% sodium chloride and/or heating to 80 degrees C. With one exception the WBC results followed a relative pattern demonstrating the final residues (stromal proteins and leavings of myofibrillar proteins) binding the highest amount of added water, precipitates of dialysis (mainly containing myofibrillar proteins) a remarkable amount and powdered meats the least. As scanning electron micrographs confirmed, there were no fibrous structures in the precipitates resulted from dialysis of salt solutions (1.0 mol/1). Heating decreased the spontaneous water uptake of all fractions. Addition of sodium chloride had only a noticeable capillary-suction and swelling effect on unheated samples. Hence swelling of undissolved protein structures (extraction of myosin and possibly of actomyosin) is therefore not the only way for water binding in frankfurter-type sausages.

  16. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.

  17. Effect of temperature on continuous dry fermentation of swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Liangwei; Chen, Chuang; Zheng, Dan; Yang, Hongnan; Liu, Yi; Chen, Ziai

    2016-07-15

    Laboratory-scale experiments were performed on the dry digestion of solid swine manure in a semi-continuous mode using 4.5 L down plug-flow anaerobic reactors with an organic loading rate of 3.46 kg volatile solids (VS) m(-3) d(-1) to evaluate the effects of temperature (15, 25 and 35 °C). At 15 °C, biogas production was the poorest due to organic overload and acidification, with a methane yield of 0.036 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and a volumetric methane production rate of 0.125 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1). The methane yield and volumetric methane production rate at 25 °C (0.226 L CH4 g(-1) VS added and 0.783 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1), respectively) were 6.24 times higher than those at 15 °C. However, the methane yield (0.237 L CH4 g(-1) VS added) and the volumetric methane production rate (0.821 L CH4 L(-1) d(-1)) at 35 °C were only 4.86% higher than those at 25 °C, which indicated similar results were obtained at 25 °C and 35 °C. The lower biogas production at 35 °C in dry digestion compared with that in wet digestion could be attributed to ammonia inhibition. For a single pig farm, digestion of solid manure is accomplished in small-scale domestic or small-farm bioreactors, for which operating temperatures of 35 °C are sometimes difficult to achieve. Considering biogas production, ammonia inhibition and net energy recovery, an optimum temperature for dry digestion of solid swine manure is 25 °C. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viabilidade de Staphylococcus xylosus isoladas de embutidos artesanais para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em produtos cárneos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ângela Maria Fiorentini

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus isolated from artisanal sausages for application as starter cultures in meat products Viability of Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5isolated from natural fermented sausages was investigated as starter cultures in fermented sausages produced in the South Region of Brazil. The study demonstrated that the Staphylococcus xylosus strains AD1 and U5showed significant growth during fermentation, stability over freeze-dried process, negative reaction for staphylococcal enterotoxins and viability for using as a single-strain culture or associated with lactic acid bacteria for production of fermented sausages.Investigamos a viabilidade de cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 isoladas de embutidos com fermentação natural, para aplicação como cultivos iniciadores em embutidos fermentados produzidos na Região Sul do Brasil. O estudo demonstrou que cepas de Staphylococcus xylosus (AD1 e U5 apresentaram crescimento significativo durante a fermentação, estabilidade no processo de liofilização e conservação, ausência de produção de enterotoxinas e viabilidade para aplicação como cultivo iniciador simples ou associado com bactérias lácticas na elaboração de embutidos fermentados.

  19. The Curing Agent Sodium Nitrite, Used in the Production of Fermented Sausages, Is Less Inhibiting to the Bacteriocin-Producing Meat Starter Culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under Anaerobic Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-01-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions. PMID:12839751

  20. The curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, is less inhibiting to the bacteriocin-producing meat starter culture Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174 under anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verluyten, Jurgen; Messens, Winy; De Vuyst, Luc

    2003-07-01

    Curvacin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by Lactobacillus curvatus LTH 1174, a strain isolated from fermented sausage. The response of this strain to an added curing agent (sodium nitrite) in terms of cell growth and bacteriocin production was investigated in vitro by laboratory fermentations with modified MRS broth. The strain was highly sensitive to nitrite; even a concentration of 10 ppm of curing agent inhibited its growth and both volumetric and specific bacteriocin production. A meat simulation medium containing 5 ppm of sodium nitrite was tested to investigate the influence of the gas phase on the growth and bacteriocin production of L. curvatus LTH 1174. Aerating the culture during growth had no effect on biomass formation, but the oxidative stress caused a higher level of specific bacteriocin production and led to a metabolic shift toward acetic acid production. Anaerobic conditions, on the other hand, led to an increased biomass concentration and less growth inhibition. Also, higher maximum volumetric bacteriocin activities and a higher level of specific bacteriocin production were obtained in the presence of sodium nitrite than in fermentations under aerobic conditions or standard conditions of air supply. These results indicate that the inhibitory effect of the curing agent is at least partially masked under anaerobic conditions.

  1. Study on the correlation between volatile fatty acids and gas production in dry fermentation of kitchen waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Qiangqiang; Ma, Yunfeng; Du, Boying; Wang, Qi; Hu, Qiongqiong; Bian, Yushan

    2018-02-01

    In this study, continuous kitchen waste fermentation and anaerobic digestion experiments were conducted to analyze the gas production potential, and to study the correlation between gas production rate and volatile fatty acid (VFAs) and its component concentration. During the experiment, the total solid(TS) concentration of the reaction system was increased by adding the kitchen waste, analysis of kitchen waste dry fermentation process to start, run, imbalance and imbalance after recovery and the parameters in the process of realizing the change trend and influencing factors of dry fermentation process, pH and ammonia concentration.

  2. Propriedades físico-químicas e sensoriais de embutidos fermentados formulados com diferentes proporções de carne suína e de ovelhas de descarte Physico-chemical and sensorial properties of fermented sausages formulated with different proportions of meat from swine and culling ewes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poliana François

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a inclusão de diferentes níveis de carne de ovelhas de descarte (animais Texel × Ile de France com idade superior a seis anos em relação à carne suína sobre a qualidade de embutidos fermentados do tipo salame. Os embutidos foram elaborados com 0, 15, 35, 55 ou 75% de carne da perna, paleta e pescoço das ovelhas, acrescidos de pernil suíno e 10% de toucinho suíno. A evolução do pH e da atividade de água (a w foi avaliada nos dias zero, três, sete e 14 após o embutimento. Após a maturação dos salames, foram determinadas, ainda, a perda de peso, a qualidade microbiológica e as características sensoriais dos embutidos prontos. A inclusão de carne ovina na formulação não alterou a evolução do pH e a w. Entretanto, influenciou (PThe influence of including different proportions of meat from swine and culling ewes on the quality of fermented sausage type salami was evaluated. Five different formulations were prepared containing 0, 15, 35, 55, or 75% of meat from leg, shoulder, and neck of the ewes, added of swine meat and 10% of swine fat. Evolution of pH and water activity (a w was evaluated on days 0, 3, 7, and 14 of the maturation period. After that, it was still determined the weight loss, microbiological quality, and the sensorial features of the sausages. The inclusion of sheep meat in the formulation did not changed pH and a w evolution. However, differences in final values of pH, a w, and weight loss were found (P<0.05. Sausages with sheep meat in the formulation had lower pH than that without sheep meat. The control sausage (0% sheep meat also showed lower a w and a greater weight loss than sausage with 15% of sheep meat. All formulations attended the actual legislation about microbiological quality. In the sensorial analysis, the sausage prepared with 15% of sheep meat in the formulation was considered better than that formulated just with swine meat in relation to color, flavor, and texture features

  3. Effects of the presence of the curing agent sodium nitrite, used in the production of fermented sausages, on bacteriocin production by Weissella paramesenteroides DX grown in meat simulation medium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papagianni, M; Sergelidis, D

    2013-06-10

    Weissellin A is a listericidal bacteriocin produced by the sausage-isolated strain of Weissella paramesenteroides DX. The response of the strain to various concentrations of the added curing agent NaNO2 (0.0025, 0.005 and 0.01g/L) was evaluated in bioreactor fermentations using a meat simulation medium. The presence of nitrite suppressed bacteriocin production - the effect being more pronounced with increasing concentrations. Weissellin A was produced as a growth-associated metabolite in the absence of nitrite or its presence in the low concentration of 0.005g/L under aerobic conditions. The suppressive effect of nitrite was apparent under conditions supporting increased specific production rates, e.g. 50% and 100% dissolved oxygen tension, but no effect was observed under anaerobic conditions. As the latter prevail in the microenvironment of fermented meat products, the absence of any influence of nitrite on bacteriocin production is an important finding that enlightens the role of this species of lactic acid bacteria in its common substrates. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of Dry Red Grape Pomace as a Nitrite Substitute on the Microbiological and Physicochemical Properties and Residual Nitrite of Dry-cured Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Fatemeh Riazi; Fariba Zeynali; Ebrahim Hoseini; Homa Behmadi

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Sodium nitrite and potassium nitrite have been traditionally used for inhibition of Clostridium botulinum and also as an agent to stabilize the color of meat products; however, usage of these additives at high levels could lead to toxicity and cancer originating from the formation of nitrosamines. Nowadays, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the nitrite content in meat products is increasing. Thus, we used dry red grape pomace (DRGP) as a natura...

  5. Cell growth and resistance of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161 following freezing, drying and freeze-dried storage are differentially affected by fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velly, H; Fonseca, F; Passot, S; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bouix, M

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of fermentation parameters on the cell growth and on the resistance to each step of the freeze-drying process of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, a natural cheese isolate, using a response surface methodology. Cells were cultivated at different temperatures (22, 30 and 38°C) and pH (5·6, 6·2 and 6·8) and were harvested at different growth phases (0, 3 and 6 h of stationary phase). Cultivability and acidification activity losses of Lc. lactis were quantified after freezing, drying, 1 and 3 months of storage at 4 and 25°C. Lactococcus lactis was not damaged by freezing but was sensitive to drying and to ambient temperature storage. Moreover, the fermentation temperature and the harvesting time influenced the drying resistance of Lc. lactis. Lactococcus lactis cells grown in a whey-based medium at 32°C, pH 6·2 and harvested at late stationary phase exhibited both an optimal growth and the highest resistance to freeze-drying and storage. A better insight on the individual and interaction effects of fermentation parameters made it possible the freeze-drying and storage preservation of a sensitive strain of technological interest. Evidence on the particularly damaging effect of the drying step and the high-temperature storage is presented. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  6. Methylxanthine and catechin content of fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa beans, and cocoa liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The theobromine and catechin content can affect the quality of cocoa liquor and is influenced by cacao variety, production area (PA, and fermentation, as well as the method of drying beans (FDB and cocoa liquor production (CLP. This study examined variationsin methylxanthine and catechin levels in fresh and fermented cocoa beans, dried cocoa grains, and in cocoa liquor from Trinitario, Criollo, and Forastero cacao varieties. A total of 123 cocoa bean samples from three Peruvian PAs at different altitudes, Tingo María (TM, San Alejandro (SA, and Curimana (CU, were evaluated. The theobromine (Tb and caffeine (Cf contents in fresh cocoa beans were affected by both cocoa type and PA. The caffeine content was higher in Trinitario cacao than in Criollo and Forastero varieties (p ≤ 0.05. The Tb and CF contents decreased in dry cocoa grain and was affected by FDB (p ≤ 0.05 (1.449 ± 0.004 to 1.140 ± 0.010 and 0.410 ± 0.03 to 0.165 ± 0.02 g Tb and C, respectively, per 100 g dry weight. Cocoa beans from Tingo María, which has thehighest altitude, had higher Tb and CF contents than those from other PAs. The catechin (C and epicatechin (EC contents were affected by the FDB and CLP, and were highestin fresh cocoa beans from the Tingo María area (range: 0.065 ± 0.01 to 0.020 ± 0.00 g C/100 g. The C and EC contents decreased during FDB and CLP (0.001 g C/100 g of cocoa liquor. Taken together, these results show that higher concentrations of Tb, Cf, C,and EC are present in fresh cocoa beans. Moreover, the cocoa variety influenced cocoa liquor quality. Overall, cocoa from the Tingo María PA had the most desirable chemical composition.

  7. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haagensen, Frank [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.; Ahring, Birgitte K. [Bioprocess Science and Technology group, Biocentrum-DTU, Building 227, Technical University of Denmark, 2800 Lyngby (Denmark); Copenhagen Institute of Technology (Aalborg University Copenhagen), Section for Sustainable Biotechnology, Department of Biotechnology, Chemistry and Environmental Engineering, Lautrupvang 15, DK 2750 Ballerup (Denmark)

    2009-11-15

    Renewable energy sources have received increased interest from the international community with biomass being one of the oldest and the most promising ones. In the concept of exploitation of agro-industrial residues, the present study investigates the pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic durations have been tested. Both wet oxidation and enzymic treatment were evaluated based on the ethanol obtained in a subsequent fermentation step by Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Thermoanaerobacter mathranii. It was found that a four-day hydrolysis time was adequate for a satisfactory release of glucose and xylose. The combination of wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis resulted in the glucose and xylose concentration increase of 138 and 444%, respectively, compared to 33 and 15% with only enzymes added. However, the highest ethanol production was obtained when only enzymic pre-treatment was applied, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively easily available. The results of the experiments in batch processes clearly emphasize that the simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) mode is advantageous in comparison with the separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) mode concerning process contamination. (author)

  8. Research of rheological characteristics and determination of rational parameters of drying process of activated ferment for bakery products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. M. Borodulin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The work is aimed at investigating the rheological properties of the ferment in the process of maturation and storage with subsequent determination of the rational parameters of its drying in various drying plants with the analysing of microflora of dried samples. We studied the rheological properties of the ferment using the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A (activator and without it, which showed that the ferment for the production of special purpose bakery products to non-Newtonian or anomalously viscous liquids described by the Osthald-de-Vale rheological equation. We found that the introduction the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A helps to reduce the viscosity during maturation by almost 3 times, and when storing the samples – in 2 times, this is indicated by the value of the consistency coefficient. The activator reduces the influence of temperature, so the structure of the ferment becomes more stable. It is easier to further process in this state. Consequently, the energy consumption for production is significantly reduced and the increases expiration date after the strain of the lactobacilli L. Acidothilus 146A is added to the starter for the production of special purpose bakery products. We detected kinetic patterns of drying of the activated ferment in thermoradiation, convective and sublimation dryers under different temperature operating conditions. We have determined the rational parameters of drying the ferment for the production of bakery products of specialized purpose. We analyzed the useful microflora of the dried samples. It has been revealed that microorganisms undergoing convective and sublimation (freeze drying are subjected to the smallest destructive effect. We found that microorganisms are less destroyed by convective and freeze drying. The microbial titer in these samples is at least 1(105CFU/g. While drying by the method of infrared irradiation, this titer is lower by a factor of ten

  9. Microbiota of sausages obtained by spontaneous fermentation produced in the South of Brazil Microbiota de salames obtidos por fermentação espontânea produzidos no Sul do Brasil

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    Osmar Roberto Dalla Santa

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The study of the ecology of fermented sausage is fundamental to understand the physical and chemical changes that happen during fermentation and maturation. The aim of the present study was to determine the microbiological characteristics of sausages produced by spontaneous fermentation. Fifty samples of sausages produced in the South of Brazil by different small manufacturers were analyzed for the following microbiota: aerobic mesophilic bacteria; Micrococcaceae; mold and yeast; lactic acid bacteria; total and fecal coliforms; coagulase-positive Staphylococcus, and Salmonella. In most samples (72%, the count of lactic bacteria was higher than 6 log10 cfu.g-1, and the samples with the highest counts were above 8 log10 cfu.g-1. The counts of Micrococcaceae in most samples were between 5 log10 and 7 log10 cfu.g-1. With respect to the presence of molds and yeasts, there was a significant variation among the samples with counts ranging from 2 log10 cfu.g-1 and 6 log10 cfu.g-1. From the data obtained, it was possible to conclude that 24% of the analyzed samples did not comply with the current law in Brazil since the levels of fecal coliforms or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus exceeded the maximum limit allowed.O estudo da ecologia de salames fermentados faz-se necessário para entender as mudanças físicas e químicas que ocorrem durante a fermentação e maturação. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar as características microbiológicas de salames produzidos por fermentação espontânea. Foram analisadas cinquenta amostras de salames de diferentes pequenas indústrias em relação à seguinte microbiota: bactérias aeróbias mesófilas; Micrococcaceae; bolores e leveduras; bactérias lácticas; coliformes totais e fecais; Staphylococcus coagulase positiva; e Salmonella. Na grande maioria das amostras (72%, a presença de bactérias lácticas foi superior a 10(6 ufc.g-1, sendo que as amostras com as maiores contagens tiveram quantidades

  10. Comparison of Sensory Properties, Shelf-Life and Microbiological Safety of Industrial Sausages Produced with Autochthonous and Commercial Starter Cultures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadranka Frece

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to use isolated and characterized autochthonous functional starter cultures from traditional Croatian dry sausages and to evaluate their capacity for industrial production of five sausages (Čajna sausage, Zimska sausage, Bečka sausage, Srijemska sausage and Slavonski kulen. These defined autochthonous functional starter cultures (combination of Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains were used to produce five different industrial sausages which were compared by a panel. The viability of introduced autochthonous Lactobacillus and Staphylococcus strains and their effect on the final product characteristics, namely microbiological, physicochemical and sensory properties were monitored. The obtained results indicate that autochthonous starter cultures survived industrial production of sausages and can be used for production of sausages under controlled conditions. Autochthonous starter cultures obtained better results in the organoleptic evaluation, microbial safety and prolonged shelf-life in comparison with commercial starter cultures.

  11. Biodiversity and dynamics of meat fermentations: the contribution of molecular methods for a better comprehension of a complex ecosystem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocolin, Luca; Dolci, Paola; Rantsiou, Kalliopi

    2011-11-01

    The ecology of fermented sausages is complex and includes different species and strains of bacteria, yeasts and molds. The developments in the field of molecular biology, allowed for new methods to become available, which could be applied to better understand dynamics and diversity of the microorganisms involved in the production of sausages. Methods, such as denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE), employed as a culture-independent approach, allow to define the microbial dynamics during the fermentation and ripening. Such approach has highlighted that two main species of lactic acid bacteria, namely Lactobacillus sakei and Lb. curvatus, are involved in the transformation process and that they are accompanied by Staphylococcus xylosus, as representative of the coagulase-negative cocci. These findings were repeatedly confirmed in different regions of the world, mainly in the Mediterranean countries where dry fermented sausages have a long tradition and history. The application of molecular methods for the identification and characterization of isolated strains from fermentations highlighted a high degree of diversity within the species mentioned above, underlining the need to better follow strain dynamics during the transformation process. While there is an important number of papers dealing with bacterial ecology by using molecular methods, studies on mycobiota of fermented sausages are just a few. This review reports on how the application of molecular methods made possible a better comprehension of the sausage fermentations, opening up new fields of research that in the near future will allow to unravel the connection between sensory properties and co-presence of multiple strains of the same species. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Evaluation of the processing of dry biological ferment for gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabundjian, Ingrid Traete

    2007-01-01

    The developed work had with objectives to demonstrate if it had alteration in the growth of UFC in plate and in the viability of yeasts and total bacteria when dry biological ferment was dealt with by different doses to gamma radiation and under different times storage, to determine the D10 dose for total bacteria and yeasts in this product and to analyzed the processing of this product it promoted some benefit without causing unfeasibility of exactly. The different samples of dry biological ferment had been irradiated at IPEN in a Gammacell - 220 source at 0.5; 1; 2 and 3 kGy doses (dose rate of 3.51 kGy/h). This procedure referring samples to each dose of radiation had been after destined to the microbiological analysis and the test of viability while excessively the samples had been stored the ambient temperature (23 degree C). The increase of the dose of radiation caused a reduction in the counting of yeasts growth, of total bacteria growth and also in the frequency of viable yeast cells, demonstrated by FDA-EB fluorescent method. Beyond of radiation the storage time also it influenced in counting reduction of total bacteria and reduction of frequency of viable cells. According with the analysis of simple linear regression, the dose of radiation necessary to eliminate 90% of the yeast population was between 1.10 and 2.23 kGy and for the bacterial population varied between 2.31 and 2.95 kGy. These results demonstrated clearly the negative points of the application of ionizing radiation in dry biological ferment; therefore the interval of D10 found for total bacteria is superior to found for yeasts. Being thus, the use of this resource for the improvement of the product quality becomes impracticable, since to reduce significantly the bacterial population necessarily we have that to diminish the population of yeasts. With yeasts reduction of we will go significantly to modify the quality and the viability of product. (author)

  13. Meat mixture detection in Iberian pork sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortiz-Somovilla, V; España-España, F; De Pedro-Sanz, E J; Gaitán-Jurado, A J

    2005-11-01

    Five homogenized meat mixture treatments of Iberian (I) and/or Standard (S) pork were set up. Each treatment was analyzed by NIRS as a fresh product (N=75) and as dry-cured sausage (N=75). Spectra acquisition was carried out using DA 7000 equipment (Perten Instruments), obtaining a total of 750 spectra. Several absorption peaks and bands were selected as the most representative for homogenized dry-cured and fresh sausages. Discriminant analysis and mixture prediction equations were carried out based on the spectral data gathered. The best results using discriminant models were for fresh products, with 98.3% (calibration) and 60% (validation) correct classification. For dry-cured sausages 91.7% (calibration) and 80% (validation) of the samples were correctly classified. Models developed using mixture prediction equations showed SECV=4.7, r(2)=0.98 (calibration) and 73.3% of validation set were correctly classified for the fresh product. These values for dry-cured sausages were SECV=5.9, r(2)=0.99 (calibration) and 93.3% correctly classified for validation.

  14. Double stage dry-wet-fermentation - start-up of a pilot biogas plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buschmann, Jeannette; Busch, Gunter; Burkhardt, Marko

    2009-01-01

    The Brandenburg University of Technology (BTU) has developed a double stage dry-wet fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Originally designed for treatment of organic wastes, this process allows using a wide variety of solid biodegradable materials. The dividing of hydrolysis and methanation in this process, allows an optimization of the different steps of biogas generation separately. The main advantages of the process are the optimum process control, an extremely stable process operation and a high gas productivity and quality. Compared to conventional processes, the retention times within the percolation stage (hydrolysis) are reduced considerably. In cooperation with the engineering and consulting company GICON, the technology was qualified further to an industrial scale. In 2007 a pilot plant, and, simultaneously, an industrial plant were built by GICON based on this double stage technology. Based on practical experience from the operation of laboratory fermentation plants, the commissioning of the pilot plant was planned, controlled and monitored by our institution. The start-up of a biogas plant of this type focuses mainly on the inoculation the of methane reactor. The growth of microbial populations and generation of a stable biocenosis within the methane reactor is essential and affects the duration of starting period as well as the methanation efficiency a long time afterwards. This paper concerns with start-up of a pilot biogas plant and discusses particular occurrences and effects during this period. (author)

  15. Inoculation of starter cultures in a semi-dry coffee (Coffea arabica) fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evangelista, Suzana Reis; Miguel, Maria Gabriela da Cruz Pedrozo; Cordeiro, Cecília de Souza; Silva, Cristina Ferreira; Pinheiro, Ana Carla Marques; Schwan, Rosane Freitas

    2014-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of yeasts as starter cultures in coffee semi-dry processing. Arabica coffee was inoculated with one of the following starter cultures: Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA YCN727, S. cerevisiae UFLA YCN724, Candida parapsilosis UFLA YCN448 and Pichia guilliermondii UFLA YCN731. The control was not inoculated with a starter culture. Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was used to assess the microbial population, and organic acids and volatile compounds were quantified by HPLC and HS-SPME/GC, respectively. Sensory analyses were evaluated using the Temporal Dominance of Sensations (TDS). DGGE analysis showed that the inoculated yeasts were present throughout the fermentation. Other yeast species were also detected, including Debaryomyces hansenii, Cystofilobasidium ferigula and Trichosporon cavernicola. The bacterial population was diverse and was composed of the following genera: Weissella, Leuconostoc, Gluconobacter, Pseudomonas, Pantoea, Erwinia and Klebsiella. Butyric and propionic acids, were not detected in any treatment A total of 47 different volatiles compounds have been identified. The coffee inoculated with yeast had a caramel flavor that was not detected in the control, as assessed by TDS. The use of starter cultures during coffee fermentation is an interesting alternative for obtaining a beverage quality with distinctive flavor. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Antioxidant defense parameters as predictive biomarkers for fermentative capacity of active dried wine yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamero-Sandemetrio, Esther; Gómez-Pastor, Rocío; Matallana, Emilia

    2014-08-01

    The production of active dried yeast (ADY) is a common practice in industry for the maintenance of yeast starters and as a means of long term storage. The process, however, causes multiple cell injuries, with oxidative damage being one of the most important stresses. Consequentially, dehydration tolerance is a highly appreciated property in yeast for ADY production. In this study we analyzed the cellular redox environment in three Saccharomyces cerevisiae wine strains, which show markedly different fermentative capacities after dehydration. To measure/quantify the effect of dehydration on the S. cerevisiae strains, we used: (i) fluorescent probes; (ii) antioxidant enzyme activities; (ii) intracellular damage; (iii) antioxidant metabolites; and (iv) gene expression, to select a minimal set of biochemical parameters capable of predicting desiccation tolerance in wine yeasts. Our results show that naturally enhanced antioxidant defenses prevent oxidative damage after wine yeast biomass dehydration and improve fermentative capacity. Based on these results we chose four easily assayable parameters/biomarkers for the selection of industrial yeast strains of interest for ADY production: trehalose and glutathione levels, and glutathione reductase and catalase enzymatic activities. Yeast strains selected in accordance with this process display high levels of trehalose, low levels of oxidized glutathione, a high induction of glutathione reductase activity, as well as a high basal level and sufficient induction of catalase activity, which are properties inherent in superior ADY strains. Copyright © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Hepatoprotective Activity of Dried- and Fermented-Processed Virgin Coconut Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. A. Zakaria

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to determine the hepatoprotective effect of MARDI-produced virgin coconut oils, prepared by dried- or fermented-processed methods, using the paracetamol-induced liver damage in rats. Liver injury induced by 3 g/kg paracetamol increased the liver weight per 100 g bodyweight indicating liver damage. Histological observation also confirms liver damage indicated by the presence of inflammations and necrosis on the respective liver section. Interestingly, pretreatment of the rats with 10, but not 1 and 5, mL/kg of both VCOs significantly (P<.05 reduced the liver damage caused by the administration of paracetamol, which is further confirmed by the histological findings. In conclusion, VCO possessed hepatoprotective effect that requires further in-depth study.

  18. Industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation of municipal solid waste to biogas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, M Y; Li, R H; Li, J; Wedwitschka, H; Nelles, M; Stinner, W; Zhou, H J

    2016-10-01

    The objectives of this study was to through monitoring the 1st industrial scale garage-type dry fermentation (GTDF) MSW biogas plant in Bin County, Harbin City, Heilongjiang Province, China, to investigate its anaerobic digestion (AD) performance and the stability of process. After a monitoring period of 180days, the results showed that the volumetric biogas production of the digesters and percolate tank was 0.72 and 2.22m(3) (m(3)d)(-1), respectively, and the specific biogas yield of the feedstock was about 270m(3)CH4tVS(-1), which indicated that the GTDF is appropriate for the Chinese MSW. This paper also raised some problems aimed at improving the process stability and AD efficiency. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  19. USO DE CULTURAS INICIADORAS PARA A ELABORAÇÃO DE UM EMBUTIDO À BASE DE CARNE DE PATO (Cairina moschata USE OF STARTER CULTURES TO PRODUCE FERMENTED SAUSAGE FROM DUCK MEAT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felipe Oliveira CARIONI

    2001-12-01

    industry, being directly related to the final product flavor, texture, colour and shelf life. The use of starter cultures to produce fermented sausages with a base of duck meat from the boning of thighs and real thighs was evaluated in this research. A mixture of Lactobacillus plantarum BN and Kokuria varians CCT 4492 starter cultures was used to inoculate the meat mixture. The sausages were smoked in a smoking chamber at 23±1°C for approximately 19 hours and were cured for 25 days. The initial counting of viable cells in the sausage mixture was 6.08Log10 CFU/g and 6.04Log10 CFU/g for lactic acid bacteria and Micrococcacea, respectively. Acid lactic bacteria displayed a growth of 0.79 logarithm cycles after the second day of processing, and an increase of 2.58 logarithm cycles at the 11th day. The final product acidity average value in lactic acid was 0,39%, and the pH value, 5.11. The physico-chemical analyses rested within Brazilian Legal Standards. The final product presented a sensorial profile within acceptable quality standards.

  20. Use of two osmoethanol tolerant yeast strain to ferment must from Tempranillo dried grapes: effect on wine composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López de Lerma, N; Peinado, R A

    2011-01-31

    The must from Tempranillo dried grapes was divided into four batches to produce sweet wine. The first one was fortified with ethanol up to 12% (v/v) to avoid fermentation (traditional way). Other two batches were partially fermented with two osmoethanol tolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains (X4 and X5). The last one was fermented with native yeast by spontaneous fermentation. Wines fermented partially with the strains X4 and X5 show high volatile acidity values (above 2g/L expressed as acetic acid), and a glycerol concentration around 20 g/L. Both strains also produce high amount of carboxylic acids and therefore the wines show a high ethyl ester concentration. Aromatic series were obtained for all the wines by grouping aroma compounds according to their odor descriptors. The series of the fermented wines with higher values in relation with the control wine were fruity, sweet and fatty, emphasizing the fruity series in the samples fermented with the X4 and X5 strains. The sensorial analysis of the wine samples by a tasting panel put in evidence that the musts fermented with the osmoethanol tolerant yeasts were better valued than the rest of the wine samples. The must fermented with the X4 strain obtained the maximum score in terms of aroma and flavour. So, the use of these osmoethanol tolerant S. cerevisiae strains could be a suitable alternative to produce sweet wines from must with high sugar concentration. The wines obtained this way are chemically and organoleptically more complex than those elaborated traditionally. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. fermentation

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    2012-05-17

    May 17, 2012 ... genes in glycolysis pathway, trehalose and steroid biosynthesis and heat shock proteins (HSP) in .... com) and prepared for microarray construction and analysis. .... a single time point of the late stage of VHG fermentation.

  2. Further development of the BEKON dry fermentation process for hygienisation of substrates in the fermenter according to BioAbfV; Weiterentwicklung der BEKON-Trockenfermentation ermoeglicht die Hygienisierung der Substrate gemaess BioAbfV im Fermenter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liebeneiner, Rolf; Lutz, Peter [Bekon Energy Technologies GmbH und Co. KG, Unterfoehring (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In the draft amendment to the BioAbfV (BMU, 2011), temperatures and times of residue to ensure hygienisation of substrates for thermophilic fermentation were revised on the basis of EU law on animal by-products and fertilizer law and on the basis of practical experience with the directive and recent research findings on hygienisation of biomass waste. To test the process, the required thermophilic process temperature of 50 must be ensured for the totality of substrates for a minimum time of residue. The fermentation substrates are then tested for phytohygiene and epidemic hygiene. BEKON developed their patented fermenter heating system into the world's first batch dry fermentation plant for hygienisation inside the fermenter, which was commissioned in 2010 at Spiez, Switzerland. The plant was capable of ensuring the required temperature levels and substrate hygienisation standards. The advanced thermophilic BEKON dry fermentation process thus ensures reliable hygienisation of substrates already inside the fermenter, without aerobic post-treatment of fermenation residues. This simplifies process monitoring in the subsequent composting stage. (orig.) [German] Im Entwurf zur Novellierung der BioAbfV (BMU, 2011) wurden die erforderlichen Temperaturen und Verweilzeiten zur Sicherstellung der Hygienisierung der Substrate fuer die thermophile Vergaerung ueberarbeitet. Grundlage hierfuer waren unter anderem sowohl neue und geaenderte rechtlicher Vorschriften des EU-Rechts ueber die tierischen Nebenprodukte und des Duengerechts, als auch Praxiserfahrungen seit Inkrafttreten der Verordnung und neue Forschungsergebnisse zur Hygienisierung von Bioabfaellen. Die Prozesspruefung muss dabei so vorgenommen werden, dass ueber einen zusammenhaengenden Zeitraum (der sogenannten Mindestverweilzeit) die geforderte thermophile Behandlungstemperatur von mindestens 50 C auf die gesamten Substrate einwirkt. Die seuchen- und phytohygienische Unbedenklichkeit der Gaersubstrate ist dabei

  3. Production of ethanol and feed by high dry matter hydrolysis and fermentation of palm kernel press cake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jørgensen, Henning; Sanadi, Anand R; Felby, Claus; Lange, Niels Erik Krebs; Fischer, Morten; Ernst, Steffen

    2010-05-01

    Palm kernel press cake (PKC) is a residue from palm oil extraction presently only used as a low protein feed supplement. PKC contains 50% fermentable hexose sugars present in the form of glucan and mainly galactomannan. This makes PKC an interesting feedstock for processing into bioethanol or in other biorefinery processes. Using a combination of mannanase, beta-mannosidase, and cellulases, it was possible without any pretreatment to hydrolyze PKC at solid concentrations of 35% dry matter with mannose yields up to 88% of theoretical. Fermentation was tested using Saccharomyces cerevisiae in both a separate hydrolysis and fermentation (SHF) and simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) setup. The hydrolysates could readily be fermented without addition of nutrients and with average fermentation yields of 0.43 +/- 0.02 g/g based on consumed mannose and glucose. Employing SSF, final ethanol concentrations of 70 g/kg was achieved in 216 h, corresponding to an ethanol yield of 70% of theoretical or 200 g ethanol/kg PKC. Testing various enzyme mixtures revealed that including cellulases in combination with mannanases significantly improved ethanol yields. Processing PKC to ethanol resulted in a solid residue enriched in protein from 17% to 28%, a 70% increase, thereby potentially making a high-protein containing feed supplement.

  4. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    OpenAIRE

    Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kum, Jun-Seok; Choi, Yun-Sang; Seo, Dong-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h....

  5. A double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for a fast and safe digestion of different kinds of organic material

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Busch, G.; Sieber, M.; Buschmann, J.; Burkhardat, M.

    2009-01-01

    The fermentation of organic material is a four-step-process. It is admissible to merge the first two steps (hydrolysis and acidification) to hydrolysis in general and the last two steps (aceto genesis and methano genesis) to methano genesis. The Brandenburg University of Technology in Cottbus has devised a double stage dry-wet-fermentation process for fast and safe anaerobic degradation. Using these processes, it is possible to decompose different kinds of organic material like renewable material (e. g. maize silage), waste (e. g. household-waste) and industrial material (e. g. glycerine). (Author)

  6. Current developments in Helector dry fermentation; Aktuelle Entwicklungen der Helector Trockenfermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziehmann, Gunnar [Helector GmbH, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-11-01

    In 2008, the Helector GmbH acquired the Loock TNS {sup registered} process and took over Loock Biogasssysteme. Since then, the Helector GmbH has been constructing dry fermentation plants ad general contractor, making use of more than 20 years of experience with the Loock TNS {sup registered} process. Economic efficiency, emission reduction and environmental protection are ensured by constant further development. The single-stage batch process retained its advantages, i.e. simultaneous biogas production from the solid and liquid phase, process control mostly via water, no adding of fermentation residues, and effective degassing by a patented ventilation system. A newly developed lean gas management system was tested successfully in practice. The contribution presents preliminary operating experience. (orig.) [German] Im Jahr 2008 hat die Helector GmbH das Loock TNS {sup registered} -Verfahren als Technologietraeger erworben und das Ingenieurbuero Loock Biogasssysteme uebernommen. Seither errichtet die Helector GmbH Trockenfermentationsanlagen als Generalunternehmer. Hierbei wird die ueber 20-jaehrige Erfahrung mit dem Loock TNS {sup registered} -Verfahren genutzt und das System mit Nachdruck stetig weiterentwickelt. Diese Weiterentwicklungen tragen einen wesentlichen Anteil zur Wirtschaftlichkeit der Anlage bei und verbessern den Emissions- und Umweltschutz erheblich. Die Vorteile dieses einstufigen Batchverfahrens, vor allem die simultane Biogasgewinnung aus der festen und fluessigen Phase, die Prozesssteuerung vorwiegend ueber das Wasser, der Verzicht auf Beimischung von Gaerresten und die effektive Entgasung durch das patentierte Belueftungssystem, bleiben systemimmanent erhalten. Das neu entwickelte und nunmehr erstmals realisierte Schwachgasmanagementsystem hat sich in der Praxis als sehr erfolgreich erwiesen. In diesem Beitrag werden unter anderem erste Betriebserfahrungen hierzu vorgestellt. (orig.)

  7. Quality, functionality, and shelf life of fermented meat and meat products: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Pavan; Chatli, M K; Verma, Akhilesh K; Mehta, Nitin; Malav, O P; Kumar, Devendra; Sharma, Neelesh

    2017-09-02

    Fermentation of meat is a traditional preservation method used widely for improving quality and shelf life of fermented meat products. Fermentation of meat causes a number of physical, biochemical, and microbial changes, which eventually impart functional properties, sensory characteristics, and nutritional aspects to these products and inhibit the growth of various pathogenic and spoilage microorganisms. These changes include acidification (carbohydrate catabolism), solubilization and gelation of myofibrillar and sarcoplasmic proteins of muscle, degradation of proteins and lipids, reduction of nitrate into nitrite, formation of nitrosomyoglobin, and dehydration. Dry-fermented sausages are increasingly being used as carrier of probiotics. The production of biogenic amines during fermentation can be controlled by selecting proper starter cultures and other preventive measures such as quality of raw materials, hygienic measures, temperature, etc.

  8. Analysis of process factors of dry fermented salami to control Listeria monocytogenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Novelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12 commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016. The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g. The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth.

  9. Analysis of Process Factors of Dry Fermented Salami to Control Listeria Monocytogenes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novelli, Enrico; Dal Santo, Lucia; Balzan, Stefania; Cardazzo, Barbara; Spolaor, Dino; Lombardi, Angiolella; Carraro, Lisa; Fasolato, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Challenge tests are a clear opportunity for manufacturers interested in the evaluation of their management system with the aim to reduce the spread of foodborne pathogens. This is a main concern especially in ready-to-eat food in relation to the risk associated with Listeria monocytogenes. For small and medium-scale food industry the manufacturing practices and products formulation are characterised by a wider variability and poor repeatability. The use of ad hoc challenge test and the comparison among different processing systems are strongly required. This paper reports a preliminary comparison among different challenge tests (n=12) commissioned by three manufacturers of raw-fermented salami during a period of three years (2013-2016). The challenge tests were designed to evaluate the growth potential (δ) of L. monocytogenes during the whole processing period of the salami. The doughs were prepared according to different formulations: the simplest formulation was represented by the use of salt, potassium nitrate, black pepper and starter cultures, while the most composited formulations also included the use of sugars and ascorbic acid in addition to nitrite salt. All the processing steps were conducted within an experimental laboratory dedicated for the processing of meat. After stuffing, the salami were dried and ripened under temperature and relative humidity control. The sugar inclusion can be considered as a protective factor, while the drying step at high temperature (above 20°C) was associated with higher δ values (δ>0.5 log10 cfu/g). The addition of starter cultures, and the subsequent acidification highlighted the importance of pH as the parameter able to affect the L. monocytogenes growth. PMID:28462203

  10. A Dried Yeast Fermentate Prevents and Reduces Inflammation in Two Separate Experimental Immune Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malkanthi Evans

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diverse and significant benefits against cold/flu symptoms and seasonal allergies have been observed with a dried fermentate (DF derived from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (EpiCor in multiple published randomized trials. To determine if DF may influence other immune conditions, two separate animal studies were conducted. Study 1 examined the ability of DF to prevent or reduce inflammation when given orally for 14 days to rats prior to receiving 1% carrageenan (localized inflammation model. DF significantly (P<0.05 reduced swelling at all time points (1, 2, 3, 6, 12, and 24 hours versus the control. Edema severity and PGE2 levels were reduced by approximately 50% and 25% (P<0.05, respectively. Study 2 examined the ability of DF to treat established inflammation induced by type-2 collagen in mice over 4 weeks (autoimmune arthritis model. Significantly reduced arthritis scores, antibody response to type-2 collagen, and interferon-gamma levels were observed compared to controls (all parameters P<0.05. DF favorably impacts multiple acute and potentially chronic immunologic inflammatory control mechanisms and should be further tested in clinical trials.

  11. Cardboard proportions and total solids contents as driving factors in dry co-fermentation of food waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capson-Tojo, Gabriel; Trably, Eric; Rouez, Maxime; Crest, Marion; Bernet, Nicolas; Steyer, Jean-Philippe; Delgenès, Jean-Philippe; Escudié, Renaud

    2018-01-01

    This study evaluated the influence of the co-substrate proportions (0-60% of cardboard in dry basis) and the initial total solid contents (20-40%) on the batch fermentation performance. Maximum hydrogen yields were obtained when mono-fermenting food waste at high solids contents (89mlH 2 ·gVS -1 ). The hydrogen yields were lower when increasing the proportions of cardboard. The lower hydrogen yields at higher proportions of cardboard were translated into higher yields of caproic acid (up to 70.1gCOD·kgCOD bio -1 ), produced by consumption of acetic acid and hydrogen. The highest substrate conversions were achieved at low proportions of cardboard, indicating a stabilization effect due to higher buffering capacities in co-fermentation. Clostridiales were predominant in all operational conditions. This study opens up new possibilities for using the cardboard proportions for controlling the production of high added-value products in dry co-fermentation of food waste. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Bioethanol production from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers by recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yi-Zhou; Zou, Shan-Mei; He, Mei-Lin; Wang, Chang-Hai

    2015-04-01

    It has been found that recombinant Saccharomyces cerevisiae 6525 can produce high concentration of ethanol in one-step fermentation from the extract of Jerusalem artichoke tubers or inulin. However, the utilization rate of raw materials was low and the fermentation process was costly and complicated. Therefore, in this study, after the optimum processing conditions for ethanol production in fed-batch fermentation were determined in flask, the recombinant S. cerevisiae 6525 was first used to produce ethanol from the dry powder of Jerusalem artichoke tubers in 5-L agitating fermentor. After 72 h of fermentation, around 84.3 g/L ethanol was produced in the fermentation liquids, and the conversion efficiency of inulin-type sugars to ethanol was 0.453, or 88.6 % of the theoretical value of 0.511. This study showed high feasibility of bioethanol industrial production from the Jerusalem artichoke tubers and provided a basis for it in the future.

  13. Determination of the Minimum Inhibitory Concentration of the Barberry Extract and the Dried Residue of Red Grape and Their Effects on the Growth Inhibition of Sausage Bacteria by Using Response Surface Methodology (RSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Riazi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: With regard to the hazards of nitrite, application of natural preservatives in order to reduce the microbial load of meat and meat products is increasing. Owing to their anti-bacterial properties, red barberry and the dried residue of red grape could be suitable replacers for nitrite. Materials and Methods: Agar dilution method was employed in order to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape. The anti-microbial effects of the barberry extract (0-600 mg/kg, the dried residue of red grape (0-2% and nitrite (30-90 mg/kg were investigated on the total viable counts of Clostridium perfringens, as well as on the psychrophilic bacteria after 30 days of storage at 4°C. Finally, the effects of the three independent variables in the optimal sample were examined on the growth of the inoculated C. perfringens. Results: The MIC of the barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape on Staphylococcus aureus was 3 and 6 (mg/ml, respectively. In the case of Escherichia coli, it was 4 and 7 (mg/ml, respectively. The barberry extract and nitrite reduced the growth of the living aerobic bacteria significantly. The spores of the inoculated C. perfringens had no growth in the optimum sample during storage. Conclusions: The barberry extract and the dried residue of red grape as natural preservatives, could partially substitute for nitrite in order to reduce the microbial load of sausage.

  14. Effects of natural plant tenderizers on proteolysis and texture of dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    , and overall acceptability. From these results, it is shown that those enzymes as a raw plant juices could be used as tenderizers in dry sausage production. Keywords: Dry sausages, wild boar meat, plant enzymes, proteolysis, texture, sensory ...

  15. Viability of L. casei during fermentation in soymilk and freeze-dried soymilk; effect of cryoprotectant, rehydration and storage temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Mladenovska

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the work was to investigate the behaviour of L. casei and the effect of sorbitol on its viability during fermentation in soymilk drink. Values for pH, ranging from 6.82 to 3.42 in the soymilk drink without sorbitol and from 6.74 to 3.41 in the drink with sorbitol were noted during 72 h of fermentation at 25oC. The corresponding values for titratable acidity ranged from 0.071% to 0.758% and from 0.073% to 0.761%, respectively. Soymilk was found to support the growth of L. casei with improvement in viability for 0.24 log at the end of fermentation when sorbitol was added. Survival of L. casei and the effectiveness of sorbitol in improving viability during freeze-drying, subsequent rehydration and during a 5-week period of storage under different temperatures were also investigated. After freeze-drying, L. casei exhibited a survival percent of approximately 46%. Sorbitol improved the viability of L. casei by 0.51 log immediately after freeze-drying and by 1.30 log and 0.47 log during five weeks of storage at 25oC and 4oC, respectively. Further study revealed that the freeze-dried fermented soymilk rehydrated at 45oC was optimum for the recovery of L. casei with improvement in recovery for 0.68 log when sorbitol was added. A higher percent of survival was noted when the dried soymilk was stored at 4oC than at 25oC with improved viability at the end of 5 weeks storage for approximately 6 log for drinks with and without sorbitol. Fermented dried soymilk with sorbitol afforded significant tolerance of L. casei to acid stress. Generally, a stable probiotic diary product was prepared in which the concentration of L. casei remained above therapeutic level of 107 cfu/ml.

  16. Effect of harvest time on fermentation profiles of maize ensiled in laboratory silos and determination of drying losses at 60°C

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Tina Skau; Kristensen, Niels Bastian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2007-01-01

    The objectives were to investigate the effect of premature ensiling of maize on alcohol fermentation in laboratory silos and the loss of fermentation products and glucose in silage following drying at 60°C for 48 h. During four consecutive weeks maize was harvested and ensiled for 60 days in vacuum-sealed...

  17. Nutrient Composition of Retail Samples of Australian Beef Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Judy Cunningham

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Some nutrient data for beef sausages in Australia’s food composition table, NUTTAB 2010, is over 25 years old and may no longer reflect the composition of this popular food. To update this, 41 retail samples of fresh beef sausages were purchased in Melbourne, Australia, in May 2015. Each purchase was analysed, uncooked, for moisture, protein and fat. Sausages were then grouped by fat content into one of three composites and analysed for a wide range of nutrients, before and after dry heat cooking, the most popular sausage cooking method. Fat content in raw sausages averaged 14.9 g/100 g, 30% lower than NUTTAB values, varying from 7.3 to 22.6 g/100 g. This indicates it is possible to formulate leaner sausages that meet consumer expectations and may qualify for certain nutrition labelling statements. Under current Australian labelling requirements, two low fat sausages contain sufficient protein, B12, niacin, phosphorus and zinc to qualify as a good source of these nutrients and sufficient iron, selenium and vitamin A to qualify as a source of these. Sodium levels are higher than fresh beef, ranging from 680 to 840 mg/100 g. These data will be used to update NUTTAB and support product labelling and consumer education.

  18. Drying process of fermented inulin fiber concentrate by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a dietary fiber source for cholesterol binder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Ghozali, Muhammad

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation on inulin hydrolysate as fructooligosaccharides (FOS) by Bifidobacterium bifidum as a result of hydrolysis by inulase enzyme of Scopulariopsis sp.-CBS1 fungi has been performed to bind cholesterol. Their applications on preparation of fermented pour beverages was conducted via a series of concentration process using dead-end Stirred Ultrafiltration Cell (SUFC) mode at stirrer rotation of 400 rpm, room temperature and pressure of 40 psia for 0 minute (pre-concentration process) as concentrate (A) and 45 minutes as concentrate (B), and drying process using vacuum dryer at 30 °C and 22 cm Hg for 0, 8, 16, 24, 32, 40 and 48 hours. Based on optimization of Total Dietary Fiber (TDF), the best time of drying process was achieved for 40 hours. Long time of drying process would increase TDF and total solids, decreased total acids, and fluctuated dissolved protein and Cholesterol Binding Capacity (CBC). At the optimum condition of drying process was get fermented inulin fiber powder from concentration processes using both UF as pre process (0 minute) as concentrate (A) and UF for 45 minutes as concentrate (B) with compositions of total solids of 92.31 % and 93.67 %, TDF of 59.07 % (dry weight) and 69.28 %, total acids of 7.03 % and 7.5 %, dissolved protein of 3.95 mg/mL and 3.05 mg/mL, and CBC pH 2 15.71 mg/g and 16.8 mg/g, respectively. Concentration process through dead-end SUFC mode gave distribution of particles with better smoothness level than without through dead-end SUFC mode.

  19. Evaluation palm empty fruit bunch and its fermented products as feed for ruminant animal by nutritional values characterisation and in-vitro dry matter digestibility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mat Rasol Awang; Wan Badrin Wan Husain; Tajuddin Osman; Mohd Sukri Mahmood; Norihan Zainal; Zal U'yun Wan Mahmod; Hassan Hamdani Mutaat; Yusri Atan

    1995-01-01

    Empty fruit bunch (EFB) fermented by Pleurotus sajor caju as ruminant feed has been investigated extensively. This paper evaluates products obtained from several manipulation. The manipulation includes pretreatment (soaked and mixed) of EFB with lime, variation of fermentation conditions: prolonged incubation period, varied incubation temperature and addition Palm Oil Sludge (POS) as additive; and post-fermentation manipulation such as harvesting mushroom out of the substratum. The fermented products from each of those manipulation were evaluated based on nutritional values and the pertinent in-vitro dry matter digestibility, whenever appropriate. The evaluated products were compared and discussed. 8 tabs

  20. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting, and Dutch processing on epicatechin and catechin content of cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Mark J; Hurst, W Jeffrey; Miller, Kenneth B; Rank, Craig; Stuart, David A

    2010-10-13

    Low molecular weight flavan-3-ols are thought to be responsible, in part, for the cardiovascular benefits associated with cocoa powder and dark chocolate. The levels of epicatechin and catechin were determined in raw and conventionally fermented cacao beans and during conventional processing, which included drying, roasting, and Dutch (alkali) processing. Unripe cacao beans had 29% higher levels of epicatechin and the same level of catechin compared to fully ripe beans. Drying had minimal effect on the epicatechin and catechin levels. Substantial decreases (>80%) in catechin and epicatechin levels were observed in fermented versus unfermented beans. When both Ivory Coast and Papua New Guinea beans were subjected to roasting under controlled conditions, there was a distinct loss of epicatechin when bean temperatures exceeded 70 °C. When cacao beans were roasted to 120 °C, the catechin level in beans increased by 696% in unfermented beans, by 650% in Ivory Coast beans, and by 640% in Papua New Guinea fermented beans compared to the same unroasted beans. These results suggest that roasting in excess of 70 °C generates significant amounts of (-)-catechin, probably due to epimerization of (-)-epicatechin. Compared to natural cocoa powders, Dutch processing caused a loss in both epicatechin (up to 98%) and catechin (up to 80%). The epicatechin/catechin ratio is proposed as a useful and sensitive indicator for the processing history of cacao beans.

  1. Potential of bacteriocins from lab to improve microbial quality of dry-cured and fermented meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kęska, Paulina; Stadnik, Joanna; Zielińska, Dorota; Kołożyn-Krajewska, Danuta

    2017-01-01

    Meat and meat products are an important component of the daily diet. Nevertheless, they are perishable goods and are prone to microbial contamination, which leads to an increased risk to the health of consumers as well as economic losses in the meat industry. Fermentation has been used for thousands of years to preserve meat. As a result of extensive biochemical reactions occurring in meat during fermentation and ripening, the condi- tions inhibiting the growth of pathogenic and spoilage bacteria are formed. These changes are catalyzed by endogenous meat enzymes and exogenous enzymes derived from natural contaminating bacteria or starter cultures applied. In dry-cured and fermented meat products they are represented mainly by lactic acid bacte- ria (LAB) that produce a wide range of compounds, such as bacteriocins, directed against other microorgan- isms. The use of bactericidal peptides does not affect the sensory quality of foodstuffs, so that they attract attention as alternative means of preserving the stability and safety of dry-cured products.

  2. Mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation based on solid medium' dry weight variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazaheri, Davood; Shojaosadati, Seyed Abbas; Zamir, Seyed Morteza; Mousavi, Seyyed Mohammad

    2018-04-21

    In this work, mathematical modeling of ethanol production in solid-state fermentation (SSF) has been done based on the variation in the dry weight of solid medium. This method was previously used for mathematical modeling of enzyme production; however, the model should be modified to predict the production of a volatile compound like ethanol. The experimental results of bioethanol production from the mixture of carob pods and wheat bran by Zymomonas mobilis in SSF were used for the model validation. Exponential and logistic kinetic models were used for modeling the growth of microorganism. In both cases, the model predictions matched well with the experimental results during the exponential growth phase, indicating the good ability of solid medium weight variation method for modeling a volatile product formation in solid-state fermentation. In addition, using logistic model, better predictions were obtained.

  3. Immobilization of Cells and Enzymes for Fermented Dairy or Meat Products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Champagne, Claude P.; Lee, Byong H.; Saucier, Linda

    Historically, we can find fermented products in almost all cultural backgrounds around the world. Notably, there are many different milk or meat-based foods and this chapter will focus on them (Kosikowski 1982; Wood 1998). Cheese, yoghurt, sour cream, kefir, or cultured butter are probably the most common fermented dairy products, but many regional varieties exist (Farnworth 2004). Fermented meats are typically found as dry sausages (Lüke 1998). Yeasts are mostly involved in the manufacture of bread and alcoholic beverages, which are basically cereal- or fruit-based products. In fermented meat and milk, the main microorganisms used are the lactic acid bacteria (LAB). Yeast and molds are rather involved in ripening. Therefore, the LAB will constitute the main focus of this chapter.

  4. Production of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter culture for cassava fermentation into gari

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Yao, AA

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen lactic acid bacteria, eight Lactobacillus plantarum, three L. pentosus, two Weissella paramesenteroides, two L. fermemtum and one Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides were previously isolated from cassava fermentation and selected...

  5. Determination of chemical composition, and storage on dried fermented goat milk product (Oggtt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Badriah O. Al-Abdulkarim

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available A sample of dried fermented goat milk product (Oggtt obtained from the local market of Riyadh city in The Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, was stored for 6 months at 4 °C and subjected to chemical composition analysis before and after storage. The result showed that the sample moisture increased significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 after storage from 7% to 10%, total ash decreased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 8% to 7.6%, total carbohydrates decreased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 35.5% to 33.8%, protein increased non-significantly (P ⩽ 0.05 from 16 to 16.1 g/l, fat content was found to have the same values in all samples before and after storage at 5%, lactose increased (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significantly from 28.4% to 29%, acidity decreased (P ⩽ 0.05 significantly from 0.45% to 0.39%, and pH decreased (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significantly from 4.3% to 4%. On the other hand, mineral composition showed (P ⩽ 0.05 non-significant results before and after storage. Ca concentration decreased from 118 to 1149 mg/kg and K concentration increased from 185.8 to 1888 mg/kg. While Mg increased from 105 to 123 mg/kg, Zn increased from 8.3 to 8.6 mg/kg, Mn and Fe were found to have the same values of concentrations before and after storage which were 0.2 and 0.1 mg/kg, respectively. Accordingly, we can conclude that Oggtt is a stable product and have a good nutritional value in comparison to daily required amounts for healthy human life.

  6. Enzymatic hydrolysis and ethanol fermentation of high dry matter wet-exploded wheat straw at low enzyme loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Georgieva, T.I.; Hou, Xiaoru; Hilstrøm, Troels

    2008-01-01

    was the most efficient in enhancing overall convertibility of the raw material to sugars and minimizing generation of furfural as a by-product. For scale-up of the process, high dry matter (DM) concentrations of 15-20% will be necessary. However, high DM hydrolysis and fermentation are limited by high...... and a low enzyme loading of 10 FPU/g cellulose in an industrial acceptable time frame of 96 h. Cellulose and hemicellulose conversion from enzymatic hydrolysis were 70 and 68%, respectively, and an overall ethanol yield from SSF was 68%....

  7. Adaptation of continuous biogas reactors operating under wet fermentation conditions to dry conditions with corn stover as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuk, Balázs; Kovács, Kornél L; Szuhaj, Márk; Rákhely, Gábor; Bagi, Zoltán

    2017-08-01

    Corn stover (CS) is the agricultural by-product of maize cultivation. Due to its high abundance and high energy content it is a promising substrate for the bioenergy sector. However, it is currently neglected in industrial scale biogas plants, because of its slow decomposition and hydrophobic character. To assess the maximum biomethane potential of CS, long-term batch fermentations were carried out with various substrate concentrations and particle sizes for 72 days. In separate experiments we adapted the biogas producing microbial community in wet fermentation arrangement first to the lignocellulosic substrate, in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), then subsequently, by continuously elevating the feed-in concentration, to dry conditions in solid state fermenters (SS-AD). In the batch tests, the CSTR experiment, the daily substrate loading was gradually increased from 1 to 2 g vs /L/day until the system produced signs of overloading. Then the biomass was transferred to SS-AD reactors and the adaptation process was studied. Although the specific methane yields were lower in the SS-AD arrangement (177 mL CH 4 /g vs in CSTR vs. 105 mL in SS-AD), the benefits of process operational parameters, i.e. lower energy consumption, smaller reactor volume, digestate amount generated and simpler configuration, may compensate the somewhat lower yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Effects of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles and cinnamaldehyde on in vitro fermentation and protein degradation using the Rusitec technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lia, Yangling; He, Maolong; Li, Chun; Forster, Robert; Beauchemin, Karen Anne; Yang, Wenzhu

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) and cinnamaldehyde (CIN) on in vitro fermentation and microbial profiles using the rumen simulation technique. The control substrate (10% barley silage, 85% barley grain and 5% supplement, on dry matter basis) and the wheat DDGS substrate (30% wheat DDGS replaced an equal portion of barley grain) were combined with 0 and 300 mg CIN/l of culture fluid. The inclusion of DDGS increased (p fermentation pattern changed to greater acetate and less propionate proportions (p fermentability and potentially increase protein flows to the intestine. Supplementation of high-grain substrates with CIN reduced methane production and potentially increased the true protein reaching the small intestine; however, overall reduction of feed fermentation may lower the feeding value of a high-grain diet.

  9. Quality traits of fallow deer (Dama dama dry-cured hams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Piasentier

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Meat processing by drying, after salting or fermentation and before a long ripening period, is an ancient and widespread process, used to preserve meat from spoilage. Among the wide variety of dry meat products made in Europe, the most famous ones are made from pork (Italian and Spanish dry-cured hams, fermented sausages, but other interesting products are obtained from meat of different species: i.e., the “bresaola”, from bovine, horse, goat, etc. (Paleari et al., 2002. Deer meat and meat products are interesting in this picture, since they include the high degree of consumers’ appreciation for dried products and considering the growing interest for food obtained by natural husbandry and technology...

  10. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers. PMID:21917164

  11. Impact of fermentation, drying, roasting and Dutch processing on flavan-3-ol stereochemistry in cacao beans and cocoa ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Krake, Susann H; Bergmeier, Stephen C; Payne, Mark J; Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A

    2011-09-14

    This paper reports a systematic study of the level of flavan-3-ol monomers during typical processing steps as cacao beans are dried, fermented and roasted and the results of Dutch-processing. Methods have been used that resolve the stereoisomers of epicatechin and catechin. In beans harvested from unripe and ripe cacao pods, we find only (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with (-)-epicatechin being by far the predominant isomer. When beans are fermented there is a large loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, but also the formation of (-)-catechin. We hypothesize that the heat of fermentation may, in part, be responsible for the formation of this enantiomer. When beans are progressively roasted at conditions described as low, medium and high roast conditions, there is a progressive loss of (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin and an increase in (-)-catechin with the higher roast levels. When natural and Dutch-processed cacao powders are analyzed, there is progressive loss of both (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin with lesser losses of (-)-catechin. We thus observe that in even lightly Dutch-processed powder, the level of (-)-catechin exceeds the level of (-)-epicatechin. The results indicate that much of the increase in the level of (-)-catechin observed during various processing steps may be the result of heat-related epimerization from (-)-epicatechin. These results are discussed with reference to the reported preferred order of absorption of (-)-epicatechin > (+)-catechin > (-)-catechin. These results are also discussed with respect to the balance that must be struck between the beneficial impact of fermentation and roasting on chocolate flavor and the healthful benefits of chocolate and cocoa powder that result in part from the flavan-3-ol monomers.

  12. Characterisation of the gastrointestinal bacterial community in pigs fed fermented liquid feed and dry feed

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højberg, Ole; Knudsen, B.; Canibe, N.

    2001-01-01

    Feeding pigs with fermented liquid feed (FLF) has been shown to reduce the number of enteropathogens such as Salmonella and Brachyospira hyodysenteriae as well as coliform bacteria in general in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT). Also the commensal bacterial populations have been shown to respond...

  13. Dry fermentation in batch operation at Saalfeld; Trockenfermentation im Batchbetrieb in Saalfeld

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittmaier, M. [Institut fuer Kreislaufwirtschaft, Bremen (Germany); Meisgeier, G. [BioFert GmbH, Saalfeld (Germany)

    2007-07-01

    Biological waste materials are commonly treated by aerobic composting. The resulting compost is used in agriculture, landscaping, horticulture etc. This use of compost as fertilizer saves resources and also has a climate protecting effect. If an additional fermentation stage is installed, renewable energy can be generated at the same time, which will enhance the climate protection effect. (orig.)

  14. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  15. Features of Lactobacillus sakei isolated from Italian sausages: focus on strains from Ventricina del Vastese

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carmela Amadoro

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study bacterial isolates from Ventricina del Vastese sausage, previously identified as Lactobacillus (L. sakei, were characterised genotypically, physiologically and on the basis of some technologically relevant traits. A total of 70 L. sakei isolates from sausages manufactured with spontaneous fermentation in the same producing plant were taken into account. Six genotypic groups were distinguished on the basis of Rep-polymerase chain reaction with the GTG5 primer, some of which were found only in the sausages ripened at temperatures lower than 10°C for the first two months and lower than 16°C for the remaining three months, according to the traditional ripening process. Six strains were selected as representative of the genotypic profiles and further characterised. A high diversity in their fermentation profiles was observed, and different groups were separated on the basis of growth and acidifying capacity in meat extract. None of the strains produced histamine or tyramine in vitro. One strain was able to slightly inhibit Listeria (L. monocytogenes and L. innocua and all six strains were able to slightly inhibit Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Ventricina del Vastese sausages in vitro. Results showed that most L. sakei strains can have a role in improving the safety of low acidity fermented sausages, even though a limited acidifying capacity was observed in a meat-like substrate, and that L. sakei strains able to produce biogenic amines are unlikely to occur in spontaneously fermented meat products.

  16. Influence of different curing methods on the fatty acid composition in sausages prepared from red deer meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marek Šnirc

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available These curing agents play a decisive role in obtaining the specific sensory properties, stability and hygienic safety of products such as fermented sausages, ham and, more recently, emulsion type of sausages. The effect of using two different curing agents (sodium chloride and nitrate on fatty acid compounds in dry-cured deer meat was investigated in our study. The concentration of free fatty acids in the fat depends on the hydrolytic activity of the lipases, the microbial metabolic processes, and the oxidative reactions that work on the free fatty acids released in the lipolysis. The main identified fatty acids in all different types of curing were palmitic acid (16 : 0, oleic acid (c18 : 1 cis-9, stearic acid (C18 : 0. The resulting n-6/n-3 PUFA ratio in the muscle samples of red deer showed no variation in different types of curing and was beneficially low within the range of 3.9 : 1 and 4.49 : 1. Total free fatty acids, whether saturated, monounsaturated or polyunsaturated fatty acids, did not increased (p >0.05 greatly through the processing of dry-cured deer meat. Also there was no effect of curing method on fatty acids composition in two different muscles Semitendinosus muscle (ANOVA, p >0.05, F - 0.003, F crit. - 3.041 and Triceps brachii muscle (ANOVA, p >0.05, F - 0.05, F crit. - 3.01. There were found no significant (p >0.05 differences between fatty acids content in sausages prepared by brining in NaCl and Nitrate salt. The present study revealed that game meat can function as a good source of bioactive compounds that are essential for human nutrition. 

  17. Determination of dry matter and organic matter content in input material for solid-matter fermentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Edelmann, W.

    2008-01-01

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents and discusses the results of tests made on various samples of biogenous wastes taken from four fermentation plants in Switzerland. The aims of the tests made on the fermentation input materials that were sampled on a weekly basis are discussed. Various relevant data on the samples noted include the characterisation of the material and even weather data. The spread of the data acquired is discussed. The results obtained are examined in detail, including seasonal variations. The basic findings of the project are presented and differences between countryside and city areas as well as garden and catering wastes are discussed. A comprehensive appendix presents details on the data collected.

  18. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt. PMID:26877641

  19. Effects of Freeze-dried Mulberry on Antioxidant Activities and Fermented Characteristics of Yogurt during Refrigerated Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sung, Jung-Min; Kim, Young-Boong; Kum, Jun-Seok; Choi, Yun-Sang; Seo, Dong-Ho; Choi, Hyun-Wook; Park, Jong-Dae

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of added freeze-dried mulberry fruit juice (FDMJ) (1, 3 and 5%) on the antioxidant activity and fermented characteristic of yogurt during refrigerated storage. A decrease in pH of yogurt and increase in acidity was observed during fermentation. The yogurts with FDMJ exhibited faster rate of pH reduction than control. Initial lactic acid bacteria count of yogurt was 6.49-6.94 Log CFU/g and increased above 9 Log CFU/g in control and 1% in FDMJ yogurt for 24 h. The total polyphenol and anthocyanin content of FDMJ yogurt was higher than that of control due to the presence of phytochemical contents in mulberry. Moreover, antioxidant activity such as DPPH and reducing power was highest 5% FDMJ yogurt. During cold storage, pH decreased or remained constant in all yogurts with values ranging from 4.08 to 4.78 units. In sensory evaluation, the score of 1% FDMJ yogurt was ranked higher when compared with other yogurts. It is proposed that mulberry fruit juice powder can be used to improve sensory evaluation and enhance functionality of yogurt.

  20. Multi-Residue studies of pesticides in fermented dried cocoa beans and selected cocoa products produced in Ghana

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Frimpong, S. K

    2011-01-01

    Cocoa is a major cash crop and contributes significantly to Ghana's economy. Majority of this contribution is as a result of foreign earnings in foreign trade partnership. Cocoa products are consumed locally aside it generating foreign income for the country. Pesticide residues above allowable limits in cocoa beans have potential detrimental effects on human health, depending on the frequency of exposure and/or the potency or toxicity of the pesticide. Pesticide residues on cocoa also attract trade sanctions from international trading partners. The approved pesticides, which are used to control pests in the growing cocoa in Ghana, are: Diazinon, Cypermethrin, Deltamethrin, Acetamiprid, Imidicloprid and Pyrethrums; nevertheless some unapproved pesticides on cocoa such as Pirimiphos-methyl, Chlorpyrifos, Endosulfan, Fenitrotion, Fenvalerate, Permethrin and others find their way for use on cocoa in Ghana. The main objective of this study was to determine the levels of pesticide residues in fermented dried cocoa beans produced and ready for export in Ghana, using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. It also seeks to provide the baseline information on contamination levels of pesticide residues in semi-finished and selected finished fermented dried cocoa beans products. Fermented dried cocoa beans were sampled at random in the two main COCOBOD warehouses located in Tema and Takoradi. Semi-finished and finished cocoa products were obtained from processing industries in Tema. Two extraction methods were used. The second extraction method was as by the QuEChERS method for vegetable oils which was used for the cocoa butter samples only, after being liquefied in water bath at 40 degrees celsius. The investigated pesticides consisted of fifteen organochlorine pesticides, thirteen organophosphorous pesticides and nine synthetic pyrethroids pesticides. Percentage recoveries ranged from 70-110 percent, with instrumental detection limits of 0.3ug/kg, 0.15ug/g and 0.15ug/g for

  1. Novel technology development through thermal drying of encapsulated Kluyveromyces marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose in lactose fermentation and its evaluation for food production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papapostolou, Harris; Servetas, Yiannis; Bosnea, Loulouda A; Kanellaki, Maria; Koutinas, Athanasios A

    2012-12-01

    A novel technology development based on the production of a low-cost starter culture for ripening of cheeses and baking is reported in the present study. The starter culture comprises thermally dried cells of Kluyveromyces marxianus encapsulated in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose. For production of a low-cost and effective biocatalyst, whey was used as raw material for biomass production and thermal drying methods (convective, conventional, and vacuum) were applied and evaluated at drying temperatures ranging from 35 to 60 °C. The effect of drying temperature of biocatalysts on fermentability of lactose and whey was evaluated. Storage stability and suitability of biocatalysts as a commercial starter cultures was also assessed and evaluated. All thermally dried biocatalysts were found to be active in lactose and whey fermentation. In all cases, there was sugar conversion ranging from 92 to 100 %, ethanol concentration of up to 1.47 % (v/v), and lactic acid concentrations ranged from 4.1 to 5.5 g/l. However, convective drying of the encapsulated cells of K. marxianus in micro- and nano-tubular cellulose was faster and a more effective drying method while drying at 42 °C appear to be the best drying temperature in terms of cell activity, ethanol, and lactic acid formation. Storage of the biocatalysts for 3 months at 4 °C proved maintenance of its activity even though fermentation times increased by 50-100 % compared with the fresh dried ones.

  2. Drying kinetics of fermented grape pomace: Determination of moisture effective diffusivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kricelle M. Deamici

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to obtain the equilibrium moisture content of grape (variety ‘Tannat’ pomace through desorption isotherms, to evaluate the drying kinetics, determine the coefficient of effective diffusivity and physico-chemically characterize the grape pomace and the product obtained after drying. The desorption isotherms were determined at 50, 60 and 70 ºC and the experimental data were fitted using the GAB model (Gugghenheim, Anderson and de Boer. Drying was evaluated using a 22 factorial experimental design with three center points and effective diffusivity was obtained through the diffusion model of Fick’s second law. The grape pomace was characterized regarding the contents of moisture, protein, carbohydrates, lipids, ash and dietary crude fiber. The obtained isotherms showed sigmoid shape and the experimental data fitted well to the GAB model. The drying curves showed only a decreasing rate period. The effective diffusivity values were within the range for organic materials. Dry grape pomace showed high contents of protein and fiber and can be used in the development of new products, in order to increase the nutritional content and add value to this byproduct.

  3. Characterization of biomasses, concentrates, and permeates of dried powder of Kombucha fermentation of spinach (Amaranthus sp.) and broccoli (Brassica oleracea) with membrane microfiltration and freeze drying techniques for natural sources of folic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nugraha, Tutun; Susilowati, Agustine; Aspiyanto, Lotulung, Puspa Dewi; Maryati, Yati

    2017-11-01

    Fermentation of spinach (Amaranthus sp) and Broccoli (Brassica oleracea) using Kombucha Culture has been shown to produce biomass that has the potential to become natural sources of folic acid. To produce the materials, following the fermentation, the biomass was filtered using membrane microfiltration (0.15 µm) at a pressure of 40 psia, at room temperature, yielding the concentrate and the permeate fractions. Following this step, freeze drying process was done on the biomass feeds, as well as on the concentrate and permeate fractions. For the freeze drying stage, the samples were frozen, and the condenser was kept at -50°C for 40 hours, while the pressure in the chamber was set at 200 Pa. Freeze drying results showed that the final products, have differences in compositions, as well as differences in the dominat monomers of folates. After water content was driven out, freeze drying increased the concentrations of folic acid in the dried products, and was found to be the highest in the concentrate fractions. Freeze drying has been shown to be capable of protecting the folates from heat and oxidative damages that typicaly occur with other types of drying. The final freeze dried concentrates of fermentation of spinach and broccoli were found to contain folic acid at 2531.88 µg/mL and 1626.94 µg/mL, total solids at 87.23% and 88.65 %, total sugar at 22.66 µg/mL and 25.13 µg/mL, total reducing sugar at 34.46 mg/mL and 15.22 mg/mL, as well as disolved protein concentrations at 0.93 mg/mL and 1.45 mg/mL. Liquid Chromatography Mass Spectometry (LC-MS) identification of the folates in the freeze dried concentrates of fermented spinach and broccoli was done using folic acid and glutamic acid standard solutions as the reference materials. The results showed the presence of folic acid and showed that the dominant monomers of molecules of folates with molecular weights of 441.44 Da. and 441.54 Da. for spinach and broccoli respectively. Moreover, the monomers of glutamic

  4. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of “Chorizo”, a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirian Pateiro

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured “chorizo”, as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p < 0.05 affected by the addition of antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p < 0.05 the oxidation, showing thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS values below 0.4 mg MDA/kg. Natural antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT. Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA analysis, hardness values significantly (p < 0.001 decreased with the addition of antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC, lactic acid bacteria (LAB, mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05 release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation.

  5. Effect of Addition of Natural Antioxidants on the Shelf-Life of “Chorizo”, a Spanish Dry-Cured Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pateiro, Mirian; Bermúdez, Roberto; Lorenzo, José Manuel; Franco, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    The dose effect of the addition of natural antioxidants (tea, chestnut, grape seed and beer extracts) on physicochemical, microbiological changes and on oxidative stability of dry-cured “chorizo”, as well as their effect during the storage under vacuum conditions was evaluated. Color parameters were significantly (p antioxidants so that samples that contained antioxidants were more effective in maintaining color. The improving effects were dose-dependent with highest values with the dose of 50 mg/kg during ripening and depend on the extract during vacuum packaging. Addition of antioxidants decreased (p antioxidants matched or even improved the results obtained for butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT). Regarding texture profile analysis (TPA) analysis, hardness values significantly (p antioxidants, obtaining the lower results with the dose of 200 mg/kg both during ripening and vacuum packaging. Antioxidants reduced the counts of total viable counts (TVC), lactic acid bacteria (LAB), mold and yeast. Free fatty acid content during ripening and under vacuum conditions showed a gradual and significant (p < 0.05) release as a result of lipolysis. At the end of ripening, the addition of GRA1000 protected chorizos from oxidative degradation. PMID:26785337

  6. Production of ethanol from wheat straw by pretreatment and fermentation at high dry matter concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groenestijn, J.W. van; Slomp, R.S.

    2011-01-01

    High concentrations of substrate and product are important for the economy of second-generation bioethanol production. By a dilute acid thermal pretreatment of large pieces of relatively dry wheat straw using a novel rapid heating method, followed by fed-batch preliquefaction with hydrolytic

  7. Post-fermentative production of glutathione by baker's yeast (S. cerevisiae) in compressed and dried forms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musatti, Alida; Manzoni, Matilde; Rollini, Manuela

    2013-01-25

    The study was aimed at investigating the best biotransformation conditions to increase intracellular glutathione (GSH) levels in samples of baker's yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) employing either the commercially available compressed and dried forms. Glucose, GSH precursors amino acids, as well as other cofactors, were dissolved in a biotransformation solution and yeast cells were added (5%dcw). Two response surface central composite designs (RSCCDs) were performed in sequence: in the first step the influence of amino acid composition (cysteine, glycine, glutamic acid and serine) on GSH accumulation was investigated; once their formulation was set up, the influence of other components was studied. Initial GSH content was found 0.53 and 0.47%dcw for compressed and dried forms. GSH accumulation ability of baker's yeast in compressed form was higher at the beginning of shelf life, that is, in the first week, and a maximum of 2.04%dcw was obtained. Performance of yeast in dried form was not found satisfactory, as the maximum GSH level was 1.18%dcw. When cysteine lacks from the reaction solution, yeast cells do not accumulate GSH. With dried yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine was set at 3 g/L, glycine and glutamic acid at least at 4 g/L, without serine. Employing compressed yeast, the highest GSH yields occurred when cysteine and glutamic acid were set at 2-3 g/L, while glycine and serine higher than 2 g/L. Results allowed to set up an optimal and feasible procedure to obtain GSH-enriched yeast biomass, with up to threefold increase with respect to initial content. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Pre-treatment and ethanol fermentation potential of olive pulp at different dry matter concentrations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haagensen, Frank Drøscher; Skiadas, Ioannis V.; Gavala, Hariklia N.

    2009-01-01

    potential of the olive pulp, which is the semi solid residue generated from the two-phase processing of the olives for olive oil production. Wet oxidation and enzymatic hydrolysis have been applied aiming at the enhancement of carbohydrates' bioavailability. Different concentrations of enzymes and enzymatic......, implying that wet oxidation is not a recommended pre-treatment process for olive pulp at the conditions tested. It was also showed that increased dry matter concentration did not have a negative effect on the release of sugars, indicating that the cellulose and xylan content of the olive pulp is relatively...

  9. Effects of Ripening Duration and Rosemary Powder Addition on Salchichon Modified Sausage Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong-Hyun Jung

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The ripening durations and ingredients for the Salchichon sausages were modified to increase pork rear leg consumption by Korean consumers. The salchichon, a ripened pork sausage, was produced to evaluate the efficacy of two different ripening durations with and without rosemary powder on salchichon sausage quality, and the treatments were: i 45 days of ripening without rosemary, ii 60 days of ripening without rosemary, iii 45 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary, and iv 60 days of ripening with 0.05% rosemary. Significant differences were observed in both moisture and fat content for ripening durations, with the highest moisture and least fat content observed in salchichon modified sausage (SMS ripened for 45 days. Ripening duration and rosemary addition appeared to influence water activity (aw of salchichon sausages. The aw of SMS ripened for 45 days was 0.80, whereas the other had aw values <0.80. Lactic acid bacteria were predominant, as Korean traditional fermented red pepper paste was added to sausages; however, the Bacillus cereus population was significantly affected by rosemary powder addition. Chewiness and gumminess decreased significantly due to the addition of rosemary powder compared to SMS without rosemary powder, and both 45 days of ripening and rosemary powder addition influenced the hardness of SMS. In conclusion, ripening duration of SMS for 45 days in the presence of rosemary powder provided superior SMS quality with an economical ripening duration compared to that of ripening with rosemary powder or ripening for 60 days.

  10. Collisionless sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppins, M.

    1989-01-01

    The Chew--Goldberger--Low (CGL) double adiabatic model [Proc. R. Soc. London Ser. A 236, 112 (1956)] is used to study the linear m = 0 (sausage) mode in a Z pinch operating in the collisionless, small ion Larmor radius regime. The model is valid in this case since the parallel heat flow is identically zero. A necessary and sufficient condition for stability, applicable to arbitrary (anisotropic) Z-pinch equilibria, is derived and the eigenvalue equation is solved for two classes of isotropic equilibria. Growth rates are shown to be lower than those of ideal magnetohydrodynamics (MHD). It is found that, in contrast to ideal MHD, the CGL eigenfunctions are characterized by an unperturbed inner region

  11. Antioxidant N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 of industrial baker's yeast enhances fermentation ability after air-drying stress in bread dough.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasano, Yu; Takahashi, Shunsuke; Shima, Jun; Takagi, Hiroshi

    2010-03-31

    During bread-making processes, yeast cells are exposed to multiple stresses. Air-drying stress is one of the most harmful stresses by generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Previously, we discovered that the novel N-acetyltransferase Mpr1/2 confers oxidative stress tolerance by reducing intracellular ROS level in Saccharomyces cerevisiae Sigma1278b strain. In this study, we revealed that Japanese industrial baker's yeast possesses one MPR gene. The nucleotide sequence of the MPR gene in industrial baker's yeast was identical to the MPR2 gene in Sigma1278b strain. Gene disruption analysis showed that the MPR2 gene in industrial baker's yeast is involved in air-drying stress tolerance by reducing the intracellular oxidation levels. We also found that expression of the Lys63Arg and Phe65Leu variants with enhanced enzymatic activity and stability, respectively, increased the fermentation ability of bread dough after exposure to air-drying stress compared with the wild-type Mpr1. In addition, our recent study showed that industrial baker's yeast cells accumulating proline exhibited enhanced freeze tolerance in bread dough. Proline accumulation also enhanced the fermentation ability after air-drying stress treatment in industrial baker's yeast. Hence, the antioxidant enzyme Mpr1/2 could be promising for breeding novel yeast strains that are tolerant to air-drying stress. Copyright 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Biomass production and small-scale testing of freeze-dried lactic acid bacteria starter strains for cassava fermentations

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Edward, VA

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Based on their predominance in Gari fermentations, as well as suitable technological properties, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Weissella paramesenteroides and Leuconostoc mesenteroides strains were investigated...

  13. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  14. Comparison of wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles on rumen fermentation and nutrient digestibility by feedlot heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walter, L J; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z; Beauchemin, K A; He, M; McKinnon, J J

    2012-04-01

    A 5 × 5 Latin square design trial was conducted to evaluate rumen fermentation and apparent nutrient digestibility in 5 rumen-cannulated heifers (420 ± 6 kg) fed a barley-based finishing diet supplemented with 20 or 40% wheat or corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). The composition of the control diet was 88.7% rolled barley grain, 5.5% supplement, and 5.8% barley silage (DM basis). Increasing the quantity of corn DDGS in the ration resulted in a quadratic decrease in DMI (P = 0.04) and OM intake (P = 0.05). Rumen pH, pH duration, and area under rumen pH thresholds of 5.8 or 5.5 were not affected (P > 0.05) by treatment. Inclusion of wheat DDGS resulted in a quadratic increase (P = 0.05) in pH area below the cutoff value of 5.2, with the most pronounced effect at 20% inclusion. Wheat DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) rumen NH(3)-N concentrations. Increasing the inclusion rate of wheat and corn DDGS resulted in quadratic (P = 0.05) and linear (P = 0.04) decreases in rumen propionate, whereas butyrate increased quadratically (P content of the diet. Feeding both wheat and corn DDGS linearly increased (P = 0.01) the excretion of N and P. In summary, replacement of barley grain with up to 40% wheat or corn DDGS did not mitigate rumen pH conditions associated with mild to moderate acidosis in heifers fed a barley-based finishing diet. Supplementing corn DDGS increased nutrient digestibility of all nutrients and, as a result, led to greater DE content. Supplementation of wheat DDGS reduced DM and OM digestibility values, with no effect on DE content. Increased N and P excretion by heifers fed DDGS at 20 or 40% of dietary DM presents a challenge for cattle feeders with respect to nutrient management.

  15. Species diversity and metabolic impact of the microbiota are low in spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages with an added starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janssens, M; Myter, N; De Vuyst, L; Leroy, F

    2012-04-01

    Quality of fermented sausages is affected by acidifying lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and colour- and flavour-promoting coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), whether or not used as starter culture. Artisan fermented sausages are often perceived as superior to industrial variants, partially because of the specific microbiota due to spontaneous acidification, which may be considered as an artisan characteristic. Therefore, two kinds of spontaneously acidified Belgian sausages were prepared (Belgian-type salami and Boulogne sausage), but with addition of a Staphylococcus carnosus culture. The Belgian-type salami was made from pork and beef, whereas the Boulogne sausage contained pork and horse meat. In all cases, Lactobacillus sakei was the dominant LAB species present on the raw materials and during fermentation, whereas enterococci remained present in the background. Enterobacteriaceae vanished after fermentation. The CNS species diversity on the raw materials was large and differed between the pork, beef, and horse meat. Nevertheless, this species diversity was annihilated during fermentation by the added S. carnosus culture. The volatiles fraction was mainly composed of aldehydes that originated from lipid oxidation and spices-derived compounds. Aromatic compounds that are typically associated to CNS activity, such as end-products from the metabolism of branched-chain amino acids, were not present in the Belgian-type salami and only marginally present in the Boulogne sausage. In conclusion, spontaneous acidification of Belgian-type fermented sausages leads to dominance of L. sakei and is no guarantee for bacterial contribution to the aroma profile when S. carnosus is added as a starter culture. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Dry anaerobic digestion of cow manure and agricultural products in a full-scale plant: Efficiency and comparison with wet fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiumenti, Alessandro; da Borso, Francesco; Limina, Sonia

    2018-01-01

    For years, anaerobic digestion processes have been implemented for the management of organic wastes, agricultural residues, and animal manure. Wet anaerobic digestion still represents the most common technology, while dry fermentation, dedicated to the treatment of solid inputs (TS>20%) can be considered as an emerging technology, not in terms of technological maturity, but of diffusion. The first agricultural dry anaerobic digestion plant constructed in Italy was monitored from the start-up, for over a year. The plant was fed with manure and agricultural products, such as corn silage, triticale, ryegrass, alfalfa, and straw. Three Combined Heat and Power units, for a total installed power of 910kW e , converted biogas into thermal and electric energy. The monitoring included the determination of quality and quantity of input feedstocks, of digestate (including recirculation rate), of leachate, biogas quality (CH 4 , CO 2 , H 2 S), biogas yield, energy production, labor requirement for loading, and unloading operations. The results of the monitoring were compared to performance data obtained in several full scale wet digestion plants. The dry fermentation plant revealed a start-up phase that lasted several months, during which the average power resulted in 641kW e (70.4% of nominal power), and the last period the power resulted in 788kW e (86.6% of installed power). Improving the balance of the input, the dry fermentation process demonstrated biogas yields similar to wet anaerobic digestion, congruent to the energy potential of the biomasses used in the process. Furthermore, the operation of the plant required significant man labor, mainly related to loading and unloading of the anaerobic cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  18. Health benefits of fermented foods : microbiota and beyond

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marco, Maria L.; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J.; Cotter, Paul D.; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J.; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic

  19. Identification of duck, partridge, pheasant, quail, chicken and turkey meats by species-specific PCR assays to assess the authenticity of traditional game meat Alheira sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J.S.; Santos, Cristina G.; Melo, Vitor S.; Costa, Joana; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.; Mafra, I.

    2015-01-01

    Game meat Alheira (Alheira de caça) sausage is a traditional fermented product typical from the Northeast region of Portugal, having bread and meats (including game) as main ingredients. It is a particularly appreciated product by consumers that commands higher prices, especially in comparison with the common Alheira produced with pork and poultry meats. Following our previous work in which several mammalian game meat species were successfully identified in game meat Alheira sausages for auth...

  20. Combination of dry dark fermentation and mechanical pretreatment for lignocellulosic deconstruction: An innovative strategy for biofuels and volatile fatty acids recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Motte, Jean-Charles; Sambusiti, Cecilia; Dumas, Claire; Barakat, Abdellatif

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • A novel combination of solid-state fermentation and fine milling was developed. • Biological pretreatment produces valuable bioproducts (VFA and biohydrogen). • Solid-state dark fermentation improves considerably the milling efficiency. • Bioethanol yield was higher after a strong particle size reduction. • Substrate conversion was two times higher than conventional processes. - Abstract: In the present study, the feasibility of combining dry dark fermentation and mechanical pretreatment of wheat straw was studied in order to improve substrate valorization, save energy input, decrease the environmental impact and diversify biofuels and volatile fatty acids production. To this end, dark fermentation of wheat straw was performed at 55 °C and 35 °C under solid-state conditions (23% of total solid content) and it was considered as a biological pretreatment. Both biologically treated and raw straws were reduced at four particles size to cover the range of fine (50 < X < 500 μm) and ultrafine milling (<50 μm). Biological pretreatment led to a substrate conversion of 16% and 14%, mainly into volatile fatty acids and biohydrogen. Biological pretreatment improved the substrate grindability with a reduction of mean particle size up to 31% and a reduction of the milling specific energy consumption up to 35% compared to untreated straw. Finally, related to untreated straw, this combination of biological and mechanical treatments improved the bioethanol yield up to 83%, which leads to an enhancement of the overall substrate conversion up to 131%. Based on these high yields, this combination of dry biological–mechanical pretreatments appears more attractive and efficient in terms of bioproducts production, energy efficiency and environmental impact, compared to conventional pretreatments

  1. Evaluation of Physicochemical and Microbiological Parameters of Smoked Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melinda Nagy

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Meat and meat products continue to supply nutrients and play a vital role in human life because of their high biological value protein, iron, zinc, selenium and vitamin B12 contents, being a crucial component of a well balanced diet. The objective of this paper was to analyse the microbiological and physicochemical characteristics of smoked sausage obtain by a modern recipe. The meat  material was obtained from local butchery (Cluj-Napoca, Romania. The physicochemical analyses highlighted the moisture (Drying-oven at 105 ºC, protein (Kjeldahl method and fat (Soxhlet method content, as well as nitrite (Griess method and sodium chloride concentrations (Mohr method of the final products. Microbiological and physicochemical analysis of the examined samples found no deviations from legal norms imposed for smoked sausage.  All of the quality parameters comply with the limits stipulated by STAS. 

  2. Outbreak of Non-O157 Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli Infection from Consumption of Beef Sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ethelberg, S.; Smith, B.; Torpdahl, M.

    2009-01-01

    We describe an outbreak of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli O26: H11 infection in 20 patients (median age, 2 years). The source of the infection was an organic fermented beef sausage. The source was discovered by using credit card information to obtain and compare customer transaction records...

  3. Preparation of hydrolytic liquid from dried distiller's grains with solubles and fumaric acid fermentation by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huan; Yue, Xuemin; Jin, Yuhan; Wang, Meng; Deng, Li; Wang, Fang; Tan, Tianwei

    2017-10-01

    Fumaric acid production from lignocellulosic materials is an alternative chemicals production system. This work investigated the suitable conditions for hydrolysis of dried distiller's grains with solubles (DDGS). The hydrolytic liquid was subsequently used for the production of fumaric acid. After optimizing the hydrolysis conditions, the most suitable concentration of H 2 SO 4 (2%), hydrolysis temperature (120 °C), hydrolysis time (100min) and solid/liquid ratio (1:10) were obtained. The yield of monosaccharides reached 258 mg/g DDGS and 15.88 g/L glucose, 7.53 g/L xylose and 2.35 g/L arabinose were obtained in unprocessed hydrolytic liquid. The furfural inhibitor in the hydrolytic liquid was also detected and the yield of it was reducing progressively in the pretreatment process. The ferment ability of the hydrolytic liquid from DDGS was tested through the process of fumaric acid production by Rhizopus arrhizus RH 7-13. The unprocessed hydrolytic liquid was not appropriate for the fermentation process. The yield of fumaric acid from the concentrated processed hydrolytic liquid reached 18.93 g/L, which was close to the yield of fermenting 80 g/L glucose. This result indicated that the commonly used carbon resource glucose could to some extent be replaced by processed hydrolytic liquid. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Viability of L. casei during fermentation in soymilk and freeze-dried soymilk; effect of cryoprotectant, rehydration and storage temperature

    OpenAIRE

    Kristina Mladenovska; Tanja Petreska Ivanovska; Maja Jurhar Pavlova; Milena Petrovska; Angela Delova; Lidija Petrusevska Tozi; Lela Acevska

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the work was to investigate the behaviour of L. casei and the effect of sorbitol on its viability during fermentation in soymilk drink. Values for pH, ranging from 6.82 to 3.42 in the soymilk drink without sorbitol and from 6.74 to 3.41 in the drink with sorbitol were noted during 72 h of fermentation at 25oC. The corresponding values for titratable acidity ranged from 0.071% to 0.758% and from 0.073% to 0.761%, respectively. Soymilk was found to support the growth of L. case...

  5. MODERN TECHNOLOGY OF FERMENTED MEAT PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. V. Antipova

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. New trends of meat industry development, on the example of sausages are shown. The detailed description of indicators of quality of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials and their influence on the processes of tissue and microbial fermentation in the process of ripening raw sausages. Measures for improving the quality control of meat raw materials, auxiliary materials, as well as the processing conditions in all stages of production of smoked products are suggested. The modern technology of production of raw sausages with starter cultures and complex products, allowing better standardization process is considered. Questions of chemistry of color formation, the formation of taste and flavor, textures and the suppression of undesired microflora in foods in general, and in particular the raw sausage are thoroughly covered. Ideas about factors affecting the formation of color in sausages are given. It is pointed out that the susceptibility to oxidation of nitrosilmioglobin is directly related to the fat oxidation in the whole redox potential. Trends in the market of raw sausages are shown. Requirements used in the meat industry to starting cultures are shown. Recommendations on the rational use of starter cultures, and other functional additives in technology of uncooked fermented products, which are used to improve the quality and ensure a high level of product safety are given. The characteristic of the innovative series of starter cultures Protect, its species belonging and qualitative composition, providing a unique protection system in the process of ripening and storage of smoked products is given. The properties are proved on the example of smoked poultry sausage.

  6. Microbiological characteristics of "androlla", a Spanish traditional pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García Fontán, María C; Lorenzo, José M; Parada, Ana; Franco, Inmaculada; Carballo, Javier

    2007-02-01

    Counts of total aerobic mesophilic microflora, lactic acid bacteria, salt-tolerant microflora, Enterobacteriaceae, enterococci, moulds and yeasts, and staphylococci, and some physico-chemical parameters (total solids, NaCl and nitrate contents and pH and aw values) were determined in 20 units of "androlla", a traditional dry-fermented sausage made in the NW of Spain. In general, high counts of all the investigated microbial groups were observed, with average values of 8.99 +/- 0.46 log cfu/g for the total aerobic mesophilic microflora, 9.11 +/- 0.16 log cfu/g for the lactic acid bacteria, 6.87 +/- 0.68 log cfu/g for the salt-tolerant microflora, 2.80+/-1.85 log cfu/g for the Enterobacteriaceae, 3.25 +/- 1.86 log cfu/g for the enterococci, 4.30 +/- 1.73 log cfu/g for the moulds and yeasts, and 3.62 +/- 0.60 log cfu/g for the staphylococci. From MRS agar, SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, VRBG agar, and KAA agar, 10 colonies were randomly taken from each androlla unit and from each culture medium. A total of 200 strains per culture medium were then identified using the classical methods. Among the isolates from MRS agar, Lactobacillus sakei predominated, followed by Lactobacillus curvatus, Lactobacillus alimentarius and Lactobacillus plantarum. Of the 200 isolates obtained from SPC agar + 7.5% NaCl, only 56 strains belonged to the Staphylococcaceae or Micrococcaceae families. Among the Staphylococcaceae, Staphylococcus xylosus was the main species, followed by Staph. epidermidis; Staph. equorum, Staph. capitis and Staph. saprophyticus were isolated in very low proportions. Among the Micrococcaceae, Micrococcus luteus predominated, followed by Micrococcus lylae, Kocuria varians and Kocuria kristinae. Of the 150 isolates obtained from VRBG agar, Hafnia alvei was the main species, followed by Serratia liquefaciens and Enterobacter amnigenus; six isolates were identified as Salmonella. Among the 190 isolates obtained from KAA agar, 122 were considered enterococci; 20 isolates were

  7. Evaluation of quality parameters of sausages made with rabbit meat, lamb and pork, added with wheat fiber

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge E. Cobos-Velazsco

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The difference among animal species with which chorizo is made, resulting in changes in the techno-functional properties that affect the process and acceptance of product. Sausages made with meat from rabbit, pork and lamb sources were added with wheat fiber and dried at water activity of 0.94. The moisture content was not affected by the source, but it was reduced when fiber was added. The sausages without fiber showed a lower fat content than those samples with fiber. They can be considered stable at room temperature due to their acidity and drying degree. Regarding to the weight loss and diameter of the sausage parameters, there were no differences between source types, however, a reduction of diameter was observed with the addition of fiber. Sausages with lamb meat and fiber showed an increase in oxidation. Higher values of luminosity were obtained in pork sausages. The most preferred samples were the pork meat sausages with the presence of fiber.

  8. Effect of weaning age on feed intake and ruminal fermentation patterns of calves fed a dry total mixed ration with ad libitum access to grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Ackeren, Caroline; Steingass, Herbert; Hartung, Karin; Funk, Rainer; Drochner, Winfried

    2010-08-01

    To study the effect of weaning age on average daily gain (ADG), dry matter intake (DMI) and ruminal fermentation, 10 rumen-cannulated male Holstein calves were randomly assigned to one of two treatments: (i) early weaned at 8 weeks of age (235 l milk); (ii) conventionally weaned at 12 weeks of age (347 l milk). Twice daily grass hay (9.0 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) and a dry total mixed ration (TMR) (11.6 MJ ME x kg(-1) DM) containing 15% alfalfa hay and 85% concentrates were offered separately. Water was available ad libitum. Ruminal fluid was collected via cannulas at weeks 9, 11, 13 and 15, twice weekly just prior to as well as 1, 3, 5 and 7 h after morning feeding. Calves of both treatments achieved adequate ADG (947 vs. 959 g; p > 0.05). Just-weaned calves rapidly increased DMI (1.1-2.5 kg TMR and 2.4-3.6 kg TMR for early- and conventionally-weaned calves, respectively). From weeks 10-12 early-weaned calves consumed significantly more dry feed than conventionally-weaned calves (week 10: 2.5 vs. 1.6 kg/d; week 12: 3.4 vs. 2.4 kg/d). Early weaning stimulates DMI supporting ruminal fermentation intensity, indicated by lower ruminal pH. After weaning, only early-weaned calves achieved critical average ruminal pH (week 9: 5.7 vs. 6.0, p = 0.017; week 11: 5.9 vs. 6.2, p = 0.007). Experimental treatment did not affect the concentration of ruminal short-chain fatty acids (SCFA). For all calves, the effects of the concentrate-rich TMR were shown by a high SCFA level (daily average: 137-152 mmol x l(-1)) and an acetate to propionate to butyrate ratio between 51:36:9 and 54:33:10.

  9. Round-Bale Silage Harvesting and Processing Effects on Overwintering Ability, Dry Matter Yield, Fermentation Quality, and Palatability of Dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Satoru Fukagawa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Round-bale silage harvesting and processing methods were assessed to evaluate overwintering ability and dry matter (DM yield, fermentation quality and palatability of overwintered dwarf Napiergrass (Pennisetum purpureum Schumach in the two years following establishment in Nagasaki, Japan, in May 2013 using rooted tillers with a density of 2 plants/m2. In 2014, harvesting methods under no-wilting treatment were compared for flail-type harvesting with a round-baler (Flail/baler plot and mower conditioning with a round-baler (Mower/baler plot, which is common for beef-calf–producing farmers in the region. In 2015, the effect of ensilage with wilting was investigated only in the Mower/baler plot. Dwarf Napiergrass was cut twice, in early August (summer and late November (late autumn, each year. The winter survival rate was greater than 96% in May both years. The DM yield in the Mower/baler plot did not differ significantly for the first summer cutting or the annual total from the Flail/baler plot, but did show inferior yield for the second cutting. The fermentation quality of the second-cut plants, estimated using the V2-score, was higher in the Flail/baler plot than in the Mower/baler plot, possibly because of higher air-tightness, and the second-cut silage tended to have better fermentation quality than the first-cut silage in both harvesting plots. Wilting improved the fermentation quality of dwarf Napiergrass silage in summer, but not in autumn. The palatability of the silage, as estimated by alternative and voluntary intake trials using Japanese Black beef cattle, did not differ significantly between plots. The results suggest that dwarf Napiergrass can be better harvested using a mower conditioner with processing by a round-baler, an approach common to beef-calf–producing farmers, than with the flail/baler system, without reducing the persistence, yield, or palatability of the silage. Moreover, wilting treatment improved the fermentation

  10. OBSERVATIONS OF SAUSAGE MODES IN MAGNETIC PORES

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morton, R. J.; Erdelyi, R.; Jess, D. B.; Mathioudakis, M.

    2011-01-01

    We present here evidence for the observation of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) sausage modes in magnetic pores in the solar photosphere. Further evidence for the omnipresent nature of acoustic global modes is also found. The empirical decomposition method of wave analysis is used to identify the oscillations detected through a 4170 A 'blue continuum' filter observed with the Rapid Oscillations in the Solar Atmosphere (ROSA) instrument. Out of phase, periodic behavior in pore size and intensity is used as an indicator of the presence of magnetoacoustic sausage oscillations. Multiple signatures of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode are found in a number of pores. The periods range from as short as 30 s up to 450 s. A number of the magnetoacoustic sausage mode oscillations found have periods of 3 and 5 minutes, similar to the acoustic global modes of the solar interior. It is proposed that these global oscillations could be the driver of the sausage-type magnetoacoustic MHD wave modes in pores.

  11. Características físico-químicas de embutido curado fermentado com adição de carne de avestruz associada à de suíno Physico-chemical characteristics of fermented cured sausage with the addition of ostrich meat associated to pork meat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram desenvolver e determinar as características físico-químicas e a composição centesimal de um embutido curado fermentado contendo carne de avestruz (Struthio camelus e carne suína. Para isso, utilizaram-se quatro formulações, e em uma não foi utilizada carne de avestruz (controle e nas outras foram utilizados 19, 38,3 e 57,6% dessa carne, em associação com a carne suína. Os produtos foram avaliados durante o processamento diariamente, na primeira semana e nos dias 14, 21 e 28, para análise de pH; nos dias zero, três, sete, 14, 21 e 28 foram avaliados quanto à atividade de água; e, após concluída a fabricação, foram avaliados quanto à quebra de peso e à composição centesimal (28 dias. Os resultados mostraram que os embutidos apresentaram um pH mais ácido do que o ideal. Peças com maior quantidade de carne de avestruz apresentaram uma maior perda de peso ao final do processamento, sendo a diferença entre o tratamento 3 e o tratamento controle de 8,2%. O teor de carne de avestruz alterou significativamente as peças em relação ao teor de umidade final. Com exceção do nível de gordura, todos os outros quesitos avaliados atendem ao Regulamento Técnico de Identidade e Qualidade do Ministério da Agricultura.The aim of this research was to develop and to determine the physic-chemical characteristics and centesimal composition of a fermented cured sausage containing ostrich meat (Struthio camelus and pork meat. Four different formulations were developed: one with no ostrich meat (control and others with levels of 19, 38.3 and 57.8%, respectively, in association with pork meat. The products were evaluated daily in the first week and in days 14, 21 and 28 for pH analysis and days zero, three, seven, 14, 21 and 28 for water activity analysis. After manufacturing was completed, weight loss and centesimal composition (28 days were evaluated. The results showed that the sausages presented p

  12. Portuguese traditional sausages: different types, nutritional composition, and novel trends

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cláudia Marcos

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Traditional sausages—smoked, fermented or dried—are meat products that are part of the traditional daily diet in rural Portugal, and also highly valued in major cities with an increasing demand. These ethnic meat products are manufactured mainly by small-scale industries or artisanal producers according to and/or inspired by traditional processes. They are present in a wide variety of types, many recognized for their quality (38 certified products. Presently, cure technologies used are important for the potential they represent in transformation and diversification. Additionally, they add flavors and colors to meat that are much appreciated, surpassing meat preservation proposes. A review on the types and manufacturing technological aspects associated to Portuguese traditional sausages (PTS is provided in this article. Additionally, nutritional composition of the products is presented. Future developments foreseen in the field, in the light of current knowledge and market trends, are finally addressed.

  13. UTILIZATION OF BIOMOL AND TEA COMPOST SOLUTION FERMENTED BY THE FUNGUS Trichoderma spp. ON THE GROWTH OF SOYBEAN (Glycine Max (L. Merr. IN DRY LAND

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zurriyatun Solihah

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this research is to know whether the use of Biomol and Tea Compost solution fermented by Trichoderma spp. can increase the growth and development of soybean plants in dry land. The experiment was conducted in the field and was arranged according to a Split Plot Design with the main plot is Tea Compost Solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. at the rate of 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot and the subplot is Biomol solution with 4 levels of treatment, i.e. 0, 5, 10, or 15 liters/plot. The treatments were repeated three times. The results showed that the use of the Biomol at the rate of 15 liters/plot and Tea Compost at the of 15 liters/plot can increase the growth and development of soybean plants mainly on plant height. In addition, Biomol and Tea Compost solution applied to soybean can  increase the weight of the wet and the dry berangkasan Keywords: Biomol, Tea Compost, Soybean, Trichoderma spp.

  14. The effects of active dried and killed dried yeast on subacute ruminal acidosis, ruminal fermentation, and nutrient digestibility in beef heifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vyas, D; Uwizeye, A; Mohammed, R; Yang, W Z; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A

    2014-02-01

    The study addressed the importance of yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) viability for reducing the incidence of subacute ruminal acidosis (SARA) and improving total tract nutrient digestibility in beef heifers. Six ruminally cannulated beef heifers (680 ± 50 kg BW) were used in a replicated 3 × 3 Latin square design and were fed a diet consisting of 40% barley silage, 10% chopped grass hay, and 50% barley grain-based concentrate (DM basis). Treatments were 1) no yeast (Control), 2) active dried yeast (ADY; 4 g providing 10(10) cfu/g; AB Vista, Marlborough, UK), and 3) killed dried yeast (KDY; 4 g autoclaved ADY). The treatments were directly dosed via the ruminal cannula daily at the time of feeding. The periods consisted of 2 wk of adaptation (d 1 to 14) and 7 d of measurements (d 15 to 21). Ruminal pH was continuously measured (d 15 to 21) using an indwelling system. Ruminal contents were sampled on d 15 and 17 at 0, 3, 6, 9, and 12 h after feeding. Total tract nutrient digestibility was measured using an external marker (YbCl3) from d 15 to 19. No treatment difference was observed for DMI (P = 0.86). Yeast supplementation (ADY and KDY) tended to increase total tract digestibility of starch (P = 0.07) whereas no effects were observed on digestibility of other nutrients. Both ADY and KDY elevated minimum (P yeast supplementation was effective in reducing time that ruminal pH was below 5.8 (P 0.10); however, the proportion of Ruminococcus flavefaciens in solid fraction of digesta was greater with KDY (P = 0.05). The study demonstrates the positive effects of yeast, irrespective of its viability, in reducing the severity of SARA. However, further studies are required to evaluate the importance of yeast viability for other dietary conditions, particularly when the risk of acidosis is high.

  15. Fermented high moisture maize grain as supplement to alfalfa haylage is superior over unfermented dry maize grain in diet dry matter digestibility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marina Vranić

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of the experiment were to examine whether high moisture maize grain (HMM is superior to low moisture maize grain (LMM as supplement to alfalfa haylage (Medicago sativa L. (AH. The effects of HMM and LMM supplementation to AH were studied on feed intake, water intake and dry matter (DM digestibility in wether sheep. Alfalfa was harvested at the beginning of flowering and ensiled into round bales wrapped with plastic. The average DM and crude protein (CP concentration of AH was 534.7 g kg-1 fresh sample and 141 g kg-1 DM, respectively. The average DM content (g kg-1 fresh sample of HMM and LMM were 795.9 and 915.1 g kg-1 fresh sample, respectively, while the average CP concentration (g kg-1 DM were 116.8 and 106.0, respectively. The study consisted of five feeding treatments incorporating AH only and AH supplemented with 5 or 10 g HMM or LMM d-1 kg-1 wether body weight. The inclusion of HMM (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1 into AH based ration resulted in higher diet DM digestibility (P<0.05 in comparison with LMM inclusion (5 or 10 g kg-1 body weight d-1. Higher daily fresh matter intake (FMI (P<0.05, dry matter intake (DMI (P<0.05 and water intake (P<0.05 was achieved with LMM inclusion in comparison with HMM inclusion. The conclusion was that HMM is superior over LMM as supplement to AH in terms of DM digestibility, while LMM has advantages over HMM in the intake characteristics measured.

  16. Ferment first, then compost

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dany, Christian

    2012-11-01

    If communal organic waste is simply dumped, it is harmful to the environment. But if it is used to produce biogas, it can become a significant source of energy. Currently, there are two dry fermentation processes available. (orig.)

  17. Evaluation of thermotolerant capacity of lactic acid bacteria isolated from commercial sausages and the effects of their addition on the quality of cooked sausages Avaliação da capacidade termotolerante de bacterias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais e os efeitos de sua adição na qualidade de salsichas cozidas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María de Lourdes Pérez-Chabela

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available The thermotolerant capacity of several lactic acid bacteria strains isolated from cooked commercial sausages was determined. Four strains were positively identified as Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus and Pediococcus acidilacti, after surviving thermal treatment (70 °C during 60 minutes. Thermotolerant strains were inoculated in sausage batters before cooking in order to determine their effect on color, texture, acceptance and inhibition of Enterobacteria during 12 days at 8 °C. No significant effect of the inoculated strains was detected on color parameters. Textural profile parameters, cohesiveness and resilience, were not affected by the inoculation of thermotolerant lactic acid bacteria, but L. curvatus sausages resulted softer than the rest of the treatments. Samples inoculated with L. curvatus also obtained the lowest scores for the sensory attributes evaluated, with the remaining treatments causing no unfavorable effects on sausage acceptance. There was a reduction in enterobacterial counts after 12 days of cold storage in inoculated samples. The performance of inoculated lactic acid bacteria strains can be explained in a similar way as that of starter cultures in dry-fermented sausages, where the growth in nests impairs other pathogenic microorganisms present in the rest of the sausage, since environmental conditions and the early inoculation of these thermotolerant strains favor them to become the dominant flora.A capacidade termotolerante de diversas cepas de bactérias lácticas isoladas de salsichas comerciais cozidas foi determinada. Quatro cepas foram identificadas positivamente como Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus curvatus, Pediococcus pentosaceus e Pediococcus acidilacti, depois de sobreviver satisfatoriamente ao tratamento térmico (70 °C durante 60 minutos. As cepas termotolerantes foram inoculadas nas salsichas antes do cozimento, a fim de saber o seu efeito sobre a cor, a

  18. Substitution of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles for barley grain or barley silage in feedlot cattle diets: intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Y L; McAllister, T A; Beauchemin, K A; He, M L; McKinnon, J J; Yang, W Z

    2011-08-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of substituting wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) for barley grain and barley silage on intake, digestibility, and ruminal fermentation in feedlot beef cattle. Eight ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (initial BW 455 ± 10.8 kg) were assigned to a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 4 treatments: control, low (25%), medium (30%), and high (35%) wheat DDGS (DM basis). The diets consisted of barley silage, barley concentrate, and wheat DDGS in ratios of 15:85:0 (CON), 10:65:25 (25DDGS), 5:65:30 (30DDGS), and 0:65:35 (35DDGS; DM basis), respectively. The diets were formulated such that wheat DDGS was substituted for both barley grain and barley silage to evaluate whether wheat DDGS can be fed as a source of both energy (grain) and fiber in feedlot finishing diets. Intakes (kg/d) of DM and OM were not different, whereas those of CP, NDF, ADF, and ether extract (EE) were greater (P Ruminal pH and total VFA concentrations were not different (P > 0.15) between 25DDGS and CON diets. Replacing barley silage with increasing amounts of wheat DDGS (i.e., from 25DDGS to 35DDGS) linearly reduced (P ruminal pH tended (P=0.10) to linearly decrease, and ruminal pH status decreased with longer (P=0.04) duration of pH 0.19) ruminal VFA and NH(3)-N concentrations. Results indicated that wheat DDGS can be effectively used to replace both barley grain and silage at a moderate amount to meet energy and fiber requirements of finishing cattle. However, when silage content of the diet is low (ruminal pH status even though the rapidly fermentable starch content of the diet is considerably reduced. © 2011 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.

  19. Meat quality of goat and sheep sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, A.; Pereira, Etelvina; Rodrigues, Sandra

    2012-01-01

    The main objective of this work was to contribute to the characterization of a new product, based on goat and sheep meat with a strategy, which gives value-added to meat from culled goats and sheep, which have a very low commercial price. Carcasses from animals weighing more than the body weight allowed by PDO label specifications were used to produce fresh sausages. Sheep and goats sausages were produced in a traditional industry, in Northeast Portugal. The following character...

  20. Development of Sausages Containing Mechanically Deboned Chicken Meat Hydrolysates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S K; Choi, J S; Choi, Y J; Lee, S J; Lee, S Y; Hur, S J

    2015-07-01

    Pork meat sausages were prepared using protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat (MDCM). In terms of the color, compared to the controls before and after storage, the redness (a*) was significantly higher in sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate. After storage, compared to the other sausage samples, the yellowness (b*) was lower in the sausages containing ascorbate and sodium erythorbate. TBARS was not significantly different among the sausage samples before storage, whereas TBARS and DPPH radical scavenging activities were significantly higher in the sausagescontainingascorbate and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. In terms of sensory evaluation, the color was significantly higher in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates, ascorbate, and sodium erythorbate, compared to the other sausage samples after 4 wk of storage. The "off-flavor" and overall acceptability were significantly lower in the sausages containing MDCM hydrolysates than in the other sausage samples. In most of the developed countries, meat from spent laying hens is not consumed, leading toan urgent need for effectively utilization or disposal methods. In this study, sausages were prepared using spent laying hens and protein hydrolysates from mechanically deboned chicken meat. Sausage can be made by spent laying hens hydrolysates, although overall acceptability was lower than those of other sausage samples. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  1. Investigation of lactic acid bacterial strains for meat fermentation and the product's antioxidant and angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme inhibitory activities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Shiro; Matsufuji, Hisashi; Nakade, Koji; Takenoyama, Shin-Ichi; Ahhmed, Abdulatef; Sakata, Ryoichi; Kawahara, Satoshi; Muguruma, Michio

    2017-03-01

    In the lactic acid bacteria (LAB) strains screened from our LAB collection, Lactobacillus (L.) sakei strain no. 23 and L. curvatus strain no. 28 degraded meat protein and tolerated salt and nitrite in vitro. Fermented sausages inoculated strains no. 23 and no. 28 showed not only favorable increases in viable LAB counts and reduced pH, but also the degradation of meat protein. The sausages fermented with these strains showed significantly higher antioxidant activity than those without LAB or fermented by each LAB type strain. Angiotensin-I-converting-enzyme (ACE) inhibitory activity was also significantly higher in the sausages fermented with strain no. 23 than in those fermented with the type strain. Higher ACE inhibitory activity was also observed in the sausages fermented with strain no. 28, but did not differ significantly from those with the type strain. An analysis of the proteolysis and degradation products formed by each LAB in sausages suggested that those bioactivities yielded fermentation products such as peptides. Therefore, LAB starters that can adequately ferment meat, such as strains no. 23 and no. 28, should contribute to the production of bioactive compounds in meat products. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  2. Continuous alcoholic fermentation of molasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazimierz, J

    1962-01-01

    The first Polish plant for ontinuous alcohol fermentation of molasses is described. Continuous fermentation permits a better use of the installation, automatic control, and shorter fermentation time. It yields more CO/sub 2/ for dry ice manufacture and decreases corrosion of apparatus. From 22 to 24% mash is used, giving a yield of 61.1 of 100-proof alc./kg. sucrose and an average of 37 kg. of dry yeast/1000 l. alcohol

  3. sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    Sensory analysis of cooked fresh meat sausages containing beef offal. 22 .... Trained and consumer pan- els from the local black ... selected as the best formulations or recipes, as judged by the ... loosening of the sausage from the pan with a.

  4. Dry fermentation of manure with straw in continuous plug flow reactor: Reactor development and process stability at different loading rates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patinvoh, Regina J; Kalantar Mehrjerdi, Adib; Sárvári Horváth, Ilona; Taherzadeh, Mohammad J

    2017-01-01

    In this work, a plug flow reactor was developed for continuous dry digestion processes and its efficiency was investigated using untreated manure bedded with straw at 22% total solids content. This newly developed reactor worked successfully for 230days at increasing organic loading rates of 2.8, 4.2 and 6gVS/L/d and retention times of 60, 40 and 28days, respectively. Organic loading rates up to 4.2gVS/L/d gave a better process stability, with methane yields up to 0.163LCH 4 /gVS added /d which is 56% of the theoretical yield. Further increase of organic loading rate to 6gVS/L/d caused process instability with lower volatile solid removal efficiency and cellulose degradation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Production and optimization of carotenoid-enriched dried distiller's grains with solubles by Phaffia rhodozyma and Sporobolomyces roseus fermentation of whole stillage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ananda, Nanjundaswamy; Vadlani, Praveen V

    2010-11-01

    Whole stillage--a co-product of grain-based ethanol--is used as an animal feed in the form of dried distiller's grain with solubles (DDGS). Since animals cannot synthesize carotenoids and animal feed is generally poor in carotenoids, about 30-120 ppm of total carotenoids are added to animal feed to improve animal health, enhance meat color and quality, and increase vitamin A levels in milk and meat. The main objective of this study was to produce carotenoid (astaxanthin and β-carotene)-enriched DDGS by submerged fermentation of whole stillage. Mono- and mixed cultures of red yeasts, Phaffia rhodozyma (ATCC 24202) and Sporobolomyces roseus (ATCC 28988), were used to produce astaxanthin and β-carotene. Media optimization was carried out in shake flasks using response surface methodology (RSM). Macro ingredients, namely whole stillage, corn steep liquor and glycerol, were fitted to a second-degree polynomial in RSM. Under optimized conditions, astaxanthin and β-carotene yields in mixed culture and P. rhodozyma monoculture were 5 and 278, 97, and 275 μg/g, respectively, while S. roseus produced 278 μg/g of β-carotene. Since the carotenoid yields are almost twice the quantity used in animal feed, the carotenoid-enriched DDGS has potential application as "value-added animal feed or feed blends."

  6. Effect of hot-boned pork on the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero Legarreta, I; Usborne, W R; Ashton, G C

    1987-01-01

    The first experiment evaluated the effect of solid carbon dioxide (dry ice) addition to hot-boned meat, in different proportions, upon the keeping quality of fresh pork sausage patties. Dry ice had some negative effects at levels of 20% to 40%, such as hardening and colour fading of samples, although it increased water-holding capacity of the sausage. In the second experiment three proportions of hot-boned meat and chilled meat were evaluated as a means to extend the retail storage time of fresh pork sausage links. Hot-boned pork was treated by three methods: freezing the meat before grinding, salting and freezing, and salting plus dry ice addition. The results favoured the use of 50% hot-boned meat and 50% chilled meat, for which the lowest hardness and oxidation values were obtained. Microbial counts and hue values showed no significant variation among the three treatments. Salting and freezing hot-boned meat before grinding was the method which produced the best overall quality. Copyright © 1987. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Growth performance, rumen fermentation, nutrient utilization, and metabolic profile of dairy heifers limit-fed distillers dried grains with ad libitum forage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manthey, A K; Anderson, J L

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding a corn- and soybean-product-based concentrate mix or distillers dried grains with solubles concentrate mix with ad libitum grass hay to dairy heifers. A 16-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted using 24 heifers [18 Holstein and 6 Brown Swiss; 219 ± 2 d of age (±standard deviation); 230 ± 4 kg of body weight] to evaluate the effect of diet on dry matter intake (DMI), growth performance, rumen fermentation, metabolic profile, and nutrient digestibility. Treatments were (1) corn and soybean product concentrate mix, and (2) distillers-dried-grains-with-solubles-based concentrate mix (DDG). Both concentrate mixes were limit-fed at 0.8% of body weight and grass hay was offered ad libitum. Heifers were individually fed using Calan gates and orts were recorded daily at feeding. Heifers were weighed every 2 wk and ration concentrate mix offered was adjusted accordingly. Frame measurements and body condition score were recorded every 2 wk. Rumen fluid was collected via esophageal tubing during wk 12 and 16 for pH, ammonia N, and volatile fatty acid analysis. Jugular blood samples were collected every 4 wk for metabolite and metabolic hormone analysis. Total-tract digestibility of nutrients was evaluated during wk 16 by fecal grab sampling. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the growth measurements and growth measurements and DMI did not differ between treatments. A treatment by time interaction was observed for rumen butyrate percentage with heifers fed DDG having a greater percentage. Total volatile fatty acid concentration, acetate molar percentage, and acetate:propionate decreased with the DDG treatment, whereas propionate molar percentage increased. No treatment by week interactions were observed for any of the metabolites or metabolic hormones measured. A tendency was observed for glucose and plasma urea nitrogen concentration to decrease with DDG. Plasma

  8. Production of fermented sausage using probiotic Lactobacillus strains: quality characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Macedo, Renata Ernlund Freitas de; Pflanzer Jr., Sérgio Bertelli; Terra, Nelcindo Nascimento; Freitas, Renato João Sossela de

    2008-01-01

    Os probióticos têm sido largamente utilizados em produtos lácteos. Recentemente, seu uso em produtos cárneos tem despertado interesse, principalmente em embutidos fermentados consumidos na forma crua e sem aquecimento prévio. Verificou-se a influência da utilização de Lactobacillus casei, L. paracasei e L. rhamnosus sobre as características físico-químicas e sensoriais de embutido fermentado, bem como o desenvolvimento e a viabilidade das culturas no produto cárneo. Os embutidos foram process...

  9. Mechanically recovered poultry meat sausages manufactured with high hydrostatic pressure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuste, J; Mor-Mur, M; Capellas, M; Guamis, B; Pla, R

    1999-06-01

    The effect of high pressure processing at high temperature on texture and color of frankfurter-type sausages made with different contents of mechanically recovered poultry meat (MRPM) was evaluated and compared with that of a standard cooking process. Five types of sausages containing 100, 75, 50, 25, and 0% MRPM and 0, 25, 50, 75, and 100% of minced pork meat (MPM), respectively, were manufactured. They were pressurized at 500 MPa for 30 min at 50, 60, 70, and 75 C or cooked at 75 C for 30 min. Pressure-treated sausages were less springy and firm, but more cohesive. Moreover, color of pressurized sausages was lighter and more yellow than that of conventionally cooked sausages. Addition of MPM increased cohesiveness, hardness, and force at 80% compression. Minced pork meat also caused the appearance of sausages to be lighter, less red, and less yellow. Cooked sausages made with MRPM can have an attractive appearance and texture via high pressure processing.

  10. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  11. Efficacies of garlic and L. sakei in wine-based marinades for controlling Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in Chouriço de Vinho, a dry sausage made from wine-marinated pork.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linares, María Belén; Garrido, María Dolores; Martins, Conceição; Patarata, Luis

    2013-05-01

    Chouriço de vinho is made from roughly minced (10 to 30 mm) pork and fat, seasoned with a marinade made from wine, salt, garlic, and other facultative seasonings used according to the recipe of each producer. The batter is maintained at 4 to 7 ºC for 24 to 48 h. It is then stuffed into natural thin pork gut, cold smoked and matured at a low temperature for 1 to 4 wk. The effect of garlic used in wine-based marinade and a starter culture of indigenous Lactobacillus sakei on the behavior of Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the processing of chouriço was investigated. The garlic (as powder and fresh juice) was found to contribute (P < 0.05) to the control of both pathogens in broth. Garlic dose, as tested within the usual limits used for seasoning, did not impact the reduction of pathogens. Garlic-wine-based marinade and a starter culture of indigenous L. sakei contribute to controlling L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. in the processing of chouriço. Their presence was responsible for the loss of viability of L. monocytogenes and Salmonella spp. following 5 d of drying, even sooner than situations where no garlic was used. The results of the present work show that the use of a wine-based marinade with garlic has an important role in ensuring the safety of the product. © 2013 Institute of Food Technologists®

  12. Antibacterial activity of bacteriocin-like substance P34 on Listeria monocytogenes in chicken sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Voltaire Sant'Anna

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The antimicrobial activity of the bacteriocin-like substance (BLS P34 against Listeria monocytogenes was investigated in chicken sausage. The BLS was applied to chicken sausages (256 AU g-1 previously inoculated with a suspension of 10² cfu g-1 of L. monocytogenes. BLS P34 inhibited the indicator microorganism in situ in all incubation times for up to 10 days at 5 °C. The effectiveness of BLS P34 was increased when it was added in combination with nisin. The bacteriocin was also tested in natural eatable natural bovine wrapping (salty semi-dried tripe against the same indicator microorganism, also showing inhibitory capability in vitro. BLS P34 showed potential to control L. monocytogenes in refrigerated meat products.

  13. Physicochemical, microbiological and sensory assessments of Italian salami sausages with probiotic potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Nogueira Ruiz

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Probiotics are live microorganisms that confer a health benefit on the host by improving the intestinal microbial balance. We evaluated the viability of Lactobacillus acidophilus (La and Bifidobacterium lactis (Bl probiotics and their effects on the technology and sensorial characteristics of fermented sausage. The presence of probiotic cultures reduced water activity and promoted faster pH reduction in the salamis, which presented pH values between 4.71 and 5.23 and water activity between 0.84 and 0.89. Lactic acid content ranged between 0.19 and 0.29 g, and the samples lost up to 35 % of their weight during ripening. As regards color, no differences were found between the probiotic salamis and the control, presenting an overall mean of 40.85 for L* (lightness, 14.48 for a* (redness and 6.46 for b* (yellowness. High consumer acceptance was observed for the probiotic salamis, which showed an average acceptance of approximately 7.0 on a nine-point hedonic scale for all attributes evaluated, with no differences (p < 0.05 when compared with the control. The performance of La was better, as the salamis treated with this microorganism presented less weight loss, better acceptance and greater purchase intention. Flavor and texture were the attributes that most influenced sensory acceptance. Salamis supplemented with probiotic cultures may be a viable option for the formulation of fermented sausages in the food industry.

  14. Modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Maria Limberger

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The demand for low-fat beef products has led the food industry to use fat substitutes such as modified starch. About 14% of broken rice is generated during processing. Nevertheless, this by-product contains high levels of starch; being therefore, great raw material for fat substitution. This study evaluated the applicability of chemically and physically modified broken rice starch as fat substitute in sausages. Extruded and phosphorylated broken rice was used in low-fat sausage formulation. All low-fat sausages presented about 55% reduction in the fat content and around 28% reduction in the total caloric value. Fat replacement with phosphorylated and extruded broken rice starch increased the texture acceptability of low-fat sausages, when compared to low-fat sausages with no modified broken rice. Results suggest that modified broken rice can be used as fat substitute in sausage formulations, yielding lower caloric value products with acceptable sensory characteristics.

  15. Consumer perception and acceptance of pork and chicken sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ristić, M.; Troeger, K.; Đinović-Stojanović, J.; Knežević, N.; Damnjanović, M.

    2017-09-01

    This study was performed to evaluate consumers’ perception and acceptance of selected pork and chicken sausage (budim and chicken sausages, respectively) from Zlatiborac Meat Company. Sensory evaluation was performed by Serbian consumers (n=1157) in three retail stores in Belgrade. Consumers were asked for their preference for taste, salt content and smoke of two sausages and to recognize the kind of meat which was used to make these meat products. Consumers evaluated taste, salt content and smoke flavor of budim and chicken sausages with the highest percentage of the best offered answer. Between 47-55%, 72-76% and 82-84% of consumers evaluated the taste of sausages as good, the salt content as well-balanced and the smoke flavor as balanced, respectively. Tukey’s HSD test was applied to analyze variations of male and female perception and acceptance of analyzed sausages.

  16. Transfer of antibiotic resistance from Enterococcus faecium of fermented meat origin to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jahan, M; Holley, R A

    2016-04-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that can cause infection in children, pregnant women, the immunocompromised and the elderly. Antibiotic resistance in this species would represent a significant public health problem since the organism has a high fatality/case ratio and resistance may contribute to failure of therapeutic treatment. This study was designed to explore whether the in vitro transferability of antibiotic resistance from enterococci to Listeria spp. could occur. It was found that 2/8 Listeria strains were able to acquire tetracycline resistance from Enterococcus faecium. Listeria monocytogenes GLM-2 acquired the resistance determinant tet(M) and additional streptomycin resistance through in vitro mating with Ent. faecium S27 isolated from commercial fermented dry sausage. Similarly, Listeria innocua became more resistant to tetracycline, but the genetic basis for this change was not confirmed. It has been suggested that enterococci may transfer antibiotic resistance genes via transposons to Listeria spp., and this may explain, in part, the origin of their antibiotic resistance. Thus, the presence of enterococci in food should not be ignored since they may actively contribute to enhanced antibiotic resistance of L. monocytogenes and other pathogens. Acquisition of antibiotic resistance by pathogenic bacteria in the absence of antibiotic pressure represents an unquantified threat to human health. In the present work resistance to tetracycline and streptomycin were transferred by nonplasmid-based conjugation from Enterococcus faecium isolated from fermented sausage to Listeria monocytogenes and Listeria innocua. Thus, natural transfer of antibiotic resistance to Listeria strains may occur in the future which reinforces the concern about the safety of enterococcal strains present in foods. © 2016 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  17. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveen, Z; Naik, B R; Subramanyam, B V; Reddy, P M

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7 ± 1 °C). Duck meat sausages were prepared by utilizing raw and partially cooked duck meat with addition of soy flour at 10% level as a binder. Different quality characteristics like physical and chemical characteristics, proximate composition, and organoleptic characteristics were evaluated. Cooking loss of partially cooked meat sausages was lower than raw duck meat sausages, whereas emulsion stability and 2-thiobarbituric acid (TBA) values of raw duck meat sausages were lesser than partially cooked meat sausages. Cooking loss and emulsion stability decreased in both types of meat sausages, while, 2-TBA values increased as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent moisture content of raw duck meat sausages was higher than partially cooked meat sausages, which decreased in both types of meat sausages as refrigerated storage progressed for 14 days. Percent crude protein (CP) and percent ether extract (EE) content of partially cooked duck meat sausages were higher than raw duck meat sausages. Regardless of type of meat used, refrigerated storage of sausages increased CP and EE up to 10th day but decreased upon further storage up to 14th day. Organoleptic scores for raw duck meat sausages were higher than partially cooked duck meat sausages and all the scores decreased with an increase in the storage period. However the scores were within the acceptable limits. The findings prove that, duck meat can be effectively acclaimed as an alternative avenue to meet the escalating

  18. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.

    2001-01-01

    increased during ripening. Pepper compound concentrations peaked in the middle of the ripening period. Lipid oxidation products increased especially towards the end of ripening, in particular, the compounds 2-heptanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 2-heptanone and 2-nonanone. Surface moulds probably caused 4-heptanone...

  19. Adding value to the meat of spent laying hens manufacturing sausages with a healthy appeal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KMR de Souza

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate the viability of the use of spent laying hens' meat in the manufacturing of mortadella-type sausages with healthy appeal by using vegetable oil instead of animal fat. 120 Hy-line® layer hens were distributed in a completely randomized design into two treatments of six replicates with ten birds each. The treatments were birds from light Hy-line® W36 and semi-heavy Hy-line® Brown lines. Cold carcass, wing, breast and leg fillets yields were determined. Dry matter, protein, and lipid contents were determined in breast and leg fillets. The breast and legg fillets of three replicates per treatment were used to manufacture mortadella. After processing, sausages were evaluated for proximal composition, objective color, microbiological parameters, fatty acid profile and sensory acceptance. The meat of light and semi-heavy spent hens presented good yield and composition, allowing it to be used as raw material for the manufacture of processed products. Mortadellas were safe from microbiological point of view, and those made with semi-heavy hens fillets were redder and better accepted by consumers. Values for all sensory attributes were evaluated over score 5 (neither liked nor disliked. Both products presented high polyunsaturated fatty acid contents and good polyunsaturated to saturated fatty acid ratio. The excellent potential for the use of meat from spent layer hens of both varieties in the manufacturing of healthier mortadella-type sausage was demonstrated.

  20. The effect of inulin as a fat substitute on the physicochemical and sensory properties of chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaei, Fereshteh; Hojjatoleslamy, Mohammad; Hashemi Dehkordi, Seyyed Majid

    2018-03-01

    Due to its high thermal resistance and compatibility with the sausage emulsion system, the long-chain inulin can be used as a fat substitute in the formulation of this product. This study was conducted to investigate the effect of inulin on the physicochemical, textural, and sensory properties of chicken sausages. The study included treatments of 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% substitution. After preparing the samples, their physicochemical, textural, calorimetric, and sensory properties were evaluated. The treatment of 100% substitution of inulin had the maximum amount of sugar (29.90%), moisture (72.63%), protein (51.34), ash (6.95%), and salt (4.02%) (dry basis). The fat content was decreased with the increased levels of inulin substitution (p inulin reduced hardness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and stringiness, but increased springiness and chewiness up to the 25% substitution of inulin. The highest color difference and hue angle were related to 100% substitution treatment. The sensory evaluation of the samples showed that with the increase in the amount of inulin, the mean scores of the factors including color, appearance, and texture were increased, but the mean scores of smell and mouthfeel were decreased. Overall, the substitution of the entire fat existing in the formulation of the sausage with inulin led to the best physicochemical, textural, colorimetric, and sensory results. The use of inulin could be recommended as a fat substitute in the formulation of chicken sausages.

  1. Health benefits of fermented foods: microbiota and beyond.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marco, Maria L; Heeney, Dustin; Binda, Sylvie; Cifelli, Christopher J; Cotter, Paul D; Foligné, Benoit; Gänzle, Michael; Kort, Remco; Pasin, Gonca; Pihlanto, Anne; Smid, Eddy J; Hutkins, Robert

    2017-04-01

    Fermented foods and beverages were among the first processed food products consumed by humans. The production of foods such as yogurt and cultured milk, wine and beer, sauerkraut and kimchi, and fermented sausage were initially valued because of their improved shelf life, safety, and organoleptic properties. It is increasingly understood that fermented foods can also have enhanced nutritional and functional properties due to transformation of substrates and formation of bioactive or bioavailable end-products. Many fermented foods also contain living microorganisms of which some are genetically similar to strains used as probiotics. Although only a limited number of clinical studies on fermented foods have been performed, there is evidence that these foods provide health benefits well-beyond the starting food materials. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Quality of fermented cassava flour processed into placali | Koko ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fermented cassava flour was obtained from Yace variety. Cassava roots were washed, peeled and ground. After adding cassava inoculums at 8% (m/m), the pulp was allowed to ferment for 72 hours at ambient temperature. The fermented dough was removed, squeezed and oven-dried for 48 hours at 55 °C. The dried ...

  3. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P < 0.01). In Exp. 2, steers fed 0% CaO had the greatest prefeeding ruminal pH, steers fed 0 and 0.8% CaO exhibited the most rapid postfeeding decline in ruminal pH, and steers fed 2.4% CaO exhibited a relatively stable ruminal pH throughout the 24-h period (treatment × time; P ≤ 0.01). Acetate, butyrate, and total VFA concentrations increased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) at 0, 3, 6, and 12 h postfeeding with increasing CaO. Propionate at 3 h postfeeding increased from 0 to 1.6% CaO and decreased from 1.6 to 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.10). Urine pH increased linearly (P ≤ 0.01) while urine output and urine ammonia decreased linearly (P ≤ 0.05) as CaO inclusion increased

  4. Extent of microbial contamination of sausages sold in two Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three shops were randomly selected in Abeokuta (South-West Nigeria) and Benin-City (South-South Nigeria) for the purchase of sausages which were then screened for microbial contamination. For the Abeokuta sausage samples the total aerobic counts ranged from 2.06-2.80 x 106 cfu/g; Staphylococcus aureus count ...

  5. 9 CFR 319.141 - Fresh pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fresh pork sausage. 319.141 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Sausage Generally: Fresh...

  6. 9 CFR 319.160 - Smoked pork sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Smoked pork sausage. 319.160 Section... AGENCY ORGANIZATION AND TERMINOLOGY; MANDATORY MEAT AND POULTRY PRODUCTS INSPECTION AND VOLUNTARY INSPECTION AND CERTIFICATION DEFINITIONS AND STANDARDS OF IDENTITY OR COMPOSITION Uncooked, Smoked Sausage...

  7. Aspects of quality assurance in processing natural sausage casings

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijnker, J.J.

    2009-01-01

    Natural sausage casings are produced from the intestines of various species and used as edible containers for many different types of sausage around the world. Casings must therefore be fit for human consumption and must meet all food safety and hygiene requirements that apply to food of animal

  8. Stability of α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol in salami-type sausages and curing brine depending on nitrite and pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerling, Eva-Maria; Ternes, Waldemar

    2014-12-01

    We studied the stability of the valuable vitamer nutrients α-tocotrienol and α-tocopherol and options for their protection in salami-type sausages (blended with α-tocotrienol-rich barley oil) and curing brine. Four different sausage formulations were produced containing nitrite curing salt; nitrite curing salt and ascorbic acid (300mg/kg); nitrite curing salt and carnosic acid (45mg/kg); or sodium chloride. Initial vitamer contents (100mg/kg) did not decrease significantly during ripening and decreased only slightly during storage. Ascorbic acid and carnosic acid were found to be effective in preserving the vitamers in fresh sausages. Freeze-drying of sausages resulted in a significant loss of vitamers (97%), particularly after 14-day storage at room temperature, even in the presence of shielding gases. The vitamer content in the curing brine decreased with decreasing pH in the presence of nitrite. A nitrite concentration of 136mg/L at pH4 resulted in significant loss (90%) of the vitamers. Sufficient stability of the vitamers in salami-type sausage and curing brine can be achieved by processing, formulation, and storage conditions. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Application of FT NIR Spectroscopy in the Determination of Basic Physical and Chemical Properties of Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zuzana Procházková

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to develop calibration models for determination of water activity and the content of fat, dry matter, salt, non collagen muscle protein and pH in dry cooked sausages. Samples (n = 42 were scanned in FT-NIR Analyzer and simultaneously analyzed by standard methods. The spectra were measured in the reflectance mode with a compressive cell between 10 000 and 4 000 cm-1, averaging 100 scans. Calibration models were developed using the partial least squares (PLS method. These calibration models were checked later by crossvalidation. The following statistical values were obtained: R (correlation coefficient = 0.997 and SEC (standard error of calibration = 0.002 for water activity, R = 0.966 and SEC = 0.023 for pH, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.970 for dry matter content, R = 0.995 and SEC = 0.045 for salt content, R = 0.965 and SEC = 0.652 for non collagen muscle protein, R = 0.996 and SEC = 0.559 for fat content. The results of the study showed that FT-NIR is a suitable method for rapid analysis of physical and chemical properties of sausages.

  10. Pretreatment of dried distillers grains with solubles by soaking in aqueous ammonia and subsequent enzymatic/dilute acid hydrolysis to produce fermentable sugars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15% w/w NH4OH solution at a solid:liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied...

  11. Fermentation process for alcoholic beverage production from mahua ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ezedom Theresa

    2013-09-25

    Sep 25, 2013 ... Key words: Madhuca indica, ethanol, reducing sugar, fermentation. ... The mahua flowers obtained were cleaned and dried in hot air oven at 60°C ... methanol in the fermented sample was determined with the help of.

  12. Impact of fermentation and addition of non-starch polysaccharide-degrading enzymes on microbial population and on digestibility of dried distillers grains with solubles in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    Fluctuating prices on feedstock has led to a growing interest in alternative feed ingredients. Co-products from the biofuel industry are hence interesting to include in pig feeds, primarily due to the high protein content. Low nutritional value due to a high content of dietary fibre, however...... of cellulase and xylanase (CelXyl). Microbial population during fermentation of the treatments was determined and apparent ileal and total tract digestibility were measured on eight barrows surgically fitted with a simple T-shaped cannula at the distal ileum and fed the four treatments according to a double......-Latin square design. Microbial activity of the three fermented DDGS treatments was relatively low with lactic acid bacteria counts between 8.8 and 8.9 log cfu/g and lactic acid concentrations between 60.2 and 70.5 mmol/kg. The addition of CelXyl to DDGS resulted in a significant decrease in the amount of non...

  13. Effects of season and inclusion of corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, microbial protein synthesis and efficiency, ruminal fermentation, digestion, and performance of nursing calves grazing native range in southeastern North Dakota.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J J; Lardy, G P; Bauer, M L; Gibson, M; Caton, J S

    2006-08-01

    Nine ruminally and duodenally cannulated (145 +/- 21 kg of initial BW; Exp. 1) and sixteen intact (181 +/- 36 kg of initial BW; Exp. 2), commercial, Angus, nursing, steer calves were used to evaluate the effects of advancing season and corn distillers dried grains with solubles in creep feed on intake, digestion, microbial efficiency, ruminal fermentation, and performance while grazing native rangeland. Calves were assigned to 1 of 2 treatments: a supplement containing 41% soybean meal, 26.25% wheat middlings, 26.25% soybean hulls, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (control) or a supplement containing 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles, 14.25% wheat middlings, 14.25% soybean hulls, 14% soybean meal, 5% molasses, and 1.5% limestone (CDDGS). Calves were offered supplement individually (0.45% of BW) once daily. Three 15-d collection periods occurred in June, July, and August. In Exp. 1, there were no differences in OM intake, or OM, N, NDF, or ADF digestion between control calves and those fed CDDGS. Forage and total OM intake increased (P Calves consuming CDDGS had decreased (P intake (% of BW) was less for CDDGS compared with control calves, but there were no differences in performance or subsequent carcass composition between treatments. Inclusion of 50% corn distillers dried grains with solubles in a creep supplement for nursing calves produced similar results compared with a control creep feed based on soybean meal, soybean hulls, and wheat middlings.

  14. Production control system specified quality sausage products

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Tokarev

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The problem of management of production target in technological system of production of sausages of the set quality is considered in article. Decomposition of technological system is considered. Functions of management are allocated: formation of an optimum compounding of forcemeat, expert analysis of a compounding, laboratory analysis of a compounding and its statement. Information technology of interaction of these functions is offered. The mathematical problem definition of finding of an optimum compounding meat product with use of possible substitutes of ingredients is presented. This mathematical problem is a classical linear programming problem whose solution has the standard program. Since the manufacture of the finished product are various nonlinear effects are taken into account at the present time it is practically impossible, the methodology provided in this operation "Expert analysis of the formulation" and "Laboratory analysis of the finished product." An example of calculating the optimum alternative base recipe "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. For an alternative formulation demands were made at a cost of meat, the ingredient composition, as well as the final product organoleptic and physic-chemical indicators should comply with regulatory requirements "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002. Indicator acid activity (pH calculated stuffing formulation should be in the range 6.0-6.3. As a partial replacement for the main raw material have been proposed acceptable substitutes. It was necessary to calculate on the basis of the formulation "Sausages “Viennese with cheese”" TS 9213-010-40155161-2002 optimal price and quality alternative formulation. As a result of depreciation of the value of alternative stuffing recipe was 14,5 % when all of the restrictions on the consumer properties. The proposed information technology implemented in the software package "Multi

  15. Implication of human handling on packaged sausage rolls during sale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coolborn AKHARAIYI FRED

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available In other to identify the implication of human handling of packaged sausage rolls after production, a microbiological safety evaluation was carried out on sausage rolls sold on street and in shops. Among the sausage rolls, gala purchased from street vendors has the highest bacterial load of 2.82 × 104 CFU/g and 4.3 × 106 spore/g of fungal load, followed by meaty with bacterial load of 1.71 × 104 CFU/g and fungal load of 1.6 × 105 spore/g and was least in rite sausage roll with 1.46 × 104 CFU/g and 1 × 105 spore/g bacterial and fungal loads respectively. Seventeen bacteria species were isolated from both street vended and shop sold sausage rolls, the isolates identified including: Bacillus cereus, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Alcaligenes faecalis, Citrobacter freundii, Klebsiella ozaenae, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Enterobacter aerogenes, Staphylococcus aureus, Aeromonas hydrophila, Plesiomonas shigelloides, Moraxella catarhalis, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhi, Aeromonas anaerogenes, Aerococcus viridans and Azomonas agilis. Five fungi species were isolated from street vended sausage rolls only. The fungal species are Penicillium notatum, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus flavus, Penicillium italicum and Gliocephalis spp. From this study, street vended samples have higher microbial contamination than shop sold sausage rolls due to improper handling during sales.

  16. [Smoked sausages and food additives: evaluation of total mutagenic activity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dugan, A M; Tkacheva, D L

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with the evaluation of the total mutagenic activity of samples of the inorganic and organic fractions of three technology smoked sausages (boiled-smoked, semi-smoked, and raw-smoked) and some food additives used to manufacture the above sausages. Their mild and moderate mutagenic effects were recorded in a Salmonella typhimurium bacterial test system with a metabolic activation system. Physicochemical analysis of the fractions of the smoked sausages has shown that their study samples are substantially contaminated with heavy metals and representatives of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, partially causing the mutagenic effects observed.

  17. Nonlinear integral equations for the sausage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Changrim; Balog, Janos; Ravanini, Francesco

    2017-08-01

    The sausage model, first proposed by Fateev, Onofri, and Zamolodchikov, is a deformation of the O(3) sigma model preserving integrability. The target space is deformed from the sphere to ‘sausage’ shape by a deformation parameter ν. This model is defined by a factorizable S-matrix which is obtained by deforming that of the O(3) sigma model by a parameter λ. Clues for the deformed sigma model are provided by various UV and IR information through the thermodynamic Bethe ansatz (TBA) analysis based on the S-matrix. Application of TBA to the sausage model is, however, limited to the case of 1/λ integer where the coupled integral equations can be truncated to a finite number. In this paper, we propose a finite set of nonlinear integral equations (NLIEs), which are applicable to generic value of λ. Our derivation is based on T-Q relations extracted from the truncated TBA equations. For a consistency check, we compute next-leading order corrections of the vacuum energy and extract the S-matrix information in the IR limit. We also solved the NLIE both analytically and numerically in the UV limit to get the effective central charge and compared with that of the zero-mode dynamics to obtain exact relation between ν and λ. Dedicated to the memory of Petr Petrovich Kulish.

  18. In vitro evaluation of salinomycin addition in wheat straw based total mixed diets on rumen fermentation, methanogenesis and dry matter degradability in buffalo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunil K. Sirohi

    Full Text Available Aim: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effect of salinomycin in vitro on methanogenesis and rumen fermentation. Materials and Methods: Different levels of (0,10, 15 and 20 ppm salinomycin were checked for their effect on in vitro methanogenesis and rumen fermentation on three wheat straw based diets i.e. low fiber diet (LFD, 40R:60C, medium fiber diet (MFD, 50R:50C and high fiber diet (HFD, 60R:40C. Evaluation of salinomycin was carried out using in vitro gas production technique. Methane production and individual fatty acids were estimated by Gas Chromatography. Results: Results of different levels of salinomycin on in vitro methanogenesis indicated that the maximum methane reduction (38.14% in term of mM/gDM was noticed in HFD at 20 ppm level. IVDMD showing increasing trend with an increasing concentration of salinomycin with HFD and LFD, while shown decreasing trend with MFD respectively. Protozoal population significantly decreased by addition of salinomycin in all diets. Conclusion: The results of salinomycin evaluation in the current study can be implicated to mitigate the methane production, thus saving the feed energy loss and the accumulation of green house gases in environment. [Vet World 2012; 5(10.000: 609-613

  19. Cheese powder as an ingredient in emulsion sausages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Xiang; Ruiz Carrascal, Jorge; Petersen, Mikael Agerlin

    2017-01-01

    Different types of cheese powder were added to meat emulsion sausages in order to address its influence on chemical composition, volatile compounds profile and sensory properties, and its potential to reduce salt content through boosting saltiness. Addition of cheese powder to emulsion sausages...... modified their profile of volatile compounds. Blue cheese increased some ketones, alcohols, and esters, while brown cheese brought typical Maillard reaction compounds. Overall, addition of cheese powders to sausages enhanced the intensity of flavour traits. A mixture of hard and blue cheese powder showed...... the highest effect on boosting saltiness, while brown cheese powder showed the strongest umami and meat flavour boosting effect, and sausages with added blue cheese powder showed a more intense aftertaste. Hardness significantly increased due to the addition of blue cheese powder. Addition of cheese powder...

  20. Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage | Junior | African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Reducing fat and sodium content in pork sausage. Jonhny De Azevedo Maia Junior, Fábio Da Costa Henry, Felipe Roberto Ferreira Amaral Do Valle, Meire Lelis Leal Martins, Célia Raquel Quirino, Rafael Dos Santos Costa ...

  1. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF HEATING AND COOLING OF SAUSAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Zhuchkov

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In the article the mathematical modeling of the processes of heating and cooling of sausage products in order to define reference characteristics of the processes was carried out. Basic regularities of the processes are graphically shown.

  2. Microbiological evaluation of poultry sausages stored at different temperatures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of our study was to evaluate the microbiological quality of poultry sausages, which were stored at different temperatures (4 °C, 15 °C. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeasts and filamentous microscopic fungi were detected in poultry sausages. Microbiological quality was evaluated using the horizontal method for the determination number of microorganisms. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 4.35 × 104 CFU.g-1  in sample 1 (7th day of storage. Total count of bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 3.25 × 103 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (after opening to 3.12 × 106 CFU.g-1 in sample 1 to 3.12 × 106  CFU.g-1 in sample 1 (7th day of storage.  Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 1 × 101 CFU.g-1 to 3.15 × 105 CFU.g-1. Coliform bacteria in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.54 × 103 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 4 °C ranged from 2.75 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.40 × 106 CFU.g-1.  Yeasts and microscopic filamentous fungi in sausages stored at 15 °C ranged from 1.30 × 104 CFU.g-1 to 1.44 × 106  CFU.g-1. Total count of bacteria, coliform bacteria, yeast and microscopic fungi were not in accordance with Codex Alimentarius of Slovak Republic on 3rd day in samples stored at 15 °C.

  3. Sensory Evaluation of Cooked Sausages with Legumes Additive

    OpenAIRE

    Ilze Gramatina; Jelena Zagorska; Evita Straumite; Svetlana Sarvi

    2012-01-01

    In the meat processing industry the substitution of meat with non-meat ingredients is considered an important strategy for reducing overall production costs. The main purpose of the current research was to evaluate differences in physical-chemical composition of cooked sausage with different legumes additions. Peas (Pisum sativum), beans (Phaseolus vulgaris) and lentil (Lens culinaris) were used in preparation of sausages. The legumes at proportion of 20% of the total wei...

  4. Properties of duck meat sausages supplemented with cereal flours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, H S; Ali, M S; Jeong, J Y; Moon, S H; Hwang, Y H; Park, G B; Joo, S T

    2009-07-01

    Duck meat sausages were prepared using 10% beef fat (FDS) and 10% hydrated cereal flours including rice (RDS), wheat, corn, millet, and barley to replace fat. Control duck sausages (DS) were also prepared only with duck meat and duck meat plus 10% beef fat. Results showed that protein and fat contents significantly decreased and total expressible fluid reduced with the addition of cereal flours in duck sausage batters. The FDS had higher fat content and lower pH compared with others. Duck sausages with 10% supplemented wheat flour showed the lowest cooking loss among sausages and had similar redness and chroma values to FDS and DS. Texture analysis indicated that hardness of duck sausage significantly decreased when cereal flours and beef fat were added. In particular, RDS showed the lowest values for all texture measurements compared with others. Result of moisture absorption capacity suggested that the decrease in hardness in RDS was due to higher moisture retention for rice flour treatment. Sensory evaluation indicated that DS had significantly lower overall acceptability than RDS, due to its off-flavor, whereas RDS had higher overall acceptability than DS.

  5. Quality of comminuted sausages formulated from mechanically deboned poultry meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielnik, Maria B; Aaby, Kjersti; Rolfsen, Knut; Ellekjær, Marit R; Nilsson, Astrid

    2002-05-01

    Comminuted sausages formulated with mechanically deboned poultry meat-MDPM (turkey or chicken, frame or neck) treated in different ways before production (vacuum packed MDPM or air packed skeletons deboned at production) and stored frozen for 6 or 18 weeks have been studied using a full-factorial design and chemical, physical and sensory analysis. MDPM was obtained from a Beehive separator. Comminuted sausages with MDPM from turkey frames, stored at -25 °C as skeletons, packed in air for 18 weeks developed marked rancid odour and flavour which could also be detected by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and the concentration of volatile compounds. Vacuum packed mechanically deboned meat irrespective of species and carcass part could be stored for up to 18 weeks and used in formulation of sausages without any serious changes in their sensory profiles. Instrumental colour differences between sausages were mainly due to species. Turkey sausages were darker, redder and less yellow than chicken sausages. Moisture and fat contents were influenced by carcass part and to a lesser extent depended on species and storage time. Principal least squares regression (PLS2) showed close relationships between instrumental parameters and sensory attributes. TBARS, hexanal and volatile compounds were highly correlated with rancid flavour while redness (a(∗)) was strongly related to sensory colour hue and colour strength.

  6. Color changes of vienna sausage by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kume, Tamikazu; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1978-01-01

    Color change of vienna sausage induced by gamma irradiation was investigated. Discoloration of irradiated vienna sausage was evaluated by use of the color difference meter and sensory test. The discoloration by irradiation was influenced by oxygen contents in packing pouches. In the case of commercial vienna sausage, significant difference from unirradiated control by 99% of probability was recognized at the doses of 1.0 Mrad in nitrogen, 0.5 Mrad in air and 0.3 Mrad in oxygen, respectively. The color change of the specially prepared vienna sausage (40% pork, 40% mutton, 20% beef, and no additional preservatives) was less than that of the commercial one. The absorbance at 540 nm of extracts from vienna sausages with 80% acetone decreased with increasing irradiation dose and oxygen content. While, change in absorbance at 340 nm was practically unaffected by the oxygen concentration. These results suggest that the degradation of nitroso-heme complex by irradiation causes mainly the discoloration of vienna sausage. (auth.)

  7. Antilisterial Activity of Bacteriocin Isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in the Production of Sremska Sausages: Lactic Acid Bacteria Isolation, Bacteriocin Identification and Meat Application Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Škrinjar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lactic acid bacteria (LAB have an essential role in the production of fermented meat products. The metabolic activity of LAB affects the ripening process, leading to the formation of the desired sensory characteristics of the products, while inhibiting the growth of undesirable microorganisms. Bacteriocins are extracellular peptides or protein molecules, produced by some LAB, which possess bactericidal properties against specific species or genera of microorganisms, usually related bacteria. Bacteriocin production by LAB can act in a selective and competitive way against the surrounding microbiota, which may contain spoilage bacteria or pathogenic microorganisms including Listeria monocytogenes. This pathogen is widely distributed in raw products, it survives in different production areas, and human infections have a high mortality rate, all of which makes the control of this microorganism important in food production. The aim of this work is to determine the possibilities of utilizing a novel bacteriocin isolated from Leuconostoc mesenteroides ssp. mesenteroides IMAU:10231 in order to prevent the survival of Listeria monocytogenes in the production of traditional Serbian Sremska sausages. The bacteriocin-producing strain of Leuconostoc originated from the same sausage, which had been produced in the traditional manner. Bacteriocin was isolated using precipitation procedures with ammonium sulphate, and then its properties (strength and range of activities, relationship to high temperatures and proteolytic enzymes were determined under laboratory conditions. Also, based on the obtained laboratory results, the antilisterial effect of bacteriocin, included as an additive, was examined in the production of traditional Sremska sausages. Expressed antilisterial activity of bacteriocin has an interesting food safety potential which can be used in the meat industry in the production of fermented sausages. Further research will contribute to a better

  8. Definition of a Standard Protocol to Determine the Growth Potential of Listeria Monotgenes and Yersinia Enterocolitica in Pork Sausage Produced in Abruzzo Region, Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperandii, Anna Franca; Neri, Diana; Romantini, Romina; Santarelli, Gino Angelo; Prencipe, Vincenza

    2015-11-02

    Pork meat products consumed raw or after a short period of fermentation can be considered at risk for food safety. Sausages (fresh sausage made from pork meat) are produced in several Italian regions, with variation in ingredients. In some Italian Regions, including Abruzzo, these products are frequently consumed raw or undercooked, after a variable period of fermentation. The European Community food regulation promotes the use of challenge tests to determine safety levels. This study is aimed to ensure safety of Abruzzo's sausages, compared with growth potential (δ) of Listeria monocytogenes and Yersinia enterocolitica , and also aims to define an experimental standard protocol document to carry out challenge tests. Guidelines classify ready-to-eat foods in categories that are able to support (δ>0.5 log 10 ufc/g) and not support (δ≤0.5 log 10 ufc/g) the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. The products were manufactured according to traditional recipes and were contaminated in laboratory. Results from the experiment yielded information useful to assess the ability of these products to support the growth of pathogenic microorganisms. The batches of sausages were stored at 8, 12, 18 and 20°C to get statistical evaluation. The results showed that, despite the conditioning of the storage temperature and the level of water activity, both organisms remain in the product in concentrations similar to those leading or being able to increase its charge. In particular, the period of greatest consumption of this product (7/8 days of preparation) corresponds to the period of greatest growth of pathogenic microorganisms studied, except for those stored at a temperature of 8°C, which are safer for the consumer.

  9. Nutritional value and fatty acid composition of some traditional Argentinean meat sausages Composição nutricional e perfil de ácidos graxos de embutidos tradicionais da Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mara Cristina Romero

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the nutritional composition (moisture, protein, carbohydrates, and total fat of some meat products produced in the northeastern Argentina, analyzing fatty acids composition, polyunsaturated/saturated fatty acid ratio PUFA/SFA ratio (polyunsaturated/ saturated fatty acids, n-6/n-3 ratio, and CLA (conjugated linoleic acid content. Thirty traditional meat products produced by different processes were used. The samples were classified into 4 different categories as follows: salamín (dry cured and fermented sausage, chorizos (raw sausage, chorizo ahumado (cooked and smoked sausage, and morcilla (cooked sausage. From the results obtained it can be said that the total carbohydrate contents of the salamín studied were slightly lower; fat content of raw chorizo was significantly lower, and protein content of chorizo ahumado was significantly higher than those comparison from databases from other regions of Argentina, USA, and Spain. Except for chorizo, which has a value lower than 0.4, the PUFA/SFA-stearic ratio of the other products were a little higher than those reported by other researchers. CLA (Conjugated linoleic acid contents between 0.03% and 0.19% were detected. The results obtained indicate that salamín produced in northeastern Argentina, Chaco state, shows high protein and PUFA (Polyunsaturated fatty acids contents, and low atherogenic and thrombogenic indexes, which makes it a more healthful product than those of similar composition produced in other countries.O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar a composição nutricional de alguns produtos de carne elaborados no nordeste da Argentina, a análise da composição dos ácidos graxos, conteúdo de CLA, relações AGPI/AGS e n-6/n-3. Trinta produtos tradicionais de carne a partir de processos diferentes foram utilizados. As amostras foram classificadas em 4 categorias: Salamin (embutido seco e fermentado, chorizo (linguiça, chorizo ahumado (lingui

  10. Nonlinear evolution of the sausage instability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Book, D.L.; Ott, E.; Lampe, M.

    1976-01-01

    Sausage instabilities of an incompressible, uniform, perfectly conducting Z pinch are studied in the nonlinear regime. In the long wavelength limit (analogous to the ''shallow water theory'' of hydrodynamics), a simplified set of universal fluid equations is derived, with no radial dependence, and with all parameters scaled out. Analytic and numerical solutions of these one-dimensional equations show that an initially sinusoidal perturbation grows into a ''spindle'' or cylindrical ''spike and bubble'' shape, with sharp radial maxima. In the short wavelength limit, the problem is shown to be mathematically equivalent to the planar semi-infinite Rayleigh--Taylor instability, which also grows into a spike-and-bubble shape. Since the spindle shape is common to both limits, it is concluded that it probably obtains in all cases. The results are in agreement with dense plasma focus experiments

  11. Sausage mode stability boundaries: enumeration and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chambers, F.W.

    1980-01-01

    An axially symmetric sausage mode instability has been observed using particle simulation codes to propagate beams with a high degree of current neutralization. In this report the stability boundaries in terms of the magnitude and location of the return current are delineated for beams with square, Gaussian, and Bennett radial current profiles using the theoretical analysis of others. For the case in which the return current is held fixed as the beam propagates, a detailed comparison is made between the theoretical predictions and the results of the RINGFAST single disk particle simulation code. Agreement between theory and code results is good although the code results do show a slightly larger than predicted unstable region

  12. DEVELOPMENT AND CHARACTERIZATION OF A TAMBAQUI SAUSAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Sleder

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT In Brazil, fish are sold in retail fresh or frozen, whole, or gutted. To increase consumption, convenient products with good sensory attributes should be offered. The objective of this study was to develop and characterize, through physicochemical, microbiologica, and sensory traits, a fresh sausage of tambaqui fish (Colossoma macropomum. Three formulations, with different percentages of fat (0, 4.5, and 9% were developed. To determine shelf life, samples of the products were refrigerated at 4 ºC for 12 days and microbiological analyses were performed on days 0, 3, 7, and 12. Analyses of centesimal composition, shear force, cooking weight loss, and water-holding capacity were carried out. The shelf life of the fresh sausages was estimated at 7 days of storage. The sensory attributes evaluated were aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture, and overall appearance. All treatments showed high acceptance rates, above 80%. The treatment with 9% fat showed the highest mean values in the evaluated attributes, with 86.6%, 83.4%, 92%, 88.2%, 87.2%, and 85.8% for aroma, color, flavor, succulence, texture and overall appearance, respectively. The centesimal composition of the treatments showed the following variations in g.100 g-1: moisture, 72.73 to 68.82; protein, 18.85 to 18.90; lipids, 2.90 to 8.33; and ash, 3.86 to 4.20. Shear force varied from 5.92 to 8.14 N; water-holding capacity varied from 71.83 to 74.71% and cooking weight loss, from 24.21 to 26.59%.

  13. Assessing the variability of the fatty acid profile and cholesterol content of meat sausages

    OpenAIRE

    Amaral, J.S.; Soares, S.; Mafra, I.; Oliveira, M.B.P.P.

    2014-01-01

    Eighteen different brands of meat sausages including pork, poultry and the mixture of both meats (pork and poultry) in sausages, were analysed for their nutritional composition (total fat, moisture, crude protein and ash), cholesterol content and fatty acid composition. As expected, the pork Frankfurter sausages presented a higher fat content compared to sausages that include poultry meat in their composition. A multivariate statistical analysis was applied to the data showing the existence o...

  14. The quality evaluation of frankfurter-type sausages from hand and mechanically deboned turkey meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radomyski, T; Niewiarowicz, A

    1987-03-01

    A quality evaluation was made of frankfurter-type sausages made from hand and mechanically deboned meat from various parts of turkey carcasses. The results led to the conclusions that despite some differences in objective measurements of the sausage quality, mechanically deboned turkey meat can be considered as an exclusive meat raw material for the production of frankfurter-type sausages. The quality of sausages from mechanically deboned turkey meat from wings and frames with skin was the least satisfactory.

  15. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  16. Improving the nutritional value of rapeseed cake and wheat dried distillers grains with solubles by addition of enzymes during liquid fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Venås Jakobsen, Grethe; Jensen, Bent Borg; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2015-01-01

    An increased production of biofuel during the last decade with a subsequent increased amount of co-products has led to an interest in utilizing these co-products as inexpensive alternatives to traditional ingredients for pig feed. Biofuel co-products are considered valuable sources of protein.......01), and reduced pH levels from 24 h to the end of the study (P ≤ 0.01) compared to the Control were measured. Protein solubility in RSC increased in samples fermented with GluXylPec (+14% during the initial 48 h, P phytase (Phy) showed a higher protein solubility, too (+18% during...... the initial 48 h, P phytase clearly reduced the level of phytate-P in RSC. Although all the enzymatic treatments showed a small reduction of total NSP content in wDDGS in the initial phase (P ≤ 0.01), and three enzymes [GluXylPec (6), CelXyl (9), and Xylmix (7)] reduced the level...

  17. Grading of Chinese Cantonese Sausage Using Hyperspectral Imaging Combined with Chemometric Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Aiping; Zhu, Susu; He, Yong; Zhang, Chu

    2017-01-01

    Fast and accurate grading of Chinese Cantonese sausage is an important concern for customers, organizations, and the industry. Hyperspectral imaging in the spectral range of 874–1734 nm, combined with chemometric methods, was applied to grade Chinese Cantonese sausage. Three grades of intact and sliced Cantonese sausages were studied, including the top, first, and second grades. Support vector machine (SVM) and random forests (RF) techniques were used to build two different models. Second derivative spectra and RF were applied to select optimal wavelengths. The optimal wavelengths were the same for intact and sliced sausages when selected from second derivative spectra, while the optimal wavelengths for intact and sliced sausages selected using RF were quite similar. The SVM and RF models, using full spectra and the optimal wavelengths, obtained acceptable results for intact and sliced sausages. Both models for intact sausages performed better than those for sliced sausages, with a classification accuracy of the calibration and prediction set of over 90%. The overall results indicated that hyperspectral imaging combined with chemometric methods could be used to grade Chinese Cantonese sausages, with intact sausages being better suited for grading. This study will help to develop fast and accurate online grading of Cantonese sausages, as well as other sausages. PMID:28757578

  18. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill Young Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD of three kinds of distillers grains (DG; i wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg, ii dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg, iii dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis, respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05 in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05 in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3 can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i Control (total mixed ration, TMR, ii WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis, and iii WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis. With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg, WDG 10% (9.21 kg and 20% (8.86 kg and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0, WDG 10% (13.2 and 20% (12.1 did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20

  19. Potential of yeasts isolated from dry-cured ham to control ochratoxin A production in meat models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peromingo, Belén; Núñez, Félix; Rodríguez, Alicia; Alía, Alberto; Andrade, María J

    2018-03-02

    The environmental conditions reached during the ripening of dry-cured meat products favour the proliferation of moulds on their surface. Some of these moulds are hazardous to consumers because of their ability to produce ochratoxin A (OTA). Biocontrol using Debaryomyces hansenii could be a suitable strategy to prevent the growth of ochratoxigenic moulds and OTA accumulation in dry-cured meat products. The aim of this work was to evaluate the ability of two strains of D. hansenii to control the growth and OTA production of Penicillium verrucosum in a meat model under water activities (a w ) values commonly reached during the dry-cured meat product ripening. The presence of D. hansenii strains triggered a lengthening of the lag phase and a decrease of the growth rate of P. verrucosum in meat-based media at 0.97 and 0.92 a w . Both D. hansenii strains significantly reduced OTA production (between 85.16 and 92.63%) by P. verrucosum in the meat-based medium at 0.92 a w . Neither absorption nor detoxification of OTA by D. hansenii strains seems to be involved. However, a repression of the expression of the non-ribosomal peptide synthetase (otanpsPN) gene linked to the OTA biosynthetic pathway was observed in the presence of D. hansenii. To confirm the protective role of D. hansenii strains, they were inoculated together with P. verrucosum Pv45 in dry-fermented sausage and dry-cured ham slices. Although P. verrucosum Pv45 counts were not affected by the presence of D. hansenii in both meat matrices, a reduction of OTA amount was observed. Therefore, the effect of D. hansenii strains on OTA accumulation should be attributed to a reduction at transcriptional level. Consequently, native D. hansenii can be useful as biocontrol agent in dry-cured meat products for preventing the hazard associated with the presence of OTA. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of sulfur and monensin concentrations on in vitro dry matter disappearance, hydrogen sulfide production, and volatile fatty acid concentrations in batch culture ruminal fermentations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D R; Dilorenzo, N; Leibovich, J; May, M L; Quinn, M J; Homm, J W; Galyean, M L

    2010-04-01

    Effects of monensin (MON) and S on in vitro fermentation and H(2)S production were evaluated in 2 experiments. In Exp. 1, 2 ruminally cannulated steers were adapted (>14 d) to a 75% concentrate diet [steam-flaked corn (SFC)-based], and ruminal fluid was collected approximately 4 h after feeding. Substrate composed (DM basis) of 85.2% SFC, 9% alfalfa hay, 5% cottonseed meal, and 0.8% urea was added with ruminal fluid and buffer to sealed 125-mL serum bottles to allow for gas collection. A Na(2)SO(4) solution was added to yield S equivalent to 0.2, 0.4, and 0.8% of substrate DM, and MON was included at 0, 2, 4, and 6 mg/L of culture volume. Bottle head-space gas was analyzed for H(2)S. No MON (P = 0.29) or MON x S interaction (P = 0.41) effects were detected for H(2)S production. Increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and the acetate:propionate ratio (A:P), and linearly increased (P 21 d) to a 75% concentrate diet (SFC base) that contained 15% (DM basis) wet corn distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) and MON at 22 mg/kg of DM. In vitro substrate DM was composed of 75.4% SFC, 15% WDGS, 9% alfalfa hay, and 0.6% urea, and S and MON concentrations were the same as in Exp. 1. No effects of MON (P = 0.93) or the MON x S interaction (P = 0.99) were noted for H(2)S production; however, increasing S linearly increased (P molar proportions of acetate, butyrate, and A:P and linearly increased (P molar proportions were evident with MON regardless of S concentration.

  1. Antioxidant Activities of Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. H. Park

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W, and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (p<0.05. Although color a* of pork sausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (p<0.05. Sausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV than control sausages (p<0.05; however, high nitrosomyoglobin content was observed in AJNE added-sausages (p<0.05. Ascorbic acid led to a decrease in residual nitrite concentration of sausages (p<0.05, but no difference was found in AJNE added-sausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (p<0.05. Addition of AJNE had no influence on texture properties of sausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (p<0.05, but no significant effects on aroma, flavor, springiness, juiciness, and overall acceptability. In conclusion, the addition of AJNE, as a natural supplement may offer natural antioxidants for pork sausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content.

  2. Development of shelf-stable meat sausages using gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seri Chempaka Mohd Yusof; Muhammad Lebai Juri; Mariani Deraman

    2006-01-01

    Irradiation techniques have been applied in development of ready to eat or shelf stable sausages. These sausages can be eaten directly without the need for prior heating or cooking procedure and displayed in the room temperature on the shelves of the retailers without frozen facilities. This study was designed to investigate the acceptability and microbial status of packed ready to eat sausages that had been sterilized using gamma irradiation at MINTec-Sinagama. Packed pre-cooked sausage samples (sealed in plastic-polyethylene individually) were irradiated with different doses of 2.5 kGy, 3.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy. Acceptability of the sausages was determined through sensory evaluation by 30 members of untrained panelists comprising of staffs of MINT. A 5 points hedonic rating scale was used. The attributes evaluated were rancidity, texture, chewiness, juiciness, aroma, colour, shape and overall acceptance. Samples irradiated with doses 3.5 kGy were the most acceptable followed by samples irradiated with doses 2.5 kGy and 5.5 kGy respectively. Irradiation with doses up to 2.5 kGy will virtually eliminate disease-causing microorganisms and pathogens. The total microbial count, detection of Salmonella, Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and fungi in these samples were determined and discussed. (Author)

  3. Relationship between fermentation index and other biochemical changes evaluated during the fermentation of Mexican cocoa (Theobroma cacao) beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romero-Cortes, Teresa; Salgado-Cervantes, Marco Antonio; García-Alamilla, Pedro; García-Alvarado, Miguel Angel; Rodríguez-Jimenes, Guadalupe del C; Hidalgo-Morales, Madeleine; Robles-Olvera, Víctor

    2013-08-15

    During traditional cocoa processing, the end of fermentation is empirically determined by the workers; consequently, a high variability on the quality of fermented cocoa beans is observed. Some physicochemical properties (such as fermentation index) have been used to measure the degree of fermentation and changes in quality, but only after the fermentation process has concluded, using dried cocoa beans. This would suggest that it is necessary to establish a relationship between the chemical changes inside the cocoa bean and the fermentation conditions during the fermentation in order to standardize the process. Cocoa beans were traditionally fermented inside wooden boxes, sampled every 24 h and analyzed to evaluate fermentation changes in complete bean, cotyledon and dried beans. The value of the fermentation index suggested as the minimal adequate (≥1) was observed at 72 h in all bean parts analyzed. At this time, values of pH, spectral absorption, total protein hydrolysis and vicilin-class globulins of fermented beans suggested that they were well fermented. Since no difference was found between the types of samples, the pH value could be used as a first indicator of the end of the fermentation and confirmed by evaluation of the fermentation index using undried samples, during the process. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. Influência da fermentação e secagem de amêndoas de cacau no teor de compostos fenólicos e na aceitação sensorial Influence of cocoa beans fermentation and drying on the polyphenol content and sensory acceptance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Priscilla Efraim

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Devido à importância das etapas de fermentação e secagem das sementes de cacau para as características sensoriais dos produtos finais obtidos, bem como para os teores de compostos fenólicos presentes, objetivou-se avaliar a influência do tempo de fermentação e do tipo de secagem de sementes de cacaueiro nos teores de compostos fenólicos, bem como nas características físicas, físico-químicas e sensoriais dos produtos obtidos. Os tempos de fermentação avaliados foram 3 e 7 dias e a secagem foi realizada naturalmente (ao sol e artificialmente (estufa com circulação de ar a 35 °C. Os teores de compostos fenólicos totais, flavan-3-óis e procianidinas foram quantificados durante a fermentação e ao término da secagem. Constatou-se que grande parte dos compostos fenólicos foi perdida durante a fermentação, sendo que as amêndoas fermentadas por 3 dias apresentaram teores maiores dos compostos fenólicos avaliados. Contudo, observou-se nessa condição uma significativa perda na qualidade sensorial. A secagem natural das amêndoas fermentadas permitiu maior retenção de polifenóis e também melhores resultados sensoriais em relação à secagem artificial. A avaliação sensorial realizada com uma bebida formulada com o liquor obtido dos diferentes tratamentos demonstrou que a amostra fermentada durante 7 dias apresentou as melhores notas sensoriais, sendo que o produto seco naturalmente foi o mais bem avaliado em relação aos demais.Due to the importance of the fermentation and drying stages in the sensory characteristics and in the phenolic content of cocoa products, the present study was carried out to evaluate the influence of the fermentation period and the type of drying of cocoa seeds, on the phenolic compounds content, as well as on the physical, physicochemical, and sensorial characteristics of the products. The periods of fermentation were 3 and 7 days and the fermented beans were dried naturally (sun drying and

  5. Identification of Lactobacillus sakei genes induced during meat fermentation and their role in survival and growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hüfner, Eric; Markieton, Tobias; Chaillou, Stéphane; Crutz-Le Coq, Anne-Marie; Zagorec, Monique; Hertel, Christian

    2007-04-01

    Lactobacillus sakei is a lactic acid bacterium that is ubiquitous in the food environment and is one of the most important constituents of commercial meat starter cultures. In this study, in vivo expression technology (IVET) was applied to investigate gene expression of L. sakei 23K during meat fermentation. The IVET vector used (pEH100) contained promoterless and transcriptionally fused reporter genes mediating beta-glucuronidase activity and erythromycin resistance. A genomic library of L. sakei 23K was established, and the clones were subjected to fermentation in a raw-sausage model. Fifteen in carne-induced fusions were identified. Several genes encoded proteins which are likely to contribute to stress-related functions. One of these genes was involved in acquisition of ammonia from amino acids, and the remaining either were part of functionally unrelated pathways or encoded hypothetical proteins. The construction and use of isogenic mutants in the sausage model suggested that four genes have an impact on the performance of L. sakei during raw-sausage fermentation. Inactivation of the heat shock regulator gene ctsR resulted in increased growth, whereas knockout of the genes asnA2, LSA1065, and LSA1194 resulted in attenuated performance compared to the wild-type strain. The results of our study are the first to provide an insight into the transcriptional response of L. sakei when growing in the meat environment. In addition, this study establishes a molecular basis which allows investigation of bacterial properties that are likely to contribute to the ecological performance of the organism and to influence the final outcome of sausage fermentation.

  6. The isolation of salmonellas from British pork sausages and sausage meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, D; Boag, K; Hall, M L; Shipp, C R

    1975-10-01

    Between 1969 and 1974, 1467 packets (3309 samples) of pork sausages and sausage meat produced by two large and two medium sized manufacturers and several local butchers were examined for the presence of salmonellas. Of these, 435 packets (786 samples) were found to contain salmonellas, but there was a wide variation in the isolation rates according to the producer. The salmonella incidence in samples from several small and two medium sized producers was low (0-11%) while the results from the two large producers investigated showed a striking difference, the rate of salmonella contamination in the product of one was low (about 2%) and in that of the other consistently high (40-60%). A comparison of liquid enrichment media, incubation temperatures and selective agar media was also carried out to determine the most efficient combination for the isolation of salmonellas from minced meat products. The results showed that (a) incubation of enrichment cultures at 43 degrees C. yielded a consistently greater number of salmonella isolations that at 37 degrees C., regardless of plating medium, (b) tetrathionate broth A (Rolfe) was superior to selenite broth as en enrichment medium at both 37 and 43 degrees C. and (c) brilliant green agar gave better results than deoxycholate citrate sucrose agar and bismuth sulphite agar as a selective medium.

  7. Sensory characteristics and consumer liking of sausages with 10% fat and added rye or wheat bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe Arildsen; Vuholm, Stine; Aaslyng, Margit Dall

    2014-01-01

    and added rye or wheat bran. Sensory descriptive attributes (odor, appearance, texture, and flavor) of rye bran sausage (RBS) and wheat bran sausage (WBS) were evaluated by a trained sensory panel (n = 9). A sausage with wheat flour (WFS) and two commercial 20% (20%S) and 10% (10%S) (w/w) fat sausages were......Improving the nutritional profile of sausages through the addition of dietary fiber might affect appetite, sensory characteristics, and liking differently depending on the fiber source. This study investigates the sensory characteristics and consumer acceptance of sausages with 10% (w/w) fat...... also included. Liking was investigated in consumer tests with two Danish target groups (49 children aged between six and nine and 24 parents). RBS and WBS were similar with regard to their sensory descriptive attributes, but the structure of these sausages was coarser and the color was more brown than...

  8. Effect of Spices Mixture and Gamma Irradiation on Sausage Quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anwar, M.M.; Sallam, E.M.

    2015-01-01

    This investigation was carried out to study the effect of spices mixture on reducing the oxidation of fat and to improve the quality and organoleptic characteristics as well as extension of shelf-life of beef sausage. Beef sausages were mixed with three different levels (0.5%, 1.5% and 2.5%) of spices mixture (cardamom, clove, cubeb, laurel leaves, cinnamon, black pepper, rosemary, parpicu, fennel and coriander). The sausages were packed in polyethylene bags and irradiated at 2.5, 5 and 7.5 kGy then stored at 5±1°C for 48 days. Microbiological, biochemical and physical analyses as well as organoleptic evaluation were carried out. Results indicated that increasing the spices level decreased the total bacterial count (TBC), molds, yeasts and psychrophilic bacteria (PB) while total volatile nitrogen (TVN), thiobarbituric acid (TBA), peroxide value (PV) and acid value (AV) were increased in treated samples (1.5% and 2.5%) as compared to control (0.5%). On the other hand, the spices decreased TVN, TBA, PV and AV in treated sausages during cold storage while the physical parameters were increased and the best qualities of cold irradiated sausages were observed at the level 2.5% then 1.5% of spices, and the cooking yield and cooking loss and the organoleptic scores (based on over all acceptability) were better than the control sample (0.5%). The results of spices mixture showed that the level 2.5% can reduce oxidation of fat and improve quality and organoleptic characteristics as well as extension of shelf-life of cold irradiated beef sausage stored for 48 days.

  9. Contribution of the NO-detoxifying enzymes HmpA, NorV and NrfA to nitrosative stress protection of Salmonella Typhimurium in raw sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mühlig, Anna; Kabisch, Jan; Pichner, Rohtraud; Scherer, Siegfried; Müller-Herbst, Stefanie

    2014-09-01

    The antimicrobial action of the curing agent sodium nitrite (NaNO2) in raw sausage fermentation is thought to mainly depend on the release of cytotoxic nitric oxide (NO) at acidic pH. Salmonella Typhimurium is capable of detoxifying NO via the flavohemoglobin HmpA, the flavorubredoxin NorV and the periplasmic cytochrome C nitrite reductase NrfA. In this study, the contribution of these systems to nitrosative stress tolerance in raw sausages was investigated. In vitro growth assays of the S. Typhimurium 14028 deletion mutants ΔhmpA, ΔnorV and ΔnrfA revealed a growth defect of ΔhmpA in the presence of acidified NaNO2. Transcriptional analysis of the genes hmpA, norV and nrfA in the wild-type showed a 41-fold increase in hmpA transcript levels in the presence of 150 mg/l acidified NaNO2, whereas transcription of norV and nrfA was not enhanced. However, challenge assays performed with short-ripened spreadable sausages produced with 0 or 150 mg/kg NaNO2 failed to reveal a phenotype for any of the mutants compared to the wild-type. Hence, none of the NO detoxification systems HmpA, NorV and NrfA is solely responsible for nitrosative stress tolerance of S. Typhimurium in raw sausages. Whether these systems act cooperatively, or if there are other yet undescribed mechanisms involved is currently unknown. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Fermented fish in Africa: a study on processing, marketing and consumption

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Essuman, Kofi Manso

    1992-01-01

    ...; and fermentation with salting but no drying. It was also observed in the study that, unlike in Southeast Asian countries, fermented fishery products in Africa are usually whole or in cut pieces, and are not a paste or sauce...

  11. The Antibacterial Potential of Fermented Taro and Its Development as a Food Preservative

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muller, Wayne

    2002-01-01

    ...: The antibacterial potential of the fermented taro and its development as a food preservative. In an attempt to understand the natural fermentation of taro to poi, bacteria have been isolated from freeze dried poi produced in Hawaii...

  12. Listeria Monocytogenes Persistence in Ready-to-Eat Sausages and in Processing Plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mureddu, Anna; Mazza, Roberta; Fois, Federica; Meloni, Domenico; Bacciu, Roberto; Piras, Francesca; Mazzette, Rina

    2014-01-21

    Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern in the fermented meat products and is able to persist in their processing environments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the virulence profile and the persistence capacity of L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Sardinian fermented sausages processing plants. Food (ground meat, sausages at the end of acidification and ripening stage) and environmental samples (a total of n. 385), collected from 4 meat processing plants located in Sardinia (Italy), were examined to detect L. monocytogenes presence. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) method. A subset of strains was also characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping, using the lmo0737 , lmo1118 , ORF2819 and ORF2110 genes. Three different multiplex PCRs were used to obtain the virulence profiles by the rrn , hlyA , actA , prfA , inlA , inlB , iap , plcA , plcB and mpl marker genes. Furthermore, in vitro biofilm forming ability and resistance to disinfectants were carried out on microtiter plate. The overall prevalence was 31.5% in food, and 68.5% in environmental samples. The prevalent serotype resulted 1/2c (43%), followed by 1/2a (40%), 4b (8.6%), and 1/2b (8.6%). The amplification products of the virulence genes were found in all the isolates with the following prevalence: 77.1% hlyA ; 100% rrn ; 100% prfA ; 97.1% iap ; 65.7% inlB ; 88.6% inlA ; 100% plcA ; 100% plcB and 74.3% mpl . As for biofilm forming ability, 37.1% of the strains were positive and resulted weak producer, but all the isolates were sensible to disinfectants showing a reduction of L. monocytogenes growth after each incubation time. More appropriate technologies and application of measures of hygienic control should be implemented to prevent the L. monocytogenes growth and cross-contamination in salsiccia sarda processing plants.

  13. Listeria monocytogenes persistence in ready-to-eat sausages and in processing plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Mureddu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Listeria monocytogenes is of major concern in the fermented meat products and is able to persist in their processing environments. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the virulence profile and the persistence capacity of L. monocytogenes strains isolated in Sardinian fermented sausages processing plants. Food (ground meat, sausages at the end of acidification and ripening stage and environmental samples (a total of n. 385, collected from 4 meat processing plants located in Sardinia (Italy, were examined to detect L. monocytogenes presence. All the L. monocytogenes isolates were identified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR method. A subset of strains was also characterised by multiplex PCR-based serogrouping, using the lmo0737, lmo1118, ORF2819 and ORF2110 genes. Three different multiplex PCRs were used to obtain the virulence profiles by the rrn, hlyA, actA, prfA, inlA, inlB, iap, plcA, plcB and mpl marker genes. Furthermore, in vitro biofilm forming ability and resistance to disinfectants were carried out on microtiter plate. The overall prevalence was 31.5% in food, and 68.5% in environmental samples. The prevalent serotype resulted 1/2c (43%, followed by 1/2a (40%, 4b (8.6%, and 1/2b (8.6%. The amplification products of the virulence genes were found in all the isolates with the following prevalence: 77.1% hlyA; 100% rrn; 100% prfA; 97.1% iap; 65.7% inlB; 88.6% inlA; 100% plcA; 100% plcB and 74.3% mpl. As for biofilm forming ability, 37.1% of the strains were positive and resulted weak producer, but all the isolates were sensible to disinfectants showing a reduction of L. monocytogenes growth after each incubation time. More appropriate technologies and application of measures of hygienic control should be implemented to prevent the L. monocytogenes growth and crosscontamination in salsiccia sarda processing plants.

  14. Thua nao: Thai fermented soybean

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekachai Chukeatirote

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Thua nao is a traditionally fermented food in Thailand. It is manufactured by fermenting cooked soybeans with naturally occurring microbes. There are also similar products including natto in Japan, kinema in India, and chongkukjang in Korea. In Thailand, thua nao is widely consumed, especially by people in the northern part. The product is generally regarded as a protein supplement and widely used as a condiment. Two major types of thua nao can be distinguished; fresh and dried forms. To date, scientific information on thua nao is scarce and thus this article aims to document the updated knowledge of Thai thua nao.

  15. Effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of Greek traditional sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fista, G A; Bloukas, J G; Siomos, A S

    2004-10-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of leek and onion on processing and quality characteristics of sausages and select the most appropriate, to determine the optimum level of selected vegetable and to improve its effectiveness on quality characteristics of sausages, in comparison to the addition of nitrites (100 ppm), by using a starter culture of Staphylococcus carnosus and ascorbate. The nitrate content of leek ranged from 213 to 255 ppm and that of onion was 79 ppm. Sausages produced with leek had higher (pnitrite content (1.3-2.1 ppm) and a (∗)(+) values and higher scores for sensory attributes than sausages with onion. Sausages made with the total leek plant had the highest score for overall acceptability. The higher the leek level the higher the nitrate and nitrite content of sausages and the lower the redness, a (∗)(+). Sausages with 240 g of leek/kg had the highest (pnitrite content, higher weight losses and lower pH values after the 3rd day of storage, compared to sausages produced with the addition of sodium nitrite. The addition of starter culture and ascorbic acid improved the redness (a (∗)) of sausages and reduced the 2-thiobarbituric acid value. Sausages with leek, starter culture and ascorbic acid had the highest score for odour and taste and overall acceptability.

  16. Impacts of Irradiation Sources on Quality Attributes of Low-salt Sausage during Refrigerated Storage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Wook; Choi, Yun-Sang

    2017-01-01

    This study was performed to investigate the impacts of irradiation sources on quality attributes of low-salt sausage during refrigerated storage. Control sausage was prepared with 1.5% sodium chloride (NaCl), whereas low-salt sausage was formulated with 0.75% NaCl (a 50% reduction; L-control). Sausage samples were vacuum-packaged, and low-sausages were irradiated with gamma-ray, electron-beam and X-ray at 5 kGy, respectively. The samples were stored at 4°C for 28 d to determine changes in quality attributes. The pH of low-salt sausages was unaffected by irradiation at 5 kGy (p>0.05). Higher redness values were found at irradiated low-salt sausages compared to control (psausage were higher than those of low-salt sausages (psausage treatments. The overall sensory acceptability score of irradiated/low-salt sausages were lower than L-control due to decreased scores for cooked meat flavor but increased radiolytic off-flavor (psausages were higher than control and L-control (psausages (psausages, and suggest that further studies should be necessary to reducing radiolytic off-flavor of irradiated/low-salt sausages. PMID:29147093

  17. Occurrence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In Morocco, the consumption of meat products has experienced a sharp increase in recent years despite the presence of pathogenic bacteria due to hygiene failure. The present study was designed to determine the prevalence of Clostridium perfringens in sausages sold in Meknes city (Morocco) and to study the different ...

  18. Fat substitutes in processing of sausages using piramutaba waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Fátima Henriques Lourenço, Lúcia; Dos Santos Galvão, Giane Célia; da Conceição Amaral Ribeiro, Suezilde; de Fátima Amaral Ribeiro, Carmelita; Park, Kil Jin

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate fat substitute in processing of sausages prepared with surimi of waste from piramutaba filleting. The formulation ingredients were mixed with the fat substitutes added according to a fractional planning 2(4-1), where the independent variables, manioc starch (Ms), hydrogenated soy fat (F), texturized soybean protein (Tsp) and carrageenan (Cg) were evaluated on the responses of pH, texture (Tx), raw batter stability (RBS) and water holding capacity (WHC) of the sausage. Fat substitutes were evaluated in 11 formulations and the results showed that the greatest effects on the responses were found to Ms, F and Cg, being eliminated from the formulation Tsp. To find the best formulation for processing piramutaba sausage was made a complete factorial planning of 2(3) to evaluate the concentrations of fat substitutes in an enlarged range. The optimum condition found for fat substitutes in the sausages formulation were carrageenan (0.51%), manioc starch (1.45%) and fat (1.2%).

  19. Frankfurter Type Sausage Production with Sunflower Oil Substitution

    OpenAIRE

    ERTAŞ, A. Hamdi; KARABAŞ, Gülay

    2014-01-01

    Some quality characteristics of frankfurter type sausages (with 30% total fat) produced by adding sunflower oil at different levels (10%, 20% and 30%) were determined and compared to control with 30% animal fat. Increasing of sunflower oil content resulted in lower process yield. Cholesterol content and water holding capacity of frankfurters also decreased at the levels of sunflower oil from 10 to 30% (P

  20. Fermentation Industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grady, C. P. L., Jr.; Grady, J. K.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of wastes from the fermentation industry, covering publications of 1976-77. This review focuses on: (1) alcoholic beverage production; (2) pharmaceuticals and biochemicals production; and (3) biomass production. A list of 62 references is also presented. (HM)

  1. Effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasonova, V. V.; Tunieva, E. K.

    2017-09-01

    The use of nitrate-containing vegetable powders instead of sodium nitrite in meat products requires changes in technological production parameters in order to obtain traditional organoleptic characteristics in the finished products. The aim of this work was to study the effect of chard powder on colour and aroma formation in cooked sausages. Cooked sausage samples were: control with nitrite curing mixture; type 1 sausages with chard powder and ascorbic acid; type 2 sausages with chard powder and sodium ascorbate. To transform nitrate ions contained in the vegetable chard powder to nitrite ions using a denitrifying culture, preliminary thermal treatments were used: 30 and 60 min at 40±2°C, after which the sausages were cooked until a temperature of 72±2°C was achieved. The sausages were stored for 40 days at 0-6°C. When sausage meat was initially held at 40°C for 60 min, a homogenous pink colour formed in the sausages with the vegetable powder. The indicators of lightness, redness and yellowness in cooked sausages as well as the indicators of instrumental odour assessment did not differ significantly (p>0.05). The indicators of colour stability during storage were 1.1-3.0% higher in the sausages with the chard powder compared to the control. The mass fraction of sodium nitrite in the experimental sausages was 2.0-2.2 higher than in the control (p>0.05). As a result of cooked sausage storage, the differences in the sodium nitrite content in the control and types 1 and 2 sausages were similar. During storage, the mass fraction of sodium nitrite decreased in types 1 and 2 sausages by 55.6 and 54.8%, respectively (p<0.05). Cooked sausages with the chard powder contained 2.1-2.4 times more sodium nitrate than did control sausages (p<0.05). However, all tested sausage samples complied with legislative requirements in terms of their sodium nitrite and nitrate levels.

  2. Application of composite protective coatings on the surface of sausages with different water content

    OpenAIRE

    Andrzej Tyburcy; Patrycja Wasiak; Aneta Cegiełka

    2010-01-01

    Background. Emulsion coatings on the surface of sausages counteract weight loss during storage. Therefore they could be applied instead of synthetic foils, which are used for vacuum packaging. The aim of this study was the assessment of the properties of two emulsion coatings (with different carrageenan content) applied on the surface of two Polish sausages with various water content (kabanosy and frankfurterki). Material and methods. Sausages were coated with emulsions containing gelati...

  3. Incidence and distribution of filamentous fungi during fermentation, drying and storage of coffee (Coffea arabica L. beans Incidência e distribuição de fungos filamentosos durante a fermentação, secagem e armazenamento de frutos e grãos de café (Coffea arabica L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina Ferreira Silva

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to isolate and characterize filamentous fungi present in different stages of harvest, fermentation, drying and storage of coffee beans processed by natural method. The cherries were hand-picked and then placed on a cement drying platform where they remained until reached 11% of humidity. Microbial counts were found in all samples during fermentation and drying of the coffee beans. Counts of fungi in the coffee cherries collected from the tree (time 0 were around 1.5 x 10³ CFU/g. This number increased slowly during the fermentation and drying reaching values of 2 x 10(5 CFU/g within 22 days of processing. Two hundred and sixty three isolates of filamentous fungi were identified. The distribution of species during fermentation and drying was very varied while there was a predominance of Aspergillus species during storage period. The genera found were Pestalotia (4, Paecelomyces (4, Cladosporium (26, Fusarium (34, Penicillium (81 and Aspergillus (112 and comprised 38 different species.O objetivo deste estudo foi isolar e caracterizar fungos filamentosos presentes em diferentes estágios de beneficiamento de café processado pelo método natural, incluindo: colheita, fermentação, secagem e armazenamento. O café cereja foi colhido manualmente e então colocado em uma plataforma de cimento, onde permaneceu até atingir 11% de umidade. A contagem microbiana foi realizada em todas as amostras durante a fermentação e secagem do café. A população de fungos filamentosos no café cereja ainda nos pés (tempo 0 foi em torno de 1,5 x 10³ UFC/g. Este número aumentou vagarosamente durante a fermentação e secagem, alcançando valores de 2 x 10(5 UFC/g em 22 dias do processamento. Duzentos e sessenta e três isolados de fungos filamentosos foram identificados. A distribuição das espécies durante fermentação e secagem foi bastante variada, mas no armazenamento dos grãos ocorreu o predomínio de espécies de

  4. Antioxidant Activities of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract and Its Application to the Pork Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J. H.; Kang, S. N.; Shin, D.; Hur, I. C.; Kim, I. S.; Jin, S. K.

    2013-01-01

    Influence of Achyranthes japonica Nakai Extract (AJNE) on properties of pork sausages were studied in the present investigation. AJNE was added to sausages alone or in combination with ascorbic acid to obtain a comparative analysis on properties of control and ascorbic acid added-sausages. Results showed that addition of 0.05% AJNE led to a decrease in color L* and whiteness (W), and an increase in color b* of pork sausage samples (psausages containing AJNE was not significantly different, ascorbic acid added-sausages were highest amongst other treatments (pSausages containing AJNE had lower non-heme iron values and peroxide value (POV) than control sausages (psausages (psausages (psausages. Free radical scavenging analysis showed that AJNE did not affect 1,1-diphenyl -2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) activity of sausages, whereas ascorbic acid added-sausages showed relatively higher activity among the samples (psausages. In sensory evaluation, AJNE treatment had significant effects on color (psausages, and appears to be particularly effective in inducing changes in non-heme iron concentration, POV value and nitrosomyglobin content. PMID:25049789

  5. A Process Technology For Conversion Of Dried Cassava Chips Into ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    “Gari”, made from fermented bitter Cassava roots (Manihot esculenta crantz) were successfully processed from already dried Cassava chips at 7% moisture level. Cassava mash at 67% moisture was prepared from dried Cassava chips. This was seeded severally with fresh cassava mash and fermented for 72hours.

  6. Manioc alcohol by continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Del Bianco, V; de Queiroz Araujo, N; Miceli, A; Souza e Silva, P C; da Silva Burle, J A

    1976-01-01

    EtOH was produced from dry cassava meal by first obtaining a glucose syrup by enzymic action, then fermenting the syrup with yeast. Bacillus subtilis amylase and Aspergillus awamori amyloglucosidase were prepared by growing the organisms on cassava meal. Both enzymes were used to saccharify the cassava starch to syrup. Saccharomyces cervisiae ATCC 1133 was then used in a continuous process to produce EtOH.

  7. Superintegrability of geodesic motion on the sausage model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arutyunov, Gleb; Heinze, Martin; Medina-Rincon, Daniel

    2017-06-01

    Reduction of the η-deformed sigma model on AdS_5× S5 to the two-dimensional squashed sphere (S^2)η can be viewed as a special case of the Fateev sausage model where the coupling constant ν is imaginary. We show that geodesic motion in this model is described by a certain superintegrable mechanical system with four-dimensional phase space. This is done by means of explicitly constructing three integrals of motion which satisfy the sl(2) Poisson algebra relations, albeit being non-polynomial in momenta. Further, we find a canonical transformation which transforms the Hamiltonian of this mechanical system to the one describing the geodesic motion on the usual two-sphere. By inverting this transformation we map geodesics on this auxiliary two-sphere back to the sausage model. This paper is a tribute to the memory of Prof Petr Kulish.

  8. Effects of feeding canola meal or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles as a major protein source in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mutsvangwa, T; Kiran, D; Abeysekara, S

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding canola meal (CM) or wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (W-DDGS) as the major source of protein in diets varying in crude protein (CP) content on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein production, omasal nutrient flow, and production performance in lactating dairy cows. Eight lactating dairy cows were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 29-d periods (21 d of dietary adaptation and 8 d of measurements) and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in 1 Latin square were ruminally cannulated to allow ruminal and omasal sampling. The treatment factors were (1) source of supplemental protein (CM vs. W-DDGS) and (2) dietary CP content (15 vs. 17%; DM basis). Diets contained 50% forage and 50% concentrate, and were fed twice daily at 0900 and 1600 h as total mixed rations for ad libitum intake. Dry matter intake and milk yield were unaffected by dietary treatments; however, milk yield in cows that were fed CM was numerically greater (+1.1 kg/d) when compared with cows fed W-DDGS. Feeding CM increased milk lactose content compared with feeding W-DDGS. Milk urea nitrogen and ruminal NH3-N concentrations were greater in cows fed the high-CP compared with those fed the low-CP diet. The rumen-degradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-degradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the high-CP when compared with those fed the low-CP diet when diets contained W-DDGS. Total N flow at the omasal canal was not affected by diet; however, omasal flow of NH3-N was greater in cows fed CM when compared with those fed W-DDGS. The rumen-undegradable protein supply was greater in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the high-CP diet when diets contained CM, whereas rumen-undegradable protein supply was lower in cows fed the low-CP when compared with those fed the

  9. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications

  10. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Ludmila Luňáková; Matej Pospiech; Bohuslava Tremlová; Alena Saláková; Zdeňka Javůrková; Josef Kameník

    2016-01-01

    Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains consid...

  11. Sausage instability threshold in a low energy plasma focus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zakaullah, M.; Nasir, M.; Khattak, F.Y.; Murtaza, G.

    1993-01-01

    Development of sausage instability (m = 0 mode) is studied in a small low energy Mather-type plasma focus. A shadow graphic study of the current sheath has shown that the focused plasma necks off during the radial phase before the maximum compression. This may indicate the lowering of the instability threshold. Three hook-type structures are observed which may not be due to the multifoci formation. The bubble shape structure is observed to be developed in the expansion phase. (author)

  12. On-line monitoring of important organoleptic methyl-branched aldehydes during batch fermentation of starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus reveal new insight into their production in a model fermentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de Vos Petersen, Christian; Beck, Hans Christian; Lauritsen, Frants R

    2004-01-01

    A small fermentor (55 mL) was directly interfaced to a membrane inlet mass spectrometer for continuous on-line monitoring of oxygen and volatile metabolites during batch fermentations of the starter culture Staphylococcus xylosus. Using this technique, we were able to correlate production...... of a longer aerobic growth period. Growing S. xylosus under conditions resembling those in a fermented sausage revealed that NaCl (5%) increased aldehyde production considerably, whereas KNO(3) (0.03%) or NaNO(2) (0.03%) had little effect. A lowering of pH from 7.2 to 6.0 reduced cell density, but had a minor...

  13. Alcoholic fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colin, P

    1961-01-04

    The addition of C/sub 6-10/ alcohols to the fermenting sugar solutions, increased the yield of alcohol by 1.5 to 5%. The best additives were (additive, % additive in sugar solution, % increased in yield of alcohol): hexanol, 0.03, 2.5; heptanol, 0.05, 3; nonanol, 0.01, 3; 2-ethylbutanol, 0.05, 4; 2-ethylhexanol, 0.05, 5; a mixture of C/sub 7-9/ alcohols from the Oxo synthesis, 0.05, 4.5, and a mixture of C/sub 10/ alcohols 0.05, 3.

  14. Oxygen and diverse nutrients influence the water kefir fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laureys, David; Aerts, Maarten; Vandamme, Peter; De Vuyst, Luc

    2018-08-01

    Eight water kefir fermentation series differing in the presence of oxygen, the nutrient concentration, and the nutrient source were studied during eight consecutive backslopping steps. The presence of oxygen allowed the proliferation of acetic acid bacteria, resulting in high concentrations of acetic acid, and decreased the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium aquikefiri. Low nutrient concentrations resulted in slow water kefir fermentation and high pH values, which allowed the growth of Comamonas testosteroni/thiooxydans. Further, low nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus hilgardii and Dekkera bruxellensis, whereas high nutrient concentrations favored the growth of Lactobacillus nagelii and Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Dried figs, dried apricots, and raisins resulted in stable water kefir fermentation. Water kefir fermentation with dried apricots resulted in the highest pH and water kefir grain growth, whereas that with raisins resulted in the lowest pH and water kefir grain growth. Further, water kefir fermentation with raisins resembled fermentations with low nutrient concentrations, that with dried apricots resembled fermentations with normal nutrient concentrations, and that with fresh figs or a mixture of yeast extract and peptone resembled fermentations with high nutrient concentrations. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Acceptability of prebiotic fiber-treated whey drink fermented with ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This work aimed to develop a fermented drink by diversifying the quantities of Lactobacillus acidophilus inoculum and prebiotic fiber in the form of inulin and using the total dry extract of whey and sucrose. After fermentation, the following measurements were made after 0, 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage at 6°C: titratable ...

  16. Effect of Fermentation Methods on the Nutrient Profile and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study evaluated the effect of fermentation method on the nutrient profile and organoleptic characteristics of African oil bean seed (Pentaclethra macrophylla Benth). Materials and Methods: Dry and mature African oil bean seeds were cleaned, boiled, dehulled, cooked, sliced/pulverized and fermented to ugba ...

  17. Antibacterial profile of fermented seed extracts of ricinus communis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study was carried out to ascertain the antibacterial properties inherent in fermented seed extracts of Ricinus communis. Dry seeds of R. communis (Castor oil plant) were deshelled, grounded to powder, fermented, and then extracted both with alcohol and water using Soxhlet machine. Different concentrations of the ...

  18. Effect of lactic acid bacteria starter culture fermentation of cassava ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of lactic acid fermentation of cassava on the chemical and sensory characteristic of fufu flour were investigated. Two strains of Lactobacillus plantarum were used as starter cultures for the fermentation of cassava to fufu for 96 h. The resultant wet fufu samples were dried at 65oC in a cabinet dryer for 48 h and ...

  19. Dynamics of sausage instabilities of a gas-puff Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sopkin, Yu.V.; Dorokhin, L.A.; Koshelev, K.N.; Sidelnikov, Yu.V.

    1991-01-01

    The early stage of the sausage instability in a gas-puff Z-pinch has been registered in VUV and soft X-rays with a 10 ns framing camera. We hypothesize that the rings of plasma expanding from the sausage instability enable an alternative current path to dominate the formation of 'micropinches'. (orig.)

  20. Hydroxytyrosol extracts, olive oil and walnuts as functional components in chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nieto, Gema; Martínez, Lorena; Castillo, Julian; Ros, Gaspar

    2017-08-01

    Olive oil, hydroxytyrosol and walnut can be considered ideal Mediterranean ingredients for their high polyphenolic content and healthy properties. Three extracts of hydroxytyrosol obtained using different extraction processes (HXT 1, 2, 3) (50 ppm) were evaluated for use as antioxidants in eight different chicken sausage formulas enriched in polyunsaturated fatty acids (2.5 g 100 g -1 walnut) or using extra virgin olive oil (20 g 100 g -1 ) as fat replacer. Lipid and protein oxidation, colour, emulsion stability, and the microstructure of the resulting chicken sausages were investigated and a sensory analysis was carried out. The sausages with HXT extracts were found to decrease lipid oxidation and to lead to the loss of thiol groups compared with control sausages. Emulsion stability (capacity to hold water and fat) was greater in the sausages containing olive oil and walnut than in control sausages. In contrast, the HXT extracts produced high emulsion instability (increasing cooking losses). Sensory analysis suggested that two of the HXT extracts studied (HXT 2 and HXT 3 ) were unacceptable, while the acceptability of the other was similar to that of the control products. Sausages incorporating HXT showed different structures than control samples or sausages with olive oil, related to the composition of the emulsion. These results suggest the possibility of replacing animal fat by olive oil and walnut in order to produce healthy meat products. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Effect of Black Rice Powder Levels on Quality Properties of Emulsion-type Sausage

    OpenAIRE

    Park, Sin-Young; Kim, Hack-Youn

    2016-01-01

    The effects of black rice powder on the quality of sausage were investigated. Samples were prepared with 0% (control), 1%, 3%, and 5% black rice powder. With increasing black rice powder content, the moisture and ash content of sausage increased, while protein content was significantly less than that observed for the control (p

  2. The Shape of a Sausage: A Challenging Problem in the Calculus of Variations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deakin, Michael A. B.

    2010-01-01

    Many familiar household objects (such as sausages) involve the maximization of a volume under geometric constraints. A flexible but inextensible membrane bounds a volume which is to be filled to capacity. In the case of the sausage, a full analytic solution is here provided. Other related but more difficult problems seem to demand approximate…

  3. FERMENTATION ACTIVITY OF LACTOSE-FERMENTATION YEAST IN WHEY-MALT WORT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. Greek

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The main parameters of fermentation of whey-malt wort with the use of different strains of lactose-fermentation yeast was investigated experimentally. According to the findings of investigation of fermentive activity for different types of lactose-fermentation microorganisms in whey-malt wort it was found that the most active spirituous fermentation for all parameters was in wort fermented by microorganisms Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95. High capacity for utilization of malt carbohydrates represented by easily metabolized carbohydrates of malt extract was determined. Also organoleptic analysis of fermented whey drinks derived from the renewed mixtures of dry whey and fermented malt and yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K and Saccharomyces lactis 95 was carried out. It was found that the drink fermented with yeast Zygosaccharomyces lactis 868-K had intense refreshing flavor of rye bread with fruit tones. Intensity growth of aromatization for complex of sample with microorganisms Saccharomyces lactis 95, indicating high organoleptic indexes of the drink was observed.

  4. The Application of Clove Extract Protects Chinese-style Sausages against Oxidation and Quality Deterioration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Xinyan

    2017-01-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of clove extract (CE) (0.25%, 0.5%, 1%, and 2%) on the oxidative stability and quality deterioration of Chinese-style sausage stored for 21 d at 4°C. The addition of clove extract to sausages significantly retarded increases in Thiobarbituric Reactive Substances (TBARS) values (psausages (pSausages amended with clove extract also had decreased L* values (psausage containing added clove extract when compared with the control during refrigerated storage. Moreover, the addition of clove extract had no negative effects on the sensory properties of sausages. These results suggested that clove extract was effective at protecting sausages from oxidation and quality deterioration during refrigerated storage for 21 d. PMID:28316478

  5. Irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on residual nitrite, ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin, and color in sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hyun-Joo; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, Ju-Woon; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kee-Hyuk; Byun, Myung-Woo

    2003-02-26

    The present study was undertaken to evaluate the irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging effects on emulsion-type cooked pork sausage during storage for 4 weeks. CO(2) (100%), N(2) (100%), or 25% CO(2)/75% N(2) packaged sausage were irradiated at 0, 5, and 10 kGy, and residual nitrite, residual ascorbic acid, nitrosomyoglobin (NO-Mb), color values, and their correlation were observed. Irradiation significantly reduced the residual nitrite content and caused partial reduction of NO-Mb during storage. No difference was observed in ascorbic acid content by irradiation. Irradiation decreased the Hunter color a value of sausage. CO(2) or CO(2)/N(2) packaging were more effective for reducing residual nitrite and inhibiting the loss of the red color of sausage compared to N(2) packaging. Results indicated that the proper combination of irradiation and modified atmosphere packaging could reduce the residual nitrite in sausage with minimization of color change.

  6. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W.

    2002-01-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution

  7. Quality properties of sausage made with gamma irradiated natural casing from intestine of pork or lamb

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Cho, K.-H.; Yook, H.-S.; Byun, M.-W. E-mail: mwbyun@kaeri.re.kr

    2002-03-01

    Quality properties in emulsion-type sausage stuffed into irradiated natural casing were studied. The numbers of total aerobic bacteria, Enterococci and coliform bacteria in the sausage prepared with irradiated natural pork and lamb casing were significantly decreased or eliminated compared to those prepared with the nonirradiated control. The 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value in the sausage with irradiated natural casing did not change significantly during storage with minor exceptions. The total working force of shear of the sausages were decreased in both irradiated casings but the sensory evaluation showed no difference. Therefore, the gamma irradiation was a useful technique to sanitize the natural pork and lamb casings and to extend the shelf-life of the sausage made with natural casings during distribution.

  8. Effect of antioxidants on the quality of irradiated sausages prepared with turkey thigh meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, M; Ahn, D U

    2002-08-01

    The effects of antioxidants on the flavor and color of electron-beam-irradiated turkey sausages were studied. Sausages were prepared from turkey thigh meat, NaCl (2.0%), phosphate (0.5%), water (10%), and one of five antioxidant treatments (none, vitamin E, sesamol, rosemary extract, or gallic acid at 0.02%). Sausages were stuffed and cooked in an 85 C smokehouse to an internal temperature of 74 C, then chilled and sliced to 1.5-cm thickness, and vacuum-packaged. Packaged sausages were randomly divided into three groups and irradiated at 0, 1.5 or 3.0 kGy, using an electron beam. Volatiles, color, 2-TBA-reactive substances values, and sensory characteristics were analyzed. The antioxidant effect of sesamol was the highest, followed by vitamin E and gallic acid; rosemary extract had the weakest antioxidant effect. Irradiation induced red color in sausages, but addition of gallic acid, rosemary extract, or sesamol reduced it. Gallic acid was very effective in lowering the redness of irradiated and nonirradiated sausages. The redness (a*) values of sausages with added gallic acid that were irradiated at 0, 1.5, and 3.0 kGy were 1.49,2.03, and 2.29, respectively, whereas those of control sausages under the same irradiation conditions were 2.58, 2.81, and 3.25, respectively. The reduction of redness in irradiated sausages by antioxidants was not related to CO, because antioxidants had no effect on CO production by irradiation. The amount of total volatiles was decreased significantly by antioxidants, but antioxidants had minimal effect on the off-flavor of turkey sausages induced by irradiation.

  9. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  10. Antimicrobial activity of ethanolic extract of propolis in “Alheira”, a fermented meat sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rocío Casquete

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an ethanolic extract of propolis (EEP in the control of Listeria innocua PHLS 2030c (as a surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes during storage of Alheira at 4°C. Total phenolic content was evaluated to determine the minimal inhibitory concentration of EEP against the growth of L. innocua by the agar dilution method. Alheiras were manufactured by incorporating EEP (0.28 mg/mL and pathogenic bacteria and storage during 62 days at 4°C. Growth of L. innocua was determined during storage. The behaviour of L. innocua in the food matrix was significantly affected (p < 0.01 by the addition of EEP. The ethanolic extract of propolis reduced the Listeria population to below the detection limit of the technique after 8 days of storage. These results suggest that incorporation of EEP in a food susceptible to Listeria contamination may be an interesting alternative to existing chemical preservatives and can extend the shelf life of these products.

  11. Potential probiotic Lactobacillus strains from fermented sausages: Further investigations on their probiotic properties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pennacchia, C.; Vaughan, E.E.; Villani, F.

    2006-01-01

    A rational selection of probiotic microorganisms is an important challenge and requires the definition of fundamental information about the physiology and genetics of candidate strains. In this study, selected Lactobacillus (Lact.) strains already characterized in a previous study for their

  12. Essential oils from herbs against foodborne pathogens in chicken sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Lidiane Nunes; Probst, Isabella Silva; Murbach Teles Andrade, Bruna Fernanda; Bérgamo Alves, Fernanda Cristina; Albano, Mariana; Mores Rall, Vera Lucia; Júnior, Ary Fernandes

    2015-01-01

    Consumption of chicken meat and its products, especially sausage, have increased in recent years. However, this product is susceptible to microbial contamination during manufacturing, which compromises its shelf life. The flavoring and preservative activities of essential oils (EO) have been recognized and the application of these antimicrobial agents as natural active compounds in food preservation has shown promise. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Ocimum basilicum and Origanum vulgare EO on Listeria monocytogenes and Salmonella Enteritidis strains in artificially inoculated samples of fresh chicken sausage. First, the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of EO in vitro was determined. The sausage was prepared and kept at ± 4°C; then, the inoculation of individual bacteria was carried out. EO were added at 0.3%, 1.0% and 1.5%v/w. After 0, 5, and 24 hours, the most probable number method (MPN) was performed. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to view the damage caused by these EO on bacterial morphology and/or structure. Only the 1.5% concentration was effective in reducing L. monocytogenes. 0.3% of O. vulgare EO was able to reduce the MPN/g of Salmonella Enteritidis (2 log) after 5 hours trials. O. basilicum EO showed no effect on Salmonella after 5 hours, but decreased by 2 log after 24 hours. O. vulgare EO at 1% gave a greater reduction of S. Enteritidis at 5 hours, increasing or maintaining this effect after 24 hours. The results confirmed the potential benefits of use EO in control of foodborne pathogens.

  13. Studies on the quality of duck meat sausages during refrigeration

    OpenAIRE

    Naveen, Z.; Naik, B. R.; Subramanyam, B. V.; Reddy, P. M.

    2016-01-01

    Duck farming is on the raise in the current scenario, but processed products from duck meat are still uncommon to find. Investigating the duck meat qualities during storage will provide information to enhance duck meat utilization. Development of ready-to-eat and ready-to-cook duck meat products is expected to increase and improve non-chicken meat-based protein. The Study was aimed to evaluate the changes in quality characteristics of duck meat sausages preserved by refrigeration (7???1??C). ...

  14. Sensory and microbiological evaluation of uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Cecilia Venturini

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the acceptability and the microbiological safety of uncured fresh chicken sausages with reduced fat content, considering the scientific evidence that correlated cancer and cardiovascular diseases to this diet. Two formulations of uncured fresh chicken sausage were processed using different concentrations of cochineal carmine pigment, rosemary extracts and synthetic antioxidants, which are used to give color, appearance and pleasant flavor to the products. Then, instrumental color (L*, a*, b*, C* and h*, microbial contamination and sensory tests (ranking and acceptance were used to evaluate the quality of the uncured chicken sausages. The instrumental color (chroma and hue and the sensory properties of the A and B uncured sausages were similar to the commercial cured sausage (C. However, the sensory color and appearance of samples A and B were statistically higher than those of the commercial uncured sausages D, which are prepared without the addition of nitrite or pigments. The results showed that it is possible to produce safe and high-quality uncured fresh chicken sausage with reduced fat content, using natural pigments and antioxidants.

  15. Shallow irradiation of vienna sausage by electron beams in preventation of the slime production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watanabe, Hiroshi; Kume, Tamikazu; Ito, Hitoshi; Aoki, Shohei; Sato, Tomotaro

    1975-01-01

    Vienna sausages get spoiled by slime production or putrefaction due to the propagation of microorganisms when stored for 3 to 5 days at 10 deg C. The radiation pasteurization of vienna sausages has mainly been studied with gamma irradiation. The slime of sausages is believed to be microorganisms themselves growing on the surface of the sausages. Pasteurization of the surface of vienna sausages with electron irradiation was thus investigated. The results obtained are as follows: The vienna sausages irradiated with a dose of 0.8 to approximately 1.0 Mrad by 0.5 MeV electrons could be stored without slime production or putrefaction for more than a week at 11 deg C. The effect of pasteurization increased with energy and dose of electrons. However, the changes in the organoleptic qualities of vienna sausages were detected when irradiated with a dose of over 0.7 Mrad by 2.0 MeV electrons. Consequently, the irradiation with a dose of 1.0 Mrad by 1.0 MeV electrons was effectual in lengthening their shelf-life without deterioration of the organoleptic qualities. (author)

  16. The economics of ethanol production by extractive fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daugulis, A J; Axford, D B; McLellan, P J [Queen' s Univ., Kingston, ON (Canada)

    1991-04-01

    Extractive fermentation is a processing strategy in which reaction and recovery occur simultaneously in a fermentation vessel through the use of a water-immiscible solvent which selectively removes an inhibitory product. An ethanol-extractive fermentation process has been developed, incorporating continuous operation and the ability to ferment concentrated feedstocks. A detailed economic assessment of this process is provided relative to current technology for an annual capacity of 100 million litres of ethanol. Extractive fermentation provides significant economic advantages for both grass roots and retrofitted plants. Total production costs are estimated at 45{cents}/l for a conventional plant and 29.4{cents}/l for a retrofitted plant. The main cost saving achievable by extractive fermentation is in energy, used for evaporation and drying, since the process uses significantly less water in its conversion of concentrated feedstocks. Producing anhydrous ethanol without distillation is also a prospect. 15 refs., 5 fig., 10 tabs.

  17. CHARACTERISTICS OF STRUCTURE FORMATION IN COOKED SAUSAGE PRODUCTS USING SONOCHEMICAL TECHNOLOGIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Yevtushenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies the features of formation of sausage product structure in the process of cooking. It is shown that the viscosity of sausage meat varies in a complex manner and has three characteristic areas. The characteristic parameters that determine the formation of the structure of sausages for each area were found. It is established that the use of the cavitation brine gives the finished product a gentle consistence, elasticity and distinct taste that makes it more preferable for the consumer.

  18. Prospects of the "VT-Pro" series beef protein using in the sausages products technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. P. Dvoryaninova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recently, the negative attitude of consumers towards soy protein has been formed. Therefore, to increase the mass fraction of protein in the finished product, it is advisable to use animal proteins, the main advantage of which is multipurpose designation, easy use and the ability to ensure an increase in the finished products yield and high production profitability due to their use . The application of beef proteins from collagen-containing raw materials makes it possible to enrich meat products with dietary fiber, to improve the rheological properties of food products significantly, especially their consistency. High functional properties of animal proteins are manifested in their water-retaining capacity. The company "TRUMP Food Technologies" introduced several new positions into its assortment - beef proteins of the "VT-Pro" trade mark (fibrillar fraction collagen, the manufacturer of which is JSC "Verkhnevolzhsky tannery" (Tver region. Proteins of the "VT-Pro" trademark are unique in their characteristics and are natural, environmentally friendly products. Beef protein "VT-Pro" is suitable for the production of cooked sausage and ham products, semi-smoked and boiled-smoked sausages, canned goods, chopped semi-finished products and other meat products. It is used as a full-fledged stabilizing additive for the preparation of meat products with a specified yield and certain organoleptic characteristics (hydration 1: 10-15. It is determined that it is possible to use this protein in dry form, as a protein-fat emulsion, in the form of gel and granules. According to the pilot-industrial approbation under the conditions of AIC "PROMAGRO" LLC, it is possible to underline a number of advantages of beef protein "VT-Pro" using: it possesses high water-retaining and emulsifying ability; allows to process low-grade and fired raw materials and to replace expensive meat raw materials; it reduces the risk of broth-fat swelling; it improves the structure of

  19. Fermentation of solid wastes in Switzerland; Feststoff-Vergaerung in der Schweiz. Schlussbericht 2007

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liesch, B.; Mueller, C.

    2007-06-15

    This final report for the Swiss Federal Office of Energy (SFOE) presents the results of a study on dry fermentation technologies. Information on the state-of-the-art of current dry fermentation systems is presented and the potential of implementing dry fermentation in Swiss agriculture is discussed. The study reveals that the current dry fermentation technologies provided by various enterprises are partly not suitable (complex, continuous operating digestion reactors, developed for handling municipal solid waste). Batch digestion reactors, however, are said by the authors to be mature for application in the Swiss agricultural area. Wet fermentation technologies are also quoted as being able to utilise organic substrates with high dry-matter content and are thus said to be economically more competitive than dry fermentation systems. Dry fermentation is quoted as being a technology with a high development potential. Details are presented on several continuous and non-continuous processes used. Also, the potential for the fermentation of solid wastes in Switzerland is reviewed. Experience made in Germany is also examined.

  20. SAUSAGE WAVES IN TRANSVERSELY NONUNIFORM MONOLITHIC CORONAL TUBES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopin, I. [Ussuriisk astrophysical observatory, Russion Academy of Sciences (Russian Federation); Nagorny, I., E-mail: lopin78@mail.ru [Institute of Automation and Control Processes FEB RAS, Vladivostok (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-10

    We investigate fast sausage waves in a monolithic coronal magnetic tube, modeled as a local density inhomogeneity with a continuous radial profile. This work is a natural extension of our previous results, obtained for a slab loop model for the case of cylindrical geometry. Using Kneser’s oscillating theorem, we provided the criteria for the existence of trapped and leaky wave regimes as a function of the profile features. For a number of density profiles there are only trapped modes for the entire range of longitudinal wave numbers. The phase speed of these modes tends toward the external Alfvén speed in the long wavelength limit. The generalized results were supported by the analytic solution of the wave equation for the specific density profiles. The approximate Wentzel–Kramers–Brillouin solutions allowed us to obtain the desired dispersion relations and to study their properties as a function of the profile parameters. The multicomponent quasi-periodic pulsations in flaring loops, observed on 2001 May 2 and 2002 July 3, are interpreted in terms of the transversely fundamental trapped fast sausage mode with several longitudinal harmonics in a smooth coronal waveguide.

  1. Sausage mode of a high density Z-pinch

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pereira, N.; Rostoker, N.

    1983-01-01

    In Z-pinch experiments at Maxwell Laboratories, Inc., growth rates have been measured by observing optical emission along the pinch axis. Growth rates estimated by means of the usual model of a pinch involving an incompressible fluid and a surface current are too large by a factor of 2-4. X-ray pinhole photographs generally have the appearance of a series of beads that would be expected from instability of the sausage mode. In some cases, particularly the implosion of large diameter wire arrays with BLACKJACK 5, the beads disappear and only the kink instability is apparent. Generalizing the pinch model to include compressibility does not significantly alter the predictions. A further generalization to include distributed current has therefore been considered. It seems likely that the current can penetrate significantly during the lifetime of the pinch. We consider a model of the pinch that is initially an infinite cylinder. For the sausage mode, stability is determined by a simple second order differential equation together with the boundary condition that follows from the wave number and the frequency of the instability

  2. Solid-state fermentation : modelling fungal growth and activity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smits, J.P.

    1998-01-01

    In solid-state fermentation (SSF) research, it is not possible to separate biomass quantitatively from the substrate. The evolution of biomass dry weight in time can therefore not be measured. Of the aiternatives to dry weight available, glucosamine content is most

  3. Probiotic fermented dairy products

    OpenAIRE

    Adnan Tamime; Rajka Božanić; Irena Rogelj

    2003-01-01

    Fermented dairy products are the most popular vehicle used in theindustry for the implantation of the probiotic microflora in humans. Therefore this paper provides an overview of new knowledge on probiotic fermented dairy products. It involves historical developments, commercial probiotic microorganisms and products, and their therapeutic properties, possibilities of quality improvement of different types of newly developed fermented dairy products together with fermented goat’s milk products.

  4. Effect of Chicory Fiber and Smoking on Quality Characteristics of Restructured Sausages

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Hyun-Su; Choi, Hyung-Gyu; Choi, Yeong-Seok; Kim, Jong-Hee; Lee, Ju-Ho; Jung, Eun-Hee; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Choi, Yang-Il

    2016-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of chicory fiber for the replacement of fat and smoking on quality characteristics of restructured sausages. Treatments were as follows; Control: Pork backfat 20%, T1: Pork backfat 10% + Chicory fiber 10%, T2: Control + Smoking, T3: T1 + Smoking. The addition of chicory fiber significantly reduced the moisture, fat, hardness and pH values, whereas the smoking treatment increased the fat, redness and pH values of restructured sausages (psausages. As a result, although the addition of chicory fiber decreased the quality characteristics of sausage, smoking treatment improved the reduced quality. Therefore, the chicory fiber and smoking treatment is helpful to develop restructured sausage products with reduced fat and compensated quality. PMID:27499674

  5. Replacement of mechanically deboned chicken meat with its protein hydrolysate in mortadella-type sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Pasqualin Cavalheiro

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Mortadella-type sausage manufactured using mechanically deboned chicken meat were reformulated replacing MDCM with increasing amounts of MDCM protein hydrolysates (10%, 20%, and 30%, and their physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial characteristics were evaluated for 60 days of storage at 4 °C. The higher substitutions resulted in sausages more susceptible to lipid oxidation with higher TBARS values during storage; however, these values were lower than the organoleptic perception threshold. The sausages were darker and less red, with lower lightness (L* and redness (a* values than those of the control treatment. They had soft texture, which was evidenced by both the instrumental and sensory analysis. Therefore, the formulation containing 10% of MDCM protein hydrolysates proved to be the most suitable for mortadella-type sausage elaboration.

  6. EVALUASI FISIKOKIMIA SOSIS TEMPE-DUMBO [Physicochemical Evaluation of Tempeh-Fish Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T J Moedjiharto

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluation on the physicochemical property of “tempe-dumbo” sausage made from meat of Clarias gariepinus and tempeh flour has been carried out. Randomized design with tree replications were used. Sausages were prepared from tempeh flour and fish meat in the proportion of: 1:0; 1:0,2; 1:0,3; 1:10,4 and 1:0,5 (w /w. Hardness, total volatile bases (TVB, and taste were evaluated. The results showed that the proportion of flour tempeh influenced the content the quality of “tempe-dumbo” sausage in term of protein quality, TVB.and taste. The addition of tempeh flour had significant effect the decrease essential amino acids, of total amino acids content, and organoleptic ascore (taste and flavor. . “Tempeh-dumbo” sausage contained essential amino acid of 27,354 mg/ g, protein which was consisted of 7 essential amino acid.

  7. GUT FERMENTATION SYNDROME

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    boaz

    individuals who became intoxicated after consuming carbohydrates, which became fermented in the gastrointestinal tract. These claims of intoxication without drinking alcohol, and the findings on endogenous alcohol fermentation are now called Gut. Fermentation Syndrome. This review will concentrate on understanding ...

  8. Alcoholic fermentation of whey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beach, A S; Holland, J W

    1958-09-10

    The lactose of whey and other milk products is rapidly fermented to ethanol by means of Candida pseudotropicalis strain XI. The fermentation is complete in about 12 hours and yields about 45% ethanol based on the weight of lactose. Conditions favoring the fermentation and inhibiting lactic acid production include pH 4.5, 30/sup 0/, and continuous aeration.

  9. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Sørensen, Karina Vejrum

    2014-01-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary...... fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after...... an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P

  10. The use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water as a source of nitrite for emulsion-type sausage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Samooel; Kim, Hyun Joo; Park, Sanghoo; In Yong, Hae; Choe, Jun Ho; Jeon, Hee-Joon; Choe, Wonho; Jo, Cheorun

    2015-10-01

    We investigated the possible use of atmospheric pressure plasma-treated water (PTW) as a nitrite source in curing process. Emulsion-type sausages were manufactured with PTW, celery powder containing nitrite, and synthetic sodium nitrite at a concentration of nitrite ion 70mgkg(-1). In terms of sausage quality, there were no noticeable effects of PTW on the total aerobic bacterial counts, color, and peroxide values of sausages compared with those of celery powder and sodium nitrite throughout 28days of storage at 4°C. Sausage with added PTW had lower concentrations of residual nitrite compared to those of added celery powder and sodium nitrite during the storage period (Pnitrite-treated sausages were not different, whereas the sausage with added celery powder received the lowest scores in taste and acceptability. From the results, it is concluded that PTW can be used as a nitrite source equivalent to a natural curing agent. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Effect of thyme and oregano aqueous tea infusions on the microbiological characteristics of sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Kročko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In this work the antimicrobial effect of Thymus vulgare and Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusion on the total mesophilic bacterial count (TVC, psychrotrophic bacteria count (PBC and enterococci count in the heat treated meat product - sausages were evaluated. To prepare 1 kg of sausage in experimental groups were used 10 cm3 of Thymus vulgare resp. Origanum vulgare aqueous tea infusions. It was found that value of TVC and PBC in the experimental groups of sausages with Thymus vulgare addition after 7 days of storage (4 °C were 2.78 resp. 2.14 log cfu.g-1 and with the Origanum vulgare addition were 2.49 resp. 1.90 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage were 3.13 resp. 2.72 log cfu.g-1. During 10 days of storage (4 °C the TVC and PBC in the sausages with Thymus vulgare addition increase and reached the value 4.81 resp. 3.52 log cfu.g-1. In the sausages with the Origanum vulgare addition TVC and PBC after 10 days of storage reached the value 3.67 resp. 1.60 log cfu.g-1. The value of TVC and PBC in the control group of sausage after 10 days of storage were 6.47 resp. 5.47 log cfu.g-1. Counts of enterococci in control and experimental groups of sausages during 10 days of storage were not detected. Thyme and origanum aqueous tea infusions suppressed the development of TVC and PBC compare to control samples. Normal 0 21 false false false EN-GB X-NONE X-NONE

  12. Sensory Characterization and Consumer Preference Mapping of Fresh Sausages Manufactured with Goat and Sheep Meat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulos, Kátia; Rodrigues, Sandra; Oliveira, António Filipe; Leite, Ana; Pereira, Etelvina; Teixeira, Alfredo

    2015-07-01

    The main objective of this study was the sensory characterization, by a taste and a consumers' panel, of fresh sausages from 140 culled goats and 140 culled ewes. Species and type of preparation effects were studied. All data were previously analyzed by analysis of variance. Taste panel data were analyzed by a Generalized Procrustes Analysis (GPA). Consumers' panel data were analyzed by Preference Mapping. The 1st 2 factors explained 88.22% of total variation in GPA. Different sausages samples were perfectly differentiated by assessors. Goat sausages have been considered harder, more fibrous, and less juicy than sheep sausages. The panelists observed that sheep sausages without paprika had greater intensity of flavor, tasted spicy, and had an off-odor, while goat sausages with paprika were considered sweeter. Consumers' panel did not show any preference for the different types of sausages. This means that all types of sausages can have market opportunity. The present study was a result of a project in co-promotion between 2 breeder associations, an industry unit and a research center. Results indicated that the meat from animals out of quality commercial brands could be useful as processed meat in a product with consumer acceptability. Also these new meat products brought diversity to meat industry to reach new markets and originating 2 new meat brands recorded at INPI (Instituto Nacional da Propriedade Industrial—Natl. Industrial Property Inst.) with the numbers of 489664 and 489662 of National Brands of sheep and goat meat, respectively. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  13. Effect of Information about Animal Feeding on Consumer Acceptability of Sausages from Turopolje Pig Breed

    OpenAIRE

    Cerjak, Marija; Petrčić, Mario; Karolyi, Danijel

    2017-01-01

    Th e aim of this study was to examine the infl uence of information about pig feeding (conventional vs. acorn-fed) on consumer acceptability and probability of purchase of sausages made from local Turopolje pig breed. The study was conducted on a sample of 135 respondents using three step procedures: hedonic test in blind conditions, evaluation of expected preferences and informed hedonic test. Results showed that in the blind test sausage from conventionally-fed pigs were rated higher, but i...

  14. Comparison of textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Vladimír Vietoris; Ľubomír Lopašovský; Peter Zajác; Jozef Čurlej; Jozef Čapla

    2013-01-01

    The aim of the study was to compare textural atributes of selected meat sausages using instrumental analysis. For this purpose, seven different meat sausage samples were treated by instrumental analysis, by the use of Warner-Bratzler probe,  to find differences for two selected textural parameter firmness and work of shear. As expected, various values of mentioned atributes were obtained for different samples tested in fresh stage and after storage under controlled conditions (48 hrs., 30 °...

  15. 7 CFR 52.3188 - Work sheet for dried prunes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... for dried prunes. Size and kind of container Container mark or identification Label or brand Varietal... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation... fermentation, scars, heat damage, insect injury, other means, mold, dirt, foreign material, insect infestation...

  16. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  17. Influence de la fermentation et du séchage solaire sur l'acquisition du pouvoir de panification de l'amidon aigre de manioc = Influence of fermentation and sun-drying on the breadmaking capacity of cassava sour starch

    OpenAIRE

    Dufour, D.; Brabet, C.; Zakhia, N.; Chuzel, G.

    1995-01-01

    L'amidon aigre de manioc, traditionnellement fermenté et séché au soleil, présente un pouvoir de panification. Cette étude porte sur l'évolution des propriétés physicochimiques et fonctionnelles de l'amidon aigre de manioc, au cours de la fermentation et du séchage au soleil, afin de corréler ces propriétés au pouvoir de panification. La mesure de pH, le dosage d'acidité totale et d'acide lactique produit, l'établissement des viscoamylogrammes et la détermination du pouvoir de panification on...

  18. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Malekian

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.001. Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P<0.01, while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.05. The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P<0.01. Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P<0.01. The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  19. Effect of the Addition of Schisandra chinensis Powder on the Physico-chemical Characteristics of Sausage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, S. K.; Park, J. H.

    2013-01-01

    The individual and interactive effects of Schisandra chinensis powder (SCP) and sodium nitrite additions on color, pH, water holding capacity, residual nitrite, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), volatile basic nitrogen, texture properties, fatty acids, amino acids and sensory evaluation of cooked pork sausages were investigated after 20 d of storage at 4°C. The powders (0, 0.5 and 1.0%) were added to sausages either alone or in combination with nitrite (0 and 100 ppm). SCP added-sausages showed lower L* (lightness) and W (whiteness) values, and higher b* (yellowness) values than sausage containing no nitrite, and exhibited the highest a* values at a 0.5% addition (psausage showed gradually decreased brittleness, cohesiveness, springiness, gumminess and chewiness, while adhesiveness increased. Polyunsaturated fatty acid, n-6 and n-6/n-3 fatty acid ratio concentrations were significantly higher in sausages containing SCP (psausage significantly (psausage meat resulted in a significant deterioration in quality characteristics of flavor, springiness, juiciness and overall acceptability (psausages, depended on the rate of addition of nitrite (psausages, but may beneficially affect TBARS, nitrite scavenging activity, fatty acid and amino acid content in pork sausages. PMID:25049766

  20. Effect of cooking temperatures on characteristics and microstructure of camel meat emulsion sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Hussein Mh; Emara, Mohamed Mt; Nouman, Taha M

    2016-07-01

    The camel is an excellent source of high quality meat and camel meat might be a potential alternative for beef. This study aimed to manipulate the raw camel meat for the production of stable and acceptable emulsion sausage, as well as to study the effect of cooking at different core temperatures on the tenderness, sensory quality and microstructure of produced sausage. Increasing the cooking temperature of sausages resulted in reduction of the shear force values from 2.67 kgf after cooking at 85 °C to 1.57 kgf after cooking at 105 °C. The sensory scores of sausages have been improved by increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter. The light and scanning electron microscope micrographs revealed solubilisation of the high quantity of connective tissue of camel meat. High emulsion stability values for the camel meat batter associated with high values of water-holding capacity for raw camel meat and meat batter have been recorded. Stable and acceptable camel meat emulsion can be developed from camel meat. Increasing the cooking core temperature of meat batter improved the quality of produced sausages. Therefore, camel meat emulsion sausages might be a potential alternative for beef particularly in Asian and African countries. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2015 Society of Chemical Industry.

  1. Shelf-life Extension and Improvement of the Microbiological Quality of Fresh Sausage by Irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammad, A.A.I.; El-Mongy, T.M.; Mabrouk, A.K.

    2000-01-01

    Fifty samples of fresh sausage were randomly collected from different meat products markets in Great Cairo. They were analysed for microbiological quality. The results showed that 26 (52%) samples had total aerobic bacterial counts more than 10 7 cfu/g. Staphylococcus aureus was present in all samples and 19 (38%) samples had counts more than maximum permissible level (10 3 cfu/g). Enterococcus faecalis numbers more than 10 5 cfu/g were found in 14 (28%) samples. Coliform bacteria were present in all sausage samples and 19(38%) samples had counts more than 10 3 cfu/g, while salmonella was detected in only 5 (10%) samples. Therefore, fresh sausages in local market were highly contaminated with different microorganisms including spoilage and pathogenic bacteria. Irradiation dose of 4 kGy greatly reduced the numbers of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria, lactobacilli and yeasts without affecting the organoleptic properties of the samples. It extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage up to about 15 days at refrigeration temperature (5+-1) while the shelf-life was only 5 days for unirradiated samples. Irradiation dose of 6 kGy had greater effect on the microbiological counts and extended the shelf-life of fresh sausage more than 25 days, however, it slightly affected its organoleptic properties. Sausage samples exposed to this irradiation dose was microbiologically safe, being free from Enterobacteriaceae, Staph, aureus, Ent, faecalis, coliform bacteria, Salmonella and moulds

  2. Characterization of spoilage bacteria in pork sausage by PCR-DGGE analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Silva Dias

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available To investigate microbial diversity and identify spoilage bacteria in fresh pork sausages during storage, twelve industrial pork sausages of different trademarks were stored at 4 ºC for 0, 14, 28 and 42 days, 80% relative humidity and packaged in sterile plastic bags. Microbiological analysis was performed. The pH and water activity (a w were measured. The culture-independent method performed was the Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE. The culture-dependent method showed that the populations of mesophilic bacteria and Lactic Acid Bacteria (LAB increased linearly over storage time. At the end of the storage time, the average population of microorganisms was detected, in general, at the level of 5 log cfu g-1. A significant (P < 0.005 increase was observed in pH and a w values at the end of the storage time. The PCR-DGGE allowed a rapid identification of dominant communities present in sausages. PCR-DGGE discriminated 15 species and seven genera of bacteria that frequently constitute the microbiota in sausage products. The most frequent spoilage bacteria identified in the sausages were Lactobacillus sakei and Brochothrix thermosphacta. The identification of dominant communities present in fresh pork sausages can help in the choice of the most effective preservation method for extending the product shelf-life.

  3. Composition and Fatty Acid Profile of Goat Meat Sausages with Added Rice Bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malekian, Fatemeh; Khachaturyan, Margarita; Gebrelul, Sebhatu; Henson, James F

    2014-01-01

    A scientific consensus on the relationship between obesity, obesity related diseases, and diet has emerged. One of the factors is overconsumption of the red meats such as pork and beef. Goat meat has the potential to replace these traditionally consumed meats. Rice bran is a rich source of antioxidants such as vitamin E. In this study, goat meat sausages were formulated to contain 0, 1.5 or 3 percent stabilized rice bran. Proximate and fatty acid composition, α-tocopherol, cholesterol concentration, and antioxidant activities of cooked goat meat sausages containing varying percentages of rice bran were measured. Data were analyzed using a fixed effects model. The fat percentage in the goat meat sausages increased in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.001). Saturated fatty acids concentration decreased linearly (P < 0.01), while unsaturated fatty acids and omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.05). The concentration of α-tocopherol in sausages increased linearly in response to increasing rice bran percentages (P < 0.01). Also, antioxidant activity increased linearly in sausages in response to added rice bran (P < 0.01). The cholesterol concentration of sausages did not vary significantly in response to added rice bran.

  4. Retardation of quality changes in camel meat sausages by phenolic compounds and phenolic extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maqsood, Sajid; Manheem, Kusaimah; Abushelaibi, Aisha; Kadim, Isam Tawfik

    2016-11-01

    Impact of tannic acid (TA), date seed extract (DSE), catechin (CT) and green tea extract (GTE) on lipid oxidation, microbial load and textural properties of camel meat sausages during 12 days of refrigerated storage was investigated. TA and CT showed higher activities in all antioxidative assays compared to DSE and GTE. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth was higher for control sausages when compared to other samples. TA and CT at a level of 200 mg/kg were more effective in retarding lipid oxidation and lowering microbial count (P < 0.05). Sausages treated with TA and DSE were found to have higher hardness, gumminess and chewiness values compared to other treatments (P < 0.05). Addition of different phenolic compounds or extract did not influence the sensory color of sausages. Furthermore, sensory quality was also found to be superior in TA and CT treated sausages. Therefore, pure phenolic compounds (TA and CT) proved to be more effective in retaining microbial and sensorial qualities of camel meat sausages compared to phenolic extracts (GTE and DSE) over 12 days of storage at 4°C. © 2016 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

  5. Evaluation of fat grains in gothaj sausage using image analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludmila Luňáková

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Fat is an irreplacable ingredient in the production of sausages and it determines the appearance of the resulting cut to a significant extent. When shopping, consumers choose a traditional product mostly according to its appearance, based onwhat they are used to. Chemical analysis is capable to determine the total fat content in the product, but it cannot accurately describe the shape and size of fat grains which the consumer observes when looking at the product. The size of fat grains considered acceptable by consumers can be determined using sensory analysis or image analysis. In recent years, image analysis has become widely used when examining meat and meat products. Compared to the human eye, image analysis using a computer system is highly effective, since a correctly adjusted computer program is able to evaluate results with lower error rate. The most commonly monitored parameter in meat products is the aforementioned fat. The fat is located in the cut surface of the product in the form of dispersed particles which can be fairly reliably identified based on color differences in the individual parts of the product matrix. The size of the fat grains depends on the input raw material used as well as on the production technology. The present article describes the application of image analysis when evaluating fat grains in the appearance of cut of the Gothaj sausage whose sensory requirements are set by Czech legislation, namely by Decree No. 326/2001 Coll., as amended. The paper evaluates the size of fat mosaic grains in Gothaj sausages from different manufacturers. Fat grains were divided into ten size classes according to various size limits; specifically, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1.0, 1.5, 2.0, 2.5, 5.0, 8.0 and over 8 mm. The upper limit of up to 8 mm in diameter was chosen based on the limit for the size of individual fat grains set by the legislation. This upper limit was not exceeded by any of the products. On the other side the mosaic had the

  6. Quality of low-fat pork sausages with tomato powder as colour and functional additive during refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il-Suk; Jin, Sang-Keun; Mandal, Prabhat Kumar; Kang, Suk-Nam

    2011-10-01

    Low fat pork sausages were formulated with tomato powder at 0% (C), 0.8% (T1), 1.2% (T2) and 1.5% (T3) levels in basic formula. With the increase in tomato powder concentration the lightness of the sausage decreased but the redness and yellowness increased significantly (p sausages with tomato powder were significantly (p sausage with tomato powder up to 1.5% was found to be well acceptable up to 30 days at refrigerated storage. This new product will have special value due to the functional additive lycopene in tomato powder.

  7. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    W. Hao

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR. The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML, 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML, and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML, and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 107 to 1010 cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 109 cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  8. Aerobic Stability and Effects of Yeasts during Deterioration of Non-fermented and Fermented Total Mixed Ration with Different Moisture Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hao, W; Wang, H L; Ning, T T; Yang, F Y; Xu, C C

    2015-06-01

    The present experiment evaluated the influence of moisture level and anaerobic fermentation on aerobic stability of total mixed ration (TMR). The dynamic changes in chemical composition and microbial population that occur after air exposure were examined, and the species of yeast associated with the deterioration process were also identified in both non-fermented and fermented TMR to deepen the understanding of aerobic deterioration. The moisture levels of TMR in this experiment were adjusted to 400 g/kg (low moisture level, LML), 450 g/kg (medium moisture level, MML), and 500 g/kg (high moisture level, HML), and both non-fermented and 56-d-fermented TMR were subjected to air exposure to determine aerobic stability. Aerobic deterioration resulted in high losses of nutritional components and largely reduced dry matter digestibility. Non-fermented TMR deteriorated during 48 h of air exposure and the HML treatment was more aerobically unstable. On dry matter (DM) basis, yeast populations significantly increased from 10(7) to 10(10) cfu/g during air exposure, and Candida ethanolica was the predominant species during deterioration in non-fermented TMR. Fermented TMR exhibited considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Spoilage was only observed in the HML treatment and its yeast population increased dramatically to 10(9) cfu/g DM when air exposure progressed to 30 d. Zygosaccharomyces bailii was the sole yeast species isolated when spoilage occurred. These results confirmed that non-fermented and fermented TMR with a HML are more prone to spoilage, and fermented TMR has considerable resistance to aerobic deterioration. Yeasts can trigger aerobic deterioration in both non-fermented and fermented TMR. C. ethanolica may be involved in the spoilage of non-fermented TMR and the vigorous growth of Z. bailii can initiate aerobic deterioration in fermented TMR.

  9. The Main Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Smoked Sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Corina Iuliana Costescu

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the organoleptic and physical-chemical quality of smoked sausage, produced by a manufacturer in the western part of Romania. The organoleptic examination highlighted: product shape, exterior and in section aspect, consistency, color, taste and flavor. The physical-chemical examination highlighted the content of moisture, fat, sodium chloride, nitrites and easy hydrolyzed nitrogen. Water content was under the maximum admitted limit of 58%. Medium fat value was 32.24%, by 5.76% under the 38% maximum limit. Medium sodium chloride content was 2.1%, under the maximum admitted limit of 3%. Easy hydrolyzed nitrogen registered a medium value of 26.71 mg NH3/100g product under the 45% maximum admitted limit. Nitrites content was 5.18 ppm, under the 7 ppm imposed limit.

  10. Effect of Time Lenght Fermentation to Katsuobushi Oxidation Rate As Fish Flavor Based

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amalia, U.; Rianingsih, L.; Wijayanti, I.

    2018-02-01

    Katsuobushi or dried smoked skipjack had a distinctive flavor and widely used in traditional Japanese cuisine. This study aimed to evaluate the oxidation rate of Katsuobushi with different lenght fermentation. The processing treatment of the product were the differences of fish boiling time (30 min and 60 min) and the lenght of fermentation: 1 week, 2 weeks and 3 weeks. The glutamic acid content, the oxidation rate (thiobarbituric acid and peroxide value) and Total Plate Count of katsuobushi were analyzed statistically using analysis of varians. Significant differences were found among 3 weeks of fermentation compare to 1 weeks fermentation (P fermentation was potential to be developed become basic ingredients for the fish flavor.

  11. Optimization of Fermentation Conditions for the Production of Bacteriocin Fermentate

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-03-30

    FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ” by Anthony Sikes Wayne Muller and Claire Lee March 2015...From - To) October 2010 – November 2013 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE OPTIMIZATION OF FERMENTATION CONDITIONS FOR THE PRODUCTION OF BACTERIOCIN “ FERMENTATE ...nisin and pediocin. Whey + yeast extract was the best performing whey fermentation media. The nisin producer strain Lactococcus. lactis ssp. lactis was

  12. Comparison of fermentation of diets of variable composition and microbial populations in the rumen of sheep and Rusitec fermenters. I. Digestibility, fermentation parameters, and microbial growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, M E; Ranilla, M J; Tejido, M L; Ramos, S; Carro, M D

    2010-08-01

    Four ruminally and duodenally cannulated sheep and 8 Rusitec fermenters were used to determine the effects of forage to concentrate (F:C) ratio and type of forage in the diet on ruminal fermentation and microbial protein synthesis. The purpose of the study was to assess how closely fermenters can mimic the dietary differences found in vivo. The 4 experimental diets contained F:C ratios of 70:30 or 30:70 with either alfalfa hay or grass hay as the forage. Microbial growth was determined in both systems using (15)N as a microbial marker. Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those observed in sheep by changing F:C ratio on pH; neutral detergent fiber digestibility; total volatile fatty acid concentrations; molar proportions of acetate, propionate, butyrate, isovalerate, and caproate; and amylase activity. In contrast, Rusitec fermenters did not reproduce the dietary differences found in sheep for NH(3)-N and lactate concentrations, dry matter (DM) digestibility, proportions of isobutyrate and valerate, carboxymethylcellulase and xylanase activities, and microbial growth and its efficiency. Regarding the effect of the type of forage in the diet, Rusitec fermenters detected differences between diets similar to those found in sheep for most determined parameters, with the exception of pH, DM digestibility, butyrate proportion, and carboxymethylcellulase activity. Minimum pH and maximal volatile fatty acid concentrations were reached at 2h and at 6 to 8h postfeeding in sheep and fermenters, respectively, indicating that feed fermentation was slower in fermenters compared with that in sheep. There were differences between systems in the magnitude of most determined parameters. In general, fermenters showed lower lactate concentrations, neutral detergent fiber digestibility, acetate:propionate ratios, and enzymatic activities. On the contrary, fermenters showed greater NH(3)-N concentrations, DM digestibility, and proportions of propionate

  13. Controlling alchohol fermentations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leedham, P A; Tubb, R S

    1983-09-21

    In the initial stages of a fermentation of carbohydrate to EtOH, the growth of the yeast is controlled by monitoring the pH of a fermenting liquid or wort and controlling the supply of O/sub 2/ in accordance with the pH. The temperature of the fermenting liquid is also controlled in dependence upon the pH. The control of the fermentation process is carried out automatically by an apparatus including a fermentation vessel, a pH sensor arranged to provide an output signal representative of the pH of the liquid in the vessel, memory means to store information on the required pH with regard to the fermentation time, means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid and control means to compare the output signal of the pH sensor at a particular time with that of the required pH at that time, and in the event of the pH of the fermenting liquid lagging behind that required, actuate the means to inject O/sub 2/ into the fermenting liquid to increase the O/sub 2/ content of the fermenting liquid.

  14. Hydrocarbons by fermenting the juice of the Jerusalem artichoke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joud, F R

    1976-02-13

    The artichoke juice containing nonfermentable insulins is acidified to pH 3- and heated at 95/sup 0/ for 30 to 40 minutes to hydrolyze the insulins into fermentable sugars which are then fermented to ethanol. The ethanol is dried and reacted with H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ to form C/sub 2/H/sub 4/ which is treated at 300/sup 0/ under pressure with a powdered Ni catalyst to form alkanes, alkenes, and alkynes.

  15. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Armando Abel Massingue

    2018-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella. Methods Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS, instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella’s was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA analysis. Results The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05 fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05 higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a*, C*, and lower h° and darker (lower L* than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05 sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Conclusion Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  16. Effect of mechanically deboned poultry meat content on technological properties and sensory characteristics of lamb and mutton sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massingue, Armando Abel; de Almeida Torres Filho, Robledo; Fontes, Paulo Rogério; de Lemos Souza Ramos, Alcinéia; Fontes, Edimar Aparecida Filomeno; Perez, Juan Ramon Olalquiaga; Ramos, Eduardo Mendes

    2018-04-01

    This study aimed to develop a value-added product concerning technological and sensory characteristics changes of the use of mechanically deboned poultry meat (MDPM) as meat replacer in lamb and mutton emulsion-type sausages (mortadella). Sausages were produced with lamb and mutton and with different contents of MDPM. Six treatments, using lamb or mutton and 0%, 30%, and 60% of MDPM in relation to the meat batter, were produced and analyzed for pH, proximal composition, calcium and residual nitrite content, water activity, 2-thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), instrumental color and texture profile. The sensory profile of the mortadella's was also evaluated by acceptance test and check-all-that-applies (CATA) analysis. The MDPM addition increased (p<0.05) fat, residual nitrite and calcium content in the all sausage formulations, but mutton sausage had (p<0.05) higher fat and lower moisture content than lamb sausage. The pH, water activity, TBARS index and color was not affected by MDPM additions, while the mutton sausages were significantly redder (higher a *, C *, and lower h °) and darker (lower L *) than lamb sausages. Adding up to 60% of MDPM reduced (p<0.05) sausages hardness and chewiness. Overall, the meat replacement by MDPM increased the sausages acceptance, but the mutton sausage with 30% of MDPM replacer were the most preferred. Consumers related that pink color, glossy appearance, poultry meat-like taste, soft texture, juicy and greasy mouth feel to all sausages contain MDPM according to CATA analysis. Mutton from culled ewes can be utilized for mortadella production with 30% replacement of lean mutton and fat by MDPM.

  17. Effect of the partial substitution of meat with irradiated sunflower meal on the quality of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E.A.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0, 4, 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphcnol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined. The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation . dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the, removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level. The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties

  18. Effect of the Partial Substitution of Meat with Irradiated Sunflower Meal on the Quality of Sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afifi, E. A.M.; Anwar, M.M.

    2007-01-01

    This work aims to study the effect of partial substitution of meat with gamma irradiated sunflower meal in the manufacturing of sausage. On the sensory and physical properties of manufactured sausage, Therefore, sunflower meal sample was divided into four groups and exposed to gamma irradiation at doses 0 , 4 , 8 and 12 kGy ( for improving the digestibility and functional properties protein of sunflower meal ). The polyphenol content in-vitro protein digestibility (I.V.P.D), water absorption fat absorption and emulsion capacity of irradiated sunflower meal were determined .The obtained results indicated that the 12 kGy gamma irradiation dose was the most effective treatment for removing the total polyphenol as the removal percentage reached to 100%, and sequently increased the protein digestibility of sunflower to 83.24%, also the water fat absorption and emulsion capacity were markedly increased. Therefore the irradiated sample at 12 kGy was chosen for the treatment of sunflower meal using in manufacturing sausage at 2, 4 and 8% substitution level .The organoleptic evaluation of sausage samples under investigation showed that the sausage contained irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy at 2% substitution level attained high scores in color and aroma and had the highest scores in taste and texture in comparison with the control (natural sausage ). Also it could be concluded that 2% irradiated sunflower meal at dose of 12 kGy might be used as a replacer of frozen meat in manufacturing of sausage without any adverse effect on its sensory, physical and chemical properties.

  19. Manufacturing of low-fat chicken sausage and keeping its quality by gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abdel-Daiem, M.H.

    2007-01-01

    The present study was carried out to study the possibility of manufacturing low-fat chicken breast sausage formulated with aged fresh chicken breast meat, 8% beef fat ratio and other ingredients. Thc manufactured sausage was subjected to gamma irradiation at doses of 0, 2, 4 and 6 kGy to improve its hygienic quality and extending its shelf-life. The irradiated samples were stored at refrigeration temperature (4± degree C), and the effects of gamma irradiation and cold storage on their microbiological, chemical and Sensory attributes were studied. Irradiated samples at dose of 2 kGy reduced the counts of total bacterial, lactic acid bacteria, total molds and yeasts and Bacillus cereus. Irradiation doses of 4 and 6 kGy completely eliminated Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus cereus, enterobacteriaceae and Salmonella spp. On the other hand, applied doses gamma irradiation under investigation had no remarkable effects on thc chemical composition, ph values and total volatile nitrogen (TVN), but increased the amounts of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) of these product. irradiation treatments had no effects on sensory properties (appearance, texture and odor) of all fresh sausage samples. Moreover, fried sausage prepared from irradiated raw sausage had high sensory acceptability similar to those prepared from non-irradiated raw sausage. irradiation at doses of 2, 4 and 6 kGy prolonged the refrigeration shelf-life of fresh low-fat chicken breast sausage to 11, 20 and 27 days, respectively, compared to 5 days for non-irradiated samples without any adverse effects on sensory properties. Thus, it can be recommended as a healthy product especially for those who need to low fat and cholesterol foods

  20. Correlation between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage and almonds during masticatory performance test.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumonsiri, P; Thongudomporn, U; Paphangkorakit, J

    2018-04-27

    The correlation between chewing and gastric function is best reflected when the same food type is used during both tests. We proposed frankfurter sausage as test food for masticatory performance as it can also be used in gastric emptying test. The suitability of frankfurter sausage to determine masticatory performance, however, has never been examined. To examine the correlations between the median particle size of frankfurter sausage and almonds (as standard test food) after different numbers of chewing cycles. Twenty-seven subjects performed masticatory performance tests by chewing 2 types of test foods, that is, a piece of almond or 5-g frankfurter sausage cubes placed in a sealed latex bag, for 5 and 15 chewing cycles. For each individual, right and left sides were tested separately. Chewed samples obtained from both sides were pooled. Median particle sizes were determined using a multiple sieving method. Spearman's rank correlation was used to examine any correlation between median particle sizes of the 2 test foods after 5 and 15 cycles. Median particle sizes after 5 and 15 cycles were 2.04 ± 0.87 and 0.95 ± 0.58 mm for almonds and 4.16 ± 0.19 and 3.73 ± 0.25 mm for frankfurter sausage, respectively. Significant correlations were observed between the median particle size of chewed frankfurter sausage after 15 cycles and that of chewed almonds after 5 and 15 cycles (r = .76, P < .01 and r = .52, P = .01, respectively). Frankfurter sausage chewed for 15 cycles may be suitable for the determination of masticatory performance in conjunction with gastric emptying test. © 2018 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Determination of expected alcohol yield from molasses by laboratory fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medintseva, L L

    1960-01-01

    Molasses (750 g, 18 to 19% dry weight) in 31 media, supplemented with nutrients was fermented with the industrial yeast strain. The expected alcohol yield was calculated for 1 kg conventional starch as B = V/P..pi.. 0.95, where V is the amount of alcohol distilled from the fermented medium in ml, P is the weight of molasses in g, is the fermentable sugar content of the molasses in percent, and 0.95 is the conversion factor from sucrose to starch.

  2. Combined Effect of Kimchi Powder and Onion Peel Extract on Quality Characteristics of Emulsion Sausages Prepared with Irradiated Pork

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Yun-Sang; Lee, Ju-Woon; Lee, Si-Kyung

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effects of kimchi powder and onion peel extract on the quality characteristics of emulsion sausage manufactured with irradiated pork. The emulsion sausages were formulated with 2% kimchi powder and/or 0.05% onion peel extract. The changes in pH value of all treatments were similar, depending on storage periods. The addition of kimchi powder increased the redness and yellowness of the emulsion sausage. The addition of onion peel extract decreased the thiobarbituric acid reactive substances value of the emulsion sausages prepared with irradiated pork. The volatile basic nitrogen value of the emulsion sausage prepared with kimchi powder was the highest, whereas that of the emulsion sausage prepared with onion peel extract was the lowest. The treatment without kimchi powder or onion peel extract and the treatments prepared with onion peel extract showed lower microbial populations than the other treatment. Sensory evaluations indicated that a higher acceptability was attained when kimchi powder was added to the emulsion sausages manufactured with irradiated pork. In conclusion, our results suggest that combined use of kimchi powder and onion peel extract could improve quality characteristics and shelf stability of the emulsion sausage formulated with irradiated pork during chilled storage. PMID:26761840

  3. Studies on emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages incorporating skeletal and offal meat with different levels of pork fat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, K R; Sharma, N

    1990-01-01

    Ready-to-eat emulsion-type buffalo meat sausages were developed by using a combination of 80% meat components with 20% pork back fat. The meat components were constituted of 70 parts buffalo skeletal meat and 30 parts offal meat (rumen meat and heart meat in equal proportions). The emulsion stability, cooking losses of emulsions and sausages, composition of cooked sausages, eating quality of sausages and the microscopic characteristics of the raw emulsion and cooked sausages were studied. The light microscope micrograph of the raw emulsion showed uniformly well distributed fat globules embedded in a dense protein gel. The cooked emulsion also showed uniformly sized fat globules well distributed in a fine, compact, coagulated protein gel, which retained their original spherical shape. Good quality emulsion-type sausages could be produced having a high emulsion stability (0·87 ± 0·07 ml fat release/100 g emulsion); a low emulsion cooking loss (9·60 ± 0·60%) and a low sausage cooking loss (8·83 ± 0·48%). The overall acceptability of sausages was also high. Copyright © 1990. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  4. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  5. Physical, chemical, technological and sensory characteristics of Frankfurter type sausage containing okara flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Kitagawa Grizotto

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The addition of okara flour to an emulsified meat product (Frankfurter type sausage was evaluated based on the physical, chemical, technological, and sensory characteristics of the final product. Okara, residue from soymilk production, was provided by two soymilk producing companies whose production systems were based on the hot disintegration of the decorticated (company B or undecorticated (company A soybeans. The okara was dehydrated using a flash dryer and then ground into flour (>420 µm. However, The okara flours A and B showed approximately the same amount of protein (35 and 40 g.100 g-1 dwb. However, the okara flour A presented higher values (p < 0.05 for all technological functional properties studied (emulsification capacity, emulsion stability, protein solubility, and water hold capacity than those of okara flour B. The A and B okara flours were used in a frankfurter sausage formulation as substitution of 1.5% and 4% of meat. The results showed that the sausages containing okara flours A and B, as well as the control sausage, were accepted by the sensory panel. Moreover, there were no significant differences (p < 0.05 in the physical (color, objective texture, and emulsion stability and chemical (pH and proximate composition measurements of the sausages with and without the okara flour.

  6. Sensory evaluation of sausages with orange peel flour and maguey leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hector Bernardo Escalona-Buendia

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Agroindustrial by-products are mainly used for animal feeding and biomass for biodiesel production. In fruit processing, around the 70% of the raw material weight is considered as a residue, mainly peels and seeds, but they have high insoluble fiber content. Orange peel and maguey leaf, previously used for barbacoa preparation, were employed as functional ingredients in sausages. To determinate the acceptance of new food products (neophobia 300 surveys were conducted to consumers in supermarkets in the south part of Mexico City. Additionally, R-index was determined to know if there were any difference between the texture and flavor of the sausages with these ingredients using consumers, and a quantitative descriptive profile was carried out. Results shown that most of the surveys showed interest to consume healthy foods, but certain neophobia was observed to this kind of meat products (sausages with orange peel or maguey leaf due to strange flavors. R index values showed that flavor is affected by this formulation, most in maguey leaf samples, but not in texture (firmness. Descriptive sensory profiles showed the attributes distinguishing the fiber added sausages versus a control. The conclusion is that the use of agroindustrial by-products is a good source of functional ingredient in sausages; however, its flavor has to be more developed to assure consumer acceptance.

  7. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botsaris, George; Orphanides, Antia; Yiannakou, Evgenia; Gekas, Vassilis; Goulas, Vlasios

    2015-12-01

    Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg) in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  8. Coupling of sausage, kink, and magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor instabilities in a cylindrical liner

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weis, M. R.; Zhang, P.; Lau, Y. Y.; Gilgenbach, R. M.; Schmit, P. F.; Peterson, K. J.; Hess, M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper analyzes the coupling of magneto-Rayleigh-Taylor (MRT), sausage, and kink modes in an imploding cylindrical liner, using ideal MHD. A uniform axial magnetic field of arbitrary value is included in each region: liner, its interior, and its exterior. The dispersion relation is solved exactly, for arbitrary radial acceleration (-g), axial wavenumber (k), azimuthal mode number (m), liner aspect ratio, and equilibrium quantities in each region. For small k, a positive g (inward radial acceleration in the lab frame) tends to stabilize the sausage mode, but destabilize the kink mode. For large k, a positive g destabilizes both the kink and sausage mode. Using the 1D-HYDRA simulation results for an equilibrium model that includes a pre-existing axial magnetic field and a preheated fuel, we identify several stages of MRT-sausage-kink mode evolution. We find that the m = 1 kink-MRT mode has a higher growth rate at the initial stage and stagnation stage of the implosion, and that the m = 0 sausage-MRT mode dominates at the main part of implosion. This analysis also sheds light on a puzzling feature in Harris' classic paper of MRT [E. G. Harris, Phys. Fluids 5, 1057 (1962)]. An attempt is made to interpret the persistence of the observed helical structures [Awe et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 111, 235005 (2013)] in terms of non-axisymmetric eigenmode

  9. Quality of hurdle treated pork sausages during refrigerated (4 ± 1°C) storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, R; Anjaneyulu, A S R; Kondaiah, N

    2010-06-01

    Pork sausages developed using hurdle technology was evaluated during refrigerated storage (4 ± 1°C). Hurdles incorporated were low pH, low water activity, vacuum packaging and post package reheating. Dipping in potassium sorbate solution prior to vacuum packaging was also tried. Hurdle treatment significantly (p sausages during storage, as indicated by TBARS and tyrosine values. Incorporation of hurdles decreased the growth of different spoilage and pathogenic microorganisms. Combination of pH, water activity, vacuum packaging and reheating inhibited the growth of yeast and molds up to 12 days, while additional dipping of sausages in 1% potassium sorbate solution prior to packaging inhibited their growth even on 30(th) day of storage. Incorporation of hurdles resulted in initial reduction in all the sensory attributes, but they helped to maintain these attributes for significantly longer period compared to control. Hurdle treated sausages exhibited no spoilage signs even on day 30, while the control sausages were found acceptable only up to 18 days.

  10. Effect of heat treatment and packaging systems on the stability of fish sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruna Rafaela Dallabona

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and microbiological stability of sausages produced from mechanically separated fish meat (MSM obtained from Nile tilapia filleting residues. Different heat treatments (pasteurization or smoking and packaging systems (conventional or vacuum were used. The sausages were characterized for chemical composition, weight loss, water activity, instrumental texture and sensorial analysis. Additionally, microbiological analysis, instrumental color, pH, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS and total volatile base nitrogen (TVB-N were assessed during storage. No presence of Escherichia coli, Salmonella sp. or coagulase-positive Staphylococcus was detected; however, the psychrotrophic count in pasteurized sausages exceeded the limits allowed for consumption. pH and lipid oxidation speed (TBARS values were reduced when vacuum packaging was used. Volatile nitrogenous bases remained virtually constant during the storage period, and higher values were observed in smoked products. Pasteurized sausages remain stable for 10 and 15 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively, and smoked sausages remain stable for 25 and 45 days in conventional and vacuum packages, respectively.

  11. Partial substitution of nitrite by chitosan and the effect on the quality properties of pork sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario García

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate the influence of partial nitrite replacement by chitosan on the quality of Ham Visking (a type of pork sausages. Five Ham Visking formulations were elaborated modifying the sodium nitrite (0.011; 0.016 or 0.0212% and chitosan concentrations (0.25 or 0.5% in the products. Sausages were stored at 4 ºC and physicochemical, microbiological, and sensorial evaluations were performed in order to estimate their shelf life. Chitosan can be used in pork sausages without affecting ensory attributes such as color although the panelists detected textural differences among the samples with chitosan, which suggests that there is some influence of deacetylation degree of chitosan on the textural behavior of sausages which still needed to be explained for a successful application of chitosan in meat products. The reduction of residual sodium nitrite did not affect the color and flavor of such products, but the use of chitosan increasedsignificantly the shelf life of sausages.

  12. Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Effects of Pistacia lentiscus L. Extracts in Pork Sausages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antia Orphanides

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pistacia lentiscus fruits are ingredients of traditional Cypriot sausages. The objective of this study is to evaluate P. lentiscus extracts as natural additives to the sausages. First, the phenolic content and antioxidant activity of fruit and leaf extracts were determined. Results revealed that leaves are richer source of polyphenolic antioxidants than fruits, with methanol being the better extraction solvent. In the next step, the antioxidant and antimicrobial effects of methanolic extracts (300 mg/kg in the pork sausage formulation were investigated. Peroxide, acid and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substance values demonstrated that both fruit and leaf extracts reduced the rate of lipid oxidation of sausages at 4 °C. Total viable count revealed significant differences on the fifth day of storage, with better microbial inhibition by leaf extract. No significant differences between the extracts were observed after the tenth day of storage. Overall, the extracts can be used to prevent lipid oxidation and reduce microbial spoilage during the first days of storage of fresh traditional pork sausages.

  13. Bioethanol production from dried sweet sorghum stalk

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Almodares, A.; Etemadifar, Z.; Ghoreishi, F.; Yosefi, F. [Biology Dept. Univ. of Isfahan, Isfahan (Iran, Islamic Republic of)], e-mail: aalmodares@yahoo.com

    2012-11-01

    Bioethanol as a renewable transportation fuel has a great potential for energy and clean environment. Among crops sweet sorghum is one of the best feedstock for ethanol production under hot and dry climatic conditions. Because it has higher tolerance to salt and drought comparing to sugarcane and corn that are currently used for bio-fuel production in the world. Generally mills are used to extract the juice from sweet sorghum stalks. Three roller mills extract around nearly 50 percent of the juice and more mills is needed to extract higher percentage of the juice. More over under cold weather the stalks become dry and juice is not extracted from the stalk, therefore reduce harvesting period. In this study stalks were harvested, leaves were stripped from the stalks and the stalks were chopped to nearly 4 mm length and sun dried. The dry stalks were grounded to 60 mesh powder by a mill. Fermentation medium consists of 15-35% (w/w) sweet sorghum powder, micronutrients and active yeast inoculum from 0.5-1% (w/w) by submerge fermentation method. The fermentation time and temperature were 48-72 hours and 30 deg, respectively. The results showed the highest amount of ethanol (14.5 % w/w sorghum) was produced with 10% sweet sorghum powder and 1% of yeast inoculum, three day fermentation at 30 deg.

  14. Bacteriological evaluation of fresh chicken sausage submitted to gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, Alexandre

    2002-01-01

    light of the lack of present data on the irradiation of fresh chicken sausage, the objective of this study is to evaluate determine the efficiency of this method as a process for reducing the microbial load via measurement of the bacteriology of the product before and after gamma radiation. 45 sample of chicken sausage(acquired directly from the poultry industry) were prepared divided in 3 treatments: the first is a control, the second and third using application of 1,5 and 3,0 kGy, respectively. The chicken sausages irradiated with a dose of 1,5 kGy did not have, statistically significant results apparent in the bacteriological measures. Samples irradiated with 3,0 kGy did experience statistically significant reductions. It is concluded that the irradiating the product with a dose of 3,0 kGy is more effective for the reduction of bacterial population, with the data in these trials indicating a 95,3% reduction in total coliforms, 100% removal of fecal coliforms, and 84,0% reduction of mesophiles, relative to the control samples. (author)

  15. Diversity of yeasts involved in the fermentation of tchoukoutou, an opaque sorghum beer from Benin

    OpenAIRE

    Kayode, A.P.P.; Vieira-Dalode, G.; Linnemann, A.R.; Kotchoni, S.O.; Hounhouigan, A.J.D.; Boekel, van, M.A.J.S.; Nout, M.J.R.

    2011-01-01

    Opaque sorghum beers are traditional alcoholic beverages in several African countries. Known as tchoukoutou in Benin, the beer is often obtained from an uncontrolled fermentation. It is consumed in an actively fermenting state and has a sour taste. The present study characterized and identified the yeasts involved in the fermentation process of this type of beer using the phenotypical approach. Of 12 beers from 4 different locations, the mean values of the pH, titratable acidity, dry matter c...

  16. Effect of Caesalpinia sappan L. extract on physico-chemical properties of emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Sang-Keun; Ha, So-Ra; Choi, Jung-Seok

    2015-12-01

    This study was performed to investigate the effect of extract from heart wood of Caesalpinia sappan on the physico-chemical properties and to find the appropriate addition level in the emulsion-type pork sausage during cold storage. The pH of treatments with C. sappan extract was significantly lower than control and T1 during cold storage periods (Pextract. Also, the texture properties and sensory of sausages containing C. sappan extract were decreased compared to control. Inclusion of the C. sappan extract in sausages resulted in lower lightness and higher yellowness, chroma and hue values. However, the antioxidant, antimicrobial activity, and volatile basic nitrogen in the emulsion-type pork sausages with C. sappan extract showed increased quality characteristics during cold storage. In conclusion, the proper addition level of C. sappan extract was 0.1% on the processing of emulsion-type pork sausage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lotus (Nelumbo nucifera) Rhizome as an Antioxidant Dietary Fiber in Cooked Sausage: Effects on Physicochemical and Sensory Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ham, Youn-Kyung; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Shin, Dong-Jin; Kim, Kyung-Il; Lee, Hye-Jin; Kim, Na-Rae; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the physicochemical and sensory properties of cooked emulsion sausages containing different levels of lotus rhizome powder (0, 1, 2, and 3%, based on total weight). Lotus rhizome powder had no significant ( p >0.05) impact on pH, moisture, protein, or ash content of sausage. However, fat content was slightly but significantly ( p color of cooked sausage compared to control. Increase in lotus rhizome level slightly improved the emulsion stability and apparent viscosity. Significant ( p color and juiciness scores. However, cooked sausages exhibited similar overall acceptability regardless of the level of lotus rhizome powder added to sausages. Therefore, lotus rhizome powder, an antioxidant dietary fiber, could be used as an effective natural ingredient in meat products for the development of healthier and functional food.

  18. Purification and fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharide from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wenkui; Chi, Yujie

    2017-12-01

    Short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), which are the end products of carbohydrate fermentation in the gut, mainly contribute to energy metabolism in mammals. The amount of SCFAs produced during fermentation is an important parameter that characterizes the fermentation capacity of a system. This paper reports on the fermentation characteristics of exopolysaccharides (EPS) isolated from Fomitopsis castaneus Imaz, a wood-rot fungal species. We isolated and purified the main EPS fraction by freeze drying and DEAE-Sepharose fast flow chromatography. We then analyzed the monosaccharide composition of EPS. The isolated EPS was mainly composed of glucose, galactose, rhamnose, mannose, and arabinose. The characteristic absorption peaks of sugar esters were also detected. Fresh fecal extracts from healthy adults and children were used as fermentation substrate to simulate the human intestinal environment (anaerobic conditions at 37°C) and study the fermentation characteristics of the purified EPS. Adding the isolated EPS to the fermentation system of the simulated intestinal environment increased the SCFAs content in the fecal extract of adults and children. However, the yield of SCFAs, particularly butyric acid, in the fermentation system of fecal extract in children was higher than that in adults. Furthermore, adding exogenous lactic acid bacteria, such as Enterococcus fecalis and Enterococcus fecium, to the fermentation system effectively increased the SCFAs concentration in the model intestinal system of the children. By contrast, adding E. fecalis, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, and E. fecium increased the content of the produced SCFAs in the system of adults. Those results indicate that EPS isolated from F. castaneus Imaz was effectively fermented in the simulated intestinal environments, and the fermentation capability was enhanced by adding microbial flora. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of mode of addition of flaxseed oil on the quality characteristics of chicken sausage containing vitamin E and omega 3 fatty acids at levels to support a health claim.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolger, Zara; Brunton, Nigel P; Monahan, Frank J

    2017-10-18

    Vitamin E and omega-3 fatty acids can be incorporated into meat products at levels supporting health claims of "protecting against oxidative stress" and "maintaining normal blood cholesterol levels", respectively. Chicken sausages were formulated to contain vitamin E (12 mg per 100 g) and flaxseed oil (2 g per 100 g) using different oil incorporation methods. The formulations were: (1) control (no oil); (2) oil; (3) emulsified oil; (4) freeze-dried encapsulated oil; (5) freeze-dried encapsulated oil with cross-linker genipin; (6) spray-dried encapsulated oil. α-Linolenic acid and α-tocopherol were retained in all fortified formulations at levels to meet nutrient and health claims but emulsification or encapsulation had no additional benefit in retention following cooking or on product quality as measured by proximate composition, lipid oxidation, colour, microbial analysis, cook loss and texture profile analysis. While the addition of flaxseed oil had a negative effect on consumer acceptance of flavour (although not when emulsified), overall acceptance of the chicken sausages was only reduced significantly (p ≤ 0.05) when oil was encapsulated.

  20. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa(Theobroma cacaobeans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi - mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling w as each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon a nd pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the s hortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  1. Changes in physical and chemical characteristics of fermented cocoa (Theobroma cacao beans with manual and semi-mechanized transfer, between fermentation boxes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro. P. Peláez

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate variation in the physical and chemical properties of fermented cocoa beans with cocoa beans transfer between wooden fermentation boxes manually (M and semi-mechanized (SM way. Mass temperature, moisture, pH, and total acidity of the cotyledon and pulp; the total polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content in fresh, fermented, and dried beans; and percentage of fermented beans and time required to move beans during fermentation were determined. The cocoa used grew in the Pachiza district of the San Martin region of Peru. Cocoa sampling was each 0, 48, 72, 96, 120, 144, and 168 h of fermentation. The cocoa mass temperature was highest with both removal systems after 96 h of fermentation. M cotyledon and pulp samples had the highest moisture content and titratable acidity, while cotyledon and pulp pH with both systems were statistically equal. In contrast, fermented beans had a higher polyphenol, anthocyanin, reducing sugar, theobromine, and caffeine content with SM. SM produced the greatest amount of fermentation (91.67% and required the shortest amount of time to move beans (78.56 min. In conclusion, the system of fermentation of cocoa beans with SM was faster and produced fermented grains with high chemical quality.

  2. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, So-Young [Traditional Food Research Group, Korea Food Research Institute, Seongnam 463-746 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jin-Gyu [Radiation Food Science and Biotechnology, Advanced Radiation Technology Institute, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongup 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Ju-Woon [National Federation of Fisheries Cooperatives, Fisheries Economic Institute, Seoul 138-827 (Korea, Republic of); Byun, Myung-Woo [Department of Culinary Nutrition, Woosong University, Daejon 300-718 (Korea, Republic of); Ahn, Dong-Hyun, E-mail: dhahn@pknu.ac.kr [Department of Food Science and Technology/Institute of Food Science, Pukyong National University, Busan 608-737 (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-11-15

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: > Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. > Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. > Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  3. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella isolated from a variety of raw meat sausages in Gaborone (Botswana) retail stores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samaxa, Ronald Gaelekolwe; Matsheka, Maitshwarelo Ignatius; Mpoloka, Sununguko Wata; Gashe, Berhanu Abegaz

    2012-04-01

    The objective of the study was to provide baseline data on the prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Salmonella in different types of raw meat sausages directly accessible to the consumers in Gaborone, Botswana. A total of 300 raw sausages comprising 79 beef, 78 pork, 72 chicken, and 71 mutton samples were concurrently analyzed for the presence of Salmonella using a conventional culture method and a validated PCR method. The PCR assay results were in full concordance with those of the conventional culture method for the detection of Salmonella. Sixty-five (21.7%) of 300 samples were positive for Salmonella by both the conventional culture method and PCR assay. Even though more chicken samples contained Salmonella than did any other sausage type, the difference in the presence of Salmonella among the four sausages types was not significant. Eleven serotypes were identified, and Salmonella enterica subsp. salamae II was most prevalent in all the sausage types. Beef sausages generally had higher mesophilic bacterial counts than did the other three sausage types. However, higher microbial counts were not reflective of the presence of salmonellae. Susceptibility of the Salmonella enterica serotypes to 20 antimicrobial agents was determined, and Salmonella Muenchen was resistant to the widest array of agents and was mostly isolated from chicken sausages. Regardless of the meat of origin, all 65 Salmonella isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial agents: amikacin, gentamicin, cefuroxime, and tombramycin. This resistance profile group was the most common in all four sausage types, comprising 90% of all Salmonella isolates from beef, 71% from pork, 63% from mutton, and 35% from chicken. These results suggest that raw sausages pose a risk of transmitting multidrug-resistant Salmonella isolates to consumers.

  4. Changes in antigenicity of porcine serum albumin in gamma-irradiated sausage extract by treatment with pepsin and trypsin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Song, Eu-Jin; Lee, So-Young; Park, Jin-Gyu; Lee, Ju-Woon; Byun, Myung-Woo; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2011-01-01

    Pork is known as an allergenic food with porcine serum albumin (PSA, 66 kDa) representing the major allergen. This study was conducted to investigate the change in antigenicity of PSA in gamma-irradiated sausage extract treated with pepsin and trypsin. Sausage products (A and B) were irradiated at 1, 3, 10, and 20 kGy. After irradiation, sausage proteins were extracted and digested with pepsin (1:200, 30 min) and trypsin (1:300, 5, 30, 60, 90, and 120 min). The binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages (A and B) decreased by over 3 kGy relative to the binding ability of PSA in extracts of intact sausages and showed no notable differences when the dose of radiation ranged from 3 to 20 kGy. After treatment with pepsin and trypsin, the binding ability of PSA in extracts of the irradiated sausages was decreased more relative to that of intact sausages and showed no significant differences when the period of trypsin treatment is increased or when the dose of irradiation is increased. The sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) results indicated that there was no visible change in the intensity of the PSA band in extracts of the irradiated sausages. After pepsin and trypsin treatment, the intensity of PSA band faded with increasing doses of irradiation. In conclusion, antigenicity of PSA in pork sausages could be reduced by gamma irradiation. - Highlights: → Change in antigenicity of PSA in irradiated sausage extract (ISE) was examined. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE was decreased compared to intact extract. → Binding ability of PSA in ISE after enzyme treatments was also further decreased. → Intensity of PSA band in ISE after enzyme treatments became weak.

  5. Identification of Bacillus species occurring in Kantong, an acid fermented seed condiment produced in Ghana

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kpikpi, Elmer Nayra; Thorsen, Line; Glover, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Kantong is a condiment produced in Ghana by the spontaneous fermentation of kapok tree (Ceiba pentandra) seeds with cassava flour as an additive. Fermentation is over a 48h period followed by a drying and a kneading process. Although lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have previously been identified other...

  6. Studies on continuous fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ueda, K

    1958-01-01

    Continuous fermentation of molasses with a combined system of agitated vessel and flow pipe is studied. A new apparatus was designed. The rate of the fermentation was faster with this apparatus than with the former apparatus which was composed of two vessels.

  7. Food Technologies: Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.

    2014-01-01

    Fermentation refers to the use of microorganisms to achieve desirable food properties in the fermented food or beverage. Although the word ‘fermentation’ indicates ‘anaerobic metabolism,’ it is also used in a broader sense to indicate all anaerobic and aerobic microbiological and biochemical

  8. Research in fermentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mills, A K

    1966-01-01

    The following aspects of the biochemistry of fermentation were discussed: carbohydrate, amino acid, S, and phosphate metabolisms in the yeast cell; pantothenic acid and biotin as the essential growth factors in yeast metabolisms; effects of different aeration conditions on yeast growth, mitochondria development, and lipid contents. Gas chromatographic studies of fermentation products are also discussed.

  9. Enzymes in Fermented Fish.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giyatmi; Irianto, H E

    Fermented fish products are very popular particularly in Southeast Asian countries. These products have unique characteristics, especially in terms of aroma, flavor, and texture developing during fermentation process. Proteolytic enzymes have a main role in hydrolyzing protein into simpler compounds. Fermentation process of fish relies both on naturally occurring enzymes (in the muscle or the intestinal tract) as well as bacteria. Fermented fish products processed using the whole fish show a different characteristic compared to those prepared from headed and gutted fish. Endogenous enzymes like trypsin, chymotrypsin, elastase, and aminopeptidase are the most involved in the fermentation process. Muscle tissue enzymes like cathepsins, peptidases, transaminases, amidases, amino acid decarboxylases, glutamic dehydrogenases, and related enzymes may also play a role in fish fermentation. Due to the decreased bacterial number during fermentation, contribution of microbial enzymes to proteolysis may be expected prior to salting of fish. Commercial enzymes are supplemented during processing for specific purposes, such as quality improvement and process acceleration. In the case of fish sauce, efforts to accelerate fermentation process and to improve product quality have been studied by addition of enzymes such as papain, bromelain, trypsin, pepsin, and chymotrypsin. © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Asian fungal fermented food

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nout, M.J.R.; Aidoo, K.E.

    2010-01-01

    In Asian countries, there is a long history of fermentation of foods and beverages. Diverse micro-organisms, including bacteria, yeasts and moulds, are used as starters, and a wide range of ingredients can be made into fermented foods. The main raw materials include cereals, leguminous seeds,

  11. Fermented milk for hypertension

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Usinger, Lotte; Reimer, Christina; Ibsen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    Fermented milk has been suggested to have a blood pressure lowering effect through increased content of proteins and peptides produced during the bacterial fermentation. Hypertension is one of the major risk factors for cardiovascular disease world wide and new blood pressure reducing lifestyle...

  12. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, H-.J.; Kim, J.-H.; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J.-W.; Yook, H.-S.; Kim, H.-Y.; Byun, M.-W.

    2004-01-01

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO 2 , N 2 , or CO 2 /N 2 packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation

  13. Combined effects of gamma irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging on the physicochemical characteristics of sausage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, H- J; Kim, J -H; Jo, Cheorun; Lee, J -W; Yook, H -S; Kim, H -Y; Byun, M -W

    2004-10-01

    This study is to investigate the combined effects of irradiation and a modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) on the color, nitrosoheme pigments (NO-Mb), residual nitrite and N-nitrosodimethylamine (NDMA) in sausage during storage. Sausage with air, vacuum, CO{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, or CO{sub 2}/N{sub 2} packaging was irradiated at 5 kGy. Irradiation reduced the red color of sausage, and a vacuum or MAP was effective in minimizing the loss of redness. The reduction of NO-Mb was observed by irradiation, while the MAP was more effective in maintaining the NO-Mb than the aerobic ones. Residual nitrite was reduced by irradiation, and the contents were lower under vacuum or MAP than aerobic ones. NDMA was significantly reduced by irradiation.

  14. DECREASING OF SODIUM NITRITE CONTENT IN COOKED SAUSAGES USING DENITRIFYING MICROORGANISMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bal-Prylypko L. V.

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work was to study reduction of sodium nitrite in cooked sausages by adding of the optimized amount of denitrifying microorganisms to the bacterial preparation maintaining quality characteristics of the product. To develop biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» we selected bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp.utilis. It was used generally accepted and special methods. The content of total pigments and nitrozopigments was determined by a method based on the extraction of meat pigments by aqueous acetone; color stability of final products was evaluated as the difference in optical density of nitroso pigment extracts before and after exposure (40 min of the sample under the light source; analytical processing of the experimental data was carried out using modern software; quantitative evaluation of color characteristics was performed in the RGB using a multifunctional device Epson Stylus TX400. Mathematical modeling was carried out on the basis of full factorial experiment such as 22, the optimization was performed by Box–Wilson. According to the study, using of the bacterial preparation based on nitrite-reducing strains of Staphylococcus carnosus and S. carnosus ssp. utilis in biotechnology of boiled sausages «Naturel» has a positive effect on the formation of the complex of required color characteristics of final products (for prototypes of sausages the index redness was 1. 61 times higher compared to the control. Degradation of sodium nitrite and formation of nitroso pigments were intensified that improved the stability of color during the storage (the index of color fastness of experimental cooked sausages was higher by 19%. The results of performed investigations illustrate the possibility of production of cooked sausages with a minimized content of synthetic food additives and ingredients.

  15. Sausage instability in a proton-beam transport through wall-confined plasma channel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamada, Tetsuo; Masugata, Katsumi; Matsui, Masao; Yatsui, Kiyoshi

    1983-01-01

    An instability observed previously in a 800-keV of proton-beam transport through a wall-confined, z-discharged plasma channel (1-m long) has been identified as a sausage type from measurements made using an image converter campera. Clear evidence of the sausage instability has been obtained from the streak and framing photographs. When the instability grows with time, the wavelength tends to increase. The pinch velocity of the channel has also been measured in a parameter space, which gives reasonable agreement with the existing theory. (author)

  16. Protein improvement in Gari by the use of pure cultures of microorganisms involved in the natural fermentation process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahaotu, I; Ogueke, C C; Owuamanam, C I; Ahaotu, N N; Nwosu, J N

    2011-10-15

    The ability of microorganisms involved in cassava mash fermentation to produce and improve protein value by these microorganisms during fermentation was studied. Standard microbiological procedures were used to isolate, identify and determine the numbers of the organisms. Alcaligenes faecalis, Lactobacillus plantarum, Bacillus subtilis, Leuconostoc cremoris, Aspergillus niger, A. tamari, Geotrichum candidum and Penicillium expansum were isolated and identified from cassava waste water while standard analytical methods were used to determine the ability of the isolates to produce linamarase and the proximate composition, pH and titrable acidity of the fermenting mash. The linamarase activity of the isolates ranged from 0.0416 to 0.2618 micromol mL(-1) nmol(-1). Bacillus subtilis, A. niger, A. tamari and P. expansum did not express any activity for the enzyme. Protein content of mash fermented with mixed fungal culture had the highest protein value (15.4 mg/g/dry matter) while the raw cassava had the least value (2.37 mg/g/dry matter). The naturally fermented sample had the least value for the fermented samples (3.2 mg/g/dry matter). Carbohydrate and fat contents of naturally fermented sample were higher than values obtained from the other fermented samples. Microbial numbers of the sample fermented with mixed bacterial culture was highest and got to their peak at 48 h (57 x 10(8) cfu g(-1)). pH decreased with increase in fermentation time with the mash fermented by the mixed culture of fungi having the lowest pH of 4.05 at the end of fermentation. Titrable acidity increased with increase in fermentation time with the highest value of 1.32% at 96 h of fermentation produced by the mixed culture of fungi. Thus fermentation with the pure cultures significantly increased the protein content of mash.

  17. Characterization of bioactive compounds from monascus purpureus fermented different cereal substrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eva Ivanišová

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Solid-state fermenting of cereals by Monascus is interesting strategy to produce cereals with more beneficial components.  The objective of this study was to determine selected primary and secondary metabolites in cereals (rice, wheat, barley, sorghum, corn, buckwheat fermented by Monascus purpreus and subsequently compare amount of these compounds with control sample (cereals without Monascus. In fermented cereals was determined higher protein, fat, reducing sugars, crude fiber and ash content with compare to non-fermented cereals. The antioxidant activity measured by DPPH assay, ABTS assay as well as reducing power assay was also higher in fermented Monascus cereals with the best results in rice (3.09 ±0.02; 62.9 ±2.24; 43.19 ±2.07 mg TEAC per g of dry weight. Sample of fermented rice contained the highest level of total polyphenols (15.31 ±3.62 mg GAE per g of dry weight, total flavonoids (1.65 mg QE per g of dry weight and total phenolic acids (9.47 ±0.56 mg CAE per g of dry weight. In fermented cereals was also determined higher contact of reducing sugars (highest value in rice 246.97 ±7.96 mg GE per g, proteins (highest value in buckwheat 28.47 ±1.24%, ash (highest value in sorghum 2.74 ±0.08% and fat (highest value in corn 4.89 ±0.03% with compare to non-fermented samples. Results of crude fiber content of both - fermented and non-fermented cereals were balanced with similar values. Results of this study shown that Monascus purpureus fermented cereal substrates might be a potential sources of several bioactive compounds in food products.

  18. Textural and sensory properties of low fat pork sausages with added hydrated oatmeal and tofu as texture-modifying agents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Han-Sul; Choi, Sung-Gil; Jeon, Jin-Tae; Park, Gu-Boo; Joo, Seon-Tea

    2007-02-01

    Low fat sausages were prepared with added hydrated oatmeal or tofu as texture-modifying agents at levels of 10%, 15%, and 25% (w/w), respectively. The effects of the type and level of texture-modifying agents on the physical and sensory properties of low fat sausages were investigated. The water-holding capacity in sausage products increased by increasing the hydrated oatmeal level, but no significant differences was observed by the addition of tofu. The higher level of the agents produced a sausage product with less cooking loss and with a softer texture. The moisture absorption measurements suggest that the decrease in hardness of oatmeal-added sausage products may be due to the higher water-retention properties of oatmeal in response to heat treatment, while that of tofu-added sausage products may be associated with a weaker internal structure of tofu than the pork loin. The sensory evaluations indicated that the greatest overall acceptability in a low fat sausage was attained when the hydrated oatmeal or tofu were at their 15% addition level, respectively.

  19. Effect of sous vide processing on physicochemical, ultrastructural, microbial and sensory changes in vacuum packaged chicken sausages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naveena, B M; Khansole, Panjab S; Shashi Kumar, M; Krishnaiah, N; Kulkarni, Vinayak V; Deepak, S J

    2017-01-01

    The processing of sous vide chicken sausages was optimized under vacuum packaging condition and cooking at 100 ℃ for 30 min (SV30), 60 min (SV60) and 120 min (SV120) and compared with aerobically cooked control at 100 ℃ for 30 min. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages (SV30) produced higher (p emulsion ultra-structure due to SV30 processing relative to control sausages. Sous vide processing of chicken sausages enriched with rosemary diterpene phenols retained the freshness and quality up to 120 days during storage at 4 ± 1 ℃ relative to control sausages that were spoiled on 20th day. Lipid oxidation and microbial growth remained below the spoilage levels for all the SV-processed sausages throughout the storage and addition of rosemary diterpene mixture at 0.02% v/w reduced the microbial growth and improved (p < 0.05) the sensory attributes. Our results demonstrate that sous vide processing minimizes lipid oxidation and microbial growth of chicken sausages with improved product quality and shelf-life at 4 ± 1 ℃. © The Author(s) 2016.

  20. Appetite and food intake after consumption of sausages with 10% fat and added wheat or rye bran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vuholm, Stine; Arildsen Jakobsen, Louise Margrethe; Vejrum Sørensen, Karina; Kehlet, Ursula; Raben, Anne; Kristensen, Mette

    2014-02-01

    The use of dietary fibers as fat-replacers in sausages gives less energy-dense and thereby healthier foods. Also, dietary fibers have been shown to induce satiety. The objectives of this study were to investigate if appetite sensations and energy intake was affected by (1) addition of dietary fibers to sausages, (2) type of dietary fibers and (3) the food matrix of the dietary fibers. In this randomized cross-over study 25 young men were served four test meals; wheat bran sausages, rye bran sausages, rye bran bread and wheat flour sausages. The test meals were served as breakfast after an overnight fast. Appetite sensations were evaluated by visual analogue scales (VAS) assessed every 30 min for 240 min followed by an ad libitum lunch meal where energy intake was calculated. Both rye bran and wheat bran sausages increased satiety (P appetite sensations and thereby has a potential added health benefit beyond the role as fat-replacer. The satisfying effect of dietary fibers appears to be more pronounced when added to sausages than when added to bread, stressing the importance of food matrix and food processing.