WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry environmental conditions

  1. Heat transfer analysis of consolidated dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel considering environmental conditions of Wolsong site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, K. H.; Yoon, J. H.; Choi, B. I.; Lee, H. Y.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of the present paper is to perform heat transfer analysis of the MACSTOR/KN-400 dry storage system for CANDU spent fuel in order to predict maximum concrete temperatures and temperature gradients. This module has twice the capacity of the existing MACSTOR-200, which is in operation at Gentilly-2. In the thermal design of the MACSTOR/KN-400, Thermal Insulation Panels(TIP) were introduced to reduce concrete temperatures and temperature gradients in the module caused by the high fuel heat loads. Environmental factors such as solar heat, daily temperature variations and ambient temperatures in summer and winter at Wolsong site and the assumed presence of hot baskets were taken into consideration in the simulations. Two cases were performed for the MACSTOR/KN-400: Off-normal cases in summer and winter. The maximum local concrete temperatures were predicted to be 63 .deg. C for the off-normal case. The temperature gradients in the concrete walls and roof are predicted to be 28C and 25C for off-normal operation in summer, incorporating a 3C uncertainty. In conclusion, this paper shows that the maximum temperature for the module is expected to meet the temperature limitations of ACI 349

  2. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiaitsi, Elsa; Magan, Naresh

    2018-01-01

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90) and temperature (10–25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins. PMID:29462982

  3. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO₂ Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Cela, Esther; Kiaitsi, Elsa; Sulyok, Michael; Medina, Angel; Magan, Naresh

    2018-02-17

    Zearalenone (ZEN) contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (a w ; 0.95-0.90) and temperature (10-25 °C) in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a) respiration rate; (b) dry matter losses (DML); (c) ZEN production and (d) relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO₂ production. There was an increase in temporal CO₂ production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 a w treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO₂ in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 a w /20-25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 a w . The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95-0.93 a w and 20 °C/0.95 a w . ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca 1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  4. Fusarium graminearum in Stored Wheat: Use of CO2 Production to Quantify Dry Matter Losses and Relate This to Relative Risks of Zearalenone Contamination under Interacting Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther Garcia-Cela

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Zearalenone (ZEN contamination from Fusarium graminearum colonization is particularly important in food and feed wheat, especially during post-harvest storage with legislative limits for both food and feed grain. Indicators of the relative risk from exceeding these limits would be useful. We examined the effect of different water activities (aw; 0.95–0.90 and temperature (10–25 °C in naturally contaminated and irradiated wheat grain, both inoculated with F. graminearum and stored for 15 days on (a respiration rate; (b dry matter losses (DML; (c ZEN production and (d relationship between DML and ZEN contamination relative to the EU legislative limits. Gas Chromatography was used to measure the temporal respiration rates and the total accumulated CO2 production. There was an increase in temporal CO2 production rates in wetter and warmer conditions in all treatments, with the highest respiration in the 25 °C × 0.95 aw treatments + F. graminearum inoculation. This was reflected in the total accumulated CO2 in the treatments. The maximum DMLs were in the 0.95 aw/20–25 °C treatments and at 10 °C/0.95 aw. The DMLs were modelled to produce contour maps of the environmental conditions resulting in maximum/minimum losses. Contamination with ZEN/ZEN-related compounds were quantified. Maximum production was at 25 °C/0.95–0.93 aw and 20 °C/0.95 aw. ZEN contamination levels plotted against DMLs for all the treatments showed that at ca. <1.0% DML, there was a low risk of ZEN contamination exceeding EU legislative limits, while at >1.0% DML, the risk was high. This type of data is important in building a database for the development of a post-harvest decision support system for relative risks of different mycotoxins.

  5. Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    The main object of this study is to determine the drying behaviour and conditions of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples using both solar assisted and open sun drying. For each drying experiment, 100 g each of unshelled and shelled pistachio were used. The least-squares method was applied to find the drying curve equation of pistachio. During the experiments, shelf temperatures, weight loss of pistachio, moisture content of air, and distribution of solar radiation were measured; and presented depending on the drying time. Also, the mass shrinkage ratios of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples were determined, and the experimental uncertainty ratio was calculated as 15-16.5 per cent based on the experimental results. It was deduced that the shelled and unshelled pistachio samples in the solar assisted forced convection dryer were perfectly dried at temperatures of 50{+-}10degC in the time period of 6 h. Whereas, the samples in the open sun drying were not sufficiently dried at temperatures of 28{+-}4degC in the same time period. Hence, it is suggested that the pistachio samples with approximately 29.0 per cent of moisture are dried in the solar assisted convection dryer at 50{+-}10degC of temperature in the time period of approximately 6 h in order to protect from the negative climatic and environmental effects. However, it is not desirable to dry the pistachio samples in the open sun because of greater drying time, dirt, dust and harmful insects. (Author)

  6. Effects of drying conditions on the physicochemical and functional ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study aimed to investigate ate the effect of drying conditions (freeze dryingng and hot-air oven drying at 40 and 60°C) onon the physicochemical and functional proper perties of red and yellow-fleshed watermelon rind rind flour. In comparison among the drying proceocesses used in this study, freeze drying method re ...

  7. Acidic mammalian chitinase in dry eye conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Maria; Aragona, Pasquale; Bellin, Milena; Maugeri, Francesco; Rania, Laura; Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) seems to be implicated in allergic asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of AMCase during Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) dry eye diseases. Six patients with MGD dry eye (20-58 years, median 40) and six patients with dry eye associated to SS (32-60 years, median 47) were enrolled in this study. AMCase activity was measured in tears and AMCase mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction from RNA extracted from epithelial cells of the conjunctiva. Six healthy adult subjects of the same age (34-44 years, median 39) were also studied as the control group. AMCase activity was significantly increased in patients affected by MGD dry eye (18.54 +/- 1.5 nmol/ml/h) and SS dry eye (8.94 +/- 1.0 nmol/ml/h) respectively, compared to healthy controls (1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/ml/h). AMCase activity was higher in the tears of subjects with MGD dry eye (P < 0.001). AMCase mRNA was detected in conjunctival epithelial cells and the expression was significantly higher in MGD dry eye than SS dry eye. A significant correlation between AMCase activity in the tears and mRNA in conjunctival epithelial cells was found. AMCase may be an important marker in the pathogenesis of dry eye, suggesting the potential role of AMCase as a therapeutic target in these frequent pathologies.

  8. Environmental conditions analysis program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holten, J.

    1991-01-01

    The PC-based program discussed in this paper has the capability of determining the steady state temperatures of environmental zones (rooms). A program overview will be provided along with examples of formula use. Required input and output from the program will also be discussed. Specific application of plant monitored temperatures and utilization of this program will be offered. The presentation will show how the program can project individual room temperature profiles without continual temperature monitoring of equipment. A discussion will also be provided for the application of the program generated data. Evaluations of anticipated or planned plant modifications and the use of the subject program will also be covered

  9. Dry eyes : a commonly missed eye condition

    OpenAIRE

    Vella, Mario;

    2014-01-01

    Tears are an important component in providing moisture and lubrication for the eyes, thereby maintaining vision and comfort. Dry eyes (keratoconjunctivitis sicca) result when there is either decreased production of tears or by poor tear quality which in turn lead to more rapid evaporation.

  10. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  11. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-01-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was ...

  12. Adzuki beans (Vigna angularis seed quality under several drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osvaldo Resende

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available This study analyzed the drying process and the seed quality of adzuki beans (Vigna angularis. Grains of adzuki beans, with moisture content of 1.14 (decimal dry basis at harvest and dried until the moisture content of 0.11 (decimal dry basis. were used. Drying was done in an experimental drier maintened at controlled temperatures of 30, 40, 50, 60, and 70 ºC and relative humidity of 52.0, 28.0, 19.1, 13.1, and 6.8%, respectively. Physiological and technological seed quality was evaluated using the germination test, Index of Germination Velocity (IGV, electrical conductivity, and water absorption, respectively. Under the conditions tested in the present study, it can be concluded that drying time for adzuki beans decreases with the higher air temperatures of 60 and 70 ºC, and it affected the physiological and technological seed quality. Thus, to avoid compromising adzuki seeds quality, it is recommended to promote its drying up to 50 ºC.

  13. Influence of drying conditions on the optical and structural properties ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The chemical composition, transmission spectra, structure, and morphology of the samples were studied using infrared (IR) and UV–visible spectroscopy, X- ... challenges when it comes to large area coating and film deposition on substrates hav- ... We have observed that the drying condition of the dip-coated ZnO thin films.

  14. The effect of air dried conditions on mechanical and physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-04-20

    Apr 20, 2009 ... small dimension wooden material is used and this affects the cost of ... The first serious application of laminating technique ... buildings, stock hangar, farms and stables constructions ... resistant lamine elements to air dried condition were easy .... the other was organic solvent water repellent protim WR230.

  15. Criticality Analysis of SFP Region I under Dry Air Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki Yong; Kim, Min Chul

    2016-01-01

    This paper is to provide a result of the criticality evaluation under the condition that new fuel assemblies for initial fuel loading are storing in Region 1 of SFP in the dry air. The objective of this analysis is to ensure the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of SFP is less than 0.95 under that condition. This analysis ensured the effective neutron multiplication factor(k_e_f_f) of Region 1 of SFP is less than 0.95 under the condition in the air. The keff in Region I of SFP under the condition of the dry air is 0.5865. The increased k_c_a_l_c of the Region 1 after the mislocated fuel assembly accident is 0.0444 at the pool flooded with un-borated water

  16. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  17. Drying and osmotic conditioning in Hancornia speciosa Gomes seeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tathiana Elisa Masetto

    Full Text Available Hancornia speciosa is a native tree species of the Brazilian Cerrado whose seeds are desiccation sensitive. In this study, we aimed to evaluate drying and osmotic conditioning in H. speciosa seeds. We used fresh seeds with 48% moisture content, which were slowly dried until they attained contents of 20%, 15%, 10% and 5%. To evaluate osmotic conditioning, the seeds were imbibed in 12 mL osmotic solutions at 0.0; -0.2; -0.4 and -0.6 MPa for two days. After that, they were dehydrated until their original moisture content. The experiments were carried out in a completely randomized design with four repetitions with 50 seeds each. Reduction in moisture content from 20% to 5% decreased the physiological potential of seeds. H. speciosa seeds do not require osmotic priming with PEG solutions, because imbibition of seeds in osmotic solutions of up to -0.6 MPa results in reduction of germination rate and seedling length.

  18. Disentangling the environmental heterogeneity, floristic distinctiveness and current threats of tropical dry forests in Colombia

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-M, Roy; García, Hernando; Isaacs, Paola; Cuadros, Hermes; López-Camacho, René; Rodríguez, Nelly; Pérez, Karen; Mijares, Francisco; Castaño-Naranjo, Alejandro; Jurado, Rubén; Idárraga-Piedrahíta, Álvaro; Rojas, Alicia; Vergara, Hernando; Pizano, Camila

    2018-04-01

    Tropical dry forests (TDFs) have been defined as a single biome occurring mostly in the lowlands where there is a marked period of drought during the year. In the Neotropics, dry forests occur across contrasting biogeographical regions that contain high beta diversity and endemism, but also strong anthropogenic pressures that threaten their biodiversity and ecological integrity. In Colombia, TDFs occur across six regions with contrasting soils, climate, and anthropogenic pressures, therefore being ideal for studying how these variables relate to dry forest species composition, successional stage and conservation status. Here, we explore the variation in climate and soil conditions, floristic composition, forest fragment size and shape, successional stage and anthropogenic pressures in 571 dry forest fragments across Colombia. We found that TDFs should not be classified solely on rainfall seasonality, as high variation in precipitation and temperature were correlated with soil characteristics. In fact, based on environmental factors and floristic composition, the dry forests of Colombia are clustered in three distinctive groups, with high species turnover across and within regions, as reported for other TDF regions of the Neotropics. Widely distributed TDF species were found to be generalists favored by forest disturbance and the early successional stages of dry forests. On the other hand, TDF fragments were not only small in size, but highly irregular in shape in all regions, and comprising mostly early and intermediate successional stages, with very little mature forest left at the national level. At all sites, we detected at least seven anthropogenic disturbances with agriculture, cattle ranching and human infrastructure being the most pressing disturbances throughout the country. Thus, although environmental factors and floristic composition of dry forests vary across regions at the national level, dry forests are equally threatened by deforestation, degradation

  19. Corrosion behavior of the aluminum under the simulated environmental condition of low-level waste. Part 1. Effect of dry storage on the corrosion behavior of pre-filmed specimen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujiwara, Kazutoshi; Tani, Junichi; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2016-01-01

    Aluminum alloy remains in the Low-level Radioactive Waste (LLW) generated at nuclear facilities. It is well known that aluminum reactors to the alkaline component of cement, or water, generating hydrogen gas. For the saft management of radioactive waste disposal facilities, it is necessary to evaluate the corrosion behavior of aluminum and the hydrogen generation behavior in consideration with transition of the burial environment. In the present study, the corrosion behaviors of aluminum in the alkaline solutions at 15degC were evaluated. Pure aluminium was used as specimen. The test solutions used in this study were water in equilibrium with the cement paste grain produced from ordinary portland cement (OPC). The temperature and pH of solutions were 15degC and 11.5-12.5, respectively. In order to make a corrosion product on the surface, the specimens were immersed in the solution for about 3000 hours as pretreatment. The corrosion behaviors of pre-filmed specimen were evaluated after drying. The test results shows that the maximum in a corrosion rate appeared in early stages and it decrease to less than 1x10 -3 mm/y. The maximum did not appear when the corrosion products were formed in the OPC grain as conditions similar to actual environment. (author)

  20. Environmental conditions (Republic of Macedonia)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1997-01-01

    Poor air quality in some urban surroundings is a major Macedonian environmental concern. The two areas where the problem is most acute are Veles and Skopje, where the correlation between poor health and air quality has been recognized. The main reason for air pollution is emissions from industry and automobiles. However, the large industrial polluters are known and their emissions should be controlled as soon as possible for health reasons through regulatory pressures and economic operations. The most significant problems regarding water pollution are due to discharges from the mining sector, industrial plants and livestock farms, as well as from municipal water from larger settlements. A local approach to building or upgrading wastewater treatment facilities, modernization of water supply and irrigation systems, management improvements and rational utilization of water resources should be pursued. Inadequate solid and hazardous waste management is also a major concern in the country. Currently, there are no regulations on waste handling and as a result there is indiscriminate dumping of wastes, especially industrial wastes which are a health hazard. It is generally accepted that issues related to agricultural and forest land management are important environmental problems, as well as regional geologic and tectonic characteristics, due to Macedonia is in a high seismic area. (author)

  1. A comparative study on performance of CBN inserts when turning steel under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah Bagaber, Salem; Razlan Yusoff, Ahmad

    2017-10-01

    Cutting fluids is the most unsustainable components of machining processes, it is negatively impacting on the environmental and additional energy required. Due to its high strength and corrosion resistance, the machinability of stainless steel has attracted considerable interest. This study aims to evaluate performance of cubic boron nitride (CBN) inserts for the machining parameters includes the power consumption and surface roughness. Due to the high single cutting-edge cost of CBN, the performance of significant is importance for hard finish turning. The present work also deals with a comparative study on power consumption and surface roughness under dry and flood conditions. Turning process of the stainless steel 316 was performed. A response surface methodology based box-behnken design (BBD) was utilized for statistical analysis. The optimum process parameters are determined as the overall performance index. The comparison study has been done between dry and wet stainless-steel cut in terms of minimum value of energy and surface roughness. The result shows the stainless still can be machined under dry condition with 18.57% improvement of power consumption and acceptable quality compare to the wet cutting. The CBN tools under dry cutting stainless steel can be used to reduce the environment impacts in terms of no cutting fluid use and less energy required which is effected in machining productivity and profit.

  2. The effects of drying conditions on moisture transfer and quality of pomegranate fruit leather (pestil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Mehmet Yılmaz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Vacuum, cabinet and open air drying of pomegranate fruit leather were carried out at various drying conditions to monitor the drying kinetics together with bionutrient degradation of the product. Drying curves exhibited first order drying kinetics and effective moisture diffusivity values varied between 3.1 × 10−9 and 52.6 × 10−9 m2/s. The temperature dependence of the effective moisture diffusivity was satisfactorily described by an Arrhenius-type relationship. Drying conditions, product thickness and operation temperature had various effects on drying rate and final quality of the product. In terms of drying kinetics and final quality of product, vacuum drying had higher drying rate with higher conservation of phenolic, anthocyanin and ascorbic acid that is connected to faster drying condition and oxygen deficient medium. Anthocyanin content was significantly affected by drying method, drying temperature and product thickness. Scatter plot using principle component analysis enabled better understanding of moisture transfer rate and anthocyanin change under various drying conditions.

  3. Effect of storage conditions on the weight and appearance of dried blood spot samples on various cellulose-based substrates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denniff, Philip; Spooner, Neil

    2010-11-01

    Before shipping and storage, dried blood spot (DBS) samples must be dried in order to protect the integrity of the spots. In this article, we examine the time required to dry blood spot samples and the effects of different environmental conditions on their integrity. Under ambient laboratory conditions, DBS samples on Whatman 903(®), FTA(®) and FTA(®) Elute substrates are dry within 90 min of spotting. An additional 5% of moisture is lost during subsequent storage with desiccant. When exposed to elevated conditions of temperature and relative humidity, the DBS samples absorb moisture. DBS samples on FTA lose this moisture on being returned to ambient conditions. DBS samples on 903 show no visible signs of deterioration when stored at elevated conditions. However, these conditions cause the DBS to diffuse through the FTA Elute substrate. Blood spots are dry within 90 min of spotting. However, the substrates examined behave differently when exposed to conditions of high relative humidity and temperature, in some cases resulting in the integrity of the substrate and DBS sample being compromised. It is recommended that these factors be investigated as part of method development and validation.

  4. Cosmetic Cleansing Oil Absorption by Soft Contact Lenses in Dry and Wet Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukiyama, Junko; Miyamoto, Yuko; Kodama, Aya; Fukuda, Masahiko; Shimomura, Yoshikazu

    2017-09-01

    Previous reports showed that cosmetic cleansing oil for removing makeup, which contains mineral oil and surfactant, can deform some silicone hydrogel contact lenses (SHCLs) when applied directly to the lenses, although plasma-coated SHCLs (lotrafilcon A and B) were not affected. In the present study, we investigated hydrogel lenses and SHCLs in both wet and dry conditions. Several brands of hydrogel and SHCLs were immersed in a cleansing oil solution containing Sudan Black B for 5 min under wet and dry conditions. The lenses under the wet condition were simply picked up from the saline, whereas those under the dry condition were blotted with paper wipes. After immersing, the excess solution remaining on the lenses was removed by finger rubbing with a multipurpose solution. The lenses were then examined using a stereomicroscope, and their mean brightness was measured and compared. The cosmetic cleansing oil was not absorbed by the hydrogel lenses under wet or dry conditions. However, four of seven brands of SHCLs absorbed the cosmetic cleansing oil under both conditions (dry and wet), whereas asmofilcon A absorbed it only under the dry condition. Lotrafilcon B and delefilcon A did not absorb cleansing oil even under the dry condition. Hydrogel lenses resist cosmetic cleansing oil. However, SHCLs have different degrees of resistance depending on the lens material. Some SHCLs absorbed cosmetic cleansing oil more under dry conditions than under wet conditions.

  5. OPTIMUM DRYING PROCESS. Best drying conditions to grind fruits and vegetables

    OpenAIRE

    Pina Laguna, Meritxell

    2013-01-01

    World’s population is increasing annually, thereby increasing world’s food demand. Considering current trends, changes in food production must be done in order to meet the estimated future demand. This problem and its possible solutions such as drying or pulverizing the foods, in which this thesis is focused on, are described in detail below.

  6. Atmospheric conditions and weather regimes associated with extreme winter dry spells over the Mediterranean basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raymond, Florian; Ullmann, Albin; Camberlin, Pierre; Oueslati, Boutheina; Drobinski, Philippe

    2018-06-01

    Very long dry spell events occurring during winter are natural hazards to which the Mediterranean region is extremely vulnerable, because they can lead numerous impacts for environment and society. Four dry spell patterns have been identified in a previous work. Identifying the main associated atmospheric conditions controlling the dry spell patterns is key to better understand their dynamics and their evolution in a changing climate. Except for the Levant region, the dry spells are generally associated with anticyclonic blocking conditions located about 1000 km to the Northwest of the affected area. These anticyclonic conditions are favourable to dry spell occurrence as they are associated with subsidence of cold and dry air coming from boreal latitudes which bring low amount of water vapour and non saturated air masses, leading to clear sky and absence of precipitation. These extreme dry spells are also partly related to the classical four Euro-Atlantic weather regimes are: the two phases of the North Atlantic Oscillation, the Scandinavian "blocking" or "East-Atlantic", and the "Atlantic ridge". Only the The "East-Atlantic", "Atlantic ridge" and the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation are frequently associated with extremes dry spells over the Mediterranean basin but they do not impact the four dry spell patterns equally. Finally long sequences of those weather regimes are more favourable to extreme dry spells than short sequences. These long sequences are associated with the favourable prolonged and reinforced anticyclonic conditions

  7. Diurnal flight behavior of Ichneumonoidea (Insecta: Hymenoptera) related to environmental factors in a tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Moreno, A; Bordera, S; Leirana-Alcocer, J; Delfín-González, H

    2012-06-01

    The biology and behavior of insects are strongly influenced by environmental conditions such as temperature and precipitation. Because some of these factors present a within day variation, they may be causing variations on insect diurnal flight activity, but scant information exists on the issue. The aim of this work was to describe the patterns on diurnal variation of the abundance of Ichneumonoidea and their relation with relative humidity, temperature, light intensity, and wind speed. The study site was a tropical dry forest at Ría Lagartos Biosphere Reserve, Mexico; where correlations between environmental factors (relative humidity, temperature, light, and wind speed) and abundance of Ichneumonidae and Braconidae (Hymenoptera: Ichneumonoidea) were estimated. The best regression model for explaining abundance variation was selected using the second order Akaike Information Criterion. The optimum values of temperature, humidity, and light for flight activity of both families were also estimated. Ichneumonid and braconid abundances were significantly correlated to relative humidity, temperature, and light intensity; ichneumonid also showed significant correlations to wind speed. The second order Akaike Information Criterion suggests that in tropical dry conditions, relative humidity is more important that temperature for Ichneumonoidea diurnal activity. Ichneumonid wasps selected toward intermediate values of relative humidity, temperature and the lowest wind speeds; while Braconidae selected for low values of relative humidity. For light intensity, braconids presented a positive selection for moderately high values.

  8. REDUCING ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT AND COST OF PRODUCTION FOR DRYING FRUITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murad Erol

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available To reduce the production costs for heat used in drying fruit plants was studied using of local biomass from tree branch pruning. The average annual get 3 t / ha biomass whit energy potential of 37 GJ/ha at a cost of up to 60 €/t. biomass at 10 - 50 mm chopped and dried below 20% can be gasefied with TLUD process characterized by high energy conversion efficiency, stability and safety in operation, emissions of CO and PM very low. TLUD process produces on average and 15% biochar that can be used as fuel or as agricultural amendment to increase fertility and for atmospheric carbon sequestration. There have been experiments simulated by model of USCMER 30/60MGB dryer equipped with two thermal modules TLUD FORTE-40 for apple slices drying heat of the apple prinings. Biomass used and biochar resulting chemical and energy were defined as micro-gasification process TLUD. That can dry 205 kg of apple slices in 6 hours with 74 kg of dry biomass to 10% of that remains and 12.2 kg biochar, biochar with or without 52 kg biomass, which costs € 8.55 or € 5.97, ie 4.3 or 6.1 times cheaper than diesel. On dry ton of sliced apple it can produce 59.6 kg biochar with soil seize -174.8 kg. CO2.

  9. Dynamic characterization of the cutting conditions in dry turning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serra, R [ENI Val de Loire, Universite Francois Rabelais de Tours, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, B.P. 3410, 41034 Blois Cedex (France); Chibane, H [Universite Francois Rabelais, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, B.P. 3410, 41034 Blois Cedex (France); Leroy, R, E-mail: roger.serra@univ-tours.f [Universite Francois Rabelais, Polytech' Tours, Laboratoire de Mecanique et Rheologie, E.A. 2640, 7 Avenue Marcel Dassault, 37200 Tours (France)

    2009-08-01

    Machining instability in the form of violent vibrations or chatter is a physical process characterized by extreme cutting force at the cutting point. The process has very negative impact on machine integrity, tool life, surface quality and dimensional accuracy. Thus it could significantly compromise productivity and manufacturing quality. In the present paper, the importance of characterization and identification of dynamic instability in dry turning operation are shown. The stability behaviour of machine vibration or chatter has been examined and the various relevant parameters are studied and discuted. For chatter detection and identification of the transition between stable and unstable states, different methods are used. Results obtained proof the accuracy of these methods.

  10. Dynamic photosynthesis in different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaiser, Elias; Morales, Alejandro; Harbinson, Jeremy; Kromdijk, Johannes; Heuvelink, Ep; Marcelis, Leo F M

    2015-05-01

    Incident irradiance on plant leaves often fluctuates, causing dynamic photosynthesis. Whereas steady-state photosynthetic responses to environmental factors have been extensively studied, knowledge of dynamic modulation of photosynthesis remains scarce and scattered. This review addresses this discrepancy by summarizing available data and identifying the research questions necessary to advance our understanding of interactions between environmental factors and dynamic behaviour of photosynthesis using a mechanistic framework. Firstly, dynamic photosynthesis is separated into sub-processes related to proton and electron transport, non-photochemical quenching, control of metabolite flux through the Calvin cycle (activation states of Rubisco and RuBP regeneration, and post-illumination metabolite turnover), and control of CO₂ supply to Rubisco (stomatal and mesophyll conductance changes). Secondly, the modulation of dynamic photosynthesis and its sub-processes by environmental factors is described. Increases in ambient CO₂ concentration and temperature (up to ~35°C) enhance rates of photosynthetic induction and decrease its loss, facilitating more efficient dynamic photosynthesis. Depending on the sensitivity of stomatal conductance, dynamic photosynthesis may additionally be modulated by air humidity. Major knowledge gaps exist regarding environmental modulation of loss of photosynthetic induction, dynamic changes in mesophyll conductance, and the extent of limitations imposed by stomatal conductance for different species and environmental conditions. The study of mutants or genetic transformants for specific processes under various environmental conditions could provide significant progress in understanding the control of dynamic photosynthesis. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  11. High Speed Finish Turning of Inconel 718 Using PCBN Tools under Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Luis Cantero

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Inconel 718 is a superalloy, considered one of the least machinable materials. Tools must withstand a high level of temperatures and pressures in a very localized area, the abrasiveness of the hard carbides contained in the Inconel 718 microstructure and the adhesion tendency during its machining. Mechanical properties along with the low thermal conductivity become an important issue for the tool wear. The finishing operations for Inconel 718 are usually performed after solution heat treatment and age hardening of the material to give the superalloy a higher level of hardness. Carbide tools, cutting fluid (at normal or high pressures and low cutting speed are the main recommendations for finish turning of Inconel 718. However, dry machining is preferable to the use of cutting fluids, because of its lower environmental impact and cost. Previous research has concluded that the elimination of cutting fluid in these processes is feasible when using hard carbide tools. Recent development of new PCBN (Polycrystalline Cubic Boron Nitride grades for cutting tools with higher tenacity has allowed the application of these tool grades in the finishing operations of Inconel 718. This work studies the performance of commercial PCBN tools from four different tool manufacturers as well as an additional grade with equivalent performance during finish turning of Inconel 718 under dry conditions. Wear tests were carried out with different cutting conditions, determining the evolution of machining forces, surface roughness and tool wear. It is concluded that it is not industrially viable the high-speed finishing of Inconel 718 in a dry environment.

  12. The Influence of Different Air-Drying Conditions on Bioactive Compounds and Antioxidant Activity of Berries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustos, Mariela C; Rocha-Parra, Diego; Sampedro, Ines; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia; León, Alberto E

    2018-03-21

    The aim of the present research was to study the effect of convective drying on color, bioactive compounds, and antioxidant activity of berry fruits and to chemically characterize the polyphenolic composition of raspberry, boysenberry, redcurrants, and blackcurrants fruit. Drying berries at 65 °C provoked the best conservations of color, particularly for boysenberry and blackcurrant. Drying at 65 °C was also the condition that showed higher level of polyphenols, while drying at 50 or 130 °C showed above % degradation of them due to the long time or high temperature drying. Radical scavenging activity was the predominant antioxidant mechanism in all samples, with 65 °C dried berries being the most active ones possibly because of polyphenol depolymerization. The anthocyanin profile showed that delphinidin and cyanidin derivatives were the most abundant anthocyanidins with different predominance between berry genera. Degradation of anthocyanins was increased with drying temperature been Cy 3-glucoside and Cy 3-rutinoside the most abundant.

  13. [Prospects of the integration of dry blood spot technology with human health and environmental population studies].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pomelova, V G; Osin, N S

    2007-01-01

    This literature review is dedicated to prospects of the use of whole blood dried on special filter paper as a source of biological material for human health and environmental population studies. Evident advantages of this low-invasive approach include the following: it is easy to take a blood sample from a patient's finger ofa neonate's heel; the cost of sampling as well as transportation and storage of samples is low; paper blanks are safe to manipulate with and convenient to mail in sealed plastic packages. Many analytes, such as DNA, become more stable after drying, which allows for the detection of phenotypic and genotypic markers, as well as multiple gene mutations by multiplex DNA amplification. Modern diagnostic techniques make it possible to detect a wide spectrum of biomarkers characterizing the condition of the endocrine, cardiovascular, reproductive, and immune systems of the organism in a single drop of blood. This allows considering paper blanks with dry blood the key component of multilevel interdisciplinary population studies on neonatal screening, disease spread surveillance, seroepidemiological monitoring, and ecological and genetic research.

  14. OPTIMIZATION OF MICROWAVE AND AIR DRYING CONDITIONS OF QUINCE (CYDONIA OBLONGA, MILLER USING RESPONSE SURFACE METHODOLOGY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cem Baltacioglu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Effects of slice thickness of quince (Cydonia oblonga Miller , microwave incident power and air drying temperature on antioxidant activity and total phenolic content of quince were investigated during drying in microwave and air drying. Optimum conditions were found to be: i for microwave drying, 285 W and 4.14 mm thick (maximum antioxidant activity and 285 W and 6.85 mm thick (maximum total phenolic content, and ii for air drying, 75 ºC and 1.2 mm thick (both maximum antioxidant activity and total phenolic content. Drying conditions were optimized by using the response surface methodology. 13 experiments were carried out considering incident microwave powers from 285 to 795 W, air temperature from 46 to 74 ºC and slice thickness from 1.2 to 6.8 mm.

  15. EFFECT OF MECHANICAL CONDITIONING ON THIN-LAYER DRYING OF ENERGY SORGHUM (Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ian J. Bonner; Kevin L. Kenney

    2012-10-01

    Cellulosic energy varieties of Sorghum bicolor (L.) Moench show promise as a bioenergy feedstock, however, high moisture content at the time of harvest results in unacceptable levels of degradation when stored in aerobic conditions. To safely store sorghum biomass for extended periods in baled format, the material must be dried to inhibit microbial growth. One possible solution is allowing the material to dry under natural in-field conditions. This study examines the differences in thin-layer drying rates of intact and conditioned sorghum under laboratory-controlled temperatures and relative humidity levels (20 degrees C and 30 degrees C from 40% to 85% relative humidity), and models experimental data using the Page’s Modified equation. The results demonstrate that conditioning drastically accelerates drying times. Relative humidity had a large impact on the time required to reach a safe storage moisture content for intact material (approximately 200 hours at 30 degrees C and 40% relative humidity and 400 hours at 30 degrees C and 70% relative humidity), but little to no impact on the thin-layer drying times of conditioned material (approximately 50 hours for all humidity levels < 70% at 30 degrees C). The drying equation parameters were influenced by temperature, relative humidity, initial moisture content, and material damage, allowing drying curves to be empirically predicted. The results of this study provide valuable information applicable to the agricultural community and to future research on drying simulation and management of energy sorghum.

  16. Influence of Potassium on Sapric Peat under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin, Syafik Akmal Mohd; Rahman, Junita Abdul; Rahim, Nor Haakmal Abd; Saphira Radin Mohamed, Radin Maya; Saeed Abduh Algheethi, Adel Ali, Dr

    2018-04-01

    Potassium is mainly present in soil in the natural form known as the K-bearing mineral. Potassium is also available in fertilizer as a supplement to plants and can be categorized as macronutrient. The application of potassium improves the texture and structure of the soil beside to improves plant growth. The main objective of this study was to determine the concentration of potassium in sapric peat under different conditions. Physical model was used as a mechanism for the analysis of the experimental data using a soil column as an equipment to produce water leaching. In this investigation, there were four outlets in the soil column which were prepared from the top of the column to the bottom with the purpose of identifying the concentration of potassium for each soil level. The water leaching of each outlet was tested using atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS). The results obtained showed that the highest concentrations of potassium for flush condition at outlet 4 was 13.58 ppm. Similarly, sapric under rainwater condition recorded the highest value of 13.32 and 12.34 ppm respectively at outlet 4 for wet and dry condition. However, the difference in Sapric, rainwater and fertilizer category showed that the highest value for the wet condition was achieved at outlet 2 with 13.99 ppm while highest value of 14.82 ppm was obtained for the dry condition at the outlet 3. It was concluded that the outlets in the soil column gave a detailed analysis of the concentration of potassium in the soil which was influenced by the environmental conditions.

  17. Effect of drying conditions on the physical properties of impregnated orange peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Manjarres-Pinzon

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Orange peel represents approximately 30-40 g/100g of the fresh fruit weight and could be used to develop value-added products. Hence, this study aims to evaluate the effects of drying conditions on the physical properties of orange peel impregnated with sucrose solution. The response surface method (RSM was used to optimize two parameters: drying temperature (35-55 ºC and air flow rate (2-3 m/s. The measured responses used to determine the effect of dying process conditions were: moisture content. drying time. total soluble solids. color and hardness. The dried orange peels from the optimal process were subjected to a sensory test by 60 consumers. The optimum conditions for the drying of orange peels were determined to obtain minimum hardness, moisture content and drying time for a w values below 0.6. The optimum conditions were found to be a dying temperature of 52.3 ºC and air flow rate of 2.0 m/s. At this point, drying time, hardness and moisture content were found to be 20 h, 78.4 N and 7.6%, respectively. The sensory results showed that consumers aged over 30 years old accepted well the dried orange peel.

  18. Yields of Selected Catch Crops in Dry Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina Handlířová

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Catch crops mainly reduce soil erosion and leaching of nutrients as well as enrich the soil organic matter. The aim of this research is to evaluate the yields of catch crops of Sinapis alba, Phacelia tanacetifolia, Fagopyrum esculentum, Carthamus tinctorius and Secale cereale v. multicaule, and thus determine the possible applicability of catch crops in areas with high average annual temperature and low precipitation totals. The small-plot field experiment was performed on clay-loam gleyic fluvisol at the Field Experimental Station in Žabčice, Southern Moravia, Czech Republic, within the period of 2006-2014. The catch crops were set up after winter wheat in mid-August. The results have shown a statistically significant difference among different catch crops in yield of dry matter and even among years. The yield of catch crops is mainly dependent on a sufficient supply of water in the soil and the appropriate amount and distribution of rainfall over the growing season. Sinapis alba and Phacelia tanacetifolia regularly reached the highest yields. High yields were also achieved with Fagopyrum esculentum. Due to the method of crop rotation in the Czech Republic, with a predominance of Brassica napus var. napus, it is inappropriate to include Sinapis alba. It is the best to grow Phacelia tanacetifolia and even Fagopyrum esculentum, or a mixture thereof, depending on the use of catch crops.

  19. Effect of Tropical Climatic Conditions on the Stability of Cefaclor Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    This study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture sorption at two different storage conditions ... Keywords: Dry powder for suspension; Moisture content; Colour; Stability; Moisture migration;. Interaction. ..... condensation. Sorption of ...

  20. Tolerances of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    West, J.M.; Arme, S.C.

    1985-03-01

    Microbial isolates from sites relevant to the disposal of radioactive wastes have been subjected to extreme environmental conditions in order to ascertain their tolerance ability. Two groups were chosen, sulphate reducing bacteria and sulphur oxidising bacteria, because of their potential effects on waste containment. They have been subjected to high temperatures, pressures and radiation (delta-emissions) in optimal media conditions and their ability to tolerate the conditions has been ascertained by epifluorescence microscopy and adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP) analysis followed by 'culture-on' to assess post experimental viability. Results indicate that the sulphate reducers in general, are more tolerant to these conditions than the sulphur oxidisers, some proving to be thermophilic. The sulphate reducer showed increased growth rates, as determined by population numbers, at 50 0 C and survived at 80 0 C, 4,500 psig (310 bar) with no subsequent loss in viability. Gamma irradiation of this group and an isolate of 10 5 rad over 4 hours had no effect on population numbers or viability. Such resistances are not apparent with the sulphur oxidisers whose numbers decreased with increasing radiation dose and are destroyed with pressure. (author)

  1. Environmental assessment: Uranium Geologic Drilling Project, Winnemucca Dry Lake, Pershing, Nevada

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This environmental assessment has been prepared to provide the environmental input into the DOE decision to drill and log ten (10) holes of under 7-in. diameters to depths of 100 to 1500 feet in the northern margin of Winnemucca Dry Lake, Pershing County, Nevada, to obtain subsurface information related to uranium favorability

  2. Environmental considerations on the FBC combustion of dry sewage sludge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, M. Helena; Abelha, Pedro; Gulyurtlu, Ibrahim; Cabrita, Isabel [INETI/DEECA, Lisboa (Portugal)

    2001-07-01

    This paper presents results of on-going research on the incineration of pre-dried granular sewage sludges using a FBC system. Co-combustion is compared with mono-combustion of sludges leads to minor emissions and higher retention of Cd, Pb, Cu, and Zn in the bottom ashes, when compared to co-combustion with coal. The leachability of the sludge is reduced through combustion, as none of the metals, Cd, Cr, Ca Ni, Ph, Zn, Co and Mn were leached from the bottom ashes. These findings may contribute to an improvement in the incineration of sewage sludges and to the development of applications for the ashes in civil engineering activities.

  3. Thermal comfort in air-conditioned mosques in the dry desert climate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-ajmi, Farraj F. [Department of Civil Engineering, College of Technological Studies, Shuwaikh 70654 (Kuwait)

    2010-11-15

    In Kuwait, as in most countries with a typical dry desert climate, the summer season is long with a mean daily maximum temperature of 45 C. Centralized air-conditioning, which is generally deployed from the beginning of April to the end of October, can have tremendous impact on the amount of electrical energy utilized to mechanically control the internal environment in mosque buildings. The indoor air temperature settings for all types of air-conditioned buildings and mosque buildings in particular, are often calculated based on the analytical model of ASHRAE 55-2004 and ISO 7730. However, a field study was conducted in six air-conditioned mosque buildings during the summers of 2007 to investigate indoor climate and prayers thermal comfort in state of Kuwait. The paper presents statistical data about the indoor environmental conditions in Kuwait mosque buildings, together with an analysis of prayer thermal comfort sensations for a total of 140 subjects providing 140 sets of physical measurements and subjective questionnaires were used to collect data. Results show that the neutral temperature (T{sub n}) of the prayers is found to be 26.1 C, while that for PMV is 23.3 C. Discrepancy of these values is in fact about 2.8 C higher than those predicted by PMV model. Therefore, thermal comfort temperature in Kuwait cannot directly correlate with ISO 7730 and ASHRAE 55-2004 standards. Findings from this study should be considered when designing air conditioning for mosque buildings. This knowledge can contribute towards the development of future energy-related design codes for Kuwait. (author)

  4. Air-drying of cells, the novel conditions for stimulated synthesis of triacylglycerol in a Green Alga, Chlorella kessleri.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takuma Shiratake

    Full Text Available Triacylglycerol is used for the production of commodities including food oils and biodiesel fuel. Microalgae can accumulate triacylglycerol under adverse environmental conditions such as nitrogen-starvation. This study explored the possibility of air-drying of green algal cells as a novel and simple protocol for enhancement of their triacylglycerol content. Chlorella kessleri cells were fixed on the surface of a glass fibre filter and then subjected to air-drying with light illumination. The dry cell weight, on a filter, increased by 2.7-fold in 96 h, the corresponding chlorophyll content ranging from 1.0 to 1.3-fold the initial one. Concomitantly, the triacylglycerol content remarkably increased to 70.3 mole% of fatty acids and 15.9% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, like in cells starved of nitrogen. Reduction of the stress of air-drying by placing the glass filter on a filter paper soaked in H2O lowered the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 26.4 mole% as to total fatty acids. Moreover, replacement of the H2O with culture medium further decreased the fatty acid content of triacylglycerol to 12.2 mole%. It thus seemed that severe dehydration is required for full induction of triacylglycerol synthesis, and that nutritional depletion as well as dehydration are crucial environmental factors. Meanwhile, air-drying of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells increased the triacylglycerol content to only 37.9 mole% of fatty acids and 4.8% (w/w, relative to total fatty acids and dry cell weight, respectively, and a marked decrease in the chlorophyll content, on a filter, of 33%. Air-drying thus has an impact on triacylglycerol synthesis in C. reinhardtii also, however, the effect is considerably limited, owing probably to instability of the photosynthetic machinery. This air-drying protocol could be useful for the development of a system for industrial production of triacylglycerol with appropriate selection of the

  5. Promoting intermodal freight transport through the development of dry ports in Asia: An environmental perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinya Hanaoka

    2011-07-01

    This study reviews the status of intermodal freight transport in Asia from an environmental perspective. It examines intermodal transport opportunities presented by the development of inland dry ports in hinterland locations. This paper also reviews selected case studies of dry port development in Asia. Finally, we present the lessons to be learned for the promotion of intermodal freight transport from selected Asian countries as well as the policy options available.

  6. Historicising and Globalising the African Environmental Condition ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The literature dealing with African environmental issues has grown exponentially in recent years. Nevertheless, much of these scholarly debates configure environmentalism in colonial and neocolonial terms, thereby interpreting the historical roots and environmental impact of globalisation. This article, however, argues that ...

  7. Environmental benefits from RF post-baking drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saoud, A. [Southern California Edison Co., Los Angeles, CA (United States)

    1992-12-31

    A study was conducted to evaluate the use of industrial microwaves and their environmental benefits in the Los Angeles Basin. The objective of the project was to assess the use of radio frequency (RF) post baking dryers to reduce the emissions per pound of output from a biscuit manufacturer and to determine the net savings in fuel consumed. Emissions measurements and energy consumption measurements were made prior to modifications to have a baseline for data for comparison. Results showed that the bakery used 17% less fuel and productivity increased by 25% after installation of the RF units. It was estimated that NOx emissions would be reduced 15-20%. The addition of RF post baking dryers provided a significant reduction in the emission problem in Los Angeles. 1 fig.

  8. How to change environmental conditions for health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Commers, Matthew J; Gottlieb, Nell; Kok, Gerjo

    2007-03-01

    Since the Lalonde report, contemporary public-health theory has given steadily more attention to the role of environments in influencing health status. Environments, both social and physical, influence health directly or through complex interactions with behavior, genetics and health-care systems. They are also important for public-health because environments are the complex systems through which people are both empowered and exercise their empowerment. If public-health professionals are to play a significant role in influencing environments for health, they need analytical instruments that enable them to link specific environmental conditions with the actions necessary to improve them. These instruments must also enable public-health professionals to identify points of leverage for stimulating key actors to take the actions necessary to make environments more promoting of health. This article first presents one such analytical instrument. Then, building on examples relating to socio-economic health inequities, the analytical instrument is applied to reveal how it can add value to health professionals' effectiveness in planning interventions for more health-promoting environments.

  9. [Guidelines on asthma in extreme environmental conditions].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drobnic, Franchek; Borderías Clau, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Asthma is a highly prevalent chronic disease which, if not properly controlled, can limit the patient's activities and lifestyle. In recent decades, owing to the diffusion of educational materials, the application of clinical guidelines and, most importantly, the availability of effective pharmacological treatment, most patients with asthma are now able to lead normal lives. Significant social changes have also taken place during the same period, including more widespread pursuit of sporting activities and tourism. As a result of these changes, individuals with asthma can now participate in certain activities that were inconceivable for these patients only a few years ago, including winter sports, underwater activities, air flight, and travel to remote places with unusual environmental conditions (deserts, high mountain environments, and tropical regions). In spite of the publication of several studies on this subject, our understanding of the effects of these situations on patients with asthma is still limited. The Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery (SEPAR) has decided to publish these recommendations based on the available evidence and expert opinion in order to provide information on this topic to both doctors and patients and to avert potentially dangerous situations that could endanger the lives of these patients.

  10. Optimization of spray drying conditions to microencapsulate cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum) seed by-product extract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Costa, Russany Silva; Teixeira, Camilo Barroso; Gabbay Alves, Taís Vanessa; Ribeiro-Costa, Roseane M; Casazza, Alessandro A; Aliakbarian, Bahar; Converti, Attilio; Silva Júnior, José O C; Perego, Patrizia

    2018-04-16

    Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum.) is a popular Amazonian fruit because of its intense aroma and nutritional value, whose lipid fraction is alternatively used in cosmetics. To preserve active principles and ensure their controlled release, extract was microencapsulated by spray drying. Influence of spray-drying conditions on microencapsulation of cupuassu seed by-product extract was investigated according to a 3 3 -Box Behnken factorial design, selecting inlet temperature, maltodextrin concentration and feed flowrate as independent variables, and total polyphenol and flavonoid contents, antiradical power, yields of drying and microencapsulation as responses. Fitting the results by second-order equations and modelling by Response Surface Methodology allowed predicting optimum conditions. Epicatechin and glycosylated quercetin were the major microencapsulated flavonoids. Microparticles showed satisfactory antiradical power and stability at 5 °C or under simulated gastrointestinal conditions, thus they may be used to formulate new foods or pharmaceuticals.

  11. Temperate heath plant response to dry conditions depends on growth strategy and less on physiology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost; Kongstad, J.; Schmidt, I. K.

    2012-01-01

    of these differences in response in dry versus rewetting conditions can be used to highlight the limitations coherent in different strategies adopted by, for example, evergreen shrubs and grasses. We investigated the leaf-level photosynthetic performance, leaf C, N and d13C along with vegetation cover and biomass...... in the evergreen dwarf shrub Calluna vulgaris and the grass species Deschampsia flexuosa in a temperate heath during seasonal changes in soil moisture. Higher photosynthetic capacity compensated for lower stomatal conductance and sustained higher rates of photosynthesis in the grass compared to the dwarf shrub....... In combination with dieback of aboveground biomass and reduction of stomatal conductance reduction during dry conditions, the grass continued to have high carbon uptake in the remaining leaves. The dwarf shrub endured the dry conditions by preserving shoot biomass and reducing stomatal conductance. Soil...

  12. Effects of drying conditions, admixtures and specimen size on shrinkage strains

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Al-Saleh, Saleh A.; Al-Zaid, Rajeh Z.

    2006-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an experimental investigation on the effects of drying conditions, specimen size and presence of plasticizing admixture on the development of shrinkage strains. The measurements are taken in a harsh (50 deg. C and 5% R.H.) and a moderate environment (28 deg. C and 50% R.H.). The results include strain development at various levels of cross sections of concrete prisms. The drying conditions are found to be the dominant parameter affecting the shrinkage strain development particularly in specimens of smaller sizes. The effect of plasticizing admixture on shrinkage strains is negligible

  13. New model for colour kinetics of plum under infrared vacuum condition and microwave drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chayjan, Reza Amiri; Alaei, Behnam

    2016-01-01

    Quality of dried foods is affected by the drying method and physiochemical changes in tissue. The drying method affects properties such as colour. The colour of processed food is one of the most important quality indices and plays a determinant role in consumer acceptability of food materials and the processing method. The colour of food materials can be used as an indirect factor to determine changes in quality, since it is simpler and faster than chemical methods. The study focused on the kinetics of colour changes of plum slices, under infrared vacuum and microwave conditions. Drying the samples was implemented at the absolute pressures of 20 and 60 kPa, drying temperatures of 50 and 60°C and microwave power of 90, 270, 450 and 630 W. Colour changes were quantified by the tri-stimulus L* (whiteness/darkness), a* (redness/greenness) and b* (yellowness/blueness) model, which is an international standard for color measurement developed by the Commission Internationale d'Eclairage (CIE). These values were also used to calculate total colour change (∆E), chroma, hue angle, and browning index (BI). A new model was used for mathematical modelling of colour change kinetics. The drying process changed the colour parameters of L*, a*, and b*, causing a colour shift toward the darker region. The values of L* and hue angle decreased, whereas the values of a*, b*, ∆E, chroma and browning index increased during exposure to infrared vacuum conditions and microwave drying. Comparing the results obtained using the new model with two conventional models of zero-order and first-order kinetics indicated that the new model presented more compatibility with the data of colour kinetics for all colour parameters and drying conditions. All kinetic changes in colour parameters can be explained by the new model presented in this study. The hybrid drying system included infrared vacuum conditions and microwave power for initial slow drying of plum slices and provided the desired

  14. Critical review of creep FRAPCON-3 model under dry storage conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E. [Unit of Nuclear Safety Research, CIEMAT, Avda. Complutense 22, Madrid, Madrid 28040 (Spain)

    2009-06-15

    There is a general agreement that cladding creep rupture is the most likely and limiting failure mechanism of spent fuel in dry storage compared to other potential mechanisms, like stress corrosion cracking and/or delayed hydride cracking. Nevertheless, occurrence of creep rupture is very improbable since both decay heat and hoop stress tend to decrease throughout dry storage. In spite of this, the current trend to higher burn up levels needs further attention that ensures safe storage of spent fuel irradiated over 45 GWd/MTU. An extensive work has been carried out during the last four decades in the area of in-reactor creep modelling. Unfortunately, the in-reactor conditions are so different from those prevailing under dry storage, that all the experience gained cannot be extrapolated in a straightforward manner. On the other side, as creep tests simulating conditions throughout a 20-40 year dry storage are impractical, post-irradiation cladding creep behaviour has been modelled by means of time-temperature dependent laws developed on the basis of currently available zirconium alloys data. Additionally, some tests have been exploring the effect of irradiation, hydrogen distribution and material composition on the materials creep behaviour. Adaptation of fuel performance codes initially developed for normal and off-normal reactor operation is not an easy task either. Creep modelling is usually dependent of host codes because a good part of its validation and update has been carried out in an integral way, and as a consequence its independent performance assessment is not an easy task. This work examines the current capability of FRAPCON-3 to model creep behaviour under dry storage conditions. To do so, a review of its major fundamentals has been done and its range of applicability discussed. Once its main approximations and drawbacks have been identified, an attempt to overcome some of them has been intended by implementing an alternative expression for creep under

  15. Effect of Tropical Climatic Conditions on the Stability of Cefaclor Dry ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: Two critical factors that govern the stability of pharmaceutical formulations in the tropics are humidity and temperature. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of moisture sorption at two different storage conditions on Cefaclor dry powder for oral suspension and predict the effect of moisture interaction on ...

  16. Effect of the Machined Surfaces of AISI 4337 Steel to Cutting Conditions on Dry Machining Lathe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahim, Robbi; Napid, Suhardi; Hasibuan, Abdurrozzaq; Rahmah Sibuea, Siti; Yusmartato, Y.

    2018-04-01

    The objective of the research is to obtain a cutting condition which has a good chance of realizing dry machining concept on AISI 4337 steel material by studying surface roughness, microstructure and hardness of machining surface. The data generated from the experiment were then processed and analyzed using the standard Taguchi method L9 (34) orthogonal array. Testing of dry and wet machining used surface test and micro hardness test for each of 27 test specimens. The machining results of the experiments showed that average surface roughness (Raavg) was obtained at optimum cutting conditions when VB 0.1 μm, 0.3 μm and 0.6 μm respectively 1.467 μm, 2.133 μm and 2,800 μm fo r dry machining while which was carried out by wet machining the results obtained were 1,833 μm, 2,667 μm and 3,000 μm. It can be concluded that dry machining provides better surface quality of machinery results than wet machining. Therefore, dry machining is a good choice that may be realized in the manufacturing and automotive industries.

  17. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Leuken, J. P G; Swart, A. N.; Brandsma, J.; Terink, W.; Van de Kassteele, J.; Droogers, P.; Sauter, F.; Havelaar, A. H.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/072306122; Van der Hoek, W.

    2016-01-01

    Airborne pathogenic transmission from sources to humans is characterised by atmospheric dispersion and influence of environmental conditions on deposition and reaerosolisation. We applied a One Health approach using human, veterinary and environmental data regarding the 2009 epidemic in The

  18. Environmental conditions in displaced communities of Khartoum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology ... more than one-third for children can be attributed to the changes and degradation of the environment. ... practices, which can affect the safety of water and promote diseases spread.

  19. The Effect of Operating Conditions on Drying Characteristics and Quality of Ginger (Zingiber Officinale Roscoe) Using Combination of Solar Energy-Molecular Sieve Drying System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Zamzami, M. A.

    2017-03-01

    Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) is an agricultural product that can be used as beverages and snacks, and especially for traditional medicines. One of the important stages in the processing of ginger is drying. The drying process intended to reduce the water content of 85-90% to 8-10%, making it safe from the influence of fungi or insecticide. During the drying takes place, the main ingredient contained in ginger is homologous ketone phenolic known as gingerol are chemically unstable at high temperatures, for the drying technology is an important factor in maintaining the active ingredient (gingerol) which is in ginger. The combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer that are used in the research is capable of operating 24 hours. The purpose of this research is to study the effect of operating conditions (in this case the air velocity) toward the drying characteristics and the quality of dried ginger using the combination of solar energy and molecular sieve dryer. Drying system consist of three main parts which is: desiccator, solar collector, and the drying chamber. To record data changes in the mass of the sample, a load cell mounted in the drying chamber, and then connected to the automated data recording system using a USB data cable. All data of temperature and RH inside the dryer box and the change of samples mass recorded during the drying process takes place and the result is stored in the form of Microsoft Excel. The results obtained, shows that the air velocity is influencing the moisture content and ginger drying rate, where the moisture content equilibrium of ginger for the air velocity of 1.3 m/s was obtained on drying time of 360 minutes and moisture content of 2.8%, at 1.0 m/s was obtained on drying time of 300 minutes and moisture content of 1.4%, at 0, 8 m/s was obtained at 420 minutes drying time and the moisture content is 2.0%. The drying characteristics shows that there are two drying periods, which is: the increasing drying rate

  20. Anaerobic digestion performance of sweet potato vine and animal manure under wet, semi-dry, and dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Enlan; Li, Jiajia; Zhang, Keqiang; Wang, Feng; Yang, Houhua; Zhi, Suli; Liu, Guangqing

    2018-03-22

    Sweet potato vine (SPV) is an abundant agricultural waste, which is easy to obtain at low cost and has the potential to produce clean energy via anaerobic digestion (AD). The main objectives of this study were to reveal methane production and process stability of SPV and the mixtures with animal manure under various total solid conditions, to verify synergetic effect in co-digestion of SPV and manure in AD systems, and to determine the kinetics characteristics during the full AD process. The results showed that SPV was desirable feedstock for AD with 200.22 mL/g VS added of methane yield in wet anaerobic digestion and 12.20 L methane /L working volume in dry anaerobic digestion (D-AD). Synergistic effects were found in semi-dry anaerobic digestion and D-AD with each two mixing feedstock. In contrast with SPV mono-digestion, co-digestion with manure increased methane yield within the range of 14.34-49.11% in different AD digesters. The values of final volatile fatty acids to total alkalinity (TA) were below 0.4 and the values of final pH were within the range of 7.4-8.2 in all the reactors, which supported a positive relationship between carbohydrate hydrolysis and methanogenesis during AD process. The mathematical modified first order model was applied to estimate substrate biodegradability and methane production potential well with conversion constant ranged from 0.0003 to 0.0953 1/day, which indicated that co-digestion increased hydrolysis efficiency and metabolic activity. This work provides useful information to improve the utilization and stability of digestion using SPV and livestock or poultry manure as substrates.

  1. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Manap Mohd Yazid

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Response surface methodology (RSM along with central composite design (CCD was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL, Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v, and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05 effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL, yield (86.4% and storage stability (84.2% of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  2. Optimization of Freeze Drying Conditions for Purified Pectinase from Mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) Peel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (−2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (−1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p < 0.05) effect on pectinase activity and yield of the enzyme. It was observed that the interaction effect of Arabic gum and maltodextrin improved the enzymatic properties of freeze-dried pectinase. The optimal conditions for freeze-dried pectinase from mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved. PMID:22489134

  3. Dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw under mesophilic and thermophilic anaerobic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Xiangqian; Wu, Guangxue; Wang, Jiaquan; Hu, Zhen-Hu

    2015-12-01

    Dry anaerobic digestion of sewage sludge can recover biogas as energy; however, its low C/N ratio limits it as a single substrate in the anaerobic digestion. Rice straw is an abundant agricultural residue in China, which is rich in carbon and can be used as carbon source. In the present study, the performance of dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw was investigated under mesophilic (35 °C) and thermophilic (55 °C) conditions. The operational factors impacting dry co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw such as C/N ratio, moisture content, and initial pH were explored under mesophilic conditions. The results show that low C/N ratios resulted in a higher biogas production rate, but a lower specific biogas yield; low moisture content of 65 % resulted in the instability of the digestion system and a low specific biogas yield. Initial pH ranging 7.0-9.0 did not affect the performance of the anaerobic digestion. The C/N ratio of 26-29:1, moisture content of 70-80 %, and pH 7.0-9.0 resulted in good performance in the dry mesophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw. As compared with mesophilic digestion, thermophilic co-digestion of sewage sludge and rice straw significantly enhanced the degradation efficiency of the substrates and the specific biogas yield (p sewage sludge under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

  4. Spent nuclear fuel project cold vacuum drying facility process water conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1998-01-01

    This document provides the System Design Description (SDD) for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) Process Water Conditioning (PWC) System. The SDD was developed in conjunction with HNF-SD-SNF-SAR-002, Safety Analysis Report for the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility, Phase 2, Supporting Installation of Processing Systems (Garvin 1998), the HNF-SD-SNF-DRD-O02, 1998, Cold Vacuum Drying Facility Design Requirements, and the CVDF Design Summary Report. The SDD contains general descriptions of the PWC equipment, the system functions, requirements and interfaces. The SDD provides references for design and fabrication details, operation sequences and maintenance. This SDD has been developed for the SNFP Operations Organization and shall be updated, expanded, and revised in accordance with future design, construction and startup phases of the CVDF until the CVDF final ORR is approved

  5. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L.) fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kan, Tuncay; Gundogdu, Muttalip; Ercisli, Sezai; Muradoglu, Ferhad; Celik, Ferit; Gecer, Mustafa Kenan; Kodad, Ossama; Zia-Ul-Haq, Muhammad

    2014-09-23

    Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali) and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi') grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 μg in irrigated and 6952 μg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 μg and 15251 μg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  6. Phenolic compounds and vitamins in wild and cultivated apricot (Prunus armeniaca L. fruits grown in irrigated and dry farming conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuncay Kan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Turkey is the main apricot producer in the world and apricots have been produced under both dry and irrigated conditions in the country. In this study, phenolic compounds and vitamins in fruits of one wild (Zerdali and three main apricot cultivars ('Cataloglu', 'Hacihaliloglu' and 'Kabaasi' grown in both dry and irrigated conditions in Malatya provinces in Turkey were investigated. RESULTS: The findings indicated that higher content of phenolic compounds and vitamins was found in apricot fruits grown in irrigated conditions. Among the cultivars, 'Cataloglu' had the highest rutin contents both in irrigated and dry farming conditions as 2855 µg in irrigated and 6952 µg per 100 g dried weight base in dry conditions and the highest chlorogenic acid content in irrigated and dry farming conditions were measured in fruits of 'Hacıhaliloglu' cultivar as 7542 µg and 15251 µg per 100 g dried weight base. Vitamin C contents in homogenates of fruit flesh and skin was found to be higher than β-caroten, retinol, vitamin E and lycopen contents in apricot fruits both in irrigated and dry farming conditions. CONCLUSION: The results suggested that apricot fruits grown in both dry and irrigated conditions had high health benefits phytochemicals and phytochemical content varied among cultivars and irrigation conditions as well. However, more detailed biological and pharmacological studies are needed for the demonstration and clarification of health benefits of apricot fruits.

  7. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O.

    2011-01-01

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 o C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10 -9 m 2 /s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 o C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 o C to 80 o C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively.

  8. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity and energy requirements during the drying of pretreated and untreated pumpkin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tunde-Akintunde, Toyosi Y.; Ogunlakin, Grace O. [Ladoke Akintola University of Technology, PMB 4000, Ogbomoso, Oyo State (Nigeria)

    2011-02-15

    Pumpkin as a fruit is consumed by both animals and humans. Its high moisture content makes it perishable and thus there is a need for drying as a means of preservation. Thin-layer drying characteristics for the samples dried using a hot-air dryer were obtained from the experiment data. The drying was observed to take place in the falling rate drying period. Ficks law was used to determine the moisture diffusivity which varied from a minimum of 1.19 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for untreated pumpkin samples dried at 40 C to a maximum value of 4.27 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s for steam blanched samples dried at 80 C. The value of the energy of activation varied from 21.44 to 28.67 kJ/mol. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of pumpkin samples were found to be in the range of 317.8-458.1 kW h and 1588.8-2290.3 kW h/kg from 40 C to 80 C with a drying air velocity of 1.5 m/s respectively. (author)

  9. Effects of Different Drying Conditions on Key Quality Parameters of Pink Peppercorns (Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno Guzzo Silva

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Pink peppercorns are among the most sophisticated condiments in the international cuisine. This culinary spice is obtained from dried fruits of Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi, a species native to South America. In this work, a methodology for the assessment of pink peppercorn quality under various drying conditions was defined. Experiments were performed in a pilot tray dryer, which ensured integrity of the product. A central composite rotatable design with 11 experiments was devised to study the influence of drying air temperature (35–75°C and air velocity (0.3–0.9 m/s on product quality, assessed by moisture content, color (CIELAB system, and volatile compounds. The essential oils of fresh and dried fruits were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry. Air temperature had the greatest influence on the quality parameters under study, while air velocity had no statistically significant effect. Considering all quality criteria, temperatures between 40 and 55°C provided the best compromise, yielding an adequate moisture content in the dried product without dramatic degradation of color and essential oil.

  10. Environmental and infectious conditions in sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Thomas S

    2003-01-01

    The hearts and lungs of athletes are subject to damage from a wide array of infections and environmental factors. Mild to moderate exercise has been shown to be beneficial to overall health, and strenuous exercise simply requires proper rest and rehabilitation to ensure its beneficial effects as well. Simple colds and URTIs are very common in athletes and do not usually require significant intervention. Any suspected cardiac infection mandates a thorough evaluation and proper management to prevent catastrophic consequences. High altitudes can be helpful in enhancing performance, but caution must be exercised at even modest altitude to prevent serious complications. With diving, participants should know their time limits and ascend properly to avoid serious complications. Keeping the heart and lungs in a good state of health is a major priority for the weekend warrior and world-class athletes alike. A thorough knowledge of infections and environmental issues in the cardiopulmonary health of athletes should always be of highest priority.

  11. Friction between footwear and floor covered with solid particles under dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kai Way; Meng, Fanxing; Zhang, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Solid particles on the floor, both dry and wet, are common but their effects on the friction on the floor were seldom discussed in the literature. In this study, friction measurements were conducted to test the effects of particle size of solid contaminants on the friction coefficient on the floor under footwear, floor, and surface conditions. The results supported the hypothesis that particle size of solids affected the friction coefficient and the effects depended on footwear, floor, and surface conditions. On dry surfaces, solid particles resulted in friction loss when the Neolite footwear pad was used. On the other hand, solid particles provided additional friction when measured with the ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) footwear pad. On wet surfaces, introducing solid particles made the floors more slip-resistant and such effects depended on particle size. This study provides information for better understanding of the mechanism of slipping when solid contaminants are present.

  12. Retention of short chain fatty acids under drying and storage conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Santos Souza

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Cheese whey permeate was used as a substrate for the fermentation of Propionibacterium freudenreichi PS1 for the production of short chain fatty acids, components of the bio-aroma of Swiss cheese. The liquid bio-aroma was encapsulated by spray drying under different conditions of air inlet temperature and feed rate. A study was carried out on the stability of the bio-aroma during storage in laminated packages at 30 °C for 96 days using the product showing the greatest retention of acetic and propionic acids. The results showed that the best drying conditions were an air entrance temperature of 180 °C and a feed rate of 24 g/min resulting in particles with a smooth surface and few invaginations and micro-fissures. However, 72% of the acetic acid and 80% of the propionic acid were lost during storage showing that the wall material used was inadequate to guarantee product stability.

  13. Survival of spray-dried Lactobacillus kefir is affected by different protectants and storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golowczyc, Marina A; Gerez, Carla L; Silva, Joana; Abraham, Analía G; De Antoni, Graciela L; Teixeira, Paula

    2011-04-01

    Survival of two Lactobacillus kefir strains after spray drying in reconstituted skim milk with or without the addition of 12.5 g monosodium glutamate/l, 20 g sucrose/l, or 20 g fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS)/l and during subsequent storage under different conditions of temperature (20 and 30°C) and relative humidity (RH) (0, 11 and 23%) was evaluated. After being dried, L. kefir 8321 and L. kefir 8348 had a decrease in viability of 0.29 and 0.70 log cfu/ml respectively, while the addition of different protectants improved the survival of both strains significantly. During storage, bacterial survival was significantly higher under lower conditions of RH (0-11%), and monosodium glutamate and FOS proved to be the best protectants.

  14. The Effect of Body Weight on Heat Strain Indices in Hot and Dry Climatic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Habibi

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Background Being overweight is a characteristic that may influence a person’s heat exchange. Objectives The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of body weight on heat strain indices in hot and dry climatic conditions. Materials and Methods This study was completed with a sample of 30 participants with normal weights, as well as 25 participants who were overweight. The participants were physically inactive for a period of 120 minutes in a climatic chamber with hot and dry conditions (22 - 32°C and with 40% relative humidity (RH.The physiological strain index (PSI and heat strain score index (HSSI questionnaires were used. Simultaneous measurements were completed during heat exposure for periods of five minutes. The resting periods acted as the initial measurements for 15 minutes. Results In both groups, oral temperature, heart rate, and thermal perceptual responses increased during heat exposure. The means and standard deviations of heart rate and oral temperature were gathered when participants were in hot and dry climatic conditions and were not physically active. The heart rates and oral temperatures were 79.21 ± 5.93 bpm and 36.70 ± 0.45°C, respectively, for those with normal weights. For overweight individuals, the measurements for heart rate and oral temperature reached 82.21 ± 8.9 bpm and 37.84 ± 0.37°C, respectively. Conclusions The results showed that, compared to participants with normal weights, physiological and thermal perceptual responses were higher in overweight participants. Therefore, overweight individuals should avoid hot/dry weather conditions to decrease the amount of heat strain.

  15. [Research about effect of spray drying conditions on hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of gubi compound's water extract and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jie; Shao, Qi; Zhang, Hong-Qing; Pan, Yong-Lan; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei

    2014-02-01

    To investigate moisture content and hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of Gubi compound's water extract obtained at different spray drying conditions and laying a foundation for spray drying process of Chinese herbal compound preparation. In the paper, on the basis of single-factor experiments, the author choose inlet temperature, liquid density, feed rate, air flow rate as investigated factors. The experimental absorption rate-time curve and scanning electron microscopy results showed that under different spray drying conditions the spray-dried powders have different morphology and different adsorption process. At different spray-dried conditions, the morphology and water content of the powder is different, these differences lead to differences in the adsorption process, at the appropriate inlet temperature and feed rate with a higher sample density and lower air flow rate, in the experimental system the optimum conditions is inlet temperature of 150 degrees C, feed density of 1.05 g x mL(-1), feed rate of 20 mL x min(-1) air flow rate of 30 m3 x h(-1).

  16. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    OpenAIRE

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s...

  17. The determination of optimum condition in water hyacinth drying process by mixed adsorption drying method and modified fly ash as an adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saputra, Asep Handaya; Putri, Rizky Anggreini

    2017-05-01

    Water hyacinth is an aquatic weed that has a very fast growth which makes it becomes a problem to the ecosystem. On the other hand, water hyacinth has a high fiber content (up to 20% by weight) which makes it potential to become raw material for composites and textile industries. As an aquatic plant, water hyacinth has a high initial moisture content that reaches more than 90%. Meanwhile the moisture content of fiber as a raw material for composite and textile industry should not be more than 10% to maintain the good quality of the products. Mixed adsorption drying method is one of the innovative method that can replace conventional drying process. Fluidization method which has been commonly used in agricultural and pharmaceutical products drying, can be enhanced by combining it with the adsorption method as performed in this study. In mixed fluidization-adsorption drying method, fly ash as adsorbent and water hyacinth fiber were put together into the fluidization column where the drying air evaporate the moisture content in water hyacinth fiber. In addition, the adsorbent adsorb the moisture content in the drying air to make the moisture content of the drying air remain low. The drying process is performed in various temperature and composition of water hyacinth and adsorbent in order to obtain the optimum drying condition. In addition, the effect of fly ash pellet and fly ash powder to the drying process was also performed. The result shows that the higher temperature and the more amount of adsorbent results in the faster drying rate. Fly ash pellet shows a better adsorption since it has a smaller pore diameter and wider surface area. The optimum temperature obtained from this study is 60°C and the optimum ratio of water hyacinth and fly ash is 50:50.

  18. High Temperature Oxidation Behavior of T91 Steel in Dry and Humid Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yonghao Leong

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available High temperature oxidation behavior of T91 ferritic/martensitic steel was examined over the temperature range of 500 to 700°C in dry and humid environments.  The weight gain result revealed that oxidation occurs at all range of temperatures and its rate is accelerated by increasing the temperature. The weight gain of the oxidized steel at 700°C in steam condition was six times bigger than the dry oxidation.. SEM/EDX of the cross-sectional image showed that under dry condition, a protective and steady growth of the chromium oxide (Cr2O3 layer was formed on the steel with the thickness of 2.39±0.34 µm. Meanwhile for the humid environment, it is found that the iron oxide layer, which consists of the hematite (Fe2O3 and magnetite (Fe3O4 was formed as the outer scale, and spinnel as inner scale. This result indicated that the oxidation behavior of T91 steel was affected by its oxidation environment. The existence of water vapor in steam condition may prevent the formation of chromium oxide as protective layer.

  19. Effects of impregnation methods and drying conditions on quinoline hydrodenitrogenation over Ni-W based catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Fang; Qiu, Zegang; Zhao, Liangfu; Xiang, Hongwei [Institute of Coal Chemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences (China); Guo, Shaoqing [Taiyuan University of Science and Technology (China)

    2014-04-15

    The effects of impregnation methods (co-impregnation and sequential impregnation) and drying conditions (air and vacuum) on the structure and catalytic behavior of MCM-41 supported Ni-W catalysts were investigated. The catalysts were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), diffuse reflectance UV-Vis absorbance spectroscopy (DRS), Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and pyridine adsorbed infrared spectroscopy (Py-IR) techniques. They were tested for hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline at temperatures of 300-400 deg C. The HDN results showed that the catalysts prepared by co-impregnation were more active than the catalysts prepared by sequential impregnation and the catalysts prepared by drying under vacuum were more active than the catalysts dried in air. Characterization revealed that the co-impregnation method and drying under vacuum promoted the dispersion of W, the formation of the active phases, and the formation of acidic sites on the catalysts. (author)

  20. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra for Smectite, Sulfate And Perchlorate under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R.V.; Ming, W.; Golden, D.C.; Arvidson, R.E.; Wiseman, S.M.; Lichtenberg, K.A.; Cull, S.; Graff, T.G.

    2009-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectral data for the martian surface obtained from orbit by the MRO-CRISM and OMEGA instruments are interpreted as having spectral signatures of H2O/OH-bearing phases, including smectites and other phyllosilicates, sulfates, and high-SiO2 phases [e.g., 1-4]. Interpretations of martian spectral signatures are based on and constrained by spectra that are obtained in the laboratory on samples with known mineralogical compositions and other physicochemical characteristics under, as appropriate, Mars-like environmental conditions (e.g., temperature, pressure, and humidity). With respect to environmental conditions, differences in the absolute concentration of atmospheric H2O can effect the hydration state and therefore the spectra signatures of smectite phyllosilicates (solvation H2O) and certain sulfates (hydration H2O) [e.g., 5-7]. We report VNIR spectral data acquired under humid (laboratory air) and dry (dry N2 gas) environments for two natural smectites (nontronite API-33A and saponite SapCa-1) to characterize the effect of solvation H2O on spectral properties. We also report spectral data for the thermal dehydration products of (1) melanterite (FeSO4.7H2O) in both air and dry N2 gas and (2) Mg-perchlorate (Mg(ClO4)2.6H2O) in dry N2 environments. Spectral measurements for samples dehydrated in dry N2 were made without exposing them to humid laboratory air.

  1. Technical Aspects Regarding the Preservation of Dry Onions in Different Storage Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marian Vintila

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Research refers to the ability to maintain the quality of dry onions in different conditions of temperature, the three varieties used in experimentation (De Buzau, Daytona and Countach being stored after proper preparation at ambient temperature (+20…+22°C, refrigerated (+10…+12°C and cold conditions (+3…+5°C. Storage life, the level of weight (mass and decay losses and evolution of some chemical components determined from the 9 variants led to the conclusion that the best results were obtained by De Buzau variety for storage under ambient conditions and Daytona variety for storage under refrigerated and cold conditions. Moreover large differences between varieties and their behavior depending on storage conditions require choosing resistant cultivars and optimum storage temperatures according to destination and period of marketing or consumption.

  2. Adhesive Wear Performance of CFRP Multilayered Polyester Composites Under Dry/wet Contact Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danaelan, D.; Yousif, B. F.

    The tribo-performance of a new engineering composite material based on coconut fibers was investigated. In this work, coconut fibers reinforced polyester (CFRP) composites were developed. The tribo-experiments were conducted by using pin-on-disc machine under dry and wet sliding contact condition against smooth stainless steel counterface. Worn surfaces were observed using optical microscope. Friction coefficient and specific wear rate were presented as a function of sliding distance (0-0.6 km) at different sliding velocities (0.1-0.28 m/s). The effect of applied load and sliding velocity was evaluated. The results showed that all test parameters have significant influence on friction and wear characteristics of the composites. Moreover, friction coefficient increased as the normal load and speed increased, the values were about 0.7-0.9 under dry contact condition. Meanwhile, under wet contact condition, there was a great reduction in the friction coefficient, i.e. the values were about 0.1-0.2. Furthermore, the specific wear rates were found to be around 2-4 (10-3) mm3/Nm under dry contact condition and highly reduced under wet condition. In other words, the presence of water as cleaner and polisher assisted to enhance the adhesive wear performance of CFRP by about 10%. The images from optical microscope showed evidence of adhesive wear mode with transition to abrasive wear mode at higher sliding velocities due to third body abrasion. On the other hand, optical images for wet condition showed less adhesive wear and smooth surfaces.

  3. Quantification of Gaseous Elemental Mercury Dry Deposition to Environmental Surfaces using Mercury Stable Isotopes in a Controlled Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rutter, A. P.; Schauer, J. J.; Shafer, M. M.; Olson, M.; Robinson, M.; Vanderveer, P.; Creswell, J. E.; Parman, A.; Mallek, J.; Gorski, P.

    2009-12-01

    Andrew P. Rutter (1) * *, James J, Schauer (1,2) *, Martin M. Shafer(1,2), Michael R. Olson (1), Michael Robinson (1), Peter Vanderveer (3), Joel Creswell (1), Justin L. Mallek (1), Andrew M. Parman (1) (1) Environmental Chemistry and Technology Program, 660 N. Park St, Madison, WI 53705. (2) Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene, 2601 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53718. (3) Biotron, University of Wisconsin - Madison, 2115 Observatory Drive, Madison, WI 53706 * Correspond author(jjschauer@wisc.edu) * *Presenting author (aprutter@wisc.edu) Abstract Gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) is the predominant component of atmospheric mercury outside of arctic depletion events, and locations where anthropogenic point sources are not influencing atmospheric concentrations. GEM constitutes greater than 99% of the mercury mass in most rural and remote locations. While dry and wet deposition of atmospheric mercury is thought to be dominated by oxidized mercury (a.k.a. reactive mercury), only small GEM uptake to environmental surfaces could impact the input of mercury to terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems. Dry deposition and subsequent re-emission of gaseous elemental mercury is a pathway from the atmosphere that remains only partially understood from a mechanistic perspective. In order to properly model GEM dry deposition and re-emission an understanding of its dependence on irradiance, temperature, and relative humidity must be measured and parameterized for a broad spectrum of environmental surfaces colocated with surrogate deposition surfaces used to make field based dry deposition measurements. Measurements of isotopically enriched GEM dry deposition were made with a variety of environmental surfaces in a controlled environment room at the University of Wisconsin Biotron. The experimental set up allowed dry deposition components which are not easily separated in the field to be decoupled. We were able to isolate surface transfer processes from variabilities caused by

  4. Radiation inactivation of microorganisms on food materials with different dry conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryomoto, Yasuhisa; Ito, Hitoshi [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Takasaki, Gunma (Japan). Takasaki Radiation Chemistry Research Establishment

    2001-09-01

    The effect of dry condition of food materials such as spices or herbs with grain or powder were investigated for inactivation of microorganisms by gamma-rays or electron-beams. Radiation sensitivities on endospores of Bacillus pumilus and B. cereus at polished rice, whole black pepper and glass fiber filter dried with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin were almost equivalent, and D{sub 10} values of gamma-rays were obtained to be 1.8 - 2.2 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.2 - 1.3 kGy for B. cereus, respectively. However, D{sub 10} value was decreased to 1.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.0 kGy for B. cereus in white pepper powder, and increased significantly as 2.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.8 kGy for B. cereus in senna herb powder. In the case of B. megaterium, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, D{sub 10} values were increased at all of food materials even in white pepper powder compared with glass fiber filter with additives. These results are indicating that glycerin and related radical scavengers in food components protect the bacteria such as B. megaterium, Ent. cloacae and E. coli more significantly from effects of radiation than B. pumilus or B. cereus. The increase of radiation resistance of these bacteria should be responsible also to the amount of oxygen penetration in bacterial cells which dried at different conditions. On the irradiation of electron-beams, radiation resistance of all of bacteria increased more significantly than gamma-rays which depending to dose rate effects on bacteria. However, increase of radiation resistance was not observed at Aspergillus oryzae in all of food materials at different dry conditions. (author)

  5. Optimization of protectant, salinity and freezing condition for freeze-drying preservation of Edwardsiella tarda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yongxiang; Zhang, Zheng; Wang, Yingeng; Liao, Meijie; Li, Bin; Xue, Liangyi

    2017-10-01

    Novel preservation condition without ultra-low temperature is needed for the study of pathogen in marine fishes. Freeze-drying is such a method usually used for preservation of terrigenous bacteria. However, studies using freeze-drying method to preserving marine microorganisms remain very limited. In this study, we optimized the composition of protectants during the freeze-drying of Edwardsiella tarda, a fish pathogen that causes systemic infection in marine fishes. We found that the optimal composition of protectant mixture contained trehalose (8.0%), skim milk (12.0%), sodium citrate (2.0%), serum (12.0%) and PVP (2.0%). Orthogonal and interaction analyses demonstrated the interaction between serum and skim milk or sodium citrate. The highest survival rate of E. tarda was observed when the concentration of NaCl was 10.0, 30.0 and between 5.0 and 10.0 g L-1 for preparing TSB medium, E. tarda suspension and protectant mixture, respectively. When E. tarda was frozen at -80°C or -40°C for 6 h, its survival rate was higher than that under other tested conditions. Under the optimized conditions, when the protectant mixture was used during freeze-drying process, the survival rate (79.63%-82.30%) of E. tarda was significantly higher than that obtained using single protectant. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) image indicated that E. tarda was embedded in thick matrix with detectable aggregation. In sum, the protectant mixture may be used as a novel cryoprotective additive for E. tarda.

  6. Radiation inactivation of microorganisms on food materials with different dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryomoto, Yasuhisa; Ito, Hitoshi

    2001-01-01

    The effect of dry condition of food materials such as spices or herbs with grain or powder were investigated for inactivation of microorganisms by gamma-rays or electron-beams. Radiation sensitivities on endospores of Bacillus pumilus and B. cereus at polished rice, whole black pepper and glass fiber filter dried with additives of 2% peptone + 1% glycerin were almost equivalent, and D 10 values of gamma-rays were obtained to be 1.8 - 2.2 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.2 - 1.3 kGy for B. cereus, respectively. However, D 10 value was decreased to 1.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.0 kGy for B. cereus in white pepper powder, and increased significantly as 2.6 kGy for B. pumilus and 1.8 kGy for B. cereus in senna herb powder. In the case of B. megaterium, Enterobacter cloacae and Escherichia coli, D 10 values were increased at all of food materials even in white pepper powder compared with glass fiber filter with additives. These results are indicating that glycerin and related radical scavengers in food components protect the bacteria such as B. megaterium, Ent. cloacae and E. coli more significantly from effects of radiation than B. pumilus or B. cereus. The increase of radiation resistance of these bacteria should be responsible also to the amount of oxygen penetration in bacterial cells which dried at different conditions. On the irradiation of electron-beams, radiation resistance of all of bacteria increased more significantly than gamma-rays which depending to dose rate effects on bacteria. However, increase of radiation resistance was not observed at Aspergillus oryzae in all of food materials at different dry conditions. (author)

  7. Visible and Near-IR Reflectance Spectra of Smectite Acquired Under Dry Conditions for Interpretation of Martian Surface Mineralogy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Richard V.; Achilles, Cherie N; Archer, Paul D.; Graff, Trevor G.; Agresti, David G.; Ming, Douglas W; Golden, Dadi C.; Mertzman, Stanley A.

    2011-01-01

    Visible and near-IR (VNIR) spectra from the MEx OMEGA and the MRO CRISM hyper-spectral imaging instruments have spectral features associated with the H2O molecule and M OH functional groups (M = Mg, Fe, Al, and Si). Mineralogical assignments of martian spectral features are made on the basis of laboratory VNIR spectra, which were often acquired under ambient (humid) conditions. Smectites like nontronite, saponite, and montmorillionite have interlayer H2O that is exchangeable with their environment, and we have acquired smectite reflectance spectra under dry environmental conditions for interpretation of martian surface mineralogy. We also obtained chemical, Moessbauer (MB), powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), and thermogravimetric (TG) data to understand variations in spectral properties. VNIR spectra were recorded in humid lab air at 25-35C, in a dynamic dry N2 atmosphere (50-150 ppmv H2O) after exposing the smectite samples (5 nontronites, 3 montmorillionites, and 1 saponite) to that atmosphere for up to approximately l000 hr each at 25-35C, approximately 105C, and approximately 215C, and after re-exposure to humid lab air. Heating at 105C and 215C for approximately 1000 hr is taken as a surrogate for geologic time scales at lower temperatures. Upon exposure to dry N2, the position and intensity of spectral features associated with M-OH were relatively insensitive to the dry environment, and the spectral features associated with H2O (e.g., approximately 1.90 micrometers) decreased in intensity and are sometimes not detectable by the end of the 215C heating step. The position and intensity of H2O spectral features recovered upon re-exposure to lab air. XRD data show interlayer collapse for the nontronites and Namontmorillionites, with the interlayer remaining collapsed for the latter after re-exposure to lab air. The interlayer did not collapse for the saponite and Ca-montmorillionite. TG data show that the concentration of H2O derived from structural OH was invariant

  8. Impact of environmental conditions on biomass yield, quality, and bio-mitigation capacity of Saccharina latissima

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Annette; Tørring, Ditte Bruunshøj; Thomsen, Marianne

    2016-01-01

    of the EU Marine Strategy Framework Directive. Environmental factors determine the yield and quality of the cultivated seaweed biomass and, in return, the seaweed aquaculture affects the marine environment by nutrient assimilation. Consequently, site selection is critical for obtaining optimal biomass yield...... environmental conditions and cultivation success. The biomass yields fluctuated 10-fold between sites due to local variations in light and nutrient availability.Yields were generally low, i.e. up to 510 g fresh weight (FW) per meter seeded line; however, the dry matter contents of protein and high...

  9. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.

  10. Eddy correlation measurements in wet environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuenca, R. H.; Migliori, L.; O Kane, J. P.

    2003-04-01

    The lower Feale catchment is a low-lying peaty area of 200 km^2 situated in southwest Ireland that is subject to inundation by flooding. The catchment lies adjacent to the Feale River and is subject to tidal signals as well as runoff processes. Various mitigation strategies are being investigated to reduce the damage due to flooding. Part of the effort has required development of a detailed hydrologic balance for the study area which is a wet pasture environment with local field drains that are typically flooded. An eddy correlation system was installed in the summer of 2002 to measure components of the energy balance, including evapotranspiration, along with special sensors to measure other hydrologic variables particular to this study. Data collected will be essential for validation of surface flux models to be developed for this site. Data filtering is performed using a combination of software developed by the Boundary-Layer Group (BLG) at Oregon State University together with modifications made to this system for conditions at this site. This automated procedure greatly reduces the tedious inspection of individual records. The package of tests, developed by the BLG for both tower and aircraft high frequency data, checks for electronic spiking, signal dropout, unrealistic magnitudes, extreme higher moment statistics, as well as other error scenarios not covered by the instrumentation diagnostics built into the system. Critical parameter values for each potential error were developed by applying the tests to real fast response turbulent time series. Potential instrumentation problems, flux sampling problems, and unusual physical situations records are flagged for removal or further analysis. A final visual inspection step is required to minimize rejection of physically unusual but real behavior in the time series. The problems of data management, data quality control, individual instrumentation sensitivity, potential underestimation of latent and sensible heat

  11. Evidence that dry eye is a comorbid pain condition in a U.S. veteran population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Charity J.; Levitt, Roy C.; Felix, Elizabeth R.; Sarantopoulos, Constantine D.; Galor, Anat

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Recent evidence suggests that dry eye (DE) may be comorbid with other chronic pain conditions. Objectives: To evaluate DE as a comorbid condition in the U.S. veteran population. Methods: Retrospective review of veterans seen in the Veterans Administration Healthcare System (Veteran Affairs) between January 1, 2010, and December 31, 2014. Dry eye and nonocular pain disorders were ascertained by International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision (ICD-9) codes. Dry eye was further separated into ICD-9 codes representing tear film dysfunction or ocular pain. χ2 and logistic regression analyses were used to examine frequency and risk of DE, ocular pain, and tear film dysfunction by pain disorders. Results: Of 3,265,894 veterans, 959,881 had a DE diagnosis (29.4%). Dry eye frequency increased with the number of pain conditions reported (P < 0.0005). Ocular pain was most strongly associated with headache (odds ratio [OR] 2.98; 95% confidence interval [CI] 2.95–3.01), tension headache (OR 2.64; 95% CI 2.58–2.71), migraine (OR 2.58; 95% CI 2.54–2.61), temporomandibular joint dysfunction (OR 2.39; 95% CI 2.34–2.44), pelvic pain (OR 2.30; 95% CI 2.24–2.37), central pain syndrome (OR 2.24; 95% CI 1.94–2.60), and fibromyalgia/muscle pain (OR 2.23; 95% CI 2.20–2.26), all P < 0.0005. Tear film dysfunction was most closely associated with osteoarthritis (OR 1.97; 95% CI 1.96–1.98) and postherpetic neuralgia (OR 1.95; 95% CI 1.90–2.00), both P < 0.0005. Conclusions: Dry eye, including both ocular pain and tear film dysfunction, is comorbid with pain conditions in this nationwide population, implying common mechanisms. PMID:29392243

  12. Formation and Characterization of TiO2/CNT Nanomaterials Dried under Supergravity Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Minerva Vargas

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The elaboration of bilayer TiO2/CNT films dried under terrestrial gravity conditions (g and on a centrifuge with 1.3g and 7g is reported. The changes in microstructure and thickness of these coatings under supergravity environment cause a red-shift tendency in the optical properties at increasing values of acceleration. Experiments of a drop under enhanced gravity force in the range of 3.7 < Bo (bond number < 51.5 suggest the incomplete elimination of surfactant-water molecules in the TiO2/CNT bilayer film. Increasing acceleration up to 14g will widen the optical differences found, proving the layer-by-layer solution-chemical method in combination with these drying protocols, an alternative to produce thickness-sensitive solar-selective absorbing coatings.

  13. Recent findings on the oxidation of UO2 fuel under nominally dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, P.; McEachern, R.J.; Sunder, S.; Wasywich, K.M.; Miller, N.H.; Wood, D.D.

    1995-01-01

    This paper is an overview of fuel-storage demonstration experiments, supporting research on UO 2 oxidation, and associated model development, in progress at AECL's Whiteshell Laboratories. The work is being performed to determine the time/temperature limits for safe storage of irradiated CANDU fuel in dry air. The most significant recent experimental finding has been the detection of small quantities of U 3 O 8 , formed over periods of one to several years in a variety of experiments at 150-170 deg C. Another important trading is the slight suppression of U 3 O 8 formation in SIMFUEL and other doped U0 2 formulations. The development of a nucleation-and-growth model for U 3 O 8 formation is discussed, along with available activation energy data. These provide a basis for predicting U 3 O 8 formation rates under dry-storage conditions, and hence optimizing fuel storage strategies. (author)

  14. Jatropha curcasand Ricinus communisdisplay contrasting photosynthetic mechanisms in response to environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milton Costa Lima Neto

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Higher plants display different adaptive strategies in photosynthesis to cope with abiotic stress. In this study, photosynthetic mechanisms and water relationships displayed byJatropha curcasL. (physic nuts andRicinus communisL. (castor bean, in response to variations in environmental conditions, were assessed.R. communis showed higher CO2 assimilation, stomatal and mesophyll conductance thanJ. curcas as light intensity and intercellular CO2 pressure increased. On the other hand,R. communis was less effective in stomatal control in response to adverse environmental factors such as high temperature, water deficit and vapor pressure deficit, indicating lower water use efficiency. Conversely,J. curcas exhibited higher photosynthetic efficiency (gas exchange and photochemistry and water use efficiency under these adverse environmental conditions.R. communisdisplayed higher potential photosynthesis, but exhibited a lowerin vivo Rubisco carboxylation rate (Vcmax and maximum electron transport rate (Jmax. During the course of a typical day, in a semiarid environment, with high irradiation, high temperature and high vapor pressure deficit, but exposed to well-watered conditions, the two studied species presented similar photosynthesis. Losing potential photosynthesis, but maintaining favorable water status and increasing non-photochemical quenching to avoid photoinhibition, are important acclimation mechanisms developed byJ. curcas to cope with dry and hot conditions. We suggest thatJ. curcas is more tolerant to hot and dry environments thanR. communis but the latter species displays higher photosynthetic efficiency under well-watered and non-stressful conditions.

  15. Influence of drying conditions on the effective diffusivity and activation energy during convective air and vacuum drying of pumpkin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana SEREMET (CECLU

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of the work is to investigate the efficiency of convective air and vacuum processing on pumpkin drying kinetics. The pumpkin samples were of two different geometrical shapes (cylinder and cube and were dried in a laboratory scale hot air dryer using some specific parameters (constant air velocity of 1.0 m/s, three different temperatures 50, 60 and 70ºC suited to relative humidity (RH values of 9.8, 6.5, and 5.4% respectively. The vacuum drying was led at constant pressures of 5 kPa and accordance temperatures of 50, 60 and 70ºC. Moisture transfer from pumpkin slices was described by applying Fick’s diffusion model. Temperature dependence of the effective diffusivity was described by the Arrhenius-type equation. Cylindrical samples have a slightly better behaviour compared to cubic samples, due to the disposition of the tissues, and the mass and thermic transfer possibilities. Analysing the results of both drying methods, it was deduced that the most efficient method is convective air drying at 70ºC.

  16. Monitoring fate and behaviour of Nanoceria under relevant environmental conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Tancu, Y

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available ). The results revealed significant tendency of nCeO¬2 to undergo aggregation, agglomeration and certain degree of deagglomeration processes under different environmental conditions. Moreover, the findings suggested that both electrostatic and steric interactions...

  17. Conditional Probability Analysis: A Statistical Tool for Environmental Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use and application of environmental conditional probability analysis (CPA) is relatively recent. The first presentation using CPA was made in 2002 at the New England Association of Environmental Biologists Annual Meeting in Newport. Rhode Island. CPA has been used since the...

  18. High burnup fuel onset conditions in dry storage. Prediction of EOL rod internal pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L.E.

    2015-07-01

    During dry storage, cladding resistance to failure can be affected by several degrading mechanisms like creep or hydrides radial reorientation. The driving force of these effects is the stress at which the cladding is submitted. The maximum stress in the cladding is determined by the end-of-reactor-life (EOL) rod internal pressure, PEOL, at the maximum temperature attained during dry storage. Thus, PEOL sets the initial conditions of storage for potential time-dependent changes in the cladding. Based on FRAPCON-3.5 calculations, the aim of this work is to analyse the PEOL of a PWR fuel rod irradiated to burnups greater than 60 GWd/tU, where limited information is available. In order to be conservative, demanding irradiation histories have been used with a peak linear power of 44 kW/m. FRAPCON-3.5 results show an increasing exponential trend of PEOL with burnup, from which a simple correlation has been derived. The comparison with experimental data found in the literature confirms the enveloping nature of the predicted curve. Based on that, a conservative prediction of cladding stress in dry storage has been obtained. The comparison with a critical stress threshold related to hydrides embrittlement seems to point out that this issue should not be a concern at burnups below 65 GWd/tU. (Author)

  19. Storage conditions affect oxidative stability and nutritional composition of freeze-dried Nannochloropsis salina

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Safafar, Hamed; Langvad, Sten; Møller, Peter

    2017-01-01

    composition of microalgae biomass. In order to investigate the worsening of the nutritional quality of freeze dried biomass, a multifactorial storage experiment was conducted on a high EPA (eicosapentaenoic acid) Nannochloropsis salina biomass. The storage time (0–56 days), storage temperature (5, 20,and 40...... °C and packaging conditions (under vacuum and ambient pressure)used as main factors. During the 56 days of storage, both time and temperature strongly influenced the oxidation reactions which result in deterioration of bioactive compounds such as carotenoids, tocopherols, and EPA. Lipid deterioration......, or cosmetics requires the knowledge of the optimum storage conditions to prevent the value-added compounds from deterioration. Results of this study improve our understanding of the chemical deterioration under different storage conditions and can help the producers/customers to extend the shelf life...

  20. Impact of different spray-drying conditions on the viability of wine Saccharomyces cerevisiae strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aponte, Maria; Troianiello, Gabriele Danilo; Di Capua, Marika; Romano, Raffaele; Blaiotta, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Spray-drying (SD) is widely considered a suitable method to preserve microorganisms, but data regarding yeasts are still scanty. In this study, the effect of growing media, process variables and carriers over viability of a wild wine Saccharomyces (S.) cerevisiae LM52 was evaluated. For biomass production, the strain was grown (batch and fed-batch fermentation) in a synthetic, as well as in a beet sugar molasses based-medium. Drying of cells resuspended in several combinations of soluble starch and maltose was performed at different inlet and outlet temperatures. Under the best conditions-suspension in soluble starch plus maltose couplet to inlet and outlet temperatures of 110 and 55 °C, respectively-the loss of viability of S. cerevisiae LM52 was 0.8 ± 0.1 and 0.5 ± 0.2 Log c.f.u. g(-1) for synthetic and molasses-based medium, respectively. Similar results were obtained when S. cerevisiae strains Zymoflore F15 and EC1118, isolated from commercial active dry yeast (ADY), were tested. Moreover, powders retained a high vitality and showed good fermentation performances up to 6 month of storage, at both 4 and -20 °C. Finally, fermentation performances of different kinds of dried formulates (SD and ADY) compared with fresh cultures did not show significant differences. The procedure proposed allowed a small-scale production of yeast in continuous operation with relatively simple equipment, and may thus represent a rapid response-on-demand for the production of autochthonous yeasts for local wine-making.

  1. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2014-04-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas, in the larger São Paulo area. Results from multilevel regression models indicate that wealthier households are more environmentally concerned, as suggested by affluence and post-materialist hypotheses. However, we also observe that increasing environmental concern correlates with a decline in objective environmental conditions. Interactions between objective environmental conditions and SES reveal some intriguing relationships: Among poorer individuals, a decline in environmental conditions increases environmental concern as suggested by the objective problems hypothesis, while for the wealthy, a decline in environmental conditions is associated with lower levels of environmental concern.

  2. Self-heating of dried industrial wastewater sludge: lab-scale investigation of supporting conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Biasin, A; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Canu, P

    2013-06-01

    We studied the reactivity of dried sludge produced by treatment of wastewater, mainly from tanneries. The solids transformations have been first characterized with thermal analysis (TGA and DSC) proving that exothermic transformation takes place at fairly low temperature, before the total organic combustion that occurs in air above 400°C. The onset of low temperature reactions depends on the heating rate and it can be below 100°C at very small heating rate. Then, we reproducibly determined the conditions to trigger dried sludge self-heating at the laboratory scale, on samples in the 0.2-0.3 kg size. Thermal insulation, some aeration and addition of water are key factors. Mastering the self-heating at this scale allows more detailed investigations as well as manipulation of conditions, to understand its nature, course and remediation. Here we report proves and discussions on the role of air, water, particle size, porosity and biological activity, as well as proving that also dried sludge from similar sources lead to self-heating. Tests demonstrate that air and water are simultaneously required for significant self-heating to occur. They act in diverging directions, both triggering the onset of the reactions and damping the temperature rise, by supporting heat loss. The higher the O2 concentration, the higher the solids heating rate. More added water prolongs the exothermic phase. Further additions of water can reactivate the material. Water emphasizes the exothermic processes, but it is not sufficient to start it in an air-free atmosphere. The initial solid moisture concentration (between 8% and 15%) affects the onset of self-heating as intuitive. The sludge particles size strongly determines the strength and extent of the heat release, indicating that surface reactions are taking place. In pelletized particles, limitations to water and air permeability mitigates the reaction course. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Optimization of freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrnoush, Amid; Mustafa, Shuhaimi; Yazid, Abdul Manap Mohd

    2012-01-01

    Response surface methodology (RSM) along with central composite design (CCD) was applied to optimize the freeze drying conditions for purified pectinase from mango (Mangifera indica cv. Chokanan) peel. The effect of pectinase content (-2.66, 62.66 mg/mL), Arabic gum (-1.21, 10.21%, w/v), and maltodextrin (0.73, 7.26%, w/v) as independent variables on activity, yield, and storage stability of freeze-dried enzyme was evaluated. Storage stability of pectinase was investigated after one week at 4 °C and yield percentage of the enzyme after encapsulation was also determined. The independent variables had the most significant (p mango peel were obtained using 30 mg/mL of pectinase content, 4.5 (%, w/v) of Arabic gum, and 4 (%, w/v) of maltodextrin. Under these conditions, the maximum activity (11.12 U/mL), yield (86.4%) and storage stability (84.2%) of encapsulated pectinase were achieved.

  4. Transitional dispersive scenarios driven by mesoscale flows on complex terrain under strong dry convective conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Palau

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available By experimentation and modelling, this paper analyses the atmospheric dispersion of the SO2 emissions from a power plant on complex terrain under strong convective conditions, describing the main dispersion features as an ensemble of "stationary dispersive scenarios" and reformulating some "classical" dispersive concepts to deal with the systematically monitored summer dispersive scenarios in inland Spain. The results and discussions presented arise from a statistically representative study of the physical processes associated with the multimodal distribution of pollutants aloft and around a 343-m-tall chimney under strong dry convective conditions in the Iberian Peninsula. This paper analyses the importance of the identification and physical implications of transitional periods for air quality applications. The indetermination of a transversal plume to the preferred transport direction during these transitional periods implies a small (or null physical significance of the classical definition of horizontal standard deviation of the concentration distribution.

  5. Onset of frictional sliding of rubber-glass contact under dry and lubricated conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuononen, Ari J

    2016-06-13

    Rubber friction is critical in many applications ranging from automotive tyres to cylinder seals. The process where a static rubber sample transitions to frictional sliding is particularly poorly understood. The experimental and simulation results in this paper show a completely different detachment process from the static situation to sliding motion under dry and lubricated conditions. The results underline the contribution of the rubber bulk properties to the static friction force. In fact, simple Amontons' law is sufficient as a local friction law to produce the correct detachment pattern when the rubber material and loading conditions are modelled properly. Simulations show that micro-sliding due to vertical loading can release initial shear stresses and lead to a high static/dynamic friction coefficient ratio, as observed in the measurements.

  6. Has dry/cold weather an impact on the skin condition of cleanroom workers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weistenhöfer, Wobbeke; Uter, Wolfgang; Drexler, Hans

    2016-01-01

    In previous epidemiological studies irritant skin changes were reported significantly more frequently under dry/cold ambient air conditions. The aim of this study was to assess whether a similar effect might be observed in cleanroom workers, occupationally exposed to strictly controlled ambient conditions. This investigation examined 690 employees of a semiconductor production company in Germany, one half in winter (n = 358) and the other half in spring (n = 332). In both waves, both cleanroom workers, who used occlusive gloves predominantly during the entire shift, and employees in the administration, serving as the control group, were included. Ambient outdoor temperature and relative humidity (RH) were measured and absolute humidity (AH) was calculated. Hands were dermatologically examined with quantitative clinical skin score HEROS, supplemented by transepidermal water loss (TEWL) and stratum corneum hydration measurements. Temperature ranged from -5.41 to 6.51°C in winter (RH 71.04-92.38%; AH 2.85-6.7 g/m 3 ) and from 6.35 to 10.26°C in spring (RH 76.17-82.79%; AH 5.66-7.92 g/m 3 ). Regarding HEROS, TEWL, and corneometry, no marked consistent pattern regarding an enhanced or decreased risk of irritant skin changes was found. Work in a strictly controlled environment with prolonged wearing of occlusive gloves, with clean hands and without exposure to additional hazardous substances, did not seem to negatively affect the skin. In this particular setting, meteorological conditions also did not appear to adversely affect the skin. It is conceivable that wearing of gloves and air conditioning in the plant protect skin of the hands from adverse effects due to dry and cold air encountered when not working.

  7. Forests growing under dry conditions have higher hydrological resilience to drought than do more humid forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Helman, David; Lensky, Itamar M; Yakir, Dan; Osem, Yagil

    2017-07-01

    More frequent and intense droughts are projected during the next century, potentially changing the hydrological balances in many forested catchments. Although the impacts of droughts on forest functionality have been vastly studied, little attention has been given to studying the effect of droughts on forest hydrology. Here, we use the Budyko framework and two recently introduced Budyko metrics (deviation and elasticity) to study the changes in the water yields (rainfall minus evapotranspiration) of forested catchments following a climatic drought (2006-2010) in pine forests distributed along a rainfall gradient (P = 280-820 mm yr -1 ) in the Eastern Mediterranean (aridity factor = 0.17-0.56). We use a satellite-based model and meteorological information to calculate the Budyko metrics. The relative water yield ranged from 48% to 8% (from the rainfall) in humid to dry forests and was mainly associated with rainfall amount (increasing with increased rainfall amount) and bedrock type (higher on hard bedrocks). Forest elasticity was larger in forests growing under drier conditions, implying that drier forests have more predictable responses to drought, according to the Budyko framework, compared to forests growing under more humid conditions. In this context, younger forests were shown more elastic than older forests. Dynamic deviation, which is defined as the water yield departure from the Budyko curve, was positive in all forests (i.e., less-than-expected water yields according to Budyko's curve), increasing with drought severity, suggesting lower hydrological resistance to drought in forests suffering from larger rainfall reductions. However, the dynamic deviation significantly decreased in forests that experienced relatively cooler conditions during the drought period. Our results suggest that forests growing under permanent dry conditions might develop a range of hydrological and eco-physiological adjustments to drought leading to higher hydrological

  8. An integrated risk assessment of the environmental hazards influence on Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to Aktau seaport) of the international transport corridor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akiyanova, F. Zh; Arykbayeva, Z. K.; Atalikhova, A. M.; Dauilbayev, B. A.; Zinabdin, N. B.; Kubeyev, A. B.; Tkach, K. A.

    2018-01-01

    The article outlines research results on the assessment of natural hazards impact risk on the international transport corridors’ Kazakhstan section (from Khorgas and Dostyk dry ports to the seaport of Aktau) functioning. Based on the component-by-stage analysis of physical and geographical conditions with the use of qualimetric approach, the areas with different risk levels of natural disasters were identified. To minimize the risk of natural problems exposure, a set of environmental recommendations has been developed.

  9. Fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benea, Lidia; Başa, Sorin-Bogdan; Dănăilă, Eliza; Caron, Nadège; Raquet, Olivier; Ponthiaux, Pierre; Celis, Jean-Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • The friction and wear properties of Ni/nano-WC composite were studied. • Nano-WC reinforcement decreased friction coefficient in dry and wet conditions. • Nano-WC reinforcement fraction was seen to be 12 wt.%. • Nanohardness increased by 27% compared to nickel without WC reinforcements. • Ennoblement of OCP corresponding to the Ni/nano-WC composite coating. - Abstract: The fretting and wear behaviors of Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were studied by considering the effect of fretting frequency of 1 Hz during 10,000 cycles, at different applied loads in dry or wet conditions. The studies were performed on a ball-on-disk tribometer and the results were compared with pure Ni coating. The nanohardness of pure Ni and Ni/nano-WC composite coatings was tested by nanoindentation technique. To evaluate the wet wear (tribocorrosion) behavior the open circuit potential (OCP) was measured before, during and after the fretting tests at room temperature in the solution that simulates the primary water circuit of Pressurized Water Reactors (PWRs). The results show that Ni/nano-WC composite coatings exhibited a low friction coefficient, high nanohardness and wear resistance compared with pure Ni coatings under similar experimental conditions. Ni/nano-WC composite coatings were obtained on stainless steel support by electrochemical codeposition of nano-sized WC particles (diameter size of ∼60 nm) with nickel, from a standard nickel Watts plating bath. The surface morphology and the composition of the coatings were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDX) respectively

  10. Effects of repository conditions on environmental impact reduction by recycling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Joonhong

    2010-01-01

    The environmental impacts (EI) of high-level wastes (HLW) disposed of in a water-saturated repository (WSR) and in the Yucca Mountain Repository (YMR) for various fuel cycle cases have been evaluated and compared to observe the difference in the recycling effects for differing repository conditions. With the impacts of direct spent fuel disposal in each repository as the reference level, separation of actinides by Urex+ and borosilicate vitrification clearly reduces the environmental impacts of YMR, while separation by Purex and borosilicate vitrification would not necessarily reduce the environmental impact of WSR. (authors)

  11. Genetic and environmental effects on a meat spotting defect in seasoned dry-cured ham

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giulio Pagnacco

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose of this investigation was to determine the nature of a visible spotting defect on the slice of dry-cured ham and assess environmental and genetic causes of this frequent problem. A group of 233 pigs from commercial cross-breeding lines, progeny of ten boars and forty seven sows, was raised in a single herd to obtain the “Italian Heavy Pig”, typically slaughtered at 160 ± 10 kg live weight and older than 9 months of age. A quality evaluation of their right dry-cured hams, seasoned according to the Parma P.D.O. protocol, was undertaken. Each ham was cross-sectioned to obtain a slice of Semimembranosus, Semitendinosus and Biceps Femoris muscles. The focused phenotype was the presence/absence of brownish spots in these muscles, which represent a remarkable meat defect with strong impact on the final sale price. Environmental and management factors were considered in order to evaluate variability related to the phenotype. Animals were raised on two different flooring types (concrete and slatted floor and a Vitamin C diet was also supplemented in the last 45 days before slaughtering to half of the animals. While the pre-planned environmental effects did not show any significant contribution to the total variability of the phenotype, the genetic analysis showed a near to zero value for heritability with a consistent 0.32 repeatability. The proportion of the total phenotypic variance was explained by an important dominance genetic component (0.26 indicating that the technological seasoning process may play a secondary role on the expression of this phenotype.

  12. Swarm motility inhibitory and antioxidant activities of pomegranate peel processed under three drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John, K M Maria; Bhagwat, Arvind A; Luthria, Devanand L

    2017-11-15

    During processing of ready-to-eat fresh fruits, large amounts of peel and seeds are discarded as waste. Pomegranate (Punicagranatum) peels contain high amounts of bioactive compounds which inhibit migration of Salmonella on wet surfaces. The metabolic distribution of bioactives in pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion was investigated under three different drying conditions along with the anti-swarming activity against Citrobacter rodentium. Based on the multivariate analysis, 29 metabolites discriminated the pomegranate peel, inner membrane, and edible aril portion, as well as the three different drying methods. Punicalagins (∼38.6-50.3mg/g) were detected in higher quantities in all fractions as compared to ellagic acid (∼0.1-3.2mg/g) and punicalins (∼0-2.4mg/g). The bioactivity (antioxidant, anti-swarming) and phenolics content was significantly higher in peels than the edible aril portion. Natural anti-swarming agents from food waste may have promising potential for controlling food borne pathogens. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Dry cooling with night cool storage to enhance solar power plants performance in extreme conditions areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muñoz, J.; Martínez-Val, J.M.; Abbas, R.; Abánades, A.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Solar thermo-electric power plants with thermal storage for condenser cooling. ► Technology to mitigate the negative effect on Rankine cycles of the day-time high temperatures in deserts. ► Electricity production augmentation in demand-peak hours by the use of day-night temperature difference. -- Abstract: Solar thermal power plants are usually installed in locations with high yearly average solar radiation, often deserts. In such conditions, cooling water required for thermodynamic cycles is rarely available. Moreover, when solar radiation is high, ambient temperature is very high as well; this leads to excessive condensation temperature, especially when air-condensers are used, and decreases the plant efficiency. However, temperature variation in deserts is often very high, which drives to relatively low temperatures during the night. This fact can be exploited with the use of a closed cooling system, so that the coolant (water) is chilled during the night and store. Chilled water is then used during peak temperature hours to cool the condenser (dry cooling), thus enhancing power output and efficiency. The present work analyzes the performance improvement achieved by night thermal cool storage, compared to its equivalent air cooled power plant. Dry cooling is proved to be energy-effective for moderately high day–night temperature differences (20 °C), often found in desert locations. The storage volume requirement for different power plant efficiencies has also been studied, resulting on an asymptotic tendency.

  14. A kinetic study of drying of TEOS-derived gels under nearly isothermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatti Dario A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available The drying of wet Tetraethoxysilane-derived gels was studied by means of thermogravimetric analysis as a function of the time, from the instant when the samples were placed into a pre-heated oven, kept at 70, 83 and 100 °C. The precursor sol of the gel was obtained by sono-hydrolysis of the Tetraethoxysilane under acid condition and the final [Water]/[Tetraethoxysilane] molar ratio was adjusted to 30. The wet gels were cylindrical (2.5 cm height and 1.2 cm diameter after 30 days of aging at 30 °C in a hermetically sealed container. The changes in volume and weight during drying are compatible with a mechanism controlled by evaporation from a flat liquid-vapour interface at the surface of the body and contraction of the gel by capillary forces, together with structural changes induced by polycondensation, which partially account for the irreversible shrinkage of the gel. The employed thermogravimetric method does not permit to unequivocally follow the small and slow final loss of weight associated to the falling rate periods.

  15. UO{sub 2} oxidation under dry storage conditions: From data gaps to research needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feria, F.; Herranz, L. E. [CIEMAT, Andalucia (Spain)

    2008-10-15

    Dry interim storage is becoming a major activity of today's fuel cycle. The potential contact between no grossly damaged fuel rods (i.e., rods containing tiny defects like pinhole leaks and hairline cracks) and an oxidizing atmosphere during the cask water removal might lead to unacceptable consequences. One way to prevent it is to determine the time to propagation of a defect at given conditions. This paper compiles and critically reviews the existing database concerning time at temperature profile of fuel rods containing tiny defects that are exposed to oxidizing atmospheres. This review has pointed out significant drawbacks and limitations that would hinder its reliable application to assess the potential for defect propagation of current LWR fuels to be loaded in dry storage casks. Those weaknesses come essentially from data scarcity and lack of tests representativity. Based on this study, three main areas of work are recommended to fill the existing knowledge gaps: sound characterization of fuel rod responses in the low burnup range (<30 GWd/tU), extension of the database to high burnups characteristic of current discharged LWR fuels (<60GWd/tU), assessment of availability (i.e., amount and nature) of oxidizing agents. The result of the work suggested would result in a more complete and extensive database that would strongly support the potential use of 'time at temperature' curves.

  16. Kinetics of the oxygen effect in yeast irradiated in dry and wet conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kiefer, J.; Schoepfer, F.; Luggen-Hoelscher, J.

    1981-01-01

    There are indications that the radiobiological oxygen-effect consists of more than one component: in dry bacterial spores three different classes can be separated depending on exposure- and after-treatment conditions, the dependence of the oxygen-enhancement ratio (OER) on oxygen concentration shows breaks in various systems, and it has been suggested that type O and type N damage are localized in different parts of the cells. These questions were studied in the simple eucaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae using two approaches: the dependence of OER on oxygen tension was determined both for survivial and mutation induction. Since a forward mutation was used a haploid strain had to be employed in this case. In order to assess whether also in yeast cells more than one component may exist, the techniques originally developed for bacterial spores were adapted for dried diploid yeast cells. The results show that the dependence on oxygen concentration is the same for survival and mutation within error limits, implicating DNA as the main target and that also in our system three classes of oxygen dependent damage exist

  17. Influence of operating conditions on the air gasification of dry refinery sludge in updraft gasifier

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmed, R; Sinnathambi, C M

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, details of the equilibrium modeling of dry refinery sludge (DRS) are presented using ASPEN PLUS Simulator in updraft gasifier. Due to lack of available information in the open journal on refinery sludge gasification using updraft gasifier, an evaluate for its optimum conditions on gasification is presented in this paper. For this purpose a Taguchi Orthogonal array design, statistical software is applied to find optimum conditions for DRS gasification. The goal is to identify the most significant process variable in DRS gasification conditions. The process variables include; oxidation zone temperature, equivalent ratio, operating pressure will be simulated and examined. Attention was focused on the effect of optimum operating conditions on the gas composition of H 2 and CO (desirable) and CO 2 (undesirable) in terms of mass fraction. From our results and finding it can be concluded that the syngas (H 2 and CO) yield in term of mass fraction favors high oxidation zone temperature and at atmospheric pressure while CO 2 acid gas favor at a high level of equivalent ratio as well as air flow rate favoring towards complete combustion.

  18. An experiment to examine the mechanistic behaviour of irradiated CANDU fuel stored under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oldaker, I.E.; Crosthwaite, J.L.; Keltie, R.J.; Truss, K.J.

    1979-01-01

    A program has begun to use the Whiteshell Nuclear Research Establishment dry-storage canisters to store some selected CANDU irradiated fuel bundles in an 'easily retrievable basket.' The object of the experimental program is to study the long-term stability of the Zircaloy-sheathed UO 2 and UC fuel elements when stored in air. Bundles were loaded into a canister in October 1979 following detailed examination and removal of up to three complete elements from most bundles. These elements are currently being subjected to detailed destructive examinations, including metallography and scanning electron micrography, to fully characterize their pre-storage condition. After four years, and every five years thereafter, further elements will be examined similarly to study the effects of the storage environment on the stability of the Zircaloy sheathing, and on its continued ability to contain the fuel safely in an interim storage facility. (author)

  19. The effects of induction hardening on wear properties of AISI 4140 steel in dry sliding conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Totik, Y.; Sadeler, R.; Altun, H.; Gavgali, M.

    2002-01-01

    Wear behaviour of induction hardened AISI 4140 steel was evaluated under dry sliding conditions. Specimens were induction hardened at 1000 Hz for 6, 10, 14, 18, 27 s, respectively, in the inductor which was a three-turn coil with a coupling distance of 2.8 mm. Normalised and induction hardened specimens were fully characterised before and after the wear testing using hardness, profilometer, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wear tests using a pin-on-disc machine showed that the induction hardening treatments improved the wear behaviour of AISI 4140 steel specimens compared to normalised AISI 4140 steel as a result of residual stresses and hardened surfaces. The wear coefficients in normalised specimens are greater than that in the induction hardened samples. The lowest coefficient of the friction was obtained in specimens induction-hardened at 875 deg. C for 27 s

  20. The effects of induction hardening on wear properties of AISI 4140 steel in dry sliding conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Totik, Y.; Sadeler, R.; Altun, H.; Gavgali, M

    2002-02-15

    Wear behaviour of induction hardened AISI 4140 steel was evaluated under dry sliding conditions. Specimens were induction hardened at 1000 Hz for 6, 10, 14, 18, 27 s, respectively, in the inductor which was a three-turn coil with a coupling distance of 2.8 mm. Normalised and induction hardened specimens were fully characterised before and after the wear testing using hardness, profilometer, scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The wear tests using a pin-on-disc machine showed that the induction hardening treatments improved the wear behaviour of AISI 4140 steel specimens compared to normalised AISI 4140 steel as a result of residual stresses and hardened surfaces. The wear coefficients in normalised specimens are greater than that in the induction hardened samples. The lowest coefficient of the friction was obtained in specimens induction-hardened at 875 deg. C for 27 s.

  1. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriela Silva Ribeiro Gonçalves

    Full Text Available Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition, in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.

  2. The role of climate and environmental variables in structuring bird assemblages in the Seasonally Dry Tropical Forests (SDTFs).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, Gabriela Silva Ribeiro; Cerqueira, Pablo Vieira; Brasil, Leandro Schlemmer; Santos, Marcos Pérsio Dantas

    2017-01-01

    Understanding the processes that influence species diversity is still a challenge in ecological studies. However, there are two main theories to discuss this topic, the niche theory and the neutral theory. Our objective was to understand the importance of environmental and spatial processes in structuring bird communities within the hydrological seasons in dry forest areas in northeastern Brazil. The study was conducted in two National Parks, the Serra da Capivara and Serra das Confusões National Parks, where 36 areas were sampled in different seasons (dry, dry/rainy transition, rainy, rainy/dry transition), in 2012 and 2013. We found with our results that bird species richness is higher in the rainy season and lower during the dry season, indicating a strong influence of seasonality, a pattern also found for environmental heterogeneity. Richness was explained by local environmental factors, while species composition was explained by environmental and spatial factors. The environmental factors were more important in explaining variations in composition. Climate change predictions have currently pointed out frequent drought events and a rise in global temperature by 2050, which would lead to changes in species behavior and to increasing desertification in some regions, including the Caatinga. In addition, the high deforestation rates and the low level of representativeness of the Caatinga in the conservation units negatively affects bird communities. This scenario has demonstrated how climatic factors affect individuals, and, therefore, should be the starting point for conservation initiatives to be developed in xeric environments.

  3. Determination of effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics for poplar sawdust by thermogravimetric analysis under isothermal condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Dengyu; Zheng, Yan; Zhu, Xifeng

    2012-03-01

    The current study presents a thermogravimetric method to determine the effective moisture diffusivity and drying kinetics of biomass. Drying experiments on poplar sawdust were performed at four temperatures (60, 70, 80, and 90°C) by a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA). The major assumption in experimentally determining effective diffusivity by Fick's diffusion equation is that drying is mass transfer limited and temperature remains isothermal during drying. The results indicated that TGA could well achieve these determining conditions. The drying process of sawdust mostly took place in the falling rate period. Midilli-Kucuk model showed the best fit for all experimental data. The effective diffusivity values changed from 9.38 × 10(-10)m(2)/s to 1.38 × 10(-9)m(2)/s within the given temperature range, and the activation energy was calculated to be 12.3 kJ/mol. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. ENVIRONMENTAL AFTERMATH FROM THE DRYING PROCESSES OF AL-HUWAIZA MARSHLAND, IRAQ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khafaja Ahmed Mays SADKHAN

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Al-Huwaiza marsh shows environmental and economic significance, but it has been exposed to the drying processes and then to the drowning processes. It has witnessed great decrease in the water resources specified for the country and the decrease in the water portion feeding it. A fact which shows negative effects on its area, for the change of the environmental variables, has affected the process of nurturing the marsh - only 33.4% of the area of the marsh has been drowned during the 1990s. As a result, its environmental features have been deteriorated, which have negatively affected the kind of water contained in it and which require a series of procedures and solutions to be done in this regard. Among these there are the following: encouraging the dialogue and negotiations with the countries in which the high basins of the rivers Tigris and Euphrates are located (Turkey, Syria and Iran, controlling the random spread of the marshes and concentrating on the constant and deep marshes, developing and rehabilitating the deep marshes by means of establishing natural protected areas, enlivening the constant marshes by means of connecting them to one another, supporting and encouraging studies and research, controlling the pollution of the marshes, developing the general services of the marsh areas and the neighboring ones, and stronger involving of the ministries which should pay their serious and actual attention to the environment and the population of the marshes.

  5. Starch nanoparticles resulting from combination of dry heating under mildly acidic conditions and homogenization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong Hun; Kim, Jiyeon; Park, Eun Young; Kim, Jong-Yea

    2017-07-15

    To modify starch granular structure, normal maize starch was subjected to dry heating with various amounts of 1.0M HCl (1.2, 1.4 or 1.6mL) and different treatment times (2, 4 or 8h). For all reaction conditions, at least 80% of the starch substance was recovered, and amylose and amylopectin B1 chains were preferentially cleaved. As acidic condition and/or treatment time increased, the treated granules were readily fragmented by homogenization. The treatment appeared to alter short-range crystalline structure (FT-IR), but long-range crystalline structure (XRD) remained intact. Homogenization for 60min fragmented the treated starch granules (subjected to reaction condition of 1.4mL/4h, 1.6mL/2h, and 1.6mL/4h) into nanoparticles consisting of individual platelet-like and spherical particles with diameters less than 100nm. However, the fragmentation caused obvious damage in the long-range crystalline structure of starch nanoparticles, while the short-range chain associations remained relatively intact. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Affluence and objective environmental conditions: Evidence of differences in environmental concern in metropolitan Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Nawrotzki, Raphael J.; Guedes, Gilvan; do Carmo, Roberto Luiz

    2014-01-01

    In an age of climate change, researchers need to form a deepened understanding of the determinants of environmental concern, particularly in countries of emerging economies. This paper provides a region-specific investigation of the impact of socio-economic status (SES) and objective environmental conditions on environmental concern in urban Brazil. We make use of data that were collected from personal interviews of individuals living in the metropolitan areas of Baixada Santista and Campinas...

  7. Environmental improvement in drying process of plastics part paint; Jushi buhin toso kanso kotei no kankyo kaizen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakamura, T.; Horii, H.; Kobayashi, T.; Hayashida, T. [Hino Motors, Ltd., Tokyo (Japan)

    1998-07-01

    A method is developed of applying near infrared rays to the drying of paint coatings on resin-made automobile parts, and its environment improving effects are described. Using the conventional hot-air dryer for the drying of such coatings, the portion near the top surface is hardened prior to the other portions because the heat is absorbed near the top surface. Using an infrared drying system, however, defects in the product surface attributable to the lack of uniformity in the hardening of paint or to the splashing of solvent are remedied because deeper portions are hardened first. Experiment and study are conducted for the purpose of applying a near infrared drying method to an ABS (acrylonitrile butadiene styrene) coating. It is found that the near infrared drying method takes only seven minutes to dry a paint coating for which a hot-air furnace will take 20 minutes, thus shortening the drying time a great deal. Defects of gas hole of coatings are generally dealt with by changing the setting time and drying conditions for example by increasing the amount of the diluting thinner. When an near infrared drying method is used, the amount of the diluting thinner is reduced approximately 50% from the amount required using the hot-air drying method in case of the thickness of 60{mu}m. 2 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  8. Diversity patterns, environmental drivers and changes in vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quintana, Catalina; Girardello, Marco; Barfod, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Aims We studied diversity, patterns of endemism and turnover of vegetation composition in dry inter-Andean valleys (DIAVs) where little is known about the influence of the abiotic drivers controlling plant species composition and occurrences, and the life forms that contribute most to α- and β...... species with low abundance (e.g. 30 individuals ha−1), including four endemic species. Most of the endemic species were locally rare, and most of them were restricted to southern valleys...... results further highlight the influence of disturbance, water availability and low temperature on plant species composition and occurrence. We also found significant, contrasting patterns in responses to environmental drivers, when analyzing our data separately by life form. Our results show...

  9. Adaptation of continuous biogas reactors operating under wet fermentation conditions to dry conditions with corn stover as substrate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kakuk, Balázs; Kovács, Kornél L; Szuhaj, Márk; Rákhely, Gábor; Bagi, Zoltán

    2017-08-01

    Corn stover (CS) is the agricultural by-product of maize cultivation. Due to its high abundance and high energy content it is a promising substrate for the bioenergy sector. However, it is currently neglected in industrial scale biogas plants, because of its slow decomposition and hydrophobic character. To assess the maximum biomethane potential of CS, long-term batch fermentations were carried out with various substrate concentrations and particle sizes for 72 days. In separate experiments we adapted the biogas producing microbial community in wet fermentation arrangement first to the lignocellulosic substrate, in Continuous Stirred Tank Reactor (CSTR), then subsequently, by continuously elevating the feed-in concentration, to dry conditions in solid state fermenters (SS-AD). In the batch tests, the CSTR experiment, the daily substrate loading was gradually increased from 1 to 2 g vs /L/day until the system produced signs of overloading. Then the biomass was transferred to SS-AD reactors and the adaptation process was studied. Although the specific methane yields were lower in the SS-AD arrangement (177 mL CH 4 /g vs in CSTR vs. 105 mL in SS-AD), the benefits of process operational parameters, i.e. lower energy consumption, smaller reactor volume, digestate amount generated and simpler configuration, may compensate the somewhat lower yield. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between environmental factors, dry matter loss and mycotoxin levels in stored wheat and maize infected with Fusarium species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mylona, Kalliopi; Sulyok, Michael; Magan, Naresh

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the relationship between storage environmental factors (water activity (a(w)) (0.89-0.97) and temperature (15°C-30°C)), colonisation of wheat and maize by Fusarium graminearum and F. verticillioides respectively and the dry matter losses (DMLs) caused and quantified by contamination with deoxynivalenol (DON), zearalenone (ZEA) and fumonisins (FUMs) during storage. Fungal growth was assessed by the amount of CO(2) produced under different interacting conditions of a(w) and temperature. DMLs were quantified using the cumulative CO(2) data, and these were shown to increase as temperature and a(w) increased. The amount of DON, ZEA (wheat for human consumption) and FUMs (feed maize) produced was significantly affected by the storage conditions. The three toxins however showed different patterns of production. Optimum for DON was at the wettest conditions (0.97a(w)) and the highest temperature assessed (30°C), whereas for ZEA this shifted to 25°C. FUMs were produced in higher amounts in maize at 30°C and 0.97a(w); however, at intermediate a(w) levels (0.955a(w)), the highest production occurred at 25°C followed by 20°C. Polynomial models were developed for the effect of the storage factors on DMLs and toxin production. DMLs under different environmental conditions were significantly correlated with DON and FUMs. DON contamination was above the EU limits in at least 80% of the wheat samples with DMLs >1%, whereas at least 70% of the same samples contained ZEA above the respective EU legislative limits. Similarly, at least 75% of the maize samples with DMLs ≥ 0.9% exceeded the EU limits for the sum of FUMs in feed. These results show that it may be possible to use temporal CO(2) production during storage of grains as an indicator of the level of contamination of the grain with mycotoxins.

  11. Indoor Environmental Conditions and Sanitary Practices in Selected ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Rapidly urbanizing cities are witnessing an increase in Day care centres (DCCs) whose environmental conditions are substandard. This scenario has negative consequences on the health of the DCC attendees and yet information on some of the indicators such as the level of sanitary practices is not adequately ...

  12. Biodegradation of Perchlorate in Laboratory Reactors Under Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    21 Figure 8. Initial and final mass of perchlorate, chloride, and chlorate ...is the soluble anion associated with the solid salts of ammonium, potassium , and sodium perchlorate. Large-scale production of ammonium perchlorate...ions. Most perchlorate-respiring microorganisms are capable of functioning under varying environmental conditions and use oxygen, nitrate, and chlorate

  13. Human Q fever incidence is associated to spatiotemporal environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.P.G. Van Leuken

    2016-12-01

    We conclude that environmental conditions are correlated to human Q fever incidence rate. Similar research with data from other outbreaks would be needed to more firmly establish our findings. This could lead to better estimations of the public health risk of a C. burnetii outbreak, and to more detailed and accurate hazard maps that could be used for spatial planning of livestock operations.

  14. Ceramic production during changing environmental/climatic conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oestreich, Daniela B.; Glasmacher, Ulrich A.

    2015-04-01

    Ceramics, with regard to their status as largely everlasting everyday object as well as on the basis of their chronological sensitivity, reflect despite their simplicity the technological level of a culture and therefore also, directly or indirectly, the adaptability of a culture with respect to environmental and/or climatic changes. For that reason the question arises, if it is possible to identify changes in production techniques and raw material sources for ceramic production, as a response to environmental change, e.g. climate change. This paper will present results of a research about Paracas Culture (800 - 200 BC), southern Peru. Through several investigations (e.g. Schittek et al., 2014; Eitel and Mächtle, 2009) it is well known that during Paracas period changes in climate and environmental conditions take place. As a consequence, settlement patterns shifted several times through the various stages of Paracas time. Ceramics from three different sites (Jauranga, Cutamalla, Collanco) and temporal phases of the Paracas period are detailed archaeometric, geochemical and mineralogical characterized, e.g. Raman spectroscopy, XRD, and ICP-MS analyses. The aim of this research is to resolve potential differences in the chemical composition of the Paracas ceramics in space and time and to compare the data with the data sets of pre-Columbian environmental conditions. Thus influences of changing environmental conditions on human societies and their cultural conditions will be discussed. References Eitel, B. and Mächtle, B. 2009. Man and Environment in the eastern Atacama Desert (Southern Peru): Holocene climate changes and their impact on pre-Columbian cultures. In: Reindel, M. & Wagner, G. A. (eds.) New Technologies for Archaeology. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. Schittek, K., Mächtle, B., Schäbitz, F., Forbriger, M., Wennrich, V., Reindel, M., and Eitel, B.. Holocene environmental changes in the highlands of the southern Peruvian Andes (14° S) and their

  15. TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOURS OF ABS AND PA6 POLYMERMETAL SLIDING COMBINATIONS UNDER DRY FRICTION, WATER ABSORBED AND ELECTROPLATED CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MITHUN V. KULKARNI

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The friction and wear properties of polyamide 6 (PA6 and poly-Acrylonitrile Butadiene Styrene (ABS sliding against metal under dry sliding, water absorption and electroplated (EP conditions were studied by using a pin-ondisc tribometer. The effect of applied load and sliding speed on the tribological behaviours of the polymer–metal sliding combinations under dry sliding, water absorbed and EP conditions were also investigated. The worn surfaces were examined by using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM. Experimental results showed that ABS samples under water absorbed conditions showed higher wear loss compared to normal samples and the EP samples had exhibited lower wear loss compared to the water absorbed samples. Similarly EP-PA6 samples exhibited excellent wear resistance when compared with EP-ABS samples. Further, it was observed that the frictional heat produced on account of sliding action had a significant effect on the tribological behaviours of samples under dry sliding and water absorbed conditions.

  16. Meibomian Gland Dysfunction Determines the Severity of the Dry Eye Conditions in Visual Display Terminal Workers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Nuo; Yang, Fan; Lin, Zhirong; Shang, Xumin; Li, Cheng

    2014-01-01

    Objective To explore meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD) may determine the severity of dry eye conditions in visual display terminal (VDT) workers. Methodology Prospective, case-control study carried out in China.106 eyes of 53 patients (VDT work time >4 hour per day) were recruited as the Long time VDT group; 80 eyes of 40 control subjects (VDT work time ≤4 hour per day) served as the Short time VDT group. A questionnaire of Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) and multiple tests were performed. Three dry eye tests: tear film breakup time (BUT), corneal fluorescein staining, Schirmer I test; and three MGD parameters: lid margin abnormality score, meibum expression assessment (meibum score), and meibomian gland dropout degree (meiboscore) using Keratograph 5 M. Principal Findings OSDI and corneal fluorescein score were significantly higher while BUT was dramatically shorter in the long time VDT group than the short time VDT group. However, the average of Schirmer tear volumes was in normal ranges in both groups. Interestingly, the three MGD parameters were significantly higher in the long time VDT group than the short time one (Peyes with Schirmer eyes with Schirmer ≥10 mm were separated from the long time VDT workers, no significant differences were found between the two subgroups in OSDI, fluorescein staining and BUT, as well as the three MGD parameters. All three MGD parameters were positively correlated with VDT working time (Pdry eye patients in long term VDT workers with higher OSDI scores whereas some of those patients presenting a normal tear volume. PMID:25144638

  17. Monitoring of corrosion rates of Fe-Cu alloys under wet/dry condition in weakly alkaline environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Je Kyoung; Nishikata, Atsushi; Tsuru, Tooru

    2002-01-01

    When the steel, containing scrap elements like copper, is used as reinforcing steel bars for concrete, the steel is exposed to alkaline environments. in this study, AC impedance technique has been applied to the monitoring of corrosion rates of iron and several Fe-Cu (0.4, 10wt%) alloys in a wet-dry cycle condition. The wet-dry cycle was conducted by exposure to alternate conditions of 1 hour-immersion in a simulated pH10 concrete solution (Ca(OH) 2 ) containing 0.01M NaCl and 3 hour-drying at 298K and 50%RH. The corrosion rate of the iron is greatly accelerated by the wet-dry cycles. Because the active FeOOH species, which are produced by the oxidation of Fe(II, III)oxide in air during drying, act as very strong oxidants to the corrosion in the wet condition. As the drying progresses, iron shows a large increase in the corrosion rate and a small shift of the corrosion potential to the positive values. This can be explained by acceleration of oxygen transport through the thin electrolyte layer In contrast to iron, the Fe-Cu alloys show low corrosion rates and the high corrosion potentials in whole cycles

  18. The behavior of Kevlar fibers under environmental-stress conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perry, Mark Charles

    There are a myriad of mechanisms by which polymers can degrade and fail. It is therefore important to understand the physical mechanics, chemistry, their interactions, and kinetics. This pursuit becomes more than just "academic" because these mechanisms might just change with service conditions (i.e. environment and loading). If one does not understand these processes from the molecular to macroscopic scale it would be exceedingly difficult to gain information from accelerated testing because the mechanisms just might change from one condition to another. The purpose of this study was to probe these processes on scales ranging from molecular to macroscopic in environmental stress conditions. This study reports the results of environmental-stress degradation of Kevlar 49 fibers. The environmental agent of focus was the ubiquitous air pollutant complex NOsb{x}. Other materials and environments were investigated to a lesser extent for purposes of comparison. Mechanical property (i.e., short-term strength, modulus, and creep lifetime) degradation was examined using single fiber, yarn, and epoxy coated yarn (composite) specimens under environmental-stress conditions. Optical and scanning electron microscopes were employed to examine and compare the appearance of fracture features resulting from the various testing conditions. Atomic force microscopy augmented these studies with detailed topographical mappings and measures of the fracture surface frictional and modulus properties. Molecular processes (i.e., chain scission and other mechanical-chemical reactions) were probed by measures of changes in viscosity average molecular weight and the infrared spectra. It was demonstrated that environmental-stress degradation effects do occur in the Kevlar-NOsb{x} gas system. Strength decay in environmentally exposed unloaded fibers was demonstrated and a synergistic response in creep reduced fiber lifetimes by three orders of magnitude at moderate loadings. That is to say, the

  19. Management of marine cage aquaculture. Environmental carrying capacity method based on dry feed conversion rate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Huiwen; Sun, Yinglan

    2007-11-01

    Marine cage aquaculture produces a large amount of waste that is released directly into the environment. To effectively manage the mariculture environment, it is important to determine the carrying capacity of an aquaculture area. In many Asian countries trash fish is dominantly used in marine cage aquaculture, which contains more water than pellet feed. The traditional nutrient loading analysis is for pellet feed not for trash fish feed. So, a more critical analysis is necessary in trash fish feed culturing areas. Corresponding to FCR (feed conversion rate), dry feed conversion rate (DFCR) was used to analyze the nutrient loadings from marine cage aquaculture where trash fish is used. Based on the hydrodynamic model and the mass transport model in Xiangshan Harbor, the relationship between the water quality and the waste discharged from cage aquaculture has been determined. The environmental carrying capacity of the aquaculture sea area was calculated by applying the models noted above. Nitrogen and phosphorus are the water quality parameters considered in this study. The simulated results show that the maximum nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations were 0.216 mg/L and 0.039 mg/L, respectively. In most of the sea area, the nutrient concentrations were higher than the water quality standard. The calculated environmental carrying capacity of nitrogen and phosphorus in Xiangshan Harbor were 1,107.37 t/yr and 134.35 t/yr, respectively. The waste generated from cage culturing in 2000 has already exceeded the environmental carrying capacity. Unconsumed feed has been identified as the most important origin of all pollutants in cage culturing systems. It suggests the importance of increasing the feed utilization and improving the feed composition on the basis of nutrient requirement. For the sustainable development of the aquaculture industry, it is an effective management measure to keep the stocking density and pollution loadings below the environmental carrying

  20. CADDIS Volume 4. Data Analysis: Predicting Environmental Conditions from Biological Observations (PECBO Appendix)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overview of PECBO Module, using scripts to infer environmental conditions from biological observations, statistically estimating species-environment relationships, methods for inferring environmental conditions, statistical scripts in module.

  1. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S. P. C.; Surki, A. A.; de Vos, R. C. H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. Methods Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. Key Results The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Conclusions Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice. PMID:22967856

  2. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Groot, S P C; Surki, A A; de Vos, R C H; Kodde, J

    2012-11-01

    Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under dry conditions can be accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. methods: Dry barley (Hordeum vulgare), cabbage (Brassica oleracea), lettuce (Lactuca sativa) and soybean (Glycine max) seeds were stored between 2 and 7 weeks in steel tanks under 18 MPa partial pressure of oxygen. Storage under high-pressure nitrogen gas or under ambient air pressure served as controls. The method was compared with storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % relative humidity and long-term storage at the laboratory bench. Germination behaviour, seedling morphology and tocopherol levels were assessed. The ageing of the dry seeds was indeed accelerated by storing under high-pressure oxygen. The morphological ageing symptoms of the stored seeds resembled those observed after ageing under long-term dry storage conditions. Barley appeared more tolerant of this storage treatment compared with lettuce and soybean. Less-mature harvested cabbage seeds were more sensitive, as was the case for primed compared with non-primed lettuce seeds. Under high-pressure oxygen storage the tocopherol levels of dry seeds decreased, in a linear way with the decline in seed germination, but remained unchanged in seeds deteriorated during storage at 45 °C after equilibration at 85 % RH. Seed storage under high-pressure oxygen offers a novel and relatively fast method to study the physiology and biochemistry of seed ageing at different seed moisture levels and temperatures, including those that are representative of the dry storage conditions as used in gene banks and commercial practice.

  3. Transcriptional Profiling of Chromera velia Under Diverse Environmental Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Tayyrov, Annageldi

    2014-05-01

    Since its description in 2008, Chromera velia has drawn profound interest as the closest free-­‐living photosynthetic relative of apicomplexan parasites that are significant pathogens, causing enormous health and economic problems. There-­‐ fore, this newly described species holds a great potential to understand evolu-­‐ tionary basis of how photosynthetic algae evolved into the fully pathogenic Apicomplexa and how their common ancestors may have lived before they evolved into obligate parasites. Hence, the aim of this work is to understand how C. velia function and respond to different environmental conditions. This study aims to reveal how C. velia is able to respond to environmental perturbations that are applied individually and simultaneously since, studying stress factors in separation fails to elucidate complex responses to multi stress factors and un-­‐ derstanding the systemic regulation of involved genes. To extract biologically significant information and to identify genes involved in various physiological processes under variety of environmental conditions (i.e. a combination of vary-­‐ ing temperatures, iron availability, and salinity in the growth medium) we pre-­‐ pared strand specific RNA-­‐seq libraries for 83 samples in diverse environmental conditions. Here, we report the set of significantly differentially expressed genes as a re-­‐ sponse to the each condition and their combinations. Several interesting up-­‐ regulated and down-­‐regulated genes were found and their functions and in-­‐ volved pathways were studied. We showed that the profound regulation of HSP20 proteins is significant under stress conditions and hypothesized that the-­‐ se proteins might be involved in their movements.

  4. Improving Malaysian cocoa quality through the use of dehumidified air under mild drying conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hii, Ching L; Law, Chung L; Cloke, Michael; Sharif, Suzannah

    2011-01-30

    Various studies have been conducted in the past to improve the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. However, the processing methods still remain crude and lack technological advancement. In terms of drying, no previous study has attempted to apply advanced drying technology to improve bean quality. This paper presents the first attempt to improve the quality of cocoa beans through heat pump drying using constant air (28.6 and 40.4 °C) and stepwise (step-up 30.7-43.6-56.9 °C and step-down 54.9-43.9 °C) drying profiles. Comparison was made against hot air drying at 55.9 °C. Product quality assessment showed significant improvement in the quality of Malaysian cocoa beans. Quality was found to be better in terms of lower acidity (higher pH) and higher degree of browning (cut test) for cocoa beans dried using the step-up profile. All heat pump-dried samples showed flavour quality comparable to that of Ghanaian and better than that of Malaysian and Indonesian commercial samples. Step-up-dried samples showed the best flavour profile with high level of cocoa flavour, low in sourness and not excessive in bitterness and astringency. Dried cocoa samples from the step-up drying profile showed the best overall quality as compared with commercial samples from Malaysia, Indonesia and Ghana. The improvement of Malaysian cocoa bean quality is thus achievable through heat pump drying. 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. Environmental conditions influence tissue regeneration rates in scleractinian corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabine, Alexis M; Smith, Tyler B; Williams, Dana E; Brandt, Marilyn E

    2015-06-15

    Natural and anthropogenic factors may influence corals' ability to recover from partial mortality. To examine how environmental conditions affect lesion healing, we assessed several water quality parameters and tissue regeneration rates in corals at six reefs around St. Thomas, US Virgin Islands. We hypothesized that sites closer to developed areas would have poor water quality due to proximity to anthropogenic stresses, which would impede tissue regeneration. We found that water flow and turbidity most strongly influenced lesion recovery rates. The most impacted site, with high turbidity and low flow, recovered almost three times slower than the least impacted site, with low turbidity, high flow, and low levels of anthropogenic disturbance. Our results illustrate that in addition to lesion-specific factors known to affect tissue regeneration, environmental conditions can also control corals' healing rates. Resource managers can use this information to protect low-flow, turbid nearshore reefs by minimizing sources of anthropogenic stress. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. The Effect of Drying Conditions on the Antidiabetic Activity of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Vernonia amygdalina were obtained by maceration from the freshly -harvested leaves, leaves dried in the shade, and leaves dried at 40 °C in the hot air oven. Solvent removal was achieved with the aid of a rotary evaporator. White albino rats of both sexes weighing 90-145 g were used.

  7. FUEL CONDITIONS ASSOCIATED WITH NATIVE AND EXOTIC GRASSES IN A SUBTROPICAL DRY FOREST IN PUERTO RICO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrod M. Thaxton; Skip J. Van Bloem; Stefanie Whitmire

    2012-01-01

    Exotic grasses capable of increasing frequency and intensity of anthropogenic fire have invaded subtropical and tropical dry forests worldwide. Since many dry forest trees are susceptible to fire, this can result in decline of native species and loss of forest cover. While the contribution of exotic grasses to altered fire regimes has been well documented, the role of...

  8. Simulating the effect of conditioning on the drying of cut grass

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lorenzi, de F.; Bosma, A.H.; Stanghellini, C.

    1996-01-01

    Field wilting and drying of hay is an important agricultural process upon which the quality of material subsequently conserved is dependent. The research described here aims at translating the biophysical processes that affect field drying of grass into parameters sets to be used for decision

  9. Role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) in improving wear properties of polypropylene (PP) in dry sliding condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ashok Gandhi, R.; Palanikumar, K.; Ragunath, B.K.; Paulo Davim, J.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Role of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) on wear behaviour of polypropylene (PP) is evaluated. ► Effect of applied pressure and composition against a steel counter face is investigated. ► Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples are observed by scanning electron microscope. ► The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces. ► The coefficient of friction (μ) and sliding time for PP and PP/CNT blend is investigated. - Abstract: Polymers are widely used for sliding couples against metals and other materials. Polypropylene is a polymer used in variety of applications includes packaging, laboratory equipments, automotive components, etc. Polypropylene is often desirable automotive material due to its low cost, colorability, chemical resistance and UV stability. In addition the range of potential polypropylene uses is nearly unlimited through the use of modifiers, additives and fillers. In the present work, the sliding wear of polypropylene (PP) and carbon nanotube (CNT) blends are evaluated as a function of applied load and composition against a steel counter face in dry condition. The addition of CNT in PP in wear performance is investigated and presented in detail. Microstructure and worn surfaces of samples were observed by scanning electron microscope. The wear phenomenon has been discussed based on wear losses and worn surfaces

  10. Distributions of pharmaceuticals in an urban estuary during both dry- and wet-weather conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benotti, M.J.; Brownawell, Bruce J.

    2007-01-01

    Pharmaceuticals and selected major human metabolites are ubiquitous in Jamaica Bay, a wastewater-impacted estuary at concentrations in the low ng/L to low ??g/L range. Concentrations throughout the bay are often consistent with conservative behavior during dry-weather conditions, as evidenced by nearly linear concentration-salinity relationships. Deviation from conservative behavior is noted for some pharmaceuticals and attributed to microbial degradation. Caffeine, cotinine, nicotine, and paraxanthine were detected with the greatest analytical signal, although evidence is presented for in situ removal, especially for nicotine and caffeine. There is little evidence for significant removal of carbamazepine and sulfamethoxazole, suggesting they are more conservative and useful wastewater tracers. Immediately following heavy precipitation, which induced a combined sewer overflow (CSO) event, the concentrations of all compounds but acetaminophen and nicotine decreased or disappeared. This observation is consistent with a simple model illustrating the effect of precipitation has on pharmaceutical concentration in the wastewater stream, given the balance between dilution from rain and the bypass of treatment. ?? 2007 American Chemical Society.

  11. Rainwater harvesting to alleviate water scarcity in dry conditions: A case study in Faria Catchment, Palestine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sameer Shadeed

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid regions, the availability of adequate water of appropriate quality has become a limiting factor for development. This paper aims to evaluate the potential for rainwater harvesting in the arid to semi-arid Faria Catchment, in the West Bank, Palestine. Under current conditions, the supply-demand gap is increasing due to the increasing water demands of a growing population with hydrologically limited and uncertain supplies. By 2015, the gap is estimated to reach 4.5 × 106 m3. This study used the process-oriented and physically-based TRAIN-ZIN model to evaluate two different rainwater harvesting techniques during two rainfall events. The analysis shows that there is a theoretical potential for harvesting an additional 4 × 106 m3 of surface water over the entire catchment. Thus, it is essential to manage the potential available surface water supplies in the catchment to save water for dry periods when the supply-demand gap is comparatively high. Then a valuable contribution to bridging the supply-demand gap can be made.

  12. NPP Krsko containment environmental conditions during postulated accident

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kozaric, M.; Cavlina, N.; Spalj, S.

    1989-01-01

    This paper presents NPP Krsko containment pressure and temperature increase during Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) and Main Steam Line Break (MSLB). Containment environmental condition calculation was performed by CONTEMPT4/MOD4 computer code. Design accident calculations were performed by RELAP4/MOD6 and RELAP5/MOD1 computer codes. Calculational abilities and application methodology of these codes are presented. The CONTEMPT code is described in more detail. The containment pressure and temperature time distribution are presented as well. (author)

  13. Ebola Virus Stability Under Hospital and Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westhoff Smith, Danielle; Hill-Batorski, Lindsay; N'jai, Alhaji; Eisfeld, Amie J; Neumann, Gabriele; Halfmann, Peter; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-15

    The West African outbreak of Ebola virus (EBOV) is largely contained, but sporadic new cases continue to emerge. To assess the potential contribution of fomites to human infections with EBOV, we tested EBOV stability in human blood spotted onto Sierra Leonean banknotes and in syringe needles under hospital and environmental conditions. Under some of these conditions, EBOV remained infectious for >30 days, indicating that EBOV-contaminated items may pose a serious risk to humans. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For permissions, e-mail journals.permissions@oup.com.

  14. Can environmental conditions experienced in early life influence future generations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton, Tim; Metcalfe, Neil B

    2014-06-22

    The consequences of early developmental conditions for performance in later life are now subjected to convergent interest from many different biological sub-disciplines. However, striking data, largely from the biomedical literature, show that environmental effects experienced even before conception can be transmissible to subsequent generations. Here, we review the growing evidence from natural systems for these cross-generational effects of early life conditions, showing that they can be generated by diverse environmental stressors, affect offspring in many ways and can be transmitted directly or indirectly by both parental lines for several generations. In doing so, we emphasize why early life might be so sensitive to the transmission of environmentally induced effects across generations. We also summarize recent theoretical advancements within the field of developmental plasticity, and discuss how parents might assemble different 'internal' and 'external' cues, even from the earliest stages of life, to instruct their investment decisions in offspring. In doing so, we provide a preliminary framework within the context of adaptive plasticity for understanding inter-generational phenomena that arise from early life conditions.

  15. Soil Water Retention and Relative Permeability for Conditions from Oven-Dry to Full Saturation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Z. F.

    2011-11-04

    Common conceptual models for unsaturated flow often rely on the oversimplified representation of medium pores as a bundle of cylindrical capillaries and assume that the matric potential is attributed to the capillary force only. The adsorptive surface forces are ignored. It is often assumed that aqueous flow is negligible when a soil is near or at the residual water content. These models are successful at high and medium water contents but often give poor results at low water contents. These models do not apply to conditions at which the water content is less than the residual water content. We extend the lower bound of existing water-retention functions and conductivity models from residual water content to the oven-dry condition (i.e., zero water content) by defining a state-dependent, residual-water content for a soil drier than a critical value. Furthermore, a hydraulic conductivity model for smooth uniform spheres was modified by introducing a correction factor to describe the film flow-induced hydraulic conductivity for natural porous media. The total unsaturated hydraulic conductivity is the sum of those due to capillary and film flow. The extended retention and conductivity models were verified measurements. Results show that, when the soil is at high and intermediate water content, there is no difference between the un-extended and the extended models; when the soil is at low water content, the un-extended models overestimate the water content but underestimate the conductivity. The extended models match the retention and conductivity measurements well.

  16. Dry eye disease and allergic conditions: A Korean nationwide population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Minkyeong; Oh, Jong-Hyun; Park, Choul Yong; Lee, Sang Wha

    2016-11-01

    Dry eye disease (DED) is a multifactorial disease of the tears and ocular surface. No epidemiologic reports have yet been published about the relationship between DED and allergic rhinitis or sensitization to allergens. To investigate the association between DED and allergic conditions in the general adult Korean population. This population-based cross-sectional study included 17,542 individuals (ages ≥ 19 years) who participated in the Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) from 2010 to 2012. Data for total serum immunoglobulin E (IgE) and allergen-specific IgE levels were available for 1857 subjects. Data were analyzed by using logistic regression to determine the association of DED with allergy or allergic conditions, including allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, asthma, increased total serum IgE, and sensitization to house-dust mite (Dermatophagoides farinae), dog, and cockroach allergens. The prevalence of DED, allergic rhinitis, atopic dermatitis, and asthma was 10.4, 13.1, 2.2, and 3.3%, respectively. The prevalence of the increased total serum IgE level and sensitization to D. farinae, dog, and cockroach allergens was 34.6, 15.7, 1.0, and 2.8%, respectively. After adjusting for general characteristics, DED was significantly associated with allergic rhinitis (odds ratio 1.58 [95% confidence interval, 1.38-1.81]) and D. farinae sensitization (odds ratio 1.80 [95% confidence interval, 1.17-2.79]). This study demonstrated a close association between DED and both allergic rhinitis and D. farinae sensitization in Korean adults. Further studies are warranted to establish temporal relationships between DED and allergic rhinitis.

  17. The influence of surface type on the absorbed radiation by a human under hot, dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardin, A. W.; Vanos, J. K.

    2018-01-01

    Given the predominant use of heat-retaining materials in urban areas, numerous studies have addressed the urban heat island mitigation potential of various "cool" options, such as vegetation and high-albedo surfaces. The influence of altered radiational properties of such surfaces affects not only the air temperature within a microclimate, but more importantly the interactions of long- and short-wave radiation fluxes with the human body. Minimal studies have assessed how cool surfaces affect thermal comfort via changes in absorbed radiation by a human ( R abs) using real-world, rather than modeled, urban field data. The purpose of the current study is to assess the changes in the absorbed radiation by a human—a critical component of human energy budget models—based on surface type on hot summer days (air temperatures > 38.5∘C). Field tests were conducted using a high-end microclimate station under predominantly clear sky conditions over ten surfaces with higher sky view factors in Lubbock, Texas. Three methods were used to measure and estimate R abs: a cylindrical radiation thermometer (CRT), a net radiometer, and a theoretical estimation model. Results over dry surfaces suggest that the use of high-albedo surfaces to reduce overall urban heat gain may not improve acute human thermal comfort in clear conditions due to increased reflected radiation. Further, the use of low-cost instrumentation, such as the CRT, shows potential in quantifying radiative heat loads within urban areas at temporal scales of 5-10 min or greater, yet further research is needed. Fine-scale radiative information in urban areas can aid in the decision-making process for urban heat mitigation using non-vegetated urban surfaces, with surface type choice is dependent on the need for short-term thermal comfort, or reducing cumulative heat gain to the urban fabric.

  18. Spiromax, a New Dry Powder Inhaler: Dose Consistency under Simulated Real-World Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canonica, Giorgio Walter; Arp, Jan; Keegstra, Johan René; Chrystyn, Henry

    2015-10-01

    Spiromax(®) is a novel dry powder inhaler for patients with asthma or chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The studies presented here provide further data on attributes (in vitro dosing consistency with budesonide-formoterol (DuoResp) Spiromax; flow rates through empty versions of the Spiromax and Turbuhaler inhaler) of importance to patients with asthma or COPD. Dose-delivery studies were performed using low-, middle-, and high-strength DuoResp Spiromax. Dose consistency was assessed over inhaler life. Total emitted doses (TEDs) were measured at various flow rates, after exposure to high and low temperature or humidity, at different inhaler orientations, and after dropping the inhaler. The criterion for evaluating dose uniformity was whether mean TEDs were within the product specification limits. In separate studies, flow rates were measured after training, using the patient information leaflets, and again after enhanced training as part of a randomized, open-label, cross-over study. Mean values for both budesonide and formoterol were within 85%-115% of the label claim for each strength of DuoResp Spiromax for initial dose uniformity and for the other investigated conditions (temperature, humidity, orientation, dropping, knocking), with the exception of approximately an 80% increase in first dose after dropping the inhaler (subsequent doses not affected). In the flow rate patient study, two patients' inhalations with Spiromax and six with Turbuhaler were 60 L/min. DuoResp Spiromax consistently meets dose uniformity criteria, under controlled laboratory conditions and with variations intended to mimic real-world use. Following enhanced training, all patients in the flow study were able to achieve the minimal inspiratory flow rate of >30 L/min, which is required for effective treatment.

  19. Using Artificial Soil and Dry-Column Flash Chromatography to Simulate Organic Substance Leaching Process: A Colorful Environmental Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Avellar, Isa G. J.; Cotta, Tais A. P. G.; Neder, Amarilis de V. Finageiv

    2012-01-01

    Soil is an important and complex environmental compartment and soil contamination contributes to the pollution of aquifers and other water basins. A simple and low-cost experiment is described in which the mobility of three organic compounds in an artificial soil is examined using dry-column flash chromatography. The compounds were applied on top…

  20. Final Report - Membranes and MEA's for Dry, Hot Operating Conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamrock, Steven J

    2011-06-30

    The focus of this program was to develop a new Proton Exchange Membrane (PEM) which can operate under hotter, dryer conditions than the state of the art membranes today and integrate it into a Membrane Electrode Assembly (MEA). These MEA's should meet the performance and durability requirements outlined in the solicitation, operating under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC, to meet 2010 DOE technical targets for membranes. This membrane should operate under low humidification conditions and at temperatures ranging from -20ºC to 120ºC in order to meet DOE HFCIT 2010 commercialization targets for automotive fuel cells. Membranes developed in this program may also have improved durability and performance characteristics making them useful in stationary fuel cell applications. The new membranes, and the MEA's comprising them, should be manufacturable at high volumes and at costs which can meet industry and DOE targets. This work included: A) Studies to better understand factors controlling proton transport within the electrolyte membrane, mechanisms of polymer degradation (in situ and ex situ) and membrane durability in an MEA; B) Development of new polymers with increased proton conductivity over the range of temperatures from -20ºC to 120ºC and at lower levels of humidification and with improved chemical and mechanical stability; C) Development of new membrane additives for increased durability and conductivity under these dry conditions; D) Integration of these new materials into membranes and membranes into MEA's, including catalyst and gas diffusion layer selection and integration; E) Verification that these materials can be made using processes which are scalable to commercial volumes using cost effective methods; F) MEA testing in single cells using realistic automotive testing protocols. This project addresses technical barriers A (Durability) and C (Performance) from the Fuel Cells section of the

  1. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A handbood of environmental exposures. Volume 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    A comprehensive review of the technical literature was conducted regarding the impact of environmental conditions on hyman performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits (e.g., decreased dexterity, impaired vision, hearing loss, memory deficiency) along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from exposures that result in no deficit to exposures that resulted in significant performance problems. Specific deficits were included in the report if there was sound scientific evidence that environmental exposure resulted in those performance deficits. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 1 is a handbook for use by NRC inspectors to help them determine the impact of specific environmental conditions on licensee personnel performance. it discusses the units used to measure each condition, discusses the effects of the condition on task performance, presents an example of the assessment of each condition in a nuclear power plant, and discusses potential methods for reducing the effects of

  2. Evaluation of the Environmental Health Conditions of Qom Hotels & Inns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Farzinnia

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and ObjectivesTourism is one of the three major global industries with 4 percent annual economic growth. Qom with roughly 17 million tourists in 2005 was the second religious tourism center in Iran. This study was designed to determine the environmental health criteria of Qom hotels and inns in 2007.MethodsThis descriptive - cross sectional study was carried out based on a standard check list of substance of edible, drinkable, cosmetic and hygienic products law from ministry of health and medical sciences. The checklist included 73 questions which were completed by face to face interviews and sanitary inspections. After analyzing the results of each residential center, the questionnaires were classified into three categories: hygienic (over 80 score, sanitary (40-79 and unacceptable centers (less than 40. The data were presented and analyzed by descriptive and analytical statistical methods such as X 2 and Fisher exact test.ResultsThe percentages of hygienic, sanitary and unacceptable conditions of hotels and inns were 35.5, 54.8 and 9.7, respectively. There was a direct relationship between academic degree of residential managers and the validity of employees health card (P=0.042 ConclusionBased on this the research, the environmental status of Qom hotels and inns was in relatively desirable conditions. Residential places with unacceptable condition were almost located in the old region of the city (e.g. around the Holly Shrine. Due to the structural failures, architectural problems and tremendous cost for repairs, it’s better that their activities be stopped and banned by government. With regard to the high percentage of hotels with sanitary conditions, at least improvements in health conditions accompanied by training and supervision are recommended. Keywords: Environmental Health; Environment and Public Health; Hotel; Inn; Qom, Iran.

  3. Water addition regulates the metabolic activity of ammonia oxidizers responding to environmental perturbations in dry subhumid ecosystems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Hang-Wei; Macdonald, Catriona A; Trivedi, Pankaj; Holmes, Bronwyn; Bodrossy, Levente; He, Ji-Zheng; Singh, Brajesh K

    2015-02-01

    Terrestrial arid and semi-arid ecosystems (drylands) constitute about 41% of the Earth's land surface and are predicted to experience increasing fluctuations in water and nitrogen availability. Mounting evidence has confirmed the significant importance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in nitrification, plant nitrogen availability and atmospheric N2 O emissions, but their responses to environmental perturbations in drylands remain largely unknown. Here we evaluate how the factorial combinations of irrigation and fertilization in forests and land-use change from grassland to forest affects the dynamics of AOA and AOB following a 6-year dryland field study. Potential nitrification rates and AOA and AOB abundances were significantly higher in the irrigated plots, accompanied by considerable changes in community compositions, but their responses to fertilization alone were not significant. DNA-stable isotope probing results showed increased (13) CO2 incorporation into the amoA gene of AOA, but not of AOB, in plots receiving water addition, coupled with significantly higher net mineralization and nitrification rates. High-throughput microarray analysis revealed that active AOA assemblages belonging to Nitrosopumilus and Nitrosotalea were increasingly labelled by (13) CO2 following irrigation. However, no obvious effects of land-use changes on nitrification rates or metabolic activity of AOA and AOB could be observed under dry conditions. We provide evidence that water addition had more important roles than nitrogen fertilization in influencing the autotrophic nitrification in dryland ecosystems, and AOA are increasingly involved in ammonia oxidation when dry soils become wetted. © 2014 Society for Applied Microbiology and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Tribological Behavior of Babbitt Alloy Rubbing Against Si3N4 and Steel Under Dry Friction Condition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Xianbing; Chen, Yinxia

    2016-03-01

    The tribological behavior of Babbitt alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball with various sliding speeds at dry friction condition was investigated. It was found that B88 alloy rubbing with Si3N4 ball and steel ball possesses a low sliding wear resistance at dry friction. The wear rate is above 10-4 mm3/Nm, and the friction coefficient is from 0.2 to 0.4. At low sliding speed of 0.05-0.1 m/s, the mainly wear mechanisms are microgroove and fatigue wear, while at high sliding speed of 0.5 m/s, the wear mechanisms depend on plastic deformation and delamination. The high wear rate indicates that it is needed to prevent Babbitt alloy from working at dry friction conditions, while the low friction coefficient suggests that it is not easy to the occurrence of cold weld.

  5. Influence of stationary and non-stationary conditions on drying time and mechanical properties of a porcelain slab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammouda, Imen; Mihoubi, Daoued

    2017-12-01

    This work deals with a numerical study of the response of a porcelain slab when subjected to convective drying in stationary and non-stationary conditions. The used model describes heat, mass, and momentum transfers is applied to an unsaturated viscoelastic medium described by a Maxwell model. The numerical code allows us to determine the effect of the surrounding air temperature on drying kinetics and on mechanical stress intensities. Von Mises stresses are analysed in order to foresee an eventual damage that may occur during drying. Simulation results for several temperatures in the range of [30 °C, 90 °C] shows that for the temperature from 30 °C to 60 °C, Von Mises stresses are always lower than the yield strength. But above 70 °C, Von Mises stresses are higher than the ultimate strength, and consequently there is a risk of crack at the end of the constant drying rate period. The idea proposed in this work is to integrate a reducing temperature phase when the predicted Von Mises stress intensity exceeds the admissible stress. Simulation results shows that a non-stationary convective drying (90-60 °C) allows us to optimize costs and quality by reducing the drying time and maintaining Von Mises stress values under the admissible stress.

  6. Environmental studies conducted at the Fenton Hill Hot Dry Rock geothermal development site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miera, F.R. Jr.; Langhorst, G.; McEllin, S.; Montoya, C.

    1984-05-01

    An environmental investigation of Hot Dry Rock (HDR) geothermal development was conducted at Fenton Hill, New Mexico, during 1976-1979. Activities at the Fenton Hill Site included an evaluation of baseline data for biotic and abiotic ecosystem components. Identification of contaminants produced by HDR processes that had the potential for reaching the surrounding environment is also discussed. Three dominant vegetative communities were identified in the vicinity of the site. These included grass-forb, aspen, and mixed conifer communities. The grass-forb area was identified as having the highest number of species encountered, with Phleum pratense and Dactylis glomerata being the dominant grass species. Frequency of occurrence and mean coverage values are also given for other species in the three main vegetative complexes. Live trapping of small mammals was conducted to determine species composition, densities, population, and diversity estimates for this component of the ecosystem. The data indicate that Peromyscus maniculatus was the dominant species across all trapping sites during the study. Comparisons of relative density of small mammals among the various trapping sites show the grass-forb vegetative community to have had the highest overall density. Comparisons of small mammal diversity for the three main vegetative complexes indicate that the aspen habitat had the highest diversity and the grass-forb habitat had the lowest. Analyses of waste waters from the closed circulation loop indicate that several trace contaminants (e.g., arsenic, cadmium, fluoride, boron, and lithium) were present at concentrations greater than those reported for surface waters of the region.

  7. Environmental conditions for SMME development in a South African province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darma Mahadea

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The development of entrepreneurship is the focus of considerable policy interest in South Africa and many other countries.  This is particularly in recognition of its contribution to economic growth, poverty alleviation and employment creation. In South Africa, various new strategies and institutions have recently been created with a view to empowering formerly disadvantaged members to enter the mainstream economy as entrepreneurs rather than job seekers. While the government directs considerable efforts to advancing Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises (SMMEs, certain environmental factors can favour or hinder the optimal development of these firms. According to the Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM reports, the level of entrepreneurial activity in South Africa is rather low in relation to that in other countries at a similar level of development.  This paper uses factor analysis to examine the internal and external environmental conditions influencing the development of small ventures on the basis of a survey conducted in Pietermaritzburg, the capital of the KZN province.  The results indicate that three clusters constrain SMME development in Pietermaritzburg:  management, finance and external environmental conditions. In the external set, rising crime levels, laws and regulations, and taxation are found to be significant constraints to the development of business firms.

  8. The effect and role of environmental conditions on magnetosome synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina eMoisescu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Magnetotactic bacteria (MTB are considered the model species for the controlled biomineralization of magnetic Fe oxide (magnetite, Fe3O4 or Fe sulfide (greigite, Fe3S4 nanocrystals in living organisms. In MTB, magnetic minerals form as membrane-bound, single-magnetic domain crystals known as magnetosomes and the synthesis of magnetosomes by MTB is a highly controlled process at the genetic level. Magnetosome crystals reveal highest purity and highest quality magnetic properties and are therefore increasingly sought after as novel nanoparticulate biomaterials for industrial and medical applications. In addition, magnetofossils, have been used as both past terrestrial and potential Martian life biosignature. However, until recently, the general belief was that the morphology of mature magnetite crystals formed by MTB was largely unaffected by environmental conditions. Here we review a series of studies that showed how changes in environmental factors such as temperature, pH, external Fe concentration, external magnetic fields, static or dynamic fluid conditions, and nutrient availability or concentrations can all affect the biomineralization of magnetite magnetosomes in MTB. The resulting variations in magnetic nanocrystals characteristics can have consequence both for their commercial value but also for their use as indicators for ancient life.In this paper we will review the recent findings regarding the influence of variable chemical and physical environmental control factors on the synthesis of magnetosome by MTB, and address the role of MTB in the global biogeochemical cycling of iron.

  9. The increasing importance of environmental conditions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riancho, Javier; Bosque-Varela, Pilar; Perez-Pereda, Sara; Povedano, Mónica; de Munaín, Adolfo López; Santurtun, Ana

    2018-04-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most common neurodegenerative disease affecting motor neurons (MNs). Although a small percentage of ALS has a familial origin, the vast majority of cases are sporadic in which genetic factors and environment interact with each other leading to disease onset in genetically predisposed individuals. In the current model of the disease, each individual has a determined genetic load, some degree of cell degeneration related to age and several risky environmental exposures. In this scenario, MN degeneration would occur when the sum of these factors reach a certain threshold. To date, an extensive list of environmental factors has been associated to ALS, including different categories, such as exposure to heavy metals and other toxicants, cyanotoxins or infectious agents. In addition, in recent years, lifestyle and other demographic parameters are gaining relevance in the genesis of the disease. Among them, physical activity, nutrition, body mass index, cardiovascular risk factors, autoimmune diseases and cancer are some of the conditions which have been related to the disease. In this review, we will discuss the potential mechanisms of environmental conditions in motor neuron degeneration. Understanding the role of each one of these factors as well as their interactions appears as a crucial step in order to develop new preventive, diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for ALS patients.

  10. Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Abiotic Conditions in the Establishment of a Dry Grassland Community

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Knappová, Jana; Pánková, Hana; Münzbergová, Zuzana

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 11, č. 7 (2016), s. 1-24 E-ISSN 1932-6203 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA15-11635S Institutional support: RVO:67985939 Keywords : AMF * dry grassland commnunity * soil abiotic conditions Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 2.806, year: 2016

  11. Decision tree analysis to evaluate dry cow strategies under UK conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Berry, E.A.; Hogeveen, H.; Hillerton, J.E.

    2005-01-01

    Economic decisions on animal health strategies address the cost-benefit aspect along with animal welfare and public health concerns. Decision tree analysis at an individual cow level highlighted that there is little economic difference between the use of either dry cow antibiotic or an internal teat sealant in preventing a new intramammary infection in a cow free of infection in all quarters of the mammary gland at drying off. However, a potential net loss of over pound20 per cow might occur ...

  12. Analyses of conditions in a large, dry PWR containment during an TMLB' accident sequence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sweet, D.W.; Roberts, G.J.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of the paper is to give an assessment of the conditions which would develop in the large, dry containment of a modern Westinghouse-type PWR during a severe accident where all safety systems are unavailable. The analysis is based principally on the results of calculations using the CONTAIN code, with a 4 cell model of the containment, for a station blackout (TMLB') scenario in which the vessel is assumed to fail at high pressure. In particular, the following are noted: (i) If much of the debris is in contact with water, so that decay heat can boil water directly, then the pressure rises steadily to reach the assumed containment failure point after 11/2 to 2 days. If most of the debris becomes isolated from water, for example, because of water is held up on the containment floors and in sumps and drains, the pressure rises too slowly to threaten the containment on this timescale. (ii) If a core-concrete interaction occurs, most of the associated fission product release takes place soon after relocation of molten fuel to the containment. The aerosols which transport these (and other non-gaseous fission products released earlier in the accident) in the containment agglomerate and settle. As a result, 0.1% or less of the aerosols remain airborne a day after the start of the accident. (iii) Hydrogen and carbon monoxide, which would accumulate in the containment are not expected to burn because the atmosphere would be inerted by steam. If, however, enough of the steam is condensed, for example, by recovering the containment sprays, a burn could occur but the resulting pressure spike is unlikely to threaten the containment unless a transition to detonation occurs. 6 refs., 6 tabs., 12 figs

  13. Assessment of the risk of failure of high voltage substations due to environmental conditions and pollution on insulators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo Sierra, Rafael; Oviedo-Trespalacios, Oscar; Candelo, John E; Soto, Jose D

    2015-07-01

    Pollution on electrical insulators is one of the greatest causes of failure of substations subjected to high levels of salinity and environmental pollution. Considering leakage current as the main indicator of pollution on insulators, this paper focuses on establishing the effect of the environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators and determining the significant change in the magnitude of the pollution on the insulators during dry and humid periods. Hierarchical segmentation analysis was used to establish the effect of environmental conditions on the risk of failure due to pollution on insulators. The Kruskal-Wallis test was utilized to determine the significant changes in the magnitude of the pollution due to climate periods. An important result was the discovery that leakage current was more common on insulators during dry periods than humid ones. There was also a higher risk of failure due to pollution during dry periods. During the humid period, various temperatures and wind directions produced a small change in the risk of failure. As a technical result, operators of electrical substations can now identify the cause of an increase in risk of failure due to pollution in the area. The research provides a contribution towards the behaviour of the leakage current under conditions similar to those of the Colombian Caribbean coast and how they affect the risk of failure of the substation due to pollution.

  14. Interannual variability in the extent and intensity of tropical dry forest deciduousness in the Mexican Yucatan (2000-2016): Drivers and Links to Regional Atmospheric Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuba, Nicholas Joseph

    The dry topical forests of the southern Yucatan Peninsula experience multiple natural and anthropogenic disturbances, as well as substantial interannual climate variability that can result in stark interannual differences in vegetation phenology. Dry season deciduousness is a typical response to limit tree water loss during prolonged periods of hot and dry conditions, and this behavior has both direct implications for ecosystem functioning, and the potential to indicate climate conditions when observed using remotely-sensed data. The first research paper of this dissertation advances methods to assess the accuracy of remotely-sensed measurements of canopy conditions using in-situ observations. Linear regression models show the highest correlation (R2 = 0.751) between in-situ canopy gap fraction and Landsat NDWISWIR2. MODIS time series NDWISWIR2 are created for the period March 2000-February 2011, and exhibit stronger correlation with time series of TRMM precipitation data than do MODIS EVI time series (R2= 0.48 vs. R2 = 0.43 in deciduous forest areas). The second paper examines differences between the deciduous phenology of young forest stands and older forest stands. Land-cover maps are overlaid to determine whether forested areas are greater than or less than 22 years old in 2010, and metrics related to deciduous phenology are derived from MODIS EVI2 time series in three years, 2008 to 2011. Statistical tests that compare matched pairs of young (12-22 years) and older (>22 years) forest stand age class samples are used to detect significant differences in metrics related to the intensity and timing of deciduousness. In all three years, younger forests exhibit significantly more intense deciduousness, measured as total seasonal change of EVI2 normalized by annual maximum EVI2 (pmediating environmental factors that drive the spatial and temporal variability in the intensity of deciduousness, and point toward analyzing deciduousness to reveal information about other

  15. Environmental conditions and Puumala virus transmission in Belgium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Linard, Catherine; Tersago, Katrien; Leirs, Herwig

    2007-01-01

    of this study is to better understand the causal link between environmental features and PUUV prevalence in bank vole population in Belgium, and hence with transmission risk to humans. Our hypothesis was that environmental conditions controlling the direct and indirect transmission paths differ....... Based on logistic regressions, we show that PUUV prevalence among bank voles is more linked to variables favouring the survival of the virus in the environment, and thus the indirect transmission: low winter temperatures are strongly linked to prevalence among bank voles, and high soil moisture...... is linked to the number of NE cases among humans. The transmission risk to humans therefore depends on the efficiency of the indirect transmission path. Human risk behaviours, such as the propensity for people to go in forest areas that best support the virus, also influence the number of human cases...

  16. Effects of reclaimed asphalt pavement on indirect tensile strength test of foamed asphalt mix tested in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Katman, Herda Yati; Norhisham, Shuhairy; Ismail, Norlela; Ibrahim, Mohd Rasdan; Matori, Mohd Yazip

    2013-01-01

    Indirect tensile strength (ITS) test was conducted to analyse strength of the foamed asphalt mixes incorporating reclaimed asphalt pavement. Samples were tested for ITS after cured in the oven at 40°C for 72 hours. This testing condition known as dry condition or unconditioned. Laboratory results show that reclaimed asphalt pavement (RAP) contents insignificantly affect the ITS results. ITS results significantly affected by foamed bitumen contents.

  17. Assessing environmental conditions of Antarctic footpaths to support management decisions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tejedo, Pablo; Benayas, Javier; Cajiao, Daniela; Albertos, Belén; Lara, Francisco; Pertierra, Luis R; Andrés-Abellán, Manuela; Wic, Consuelo; Luciáñez, Maria José; Enríquez, Natalia; Justel, Ana; Reck, Günther K

    2016-07-15

    Thousands of tourists visit certain Antarctic sites each year, generating a wide variety of environmental impacts. Scientific knowledge of human activities and their impacts can help in the effective design of management measures and impact mitigation. We present a case study from Barrientos Island in which a management measure was originally put in place with the goal of minimizing environmental impacts but resulted in new undesired impacts. Two alternative footpaths used by tourist groups were compared. Both affected extensive moss carpets that cover the middle part of the island and that are very vulnerable to trampling. The first path has been used by tourists and scientists since over a decade and is a marked route that is clearly visible. The second one was created more recently. Several physical and biological indicators were measured in order to assess the environmental conditions for both paths. Some physical variables related to human impact were lower for the first path (e.g. soil penetration resistance and secondary treads), while other biochemical and microbiological variables were higher for the second path (e.g. β-glucosidase and phosphatase activities, soil respiration). Moss communities located along the new path were also more diverse and sensitive to trampling. Soil biota (Collembola) was also more abundant and richer. These data indicate that the decision to adopt the second path did not lead to the reduction of environmental impacts as this path runs over a more vulnerable area with more outstanding biological features (e.g. microbiota activity, flora and soil fauna diversity). In addition, the adoption of a new route effectively doubles the human footprint on the island. We propose using only the original path that is less vulnerable to the impacts of trampling. Finally from this process, we identify several key issues that may be taken into account when carrying out impact assessment and environmental management decision-making in the

  18. Experimental study of the influence of atmospheric conditions on the performance of natural draft dry cooling towers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Markoczy, G.; Staempfli, E.

    1977-08-01

    The heat dissipation of cooling towers is influenced by atmospheric conditions. In order to establish these influences EIR conducted measurements on a natural draft dry cooling tower. During two measuring campaigns with a duration of total 10 weeks the performance of the cooling tower, the ambient air temperatures, the wind velocities and directions as well as air temperature at the top of the tower and in front of the heat exchangers were continuously measured and registered. The results achieved enable the quantitative description of the influence of the ambient air temperature, wind and temperature inversion on the performance of natural draft dry cooling towers. (Auth.)

  19. Environmental problems related to winter traffic safety conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Hääl, Maire-Liis; Sürje, Peep

    2006-01-01

    The changeable Nordic climate has added problems to road maintenance and the environment to ensure traffic safety under winter conditions. The widespread use of salt (NaCl) for snow and ice removal from roads has resulted in environmental impacts in many areas. Some of the problems associated with the use of NaCl are the corrosion of bridges, road surfaces and vehicles and damage to roadside vegetation and aquatic system that are affected by water from de-iced roads. Accumulation of hard meta...

  20. Dry/Wet Conditions Monitoring Based on TRMM Rainfall Data and Its Reliability Validation over Poyang Lake Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xianghu Li

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Local dry/wet conditions are of great concern in regional water resource and floods/droughts disaster risk management. Satellite-based precipitation products have greatly improved their accuracy and applicability and are expected to offer an alternative to ground rain gauges data. This paper investigated the capability of Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM rainfall data for monitoring the temporal and spatial variation of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin during 1998–2010, and validated its reliability with rain gauges data from 14 national meteorological stations in the basin. The results show that: (1 the daily TRMM rainfall data does not describe the occurrence and contribution rates of precipitation accurately, but monthly TRMM data have a good linear relationship with rain gauges rainfall data; (2 both the Z index and Standardized Precipitation Index (SPI based on monthly TRMM rainfall data oscillate around zero and show a consistent interannual variability as compared with rain gauges data; (3 the spatial pattern of moisture status, either in dry months or wet months, based on both the Z index and SPI using TRMM data, agree with the observed rainfall. In conclusion, the monthly TRMM rainfall data can be used for monitoring the variation and spatial distribution of dry/wet conditions in Poyang Lake basin.

  1. Analysis of correlation between the clinical feature of dry eye and the disease condition in type 2 diabetic patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Mei Zhou

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available AIM: To investigate the clinical features of dry eye with type 2 diabetic patients, and to analyze the correlation between the clinical features of dry eye and the disease condition. METHODS: Retrospective case series study. Dry eye cases with type 2 diabetic were analyzed from March to December in 2016. And the clinical features of patients were summarized. Dry eye examination including tear break-up time(BUTand Schirmer test(schirmer Ⅰ test, SⅠt. Patients were divided into RESULTS: There were 178 cases collected. All cases were diagnosed as dry eye both eyes. The patient's age ranged from 32 to 85 years, with an average 58.41±13.06 years. There were 110(61.8%male cases, and 68(38.2%female cases. In all cases, the mean value of BUT was 4.52±2.31s, and the mean value of SⅠt was 4.25±1.99mm/5min. The value of women were more than men, but the differences were not significant statistically. Patients of ≥60 group were less than the age group of t=4.153, 4.021; PF=68.884, 60.204; Pt=-6.615, -5.918; PCONCLUSION:There were two types dry eye in 2 diabetic patients: the instability of tear-film and the reduction of tear secretion. The clinic features of dry eye were related to age, the course of the disease, and the level of blood glucose.

  2. Calculation of Environmental Conditions in NEK Intermediate Building Following HELB

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grgic, D.; Spalj, S.; Basic, I.

    1998-01-01

    The purpose of Equipment Qualification (EQ) in nuclear power plants is to ensure the capability of safety related equipment to perform its function on demand under postulated service conditions, including harsh accident environment (e.g. Loss of Coolant Accident - LOCA, High Energy Line Break - HELB). The determination of the EQ conditions and zones is one of the basic steps in the frame of the overall EQ project. The EQ parameters (temperature, pressure, relative humidity, chemical spray, submergence, radiation) should be defined for all locations of the plant containing equipment important to safety. This paper presents the calculation of thermohydraulic environmental parameters (pressure and temperature) inside Intermediate Building (IB) of Krsko NPP after the postulated HELB. The RELAP5/mod2 computer code was used for the determination of HELB mass and energy release and computer code GOTHIC was used to calculate pressure and temperature profiles inside NPP Krsko IB. (author)

  3. TiN-Coating Effects on Stainless Steel Tribological Behavior Under Dry and Lubricated Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Yang, Huisheng; Pang, Xiaolu; Gao, Kewei; Tran, Hai T.; Volinsky, Alex A.

    2014-04-01

    The tribological properties of magnetron sputtered titanium nitride coating on 316L steel, sliding against Si3N4 ceramic ball under dry friction and synthetic perspiration lubrication, were investigated. The morphology of the worn surface and the elemental composition of the wear debris were examined by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive spectroscopy. TiN coatings and 316L stainless steel had better tribological properties under synthetic perspiration lubrication than under dry friction. Among the three tested materials (316L, 1.6 and 2.4 μm TiN coatings), 2.4 μm TiN coating exhibits the best wear resistance. The difference in wear damage of the three materials is essentially due to the wear mechanisms. For the TiN coating, the damage is attributed to abrasive wear under synthetic perspiration lubrication and the complex interactive mechanisms, including abrasive and adhesive wear, along with plastic deformation, under dry friction.

  4. Influence of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, N.K. [G.B. Pant Univ., of Agriculture and Technology (India). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering; Arora, C.P. [Indian Inst. of Tech., New Delhi (India)

    1995-06-01

    The effects of product thickness, chamber pressure and heating conditions on product temperature profiles and production rate of freeze-dried yoghurt were investigated experimentally. Three sample thicknesses - 3.8 mm, 6.2 mm and 9.4 mm - were tested at chamber pressures of 0.01 and 0.5 mmHg. The production rate increased by decreasing product thickness in contact heating through the bottom of the frozen layer, whereas no significant change was observed in radiant heating. A reduction in chamber pressure from 0.50 to 0.01 mmHg increased the drying time in radiant heating. Maximum production rate was obtained when the thickness of dried product was 6.2 mm, when heat was transferred simultaneously through the frozen and dried layers, and the chamber pressure was at 0.01 mmHg. Use of the product tray developed in this study prevents the growth of dry layers at the contact surfaces. (Author)

  5. Evaluation of Underwater Image Enhancement Algorithms under Different Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marino Mangeruga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Underwater images usually suffer from poor visibility, lack of contrast and colour casting, mainly due to light absorption and scattering. In literature, there are many algorithms aimed to enhance the quality of underwater images through different approaches. Our purpose was to identify an algorithm that performs well in different environmental conditions. We have selected some algorithms from the state of the art and we have employed them to enhance a dataset of images produced in various underwater sites, representing different environmental and illumination conditions. These enhanced images have been evaluated through some quantitative metrics. By analysing the results of these metrics, we tried to understand which of the selected algorithms performed better than the others. Another purpose of our research was to establish if a quantitative metric was enough to judge the behaviour of an underwater image enhancement algorithm. We aim to demonstrate that, even if the metrics can provide an indicative estimation of image quality, they could lead to inconsistent or erroneous evaluations.

  6. Environmental conditions synchronize waterbird mortality events in the Great Lakes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prince, Karine; Chipault, Jennifer G.; White, C. LeAnn; Zuckerberg, Benjamin

    2018-01-01

    Since the 1960s, periodic outbreaks of avian botulism type E have contributed to large-scale die-offs of thousands of waterbirds throughout the Great Lakes of the United States. In recent years, these events have become more common and widespread. Occurring during the summer and autumn months, the prevalence of these die-offs varies across years and is often associated with years of warmer lake temperatures and lower water levels. Little information exists on how environmental conditions mediate the spatial and temporal characteristics of mortality events.In 2010, a citizen science programme, Avian Monitoring for Botulism Lakeshore Events (AMBLE), was launched to enhance surveillance efforts and detect the appearance of beached waterbird carcasses associated with avian botulism type E outbreaks in northern Lake Michigan. Using these data, our goal was to quantify the within-year characteristics of mortality events for multiple species, and to test whether the synchrony of these events corresponded to fluctuations in two environmental factors suspected to be important in the spread of avian botulism: water temperature and the prevalence of green macroalgae.During two separate events of mass waterbird mortality, we found that the detection of bird carcasses was spatially synchronized at scales of c. 40 km. Notably, the extent of this spatial synchrony in avian mortality matched that of fluctuations in lake surface water temperatures and the prevalence of green macroalgae.Synthesis and applications. Our findings are suggestive of a synchronizing effect where warmer lake temperatures and the appearance of macroalgae mediate the characteristics of avian mortality. In future years, rising lake temperatures and a higher propensity of algal masses could lead to increases in the magnitude and synchronization of avian mortality due to botulism. We advocate that citizen-based monitoring efforts are critical for identifying the potential environmental conditions associated

  7. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  8. Impact of postharvest drying conditions on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked non-waxy long-grain rice (Oryza sativa L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donlao, Natthawuddhi; Ogawa, Yukiharu

    2017-02-01

    Wet paddy needs to be dried to reduce its moisture content after harvesting. In this study, effects of postharvest drying condition on in vitro starch digestibility and estimated glycemic index of cooked rice (Oryza sativa L.) were investigated. Varying drying conditions, i.e. hot-air drying at 40, 65, 90 and 115 °C, and sun drying were applied to raw paddy. After husking and polishing, polished grains were cooked using an electric rice cooker. Cooked samples were analyzed for their moisture content and amount of resistant and total starch. Five samples in both intact grain and slurry were digested under simulated in vitro gastrointestinal digestion process. The in vitro starch digestion rate was measured and the hydrolysis index (HI) and estimated glycemic index (eGI) were calculated. Cooked rice obtained from hot-air drying showed relatively lower HI and eGI than that obtained from sun-drying. Among samples from hot-air drying treatment, eGI of cooked rice decreased with increasing drying temperature, except for the drying temperature of 115 °C. As a result, cooked rice from the hot-air drying at 90 °C showed lowest eGI. The results indicated that cooked rice digestibility was affected by postharvest drying conditions. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2016 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Relationships between High Impact Tropical Rainfall Events and Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, C.; Varble, A.; Zipser, E. J.

    2017-12-01

    While rainfall increases as moisture and vertical motion increase, relationships between regional environmental conditions and rainfall event characteristics remain more uncertain. Of particular importance are long duration, heavy rain rate, and significant accumulation events that contribute sizable fractions of overall precipitation over short time periods. This study seeks to establish relationships between observed rainfall event properties and environmental conditions. Event duration, rain rate, and rainfall accumulation are derived using the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) 3B42 3-hourly, 0.25° resolution rainfall retrieval from 2002-2013 between 10°N and 10°S. Events are accumulated into 2.5° grid boxes and matched to monthly mean total column water vapor (TCWV) and 500-hPa vertical motion (omega) in each 2.5° grid box, retrieved from ERA-interim reanalysis. Only months with greater than 3 mm/day rainfall are included to ensure sufficient sampling. 90th and 99th percentile oceanic events last more than 20% longer and have rain rates more than 20% lower than those over land for a given TCWV-omega condition. Event duration and accumulation are more sensitive to omega than TCWV over oceans, but more sensitive to TCWV than omega over land, suggesting system size, propagation speed, and/or forcing mechanism differences for land and ocean regions. Sensitivities of duration, rain rate, and accumulation to TCWV and omega increase with increasing event extremity. For 3B42 and ERA-Interim relationships, the 90th percentile oceanic event accumulation increases by 0.93 mm for every 1 Pa/min change in rising motion, but this increases to 3.7 mm for every 1 Pa/min for the 99th percentile. Over land, the 90th percentile event accumulation increases by 0.55 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV, whereas the 99th percentile increases by 0.90 mm for every 1 mm increase in TCWV. These changes in event accumulation are highly correlated with changes in event

  10. Evaluating the Effect of Seed Treatment with Hydrogen Peroxide on Anatomical and Physiological Characteristics of Wheat under Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Jafarian

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Water deficit is the major abiotic factor limiting plant growth and crop productivity around the world. In all agricultural regions, yields of rain-fed crops are periodically reduced by drought. Among various strategies, pre-sowing treatment and priming of seeds are easy, low cost, low risk and effective approaches to overcome the environmental stress problems. Various priming strategies include osmopriming, halopriming, hormonal priming or hydropriming, etc. Hydrogen peroxide, a stress signal molecule, was evaluated as seed treatment to produce the metabolic changes, which could lead to improved drought tolerance in wheat. The interaction of signals conferring stress tolerance in accomplishing better crop growth and yield is a priority area of research. Here we report some anatomical, physiological and biochemical changes induced by Hydrogen peroxide during seed treatment and their involvement in conferring drought tolerance upon wheat. Materials and Methods A field study was conducted out at the research farm of agricultural collage of Ilam university during 2014-2015 cropping season. This study was aimed to investigate the priming seed with hydrogen peroxide on two wheat genotypes (Cross Sabalan (bread wheat and Saji (durum wheat, under dryland farming system condition. Experimental design was factorial, arranged in randomized complete block, with three replications. Two main factors were wheat genotypes and four soaking treatments of seeds with different concentration (zero, 25, 50 and 80 Mm of Hydrogen Peroxide. Seeds of each genotype were sown at 6 rows of 3 m length with lines space of 20 cm in depth 5 cm. At heading stage physiological traits were measured on selected leaves and then samples were taken to determine leaf area, Leaf rolling, number and length of Stomata on the epidermis, RWC, electrolyte leakage, photosynthetic pigments concentrations (Chla, b and carotenoid and antioxidant enzyme contents (catalase, ascorbate

  11. Tutorial review of spent-fuel degradation mechanisms under dry-storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Einziger, R.E.

    1983-02-01

    This tutorial reviews our present understanding of fuel-rod degradation over a range of possible dry-storage environments. Three areas are covered: (1) why study fuel-rod degradation; (2) cladding-degradation mechanisms; and (3) the status of fuel-oxidation studies

  12. Decision tree analysis to evaluate dry cow strategies under UK conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berry, E.A.; Hogeveen, H.; Hillerton, J.E.

    2004-01-01

    Economic decisions on animal health strategies address the cost-benefit aspect along with animal welfare and public health concerns. Decision tree analysis at an individual cow level highlighted that there is little economic difference between the use of either dry cow antibiotic or an internal teat

  13. Decision tree analysis to evaluate dry cow strategies under UK conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Elizabeth A; Hogeveen, Henk; Hillerton, J Eric

    2004-11-01

    Economic decisions on animal health strategies address the cost-benefit aspect along with animal welfare and public health concerns. Decision tree analysis at an individual cow level highlighted that there is little economic difference between the use of either dry cow antibiotic or an internal teat sealant in preventing a new intramammary infection in a cow free of infection in all quarters of the mammary gland at drying off. However, a potential net loss of over ł20 per cow might occur if the uninfected cow was left untreated. The only economically viable option, for a cow with one or more quarters infected at drying off, is antibiotic treatment, although a loss might still be incurred depending on the pathogen concerned and the cure rates achievable. There was a net loss for cows with quarters infected with Corynebacterium spp. at drying off, for both the teat sealant and untreated groups (ł22 and ł48, respectively) with only antibiotic-treated cows showing a gain.

  14. Environmental, land cover and land use constraints on the distributional patterns of anurans: Leptodacylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae from Dry Chaco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regina Gabriela Medina

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Subtropical dry forests are among the most vulnerable biomes to land transformation at a global scale. Among them, the Dry Chaco suffers an accelerated change due to agriculture expansion and intensification. The Dry Chaco ecoregion is characterized by high levels of endemisms and species diversity, which are the result of a variety of climates and reliefs, allowing a wide variety of environments. The amphibian group exhibits a high richness in the Dry Chaco, which has been barely studied in relation to land cover changes. We used ecological niche models (ENMs to assess the potential geographic distribution of 10 Leptodactylus species (Anura, Leptodactylidae, which are mainly distributed within the Dry Chaco. We characterized these distributions environmentally, analyzed their overlap with land cover classes, and assessed their diversity of ecoregions. Also, we evaluated how these species potential distribution is affected by the transformation of land, and quantified the proportional area of the potential distribution in protected areas. We found that temperature seasonality is the main constraint to the occurrence of the species studied, whose main habitats are savannas, grasslands and croplands. The main threats to these species are the effects of climate change over spatial patterns of seasonality, which could affect their breeding and reproduction mode; the loss of their natural habitat; the exposure to contaminants used by intensive agriculture and their underrepresentation in protected areas.

  15. Effect of environmental conditions on flower induction of marian plum (Bouea burmanica Griff

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vusie L. Mavuso

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Marian plum flowering naturally occurs during the cool, dry season so Thailand farmers usually withdraw irrigation a month before flowering. However, irregular flowering continues to be a serious problem. This study investigated the effects of environmental conditions (air temperature, soil moisture and relative humidity on flower induction of marian plum. Daily weather data were collected using weather stations in three orchards where flowering was also recorded. Thirty representative trees per orchard were randomly selected for data collection. The results showed that trees from all orchards flowered in response to low temperature (below 18 °C despite different levels of water stress and relative humidity. These results indicated that soil moisture content and relative humidity had no influence on marian plum flower induction but enhanced flower bud development. Night temperatures of 18 °C or lower are essential for marian plum flower induction.

  16. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom)]|[School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Denman, A.R. [Medical Physics Department, Northampton General Hospital, Northampton NN1 5BD (United Kingdom); Woolridge, A.C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)]|[School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, P.S. [School of Applied Sciences, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom); Phillips, C. [School of Health, University of Northampton, Northampton NN2 7AL (United Kingdom)

    2006-07-01

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of {sup 222}Rn and its progeny {sup 218}Po and {sup 214}Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  17. Environmental Radon Gas and Degenerative Conditions An Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Groves-Kirkby, C.J.; Denman, A.R.; Woolridge, A.C.; Phillips, P.S.; Phillips, C.

    2006-01-01

    Radon, a naturally occurring radioactive gas, has variable distribution in the environment as a decay product of uranium occurring in a wide range of rocks, soils and building materials. Although radon dissipates rapidly in outdoor air, it concentrates in the built environment, and inhalation of 222 Rn and its progeny 218 Po and 214 Po is believed to provide the majority of the radioactive dose to the respiratory system. While the connection between radon and lung cancer has long been recognised and investigated, recent studies have highlighted potential links between radon and other conditions, among them Multiple Sclerosis, Alzheimer and Parkinson Diseases, and Paget Disease of Bone. A strong case exists for clarifying the relationship between radon and these other conditions, not least since radon remediation to reduce lung cancer may conceivably have additional benefits hitherto unrecognized. The present status of the postulated links between environmental radon gas and degenerative conditions is reviewed, and recommendations for further research into levering current anti-radon campaigns are made. (authors)

  18. Relationship between serum adiponectin concentration, body condition score, and peripheral tissue insulin response of dairy cows during the dry period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Urh, C; Hostens, M; Van den Broeck, W; Sauerwein, H; Opsomer, G

    2017-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to describe the relationship between serum adiponectin concentration and peripheral tissue insulin response in dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS) during the dry period. Cows were selected at the beginning of the dry period based on BCS (BCS 3.75, n = 5). Animals were followed from the beginning of the dry period by weekly blood sampling and assessment of BCS and backfat thickness. Weekly blood samples were analyzed for adiponectin concentration using a bovine specific ELISA. Hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp tests were performed at the end of the dry period to measure peripheral tissue insulin response. Insulin dose response curves were established for both glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Regression analysis revealed that the serum concentrations of adiponectin dropped at the end of the dry period (P insulin responsiveness (reflecting the maximal effect of insulin; r = 0.76, P insulin sensitivity (reflecting the insulin concentration needed to achieve halfmaximal effect; r = -0.54, P = 0.13). At the level of the fatty acid metabolism, greater adiponectin concentrations were negatively correlated with lower NEFA levels during the HEC test reflecting the insulin responsiveness of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.61, P = 0.08), whereas there was no association with the insulin sensitivity of the NEFA metabolism (r = -0.16, P = 0.67). In conclusion, serum concentrations of adiponectin were negatively associated with the BCS of dairy cows during the dry period and positively associated with insulin responsiveness of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Kinetics, mass transport characteristics, and structural changes during air-drying of purple yam (Dioscorea Alata L.) at different process conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vera, Flordeliza C.; Comaling, Leif Anthony B.; Lao, Iya Ray Alyanna M.; Caparanga, Alvin R.; Sauli, Zaliman

    2017-11-01

    This experiment was designed to follow the 2k factorial design to study the effects of the three drying parameters on the drying characteristics and effective moisture diffusivity and to fit each run performed on the best thin-layer drying kinetics model. Raw purple yam samples were pre-treated and undergone the designed drying procedures at which the weight of the samples were recorded every minute until such time that the sample weights become constant. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) is utilized for qualitative analysis of the dried samples. The number of pores per unit area and the overall aesthetics of the surface of the dried samples were compared also using SEM. Considering the qualitative analysis conducted on the samples from the images of SEM, dried samples from run 2 has the most desirable conditions such as high temperature and low air velocity for drying because the samples from this run have large pore diameters with minimal cell breakages.

  20. Impact of different environmental conditions on lithium-ion batteries performance through the thermal monitoring with fiber sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Micael; Ferreira, Marta S.; Pinto, João. L.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, an optical fiber sensing network has been developed to assess the impact of different environmental conditions on lithium batteries performance through the real time thermal monitoring. The battery is submitted to constant current charge and different discharge C-rates, under normal and abusive operating conditions. The results show that for the discharge C-rate of 5.77C, the LiB under cold and dry climates had 32.5% and 27.2% lower temperature variations, when compared with temperate climates, respectively. The higher temperature shift detected in the temperate climate was related to the battery better performance regarding discharge capacity and power capabilities.

  1. Improving yield and water productivity of maize grown under deficit-irrigated in dry area conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohamed H. Abd el-wahed

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Scarcity of water is the most severe constraint for development of maize in arid and semi-arid areas. Based on the actual crop need, the irrigation management has to be improved so that the water supply to the crop can be reduced while still achieving high yield. Therefore, the current study has been organized to evaluate the effects of deficit sprinkler irrigation (DSI and farmyard manure (FYM on Grain yield (GY and crop water productivity (CWP of corn, a 2-year experiment was conducted in arid region of Libya. The DSI treatments were (I100 = 100%, I85 = 85% or I70 = 70% of the crop evapotranspiration. FYM treatments were (0, 10 ton ha−1 spread either on the soil surface, incorporated with surface or subsurface layer (FYM10s, FYM10m or FYM10ss, respectively and 20 ton ha−1 spread as before (FYM20s, FYM20m or FYM20ss, respectively. Results indicated that the highest values of grain yield (GY were obtained from I100 treatment, while the lowest were observed in I70. FYM20ss enhanced GY than other FYM treatments in both seasons. The highest GY and CWP were recorded with I100 and received FYM20ss. It could be considered as a suitable under arid environmental conditions and similar regions, the treatment (I100 × FYM20ss is the most suitable for producing high GY and CWP. Under limited irrigation water, application of (I85 ×FYM20ss treatment was found to be favorable to save 15% of the applied irrigation water, at the time in which produced the same GY.

  2. Environmental Conditions and Occupant Perceptions in European Office Buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stoops, J.L. [Chalmers Univ. of Tech., Goeteborg (Sweden). Dept. of Building Services Engineering

    2003-03-01

    This is a preliminary report regarding a portion of the environmental conditions and occupant comfort perceptions from a five nation, 26 building European field data collection effort. Approximately 1,000 participants were involved in this project which included twelve monthly visits to each building. Climate, building and cultural variation will be illustrated for the five countries involved - France, Greece, Portugal, Sweden and the United Kingdom (UK). Each country used identical instrumentation; questionnaires and experimental protocols imbedded in a custom hardware/software system. The comfort survey was based on the ASHRAE model. The physical measurements included air temperature, globe temperature, relative humidity, air movement, CO{sub 2}, light, and sound levels. Where possible, connections and explanations between variables are made. Potential energy and policy ramifications are illustrated. (The publication includes two reports from EU JOULE III projects JOE3CT970066 'Smart controls and thermal comfort project)

  3. Ionization beam profile monitor for operation under hard environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teterev, Yu.G.; Kaminski, G.; Phi Thanh Huong; Kaminski, G.; Kozik, E.

    2010-01-01

    The design and the performance of the Ionization Beam Profile Monitor (IBPM) operating on the residual gas ionization principle are described. The main advantage of the constructed device is the non-contact measuring method. Operating under hard environmental conditions it delivers the information about the primary beam position, profile and intensity in 'on-line' regime. It was found out that the device is capable to operate in vacuum in the range of 10 -6 /10 -3 mbar without the loss of the resolution power at the beam current as low as a few nA. The IBPM is prospective for beam profile monitoring due to long time. Emergency situations do not lead to decrease of its operability.

  4. International intercomparison of environmental dosimeters under field and laboratory conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gesell, T.F.; de Planque Burke, G.; Becker, K.

    1975-04-01

    Based on the results of a pilot study at ORNL in 1973, a more comprehensive international intercomparison of integrating dosimeters for the assessment of external penetrating environmental radiation fields was carried out. Forty-one laboratories from eleven countries participated in this study. A total of 56 sets of six detectors each were mailed to and from Houston, Texas, where they were exposed for three months (July to September 1974) as follows: two in an unprotected space out-of-doors 1 m above ground; two in an air-conditioned shielded area with a known, low exposure rate; and two with the second group, but with an additional exposure to 30 mR. Evaluation of the dosimeters provides information on the calibration precision, the accuracy of field measurement, and transit exposure. Results are discussed. (U.S.)

  5. The community conditioning hypothesis and its application to environmental toxicology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matthews, R.A.; Landis, W.G.; Matthews, G.B.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper the authors present the community conditions hypothesis, ecological communities retain information bout events in their history. This hypothesis, which was derived from the concept of nonequilibrium community ecology, was developed as a framework for understanding the persistence of dose-related responses in multispecies toxicity tests. The authors present data from three standardized aquatic microcosm (SAM) toxicity tests using the water-soluble fractions from turbine fuels (Jet-A, JP-4, and JP-8). In all three tests, the toxicants depressed the Daphnia populations for several weeks, which resulted in algal blooms in the dosed microcosms due to lower predation rates. These effects were short-lived, and by the second and third months of the experiments, the Daphnia populations appeared to have recovered. However, multivariate analysis of the data released dose/response differences that reappeared during the later part of the tests, often due to differences in other consumers (rotifers, ostracods, ciliates), or algae that are not normally consumed (filamentous green algae and bluegreen algae). The findings are consistent with ecological theories that describe communities as the unique production of their etiologies. The implications of this to environmental toxicology are that almost all environmental events leave lasting effects, whether or not they have observed them

  6. Environmental Impact of the Helen, Research, and Chicago Mercury Mines on Water, Sediment, and Biota in the Upper Dry Creek Watershed, Lake County, California

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rytuba, James J.; Hothem, Roger L.; May, Jason T.; Kim, Christopher S.; Lawler, David; Goldstein, Daniel; Brussee, Brianne E.

    2009-01-01

    The Helen, Research, and Chicago mercury (Hg) deposits are among the youngest Hg deposits in the Coast Range Hg mineral belt and are located in the southwestern part of the Clear Lake volcanic field in Lake County, California. The mine workings and tailings are located in the headwaters of Dry Creek. The Helen Hg mine is the largest mine in the watershed having produced about 7,600 flasks of Hg. The Chicago and Research Hg mines produced only a small amount of Hg, less than 30 flasks. Waste rock and tailings have eroded from the mines, and mine drainage from the Helen and Research mines contributes Hg-enriched mine wastes to the headwaters of Dry Creek and contaminate the creek further downstream. The mines are located on federal land managed by the U.S. Bureau of Land Management (USBLM). The USBLM requested that the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) measure and characterize Hg and geochemical constituents in tailings, sediment, water, and biota at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines and in Dry Creek. This report is made in response to the USBLM request to conduct a Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA - Removal Site Investigation (RSI). The RSI applies to removal of Hg-contaminated mine waste from the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines as a means of reducing Hg transport to Dry Creek. This report summarizes data obtained from field sampling of mine tailings, waste rock, sediment, and water at the Helen, Research, and Chicago mines on April 19, 2001, during a storm event. Further sampling of water, sediment, and biota at the Helen mine area and the upper part of Dry Creek was completed on July 15, 2003, during low-flow conditions. Our results permit a preliminary assessment of the mining sources of Hg and associated chemical constituents that could elevate levels of monomethyl Hg (MMeHg) in the water, sediment, and biota that are impacted by historic mining.

  7. Gas Dispersion in Granular Porous Media under Air-Dry and Wet Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Naveed, Muhammad; Hamamoto, S; Kawamoto, K

    2012-01-01

    Subsurface gaseous-phase transport is governed by three gas transport parameters: the air permeability coefficient (ka), gas diffusion coefficient (DP), and gas dispersion coefficient (DH). Among these, DH is the least understood due to hitherto limited research into the relationship between gas...... dispersion and soil physical characteristics. In this study, a series of advection–dispersion experiments was performed on granular porous media to identify the effects of soil column dimensions (length and diameter), particle size and shape, dry bulk density, and moisture content on the magnitude of gas...... dispersion. Glass beads and various sands of different shapes (angular and rounded) with mean particle diameters (d50) ranging from 0.19 to 1.51 mm at both air-dry and variable moisture contents were used as granular porous media. Gas dispersion coefficients and gas dispersivities (a = DH/v, where v...

  8. Investigation of water-logged spent fuel rods under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohli, R.; Pasupathi, V.

    1986-09-01

    Tests were conducted to determine the amount of moisture contained in breached, water-logged spent fuel rods and the rate of release. Two well-characterized BWR fuel rods with reactor-induced breaches were tested in a hot cell. These rods contained approximately 6 to 10 g of moisture, most of which was released during heating tests simulating normal cask drying operations. Additional testing with two intentionally defected fuel rods (BWR and PWR) was performed to evaluate the effect of the cladding breach on migration of moisture along the length of the fuel rod. The results showed that the moisture released from reactor-breached spent fuel rods was insufficient to cause degradation of fuel or dry storage system components

  9. Evaluating Microbial Indicators of Environmental Condition in Oregon Rivers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, Alan T.; Harding, Anna K.; Hendricks, Charles W.; Campbell, Heidi M. K.

    2001-12-01

    Traditional bacterial indicators used in public health to assess water quality and the Biolog® system were evaluated to compare their response to biological, chemical, and physical habitat indicators of stream condition both within the state of Oregon and among ecoregion aggregates (Coast Range, Willamette Valley, Cascades, and eastern Oregon). Forty-three randomly selected Oregon river sites were sampled during the summer in 1997 and 1998. The public health indicators included heterotrophic plate counts (HPC), total coliforms (TC), fecal coliforms (FC) and Escherichia coli (EC). Statewide, HPC correlated strongly with physical habitat (elevation, riparian complexity, % canopy presence, and indices of agriculture, pavement, road, pasture, and total disturbance) and chemistry (pH, dissolved O2, specific conductance, acid-neutralizing capacity, dissolved organic carbon, total N, total P, SiO2, and SO4). FC and EC were significantly correlated generally with the river chemistry indicators. TC bacteria significantly correlated with riparian complexity, road disturbance, dissolved O2, and SiO2 and FC. Analyzing the sites by ecoregion, eastern Oregon was characterized by high HPC, FC, EC, nutrient loads, and indices of human disturbance, whereas the Cascades ecoregion had correspondingly low counts of these indicators. The Coast Range and Willamette Valley presented inconsistent indicator patterns that are more difficult to characterize. Attempts to distinguish between ecoregions with the Biolog system were not successful, nor did a statistical pattern emerge between the first five principle components and the other environmental indicators. Our research suggests that some traditional public health microbial indicators may be useful in measuring the environmental condition of lotic systems.

  10. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tainá; Cánovas, Alba; de Paula, Sérgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rogério de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo; Kruger, Ricardo; Rezende, Carlos E.; Thompson, Cristiane C.; Salomon, Paulo S.; Thompson, Fabiano L.

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of the current environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, a consequence of all these decades of impacts. We will focus on microbial communities, how they may affect higher trophic levels of the aquatic community and also human health. The anthropogenic impacts in the bay are flagged by heavy eutrophication and by the emergence of pathogenic microorganisms that are either carried by domestic and/or hospital waste (e.g., virus, KPC-producing bacteria, and fecal coliforms), or that proliferate in such conditions (e.g., vibrios). Antibiotic resistance genes are commonly found in metagenomes of Guanabara Bay planktonic microorganisms. Furthermore, eutrophication results in recurrent algal blooms, with signs of a shift toward flagellated, mixotrophic groups, including several potentially harmful species. A recent large-scale fish kill episode, and a long trend decrease in fish stocks also reflects the bay’s degraded water quality. Although pollution of Guanabara Bay is not a recent problem, the hosting of the 2016 Olympic Games propelled the government to launch a series of plans to restore the bay’s water quality. If all plans are fully implemented, the restoration of Guanabara Bay and its shores may be one of the best legacies of the Olympic Games in Rio de Janeiro. PMID:26635734

  11. Early environmental conditions shape personality types in a jumping spider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jannis eLiedtke

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Individuals of many species across the animal kingdom are found to be less plastic than expected, even in behavioral traits. The existence of consistent behavioral differences between individuals, termed personality differences, is puzzling, since plastic behavior is considered ideal to enable animals to adaptively respond to changes in environmental conditions. In order to elucidate which mechanisms are important for the evolution of personality differences, it is crucial to understand which aspects of the environment are important for the development of personality differences. Here, we tested whether physical or social aspects of the environment during development influence individual differentiation (mean level of behavior using the jumping spider Marpissa muscosa. Furthermore, we assessed whether those behaviors were repeatable, i.e. whether personalities existed. We applied a split-brood design and raised spider siblings in three different environments: a deprived environment with no enrichment, a socially and a physically enriched environment. We focused on exploratory behavior and repeatedly assessed individual behavior in a novel environment and a novel object test. Results show that the environment during development influenced spiders’ exploratory tendencies: spiders raised in enriched environments tended to be more exploratory. Most investigated behaviors were repeatable (i.e. personalities existed across all individuals tested, whereas only few behaviors were also repeatable across individuals that had experienced the same environmental condition. Taken together, our results indicate that external stimuli can influence the development of one aspect of personality, the inter-individual variation (mean level of behavior, in a jumping spider. We also found family by environment interactions on behavioral traits potentially suggesting genetic variation in developmental plasticity.

  12. Degradation in perovskite solar cells stored under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, Abhishek K.; Kumar, Pankaj

    2017-08-01

    Investigations carried out on the degradation of perovskite solar cells (PSCs) stored in different open air environmental conditions are reported here. The solar cells were stored in the open in the dark inside the laboratory (relative humidity 47  ±  5%, temperature 23  ±  4 °C), under compact fluorescent lamp (CFL) illumination (irradiance 10 mW cm2, relative humidity 47  ±  5%, temperature 23  ±  4 °C) and under natural sunlight outside the laboratory. In the outdoor storage situation the surrounding conditions varied from time to time and the environmental conditions during the day (irradiance 100 mW/cm2, relative humidity ~18%, temperature ~45 °C at noon) were entirely different from those at night (irradiance 0 mW/cm2, relative humidity ~66%, temperature ~16 °C at midnight). The photovoltaic parameters were measured from time to time inside the laboratory as per the International Summit on Organic Photovoltaic Stability (ISOS) protocols. All the photovoltaic parameters, such as short circuit current density (J sc), open circuit voltage (V oc), fill factor (FF) and power conversion efficiency (PCE), of the solar cells stored outdoors decayed more rapidly than those stored under CFL or in the dark. The solar cells stored in the dark exhibited maximum stability. While the encapsulated solar cells stored outdoors were completely dead after about 560 h, the solar cells stored under CFL illumination retained  >60% of their initial efficiency even after 1100 h. However, the solar cells stored in the dark and tested up to ~1100 h did not show any degradation in PCE but on the contrary exhibited slight improvement, and this improvement was mainly because of improvement in their V oc. Rapid degradation in the open air outside the laboratory under direct sunlight compared with the dark and CFL storage has been attributed to high temperature during the day, high humidity at night, high solar illumination intensity and the

  13. Optimization of wear behavior of electroless Ni-P-W coating under dry and lubricated conditions using genetic algorithm (GA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arkadeb Mukhopadhyay

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study aims to investigate the tribological behavior of Ni-P-W coating under dry and lubricated condition. The coating is deposited onto mild steel (AISI 1040 specimens by the electroless method using a sodium hypophosphite based alkaline bath. Coating characterization is done to investigate the effect of microstructure on its performance. The change in microhardness is observed to be quite significant after annealing the deposits at 400°C for 1h. A pin–on–disc type tribo-tester is used to investigate the tribological behavior of the coating under dry and lubricated conditions. The experimental design formulation is based on Taguchi’s orthogonal array. The design parameters considered are the applied normal load, sliding speed and sliding duration while the response parameter is wear depth. Multiple regression analysis is employed to obtain a quadratic model of the response variables with the main design parameters under considerations. A high value of coefficient of determination of 95.3% and 87.5% of wear depth is obtained under dry and lubricated conditions, respectively which indicate good correlation between experimental results and the multiple regression models. Analysis of variance at a confidence level of 95% shows that the models are statistically significant. Finally, the quadratic equations are used as objective functions to obtain the optimal combination of tribo testing parameters for minimum wear depth using genetic algorithm (GA.

  14. Impact Fretting Wear Behavior of Alloy 690 Tubes in Dry and Deionized Water Conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhen-Bing Cai; Jin-Fang Peng; Hao Qian; Li-Chen Tang; Min-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    The impact fretting wear has largely occurred at nuclear power device induced by the flow-induced vibration,and it will take potential hazards to the service of the equipment.However,the present study focuses on the tangential fretting wear of alloy 690 tubes.Research on impact fretting wear of alloy 690 tubes is limited and the related research is imminent.Therefore,impact fretting wear behavior of alloy 690 tubes against 304 stainless steels is investigated.Deionized water is used to simulate the flow environment of the equipment,and the dry environment is used for comparison.Varied analytical techniques are employed to characterize the wear and tribochemical behavior during impact fretting wear.Characterization results indicate that cracks occur at high impact load in both water and dry equipment;however,the water as a medium can significantly delay the cracking time.The crack propagation behavior shows a jagged shape in the water,but crack extended disorderly in dry equipment because the water changed the stress distribution and retarded the friction heat during the wear process.The SEM and XPS analysis shows that the main failure mechanisms of the tube under impact fretting are fatigue wear and friction oxidation.The effect of medium(water) on fretting wear is revealed,which plays a potential and promising role in the service of nuclear power device and other flow equipments.

  15. Sorption of Cu(II) Ions on Chitosan-Zeolite X Composites: Impact of Gelling and Drying Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djelad, Amal; Morsli, Amine; Robitzer, Mike; Bengueddach, Abdelkader; di Renzo, Francesco; Quignard, Françoise

    2016-01-19

    Chitosan-zeolite Na-X composite beads with open porosity and different zeolite contents were prepared by an encapsulation method. Preparation conditions had to be optimised in order to stabilize the zeolite network during the polysaccharide gelling process. Composites and pure reference components were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD); scanning electron microscopy (SEM); N₂ adsorption-desorption; and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). Cu(II) sorption was investigated at pH 6. The choice of drying method used for the storage of the adsorbent severely affects the textural properties of the composite and the copper sorption effectiveness. The copper sorption capacity of chitosan hydrogel is about 190 mg·g(-1). More than 70% of this capacity is retained when the polysaccharide is stored as an aerogel after supercrititcal CO₂ drying, but nearly 90% of the capacity is lost after evaporative drying to a xerogel. Textural data and Cu(II) sorption data indicate that the properties of the zeolite-polysaccharide composites are not just the sum of the properties of the individual components. Whereas a chitosan coating impairs the accessibility of the microporosity of the zeolite; the presence of the zeolite improves the stability of the dispersion of chitosan upon supercritical drying and increases the affinity of the composites for Cu(II) cations. Chitosan-zeolite aerogels present Cu(II) sorption properties.

  16. Mixed cropping of annual feed legumes with barley improves feed quantity and crude protein content under dry-land conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoshnood Alizadeh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research is to determine a suitable mixture of annual feed legumes and barley as a winter crop under dry-land conditions. Seeds of Hungarian vetch (cv. 2670, smooth vetch (cv. Maragheh, and local varieties of grass pea and field pea were mixed with barley (cv. Abidar in a 1:1 ratio and were tested, along with related monoculture. All legumes in the mixture survived winter while legumes alone, except Hungarian vetch, did not survive in the cold areas. The maximum fresh and dry forage yields (56 and 15 ton ha-1 respectively were obtained from a mixture of smooth vetch and barley in provinces with mild winter and more than 400 mm of rainfall. The mixture of barley and smooth vetch resulted in the highest mean crude protein content (17%. Autumn seeding of smooth vetch and barley in a 1:1 ratio produced more than 2 ton ha-1 of dry biomass with good quality in all studied areas and thus could serve as an alternative cropping system after wheat/barley in cold and semi-cold dry land.

  17. Environmental and zooplankton parameter changes during the drying of a saline shallow temporary lake in central Argentina

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia María Vignatti

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Central Argentina has numerous saline lakes sustained by groundwater sources and rainfall. These lakes are temporary and experience significant changes in water level and salinity, depending on wet and dry climate cycles. This study aims to investigate the scarcely known dynamics of environmental and zooplankton parameters during the drying phase of one of these lakes. Monthly samples were taken from December 2 012 to July 2 013 in the Ojo de Agua Uriburu lake, previous to its drying. At the beginning of the study, the lake’s depth was 0.7 m and its salinity was 16.65 g L−1, later, in July, its depth decreased to 0.06 m and its salinity increased to 92.9 g L−1. Zooplankton species richness was low (three crustaceans and three rotifers, with Boeckella poopoensis and Moina eugeniae dominating in the system. Maximum density and biomass were attained by the two dominant species in April (318.5 i nd L−1 and 3 029.1 µg L−1 dry weight; and 242.4 i nd L −1 and 1 530.4 µg L−1 dry weight, for B. poopoensis and M. ugeniae, respectively, and no correlation was found between these parameters and salinity. Maximum average body lengths for both species were observed in the last months of sampling (M. eugeniae: 1 020 ± 84.2 µm and B. poopoensis: 1 348.8 ± 89.0 µm. At this point of the study, neither juvenile nor larval stages were found. The increase in average body size is, arguably, the result of increased salinity in the system through a negative effect on reproduction. Because this lake reached hypersalinity, its ecological dynamics are unique among those of other temporary, saline lakes that dried in central Argentina. Similar studies on other temporary ecosystems are needed to increase the information on these little known ecological aspects.

  18. The contribution of fine roots to peatland stability under changing environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malhotra, A.; Brice, D. J.; Childs, J.; Phillips, J.; Hanson, P. J.; Iversen, C. M.

    2017-12-01

    Fine-root production and traits are closely linked with ecosystem nutrient and water fluxes, and may regulate these fluxes in response to environmental change. Plant strategies can shift to favoring below- over aboveground biomass allocation when nutrients or moisture are limited. Fine-roots traits such as root tissue density (RTD) or specific root length (SRL) can also adapt to the environment, for example, by maximizing the area of soil exploited by decreasing RTD and increasing SRL during dry conditions. Fine-root trait plasticity could contribute to the stability of peatland carbon function in response to environmental change. However, the extent and mechanisms of peatland fine-root plasticity are unknown. We investigated fine-root growth and traits and their link to environmental factors and aboveground dynamics at SPRUCE (Spruce and Peatland Responses Under Changing Environments), a warming and elevated CO2 (eCO2) experiment in an ombrotrophic peatland. In the first growing season of whole ecosystem warming, fine-root production increased with warming and drying. Above- versus belowground allocation strategies varied by plant functional type (PFT). In shrubs, contrary to our expectation, aboveground- to fine-root production allocation ratio increased with dryer conditions, perhaps as a response to a concurrent increase in nutrients. Trait response hypotheses were largely supported, with RTD decreasing and SRL increasing with warming; however, response varied among PFTs. Once eCO2 was turned on in the second growing season, preliminary results suggest interactive effects of warming and eCO2 on total fine-root production: production decreased or increased with warming in ambient or elevated CO2 plots, respectively. Both trait and production responses to warming and eCO2 varied by microtopography and depth. Our results highlight plasticity of fine-root traits and biomass allocation strategies; the extent and mechanism of which varies by PFT. We will summarize

  19. Assessment of the environmental microbiological cross contamination following hand drying with paper hand towels or an air blade dryer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Margas, E; Maguire, E; Berland, C R; Welander, F; Holah, J T

    2013-08-01

    This study compared the potential for cross contamination of the surrounding environment resulting from two different hand-drying methods: paper towels and the use of an air blade dryer. One hundred volunteers for each method washed their hands and dried them using one of the two methods. Bacterial contamination of the surrounding environment was measured using settle plates placed on the floor in a grid pattern, air sampling and surface swabs. Both drying methods produced ballistic droplets in the immediate vicinity of the hand-drying process. The air blade dryer produced a larger number of droplets which were dispersed over a larger area. Settle plates showed increased microbial contamination in the grid squares which were affected by ballistic droplets. Using the settle plates counts, it was estimated that approx. 1.7 × 10(5) cfu more micro-organisms were left on the laboratory floor (total area approx. 17.15 m(2)) after 100 volunteers used an air blade dryer compared to when paper towels were used. The two drying methods led to different patterns of ballistic droplets and levels of microbial contamination under heavy use conditions. Whilst the increase in microbial levels in the environment is not significant if only nonpathogenic micro-organisms are spread, it may increase the risk of pathogen contamination of the environment when pathogens are occasionally present on people's hands. The study suggests that the risk of cross contamination from the washroom users to the environment and subsequent users should be considered when choosing a hand-drying method. The data could potentially give guidance following the selection of drying methods on implementing measures to minimise the risk of cross contamination. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  20. Guaranteeing robustness of structural condition monitoring to environmental variability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Buren, Kendra; Reilly, Jack; Neal, Kyle; Edwards, Harry; Hemez, François

    2017-01-01

    Advances in sensor deployment and computational modeling have allowed significant strides to be recently made in the field of Structural Health Monitoring (SHM). One widely used SHM strategy is to perform a vibration analysis where a model of the structure's pristine (undamaged) condition is compared with vibration response data collected from the physical structure. Discrepancies between model predictions and monitoring data can be interpreted as structural damage. Unfortunately, multiple sources of uncertainty must also be considered in the analysis, including environmental variability, unknown model functional forms, and unknown values of model parameters. Not accounting for these sources of uncertainty can lead to false-positives or false-negatives in the structural condition assessment. To manage the uncertainty, we propose a robust SHM methodology that combines three technologies. A time series algorithm is trained using "baseline" data to predict the vibration response, compare predictions to actual measurements collected on a potentially damaged structure, and calculate a user-defined damage indicator. The second technology handles the uncertainty present in the problem. An analysis of robustness is performed to propagate this uncertainty through the time series algorithm and obtain the corresponding bounds of variation of the damage indicator. The uncertainty description and robustness analysis are both inspired by the theory of info-gap decision-making. Lastly, an appropriate "size" of the uncertainty space is determined through physical experiments performed in laboratory conditions. Our hypothesis is that examining how the uncertainty space changes throughout time might lead to superior diagnostics of structural damage as compared to only monitoring the damage indicator. This methodology is applied to a portal frame structure to assess if the strategy holds promise for robust SHM. (Publication approved for unlimited, public release on October-28

  1. Physical quality characteristics of the microwave-dried breadfruit powders due to different processing conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taruna, I.; Hakim, A. L.; Sutarsi

    2018-03-01

    Production of breadfruit powder has been an option to make easy its uses in various food processing. Accordingly, there is a need recently to apply advanced drying method, i.e. microwave drying, for improving quality since conventional methods produced highly variable product quality and required longer process. The present work was aimed to study the effect of microwave power and grinding time on physical quality of breadfruit powders. The experiment was done initially by drying breadfruit slices in a microwave dryer at power level of 420, 540, and 720 W and then grinding for 3, 5, and 7 min to get powdery product of less than 80 mesh. The physical quality of breadfruit powders were measured in terms of fineness modulus (FM), average particle size (D), whiteness (WI), total color difference (ΔE), water absorption (Wa), oil absorption (La), bulk density (ρb) and consistency gel (Gc). The results showed that physical quality of powders and its ranged-values included the FM (2.08-2.62), D (0.44-0.68 mm), WI (75.2-77.9), ΔE (7.4-10.5), Wa (5.5-6.2 ml/g), La (0.7-0.9 ml/g), ρb (0.62-0.70 g/cm3) and Gc (41.3-46.8 mm). The experiment revealed that variation of microwave power and grinding time affected significantly the quality of the breadfruit powders. However, microwave power was more dominant factor to affect quality of breadfruit powder in comparison to the grinding time.

  2. Cold Vacuum Drying facility heating, ventilation, and Air Conditioning system design description

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    SINGH, G.

    2000-01-01

    This System Design Description (SDD) addresses the HVAC system for the CVDF. The CVDF HVAC system consists of five subsystems: (1) Administration building HVAC system; (2) Process bay recirculation HVAC system; (3) Process bay local exhaust HVAC and process vent system; (4) Process general supply/exhaust HVAC system; and (5) Reference air system. The HVAC and reference air systems interface with the following systems: the fire protection control system, Monitoring and Control System (MCS), electrical power distribution system (including standby power), compressed air system, Chilled Water (CHW) system, drainage system, and other Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) control systems not addressed in this SDD

  3. Some tools to combat dry season nutritional stress in ruminants under African conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, T.

    2002-01-01

    Dry season nutritional stress is a major constraint to ruminant livestock production in semi-arid areas. After the rains finish, quantity and quality of grazing fall rapidly, leaving cereal crop residues as the major feed resource. These residues are low in N and high in crude fibre, characteristics which restrict intake and digestibility, so that underfeeding results. Improved handling and storage procedures as well as chemical and physical treatments can all improve their quality. Other strategies include: rate of offer of stover; compensatory growth; conservation of fodder. Farmer-selection should also consider multiple use of the options available. (author)

  4. The maximum allowable temperature of zircaloy-2 fuel cladding under dry storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mayuzumi, M.; Yoshiki, S.; Yasuda, T.; Nakatsuka, M.

    1990-09-01

    Japan plans to reprocess and reutilise the spent nuclear fuel from nuclear power generation. However, the temporary storage of spent fuel is assuming increasing importance as a means of ensuring flexibility in the nuclear fuel cycle. Our investigations of various methods of storage have shown that casks are the most suitable means of storing small quantities of spent fuel of around 500 t, and research and development are in progress to establish dry storage technology for such casks. The soundness of fuel cladding is being investigated. The most important factor in evaluating soundness in storage under inert gas as currently envisaged is creep deformation and rupture, and a number of investigations have been made of the creep behaviour of cladding. The present study was conducted on the basis of existing in-house results in collaboration with Nippon Kakunenryo Kaihatsu KK (Nippon Nuclear Fuel Department Co.), which has hot lab facilities. Tests were run on the creep deformation behaviour of irradiated cladding, and the maximum allowable temperature during dry storage was investigated. (author)

  5. Use of Soy Flour-Tannin Adhesive for Particleboard (Dry Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saman Ghahri

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In this research soy flour- tannin adhesives were used in particleboard preparation, successfully. Tow type of different tannins Mimosa (as condensed tannin and Chestnut (as hydrolysable tannins were used for soy resin modification. For this purpose, mimosa and chestnut tannin were added to soy adhesive with 5, 10 and 15 percent based on dry weight of soy flour. 9 percent Glyoxal was used based on dry weight of tannin for accelerate tannin reaction’s with soyflour components. Prepared soy-tannin adhesives were used in particle board manufacturing with 350×300×14 mm3 dimansion and 0.7 g/cm3 nominal density. Results of viscosity measurment showed that addition of each of tannins decreased visocosity of soy adhesive. In this study, result of thermo-mechanical analyze indicated that chestnut cloud improve adhesion behavior of soy adhesive better than mimosa. Also, Using of tannins in soy adhesive composition increase internal bonding and bending properties in manufactured particleboards.

  6. Research Article: Effects of long-term simulated Martian conditions on a freeze-dried and homogenized bacterial permafrost community

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Aviaja Anna; Jensen, Lars Liengård; Kristoffersen, Tommy

    2009-01-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation......, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead......, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core...

  7. Tribological properties of three-dimensional braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wan, Y.Z.; Huang, Y.; He, F.; Li, Q.Y.; Lian, J.J.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the tribological properties of three-dimensional (3-D) braided carbon/Kevlar/epoxy hybrid composites. Their specific wear rate and the coefficient of friction were examined as a function of operating conditions (load and sliding distance) under dry and lubricated conditions. In addition, the 3-D braided hybrid composites with varying carbon to Kevlar fiber volume ratio were tested to assess hybrid effects. It was found that the friction and wear rate decreased with sliding distance and then leveled off under dry and lubricated conditions. Different changing patterns with normal load were observed under two different sliding conditions. Furthermore, it was noted that negative hybrid effects on the wear resistance and the friction coefficient were identified for the current 3-D braided hybrid system. The composite with a carbon to Kevlar ratio of 3:2 was found to have the least wear and friction among all 3-D braided hybrid composites studied. Worn surfaces were observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and wear mechanisms were discussed in this study

  8. Study of Drying Shrinkage Cracking by Lattice Gas Automaton and Environmental Scanning Electron Microscope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Mier, J.G.M.; Jankovic, D.

    2005-01-01

    Numerical modeling of moisture flow, drying shrinkage and crack phenomena in cement microstructure, by coupling a Lattice Gas Automaton and a Lattice Fracture Model, highlighted the importance of a shrinkage coefficient (?sh) as the most significant parameter for achieving realistic numerical

  9. Impaired reproduction in Japanese Black cattle under cold environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabenishi, H; Yamazaki, A

    2017-06-01

    Environmental factors such as the temperature-humidity index (THI) are known to affect reproductive parameters in cattle. Therefore, here, we examined whether there was any correlation between the THI and the reproductive performance of Japanese Black cattle by analysing the first-service conception rates of 178,492 artificially inseminated cows across 9,833 herds in south-western Japan over a 3-year period. The daily mean (±SD) THI over the study period was 63.6 ± 11.3 (range: 41.4-81.5). The calving to first artificial insemination (AI) interval was significantly negatively correlated with THI in the month of AI (r = -.75, p reproductive performance in Japanese Black cattle and that the impact of the cold environment on the conception rate is attributable to a carryover effect from the cold season before AI rather than conditions at the time of AI. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  10. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira [Universidade Federal do Espírito Santo, Centro de Ciências Humanas e Naturais, Departamento de Ciências Biológicas, 29075-910 Vitória, Espírito Santo (Brazil); Souza, Iara [Universidade Federal de São Carlos, Centro de Ciências Biológicas e da Saúde, Departamento de Ciências Fisiológicas, 13565-905 São Carlos (Brazil); Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira [Associação Educational de Vitória, Departamento de Biologia, 29053-360 Vitória (Brazil); Rodella, Roberto Antônio [Universidade Estadual Paulista Júlio de Mesquita Filho, Campus de Botucatu, Instituto de Biociências, Departamento de Botânica, C. Postal 510, 18618-000 Botucatu, São Paulo (Brazil); Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto, E-mail: dwunder@fcq.unc.edu.ar [Instituto de Ciencia y Tecnología de Alimentos Córdoba (ICYTAC), CONICET, Dpto. Qca. Orgánica, Fac. Cs. Químicas, Universidad Nacional de Córdoba, Ciudad Universitaria, 5000, Córdoba (Argentina); and others

    2014-04-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  11. Functional traits of selected mangrove species in Brazil as biological indicators of different environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arrivabene, Hiulana Pereira; Souza, Iara; Có, Walter Luiz Oliveira; Rodella, Roberto Antônio; Wunderlin, Daniel Alberto

    2014-01-01

    Ecological studies on phenotypic plasticity illustrate the relevance of this phenomenon in nature. Conditions of biota reflect environmental changes, highlighting the adaptability of resident species that can be used as bioindicators of such changes. We report the morpho-anatomical plasticity of leaves of Avicennia schaueriana Stapf and Leechm. ex Moldenke, Laguncularia racemosa (L.) C.F.Gaertn. and Rhizophora mangle L., evaluated in three estuaries (Vitória bay, Santa Cruz and Itaúnas River; state of Espírito Santo, Brazil), considering five areas of mangrove ecosystems with diverse environmental issues. Two sampling sites are part of the Ecological Station Lameirão Island in Vitória bay, close to a harbor. A third sampling site in Cariacica (Vitória bay) is inside the Vitória harbor and also is influenced by domestic sewage. The fourth studied area (Santa Cruz) is part of Piraquê Mangrove Ecological Reservation, while the fifth (Itaúnas River) is a small mangrove, with sandy sediment and greater photosynthetically active radiation, also not strongly influenced by anthropic activity. Results pointed out the morpho-anatomical plasticity in studied species, showing that A. schaueriana and L. racemosa might be considered the most appropriate bioindicators to indicate different settings and environmental conditions. Particularly, the dry mass per leaf area (LMA) of A. schaueriana was the main biomarker measured. In our study, LMA of A. schaueriana was positively correlated with salinity (Spearman 0.71), Mn content (0.81) and pH (0.82) but negatively correlated with phosphorus content (− 0.63). Thus, the evaluation of modification in LMA of A. schaueriana pointed out changes among five studied sites, suggesting its use to reflect changes in the environment, which could be also useful in the future to evaluate the climate change. - Highlights: • We investigated adaptive modifications in plants in response to differences among three estuaries. • We used

  12. Microstructural Evolution in Chroming Coatings Friction Pairs under Dry Sliding Test Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Wang

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The microstructures of subsurface layers of 20CrMnTi steel pins against chroming and nonchroming T10 under dry sliding tests were studied by means of OM (optical microscopy, XRD (X-ray diffraction, and SEM (scanning electron microscopy. Results showed that the chroming coating strengthened the disc surface and significantly affected microstructural evolution. Three layers—the matrix, deformation layer (DL, and surface layer (SL—formed in 20CrMnTi for the chroming T10. The matrix and deformation layer (DL formed in 20CrMnTi for the nonchroming T10. The formation of the microstructure was considered as a result of the shear deformation.

  13. [Biomechanics and regulation of the external respiration in the conditions of 5-day dry immersion].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popova, Iu A; Suvorov, A V; D'iachenko, A I; Kolesnikov, V I

    2011-01-01

    The work was concerned with evaluation of the external respiration function and regulation in healthy human subjects participating in simulation of the microgravity effects by dry immersion (DI). In the baseline data collection period, in DI (days 2 and 4) and after DI completion pulmonary volumes were registered, the ratio of thoracic and abdominal components of quiet breathing and respiratory maneuvers calculated, and parameters of respiration regulation, i.e. length of breath-holding and ability to voluntary control breathing motions, were determined. It was shown that breathing pattern did not undergo gross changes in immersion as compared with pre-DI test data; however, inspiratory reserve volume grew (p immersion. We believe that similar to microgravity, exposure in DI produces regular alterations of pulmonary RV (partly because of changed body position), thoracic-abdominal ratio in breathing motions, and shifts in voluntary respiration regulation.

  14. Acute Illness Among Surfers After Exposure to Seawater in Dry- and Wet-Weather Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Benjamin F; Schiff, Kenneth C; Ercumen, Ayse; Benjamin-Chung, Jade; Steele, Joshua A; Griffith, John F; Steinberg, Steven J; Smith, Paul; McGee, Charles D; Wilson, Richard; Nelsen, Chad; Weisberg, Stephen B; Colford, John M

    2017-10-01

    Rainstorms increase levels of fecal indicator bacteria in urban coastal waters, but it is unknown whether exposure to seawater after rainstorms increases rates of acute illness. Our objective was to provide the first estimates of rates of acute illness after seawater exposure during both dry- and wet-weather periods and to determine the relationship between levels of indicator bacteria and illness among surfers, a population with a high potential for exposure after rain. We enrolled 654 surfers in San Diego, California, and followed them longitudinally during the 2013-2014 and 2014-2015 winters (33,377 days of observation, 10,081 surf sessions). We measured daily surf activities and illness symptoms (gastrointestinal illness, sinus infections, ear infections, infected wounds). Compared with no exposure, exposure to seawater during dry weather increased incidence rates of all outcomes (e.g., for earache or infection, adjusted incidence rate ratio (IRR) = 1.86, 95% confidence interval (CI): 1.27, 2.71; for infected wounds, IRR = 3.04, 95% CI: 1.54, 5.98); exposure during wet weather further increased rates (e.g., for earache or infection, IRR = 3.28, 95% CI: 1.95, 5.51; for infected wounds, IRR = 4.96, 95% CI: 2.18, 11.29). Fecal indicator bacteria measured in seawater (Enterococcus species, fecal coliforms, total coliforms) were strongly associated with incident illness only during wet weather. Urban coastal seawater exposure increases the incidence rates of many acute illnesses among surfers, with higher incidence rates after rainstorms. © The Author(s) 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

  15. Evaluation of surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability and gypsum compatibility of monophase polyvinyl-siloxane and polyether elastomeric impression materials under dry and moist conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vadapalli, Sriharsha Babu; Atluri, Kaleswararao; Putcha, Madhu Sudhan; Kondreddi, Sirisha; Kumar, N Suman; Tadi, Durga Prasad

    2016-01-01

    This in vitro study was designed to compare polyvinyl-siloxane (PVS) monophase and polyether (PE) monophase materials under dry and moist conditions for properties such as surface detail reproduction, dimensional stability, and gypsum compatibility. Surface detail reproduction was evaluated using two criteria. Dimensional stability was evaluated according to American Dental Association (ADA) specification no. 19. Gypsum compatibility was assessed by two criteria. All the samples were evaluated, and the data obtained were analyzed by a two-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Pearson's Chi-square tests. When surface detail reproduction was evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19, both the groups under the two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. When evaluated macroscopically both the groups showed statistically significant difference. Results for dimensional stability showed that the deviation from standard was significant among the two groups, where Aquasil group showed significantly more deviation compared to Impregum group (P < 0.001). Two conditions also showed significant difference, with moist conditions showing significantly more deviation compared to dry condition (P < 0.001). The results of gypsum compatibility when evaluated with modification of ADA specification no. 19 and by giving grades to the casts for both the groups and under two conditions showed no significant difference statistically. Regarding dimensional stability, both impregum and aquasil performed better in dry condition than in moist; impregum performed better than aquasil in both the conditions. When tested for surface detail reproduction according to ADA specification, under dry and moist conditions both of them performed almost equally. When tested according to macroscopic evaluation, impregum and aquasil performed significantly better in dry condition compared to moist condition. In dry condition, both the materials performed almost equally. In

  16. Effect of Mycorrhizal Symbiosis and Azotobacter Application on Wheat (Triticum aestivum L. Qualitative Traits under Dry Condition of Khorramabad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    behroz amraei

    2017-12-01

    and more availability of nutrients. In order to study, effect of mycorrhizal symbiosis an azotobacter application on qualitative traits of different wheat cultivars under dry condition of khorramabad, factorial trial was concluded in a randomized complete block design with four replication in khorramabad region during 2013- 2014 cropping season. Trial factors was including mycorrhizalnushroom (Glomous. Sp (inoculation and non- inoculation, azotobacter (inoculation and non- inoculation and cultivar (Sardari, Kohdasht, Karim. The results were indicated that cultivar effect on phosphor, nitrogen, potassium and seed protein was significant. Azotobacter and mycroriza simple effects on nitrogen, phosphor, and seed protein was significant. Also, Azotobacter and cultivar interaction effect on nitrogen and seed protein was significant. The highest mycoriza correlation and growth response percent was related to Karim by 21.24% and 17.52%. Overall, this study results was showed that biologic fertilizers application has played beneficial and effective role on growth and qualitative characteristic improvement of different wheat cultivars under dry conditions of khorramabad.

  17. Overview: Precipitation characteristics and sensitivities to environmental conditions during GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. A. T. Machado

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available This study provides an overview of precipitation processes and their sensitivities to environmental conditions in the Central Amazon Basin near Manaus during the GoAmazon2014/5 and ACRIDICON-CHUVA experiments. This study takes advantage of the numerous measurement platforms and instrument systems operating during both campaigns to sample cloud structure and environmental conditions during 2014 and 2015; the rainfall variability among seasons, aerosol loading, land surface type, and topography has been carefully characterized using these data. Differences between the wet and dry seasons were examined from a variety of perspectives. The rainfall rates distribution, total amount of rainfall, and raindrop size distribution (the mass-weighted mean diameter were quantified over both seasons. The dry season generally exhibited higher rainfall rates than the wet season and included more intense rainfall periods. However, the cumulative rainfall during the wet season was 4 times greater than that during the total dry season rainfall, as shown in the total rainfall accumulation data. The typical size and life cycle of Amazon cloud clusters (observed by satellite and rain cells (observed by radar were examined, as were differences in these systems between the seasons. Moreover, monthly mean thermodynamic and dynamic variables were analysed using radiosondes to elucidate the differences in rainfall characteristics during the wet and dry seasons. The sensitivity of rainfall to atmospheric aerosol loading was discussed with regard to mass-weighted mean diameter and rain rate. This topic was evaluated only during the wet season due to the insignificant statistics of rainfall events for different aerosol loading ranges and the low frequency of precipitation events during the dry season. The impacts of aerosols on cloud droplet diameter varied based on droplet size. For the wet season, we observed no dependence between land surface type and rain rate. However

  18. Behavior of two phenyl urea herbicides in clayey soils and effect of alternating dry-wet conditions on their availability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haouari, Jamila; Dahchour, Abdelmalek; Peña-Heras, Arancha; Louchard, Xzavier; Lennartz, Berndt; Alaoui, Mohamed Elbelghiti; Satrallah, Ahmad

    2006-01-01

    Adsorption and mobility of linuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1-methoxy-1-methylurea) and diuron (3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1, 1-dimethylurea) were studied in clayey soils from the Gharb area (Morocco). Soils A and B were planted with sun flower (Helianthus annuus) while soil C was planted with sugar cane (Saccharum offcinarum). Adsorption was studied for linuron in soils A and B, while mobility was studied only in soil B. Adsorption data were found to fit the Freundlich equation with correlation coefficients r2 > 0.9. Freundlich coefficients (Kf, nf) were in agreement with L and S isotherm types for soils A and B, respectively. Values of Koc (195 and 102) indicate moderate adsorption. Desorption isotherms for linuron showed hysteresis for both soils. The pesticide would be more bound to soil A (H = 8.44) than to soil B (H = 4.01). The effect of alternating wet and dry conditions was tested for soils A and B. Results showed that retention would increase in soil subject to an additional wet and dry cycle. In the case of diuron isotherm was of type L in soil C. Desorption was noticeable at high concentrations and tended to decrease when concentrations diminished. Mobility of linuron was tested in polyvinyle chloride (PVC) columns, which received different treatments before their percolation. The pesticide was more mobile in a previously saturated column. In columns subject to a drying step after saturation with water, linuron mobility was greatly reduced.

  19. Net joint kinetics in the limbs of pigs walking on concrete floor in dry and contaminated conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorup, Vivi M.; Laursen, Bjarne; Jensen, Bente Rona

    2008-01-01

    In pigs (Sus scrofa), joint disorders are frequent leg problems, and inappropriate pigpen floors and slippery floor conditions may contribute to these problems. Therefore, this study first aimed to quantify the net joint kinetics (net joint moments and net joint reaction forces) in the forelimbs...... and hindlimbs of healthy pigs walking on solid concrete floors. Second, this study aimed to examine the effect of floor condition on the net joint kinetics. Kinematic (50-Hz video recordings) and kinetic (1-kHz force plate measurements) data were collected from 30 pigs and combined with body segment parameters...... from a cadaver study. Net joint kinetics was calculated by using a 2-dimensional inverse dynamic solution. Inverse dynamics have, to our knowledge, not been applied in pigs before. Dry, greasy, and wet floor conditions were tested with 10 pigs each. In the forelimbs, peak joint moment was less (P

  20. The effects of combined treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nikham; Hilmy, Nazly

    1987-01-01

    The effects of combination treatment of irradiation and heat on bacteria escherichia coli and sarcina lutea in dry condition. Investigation on the effects of combined irradiation + heat and heat + irradiation treatments have been carried out i.e. at the doses of 0; 1.0; 1.5; and 2.0 kGy with heating at 50 0 C for 10; 20; and 30 minutes on escherichia coli B/r, escherichia coli from sludge and sarcine lutea. Samples of bacteria were prepared in dry condition by using sterile fine sand as carrier. Irradiation was done in aerobic condition with RH 90% and the time range between irradiation and heating was not more than 2 hours. The results showed that the D 10 value did not give significant difference between the combined irradiation + heat, and heat + irradiation treatments for the 3 species of bacteria, compared to irradiation only (p 0.05). Doses of 1.0 and 1.5 kGy combined with heating at 50 0 C for 10 and 20 minutes gave better results compared to irradiation only. 17 refs

  1. Prebiotic Peptide (Amide) Bond Synthesis Accelerated by Glycerol and Bicarbonate Under Neutral to Alkaline Dry-Down Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. G.; Weber, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies of prebiotic peptide bond synthesis have generally been carried out in the acidic to neutral pH range [1, 2]. Here we report a new process for peptide bond (amide) synthesis in the neutral to alkaline pH range that involves simple dry-down heating of amino acids in the presence of glycerol and bicarbonate. Glycerol was included in the reaction mixture as a solvent and to provide hydroxyl groups for possible formation of ester intermediates previously implicated in peptide bond synthesis under acidic to neutral conditions [1]. Bicarbonate was added to raise the reaction pH to 8-9.

  2. Dry Matter Accumulation and Remobilization in Grain Sorghum Genotypes (Sorghum bicolor L. Moench (underNormal and Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Beheshti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Production, remobilization and accumulation of assimilates in crops especially under water stress are essential factors for determination and studying the yield differences of species and cultivars. Field experiment was conducted using a split plot design based on a randomized complete block design with 3 replication s during 2007 growing season in agricultural research station (Khorasan Agricultural and Natural Resource Research Center, Mashhad-Iran. Main plots were consisted of 2 levels of water, water deficit after anthesis and normal condition (with out water stress and factorial arrangement of photosynthesis status (non desiccation and chemical desiccation with potassium iodide and 3 grain sorghum genotypes (Sepide, M5 and M2 promising lines were assigned to sub plots. Results of variance analysis showed, that the effects of water stress on dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization (REE, percent of remobilization (REP, biologic yield were significant in (p≤0.01 (and grain yield (economic yield was significant in p≤0.05, respectively. Water deficit caused an increase of 10.08%, 24.45 % and 12.43% in dry matter accumulation, percent of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization, respectively as compared to normal conditions. This in turn was led to decrease in seed yield, biological yield and harvest index by 36.38%, 5.43% and 31.60%, respectively. The effect of disturbance in current photosynthesis was significant in all of traits and caused the increase of 15.58%, 17.5% and 36.62% in dry matter accumulation, efficiency of remobilization and percent of remobilization, respectively. The role of remobilization was crucial in sorghum genotypes. Interaction between factors showed that highest dry matter accumulation, percentage of remobilization and efficiency of remobilization was in drought stress and disturbance in current photosynthesis and was 16.62%, 62.54 and 24.60%, respectively and was significantly

  3. Cell growth and resistance of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161 following freezing, drying and freeze-dried storage are differentially affected by fermentation conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velly, H; Fonseca, F; Passot, S; Delacroix-Buchet, A; Bouix, M

    2014-09-01

    To investigate the effects of fermentation parameters on the cell growth and on the resistance to each step of the freeze-drying process of Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis TOMSC161, a natural cheese isolate, using a response surface methodology. Cells were cultivated at different temperatures (22, 30 and 38°C) and pH (5·6, 6·2 and 6·8) and were harvested at different growth phases (0, 3 and 6 h of stationary phase). Cultivability and acidification activity losses of Lc. lactis were quantified after freezing, drying, 1 and 3 months of storage at 4 and 25°C. Lactococcus lactis was not damaged by freezing but was sensitive to drying and to ambient temperature storage. Moreover, the fermentation temperature and the harvesting time influenced the drying resistance of Lc. lactis. Lactococcus lactis cells grown in a whey-based medium at 32°C, pH 6·2 and harvested at late stationary phase exhibited both an optimal growth and the highest resistance to freeze-drying and storage. A better insight on the individual and interaction effects of fermentation parameters made it possible the freeze-drying and storage preservation of a sensitive strain of technological interest. Evidence on the particularly damaging effect of the drying step and the high-temperature storage is presented. © 2014 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  4. Induction New Suitable Soybean Genotypes for Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khudhair, H.; Jaim, A.; Nassralla, A.; Suhail, A.; Abass, H.; Hassan, A.; Hussain, A.; Mahmood, J.

    2002-01-01

    Mutation breeding programme was conducted to improve soybean (Glycine max. L. merrill) yield and oil Seeds were irradiation with 0,100,200,300 Gray of gamma ray Co 60 Selection of genetic variants started from M2 and continued to M8. Eight variants were selected in M8 generation that were characterized with high yield and desirable morphological characters. Preliminary comparison experiments of M9 and M10 with check variety (Lee74) were conducted at two locations (Twaitha and Lattifya). Three promising variants were selected for high yield and low percentage of seed shrinkage as compared with the check variety (Lee74) and other mutants. The same selected variants were planted in large scale comparison experiments with check variety (LEE 74) and two introduced varieties (Coker335 and Gasoy17) in two locations (Twaitha and lattifya) for two seasons (1998,1999). Variants H134 and H39 were superior in their yield components and earliness in maturity compared with the variant H226 and the other check varieties . The average yield and oil percentage in the two seasons(1998,1999) was 3195, 3115kg/ha and 18.2%, 19.3% respectively for the variants H134 and H39 compared with the yield and the percentage of oil for the check variety (Lee74) that was 2794 kg/ha and 18.3% respectively. These two variants were also superior in their protein percentage. According to these promising results of the variants H134 and H39 they were submitted for registration. They were registered under the names TAKA1 and TAKA-2 as suitable varieties for Iraqi environmental conditions. (authors) 13 refs., 5 tabs

  5. Weed spectrum and selectivity of tembotrione under varying environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gatzweiler, Elmar

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Tembotrione is a novel HPPD maize herbicide effective against a wide range of broadleaf and grass weeds. Some characteristics of this compound are described in this paper linking weed and crop responses following tembotrione applications to environmental parameters or use conditions. The activity of HPPD herbicides is very much dependant on the availability of light. Increasing illumination intensities following application augmented the activity levels of several comparable HPPD compounds in a growth chamber experiment. Tembotrione was shown to be more efficacious at low and high illumination intensities compared to standard herbicides applied at the same rate. At the high intensity, tembotrione retained its high efficacy from two up to four weeks after application showing a rapid and strong herbicidal activity. The activity following post-emergent treatments of tembotrione against broadleaf weeds was influenced by soil characteristics such as soil texture and organic matter content in a glasshouse test. The level of weed suppression clearly declined stronger on heavier soils than on lighter soils at a rather low application rate of 12.5 g a.i./ha and lower. This is a clear indication of residual efficacy of tembotrione. The selectivity of tembotrione was tested on numerous maize varieties following post-emergent treatment with tembotrione alone or in mixture with the safener isoxadifen-ethyl under field conditions in Germany in comparison to a standard herbicide. The level of crop phytotoxicity tended to increase in the following order: Tembotrione plus safener, standard herbicide to tembotrione alone. Only the mixture of tembotrione with safener did not cause significant adverse effects on maize. Another field experiment in the USA examined crop phytotoxicity using one maize variety in a situation of infurrow soil insecticide treatment followed by a post-emergent application of tembotrione (plus/minus isoxadifen-ethyl and standard herbicides

  6. A new criterion for defective used nuclear fuel in dry storage condition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desgranges, Lionel [CEA Cadarache Bat 316 13108Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Poulesquen, Arnaud; Ferry, Cecile [CEA Saclay Bat. 450 point courrier no 40 - 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette cedex (France)

    2008-07-01

    In the frame of the PRECCI program, the mechanisms associated to the oxidation of used nuclear fuel were studied. Experiments on un-irradiated UO{sub 2}, evidenced that the oxidation proceeded in three stages (namely UO{sub 2} {yields} U{sub 4}O{sub 9}, U{sub 4}O{sub 9} {yields} U{sub 3}O{sub 7} and U{sub 3}O{sub 7} {yields} U{sub 3}O{sub 8}) instead of 2 as previously proposed in literature. Experiments on irradiated fuel fragments evidenced the existence of an oxidation front inside the fuel fragment associated to some fission gas release. The degradation of a fuel rod slice was simulated in situ with CROCODILE experiment, and shown to be due to the fuel swelling. Finally a new criterion was proposed defining a safe duration for defective used fuel in a dry air facility in the case of an accident scenario where a breach in a container would put a defective fuel rod in contact with atmosphere. The criterion is related to the time needed to form a given thickness of U{sub 4}O{sub 9{gamma}}{sub +{psi}} with a higher stoichiometry than a given value, in irradiated grains. This U{sub 4}O{sub 9{gamma}}{sub +{psi}} layer thickness is assumed to simulate the onset of the ceramic fragmentation. This safety duration was calculated thanks to a new modeling of fuel fragment oxidation.

  7. MMP-8 Is Critical for Dexamethasone Therapy in Alkali-Burned Corneas Under Dry Eye Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    BIAN, FANG; WANG, CHANGJUN; TUKLER-HENRIKSSON, JOHANNA; PFLUGFELDER, STEPHEN C.; CAMODECA, CATERINA; NUTI, ELISA; ROSSELLO, ARMANDO; LI, DE-QUAN; DE PAIVA, CINTIA S.

    2016-01-01

    Our previous studies have shown that Dexamethasone (Dex) reduced the expression of matrix-metalloproteinases (MMPs -1,-3,-9,-13), IL-1β and IL-6, while it significantly increased MMP-8 mRNA transcripts in a concomitant dry eye and corneal alkali burn murine model (CM). To investigate if MMP-8 induction is responsible for some of the protective effects of Dex in CM, MMP-8 knock out mice (MMP-8KO) were subjected to the CM for 2 or 5 days and topically treated either with 2 μl of 0.1% Dexamethasone (Dex), or saline QID. A separate group of C57BL/6 mice were topically treated with Dex or BSS and received either 100 nM CAM12 (MMP-8 inhibitor) or vehicle IP, QD. Here we demonstrate that topical Dex treated MMP-8KO mice subjected to CM showed reduced corneal clarity, increased expression of inflammatory mediators (IL-6, CXCL1, and MMP-1 mRNA) and increased neutrophil infiltration at 2D and 5D compared to Dex treated WT mice. C57BL/6 mice topically treated with Dex and CAM12 IP recapitulated findings seen with MMP-8KO mice. These results suggest that some of the anti-inflammatory effects of Dex are mediated through increased MMP-8 expression. PMID:26923552

  8. Preliminary safety analysis of criticality for dual-purpose metal cask under dry storage conditions in South Korea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Taeman, E-mail: tmkim@korad.or.kr [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Dho, Hoseog; Baeg, Chang-Yeal [Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD), 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Gang-uk [Korea Nuclear Engineering and Service Co. (KONES), Hyundai Plaza, 341-4 Jangdae-dong, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • DPC is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency in South Korea. • The results of criticality analysis with respect to design requirements. • The k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36 and 0.46, respectively. • In addition, the k{sub eff} under a postulated accident condition was evaluated to be 0.94. - Abstract: A dual-purpose metal cask is under development led by Korea Radioactive Waste Agency (KORAD) in Korea, for the dry interim storage and long-distance transportation. This cask comprises a main body made of carbon steel and a stainless steel Dry Shielded Canister (DSC), with stainless steel baskets inside to contain spent fuel assemblies. In this study, nuclear criticality safety analysis was conducted as a part of safety assessment of the metal cask. Analysis to show criticality safety in accordance with regulatory requirements of PWR spent fuel storage was carried out. 10CFR72.124 “Criteria for nuclear criticality safety” and the Regulatory Guide of the American Nuclear Society, ANSI/ANS-57.9 “Design Criteria for an Independent Spent Fuel” and US NRC's “Standard Review Plan for Spent Fuel Dry Storage Systems at a General License Facility” were employed as regulatory standard and criteria. This paper shows results of criticality analysis with respect to each designated criterion with modeling of a virtual nuclear fuel assembly and a cask body that induces the maximum reactivity among various design basis fuels of the metal cask. In addition, the sensitivity analysis of nuclear criticality taking into account the various modeling deviation such as manufacturing tolerance and modeling assumptions of conventional models was carried out to ensure the reliability of the analysis result. The criticality evaluation result of the metal cask and the maximum k{sub eff} under normal and off-normal conditions were 0.36884 and 0.46255, respectively. The maximum k{sub eff} under a postulated

  9. Examining environmental condition on the growth areas of Turkish ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, recent hazelnut growth areas were determined by Remote Sensing techniques for Trabzon province of Turkey. By using Geographical Information Systems (GIS) techniques, environmental data such as elevation, slope, aspect, geology, and soil data were produced and analyzed to examine environmental ...

  10. Environmental monitoring for the hot dry rock geothermal energy development project. Annual report, July 1975--June 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettitt, R.A. (comp.)

    1976-09-01

    The objectives of this environmental monitoring report are to provide a brief conceptual and historical summary of the Hot Dry Rock Geothermal Project, a brief overview of the environmental monitoring responsibilities and activities of the Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory, and descriptions of the studies, problems, and results obtained from the various monitoring programs. Included are descriptions of the work that has been done in three major monitoring areas: (1) water quality, both surface and subsurface; (2) seismicity, with a discussion of the monitoring strategy of regional, local, and close-in detection networks; and (3) climatology. The purpose of these programs is to record baseline data, define potential effects from the project activities, and determine and record any impacts that may occur.

  11. Environmental Growing Conditions in Five Production Systems Induce Stress Response and Affect Chemical Composition of Cocoa (Theobroma cacao L.) Beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niether, Wiebke; Smit, Inga; Armengot, Laura; Schneider, Monika; Gerold, Gerhard; Pawelzik, Elke

    2017-11-29

    Cocoa beans are produced all across the humid tropics under different environmental conditions provided by the region but also by the season and the type of production system. Agroforestry systems compared to monocultures buffer climate extremes and therefore provide a less stressful environment for the understory cocoa, especially under seasonally varying conditions. We measured the element concentration as well as abiotic stress indicators (polyamines and total phenolic content) in beans derived from five different production systems comparing monocultures and agroforestry systems and from two harvesting seasons. Concentrations of N, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Na, and Zn were higher in beans produced in agroforestry systems with high stem density and leaf area index. In the dry season, the N, Fe, and Cu concentration of the beans increased. The total phenolic content increased with proceeding of the dry season while other abiotic stress indicators like spermine decreased, implying an effect of the water availability on the chemical composition of the beans. Agroforestry systems did not buffer the variability of stress indicators over the seasons compared to monocultures. The effect of environmental growing conditions on bean chemical composition was not strong but can contribute to variations in cocoa bean quality.

  12. Dry Phosphorus silicate glass etching and surface conditioning and cleaning for multi-crystalline silicon solar cell processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagilik, Ahmed S.

    2014-01-01

    As an alternative to the wet chemical etching method, dry chemical etching processes for Phosphorus silicate glass [PSG} layer removal using Trifluormethane/Sulfur Hexafluoride (CHF 3 / SF 6 ) gas mixture in commercial silicon-nitride plasma enhanced chemical vapour deposition (SiN-PECVD) system is applied. The dependence of the solar cell performance on the etching temperature is investigated and optimized. It is found that the SiN-PECVD system temperature variation has a significant impact on the whole solar cell characteristics. A dry plasma cleaning treatment of the Si wafer surface after the PSG removal step is also investigated and developed. The cleaning step is used to remove the polymer film which is formed during the PSG etching using both oxygen and hydrogen gases. By applying an additional cleaning step, the polymer film deposited on the silicon wafer surface after PSG etching is eliminated. The effect of different plasma cleaning conditions on solar cell performance is investigated. After optimization of the plasma operating conditions, the performance of the solar cell is improved and the overall gain in efficiency of 0.6% absolute is yielded compared to a cell without any further cleaning step. On the other hand, the best solar cell characteristics can reach values close to that achieved by the conventional wet chemical etching processes demonstrating the effectiveness of the additional O 2 /H 2 post cleaning treatment.(author)

  13. Warm Dry Weather Conditions Cause of 2016 Fort McMurray Wild Forest Fire and Associated Air Quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Azevedo, S. C.; Singh, R. P.; da Silva, E. A., Sr.

    2016-12-01

    The climate change is evident from the increasing temperature around the world, day to day life and increasing frequency of natural hazards. The warm and dry conditions are the cause of frequent forest fires around the globe. Forest fires severely affect the air quality and human health. Multi sensor satellites and dense network of ground stations provide information about vegetation health, meteorological, air quality and atmospheric parameters. We have carried out detailed analysis of satellite and ground data of wild forest fire that occurred in May 2016 in Fort McMurray, Alberta, Canada. This wild forest fire destroyed 10 per cent of Fort McMurray's housing and forced more than 90,000 people to evacuate the surrounding areas. Our results show that the warm and dry conditions with low rainfall were the cause of Fort McMurray wild fire. The air quality parameters (particulate matter, CO, ozone, NO2, methane) and greenhouse gases measured from Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) satellite show enhanced levels soon after the forest fire. The emissions from the forest fire affected health of population living in surrounding areas up to 300 km radius.

  14. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with two different bonding agents under dry conditions and with saliva contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mashallah Khanehmasjedi

    2017-02-01

    Conclusion: Application of Single Bond and Assure bonding agents resulted in adequate bond strength of brackets to tooth structures. Contamination with saliva significantly decreased the bond strength of Assure bonding agent compared with dry conditions.

  15. Sensory profiling of Dalmatian dry-cured ham under different temperature conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zlatko Janječić

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the influence of the Dalmatian ham processing conditions on weight loss and sensory characteristics, 20 hams were processed following different temperature conditions during salting and ripening. For that purpose, hams were evaluated using quantitative descriptive analysis. The weight loss was higher and all sensory traits except presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine crystals were higher rated for hams processed at higher temperatures. The most significant (P<0.0001 influence of temperature was established on subcutaneous fat color, muscle color and presence of tyrosine and phenylalanine, whereas no influence was established on appearance, marbling, flavor and melting. This concludes that there is overall significant effect of higher temperature on sensory characteristics most likely due to the more intense proteolysis and lipolysis.

  16. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-04-01

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts

  17. Technical, environmental, and socioeconomic factors associated with dry-cooled nuclear energy centers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-04-01

    The report includes a review of the current state-of-the-art of dry-cooling technology for industrial and power-generating facilities and an evaluation of its technical potential and cost for large nuclear power plants. Criteria are formulated for coarse screening of the arid regions of the Western United States to select a surrogate site for more detailed site-specific analyses. The screening criteria included seismic considerations, existing transportation facilities, institutional and jurisdictional constraints, waste heat dissipation effects, water requirements, and ecologic and socioeconomic considerations. The Galt site near Las Vegas, Nevada was selected for the surrogate site analysis to assess important issues related to the construction and operation of twelve dry-cooled nuclear power plants at an arid location remote from major load centers. The assessment covers geotechnical, atmospheric and hydrologic considerations, special aspects of transporting large equipment overland to the site from seaports, analyses of potential transmission routes to major load centers, local institutional and taxing provisions, and ecologic and socioeconomic impacts.

  18. Spatiotemporal characteristics of severe dry and wet conditions in the Free State Province, South Africa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbiriri, M.; Mukwada, G.; Manatsa, D.

    2018-02-01

    This paper assesses the spatiotemporal characteristics of agricultural droughts and wet conditions in the Free State Province of South Africa for the period between 1960 and 2013. Since agriculturally, the Free State Province is considered the bread basket of the country, understanding the variability of drought and wet conditions becomes necessary. The Standardised Precipitation Index (SPI) computed from gridded monthly precipitation data was used to assess the rainfall extreme conditions. Hot spot analysis was used to divide the province into five homogenous clusters where the spatiotemporal characteristics for each cluster were analysed. The results show a west to east increase in seasonal average total precipitation. However, the eastern part of the province demonstrates higher occurrences of droughts, with SPI ≤ - 1.282. This is despite the observation that the region shows a recent increase in droughts unlike the western region. It is also noted that significant differences in drought/wet intensities between clusters are more pronounced during the early compared to the late summer period.

  19. Hyper-dry conditions provide new insights into the cause of extreme floods after wildfire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moody, John A.; Ebel, Brian A.

    2012-01-01

    A catastrophic wildfire in the foothills of the Rocky Mountains near Boulder, Colorado provided a unique opportunity to investigate soil conditions immediately after a wildfire and before alteration by rainfall. Measurements of near-surface (θ; and matric suction, ψ), rainfall, and wind velocity were started 8 days after the wildfire began. These measurements established that hyper-dryconditions (θ 3 cm-3; ψ > ~ 3 x 105 cm) existed and provided an in-situ retention curve for these conditions. These conditions exacerbate the effects of water repellency (natural and fire-induced) and limit the effectiveness of capillarity and gravity driven infiltration into fire-affected soils. The important consequence is that given hyper-dryconditions, the critical rewetting process before the first rain is restricted to the diffusion–adsorption of water-vapor. This process typically has a time scale of days to weeks (especially when the hydrologic effects of the ash layer are included) that is longer than the typical time scale (minutes to hours) of some rainstorms, such that under hyper-dryconditions essentially no rain infiltrates. The existence of hyper-dryconditions provides insight into why, frequently during the first rain storm after a wildfire, nearly all rainfall becomes runoff causing extremefloods and debris flows.

  20. Impact of environmental conditions on sub-surface storage tanks ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Cast iron made storage tanks with gasoline fluid were buried under the soil at a depth of 4 m under various environment conditions. The simulated conditions include natural rain fail, temperature and acidic, alkaline and neutral soils. A control condition of neutral sea sand as base and filling materials were also investigated.

  1. Reliability Testing of Cable on Environmental Humidity Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Situmorang, Johnny; Puradwi, I.W; Sony T, D.T; Handoyo, Demon; Mulyanto, Dwijo; Kusmono, Slamet

    2000-01-01

    Reliability testing of cable on humidified condition has been carried out. As a result, the failure occurred due to reduction of current by increasing the resistance on rising temperature testing. For humidified condition the result which are observed did not significant at the stated condition of testing. The needed time up to the failure criteria increased as a temperature testing increased

  2. Tribological and mechanical behaviours of rattan-fibre-reinforced friction materials under dry sliding conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yunhai; Wu, Siyang; Tong, Jin; Zhao, Xiaolou; Zhuang, Jian; Liu, Yucheng; Qi, Hongyan

    2018-03-01

    This work was mainly aimed to study the physical, mechanical and tribological behaviours of the friction materials reinforced by different contents of rattan fibre. These friction materials were fabricated by a compression moulder and tested using a constant speed tester at different friction temperatures. It was found that the friction coefficients of the friction materials added with rattan fibre were relatively stable and no obvious fade was observed in comparison with specimen F-0 (containing 0 wt.% rattan fibres). The fade ratio of specimen F-5 (containing 5 wt.% rattan fibres) was 10.3% and its recovery ratio was 92.4%, indicating the excellent performances of fade resistance and recovery. And the specimen F-5 exhibited the lowest wear rate (0.541 × 10‑7 cm3(N · m)‑1 at 350 °C) among all tested specimens. The worn surface morphologies of the friction materials showed that the appropriate addition of rattan fibres effectively reduced abrasive wear and adhesion wear. The specimen F-5 had a smooth worn surface (Sa = 1.885 μm) with the superior fibre-matrix interfacial adhesion and a lot of secondary contact plateaus, which indicated the highest wear resistance property. The rattan-fibre-reinforced friction materials could be widely applied to automotive friction brake field according to their economic, environmental and social benefits.

  3. Understanding the apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ion for MX-80 in different salinity condition at low dry density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin

    2012-01-01

    The apparent diffusivity of strontium-85 in the compacted MX-80 bentonite under different salinity conditions and dry densities was conducted were studied from the viewpoint of activation energy. Through in-diffusions experiments the effect of salinity on diffusion behavior of Sr-85 ions can also can be explained. As we know, Sr-90 is by product of the fission materials of nuclear wastes and should be manage properly. Sr-85 is radioactive isotope with the same chemical properties of Sr-90. Adsorption affects only non-steady-state diffusion while at the steady state (e.g., a constant concentration gradient between a constant source and a constant sink), there is no net uptake or release by adsorption, so adsorption has no effect on diffusion (Drever, James I., 1997). The changes in the basal spacing of bentonite as a function of salinity are needed to be observed by the X-ray diffraction method to understand the microstructure changes in diffusion pathways for Sr-85 in MX-80 bentonite. As we know, there could be three potential pathways for radionuclide diffusion in solution-saturated, compacted montmorillonite, i.e., pore water, external surfaces and the internal surface (interlayer spaces) of montmorillonite aggregates (Kozaki et al., 2008). So, it is important to understand the diffusion processes in term of apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ions in different salinity concentration at low dry density of MX-80. Several parameters are needed in explaining the process such as dry density, activation energy, temperature dependence and concentration of the salinity solutions. (author)

  4. Extraction condition optimization and effects of drying methods on physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Hongmei; Zhou, Haizhu; Duan, Mengying; Li, Ran; Wu, Hongxin; Lou, Yujie

    2018-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the extraction conditions of polysaccharides from comfrey (Symphytum officinale L.) root (CRPs) using response surface methodology (RSM). The effects of three variables including liquid-solid ratio, extraction time and extraction temperature on the extraction yield of CRPs were taken into consideration. Moreover, the effects of drying methods including hot air drying (HD), vacuum drying (VD) and freeze drying (FD) on the physicochemical properties and antioxidant activities of CRPs were evaluated. The optimal conditions to extract the polysaccharides were as follows: liquid-solid ratio (15mL/g), extraction time (74min), and extraction temperature (95°C), allowed a maximum polysaccharides yield of 22.87%. Different drying methods had significant effects on the physicochemical properties of CRPs such as the chemical composition (contents of total polysaccharides and uronic acid), relative viscosity, solubility and molecular weight. CRPs drying with FD method showed stronger reducing power and radical scavenging capacities against DPPH and ABTS radicals compared with CRPs drying with HD and VD methods. Therefore, freeze drying served as a good method for keeping the antioxidant activities of polysaccharides from comfrey root. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. The relationships between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in Muslim women under the controlled thermal conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peymaneh Habibi

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship between environmental and physiological heat stress indices based on heart rate (HR, oral temperature for the estimation of heat strain, in veiled women in hot-dry condition in the climate chamber. Materials and Methods: The experimental study was carried out on 36 healthy Muslim women in hot-dry climatic conditions (wet bulb globe temperature (WBGT = 22-32°C in low workload for 2 h. The HR, oral temperature and WBGT index were measured. The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and Pearson correlation tests. Results: The results of the Pearson test indicated that physiological strain index was a high correlation (r = 0.975 with WBGT index (P < 0.05. Also, there was a good correlation among WBGT and HR (r = 0.779 and oral temperature (r = 0.981. Conclusion: The findings of this study illustrated that there is a good correlation between environmental and physiological heat stress indices in veiled women with Islamic clothing at the low workload over the action limit (WBGT = 31°C. So that it can be concluded that the WBGT 22-32°C is a good indicator of the heat strain in veiled women with Islamic clothing.

  6. Effect of live and dry food on rearing of tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Żarski

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current paper we present a method of rearing tench (Tinca tinca L. larvae under controlled conditions, fed on dry food (Gemma and Perla and Artemia nauplii or decapsulated cysts of Artemia. Tench larvae were obtained after artificial spawning by aid of Ovopel stimulation. Two experiments were conducted during which fish were divided into 4 groups (in duplicate and placed in 30 dm3 glass fish tanks set up in a recirculating system. The fish were fed ad libitum and reared for 25 days. Larvae were fed exclusively (experiment 1 or after 10 days (experiment 2 of receiving Artemia nauplii with two types of compound feeds and decapsulated cysts of Artemia. The best growth rate was observed in the control group fed on Artemia nauplii and in the group offered decapsulated cysts in both experiments. The highest survival rate, over 96%, occurred in the control group. A twofold worse survival rate was obtained in the group fed exclusively on dry food. Applied transition schedule had significant effect on survival rate among treatments, however it did not influence the percentage of body deformations occurring in groups receiving compound feed only. The results obtained indicate the necessity of applying gradual transition from live food to compound feed and the improvement of feeding schedules in common tench culture.

  7. Gravity-driven, dry granular flows over a loose bed in stationary and homogeneous conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meninno, Sabrina; Armanini, Aronne; Larcher, Michele

    2018-02-01

    Flows involving solid particulates have been widely studied in recent years, but their dynamics are still a complex issue to model because they strongly depend on the interaction with the boundary conditions. We report on laboratory investigations regarding homogeneous and steady flows of identical particles over a loose bed in a rectangular channel. Accurate measurements were carried out through imaging techniques to estimate profiles of the mean velocity, solid concentration, and granular temperature for a large set of flow rates and widths. Vertical and transversal structures observed in the flow change as interparticle interactions become more collisional, and they depend on the bottom over which the flow develops. The lateral confinement has a remarkable effect on the flow, especially for narrow channels compared with the grain size, and a hydraulic analogy is able to show how the walls influence the mechanisms of friction and energy dissipation.

  8. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ameena Ali

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate present in dried Piper betle’s extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract’s antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients (R2 = 0.9046 and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions.

  9. Impact of Storage Conditions on the Stability of Predominant Phenolic Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Dried Piper betle Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Ameena; Chong, Chien Hwa; Mah, Siau Hui; Abdullah, Luqman Chuah; Choong, Thomas Shean Yaw; Chua, Bee Lin

    2018-02-23

    The phenolic constituents in Piper betle are well known for their antioxidant potential; however, current literature has very little information on their stability under the influence of storage factors. Present study evaluated the stability of total phenolic content (TPC) and antioxidant activity together with individual phenolic constituents (hydroxychavicol, eugenol, isoeugenol and allylpyrocatechol 3,4-diacetate) present in dried Piper betle 's extract under different storage temperature of 5 and 25 °C with and without light for a period of six months. Both light and temperature significantly influenced TPC and its corresponding antioxidant activity over time. More than 95% TPC and antioxidant activity was retained at 5 °C in dark condition after 180 days of storage. Hydroxychavicol demonstrated the best stability with no degradation while eugenol and isoeugenol displayed moderate stability in low temperature (5 °C) and dark conditions. 4-allyl-1,2-diacetoxybenzene was the only compound that underwent complete degradation. A new compound, 2,4-di- tert -butylphenol, was detected after five weeks of storage only in the extracts exposed to light. Both zero-order and first-order kinetic models were adopted to describe the degradation kinetics of the extract's antioxidant activity. Zero-order displayed better fit with higher correlation coefficients ( R ² = 0.9046) and the half-life was determined as 62 days for the optimised storage conditions (5 °C in dark conditions).

  10. Release of fission products and post-pile creep behaviour of irradiated fuel rods stored under dry conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaspar, G.; Peehs, M.; Bokelmann, R.; Jorde, D.; Schoenfeld, H.; Haas, W.; Bleier, A.; Rutsch, F.

    1985-06-01

    The release of moisture and fission products (Kr-85, H-3 and I-129) under dry storage conditions has been examined on six fuel rods which have become defective in the reactor. During the examinations, inert conditions prevailed and limited air inlet was allowed temporarily. The storage temperature was 400 0 C. The residual moisture content of the fuel rods was approx. 5 g. At the beginning of the test, the total moisture content and 0,05% (max.) of the fission gas inventory were released. Under inert conditions, fission gas was not released during a prolonged period of time. Under oxidizing conditions, however, fission gas was released in the course of UO 2 oxidation. Post-pile creep of Zircaloy cladding tubes was measured at temperatures between 350 and 395 0 C and interval gauge pressures between 69 and 110 bar. The creep curves indicate that the irradiated cladding tube specimens still bear internal residual stresses which contribute through their relaxation to the post-pile creep. (orig.) [de

  11. Roles of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Abiotic Conditions in the Establishment of a Dry Grassland Community.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Knappová

    Full Text Available The importance of soil biota in the composition of mature plant communities is commonly acknowledged. In contrast, the role of soil biota in the early establishment of new plant communities and their relative importance for soil abiotic conditions are still poorly understood.The aim of this study was to understand the effects of soil origin and soil fungal communities on the composition of a newly established dry grassland plant community. We used soil from two different origins (dry grassland and abandoned field with different pH and nutrient and mineral content. Grassland microcosms were established by sowing seeds of 54 species of dry grassland plants into the studied soils. To suppress soil fungi, half of the pots were regularly treated with fungicide. In this way, we studied the independent and combined effects of soil origin and soil community on the establishment of dry grassland communities.The effect of suppressing the soil fungal community on the richness and composition of the plant communities was much stronger than the effect of soil origin. Contrary to our expectations, the effects of these two factors were largely additive, indicating the same degree of importance of soil fungal communities in the establishment of species-rich plant communities in the soils from both origins. The negative effect of suppressing soil fungi on species richness, however, occurred later in the soil from the abandoned field than in the soil from the grassland. This result likely occurred because the negative effects of the suppression of fungi in the field soil were caused mainly by changes in plant community composition and increased competition. In contrast, in the grassland soil, the absence of soil fungi was limiting for plants already at the early stages of their establishment, i.e., in the phases of germination and early recruitment. While fungicide affects not only arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi but also other biota, our data indicate that changes

  12. Environmental conditions and primary production in a Sahelian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Environmental descriptors (nutrient, water transparency, temperature ... Nutrient concentrations were low, with high variability (from 0 to 30 µg.l-1 for DIN and from 0 to 18 µg.l-1 for. PO4). The primary ... and permanent interventions of sea water.

  13. Air-side performance evaluation of three types of heat exchangers in dry, wet and periodic frosting conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ping [Zhejiang Vocational College of Commerce, Hangzhou, Binwen Road 470 (China); Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States); Hrnjak, P.S. [Department of Mechanical Science and Engineering University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign 1206 West Green Street, Urbana, IL 61801 (United States)

    2009-08-15

    The performances of three types of heat exchangers that use the louver fin geometry: (1) parallel flow parallel fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PF{sup 2}), (2) parallel flow serpentine fin with extruded flat tubes heat exchanger (PFSF) and (3) round tube wave plate fin heat exchanger (RTPF) have been experimentally studied under dry, wet and frost conditions and results are presented. The parameters quantified include air-side pressure drop, water retention on the surface of the heat exchanger, capacity and overall heat transfer coefficient for air face velocity 0.9, 2 and 3 m/s, air humidity 70% and 80% and different orientations. The performances of three types of heat exchanger are compared and the results obtained are presented. The condensate drainage behavior of the air-side surface of these three heat exchanger types was studied using both the dip testing method and wind tunnel experiment. (author)

  14. Effect of environmental conditions on the genotypic difference in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... 3Jilin Agricultural University, Changchun; 130118, China. Changchun 130033, China. Accepted 31 January, 2011. Selection for nitrogen (N) efficient cultivars is typically conducted under favorable field conditions with only difference in soil N availability. However, in practical field conditions, variation in soil ...

  15. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi [Department of Agriculture Machinery, University of Tehran, Aboreyhan Campus (Iran)

    2008-10-15

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10{sup -10} to a maximum of 9 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D{sub eff} values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 C to 70 C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively. (author)

  16. Influence of drying conditions on the effective moisture diffusivity, energy of activation and energy consumption during the thin-layer drying of berberis fruit (Berberidaceae)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aghbashlo, Mortaza; Kianmehr, Mohammad H.; Samimi-Akhijahani, Hadi

    2008-01-01

    Berberis is known as a medicinal and ornamental plant in the world. Berberis fruit is used in medicine to cure liver, neck and stomach cancer, blood purification and mouth scent. Dried berberis fruit using new technology was preserved for relatively long time. Thin-layer drying simulation was used to obtain experiment data, using laboratory scale hot-air dryer of the static tray. Fick's second law was used as a major equation to calculate the moisture diffusivity with some simplification. The calculated value of moisture diffusivity varied from a minimum of 3.320 x 10 -10 to a maximum of 9 x 10 -9 m 2 /s and the value of energy activation from a minimum of 110.837 to a maximum of 130.61 kJ/mol of from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s. The high value of the energy of activation for berberis fruit probably related to the tissue of berberis fruit and high moisture content (about 74.28%w.b), and intensive changes in D eff values for a different air temperature at constant air velocity. The input energy values and specific energy requirement for thin-drying of berberis fruit were found to be in the range of 0.643348-35.20032 (kWh) and 20.9355-1110.0700 (kWh/kg) from 50 deg. C to 70 deg. C with drying air velocities of 0.5-2 m/s, respectively

  17. Environmental conditioning on uranium surface distribution in the tropical region

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silva, Heitor Evangelista da; Licinio, Marcus V.S.; Miranda, Marcio R.

    2001-01-01

    Based on a high resolution aerogammaspectrometer survey over the State of Rio de Janeiro, it is presented an associative study of equivalent uranium concentration and environmental parameters. The aspects considered in this study included geological domains like Sandys, Gnaisses, Granites, Xists; soils domains like Organic and Alluvial ones, Litolic, Glei, Podzolic, Red-yellow, Latossolo, Planossolo, Red bruizem, Cambissolo, Hidromorphic Podzol, Yellow latossolo; geomorphology (Coast Plains and River Accumulation Land, Coast Tabulators, Pomba-Muriae Rivers Spread Depression, Northern Mantiqueira, main Hills and Coastal Rock Massifs, Steep slopes and Reverses of Serra do Mar Mountain Range ,Serra dos Orgaos Mountain Range and Bocaina Tablelands), Paraiba do Sul Crests Alignment, Medium Paraiba do Sul Depression); influence of mean annual rain intensity and hydrographical categories were also evaluated. Geoprocessing of each environmental data base at the same cartographical base of uranium surface distribution was the basic methodology employed. (author)

  18. A Novel Environmental Route to Ambient Pressure Dried Thermal Insulating Silica Aerogel via Recycled Coal Gangue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinghua Zhu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Coal gangue, one of the main hazardous emissions of purifying coal from coalmine industry, is rich in silica and alumina. However, the recycling of the waste is normally restricted by less efficient techniques and low attractive output; the utilization of such waste is still staying lower than 15%. In this work, the silica aerogel materials were synthesized by using a precursor extracted from recycled silicon-rich coal gangue, followed by a single-step surface silylation and ambient pressure drying. A low density (~0.19 g/cm3 nanostructured aerogel with a 3D open porous microstructure and high surface area (~690 m2/g was synthesized, which presents a superior thermal insulation performance (~26.5 mW·m−1·K−1 of a plane packed of 4-5 mm granules which was confirmed by transient hot-wire method. This study offers a new facile route to the synthesis of insulating aerogel material by recycling solid waste coal gangue and presents a potential cost reduction of industrial production of silica aerogels.

  19. Low impact of dry conditions on the CO2 exchange of a Northern-Norwegian blanket bog

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lund, Magnus; Parmentier, F J W; Bjerke, J W; Tømmervik, H; Drake, B G; Engelsen, O; Hansen, G H; Powell, T L; Silvennoinen, H; Weldon, S; Rasse, D P; Sottocornola, M

    2015-01-01

    Northern peatlands hold large amounts of organic carbon (C) in their soils and are as such important in a climate change context. Blanket bogs, i.e. nutrient-poor peatlands restricted to maritime climates, may be extra vulnerable to global warming since they require a positive water balance to sustain their moss dominated vegetation and C sink functioning. This study presents a 4.5 year record of land–atmosphere carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) exchange from the Andøya blanket bog in northern Norway. Compared with other peatlands, the Andøya peatland exhibited low flux rates, related to the low productivity of the dominating moss and lichen communities and the maritime settings that attenuated seasonal temperature variations. It was observed that under periods of high vapour pressure deficit, net ecosystem exchange was reduced, which was mainly caused by a decrease in gross primary production. However, no persistent effects of dry conditions on the CO 2 exchange dynamics were observed, indicating that under present conditions and within the range of observed meteorological conditions the Andøya blanket bog retained its C uptake function. Continued monitoring of these ecosystem types is essential in order to detect possible effects of a changing climate. (letter)

  20. Effects of changing environmental conditions on synthetic aperture radar backscattering coefficient, scattering mechanisms, and class separability in a forest area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdavi, Sahel; Maghsoudi, Yasser; Amani, Meisam

    2017-07-01

    Environmental conditions have considerable effects on synthetic aperture radar (SAR) imagery. Therefore, assessing these effects is important for obtaining accurate and reliable results. In this study, three series of RADARSAT-2 SAR images were evaluated. In each of these series, the sensor configuration was fixed, but the environmental conditions differed. The effects of variable environmental conditions were also investigated on co- and cross-polarized backscattering coefficients, Freeman-Durden scattering contributions, and the pedestal height in different classes of a forest area in Ottawa, Ontario. It was observed that the backscattering coefficient of wet snow was up to 2 dB more than that of dry snow. The absence of snow also caused a decrease of up to 3 dB in the surface scattering of ground and up to 5 dB in that of trees. In addition, the backscatter coefficients of ground vegetation, hardwood species, and softwood species were more similar at temperatures below 0°C than those at temperatures above 0°C. Moreover, the pedestal height was generally greater at temperatures above 0°C than at temperatures below 0°C. Finally, the highest class separability was observed when the temperature was at or above 0°C and there was no snow on the ground or trees.

  1. Effects of Long-Term Simulated Martian Conditions on a Freeze-Dried and Homogenized Bacterial Permafrost Community

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Aviaja A.; Jenson, Lars L.; Kristoffersen, Tommy; Mikkelsen, Karina; Merrison, Jonathan; Finster, Kai W.; Lomstein, Bente Aa.

    2009-03-01

    Indigenous bacteria and biomolecules (DNA and proteins) in a freeze-dried and homogenized Arctic permafrost were exposed to simulated martian conditions that correspond to about 80 days on the surface of Mars with respect to the accumulated UV dose. The simulation conditions included UV radiation, freeze-thaw cycles, the atmospheric gas composition, and pressure. The homogenized permafrost cores were subjected to repeated cycles of UV radiation for 3 h followed by 27 h without irradiation. The effects of the simulation conditions on the concentrations of biomolecules; numbers of viable, dead, and cultured bacteria; as well as the community structure were determined. Simulated martian conditions resulted in a significant reduction of the concentrations of DNA and amino acids in the uppermost 1.5 mm of the soil core. The total number of bacterial cells was reduced in the upper 9 mm of the soil core, while the number of viable cells was reduced in the upper 15 mm. The number of cultured aerobic bacteria was reduced in the upper 6 mm of the soil core, whereas the community structure of cultured anaerobic bacteria was relatively unaffected by the exposure conditions. As explanations for the observed changes, we propose three causes that might have been working on the biological material either individually or synergistically: (i) UV radiation, (ii) UV-generated reactive oxygen species, and (iii) freeze-thaw cycles. Currently, the production and action of reactive gases is only hypothetical and will be a central subject in future investigations. Overall, we conclude that in a stable environment (no wind-/pressure-induced mixing) biological material is efficiently shielded by a 2 cm thick layer of dust, while it is relatively rapidly destroyed in the surface layer, and that biomolecules like proteins and polynucleotides are more resistant to destruction than living biota.

  2. Insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows across a range of body condition scores.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Koster, J; Hostens, M; Van Eetvelde, M; Hermans, K; Moerman, S; Bogaert, H; Depreester, E; Van den Broeck, W; Opsomer, G

    2015-07-01

    The objective of the present research was to determine the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism in dry dairy cows with a variable body condition score (BCS). Ten pregnant Holstein Friesian dairy cows (upcoming parity 2 to 5) were selected based on BCS at the beginning of the study (2mo before expected parturition date). During the study, animals were monitored weekly for BCS and backfat thickness and in the last 2wk, blood samples were taken for determination of serum nonesterified fatty acid (NEFA) concentration. Animals underwent a hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test in the third week before the expected parturition date. The hyperinsulinemic euglycemic clamp test consisted of 4 consecutive insulin infusions with increasing insulin doses: 0.1, 0.5, 2, and 5mIU/kg per minute. For each insulin infusion period, a steady state was defined as a period of 30min where no or minor changes of the glucose infusion were necessary to keep the blood glucose concentration constant and near basal levels. During the steady state, the glucose infusion rate [steady state glucose infusion rate (SSGIR) in µmol/kg per minute] and NEFA concentration [steady state NEFA concentration (SSNEFA) in mmol/L] were determined and reflect the insulin response of the glucose and fatty acid metabolism. Dose response curves were created based on the insulin concentrations during the steady state and the SSGIR or SSNEFA. The shape of the dose response curves is determined by the concentration of insulin needed to elicit the half maximal effect (EC50) and the maximal SSGIR or the minimal SSNEFA for the glucose or fatty acid metabolism, respectively. The maximal SSGIR was negatively associated with variables reflecting adiposity of the cows (BCS, backfat thickness, NEFA concentration during the dry period, and absolute weight of the different adipose depots determined after euthanasia and dissection of the different depots), whereas the EC50 of the glucose metabolism was

  3. The growth response of plants to elevated CO2 under non-optimal environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Poorter, H.; Pérez-Soba, M.

    2001-01-01

    Under benign environmental conditions, plant growth is generally stimulated by elevated atmospheric CO2 concentrations. When environmental conditions become sub- or supra-optimal for growth, changes in the biomass enhancement ratio (BER; total plant biomass at elevated CO2 divided by plant biomass

  4. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  5. Environmental and Sanitary Conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Fistarol, Giovana O.; Coutinho, Felipe H.; Moreira, Ana Paula B.; Venas, Tain?; C?novas, Alba; de Paula, S?rgio E. M.; Coutinho, Ricardo; de Moura, Rodrigo L.; Valentin, Jean Louis; Tenenbaum, Denise R.; Paranhos, Rodolfo; do Valle, Rog?rio de A. B.; Vicente, Ana Carolina P.; Amado Filho, Gilberto M.; Pereira, Renato Crespo

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  6. Environmental and sanitary conditions of Guanabara Bay, Rio de Janeiro

    OpenAIRE

    Giovana De Oliveira Fistarol; Felipe H. Coutinho; Ana Paula Barbosa Moreira; Tainá eVenas; Alba eCanovas; Sergio E M de Paula Jr; Ricardo eCoutinho; Rodrigo L de Moura; Jean L Valentin; Denise R Tenenbaum; Rodolfo eParanhos; Rogerio eValle; Rogerio eValle; Cristiane eTHOMPSON; Paulo eSalomon

    2015-01-01

    Guanabara Bay is the second largest bay in the coast of Brazil, with an area of 384 km2. In its surroundings live circa 16 million inhabitants, out of which 6 million live in Rio de Janeiro city, one of the largest cities of the country, and the host of the 2016 Olympic Games. Anthropogenic interference in Guanabara Bay area started early in the XVI century, but environmental impacts escalated from 1930, when this region underwent an industrialization process. Herein we present an overview of...

  7. Transfer and concentration factors in laboratory and environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paschoa, A.S.; Amaral, E.C.S.

    1993-01-01

    Environmental transfer factors, as well as concentration and accumulation factors, have been increasingly used in environmental dosimetric models. These models are often the basis for decision-making processes concerning radiological protection. However, the uncertainties associated with measured and default values of transfer and concentration factors are usually not taken into account in the decision making processes. In addition, laboratory-based values for these factors do not necessarily agree with site-specific and species-specific transfer and concentration factors. Soil-to-plant transfer factors and water-to-aquatic-organisms concentration factors are not only time and concentration-dependent, but also species-and site-specific environment-dependent. These uncertainties and dependencies may make the decision-making process, based on models, quite a difficult exercise. The current work examines, as an example, the time-dependent variations in the accumulation of 226 Ra in zooplankton in a laboratory experiment as compared with the concentration factor measured in a natural environment. In addition, the work reviews differences in 228 Ra and 226 Ra concentration factors for several plant families measured in a highly radioactive environment. (author). 9 refs, 3 figs, 3 tabs

  8. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui' Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soumaya Dbara

    Full Text Available The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs and improving water use efficiency (WUE. Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui' in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may

  9. Partial Root-Zone Drying of Olive (Olea europaea var. 'Chetoui') Induces Reduced Yield under Field Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dbara, Soumaya; Haworth, Matthew; Emiliani, Giovani; Ben Mimoun, Mehdi; Gómez-Cadenas, Aurelio; Centritto, Mauro

    2016-01-01

    The productivity of olive trees in arid and semi-arid environments is closely linked to irrigation. It is necessary to improve the efficiency of irrigation techniques to optimise the amount of olive fruit produced in relation to the volume of water used. Partial root-zone drying (PRD) is a water saving irrigation technique that theoretically allows the production of a root-to-shoot signal that modifies the physiology of the above-ground parts of the plant; specifically reducing stomatal conductance (gs) and improving water use efficiency (WUE). Partial root-zone drying has been successfully applied under field conditions to woody and non-woody crops; yet the few previous trials with olive trees have produced contrasting results. Thirty year-old olive trees (Olea europaea 'var. Chetoui') in a Tunisian grove were exposed to four treatments from May to October for three-years: 'control' plants received 100% of the potential evapotranspirative demand (ETc) applied to the whole root-zone; 'PRD100' were supplied with an identical volume of water to the control plants alternated between halves of the root-zone every ten-days; 'PRD50' were given 50% of ETc to half of the root-system, and; 'rain-fed' plants received no supplementary irrigation. Allowing part of the root-zone to dry resulted in reduced vegetative growth and lower yield: PRD100 decreased yield by ~47% during productive years. During the less productive years of the alternate bearing cycle, irrigation had no effect on yield; this suggests that withholding of water during 'off-years' may enhance the effectiveness of irrigation over a two-year cycle. The amount and quality of oil within the olive fruit was unaffected by the irrigation treatment. Photosynthesis declined in the PRD50 and rain-fed trees due to greater diffusive limitations and reduced biochemical uptake of CO2. Stomatal conductance and the foliar concentration of abscisic acid (ABA) were not altered by PRD100 irrigation, which may indicate the

  10. Melatonin treatment at dry-off improves reproductive performance postpartum in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcia-Ispierto, I; Abdelfatah, A; López-Gatius, F

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of melatonin treatment during the early dry-off period on subsequent reproductive performance and milk production in high-producing dairy cows under heat stress conditions. In experiment I, addressing the pharmacokinetics of melatonin treatment in lactating dairy cows, doses of untreated, 3, 6, 9 or 12 implants/animal (18-mg melatonin each implant) were given as subcutaneous implants on gestation day 120-20 multiparous lactating dairy cows (four cows/dose group). Experiment II was performed during the warm season on 25 heifers and 114 high milk-producing Holstein-Friesian cows. Animals were randomly assigned to a control (C) or melatonin group (M). Animals in the M group received nine implants (heifers) or 12 (cows) of melatonin on day 220 of gestation. In experiment I, cows in the 12 implants group showed a higher maximum melatonin concentration (Cmax ) and area under the concentration curve from treatment day 0 to day 49 (AUC0-49d ) than those in the remaining groups, among which there were no significant differences in this variable. In experiment II, the likelihood of repeat breeding syndrome (pregnancy loss (first trimester) were 0.36 and 0.19 times lower in treated than control animals, respectively. Plasma prolactin levels decreased significantly (p = 0.01) after melatonin treatment and recovered during the postpartum compared to control cows. No significant effects on milk production were observed in the subsequent lactation. Significant differences in days open between groups (means 123 ± 71.9 and 103 ± 43, respectively, for C and M; p = 0.02) were registered. In conclusion, melatonin treatment in the early dry-off period improves the reproductive performance of dairy cattle, reducing the number of days open, repeat breeding syndrome and pregnancy loss. © 2012 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  11. Effects of different drying conditions on the rehydration ratio and water holding capacity properties in three different species of algae Ulva lactuca, Codium vermilara and Codium tomentosum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Marques Nunes

    2014-06-01

    In this work, it was concluded that higher drying temperature conditions originate lower rehydration ratio and consequent lower water holding capacity possibly due to a higher physical damage in the algae tissues. It was also observed that both Codium species have higher values for these two parameters than Ulva lactuca, under the same rehydration conditions.

  12. Are environmental conditions in South African classrooms conducive for learning?

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Gibberd, Jeremy T

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available not provide an environment that promotes productivity and comfort for particular summer conditions, and therefore is unlikely to be conducive for learning. The paper draws a number of conclusions from the study and makes recommendations for further research....

  13. Environmental conditions regulate the impact of plants on cloud formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, D F; Buchholz, A; Tillmann, R; Kleist, E; Wu, C; Rubach, F; Kiendler-Scharr, A; Rudich, Y; Wildt, J; Mentel, Th F

    2017-02-20

    The terrestrial vegetation emits large amounts of volatile organic compounds (VOC) into the atmosphere, which on oxidation produce secondary organic aerosol (SOA). By acting as cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), SOA influences cloud formation and climate. In a warming climate, changes in environmental factors can cause stresses to plants, inducing changes of the emitted VOC. These can modify particle size and composition. Here we report how induced emissions eventually affect CCN activity of SOA, a key parameter in cloud formation. For boreal forest tree species, insect infestation by aphids causes additional VOC emissions which modifies SOA composition thus hygroscopicity and CCN activity. Moderate heat increases the total amount of constitutive VOC, which has a minor effect on hygroscopicity, but affects CCN activity by increasing the particles' size. The coupling of plant stresses, VOC composition and CCN activity points to an important impact of induced plant emissions on cloud formation and climate.

  14. Climatic and environmental conditions favoring the crossing of the Carpathians by early Neolithic populations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perşoiu, Ioana; Perşoiu, Aurel

    2015-04-01

    The study of the origin and spread of Neolithic has been the subject of heated debate since the early studies of Childe (1942). To what extent the dispersal process was influenced by environmental factors is still debated, one of the issues being whether climatic conditions influencing agricultural practices, could have influenced the dispersal route, "blocking" some of the Neolithic societies in front of ecological barriers. Data from Neolithic sites in SE Europe shows that a continuous stream of people and cultures flowed through the Danube's Iron Gates towards Central Europe, while in the eastern part of Europe this process was delayed, people and cultures "moving" around the Carpathians and crossing them with a delay of ca. 1000 years. One of the possible avenues for this crossing is the floodplain of Someşu Mic River (Transylvanian depression), home to the oldest (~8500 cal. BP) Neolithic settlement in Romania. In this paper, we review the climatic and environmental changes that affected the region at the time of Neolithic dispersal. Pollen and stable isotopes in cave ice indicate an early Holocene rapid warming during summer months, peaking around 7 ka cal. BP; and a delayed warming for autumn and winter months, peaking at 5 ka cal. BP, both followed by a continuous cooling trend towards the present. Someşu Mic River developed and maintained a narrow sinuous channel during the Holocene, with local development of meanders and anabranches, in response to both climatic and geologic controlling factors. Archaeological finds in the floodplain and the lower terraces suggest that human societies in the region responded in sensitive manner to these climatic and environmental changes. During warm and dry periods, with low fluvial activity, the number of settlements increased in the floodplain's perimeter, while during the short cold and humid periods, the number of settlements rapidly increased on the lower terraces and on the valley slopes, disappearing from the

  15. Physico-Chemical and Environmental Characterisation of the Dust from Dry Dedusting of the Green Sand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bobrowski A.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The article presents research results of physico-chemical and environmental issues for the dust generated during dedusting of the installation for the processing and preparation of moulding sand with bentonite. Particular attention was paid to the content of heavy metals and emission of gases from the BTEX group, which is one of the determinants of the moulding sands harmfulness for the environment. The analysis of heavy metals in the test samples indicate that there is an increase of the content of all metals in the dust compared to the initial mixture of bentonite. The most significant (almost double increase observed for zinc is probably related to the adsorption of this element on the dust surface by contact with the liquid metal. The study showed, that dust contained more than 20% of the amount of montmorillonite and had a loss on ignition at a similar level. The addition of 1% of dust to the used moulding sand results in almost 30% increase in the total volume of gases generated in casting processes and nearly 30% increase of the benzene emission.

  16. Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-10-18

    terminology related to an aforementioned stressor or medical condition. Table 1 presents the identified operational stressor with the keywords extracted...USAARL Report No. 2018-02 Review of U.S. Army Aviation Accident Reports: Prevalence of Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions By Kathryn...Environmental Stressors and Medical Conditions N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A N/A Feltman, Kathryn A. Kelley, Amanda M. Curry, Ian P. Boudreaux, David A. Milam

  17. Effect of Intermittent Drying Conditions on Fissuring Percentage and Process Duration of Long and Medium Rough Rice Varieties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ghasemi

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available One of the factors which affect the quality of rice during milling is internal fissures created during and after drying operation. In many industrial countries intermittent drying method is hired to reduce the moisture content of rough rice in order to reduce the drying time and maintain the quality of the final product. A high percentage of rice breakage during milling process, at least in Iran, necessitates performing the intermittent drying process and optimize it for Iranian varieties. In this study, the effect of this method (drying-tempering and continuous drying method (no tempering on fissuring percentage of Hashemi (long grain and Koohsar (medium grain varieties was investigated. The experiments were carried out at constant drying and tempering temperature of 60 °C, drying durations of 20, 40 and 60 min, and tempering durations of 0 (continuous drying, 40, 80, 120, 160, 200, 240 min. The results revealed that the tempering process significantly reduced the drying time and fissured kernels percentage. Moreover, for both varieties it was observed that the rice fissuring decreased significantly by continuing the tempering process until certain durations. Overall, for optimization of intermittent drying process in terms of the considered qualitative parameters, i.e. reducing energy consumption and losses, conducting 160 and 200 min tempering process after 40 min drying was found appropriate for Hashemi and Koohsar varieties, respectively. In addition, according to the higher fissuring for Koohsar (medium grain compared to Hashemi (long grain, it can be concluded that physical properties such as kernel slenderness ratio is effective on its fissuring.

  18. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  19. Environmental, health and economic conditions perceived by 50 rural communities in Bangladesh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuka, Ryutaro; Inaoka, Tsukasa; Moji, Kazuhiko; Karim, Enamul; Yoshinaga, Mari

    2002-12-01

    For randomly selected 50 villages in Bangladesh, an interview survey with a structured questionnaire was conducted to reveal their perception on the environmental, health and economic conditions at present and for the past 10-year change. The eight following items were analyzed in this paper: air pollution and water pollution, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to health conditions, soil degradation and deforestation, which represent environmental conditions with close relation to economic conditions, epidemic diseases and malnutrition, which represent health conditions, and poverty and jobless, which represent economic conditions. Among the 50 villages, deforestation was most frequently perceived serious at present and worsened in the past 10 years. Of the remaining seven items, those related to economic conditions were more seriously perceived than those related to health and environmental conditions. As revealed by the cluster analysis for the inter-item relations, epidemic diseases, which formed the same cluster with the environmental items, were recognized less serious whereas malnutrition, which formed the same cluster with the economic items, was recognized more serious. These findings are useful not only for rural development programs but also for mitigation programs toward health and environmental hazards in Bangladesh.

  20. Environmental condition assessment of US military installations using GIS based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, Steve; Wang, Guangxing; Howard, Heidi; Anderson, Alan

    2012-08-01

    Environment functions in various aspects including soil and water conservation, biodiversity and habitats, and landscape aesthetics. Comprehensive assessment of environmental condition is thus a great challenge. The issues include how to assess individual environmental components such as landscape aesthetics and integrate them into an indicator that can comprehensively quantify environmental condition. In this study, a geographic information systems based spatial multi-criteria decision analysis was used to integrate environmental variables and create the indicator. This approach was applied to Fort Riley Military installation in which land condition and its dynamics due to military training activities were assessed. The indicator was derived by integrating soil erosion, water quality, landscape fragmentation, landscape aesthetics, and noise based on the weights from the experts by assessing and ranking the environmental variables in terms of their importance. The results showed that landscape level indicator well quantified the overall environmental condition and its dynamics, while the indicator at level of patch that is defined as a homogeneous area that is different from its surroundings detailed the spatiotemporal variability of environmental condition. The environmental condition was mostly determined by soil erosion, then landscape fragmentation, water quality, landscape aesthetics, and noise. Overall, environmental condition at both landscape and patch levels greatly varied depending on the degree of ground and canopy disturbance and their spatial patterns due to military training activities and being related to slope. It was also determined the environment itself could be recovered quickly once military training was halt or reduced. Thus, this study provided an effective tool for the army land managers to monitor environmental dynamics and plan military training activities. Its limitation lies at that the obtained values of the indicator vary and are

  1. Inhibition of calcium phosphate precipitation under environmentally-relevant conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cao Xinde; Harris, Willie G.; Josan, Manohardeep S.; Nair, Vimala D.

    2007-01-01

    Precipitation of Ca phosphates plays an important role in controlling P activity and availability in environmental systems. The purpose of this study was to determine inhibitory effects on Ca phosphate precipitation by Mg 2+ , SO 4 2- , CO 3 2- , humic acid, oxalic acid, biogenic Si, and Si-rich soil clay commonly found in soils, sediments, and waste streams. Precipitation rates were determined by measuring decrease of P concentration in solutions during the first 60 min; and precipitated solid phases identified using X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy. Poorly-crystalline hydroxyapatite (HAP: Ca 5 (PO 4 ) 3 OH) formed in control solutions over the experiment period of 24 h, following a second-order dependence on P concentration. Humic acid and Mg 2+ significantly inhibited formation of HAP, allowing formation of a more soluble amorphous Ca phosphate phase (ACP), and thus reducing the precipitation rate constants by 94-96%. Inhibition caused by Mg 2+ results from its incorporation into Ca phosphate precipitates, preventing formation of a well-crystalline phase. Humic acid likely suppressed Ca phosphate precipitation by adsorbing onto the newly-formed nuclei. Presence of oxalic acid resulted in almost complete inhibition of HAP precipitation due to preemptive Ca-oxalate formation. Carbonate substituted for phosphate, decreasing the crystallinity of HAP and thus reducing precipitation rate constant by 44%. Sulfate and Si-rich solids had less impact on formation of HAP; while they reduced precipitation in the early stage, they did not differ from the control after 24 h. Results indicate that components (e.g., Mg 2+ , humic acid) producing relatively soluble ACP are more likely to reduce P stability and precipitation rate of Ca phosphate in soils and sediments than are components (e.g., SO 4 2- , Si) that have less effect on the crystallinity

  2. Rift Valley Fever Outbreaks in Mauritania and Related Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cyril Caminade

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Four large outbreaks of Rift Valley Fever (RVF occurred in Mauritania in 1998, 2003, 2010 and 2012 which caused lots of animal and several human deaths. We investigated rainfall and vegetation conditions that might have impacted on RVF transmission over the affected regions. Our results corroborate that RVF transmission generally occurs during the months of September and October in Mauritania, similarly to Senegal. The four outbreaks were preceded by a rainless period lasting at least a week followed by heavy precipitation that took place during the second half of the rainy season. First human infections were generally reported three to five weeks later. By bridging the gap between meteorological forecasting centers and veterinary services, an early warning system might be developed in Senegal and Mauritania to warn decision makers and health services about the upcoming RVF risk.

  3. Transformation of environmental conditions in large former Soviet countries: regional analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bityukova, V. R.; Borovikov, M. S.

    2018-01-01

    The article studies changes in the structure of environmental conditions of regions in the large former Soviet countries (case study of Russia and Kazakhstan) that have formed considerable contrasts in the placement of industrial complex and population settlement during the previous development stages. The changes related to the transition to market economy have led to essential transformation of environmental conditions. A complex index allowing to assess changes at the regional level in Kazakhstan and Russia and to reveal main similarities and differences between those changes is applied to studying the transformation of regional and industry structure. The article examines both industry-specific and spatial patterns forming environmental conditions at the regional level.

  4. Seed storage at elevated partial pressure of oxygen, a fast method for analysing seed ageing under dry conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Groot, S.P.C.; Surki, A.A.; Vos, de R.C.H.; Kodde, J.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Aims Despite differences in physiology between dry and relative moist seeds, seed ageing tests most often use a temperature and seed moisture level that are higher than during dry storage used in commercial practice and gene banks. This study aimed to test whether seed ageing under

  5. Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from dry-grind corn ethanol plant under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskicioglu, Cigdem; Kennedy, Kevin J; Marin, Juan; Strehler, Benjamin

    2011-01-01

    Anaerobic digestion of whole stillage from a dry-grind corn-based ethanol plant was evaluated by batch and continuous-flow digesters under thermophilic and mesophilic conditions. At whole corn stillage concentrations of 6348 to 50,786 mg total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD)/L, at standard temperature (0 °C) and pressure (1 atm), preliminary biochemical methane potential assays produced 88±8 L (49±5 L CH4) and 96±19 L (65±14 L CH4) biogas per L stillage from mesophilic and thermophilic digesters, respectively. Continuous-flow studies for the full-strength stillage (TCOD=254 g/L) at organic loadings of 4.25, 6.30 and 9.05 g TCOD/L days indicated unstable performance for the thermophilic digester. Among the sludge retention times (SRTs) of 60, 45 and 30 days tested, the mesophilic digestion was successful only at 60 days-SRT which does not represent a practical operation time for a large scale bioethanol plant. Future laboratory studies will focus on different reactor configurations to reduce the SRT needed in the digesters. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Friction and wear behaviour of hypereutectic Al-Si alloy/steel tribopair under dry and lubricated conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parveen Kumar

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Dry and lubricated sliding tribological tests on hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy was performed using a ball- on- disk configuration at room temperature. Hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy were prepared by rapid solidification process under T6 condition. Friction coefficient (COF and wear rate of the alloy were measured under different applied loads ranging from 5–100 N. It is found that the friction coefficient varies with load, first declines (from 5-50 N, then increases (from 50-80 N and then again decreases (80-100 N. The wear rate of the samples of hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy, first increases and then decreases with increasing the applied normal load. Hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy presents higher wear rate at 50 N due to the participation of a large amount of needle-like precipitates, but shows low wear rate under high load of 100 N because of the work hardening layer. Worn surface morphologies were analyzed using optical and scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS. The improvements in COF and wear rate were mainly attributed to morphology, size and distribution of Si particles due to its fabrication process. The dominant wear mechanism for hypereutectic Al-25Si alloy was adhesive wear, abrasive wear and plastic deformation.

  7. Effects of Cooling Rates on Hydride Reorientation and Mechanical Properties of Zirconium Alloy Claddings under Interim Dry Storage Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Min, Su-Jeong; Kim, Myeong-Su; Won, Chu-chin; Kim, Kyu-Tae

    2013-01-01

    As-received Zr-Nb cladding tubes and 600 ppm hydrogen-charged tubes were employed to evaluate the effects of cladding cooling rates on the extent of hydride reorientation from circumferential hydrides to radial ones and mechanical property degradations with the use of cooling rates of 2, 4 and 15 °C/min from 400 °C to room temperature simulating cladding cooling under interim dry storage conditions. The as-received cladding tubes generated nearly the same ultimate tensile strengths and plastic elongations, regardless of the cooling rates, because of a negligible hydrogen content in the cladding. The 600 ppm-H cladding tubes indicate that the slower cooling rate generated the larger radial hydride fraction and the longer radial hydrides, which resulted in greater mechanical performance degradations. The cooling rate of 2 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 758 MPa and a plastic elongation of 1.0%, whereas the cooling rate of 15 °C/min generates an ultimate tensile strength of 825 MPa and a plastic elongation of 15.0%. These remarkable mechanical property degradations of the 600 ppm-H cladding tubes with the slowest cooling rate may be characterized by cleavage fracture surface appearance enhanced by longer radial hydrides and their higher fraction that have been precipitated through a relatively larger nucleation and growth rate.

  8. Influence of processing conditions on apparent viscosity and system parameters during extrusion of distiller's dried grains-based snacks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singha, Poonam; Muthukumarappan, Kasiviswanathan; Krishnan, Padmanaban

    2018-01-01

    A combination of different levels of distillers dried grains processed for food application (FDDG), garbanzo flour and corn grits were chosen as a source of high-protein and high-fiber extruded snacks. A four-factor central composite rotatable design was adopted to study the effect of FDDG level, moisture content of blends, extrusion temperature, and screw speed on the apparent viscosity, mass flow rate or MFR, torque, and specific mechanical energy or SME during the extrusion process. With increase in the extrusion temperature from 100 to 140°C, apparent viscosity, specific mechanical energy, and torque value decreased. Increase in FDDG level resulted in increase in apparent viscosity, SME and torque. FDDG had no significant effect (p > .5) on mass flow rate. SME also increased with increase in the screw speed which could be due to the higher shear rates at higher screw speeds. Screw speed and moisture content had significant negative effect ( p  extruder and the system parameters were affected by the processing conditions. This study will be useful for control of extrusion process of blends containing these ingredients for the development of high-protein high-fiber extruded snacks.

  9. EVALUATION OF WASTE PACKAGE EXTERNAL ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITION STUDY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    E. N. Lindner and E. F. Dembowski

    1998-01-01

    The U. S. Department of Energy (DOE) is studying Yucca Mountain as the possible site for a permanent underground repository for disposal of spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and other high-level waste (HLW). The emplacement of high-level radioactive waste in Yucca Mountain will release a large amount of heat into the rock above and below the repository. Due to this heat, the rock temperature will rise, and then decrease when the production of decay heat falls below the rate at which heat escapes from the hot zone. In addition to raising the rock temperature, the heat will vaporize water, which will condense in cooler regions. The condensate water may drain back toward the emplacement drifts or it may ''shed'' through the pillars between emplacement drifts. Other effects, such as coupled chemical and mechanical processes, may influence the movement of water above, within, and below the emplacement drifts. This study examined near field environmental parameters that could have an effect on the waste package, including temperature, humidity, seepage rate, pH of seepage, chemistry (dissolved salts/minerals) of seepage, composition of drift atmosphere, colloids, and biota. This report is a Type I analysis performed in support of the development of System Description Documents (SDDs). A Type I analysis is a quantitative or qualitative analysis that may fulfill any of a variety of purposes associated with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR), other than providing direct analytical support for design output documents. A Type I analysis may establish design input, as defined in the ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998). This study establishes a technical basis for emplacement drift (i.e. at the waste package surface) environment criteria to be considered in the development of the waste package design. The information will support development of several SDDs and resolve emplacement drift external environment questions in the criteria of those

  10. Assessing the techno-environmental performance of CO2 utilization via dry reforming of methane for the production of dimethyl ether

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schakel, Wouter|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/369280784; Oreggioni, Gabriel; Singh, Bhawna; Strømman, Anders; Ramírez, Andrea|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/284852414

    2016-01-01

    Abstract CO2 utilization is gaining attention as a greenhouse gas abatement strategy complementary to CO2 storage. This study explores the techno-environmental performance of CO2 utilization trough dry reforming of methane into syngas for the production of dimethyl ether (DME). The CO2 source is a

  11. Assessment of thermal load on transported goats administered with ascorbic acid during the hot-dry conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minka, N. S.; Ayo, J. O.

    2012-03-01

    The major factor in the induction of physiological stress during road transportation of livestock is the complex fluctuations of the thermal transport microenvironment, encountered when animals are transported across different ecological zones. Recommended guidelines on optimum "on-board" conditions in which goats should be transported are lacking, and there are no acceptable ranges and limits for the thermal loads to which goats may be subjected during long-distance road transportation in hot-dry conditions. Panting score (PS), rectal temperature (RT), heart rate (HR) and respiratory rate (RR) were employed as reliable stress indices to assess the effects of different thermal loads, measured as temperature humidity index (THI), encountered in the vehicle during 12 h of road transportation of 40 goats, and to suggest the administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of ascorbic acid (AA) as an ameliorating agent. The results obtained showed that the PS, RT, HR and RR rose above normal reference values with increase in the THI and journey duration. The rise in PS value, which is a visual indicator of the severity of thermal load, was the most pronounced. The results suggest that values of THI in the vehicle up to 94.6 constitute no risk, while at of 100 it presents a moderate risk and above 100 may result in severe stress. The relationships between the thermal load and the physiological variables were positive and significant ( P goats. The results demonstrated that administration of 100 mg/kg body weight of AA before road transportation mitigated the risk of adverse effects of high THI values and other stress factors due to road transportation in goats.

  12. PEDOGENIC CARBONATE δ13C AND ENVIRONMENTAL PRECIPITATION CONDITIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcella Catoni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Carbon isotopic analysis is a useful tool for investigating paleoenvironments, as the pedogenic carbonate δ13C is related to δ13CSOM and to the proportions of C3/C4 plants. In this work we interpreted the paleoenvironmental conditions at the time of carbonate precipitation in soils formed under different climates and during different geological ages. Samples were taken from a Bk (PR1, Holocene and from two Bkm horizons (PR2 and PR3, Pleistocene. When the mean δ13C plant values and the most plausible paleotemperatures were used in the evaluation, PR1 showed a lower percentage of C4 plants (48% than Pleistocene soils (~53%, in agreement with paleoclimate changes. When instead the δ13C values of current plants were used for PR1, C4 plants ranged from 59 (12°C to 66% (18°C, suggesting two possible interpretations: either plant species changed during the Holocene, or the plant mean values normally used in the literature are not suitable for Pleistocene reconstructions

  13. Sustainable Environmental Education: Conditions and Characteristics Needed for a Successfully Integrated Program in Public Elementary Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rieckenberg, Cara Rae

    This case study investigated what conditions and characteristics contributed to a successful environmental education program within elementary schools of a school district where environmental education was the mandate. While research does exist on practical application of environmental education within schools, little if any literature has been written or research conducted on schools actually implementing environmental education to study what contributes to the successful implementation of the program. To study this issue, 24 participants from a Midwestern school district were interviewed, six of whom were principals of each of the six elementary schools included in the study. All participants were identified as champions of environmental education integration within their buildings due to leadership positions held focused on environmental education. Analysis of the data collected via interviews revealed findings that hindered the implementation of environmental education, findings that facilitated the implementation of environmental education, and findings that indicated an environmental education-focused culture existed within the schools. Conditions and characteristics found to contribute to the success of these school's environmental education programs include: professional development opportunities, administrative support, peer leadership opportunities and guidance, passion with the content and for the environment, comfort and confidence with the content, ease of activities and events that contribute to the culture and student success. Keywords: environmental education, integration, leadership, teachers as leaders.

  14. Comparative evaluation of shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with two different bonding agents under dry conditions and with saliva contamination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanehmasjedi, Mashallah; Naseri, Mohammad Ali; Khanehmasjedi, Samaneh; Basir, Leila

    2017-02-01

    This study compared the shear bond strength of metallic brackets bonded with Single Bond and Assure bonding agents under dry and saliva-contamination conditions. Sixty sound premolar teeth were selected, and stainless-steel brackets were bonded on enamel surfaces with Single Bond and Assure bonding agents under dry condition or with saliva contamination. Shear bond strength values of brackets were measured in a universal testing machine. The adhesive remnant index scores were determined after debonding of the brackets under a stereomicroscope. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to analyze bond strength. Two-by-two comparisons were made with post hoc Tukey tests (pbrackets to tooth structure were 9.29±8.56 MPa and 21.25±8.93 MPa with the use of Assure resin bonding agent under saliva-contamination and dry conditions, respectively. These values were 10.13±6.69 MPa and 14.09±6.6 MPa, respectively, under the same conditions with the use of Single Bond adhesive. Contamination with saliva resulted in a significant decrease in the bond strength of brackets to tooth structure with the application of Assure adhesive resin (pbrackets to tooth structures. Contamination with saliva significantly decreased the bond strength of Assure bonding agent compared with dry conditions. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Taiwan LLC.

  15. Environmental and Economic Performance of Commercial-scale Solar Photovoltaic Systems: A Field Study of Complex Energy Systems at the Desert Research Institute (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, X.

    2014-12-01

    Solar photovoltaic (PV) systems are being aggressively deployed at residential, commercial, and utility scales to complement power generation from conventional sources. This is motivated both by the desire to reduce carbon footprints and by policy-driven financial incentives. Although several life cycle analyses (LCA) have investigated environmental impacts and energy payback times of solar PV systems, most results are based on hypothetical systems rather than actual, deployed systems that can provide measured performance data. Over the past five years, Desert Research Institute (DRI) in Nevada has installed eight solar PV systems of scales from 3 to 1000 kW, the sum of which supply approximately 40% of the total power use at DRI's Reno and Las Vegas campuses. The goal of this work is to explore greenhouse gas (GHG) impacts and examine the economic performance of DRI's PV systems by developing and applying a comprehensive LCA and techno-economic (TEA) model. This model is built using data appropriate for each type of panel used in the DRI systems. Power output is modeled using the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) model PVWatts. The performance of PVWatts is verified by the actual measurements from DRI's PV systems. Several environmental and economic metrics are quantified for the DRI systems, including life cycle GHG emissions and energy return. GHG results are compared with Nevada grid-based electricity. Initial results indicate that DRI's solar-derived electricity offers clear GHG benefits compared to conventional grid electricity. DRI's eight systems have GHG intensity values of 29-56 gCO2e/kWh, as compared to the GHG intensity of 212 gCO2e/kWh of national average grid power. The major source of impacts (82-92% of the total) is the upstream life cycle burden of manufacturing PV panels, which are made of either mono-crystalline or multi-crystalline silicon. Given the same type of PV panel, GHG intensity decreases as the scale of the system increases

  16. Attaining the canopy in dry and moist tropical forests: strong differences in tree growth trajectories reflect variation in growing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brienen, Roel J W; Zuidema, Pieter A; Martínez-Ramos, Miguel

    2010-06-01

    Availability of light and water differs between tropical moist and dry forests, with typically higher understorey light levels and lower water availability in the latter. Therefore, growth trajectories of juvenile trees--those that have not attained the canopy--are likely governed by temporal fluctuations in light availability in moist forests (suppressions and releases), and by spatial heterogeneity in water availability in dry forests. In this study, we compared juvenile growth trajectories of Cedrela odorata in a dry (Mexico) and a moist forest (Bolivia) using tree rings. We tested the following specific hypotheses: (1) moist forest juveniles show more and longer suppressions, and more and stronger releases; (2) moist forest juveniles exhibit wider variation in canopy accession pattern, i.e. the typical growth trajectory to the canopy; (3) growth variation among dry forest juveniles persists over longer time due to spatial heterogeneity in water availability. As expected, the proportion of suppressed juveniles was higher in moist than in dry forest (72 vs. 17%). Moist forest suppressions also lasted longer (9 vs. 5 years). The proportion of juveniles that experienced releases in moist forest (76%) was higher than in dry forest (41%), and releases in moist forests were much stronger. Trees in the moist forest also had a wider variation in canopy accession patterns compared to the dry forest. Our results also showed that growth variation among juvenile trees persisted over substantially longer periods of time in dry forest (>64 years) compared to moist forest (12 years), most probably because of larger persistent spatial variation in water availability. Our results suggest that periodic increases in light availability are more important for attaining the canopy in moist forests, and that spatial heterogeneity in water availability governs long-term tree growth in dry forests.

  17. Using a Physical Education Environmental Survey to Identify Areas of Concern and Improve Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Grant; Hulbert, George

    2007-01-01

    School environmental conditions can impact learning in physical educational classes. It is important for schools to control environmental health hazards, not only to promote a conducive school learning environment, but to also reduce associated health risks. To help physical education leaders determine the quality of physical education facilities…

  18. Multiscale Effects of Management, Environmental Conditions, and Land Use on Nitrate Leaching in Dairy Farms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oenema, J.; Burgers, S.L.G.E.; Verloop, J.; Hooijboer, A.; Boumans, L.; Berge, ten H.F.M.

    2010-01-01

    Nitrate leaching in intensive grassland- and silage maize-based dairy farming systems on sandy soil is a main environmental concern. Here, statistical relationships are presented between management practices and environmental conditions and nitrate concentration in shallow groundwater (0.8 m depth)

  19. Age-dependent associations between telomere length and environmental conditions in roe deer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilbourn, Rachael V; Froy, Hannah; McManus, Marie-Christina; Cheynel, Louise; Gaillard, Jean-Michel; Gilot-Fromont, Emmanuelle; Regis, Corinne; Rey, Benjamin; Pellerin, Maryline; Lemaître, Jean-François; Nussey, Daniel H

    2017-09-01

    Telomere length (TL) represents a promising biomarker of overall physiological state and of past environmental experiences, which could help us understand the drivers of life-history variation in natural populations. A growing number of studies in birds suggest that environmental stress or poor environmental conditions are associated with shortened TL, but studies of such relationships in wild mammals are lacking. Here, we compare leucocyte TL from cross-sectional samples collected from two French populations of roe deer which experience different environmental conditions. We found that, as predicted, TL was shorter in the population experiencing poor environmental conditions but that this difference was only significant in older individuals and was independent of sex and body mass. Unexpectedly, the difference was underpinned by a significant increase in TL with age in the population experiencing good environmental conditions, while there was no detectable relationship with age in poor conditions. These results demonstrate both the environmental sensitivity and complexity of telomere dynamics in natural mammal populations, and highlight the importance of longitudinal data to disentangle the within- and among-individual processes that generate them. © 2017 The Authors.

  20. Optical properties of a tropical estuary during wet and dry conditions in the Nha Phu estuary, Khanh Hoa Province, south-east Vietnam

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Hai, Doan Nhu; Lam, Nguyen Ngoc

    2010-01-01

    between May 2006 and April 2008. Methods comprised CTD, optical measurements, and water sampling for suspended matter, Chl a, and CDOM. Results showed high light attenuation—K d(PAR)—in wet conditions and low in dry. K d(PAR) was highest at the estuary head and lower in the outer part. Spatial...

  1. Determination of aerodynamic damping and force coefficients of filleted twin cables in dry conditions through passive-dynamic wind tunnel tests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mattiello, E.; Eriksen, M. B.; Georgakis, Christos T.

    /FORCE Technology Climatic Wind Tunnel facility. The measured aerodynamic damping of the twin-cable arrangement in dry conditions was compared to the values obtained from full-scale monitoring and from an analytical model using static force coefficients. The comparison revealed broad agreement in the investigated...... Re range, as did the force coefficients obtained from dynamic and static tests....

  2. Genetic covariance functioners for live weight, condition score, and dry-matter intake measured at different lactations stages of Holstein-Friesian heifers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koenen, E.P.C.; Veerkamp, R.F.

    1998-01-01

    Genetic parameters for live weight, body condition score and dry-matter intake of dairy heifers were estimated using covariance function methodology. Data were from 469 heifers of the Langhill Dairy Cattle Research Centre and included observations during the first 25 weeks in lactation. Genetic

  3. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majid Abdouss

    2018-01-01

    How to Cite: Abdouss, M., Arsalanfar, M., Mirzaei, N., Zamani, Y. (2018. Effect of Drying Conditions on the Catalytic Performance, Structure, and Reaction Rates over the Fe-Co-Mn/MgO Catalyst for Production of Light Olefins. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 13 (1: 97-112 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.13.1.1222.97-112

  4. Influence of process conditions on the physicochemical properties of jussara pulp (Euterpe edulis powder produced by spray drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Audirene Amorim Santana

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The objective of this work was to optimize the spray drying of jussara pulp using mixtures of modified starch (MS with whey protein concentrate (WPC or soy protein isolate (SPI as the carrier agents. Two central composite rotatable designs were used to evaluate the effect of the independent variables of inlet air temperature (140 °C to 200 °C, carrier agent concentration - CAC (0.5 to 2 g carrier agent/g jussara pulp solids and the proportions of MS:WPC or MS:SPI (5 to 30 g WPC or SPI/100 g carrier agent on the following responses for powders formulated with MS:WPC and MS:SPI, respectively: moisture content (0.3% to 1.4% and 0.6% to 1.2%, solubility (78.0% to 92.9% and 78.9% to 83.8%, retention of total anthocyanins (49.2% to 82.9% and 34.1% to 96.9%, encapsulation efficiency (98.5% to 99.7% and 98.5% to 99.5%, hue angle (9.1 to 44.0 and 3.7 to 42.6, chroma (10.0 to 15.3 and 9.2 to 14.3 and process yield (33.2% to 55.5% and 49.9% to 78.5%. The inlet air temperature 170 °C, CAC of 1.25 and 2 g/g jussara pulp solids and proportion of MS:WPC or MS:SPI of 17.5 and 30 g/100 g were recommended as the selected conditions.

  5. The evolution of conditional dispersal and reproductive isolation along environmental gradients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Joshua L; Mazzucco, Rupert; Dieckmann, Ulf

    2011-03-21

    Dispersal modulates gene flow throughout a population's spatial range. Gene flow affects adaptation at local spatial scales, and consequently impacts the evolution of reproductive isolation. A recent theoretical investigation has demonstrated that local adaptation along an environmental gradient, facilitated by the evolution of limited dispersal, can lead to parapatric speciation even in the absence of assortative mating. This and other studies assumed unconditional dispersal, so individuals start dispersing without regard to local environmental conditions. However, many species disperse conditionally; their propensity to disperse is contingent upon environmental cues, such as the degree of local crowding or the availability of suitable mates. Here, we use an individual-based model in continuous space to investigate by numerical simulation the relationship between the evolution of threshold-based conditional dispersal and parapatric speciation driven by frequency-dependent competition along environmental gradients. We find that, as with unconditional dispersal, parapatric speciation occurs under a broad range of conditions when reproduction is asexual, and under a more restricted range of conditions when reproduction is sexual. In both the asexual and sexual cases, the evolution of conditional dispersal is strongly influenced by the slope of the environmental gradient: shallow environmental gradients result in low dispersal thresholds and high dispersal distances, while steep environmental gradients result in high dispersal thresholds and low dispersal distances. The latter, however, remain higher than under unconditional dispersal, thus undermining isolation by distance, and hindering speciation in sexual populations. Consequently, the speciation of sexual populations under conditional dispersal is triggered by a steeper gradient than under unconditional dispersal. Enhancing the disruptiveness of frequency-dependent selection, more box-shaped competition kernels

  6. The effect of environmental conditions and soil physicochemistry on phosphate stabilisation of Pb in shooting range soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanderson, Peter; Naidu, Ravi; Bolan, Nanthi

    2016-04-01

    The stabilisation of Pb in the soil by phosphate is influenced by environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of the soils to which it is applied. Stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined in four soils under different environmental conditions. The effect of soil moisture and temperature on stabilisation of Pb by phosphate was examined by measurement of water extractable and bioaccessible Pb, sequential fractionation and X-ray absorption spectroscopy. The addition of humic acid, ammonium nitrate and chloride was also examined for inhibition or improvement of Pb stability with phosphate treatment. The effect of moisture level varied between soils. In soil MB and DA a soil moisture level of 50% water holding capacity was sufficient to maximise stabilisation of Pb, but in soil TV and PE reduction in bioaccessible Pb was inhibited at this moisture level. Providing moisture at twice the soil water holding capacity did not enhance the effect of phosphate on Pb stabilisation. The difference of Pb stability as a result of incubating phosphate treated soils at 18 °C and 37 °C was relatively small. However wet-dry cycles decreased the effectiveness of phosphate treatment. The reduction in bioaccessible Pb obtained was between 20 and 40% with the most optimal treatment conditions. The reduction in water extractable Pb by phosphate was substantial regardless of incubation conditions and the effect of different temperature and soil moisture regimes was not significant. Selective sequential extraction showed phosphate treatment converted Pb in fraction 1 (exchangeable, acid and water soluble) to fraction 2 (reducible). There were small difference in fraction 4 (residual) Pb and fraction 1 as a result of treatment conditions. X-ray absorption spectroscopy of stabilised PE soil revealed small differences in Pb speciation under varying soil moisture and temperature treatments. The addition of humic acid and chloride produced the greatest effect on Pb speciation in

  7. AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN multilayer coatings: Effects of structure and surface composition on tribological behavior under dry and lubricated conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faga, Maria Giulia; Gautier, Giovanna; Cartasegna, Federico; Priarone, Paolo C.; Settineri, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • The demand for high performance nanostructured coatings has been increasing. • AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN nanocomposite coatings were deposited by PVD technique. • Coatings were analyzed in terms of structure, hardness and adhesion. • Tribological properties under dry and lubricated conditions were studied. • The effects of surface and bulk properties on friction evolution were assessed. - Abstract: Nanocomposite coatings have been widely studied over the last years because of their high potential in several applications. The increased interest for these coatings prompted the authors to study the tribological properties of two nanocomposites under dry and lubricated conditions (applying typical MQL media), in order to assess the influence of the surface and bulk properties on friction evolution. To this purpose, multilayer and nanocomposite AlSiTiN and AlSiCrN coatings were deposited onto tungsten carbide-cobalt (WC-Co) samples. Uncoated WC-Co materials were used as reference. Coatings were analyzed in terms of hardness and adhesion. The structure of the samples was assessed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), while the surface composition was studied by XPS analysis. Friction tests were carried out under both dry and lubricated conditions using an inox ball as counterpart. Both coatings showed high hardness and good adhesion to the substrate. As far as the friction properties are concerned, in dry conditions the surface properties affect the sliding contact at the early beginning, while bulk structure and tribolayer formation determine the main behavior. Only AlSiTiN coating shows a low and stable coefficient of friction (COF) under dry condition, while the use of MQL media results in a rapid stabilization of the COF for all the materials.

  8. Ways to improve the environmental conditions of their buses in operation on passenger routes of cities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melnychuk S.V.

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available The results of studies on operational and environmental parameters buses used on bus routes Zhitomir city. It uses statistical methods for determining the intensity of traffic, passenger traffic and ecology in traffic. To assess the environmental chosen stop with the greatest intensity of traffic, which is the probability of accumulation of pollution transport emissions that exceed permissible limits. Calculation of environmental pollution emission route for vehicles made stops street «Str. Hundreds of Heaven» «CUM», «vul. Hlibna» on the main trunk street Kievska. Results obtained environmental field experiments compared with the data defined calculation methods, based on the proposed use appropriate operational vehicles. The conclusions that indicate the seriousness of the problem and the urgency to address it. The system of environmental safety and road safety in Zhitomir requires significant improvements due to the increased quantities bus vehicles plying city routes. Recommendations to improve the ecological condition of intersections can be developed through the optimization of traffic using buses with environmentally improved operating parameters. Keywords: environmental and operational parameters; ecological safety; environmental assessment; intensity of traffic; passenger traffic; environmental conditions; operation; bus choice; stop.

  9. Analysis of the environmental conditions at Gale Crater from MSL/REMS measurements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez, G.; Torre-Juarez, M. de la; Vicente-Retortillo, A.; Kemppinen, O.; Renno, N.; Lemmon, M.

    2016-07-01

    The environmental conditions at Gale Crater during the first 1160 sols of the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) mission are assessed using measurements taken by the Rover Environmental Monitoring Station (REMS) on-board the MSL Curiosity rover. REMS is a suite of sensors developed to assess the environmental conditions along the rover traverse. In particular, REMS has been measuring atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature, relative humidity, UV radiation flux and wind speed. Here we analyze processed data with the highest confidence possible of atmospheric pressure, atmospheric and ground temperature and relative humidity. In addition, we estimate the daily UV irradiation at the surface of Gale Crater using dust opacity values derived from the Mastcam instrument. REMS is still in operation, but it has already provided the most comprehensive coverage of surface environmental conditions recorded by a spacecraft landed on Mars. (Author)

  10. Using data storage tags to link otolith macrostructure in Baltic cod Gadus morhua with environmental conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hüssy, Karin; Nielsen, Birgitte; Mosegaard, Henrik

    2009-01-01

    of a strontium chloride solution. Based on environmental conditions experienced, fish were classified into different behavioural types: non-reproducing 'non-spawner', and 'spawner' undertaking spawning migrations. Otolith opacity, an indicator of otolith and fish somatic growth and condition, was examined...... in relation to these environmental drivers. Temperature was the only environmental variable with a significant effect, overlaying a strong size-related effect. The temperature effect was not uniform across behavioural types and spawning periods. Opacity showed a negative correlation with temperature......We examined otolith opacity of Baltic cod in relation to environmental conditions in order to evaluate the formation mechanisms of seasonal patterns used in age determination. Adult fish were tagged with data storage tags (DSTs) and a permanent mark was induced in the otoliths by injection...

  11. Robustness testing in pharmaceutical freeze-drying: inter-relation of process conditions and product quality attributes studied for a vaccine formulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneid, Stefan C; Stärtzel, Peter M; Lettner, Patrick; Gieseler, Henning

    2011-01-01

    The recent US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) legislation has introduced the evaluation of the Design Space of critical process parameters in manufacturing processes. In freeze-drying, a "formulation" is expected to be robust when minor deviations of the product temperature do not negatively affect the final product quality attributes. To evaluate "formulation" robustness by investigating the effect of elevated product temperature on product quality using a bacterial vaccine solution. The vaccine solution was characterized by freeze-dry microscopy to determine the critical formulation temperature. A conservative cycle was developed using the SMART™ mode of a Lyostar II freeze dryer. Product temperature was elevated to imitate intermediate and aggressive cycle conditions. The final product was analyzed using X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Karl Fischer, and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC), and the life cell count (LCC) during accelerated stability testing. The cakes processed at intermediate and aggressive conditions displayed larger pores with microcollapse of walls and stronger loss in LCC than the conservatively processed product, especially during stability testing. For all process conditions, a loss of the majority of cells was observed during storage. For freeze-drying of life bacterial vaccine solutions, the product temperature profile during primary drying appeared to be inter-related to product quality attributes.

  12. Environmental conditions of some paddy cum prawn culture fields of Cochin backwaters, southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Nair, K.K.C.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.; Gopalakrishnan, T.C.; Balasubramanian, T.; Devi, C.B.L.; Aravindakshan, P.N.; Kutty, M.K.

    ecological distortions because of its proximity to the sea. The results indicate that the fields in areas 1 and 3 have environmental conditions highly suited for prawn culture whereas in area 2 the salinity conditions are not very conducive for prawn growth...

  13. Are Serum Vitamin D Levels Associated With Dry Eye Disease? Results From the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Hye Jeon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives Dry eye disease (DED is an increasingly important public health problem in Korea. Previous studies conducted in Korea have reported inconsistent results regarding the protective effects of vitamin D on DED, and these discrepancies may be related to the relatively simple questionnaire that has been used. Thus, we evaluated the association of serum vitamin D levels with DED using the ocular surface disease index (OSDI. Methods The present study evaluated data from participants in the Study Group for Environmental Eye Disease (2014-2015. This group included data from 752 participants, and data from 740 participants (253 men and 487 women were analyzed in the present study. DED severity was evaluated using the OSDI. Results Higher serum vitamin D levels were associated with a non-significantly reduced risk of DED in the crude analysis (odds ratio [OR], 0.991; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.971 to 1.011 and in the adjusted analysis (OR, 0.988; 95% CI, 0.966 to 1.010. In the crude analysis of no/mild DED vs. moderate/severe DED, men exhibited a decreased risk with increasing serum vitamin D levels (OR, 0.999; 95% CI, 0.950 to 1.051, while women exhibited an increased risk (OR, 1.003; 95% CI, 0.979 to 1.027. In these analyses, we found no significant associations. Conclusions The findings of the present study support previous reports that serum vitamin D levels are not associated with DED.

  14. Effects of environmental conditions on onset of xylem growth in Pinus sylvestris under drought.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swidrak, Irene; Gruber, Andreas; Kofler, Werner; Oberhuber, Walter

    2011-05-01

    We determined the influence of environmental factors (air and soil temperature, precipitation, photoperiod) on onset of xylem growth in Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L.) within a dry inner Alpine valley (750 m a.s.l., Tyrol, Austria) by repeatedly sampling micro-cores throughout 2007-10 at two sites (xeric and dry-mesic) at the start of the growing season. Temperature sums were calculated in degree-days (DD) ≥5 °C from 1 January and 20 March, i.e., spring equinox, to account for photoperiodic control of release from winter dormancy. Threshold temperatures at which xylogenesis had a 0.5 probability of being active were calculated by logistic regression. Onset of xylem growth, which was not significantly different between the xeric and dry-mesic sites, ranged from mid-April in 2007 to early May in 2008. Among most study years, statistically significant differences (Pdrought stress forces P. sylvestris to draw upon water reserves in the stem for enlargement of first tracheids after cambial resumption in spring. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Environmental Factors' Consideration at Industrial Transportation Organization in the «Seaport - Dry port» System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muravev, Dmitri; Rakhmangulov, Aleksandr

    2016-11-01

    Currently, container shipping development is directly associated with an increase of warehouse areas for containers' storage. One of the most successful types of container terminal is an intermodal terminal called a dry port. Main pollution sources during the organization of intermodal transport are considered. A system of dry port parameters, which are recommended for the evaluation of different scenarios for a seaport infrastructure development at the stage of its strategic planning, is proposed in this paper. The authors have developed a method for determining the optimal values of the main dry port parameters by simulation modeling in the programming software Any- Logic. Dependencies thatwere obtained as a result of modeling experiments prove the adequacy of main selected dry port parameters for the effective scenarios' evaluation of throughput and handling capacity at existing seaports at the stage of strategic planning and a rational dry port location, allowed ensuring the improvement of the ecological situation in a port city.

  16. Assessing the vegetation condition impacts of the 2011 drought across the U.S. southern Great Plains using the vegetation drought response index (VegDRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tadesse, Tsegaye; Wardlow, Brian D.; Brown, Jesslyn F.; Svoboda, Mark; Hayes, Michael; Fuchs, Brian; Gutzmer, Denise

    2015-01-01

    The vegetation drought response index (VegDRI), which combines traditional climate- and satellite-based approaches for assessing vegetation conditions, offers new insights into assessing the impacts of drought from local to regional scales. In 2011, the U.S. southern Great Plains, which includes Texas, Oklahoma, and New Mexico, was plagued by moderate to extreme drought that was intensified by an extended period of record-breaking heat. The 2011 drought presented an ideal case study to evaluate the performance of VegDRI in characterizing developing drought conditions. Assessment of the spatiotemporal drought patterns represented in the VegDRI maps showed that the severity and patterns of the drought across the region corresponded well to the record warm temperatures and much-below-normal precipitation reported by the National Climatic Data Center and the sectoral drought impacts documented by the Drought Impact Reporter (DIR). VegDRI values and maps also showed the evolution of the drought signal before the Las Conchas Fire (the largest fire in New Mexico’s history). Reports in the DIR indicated that the 2011 drought had major adverse impacts on most rangeland and pastures in Texas and Oklahoma, resulting in total direct losses of more than $12 billion associated with crop, livestock, and timber production. These severe impacts on vegetation were depicted by the VegDRI at subcounty, state, and regional levels. This study indicates that the VegDRI maps can be used with traditional drought indicators and other in situ measures to help producers and government officials with various management decisions, such as justifying disaster assistance, assessing fire risk, and identifying locations to move livestock for grazing.

  17. Durability study of neat/nanophased GFRP composites subjected to different environmental conditioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zainuddin, S.; Hosur, M.V.; Zhou, Y.; Kumar, Ashok; Jeelani, S.

    2010-01-01

    Experimental investigations on the durability of E-glass/nanoclay-epoxy composites are reported. SC-15 epoxy system was modified using 1-2 wt.% of nanoclay. Extent of clay platelet exfoliation in epoxy was evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD). Glass fiber reinforced plastic (GFRP) composite panels were fabricated using modified epoxy and exposed to four different conditions, i.e. hot (elevated temperature-dry, wet: 60 and 80 deg. C) and cold (subzero-dry, wet) for 15, 45 and 90 days. Weight change due to conditioning, quasi-static flexure and micrographic characterization were studied on the conditioned samples. Room temperature samples were also tested for baseline consideration. XRD results showed exfoliation of clay platelets in nanoclay-epoxy samples with decrease in peak intensity and increase in interplanar spacing. Samples subjected to hot-wet conditions showed higher percentage weight gain with a maximum of 4.25% in neat and 3.1% in 2 wt.% samples. Flexural tests results showed degradation with increasing time. Maximum degradation were observed for hot-wet (80 deg. C) for 90 days neat samples, i.e. 22.6% and 29.8% reduction in flexural strength and stiffness, respectively. However, less degradation was noticed for nanophased composites under similar conditions. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) results of failed samples showed better interfacial bonding in nanophased composites.

  18. Impact of the environmental conditions and substrate pre-treatment on whey protein hydrolysis: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheison, Seronei Chelulei; Kulozik, Ulrich

    2017-01-22

    Proteins in solution are subject to myriad forces stemming from interactions with each other as well as with the solvent media. The role of the environmental conditions, namely pH, temperature, ionic strength remains under-estimated yet it impacts protein conformations and consequently its interaction with, and susceptibility to, the enzyme. Enzymes, being proteins are also amenable to the environmental conditions because they are either activated or denatured depending on the choice of the conditions. Furthermore, enzyme specificity is restricted to a narrow regime of optimal conditions while opportunities outside the optimum conditions remain untapped. In addition, the composition of protein substrate (whether mixed or single purified) have been underestimated in previous studies. In addition, protein pre-treatment methods like heat denaturation prior to hydrolysis is a complex phenomenon whose progression is influenced by the environmental conditions including the presence or absence of sugars like lactose, ionic strength, purity of the protein, and the molecular structure of the mixed proteins particularly presence of free thiol groups. In this review, we revisit protein hydrolysis with a focus on the impact of the hydrolysis environment and show that preference of peptide bonds and/or one protein over another during hydrolysis is driven by the environmental conditions. Likewise, heat-denaturing is a process which is dependent on not only the environment but the presence or absence of other proteins.

  19. Local environmental conditions and the stability of protective layers on steel surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jensen, J P [Technical Univ. of Denmark, Lyngby (Denmark); Bursik, A

    1996-12-01

    Local environmental conditions determine whether the protective layers on steel surfaces are stable. With unfavorable local environmental conditions, the protective layers may be subject to damage. Taking the cation conductivity of all plant cycle streams <0.2 {mu}S/cm for granted, an adequate feed-water and - if applicable - boiler water conditioning is required to prevent such damage. Even if the mentioned conditions are met in a bulk, the local environmental conditions may be inadequate. The reasons for this may be the disregarding of interactions among material, design, and chemistry. The paper presents many possible mechanisms of protective layer damage that are directly influenced or exacerbated by plant cycle chemistry. Two items are discussed in more detail: First, the application of all volatile treatment for boiler water conditioning of drum boiler systems operating at low pressures and, second, the chemistry in the transition zone water/steam in the low pressure turbine. The latter is of major interest for the understanding and prevention of corrosion due to high concentration of impurities in the aqueous liquid phases. This is a typical example showing that local environmental conditions may fundamentally differ from the overall bulk chemistry. (au) 19 refs.

  20. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    OpenAIRE

    Simona Kunová; Juraj Čuboň; Ondřej Bučko; Miroslava Kačániová; Jana Tkáčová; Lukáš Hleba; Peter Haščík; Ľubomír Lopašovský

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, f...

  1. Effects of protectant and rehydration conditions on the survival rate and malolactic fermentation efficiency of freeze-dried Lactobacillus plantarum JH287.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sae-Byuk; Kim, Dong-Hwan; Park, Heui-Dong

    2016-09-01

    In this study, Lactobacillus plantarum JH287 was used as a malolactic fermentation starter in Campbell Early wine production. L. plantarum JH287 was first lyophilized, and the malolactic fermentation potential of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 was investigated. Different protective media and rehydration conditions were tested to improve the survival rate of freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287. Optimal protective medium contained 10 % sorbitol and 10 % skim milk. The optimal rehydration condition was a 1-h rehydration time conducted in the same protective media, and the combination of these two methods produced a survival rate of 86.37 %. In addition, a 77.71 % survival rate was achieved using freeze-dried samples that were stored at 4 °C for 2 months. Freeze-dried L. plantarum JH287 and Saccharomyces cerevisiae Fermivin were used to inoculate the Campbell Early grape must to decrease its malic acid content. Using this mixed-fermentation method, wine showed a decrease in malic acid content after 9 days of fermentation. GC-MS analysis detected 15 volatile ester compounds in the wine. A sensory evaluation showed that the taste and aroma of mix-fermented wine were better than those of the control that had not been inoculated with L. plantarum JH287.

  2. Response of dry grassland vegetation to fluctuations in weather conditions: a 9-year case study in Prague (Czech Republic)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dostálek, J.; Frantík, Tomáš

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 66, č. 5 (2011), s. 837-847 ISSN 0006-3088 R&D Projects: GA MŠk 1M0571 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z60050516 Keywords : climate change * dry grassland * vegetation coverage Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 0.557, year: 2011

  3. Prebiotic Peptide (Amide) Bond Synthesis Accelerated by Glycerol and Bicarbonate Under Neutral to Alkaline Dry-Down Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. G.; Weber, A. L.

    2017-07-01

    We report a new process for robust peptide bond synthesis in the pH 6–10 range that involves dry-down heating of amino acids in the presence of glycerol and bicarbonate (substrates: L-alanine, L-2-aminobutyric acid, β-alanine, isoserine).

  4. Long-term effects of drying conditions on the essential oil and color of tarragon leaves during storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    ArabHosseini, A.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Huisman, W.; Muller, J.

    2007-01-01

    The effect of storage on the essential oil content and color of French Tarragon (Artemisia dracunculus L.) leaves is studied. Tarragon leaves were dried at temperatures 45, 60 and 90 °C with, respectively, the relative humidity levels 17%, 7% and 2.5%. At 60 °C also a relative humidity level of 18%

  5. Genotype x Environmental Interactions and Adaptation Abilities of Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) in Cukurova Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    MART, Dürdane

    2015-01-01

    During the study, at which genotype x environmental interactions and adaptation capacity of 18 chickpea varieties that took place at yield trials conducted in years 2001, 2002 and 2003 at two different locations (Doğankent, Taşçı) in Çukurova region were studied, it has been observed that studied characteristics are significantly affected from trial locations. Chickpea varieties used in the yield trial, demonstrated different adaptation capacities to different environmental conditions in term...

  6. Assessment of the environmental impact of available options in electric power development under Polish conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cofala, Janusz; ); Jankowski, Boleslaw

    1999-01-01

    The current European initiatives limiting environmental impacts of energy production and use are presented and the proposal emission levels together with benefits are given. The role of nuclear power in achieving environmental targets in the EU countries is stressed. Then a comparison of the following 3 major electricity production options: modern coal fired power plants, gas fired combined cycle power plants and nuclear power plants is done. In the comparison Polish conditions are taken into account

  7. Experimental performance evaluation of solid concrete and dry insulation materials for passive buildings in hot and humid climatic conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rehman, Hassam Ur

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • Experimental investigation of building insulation materials in UAE from 2012–2014. • Four same calorimeters with different south walls were built in open air laboratory. • Heat flux was reduced by 22–75% in steady state analysis during summer by insulation. • Hence, energy consumption for cooling was reduced by an average 7.6–25.3%. • Heat flow was steady in free floating analysis in winter through insulated walls. - Abstract: It is known that enhancement of building energy efficiency can help in reducing energy consumption. The use of the solar insulating materials are the most efficient and cost effective passive methods for reducing the cooling requirements of the buildings. Apart from theoretical studies, no detailed experimental studies were performed in the UAE on energy savings by using solar insulation materials on buildings. Four (3 m × 3 m × 3 m) solar calorimeters were built in RAK, UAE in order to perform an open air outdoor test for energy savings obtained with solar insulating materials. The design is aimed to determine the heat flux reduction and the energy savings achieved with and without different solar insulating materials, mounted at the south wall of solar calorimeters with similar indoor and ambient conditions. Experimental results are discussed to evaluate the thermal performance during high temperature conditions in summer’s period when cooling demand of the building is at its peak and also in winters when there is no cooling demand. The test is from 2012 to 2014. The controlled-temperature experimental study at a set point of 24 °C showed that if the standard building material, i.e. solid concrete, is retrofitted with polyisocyanurate (PIR) and reflective coatings or completely replaced with energy-efficient dry insulation material walls such as exterior insulation finishing system (EIFS), energy savings up to an average of 7.6–25.3% can be achieved. This is due to the reduction of heat flux by an

  8. Wear properties of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) near β titanium alloy containing 0.5 wt.% boron in dry condition, Hank's solution and bovine serum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majumdar, P.; Singh, S.B.; Chakraborty, M.

    2010-01-01

    The effect of heat treatment on the microstructure, hardness and sliding wear behaviour of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) containing 0.5 wt.% B (TZNB) has been studied and compared with that of Ti-13Zr-13Nb (wt.%) (TZN) alloy. The wear properties were tested in dry condition and in simulated body fluid (Hank's solution and bovine serum) to understand the effect of different medium on wear behaviour of the TZNB alloy. Depending on the heat treatment condition the microstructure of the alloy consisted of α/martensite and TiB in β matrix. In general, the hardness of all the heat treated samples varied in a narrow range and in most of the cases addition of boron to the TZN alloy decreased the hardness. Almost all cases, no significant variation of the wear rate in dry condition with heat treatment was observed. Compared with the wear rate in dry condition, the wear rate in Hank's solution of the all the TZNB samples increased substantially. Moreover, the wear was found to be most severe in bovine serum. Addition of boron to TZN alloy did not result in any improvement in the wear resistance in all the media studied.

  9. Utility of remote sensing-based surface energy balance models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass under dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattarai, Nishan; Wagle, Pradeep; Gowda, Prasanna H.; Kakani, Vijaya G.

    2017-11-01

    The ability of remote sensing-based surface energy balance (SEB) models to track water stress in rain-fed switchgrass (Panicum virgatum L.) has not been explored yet. In this paper, the theoretical framework of crop water stress index (CWSI; 0 = extremely wet or no water stress condition and 1 = extremely dry or no transpiration) was utilized to estimate CWSI in rain-fed switchgrass using Landsat-derived evapotranspiration (ET) from five remote sensing based single-source SEB models, namely Surface Energy Balance Algorithm for Land (SEBAL), Mapping ET with Internalized Calibration (METRIC), Surface Energy Balance System (SEBS), Simplified Surface Energy Balance Index (S-SEBI), and Operational Simplified Surface Energy Balance (SSEBop). CWSI estimates from the five SEB models and a simple regression model that used normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), near-surface temperature difference, and measured soil moisture (SM) as covariates were compared with those derived from eddy covariance measured ET (CWSIEC) for the 32 Landsat image acquisition dates during the 2011 (dry) and 2013 (wet) growing seasons. Results indicate that most SEB models can predict CWSI reasonably well. For example, the root mean square error (RMSE) ranged from 0.14 (SEBAL) to 0.29 (SSEBop) and the coefficient of determination (R2) ranged from 0.25 (SSEBop) to 0.72 (SEBAL), justifying the added complexity in CWSI modeling as compared to results from the simple regression model (R2 = 0.55, RMSE = 0.16). All SEB models underestimated CWSI in the dry year but the estimates from SEBAL and S-SEBI were within 7% of the mean CWSIEC and explained over 60% of variations in CWSIEC. In the wet year, S-SEBI mostly overestimated CWSI (around 28%), while estimates from METRIC, SEBAL, SEBS, and SSEBop were within 8% of the mean CWSIEC. Overall, SEBAL was the most robust model under all conditions followed by METRIC, whose performance was slightly worse and better than SEBAL in dry and wet years

  10. Application of Whole Genome Expression Analysis to Assess Bacterial Responses to Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vukanti, R. V.; Mintz, E. M.; Leff, L. G.

    2005-05-01

    Bacterial responses to environmental signals are multifactorial and are coupled to changes in gene expression. An understanding of bacterial responses to environmental conditions is possible using microarray expression analysis. In this study, the utility of microarrays for examining changes in gene expression in Escherichia coli under different environmental conditions was assessed. RNA was isolated, hybridized to Affymetrix E. coli Genome 2.0 chips and analyzed using Affymetrix GCOS and Genespring software. Major limiting factors were obtaining enough quality RNA (107-108 cells to get 10μg RNA)and accounting for differences in growth rates under different conditions. Stabilization of RNA prior to isolation and taking extreme precautions while handling RNA were crucial. In addition, use of this method in ecological studies is limited by availability and cost of commercial arrays; choice of primers for cDNA synthesis, reproducibility, complexity of results generated and need to validate findings. This method may be more widely applicable with the development of better approaches for RNA recovery from environmental samples and increased number of available strain-specific arrays. Diligent experimental design and verification of results with real-time PCR or northern blots is needed. Overall, there is a great potential for use of this technology to discover mechanisms underlying organisms' responses to environmental conditions.

  11. Investigating the environmental costs of deteriorating road conditions in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Mashoko, L

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available the Environmental Costs of Deteriorating Road Conditions in South Africa L Mashoko, W L Bean*, W JvdM STEYN* CSIR, Built Environment, P O Box 395, Pretoria, 0001 Tel: 012 841-4466; Email: lmashoko@csir.co.za *University of Pretoria, Lynnwood Road, Hatfield..., Pretoria, 0002 Email: wilna.bean@up.ac.za and wynand.steyn@up.ac.za Corresponding Author: L Mashoko ABSTRACT The potential environmental impacts of deteriorating road conditions on logistics systems and the national economy have not received...

  12. Maximum Likelihood Method for Predicting Environmental Conditions from Assemblage Composition: The R Package bio.infer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lester L. Yuan

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper provides a brief introduction to the R package bio.infer, a set of scripts that facilitates the use of maximum likelihood (ML methods for predicting environmental conditions from assemblage composition. Environmental conditions can often be inferred from only biological data, and these inferences are useful when other sources of data are unavailable. ML prediction methods are statistically rigorous and applicable to a broader set of problems than more commonly used weighted averaging techniques. However, ML methods require a substantially greater investment of time to program algorithms and to perform computations. This package is designed to reduce the effort required to apply ML prediction methods.

  13. Activation analysis of several species of marine invertebrates as indicators of environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukushima, M.; Tamate, H.; Nakano, Y.

    2000-01-01

    Marine invertebrates are well known to accumulate trace metals from seawater, plankton, sea plants, and sediments. To test the usefulness of such organisms as a bio-indicator of environmental conditions, we have determined levels of trace elements in tissue of twelve species of marine invertebrates by photon and neutron activation analysis. Relatively higher concentration of elements were observed for Ni and Sn in mid-gut gland, for Cu and Zn in oyster tissues, for Se in swimming crabs, for Cu, Fe, and Se in gills of swimming crabs. Our results indicate that mid-gut gland of ear-shell will be useful as the indicator of environmental conditions. (author)

  14. Casein Films: The Effects of Formulation, Environmental Conditions and the Addition of Citric Pectin on the Structure and Mechanical Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laetitia M. Bonnaillie

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin casein films for food packaging applications reportedly possess good strength and low oxygen permeability, but low elasticity and high sensitivity to moisture. Modifying the films to target specific behaviors depending on environmental conditions can enable a variety of commercial applications for casein-based films. The mechanical properties of solvent-cast (15% solids calcium-caseinate/glycerol films (CaCas:Gly ratio of 3:1 were characterized as a function of processing and environmental conditions, including film thickness, solution formulation and ambient humidity (from 22% to 70% relative humidity (RH at ~20 °C. At constant RH, the elongation at break (EAB had a strong positive dependence on the film thickness. When RH increased, the tensile strength (TS and modulus (E decreased approximately linearly, while EAB increased. From 0.05% to 1% (w/w of citric pectin (CP was then incorporated into CaCas/Gly films following seven different formulations (mixing sequences, to alter the protein network and to evaluate the effects of CP on the tensile properties of CaCas/Gly/CP films. At constant film thickness and ~60% RH, the addition of 0.1% or 1.0% CP to the films considerably increased or decreased EAB, TS and E in different directions and to different extents, depending on the formulation, while optical micrographs also showed vastly differing network configurations, suggesting complex formulation- and stoichiometry-dependent casein-pectin interactions within the dried films. Depending on the desired film properties and utilization conditions, pectin may be a useful addition to casein film formulations for food packaging applications.

  15. Patterns of forest composition and their long term environmental drivers in the tropical dry forest transition zone of southern Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera De Cauwer

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background Tropical dry forests cover less than 13 % of the world’s tropical forests and their area and biodiversity are declining. In southern Africa, the major threat is increasing population pressure, while drought caused by climate change is a potential threat in the drier transition zones to shrub land. Monitoring climate change impacts in these transition zones is difficult as there is inadequate information on forest composition to allow disentanglement from other environmental drivers. Methods This study combined historical and modern forest inventories covering an area of 21,000 km2 in a transition zone in Namibia and Angola to distinguish late succession tree communities, to understand their dependence on site factors, and to detect trends in the forest composition over the last 40 years. Results The woodlands were dominated by six tree species that represented 84 % of the total basal area and can be referred to as Baikiaea - Pterocarpus woodlands. A boosted regression tree analysis revealed that late succession tree communities are primarily determined by climate and topography. The Schinziophyton rautanenii and Baikiaea plurijuga communities are common on slightly inclined dune or valley slopes and had the highest basal area (5.5 – 6.2 m2 ha−1. The Burkea africana - Guibourtia coleosperma and Pterocarpus angolensis – Dialium englerianum communities are typical for the sandy plateaux and have a higher proportion of smaller stems caused by a higher fire frequency. A decrease in overall basal area or a trend of increasing domination by the more drought and cold resilient B. africana community was not confirmed by the historical data, but there were significant decreases in basal area for Ochna pulchra and the valuable fruit tree D. englerianum. Conclusions The slope communities are more sheltered from fire, frost and drought but are more susceptible to human expansion. The community with the important timber tree P

  16. Resistance of Microorganisms to Extreme Environmental Conditions and Its Contribution to Astrobiology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pabulo Henrique Rampelotto

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available In the last decades, substantial changes have occurred regarding what scientists consider the limits of habitable environmental conditions. For every extreme environmental condition investigated, a variety of microorganisms have shown that not only can they tolerate these conditions, but that they also often require these extreme conditions for survival. Microbes can return to life even after hundreds of millions of years. Furthermore, a variety of studies demonstrate that microorganisms can survive under extreme conditions, such as ultracentrifugation, hypervelocity, shock pressure, high temperature variations, vacuums, and different ultraviolet and ionizing radiation intensities, which simulate the conditions that microbes could experience during the ejection from one planet, the journey through space, as well as the impact in another planet. With these discoveries, our knowledge about the biosphere has grown and the putative boundaries of life have expanded. The present work examines the recent discoveries and the principal advances concerning the resistance of microorganisms to extreme environmental conditions, and analyzes its contributions to the development of the main themes of astrobiology: the origins of life, the search for extraterrestrial life, and the dispersion of life in the Universe.

  17. Performance of Hybrid Corn in Different Environmental Conditions in the Region Of Sinop-MT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. C. T. Souza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: The aim of this study was to evaluate the agronomic performance of corn hybrids in environmental conditions favorable and unfavorable. For this, two experiments were conducted at Sinop / MT, being considered as favorable environmental conditions the use of fertilizer recommended for the crop at planting and coverage, and unfavorable conditions only recommended fertilization at planting. The experimental design was a randomized block with three replicates, with plots of 2 rows of 3 meters. The treatments were: double hybrid (Balu 761, single hybrids (AG 7088 and 30F90Y and triple hybrid (2B688. The characteristics evaluated were number of spikes, husked spikes weight, plant height and height of first spike. Regarding the number of ears, under favorable conditions, the hybrid double (Balu 761 and the triple hybrid (2B688 stood out against the simple hybrid. For the character number of spikes per plant, the husked spike weight in kg the triple hybrid 2B688 stood in relation to other unfavorable conditions. Considering the character plant height and first spike insertion, single hibrid 30F90Y, showed higher estimate in unfavorable conditions. In conclusion, the agronomic performance of types of hybrids varies in relation to environmental conditions and genotypes composition, and in this study the triple hybrid stood out in relation to others. Keywords: Zea mays, fertilization and breeding.

  18. An analysis of impact on the environmental pollution under accident conditions due to the disposal of ashes from the Nikola Tesla B thermal power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Milovanovic, D.; Zlvkovic, Z.

    1996-01-01

    The ash disposal area of Nikola Tesla B TPP is presenting considerable potential source of environmental pollution. Due to its vast area, that is for an effective plot of about 400 ha, under unfavorable meteorological conditions the emerging of ash cloud spreading over the surrounding area at distances of over 15 km could be produced. This paper deals with accident conditions at ash disposal area which, after stopping of sprinkling operation or in case of an inadequate sequence of ash tapping, when larger portions of disposal area are dried, turn into area of air polluting sources. Computations of particle dispersions under such conditions have been performed for different meteorological conditions and the results are represented as space distribution of particle deposition on the soil and their concentration in the air. (author). 5 figs., 4 refs

  19. Metabolomic Profiling as a Possible Reverse Engineering Tool for Estimating Processing Conditions of Dry-Cured Hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Masahiro; Obiya, Shinichi; Kaneko, Miku; Enomoto, Ayame; Honma, Mayu; Wakayama, Masataka; Soga, Tomoyoshi; Tomita, Masaru

    2017-01-18

    Dry-cured hams are popular among consumers. To increase the attractiveness of the product, objective analytical methods and algorithms to evaluate the relationship between observable properties and consumer acceptability are required. In this study, metabolomics, which is used for quantitative profiling of hundreds of small molecules, was applied to 12 kinds of dry-cured hams from Japan and Europe. In total, 203 charged metabolites, including amino acids, organic acids, nucleotides, and peptides, were successfully identified and quantified. Metabolite profiles were compared for the samples with different countries of origin and processing methods (e.g., smoking or use of a starter culture). Principal component analysis of the metabolite profiles with sensory properties revealed significant correlations for redness, homogeneity, and fat whiteness. This approach could be used to design new ham products by objective evaluation of various features.

  20. Sporulation of Metarhizium anisopliae var. Acridum and Beauveria bassiana on Rhammatocerus schistocercoides under humid and dry conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Magalhães Bonifácio Peixoto

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available The sporulation of the fungi Metarhizium anisopliae var. acridum and Beauveria bassiana in cadavers of the grasshopper Rhammatocerus schistocercoides was studied in dry and humid environments. Both fungi were equally virulent against R. schistocercoides. However, internally, M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 53% and 75% relative humidity. Externally, there was no sporulation at 53% and 75% RH, and M. anisopliae produced more conidia than B. bassiana at 100% RH.

  1. A new approach for concurrently improving performance of South Korean food waste valorization and renewable energy recovery via dry anaerobic digestion under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Dinh Duc; Yeop, Jeong Seong; Choi, Jaehoon; Kim, Sungsu; Chang, Soon Woong; Jeon, Byong-Hun; Guo, Wenshan; Ngo, Huu Hao

    2017-08-01

    Dry semicontinuous anaerobic digestion (AD) of South Korean food waste (FW) under four solid loading rates (SLRs) (2.30-9.21kg total solids (TS)/m 3 day) and at a fixed TS content was compared between two digesters, one each under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions. Biogas production and organic matter reduction in both digesters followed similar trends, increasing with rising SLR. Inhibitor (intermediate products of the anaerobic fermentation process) effects on the digesters' performance were not observed under the studied conditions. In all cases tested, the digesters' best performance was achieved at the SLR of 9.21kg TS/m 3 day, with 74.02% and 80.98% reduction of volatile solids (VS), 0.87 and 0.90m 3 biogas/kg VS removed , and 0.65 (65% CH 4 ) and 0.73 (60.02% CH 4 ) m 3 biogas/kg VS fed , under mesophilic and thermophilic conditions, respectively. Thermophilic dry AD is recommended for FW treatment in South Korea because it is more efficient and has higher energy recovery potential when compared to mesophilic dry AD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Comparison of methodologies in determining bone marrow fat percentage under different environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murden, David; Hunnam, Jaimie; De Groef, Bert; Rawlin, Grant; McCowan, Christina

    2017-01-01

    The use of bone marrow fat percentage has been recommended in assessing body condition at the time of death in wild and domestic ruminants, but few studies have looked at the effects of time and exposure on animal bone marrow. We investigated the utility of bone marrow fat extraction as a tool for establishing antemortem body condition in postmortem specimens from sheep and cattle, particularly after exposure to high heat, and compared different techniques of fat extraction for this purpose. Femora were collected from healthy and "skinny" sheep and cattle. The bones were either frozen or subjected to 40°C heat; heated bones were either wrapped in plastic to minimize desiccation or were left unwrapped. Marrow fat percentage was determined at different time intervals by oven-drying, or by solvent extraction using hexane in manual equipment or a Soxhlet apparatus. Extraction was performed, where possible, on both wet and dried tissue. Multiple samples were tested from each bone. Bone marrow fat analysis using a manual, hexane-based extraction technique was found to be a moderately sensitive method of assessing antemortem body condition of cattle up to 6 d after death. Multiple replicates should be analyzed where possible. Samples from "skinny" sheep showed a different response to heat from those of "healthy" sheep; "skinny" samples were so reduced in quantity by day 6 (the first sampling day) that no individual testing could be performed. Further work is required to understand the response of sheep marrow.

  3. Impact of processing conditions on the kinetic of vitamin C degradation and 2-furoylmethyl amino acid formation in dried strawberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Megías-Pérez, Roberto; Soria, A Cristina; Olano, Agustín; Montilla, Antonia; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-06-15

    In this paper, a study on the usefulness of the determination of vitamin C together with indicators of the initial steps of Maillard reaction (2-furoylmethyl amino acids, 2-FM-AA) during the convective drying of strawberries has been carried out for the first time, paying special attention to the kinetics of degradation and formation, respectively, of both parameters. Formation of 2-FM-AA of Lys, Arg and GABA and vitamin C loss increased with time and temperature following, respectively, a zero and first-order kinetics. As supported by its lower activation energy, 2-FM-GABA (55.9 kJ/mol) and 2-FM-Lys+2-FM-Arg (58.2 kJ/mol) were shown to be slightly more sensitive indicators than vitamin C (82.1 kJ/mol). The obtained results, together with a complementary study on the rehydration ability and sensorial attributes of samples, pointed out the suitability of the convective drying system to obtain dried strawberries of high nutritive quality and bioactivity and good consumer acceptance. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. U02 pellets surface properties and environmental conditions effects on the wet adsorption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Junqueira, Fabio da S.; Carnaval, Joao Paulo R.

    2013-01-01

    Angra power plants fuels are made bye en riche uranium dioxide (UO 2 ) pellets which are assembled inside metal tubes. These tubes are welded and arranged in order to perform the final product, the fuel assembly. The UO 2 pellets have a specified humidity tolerance designed to comply with security and performance requirements when working under operating conditions in the reactor. This work intends to verify the pellet opened porosity and the environmental conditions (relative humidity and temperature) influence on the wet adsorption by UO 2 pellet. The work was done in 2 parts: Firstly, pallets groups from 3 opened porosity levels were tested under a fixed relative humidity, temperature and time. In the second part of the work, the most critical pallet group upon wet adsorption was tested under different relative humidity and temperature conditions, regarding design of experiments. The opened porosity and environmental conditions tests allowed the evolution of the wet adsorption by the UO 2 pallet. (author)

  5. Influence of high gravity process conditions on the environmental impact of ethanol production from wheat straw

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Janssen, Matty; Tillman, Anne-Marie; Cannella, David

    2014-01-01

    Biofuel production processes at high gravity are currently under development. Most of these processes however use sugars or first generation feedstocks as substrate. This paper presents the results of a life cycle assessment (LCA) of the production of bio-ethanol at high gravity conditions from...... of the ethanol production, but this can be compensated by reducing the impact of enzyme production and use, and by polyethylene glycol addition at high dry matter content. The results also show that the renewable and non-renewable energy use resulting from the different process configurations ultimately...

  6. Substrate treatment and drying conditions effect on the properties of roll-to-roll gravure printed PEDOT:PSS thin films

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koidis, C.; Logothetidis, S.; Kapnopoulos, C.; Karagiannidis, P.G.; Laskarakis, A.; Hastas, N.A.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: → Drying conditions effect on the optical, electrical and structural characteristics of R2R gravure printed PEDOT:PSS thin films → Insight on microstructural, compositional and electrical characteristics of the PEDOT:PSS films by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry combined with the AFM results → Drying temperature increase leads to less remained water volume fraction, smaller particles, lower film roughness and finally better conductivity → Transformation of spherical particles in solution to pancakes in thin films is attributed to the drying process → The increase of corona efficiency leads to a deeper PET surface modification without affecting the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS - Abstract: The optical, structural and electrical properties of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):poly(4-styrenesulfonic acid) (PEDOT:PSS) thin films printed by roll-to-roll gravure have been investigated. Corona treatment has been applied to enhance the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS on PolyEthylene Terephthalate (PET) web. It has been found that there was a stronger in-depth surface modification of PET with the increase of corona efficiency; however, the adhesion of PEDOT:PSS was not actually affected. Also, Spectroscopic Ellipsometry and Atomic Force Microscopy have been used to extract information on the mechanisms that define PEDOT:PSS properties. The increase of the drying temperature of the PEDOT:PSS films has been found to reduce the remaining water inside the films and lead to the decrease of the PEDOT:PSS particles size.

  7. Evaluation of severe accident environmental conditions taking accident management strategy into account for equipment survivability assessments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Byung Chul; Jeong, Ji Hwan; Na, Man Gyun; Kim, Soong Pyung

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents a methodology utilizing accident management strategy in order to determine accident environmental conditions in equipment survivability assessments. In case that there is well-established accident management strategy for specific nuclear power plant, an application of this tool can provide a technical rationale on equipment survivability assessment so that plant-specific and time-dependent accident environmental conditions could be practically and realistically defined in accordance with the equipment and instrumentation required for accident management strategy or action appropriately taken. For this work, three different tools are introduced; Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) outcomes, major accident management strategy actions, and Accident Environmental Stages (AESs). In order to quantitatively investigate an applicability of accident management strategy to equipment survivability, the accident simulation for a most likely scenario in Korean Standard Nuclear Power Plants (KSNPs) is performed with MAAP4 code. The Accident Management Guidance (AMG) actions such as the Reactor Control System (RCS) depressurization, water injection into the RCS, the containment pressure and temperature control, and hydrogen concentration control in containment are applied. The effects of these AMG actions on the accident environmental conditions are investigated by comparing with those from previous normal accident simulation, especially focused on equipment survivability assessment. As a result, the AMG-involved case shows the higher accident consequences along the accident environmental stages

  8. Foundry industries: environmental aspects and environmental condition indicators; Industrias de fundicion: aspectos ambientales e indicadores de condicion ambiental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sosa, B. s.; Banda-Noriega, R. B.; Guerrero, E. M.

    2013-03-01

    Nowadays, environmental indicators are widely used as effective tools to assist decision-making in both public and private sectors. The lack of literature and research about local and regional Environmental Condition Indicators (ECI), the poor knowledge regarding solid waste generation, effluents and gas emissions from foundry industries, and their particular location in the urban area of Tandil, Argentina are the main reasons for this investigation, aiming to develop a set a of ECI to provide information about the environment in relation to the foundry industry. The study involves all the foundries located in the city between March and April 2010. The set of ECI developed includes 9 indicators for air, 5 for soil and 1 for water. Specific methodology was used for each indicator. (Author) 31 refs.

  9. Effects of substrata and environmental conditions on ecological succession on historic shipwrecks

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Duarte, Manuel M.; Fernández-Montblanc, Tomás; Bethencourt, Manuel; Izquierdo, Alfredo

    2018-01-01

    An understanding of the interactions between biological, chemical and physical dynamics is especially important for the adequate conservation of the Underwater Cultural Heritage. However, while physical and chemical processes are relatively well-investigated, the biological communities associated with these habitats are poorly studied. We compared the sessile community developed on panels of different materials placed on two historical shipwrecks, the Fougueux and the Bucentaure, from the Battle of Trafalgar (October 1805). Six materials used at the construction of vessels at the 18th and 19th centuries were selected: copper, brass, cast iron, carbon steel, pine and oak. The sessile community developed on the panels was studied two and 15 months after their immersion at the water to determine the effects of materials and environmental conditions (sediments, waves, hydrodynamic conditions, temperature and salinity) on ecological succession and the possible implications at the conservation of historical shipwrecks. On the Fougueux, the environmental conditions more strongly influenced the biological succession than the material type, with pioneer colonisers dominating the communities in both sampling periods. On the Bucentaure, exposed to more stable environmental conditions, the sessile community showed differences between sampling periods and among materials at the end of the experiment. Under these more stable environmental conditions, the material type showed a higher influence on the sessile community. Species that produce calcareous concretions developed on metallic panels, but were absent on wood panels, where the shipworm Teredo navalis was more abundant. The relationship between environmental conditions, sessile organisms and material type can influence the conservation status of the archaeological sites.

  10. The Conditions for Functional Mechanisms of Compensation and Reward for Environmental Services

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brent M. Swallow

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Mechanisms of compensation and reward for environmental services (CRES are becoming increasingly contemplated as means for managing human-environment interactions. Most of the functional mechanisms in the tropics have been developed within the last 15 years; many developing countries still have had little experience with functional mechanisms. We consider the conditions that foster the origin and implementation of functional mechanisms. Deductive and inductive approaches are combined. Eight hypotheses are derived from theories of institution and policy change. Five case studies, from Latin America, Africa, and Asia, are then reviewed according to a common framework. The results suggest the following to be important conditions for functional CRES mechanisms: (1 localized scarcity for particular environmental services, (2 influence from international environmental agreements and international organizations, (3 government policies and public attitudes favoring a mixture of regulatory and market-based instruments, and (4 security of individual and group property rights.

  11. Modelling the carbon cycle of grassland in the Netherlands under various management strategies and environmental conditions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pol-van Dasselaar, van den A.; Lantinga, E.A.

    1995-01-01

    A simulation model of the grassland carbon cycle (CCGRASS) was developed to evaluate the long-term effects of different management strategies and various environmental conditions on carbon sequestration in a loam soil under permanent grassland in the Netherlands. The model predicted that the rate of

  12. Response of the photosynthetic system to altered protein composition and changes in environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tóth, T.

    2014-01-01

    The photosynthetic thylakoid membrane has a hierarchically ordered structure containing pigment-protein complexes that capture solar radiation and convert it into chemical energy. Its highly dynamic structure is capable to continuously respond to the altered environmental conditions, e.g., light

  13. Java project on periodontal diseases: periodontal bone loss in relation to environmental and systemic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaliya, A.; Laine, M.L.; Delanghe, J.R.; Loos, B.G.; van Wijk, A.J.; van der Velden, U.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess in a population deprived from regular dental care the relationship between alveolar bone loss (ABL) and environmental/systemic conditions. Material & Methods The study population consisted of subjects from the Purbasari tea estate on West Java, Indonesia. A full set of dental

  14. Music venues and hearing loss: Opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, I.; Ploeg, C.P.B. van der; Brug, J.; Raat, H.

    2009-01-01

    This study explores the opportunities for and barriers to improving environmental conditions in order to reduce the risk for music-induced hearing loss in people who attend music venues. Individual semi-structured interviews were held with 20 representatives of music venues and of governmental

  15. Woodland pond salamander abundance in relation to forest management and environmental conditions in northern Wisconsin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deahn M. Donner; Christine A. Ribic; Albert J. Beck; Dale Higgins; Dan Eklund; Susan. Reinecke

    2015-01-01

    Woodland ponds are important landscape features that help sustain populations of amphibians that require this aquatic habitat for successful reproduction. Species abundance patterns often reflect site-specific differences in hydrology, physical characteristics, and surrounding vegetation. Large-scale processes such as changing land cover and environmental conditions...

  16. 40 CFR 86.1312-2007 - Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 19 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation environmental conditions, microbalance specifications, and particulate matter filter handling and... Particulate Exhaust Test Procedures § 86.1312-2007 Filter stabilization and microbalance workstation...

  17. The effect of environmental conditions on the seasonal dormancy pattern and germination of weed seeds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bouwmeester, H.J.

    1990-01-01

    Weeds cause considerable losses in horticultural and agricultural crops. Weeds are still predominantly controlled with herbicides. To reduce the use of chemicals, a better understanding of the biology of weeds is required. In this thesis the effect of environmental conditions on dormancy

  18. Postfire environmental conditions influence the spatial pattern of regeneration for Pinus ponderosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    V. H. Bonnet; Anna Schoettle; W. D. Shepperd

    2005-01-01

    Regeneration of ponderosa pine after fire depends on the patterns of seed availability and the environmental conditions that define safe sites for seedling establishment. A transect approach was applied in 2002 to determine the spatial distribution of regeneration from unburned to burned areas within the landscape impacted by the Jasper Fire of 2000 in the...

  19. Influence of environmental conditions on the toxicokinetics of cadmium in the marine copepod Acartia tonsa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pavlaki, Maria D.; Morgado, Rui G.; van Gestel, Cornelis A.M.; Calado, Ricardo; Soares, Amadeu M.V.M.; Loureiro, Susana

    2017-01-01

    mMarine and estuarine ecosystems are highly productive areas that often act as a final sink for several pollutants, such as cadmium. Environmental conditions in these habitats can affect metal speciation, as well as its uptake and depuration by living organisms. The aim of this study was to assess

  20. Effects of environmental stress on forest crown condition in Europe. Part IV statistical analysis of relationships

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klap, J.M.; Oude Voshaar, J.H.; Vries, de W.; Erisman, J.W.

    2000-01-01

    Site-specific estimates for various environmental stress factors were related with measured crown condition data at a systematic 16 x: 16 km(2) grid over Europe, according to previously stated hypotheses, using a multiple regression approach, including interactions, and lagged effects of stress

  1. Effects of Ionizing Irradiation on Mushrooms as Influenced by Physiological and Environmental Conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skou, Jens-Peder; Bech, K.; Lundsten, K.

    1974-01-01

    The effects of irradiation with β (10 MeV fast electrons)- and γ-rays were studied on several characters in strains of the cultured mushroom under different physiological and environmental conditions, including uncut and cut mushrooms, tightness of packing, and relative humidity. Weight loss was ...

  2. Validation and application of fossil DNA as a recorder of past marine ecosystems and environmental conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boere, A.C.

    2010-01-01

    The majority of planktonic species, including those that are informative in the reconstructions of past marine environmental conditions, do not produce diagnostic features (e.g., cysts, spores, or lipid biomarkers) and would therefore escape identification from the fossil record using traditional

  3. Partitioning the Relative Importance of Phylogeny and Environmental Conditions on Phytoplankton Fatty Acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galloway, Aaron W. E.; Winder, Monika

    2015-01-01

    Essential fatty acids (EFA), which are primarily generated by phytoplankton, limit growth and reproduction in diverse heterotrophs. The biochemical composition of phytoplankton is well-known to be governed both by phylogeny and environmental conditions. Nutrients, light, salinity, and temperature all affect both phytoplankton growth and fatty acid composition. However, the relative importance of taxonomy and environment on algal fatty acid content has yet to be comparatively quantified, thus inhibiting predictions of changes to phytoplankton food quality in response to global environmental change. We compiled 1145 published marine and freshwater phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, consisting of 208 species from six major taxonomic groups, cultured in a wide range of environmental conditions, and used a multivariate distance-based linear model to quantify the total variation explained by each variable. Our results show that taxonomic group accounts for 3-4 times more variation in phytoplankton fatty acids than the most important growth condition variables. The results underscore that environmental conditions clearly affect phytoplankton fatty acid profiles, but also show that conditions account for relatively low variation compared to phylogeny. This suggests that the underlying mechanism determining basal food quality in aquatic habitats is primarily phytoplankton community composition, and allows for prediction of environmental-scale EFA dynamics based on phytoplankton community data. We used the compiled dataset to calculate seasonal dynamics of long-chain EFA (LCEFA; ≥C20 ɷ-3 and ɷ-6 polyunsaturated fatty acid) concentrations and ɷ-3:ɷ-6 EFA ratios in Lake Washington using a multi-decadal phytoplankton community time series. These analyses quantify temporal dynamics of algal-derived LCEFA and food quality in a freshwater ecosystem that has undergone large community changes as a result of shifting resource management practices, highlighting diatoms

  4. Vertical and temporal variation in phytoplankton assemblages correlated with environmental conditions in the Mundaú reservoir, semi-arid northeastern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lira, G A S T; Moura, A N; Vilar, M C P; Cordeiro-Araújo, M K; Bittencourt-Oliveira, M C

    2014-08-01

    The goal of this study was to analyse the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community at the Mundaú reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, and to correlate it to environmental conditions over two distinct seasons, dry and rainy. Samples were collected bimonthly at eight depths in the dry and rainy season for analyses of the physical and chemical variables of the water, as well as density, abundance, dominance, species diversity index and equitability of the community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way) was used to analyse the vertical and seasonal differences, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA) was used to assess associations between phytoplankton and environmental variables Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska) Seenaya and Subba Raju was the only dominant species and Geitlerinema amphibium (C. Agardh) Anagnostidis, Merismopedia punctata Meyen and Synedra rumpens Kützing. Others six taxa were abundant in at least one of the samples. Distinct vertical distribution patterns were observed for the abundant taxa between depths and seasons. The cyanobacteria, with the exception of C. raciborskii, showed similar seasonal patterns, with higher densities in the dry season. The CCA showed a strong correlation between the density of the phytoplanktonic species and abiotic variables. The vertical changes in abundant taxa revealed distinct patterns regulated by the variation in the environmental factors that were directly linked to seasonality, with the success of one or more species being dependent on their life strategies and ecological needs. The present study restates the importance of environmental and seasonal factors for phytoplankton composition and distribution in a freshwater tropical reservoir through a vertical gradient.

  5. Vertical and temporal variation in phytoplankton assemblages correlated with environmental conditions in the Mundaú reservoir, semi-arid northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GAST LIRA

    Full Text Available The goal of this study was to analyse the vertical structure of the phytoplankton community at the Mundaú reservoir, located in the semi-arid region of northeastern Brazil, and to correlate it to environmental conditions over two distinct seasons, dry and rainy. Samples were collected bimonthly at eight depths in the dry and rainy season for analyses of the physical and chemical variables of the water, as well as density, abundance, dominance, species diversity index and equitability of the community. Analysis of variance (ANOVA-two way was used to analyse the vertical and seasonal differences, and Canonical Correspondence Analysis (CCA was used to assess associations between phytoplankton and environmental variables Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii (Woloszynska Seenaya and Subba Raju was the only dominant species and Geitlerinema amphibium (C. Agardh Anagnostidis, Merismopedia punctata Meyen and Synedra rumpens Kützing. Others six taxa were abundant in at least one of the samples. Distinct vertical distribution patterns were observed for the abundant taxa between depths and seasons. The cyanobacteria, with the exception of C. raciborskii, showed similar seasonal patterns, with higher densities in the dry season. The CCA showed a strong correlation between the density of the phytoplanktonic species and abiotic variables. The vertical changes in abundant taxa revealed distinct patterns regulated by the variation in the environmental factors that were directly linked to seasonality, with the success of one or more species being dependent on their life strategies and ecological needs. The present study restates the importance of environmental and seasonal factors for phytoplankton composition and distribution in a freshwater tropical reservoir through a vertical gradient.

  6. Carbon accumulation in a permafrost polygon peatland: steady long-term rates in spite of shifts between dry and wet conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Yang; Couwenberg, John

    2015-02-01

    Ice-wedge polygon peatlands contain a substantial part of the carbon stored in permafrost soils. However, little is known about their long-term carbon accumulation rates (CAR) in relation to shifts in vegetation and climate. We collected four peat profiles from one single polygon in NE Yakutia and cut them into contiguous 0.5 cm slices. Pollen density interpolation between AMS (14)C dated levels provided the time span contained in each of the sample slices, which--in combination with the volumetric carbon content--allowed for the reconstruction of CAR over decadal and centennial timescales. Vegetation representing dry palaeo-ridges and wet depressions was reconstructed with detailed micro- and macrofossil analysis. We found repeated shifts between wet and dry conditions during the past millennium. Dry ridges with associated permafrost growth originated during phases of (relatively) warm summer temperature and collapsed during relatively cold phases, illustrating the important role of vegetation and peat as intermediaries between ambient air temperature and the permafrost. The average long-term CAR across the four profiles was 10.6 ± 5.5 g C m(-2) yr(-1). Time-weighted mean CAR did not differ significantly between wet depression and dry ridge/hummock phases (10.6 ± 5.2 g C m(-2) yr(-1) and 10.3 ± 5.7 g C m(-2) yr(-1), respectively). Although we observed increased CAR in relation to warm shifts, we also found changes in the opposite direction and the highest CAR actually occurred during the Little Ice Age. In fact, CAR rather seems to be governed by strong internal feedback mechanisms and has roughly remained stable on centennial time scales. The absence of significant differences in CAR between dry ridge and wet depression phases suggests that recent warming and associated expansion of shrubs will not affect long-term rates of carbon burial in ice-wedge polygon peatlands. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  7. Survivability of porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) in bovine plasma submitted to spray drying processing and held at different time by temperature storage conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pujols, Joan; Segalés, Joaquim

    2014-12-05

    Bovine plasma was inoculated with porcine epidemic diarrhea virus (PEDV) at an average final titer of 4.2 log10 TCID50/mL to determine the effect of spray drying on viral inactivation. Using a laboratory scale drier, inoculated plasma was spray dried at 200 °C inlet temperature and either 70 or 80 °C throughout substance. Both liquid and dried samples were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. Results indicated liquid samples contained infective virus, but none of the spray dried samples were infectious. Also, survivability of PEDV inoculated on spray dried bovine plasma (SDBP) and stored at 4, 12 or 22 °C was determined for 7, 14 and 21 days. Commercial SDBP powder was inoculated with PEDV to an average final titer of 2.8 log10 TCID50/g. Five samples per time and temperature conditions were subjected to three passages on VERO cell monolayers to determine PEDV infectivity. The virus was non-infectious for all samples stored at 22 °C at 7, 14 and 21 days. PEDV was infective in 1 out of 5 samples stored at 12 °C at 7 days, but none of the samples stored for 14 and 21 days were infectious in cell culture. For samples stored at 4 °C, 4 out of 5 samples were infectious at 7 days, 1 out of 5 samples were infectious at 14 days, but none were infectious at 21 days. In summary, PEDV was not infectious on cell culture within 7 days when stored at room temperature and within 21 days when stored at refrigerated temperature. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael

    2016-02-01

    Review of the etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), and the Cochrane Reviews and Trials in the last 10 years using the key words "dry eye disease," "dry eye syndrome," "dry eye and treatment." Primary sources were used to locate additional resources. Sixty-eight publications were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, book chapters, review articles, original research articles, and product prescribing information for the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of DED. DED is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders. Signs and symptoms of DED vary by patient, but may include ocular irritation, redness, itching, photosensitivity, visual blurring, mucous discharge, and decreased tear meniscus or break-up time. Symptoms improve with treatment, but the condition is not completely curable. Treatment includes reducing environmental causes, discontinuing medications that cause or worsen dry eye, and managing contributing ocular or systemic conditions. Most patients use nonprescription tear substitutes, and if these are not sufficient, other treatment is prescribed. These treatments include the ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine, punctal occlusion, eye side shields, systemic cholinergic agents, and autologous serum tears. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and current therapy for DED.

  9. A study of diurnal variations of radon and thoron concentrations in different indoor environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pant, Preeti; Prasad, Mukesh; Ramola, R.C.

    2015-01-01

    The measurements for diurnal variations in radon ( 222 Rn) and thoron ( 220 Rn) concentrations were performed in the different indoor conditions of Tehri Garhwal, Uttarakhand, India by using AlphaGUARD, Portable Radon Monitor and RAD7. While selecting the dwellings, the ventilation conditions, building materials, life style of the inhabitants and their exposure time indoors were also considered. The behavior of indoor radon and thoron concentrations was observed for different type of dwellings with different environmental conditions. The measurement techniques, results obtained and comparison of the results are discussed in details. (author)

  10. Impact of environmental factors on the culturability and viability of Listeria monocytogenes under conditions encountered in food processing plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overney, Anaïs; Jacques-André-Coquin, Joséphine; Ng, Patricia; Carpentier, Brigitte; Guillier, Laurent; Firmesse, Olivier

    2017-03-06

    The ability of Listeria monocytogenes to adhere to and persist on surfaces for months or even years may be responsible for its transmission from contaminated surfaces to food products. Hence the necessity to find effective means to prevent the establishment of L. monocytogenes in food processing environments. The aim of this study was to assess, through a fractional experimental design, the environmental factors that could affect the survival of L. monocytogenes cells on surfaces to thereby prevent the persistence of this pathogen in conditions mimicking those encountered in food processing plants: culture with smoked salmon juice or meat exudate, use of two materials with different hygiene status, biofilm of L. monocytogenes in pure-culture or dual-culture with a Pseudomonas fluorescens strain, application of a drying step after cleaning and disinfection (C&D) and comparison of two strains of L. monocytogenes. Bacterial survival was assessed by culture, qPCR to quantify total cells, and propidium monoazide coupled with qPCR to quantify viable cells and highlight viable but non-culturable (VBNC) cells. Our results showed that failure to apply C&D causes cell persistence on surfaces. Moreover, the sanitation procedure leads only to a loss of culturability and appearance of VBNC populations. However, an additional daily drying step after C&D optimises the effectiveness of these procedures to reduce culturable populations. Our results reinforce the importance to use molecular tools to monitor viable pathogens in food processing plants to avoid underestimating the amounts of cells using only methods based on cell culture. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Examples of landscape indicators for assessing environmental conditions and problems in urban and suburban areas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin-Duque, J. F.; Godfrey, A.; Diez, A.; Cleaves, E.; Pedraza, J.; Sanz, M.A.; Carrasco, R.M.; Bodoque, J.; Brebbia, C.A.; Martin-Duque, J.F.; Wadhwa, L.C.

    2002-01-01

    Geo-indicators can help to assess environmental conditions in city urban and suburban areas. Those indicators should be meaningful for understanding environmental changes. From examples of Spanish and American cities, geo-indicators for assessing environmental conditions and changes in urban and suburban areas are proposed. The paper explore two types of geo-indicators. The first type presents general information that can be used to indicate the presence of a broad array of geologic conditions, either favouring or limiting various kinds of uses of the land. The second type of geo-indicator is the one most commonly used, and as a group most easily understood; these are site and problem specific and they are generally used after a problem is identified. Among them, watershed processes, seismicity and physiographic diversity are explained in more detail. A second dimension that is considered when discussing geo-indicators is the issue of scale. Broad scale investigations, covering extensive areas are only efficient at cataloguing general conditions common to much of the area or some outstanding feature within the area. This type of information is best used for policy type decisions. Detailed scale investigations can provide information about local conditions, but are not efficient at cataloguing vast areas. Information gathered at the detailed level is necessary for project design and construction.

  12. Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauri, Claudine; Fabricius, Katharina E; Schaffelke, Britta; Humphrey, Craig

    2010-09-13

    Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2) dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading). The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation.

  13. Chemical and physical environmental conditions underneath mat- and canopy-forming macroalgae, and their effects on understorey corals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudine Hauri

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Disturbed coral reefs are often dominated by dense mat- or canopy-forming assemblages of macroalgae. This study investigated how such dense macroalgal assemblages change the chemical and physical microenvironment for understorey corals, and how the altered environmental conditions affect the physiological performance of corals. Field measurements were conducted on macroalgal-dominated inshore reefs in the Great Barrier Reef in quadrats with macroalgal biomass ranging from 235 to 1029 g DW m(-2 dry weight. Underneath mat-forming assemblages, the mean concentration of dissolved oxygen was reduced by 26% and irradiance by 96% compared with conditions above the mat, while concentrations of dissolved organic carbon and soluble reactive phosphorous increased by 26% and 267%, respectively. The difference was significant but less pronounced under canopy-forming assemblages. Dissolved oxygen declined and dissolved inorganic carbon and alkalinity increased with increasing algal biomass underneath mat-forming but not under canopy-forming assemblages. The responses of corals to conditions similar to those found underneath algal assemblages were investigated in an aquarium experiment. Coral nubbins of the species Acropora millepora showed reduced photosynthetic yields and increased RNA/DNA ratios when exposed to conditions simulating those underneath assemblages (pre-incubating seawater with macroalgae, and shading. The magnitude of these stress responses increased with increasing proportion of pre-incubated algal water. Our study shows that mat-forming and, to a lesser extent, canopy-forming macroalgal assemblages alter the physical and chemical microenvironment sufficiently to directly and detrimentally affect the metabolism of corals, potentially impeding reef recovery from algal to coral-dominated states after disturbance. Macroalgal dominance on coral reefs therefore simultaneously represents a consequence and cause of coral reef degradation.

  14. Performance Comparison of Widely-Used Maximum Power Point Tracker Algorithms under Real Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    DURUSU, A.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Maximum power point trackers (MPPTs play an essential role in extracting power from photovoltaic (PV panels as they make the solar panels to operate at the maximum power point (MPP whatever the changes of environmental conditions are. For this reason, they take an important place in the increase of PV system efficiency. MPPTs are driven by MPPT algorithms and a number of MPPT algorithms are proposed in the literature. The comparison of the MPPT algorithms in literature are made by a sun simulator based test system under laboratory conditions for short durations. However, in this study, the performances of four most commonly used MPPT algorithms are compared under real environmental conditions for longer periods. A dual identical experimental setup is designed to make a comparison between two the considered MPPT algorithms as synchronized. As a result of this study, the ranking among these algorithms are presented and the results show that Incremental Conductance (IC algorithm gives the best performance.

  15. Recent developments in the detailed modelling of power house environmental conditions using GOTHIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, R.C.; Fluke, R.J.; Yim, K.; Rossitter, B.G.

    1997-01-01

    Environmental qualification of safety equipment in the powerhouse requires detailed information on the predicted harsh conditions that can arise following a steam line break. Although lumped parameter codes provide quick assessments of global conditions, the results are unsatisfactory because the spatial detail needed to evaluate specific equipment, or indeed to optimize and confirm the design adequacy of mitigating features, is not available. To overcome these problems, new models have been developed to provide detailed three-dimensional information using the GOTHIC code. Furthermore, new animated graphical displays help the designer visualize and fully comprehend the buoyancy driven steam flow within the powerhouse. This has lead to quick optimization of the placement, size and opening time of the emergency venting system, thereby mitigating the conditions for which safety equipment must be qualified. This has resulted in significant cost savings for the environmental qualification programme. (author)

  16. A decision-making support system to select forages according to environmental conditions in Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blanca Aurora Arce Barboza

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Low food supply is a major problem affecting a large percentage of the livestock population in Colombia and is largely associated to inappropriate choice of forage species; and thus not well adapted to the environmental conditions of a specific region. To mitigate this problem, without incurring increasing costs associated to changing environmental conditions, it is possible to match the adaptive capacity of species to the environment in which they grow. A decision support system was developed to select suitable forage species for a given environment. The system is based on the use of existing information about requirements of the species rather than specific experimentation. From the information gathered, a database was generated and implemented on ASP.NET in C # and SQL Server database. This system allows users to search and select pastures and forage species for specific soil and climatic conditions of a particular farm or region, through a user-friendly web platform.

  17. Decreasing the cost of ground grid installations under difficult environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miranda, E.P.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of a ground grid is to provide a means to carry and dissipate electrical currents into ground under normal and fault conditions. In some cases, especially in dry rock terrain, the soil resistivity can be very high, making it difficult and very expensive to install an acceptable ground grid. Usually a soil resistivity above 200 ohm-meter is considered high. This paper discusses and provides design calculations for a successful ground grid installation in a distribution substation located in one of the worst soil conditions encountered in the industry; a very rocky terrain where the resistivity is 1800 ohm-m. It is a practical application of the theories presented in ANSI/IEEE Std. 80-1986. The design application consists of bare copper combined with conventional and a new type of ground rod. The installation cost for this application was much less than the cost associated with that of a conventional installation

  18. Effect of environmental conditions on the fatty acid fingerprint of microbial communities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biryukov, Mikhail; Dippold, Michaela; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2014-05-01

    Lipid biomarkers, especially phospholipids, are routinely used to characterize microbial community structure in environmental samples. Interpretations of these fingerprints mainly depend on rare results of pure cultures which were cultivated under standardized batch conditions. However, membrane lipids (e.g. phopholipid biomarker) build up the interface between microorganisms and their environment and consequently are prone to be adapted according to the environmental conditions. We cultivated several bacteria, isolated from soil (gram-positive and gram-negative) under various conditions e.g. C supply and temperature regimes. Effect of growth conditions on phospholipids fatty acid (PLFA) as well as neutral lipid fatty acids (NLFA) and glycolipid fatty acids (GLFA) was investigated by conventional method of extraction and derivatization, followed by assessments with gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In addition, phospholipids were measured as intact molecules by ultra high performance liquid chromatography - quadrupole - time of flight mass spectrometer (UHPLC-Q-ToF) to further assess the composition of headgroups with fatty acids residues and their response on changing environmental conditions. PLFA fingerprints revealed a strong effect of growth stage, C supply and temperature e.g. decrease of temperature increased the amount of branched and/or unsaturated fatty acids to maintain the membrane fluidity. This strongly changes the ratio of specific to unspecific fatty acids depending on environmental conditions. Therefore, amounts of specific fatty acids cannot be used to assess biomass of a functional microbial group in soil. Intracellular neutral lipids depended less on environmental conditions reflecting a more stable biomarker group but also showed less specific fatty acids then PLFA. Therefore, combination of several lipid classes is suggested as more powerful tool to assess amounts and functionality of environmental microbial communities. Further

  19. Spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata link extract: the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance and product properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. R. F. Souza

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper the effects of feed atomizer position and operating conditions on equipment performance (accumulation rate, product recovery, elutriation and thermal efficiency and product properties (moisture content, size distribution, flavonoid degradation and flow properties during spouted bed drying of Bauhinia forficata Link extract are evaluated. The parameters studied were the position of the atomizer system (top spray or bottom spray, the inlet temperature of the spouting gas (80 and 150oC and the feed mass flow rate of concentrated extract relative to the evaporation capacity of the dryer, Ws/Wmax (15 to 100%. Higher accumulation rate values were obtained with the atomizer placed at the bottom of the bed. In this configuration, the accumulation rate increases with the increase in the Ws/Wmax ratio. The best drying performance was obtained for the top spray configuration.

  20. Investigation on the Mechanical Properties of a Cement-Based Material Containing Carbon Nanotube under Drying and Freeze-Thaw Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Wen Li

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper aimed to explore the mechanical properties of a cement-based material with carbon nanotube (CNT under drying and freeze-thaw environments. Mercury Intrusion Porosimetry and Scanning Electron Microscopy were used to analyze the pore structure and microstructure of CNT/cement composite, respectively. The experimental results showed that multi-walled CNT (MWCNT could improve to different degrees the mechanical properties (compressive and flexural strengths and physical performances (shrinkage and water loss of cement-based materials under drying and freeze-thaw conditions. This paper also demonstrated that MWCNT could interconnect hydration products to enhance the performance of anti-microcracks for cement-based materials, as well as the density of materials due to CNT’s filling action.

  1. Environmental history of the dry forest biome of Guerrero, Mexico, and human impact during the last c. 2700 years

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrio, J.C.; Hooghiemstra, H.; van Geel, B.; Ludlow-Wiegers, B.

    2006-01-01

    Two lake sediment cores from Madre del Sur mountain range, Guerrero State, west-central Mexico were studied to examine the past dynamics of the dry forest biome. Pollen, spores of coprophilous fungi, cyanobacteria and lithological changes are presented. The 390-cm Tixtla core (17°30′N, 99°24′W, 1400

  2. Medieval Iceland, Greenland, and the New Human Condition: A case study in integrated environmental humanities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Steven; Ogilvie, A. E. J.; Ingimundarson, Jón Haukur; Dugmore, A. J.; Hambrecht, George; McGovern, T. H.

    2017-09-01

    This paper contributes to recent studies exploring the longue durée of human impacts on island landscapes, the impacts of climate and other environmental changes on human communities, and the interaction of human societies and their environments at different spatial and temporal scales. In particular, the paper addresses Iceland during the medieval period (with a secondary, comparative focus on Norse Greenland) and discusses episodes where environmental and climatic changes have appeared to cross key thresholds for agricultural productivity. The paper draws upon international, interdisciplinary research in the North Atlantic region led by the North Atlantic Biocultural Organization (NABO) and the Nordic Network for Interdisciplinary Environmental Studies (NIES) in the Circumpolar Networks program of the Integrated History and Future of People on Earth (IHOPE). By interlinking analyses of historically grounded literature with archaeological studies and environmental science, valuable new perspectives can emerge on how these past societies may have understood and coped with such impacts. As climate and other environmental changes do not operate in isolation, vulnerabilities created by socioeconomic factors also beg consideration. The paper illustrates the benefits of an integrated environmental-studies approach that draws on data, methodologies and analytical tools of environmental humanities, social sciences, and geosciences to better understand long-term human ecodynamics and changing human-landscape-environment interactions through time. One key goal is to apply previously unused data and concerted expertise to illuminate human responses to past changes; a secondary aim is to consider how lessons derived from these cases may be applicable to environmental threats and socioecological risks in the future, especially as understood in light of the New Human Condition, the concept transposed from Hannah Arendt's influential framing of the human condition that is

  3. On the theoretical–numerical study of the ITER Upper Port Plug structure hydraulic behaviour under steady state and draining and drying transient conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Di Maio, P.A.; Paradiso, D.; Dell’Orco, G.; Pitcher, C.S.; Kalish, M.

    2011-01-01

    Highlights: ► UPP TS hydraulic behaviour has been investigated under steady state and D and D transient conditions. ► A thermal–hydraulic system code has been adopted and a UPP TS model has been set-up and validated against results of steady state CFD analyses. ► The TS steady state hydraulic characteristic functions have been derived for two coolant flow paths showing that right plate inlet one is the most promising. ► Draining simulations indicate that the 4 MPa injection pressure is high enough to drain almost completely the circuit in a reasonable time (∼6 s). ► Results indicate that right plate inlet flow path allows the TS complete draining, eliminating the need for the drying procedure. - Abstract: The ITER diagnostic Upper Port Plug (UPP) is a water-cooled stainless steel structure aimed to integrate within vacuum vessel the plasma diagnostic systems, shielding them from neutron and photon irradiation. Due to the very intense heat loads expected, a proper cooling circuit has been designed to ensure an adequate UPP cooling with an acceptable thermal rise and an unduly high pumping power and to perform its draining and drying procedure by injection of pressurized nitrogen. A theoretical research activity has been launched at the Department of Nuclear Engineering of the University of Palermo aiming to investigate the hydraulic behaviour of the UPP Trapezoid Section cooling circuit under steady state conditions and during its draining and drying transient procedure. The research activity has been performed following a theoretical–computational approach and adopting the RELAP5 thermal–hydraulic system code. The Trapezoid Section cooling circuit characteristic functions have been derived under steady state conditions at various coolant temperatures for both the coolant flow paths at the present under consideration for this circuit. The distributions of coolant mass flow rates along the channels of the cooling circuit have been calculated too

  4. The impact of environmental conditions on human performance: A critical review of the literature. Volume 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Echeverria, D.; Barnes, V.; Bittner, A.

    1994-09-01

    The Battelle Human Affairs Research Centers (HARC) conducted a comprehensive review of the technical literature regarding the impact of environmental conditions on human performance applicable to nuclear power plant workers. The environmental conditions considered were vibration, noise, heat, cold, and light. Research staff identified potential human performance deficits along a continuum of increasing occupational exposure, ranging from deficits that occur at low exposures to deficits that occur at high exposures. Specific deficits were included in the review if scientists demonstrated the exposure caused an effect, using sound methodology. The levels associated with each deficit were then compared to the protection afforded by existing occupational exposure standards. Volume 2 presents several conclusions regarding the applicability of the research literature to environmental conditions in nuclear power plants. The findings presented suggest that occupational standards for vibration, noise, and heat, which were developed to protect health, are inadequate for preventing deficits in cognitive or motor performance in tasks likely to be performed in nuclear power plants. Also, there is little information in the literature on simultaneous conditions; for example, the effects of simultaneous exposure to heat and noise on cognition require more research. As many exposures in nuclear power plants will be simultaneous, this limitation should be kept in mind when using Volume 1

  5. Behavior of stressed and unstressed 304L specimens in tuff repository environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juhas, M.C.; McCright, R.D.; Garrison, R.E.

    1984-11-01

    This paper presents preliminary results of an investigation of the behavior of candidate barrier material for high-level nuclear waste storage, Type 304L stainless steel, in tuff repository environmental conditions. Tuff is a densely welded, devitrified, igneous rock common to the proposed repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. The results discussed include: irradiation corrosion tests, U-bend irradiation corrosion tests, slow strain rate tests, and bent beam stress corrosion tests. Results indicate that Type 304L stainless steel shows excellent resistance to general, localized, and stress corrosion under the environmental and microstructural conditions tested so far. The environmental test conditions are 50 to 100 0 C J-13 well water (non-saline, near neutral pH, and oxic in nature) and saturated steam at 100 0 C. Microstructural conditions include solution annealed and long furnace heat treatments to provoke a sensitized structure. However, this particular type of stainless steel may be susceptible to long-term, low-temperature sensitization because of the combination of expected time at elevated temperature and residual stress in the container after emplacement in the repository. Other grades of austenitic stainless steels are reported to be more resistant to low-temperature sensitization. Future work will therefore include more extensive testing of these grades. 15 references, 5 figures, 7 tables

  6. Thermal comfort index and infrared temperatures for lambs subjected to different environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago do Prado Paim

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available There is an abundance of thermal indices with different input parameters and applicabilities. Infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating the response of animals to the environment and differentiating between genetic groups. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate superficial body temperatures of lambs from three genetic groups under different environmental conditions, correlating these with thermal comfort indices. Forty lambs (18 males and 22 females from three genetic groups (Santa Inês, Ile de France × Santa Inês and Dorper × Santa Inês were exposed to three climatic conditions: open air, housed and artificial heating. Infrared thermal images were taken weekly at 6h, 12h and 21h at the neck, front flank, rear flank, rump, nose, skull, trunk and eye. Four thermal comfort indices were calculated using environmental measurements including black globe temperature, air humidity and wind speed. Artificial warming, provided by infrared lamps and wind protection, conserved and increased the superficial body temperature of the lambs, thus providing lower daily thermal ranges. Artificial warming did not influence daily weight gain or mortality. Skin temperatures increased along with increases in climatic indices. Again, infrared thermography is a promising technique for evaluating thermal stress conditions and differentiating environments. However, the use of thermal imaging for understanding animal responses to environmental conditions requires further study.

  7. Environmental conditions in health care facilities in low- and middle-income countries: Coverage and inequalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronk, Ryan; Bartram, Jamie

    2018-04-01

    Safe environmental conditions and the availability of standard precaution items are important to prevent and treat infection in health care facilities (HCFs) and to achieve Sustainable Development Goal (SDG) targets for health and water, sanitation, and hygiene. Baseline coverage estimates for HCFs have yet to be formed for the SDGs; and there is little evidence describing inequalities in coverage. To address this, we produced the first coverage estimates of environmental conditions and standard precaution items in HCFs in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs); and explored factors associated with low coverage. Data from monitoring reports and peer-reviewed literature were systematically compiled; and information on conditions, service levels, and inequalities tabulated. We used logistic regression to identify factors associated with low coverage. Data for 21 indicators of environmental conditions and standard precaution items were compiled from 78 LMICs which were representative of 129,557 HCFs. 50% of HCFs lack piped water, 33% lack improved sanitation, 39% lack handwashing soap, 39% lack adequate infectious waste disposal, 73% lack sterilization equipment, and 59% lack reliable energy services. Using nationally representative data from six countries, 2% of HCFs provide all four of water, sanitation, hygiene, and waste management services. Statistically significant inequalities in coverage exist between HCFs by: urban-rural setting, managing authority, facility type, and sub-national administrative unit. We identified important, previously undocumented inequalities and environmental health challenges faced by HCFs in LMICs. The information and analyses provide evidence for those engaged in improving HCF conditions to develop evidence-based policies and efficient programs, enhance service delivery systems, and make better use of available resources. Copyright © 2018 The Authors. Published by Elsevier GmbH.. All rights reserved.

  8. Electrochemical noise study on 2024-T3 Aluminum alloy corrosion in simulated acid rain under cyclic wet-dry condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Yanyan; Zhang Zhao; Su Jingxin; Cao Fahe; Zhang Jianqing

    2006-01-01

    Potential noise records have been collected for 2024-T3 aluminum alloy, which was exposed to simulated acid rain with different pH value for 15 wet-dry cycles. Meanwhile, Potentiodynamic polarization and SEM techniques were also used as assistant measurements. Three mathematic methods including average, standard deviation and wavelet transformation have been employed to analyze the records. The results showed that each single wet-dry cycle can be divided into three regions with respect to the change of the cathodic reaction rate, and with the increase of pH value the main cathodic reaction changes from the reduction of protons to that of oxygen molecules. The analysis of the EDP versus time evolution clearly indicates that the whole corrosion process can be divided into three segments for the case of pH 3.5 and only one for the cases of pH 4.5 and 6.0, which have been theoretically interpreted according to the corrosion theory and experimentally proved by SEM. The results also showed that the corrosion in the case of pH 3.5 was much more rigorous than that in the cases of pH 4.5 and 6.0. It may due to synergistic effects of that, the characteristic of hydrogen ions which is much more active than that of oxygen molecules, the high diffusion/migration rate of hydrogen ions in solution or through surface films and the lower stability of surface passive film at low pH value system

  9. The spatial module as environmental conditioning element: the Spanish pavilion by Corrales and Molezun

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Suárez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the 50s a review of Modern Movement, which assimilates modular serialization and a connection with the environmental context, although with remote premises of the contemporary paradigms of sustainability arise. In this context, within national stage, stands out the Spanish pavilion at the Brussels International Exhibition in 1958 by Corrales and Molezún. This work seeks a quantitatively reveal of the environmental performance of the pavilion in its two locations and settings, in Brussels and Madrid, through simulation and analysis of energy and lighting models which reproduces the characteristic of the pavilion with the purpose of contributing to give a new critical point of view, valuing the module efficiency to adapt to different environmental conditions. The completed analysis reveals the influence of the climate, compactness and orientation, as in the difficulties associated with thermal comfort and natural light when glazing percentage are important and there are high solar radiation settings.

  10. Qualidade das sementes de pinhão manso submetidas à secagem artificial Seed quality of jatropha under different drying air conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renan Ullmann

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Na fase de pós-colheita do pinhão manso a secagem é o processo mais utilizado para assegurar sua qualidade e estabilidade. Assim, objetivou-se no presente trabalho analisar a secagem das sementes de pinhão manso, bem como verificar o efeito das diversas condições de ar na qualidade do produto, por meio das análises de condutividade elétrica, absorção de água, porcentagem de germinação e índice de velocidade de germinação (IVG. A secagem foi realizada em secador experimental testando as temperaturas de 30; 40; 50; 60 e 70 ºC, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições. Verificou-se que o aumento da temperatura do ar de secagem aumenta os danos nas sementes de pinhão manso, porém não interfere na absorção de água do produto. Já a germinação se mateve elevada, mesmo na temperatura de secagem mais alta, apresentando valores acima de 91% e o IVG não apresentou diferenças estatísticas. Portanto, conclui-se que a qualidade fisiológica das sementes de pinhão manso é afetada pela temperatura de secagem.The post-harvest drying of jatropha is the most frequently used process to ensure quality and stability. The aim of this work was to analyze the seed drying of jatropha and check the effect of air conditions on seed quality, through electrical conductivity, water absorption germination test and index of germination velocity (IGV. Drying was done in an experimental drier, testing controlled temperatures of 30; 40; 50; 60 and 70 ºC, in a randomized design with four replications. It was found that increasing the temperature of the drying air increases the damage on the seeds of jatropha, but does not interfere with water absorption of the product. The germination is high even at the highest drying temperature, with values above 91% and IVG did not show statistical differences. Therefore, it was concluded that the physiological quality of seeds of Jatropha curcas is affected by drying temperature.

  11. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  12. Immune activity, body condition and human-associated environmental impacts in a wild marine mammal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrick M Brock

    Full Text Available Within individuals, immunity may compete with other life history traits for resources, such as energy and protein, and the damage caused by immunopathology can sometimes outweigh the protective benefits that immune responses confer. However, our understanding of the costs of immunity in the wild and how they relate to the myriad energetic demands on free-ranging organisms is limited. The endangered Galapagos sea lion (Zalophus wollebaeki is threatened simultaneously by disease from domestic animals and rapid changes in food availability driven by unpredictable environmental variation. We made use of this unique ecology to investigate the relationship between changes in immune activity and changes in body condition. We found that during the first three months of life, changes in antibody concentration were negatively correlated with changes in mass per unit length, skinfold thickness and serum albumin concentration, but only in a sea lion colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts. It has previously been shown that changes in antibody concentration during early Galapagos sea lion development were higher in a colony exposed to anthropogenic environmental impacts than in a control colony. This study allows for the possibility that these relatively large changes in antibody concentration are associated with negative impacts on fitness through an effect on body condition. Our findings suggest that energy availability and the degree of plasticity in immune investment may influence disease risk in natural populations synergistically, through a trade-off between investment in immunity and resistance to starvation. The relative benefits of such investments may change quickly and unpredictably, which allows for the possibility that individuals fine-tune their investment strategies in response to changes in environmental conditions. In addition, our results suggest that anthropogenic environmental impacts may impose subtle energetic costs on

  13. Aspergillus and Penicillium (Eurotiales: Trichocomaceae) in soils of the Brazilian tropical dry forest: diversity in an area of environmental preservation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Renan do Nascimento; Bezerra, Jadson Diogo Pereira; Costa, Phelipe Manoel Oller; de Lima-Júnior, Nelson Correia; Alves de Souza Galvão, Ivana Roberta Gomes; Alves dos Santos-Júnior, Anthony; Fernandes, Maria José; de Souza-Motta, Cristina Maria; Oliveira, Neiva Tinti

    2016-03-01

    Soil is a complex biological system that plays a key role for plants and animals, especially in dry forests such as the Caatinga. Fungi from soils, such as Aspergillus and Penicillium, can be used as bioindica- tors for biodiversity conservation. The aim of this study was to isolate and identify species of Aspergillus and Penicillium in soil, from the municipalities of Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, with dry forests, in the Catimbau National Park. Five collections were performed in each area during the drought season of 2012, totaling 25 soil samples per area. Fungi were isolated by suspending soil samples in sterile distilled water and plating on Sabouraud Agar media plus Chloramphenicol and Rose Bengal, and Glycerol Dicloran Agar. Isolates were identified by morphological taxonomy in the Culture Collection Laboratory and confirmed by sequencing of the Internal Transcribed Spacer of rDNA. A total of 42 species were identified, of which 22 belong to the genus Aspergillus and 20 to Penicillium. Penicillium isolates showed uniform distribution from the collecting area in Tupanatinga, and the evenness indices found were 0.92 and 0.88 in Tupanatinga and Ibimirim, respectively. Among isolates of Aspergillus evenness, the value found in Tupanatinga (0.85) was very close to that found in Ibimirim (0.86). High diversity and low dominance of fungi in soil samples was observed. These results con- tributed to the estimation of fungal diversity in dry environments of the Caatinga, where diversity is decreasing in soils that have undergone disturbance.

  14. Environmental impacts of barley cultivation under current and future climatic conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dijkman, Teunis Johannes; Birkved, Morten; Saxe, Henrik

    2017-01-01

    for the increased impacts. This finding was confirmed by the sensitivity analysis. Because this study focused solely on the impacts of climate change, technological improvements and political measures to reduce impacts in the 2050 scenario are not taken into account. Options to mitigate the environmental impacts......The purpose of this work is to compare the environmental impacts of spring barley cultivation in Denmark under current (year 2010) and future (year 2050) climatic conditions. Therefore, a Life Cycle Assessment was carried out for the production of 1 kg of spring barley in Denmark, at farm gate....... Both under 2010 and 2050 climatic conditions, four subscenarios were modelled, based on a combination of two soil types and two climates. Included in the assessment were seed production, soil preparation, fertilization, pesticide application, and harvest. When processes in the life cycle resulted in co...

  15. Iodine isotopes species fingerprinting environmental conditions in surface water along the northeastern Atlantic Ocean

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    He, Peng; Hou, Xiaolin; Aldahan, Ala

    2013-01-01

    Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations of the is...... 129I in ocean environments and impact on climate at the ocean boundary layer.......Concentrations and species of iodine isotopes (127I and 129I) provide vital information about iodine geochemistry, environmental conditions and water masses exchange in oceans. Despite extensive investigations of anthropogenic 129I in the Arctic Ocean and the Nordic Seas, concentrations...... of the isotope in the Atlantic Ocean are, however, still unknown. We here present first data on 129I and 127I, and their species (iodide and iodate) in surface water transect along the northeastern Atlantic between 30° and 50°N. The results show iodate as the predominant species in the analyzed marine waters...

  16. Creep and Environmental Durability of EBC/CMCs Under Imposed Thermal Gradient Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Appleby, Matthew; Morscher, Gregory N.; Zhu, Dongming

    2013-01-01

    Interest in SiC fiber-reinforced SiC ceramic matrix composite (CMC) environmental barrier coating (EBC) systems for use in high temperature structural applications has prompted the need for characterization of material strength and creep performance under complex aerospace turbine engine environments. Stress-rupture tests have been performed on SiC/SiC composites systems, with varying fiber types and coating schemes to demonstrate material behavior under isothermal conditions. Further testing was conducted under exposure to thermal stress gradients to determine the effect on creep resistance and material durability. In order to understand the associated damage mechanisms, emphasis is placed on experimental techniques as well as implementation of non-destructive evaluation; including electrical resistivity monitoring. The influence of environmental and loading conditions on life-limiting material properties is shown.

  17. A contemporary method for monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Renken, K.J.; Coursin, S.

    1996-01-01

    A state-of-the-art method for automatically monitoring indoor radon and environmental conditions at a remote test site is described. A Wisconsin home that exhibited elevated radon levels has been installed with automated PC-data acquisition system (PC-DAS) that includes: a laptop PC, a data acquisition cardcage, a commercial data acquisition software program plus sensors to measure radon gas concentrations, differential pressures, indoor air quality and meteorological conditions. The isolated PC-DAS is connected to a PC in a university laboratory via a modem and a communications software package. Experimental data is monitored and saved by the remote PC in real time and then automatically downloaded to the lab computer at selected intervals. An example of the formatted field results is presented and analysed. This documentation of the set-up, the off-the-shelf computer hardware and software, and the procedures should assist investigations requiring flexible remote long-term radon and environmental monitoring. (Author)

  18. Improved optimum condition for recovery and measurement of 210Po in environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zal Uyun Wan Mahmood; Norfaizal Mohamed; Nik Azlin Nik Ariffin; Abdul Kadir Ishak

    2012-01-01

    An improved laboratory technique for measurement of polonium-210( 210 Po) in environmental samples has been developed in Radiochemistry and Environmental Laboratory (RAS), Malaysian Nuclear Agency. To further improve this technique, a study with the objectives to determine the optimum conditions for 210 Po deposition and; evaluate the accuracy and precision results for the determination of 210 Po in environmental samples was carried-out. Polonium-210 which is an alpha emitter obtained in acidic solution through total digestion and dissolution of samples has been efficiently plated onto one side of the silver disc in the spontaneous plating process for measurement of its alpha activity. The optimum conditions for deposition of 210 Po were achieved using hydrochloric acid (HCl) media at acidity of 0.5 M with the presence of 1.0 gram hydroxyl ammonium chloride and the plating temperature at 90 degree Celsius. The plating was carried out in 80 ml HCl solution (0.5 M) for 4 hours. The recorded recoveries obtained using 209 Po tracers in the CRM IAEA-385 and environmental samples were 85 % - 98% whereby the efficiency of the new technique is a distinct advantage over the existing techniques. Therefore, optimization of deposition parameters is a prime importance to achieve accuracy and precision results as well as economy and time saving. (author)

  19. Energy impact of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices of Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.; Shi, K.L.

    2008-01-01

    Air-conditioned office buildings are one of the biggest energy consumers of electricity in developed cities in the subtropical climate regions. A good energy policy for the indoor environment should respond to both the needs of energy conservation and the needs for a desirable indoor healthy environment with a reduction in carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) generation. This study evaluates energy implications and the corresponding CO 2 generation of some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned office buildings in the subtropical climate. In particular, the thermal energy consumption in an air-conditioned office building was evaluated by the heat gains through the building fabric, the transport of outdoor fresh air for ventilation, and the heat generated by the occupant and equipment in the space. With the Monte-Carlo sampling technique and the parameters from the existing office building stocks of Hong Kong, the energy consumption profiles of air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong were evaluated. Energy consumption profiles were simulated for certain indoor environmental quality (IEQ) policies on indoor air temperature and CO 2 concentration settings in the offices, with other building parameters remaining unchanged. The impact assessment and the regression models described in this study may be useful for evaluation of energy performances of IEQ policies. They will also be useful for the promotion of energy-saving measures in air-conditioned office buildings in Hong Kong. This study presented a useful source of references for policymakers, building professionals and end users to quantify the energy and environmental impacts due to an IEQ policy for air-conditioned office buildings

  20. Environmental conditions and biotic communities in Foz de Almargem and Salgados coastal lagoons, Algarve (South Portugal)

    OpenAIRE

    Coelho, Susana Isabel Eusébio

    2013-01-01

    The present study intended to compare environmental conditions and biotic communities of two choked coastal lagoons located in the Algarve region, Foz de Almargem and Salgados, with the purpose of evaluating the effects of organic pollution from wastewater discharges in water quality and biotic communities from different levels of the food chain, namely phytoplankton and benthic macroinvertebrates. Both lagoons were seasonally connected to the sea, but most of the year they were isolated r...

  1. Environmental conditions of two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites in northern Saskatchewan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalin, M.

    Two abandoned uranium mill tailings sites near Uranium City, Saskatchewan, have been studied in an attempt to follow the natural rehabilitation processes. The Gunnar site is a largely terrestrial environment while the Lorado mill tailings were discharged mainly into Nero Lake. This report describes the ecological conditions of both sites, potential long-term environmental degradation, and possible measures to assist the recovery of both areas

  2. Laboratory mouse housing conditions can be improved using common environmental enrichment without compromising data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    André, Viola; Gau, Christine; Scheideler, Angelika

    2018-01-01

    Animal welfare requires the adequate housing of animals to ensure health and well-being. The application of environmental enrichment is a way to improve the well-being of laboratory animals. However, it is important to know whether these enrichment items can be incorporated in experimental mouse...... material and shelters may be used to improve animal welfare without impairment of experimental outcome or loss of comparability to previous data collected under barren housing conditions....

  3. Temperature effect on rose downy mildew development under environmental controlled conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Filgueira D., Juan José; Zambrano, Angélica

    2014-01-01

    The rose downy mildew disease, caused by Peronospora sparsa Berkeley, is one of the most important that affect rose crops in Colombia. To manage this disease, flower growers must deal with high-costs due to the excessive application of fungicides, but without good results. Studies on P. sparsa behavior have shown its narrow relationship with environmental conditions. In this study, the temperature effect was evaluated during the infection and sporulation of P. sparsa in Charlotte leaflets, a ...

  4. Solid-vapor interactions: Influence of environmental conditions on the dehydration of carbamazepine dihydrate

    OpenAIRE

    Surana, Rahul; Pyne, Abira; Suryanarayanan, Raj

    2003-01-01

    The goal of this research was a phenomenological study of the effect of environmental factors on the dehydration behavior of carbamazepine dihydrate. Dehydration experiments were performed in an automated vapor sorption apparatus under a variety of conditions, and weight loss was monitored as a function of time. In addition to lattice water, carbamazepine dihydrate contained a significant amount of physically bound water. Based on the kinetics of water loss, it was possible to differentiate b...

  5. Verifying the performance of instrumentation under adverse environmental conditions in nuclear power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Navorro, S.M.; Gonzalez-Granda, C.

    1983-01-01

    The current standards concerning the environmental qualification of electrical equipment and instrumentation, although extensive and consistent, are likely to be modified or improved in the short term, but will certainly not undergo any fundamental changes. At present, there is a requirement that the condition of equipment in plants in operation or approaching operational status should be checked and monitored for compliance with the relevant standards. One method of checking and monitoring electrical equipment and instrumentation basically consists in determining the environmental conditions in the various areas where safety-related equipment is being installed and then carrying out a study, component by component, using a pre-established form which summarizes the qualification requirements. The form consists of three different columns: the first contains information on the component; the second, information on the environmental conditions for which the component is to be certified or has been certified; and the third, information on the reference documents relating to those conditions. This form makes it possible to determine deficiencies, which are then collated in a table. Once the criteria for acceptance or refusal have been established, the necessary justification or proposal for corrective action is drawn up. Tolerances, accessories and subsequent tests are examples of grounds for justifying requalification, a change of an instrument or of its position, protection of the instrument and additional analyses. These are the possible corrective measures, and a careful study has to be made in order to determine which is the most appropriate measure in each case. A study of this type calls for experts in various fields. Co-operation between the organizations dealing with environmental qualification is desirable in order to facilitate the gathering of data and the adoption of uniform approaches. (author)

  6. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    OpenAIRE

    Eshkoor, Sima Ataollahi; Hamid, Tengku Aizan; Nudin, Siti Sa'adiah Hassan; Mun, Chan Yoke

    2014-01-01

    This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects expe...

  7. Broad-Scale Environmental Conditions Responsible for Post-Fire Vegetation Dynamics

    OpenAIRE

    Casady, Grant M.; Marsh, Stuart E.

    2010-01-01

    Ecosystem response to disturbance is influenced by environmental conditions at a number of scales. Changes in climate have altered fire regimes across the western United States, and have also likely altered spatio-temporal patterns of post-fire vegetation regeneration. Fire occurrence data and a vegetation index (NDVI) derived from the NOAA Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR) were used to monitor post-fire vegetation from 1989 to 2007. We first investigated differences in post-fi...

  8. Modelling the effects of environmental conditions on the acoustic occurrence and behaviour of Antarctic blue whales.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fannie W Shabangu

    Full Text Available Harvested to perilously low numbers by commercial whaling during the past century, the large scale response of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia to environmental variability is poorly understood. This study uses acoustic data collected from 586 sonobuoys deployed in the austral summers of 1997 through 2009, south of 38°S, coupled with visual observations of blue whales during the IWC SOWER line-transect surveys. The characteristic Z-call and D-call of Antarctic blue whales were detected using an automated detection template and visual verification method. Using a random forest model, we showed the environmental preferences pattern, spatial occurrence and acoustic behaviour of Antarctic blue whales. Distance to the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SBACC, latitude and distance from the nearest Antarctic shores were the main geographic predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Satellite-derived sea surface height, sea surface temperature, and productivity (chlorophyll-a were the most important environmental predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Call rates of D-calls were strongly predicted by the location of the SBACC, latitude and visually detected number of whales in an area while call rates of Z-call were predicted by the SBACC, latitude and longitude. Satellite-derived sea surface height, wind stress, wind direction, water depth, sea surface temperatures, chlorophyll-a and wind speed were important environmental predictors of blue whale call rates in the Southern Ocean. Blue whale call occurrence and call rates varied significantly in response to inter-annual and long term variability of those environmental predictors. Our results identify the response of Antarctic blue whales to inter-annual variability in environmental conditions and highlighted potential suitable habitats for this population. Such emerging knowledge about the acoustic behaviour, environmental and habitat preferences of

  9. Modelling the effects of environmental conditions on the acoustic occurrence and behaviour of Antarctic blue whales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shabangu, Fannie W; Yemane, Dawit; Stafford, Kathleen M; Ensor, Paul; Findlay, Ken P

    2017-01-01

    Harvested to perilously low numbers by commercial whaling during the past century, the large scale response of Antarctic blue whales Balaenoptera musculus intermedia to environmental variability is poorly understood. This study uses acoustic data collected from 586 sonobuoys deployed in the austral summers of 1997 through 2009, south of 38°S, coupled with visual observations of blue whales during the IWC SOWER line-transect surveys. The characteristic Z-call and D-call of Antarctic blue whales were detected using an automated detection template and visual verification method. Using a random forest model, we showed the environmental preferences pattern, spatial occurrence and acoustic behaviour of Antarctic blue whales. Distance to the southern boundary of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (SBACC), latitude and distance from the nearest Antarctic shores were the main geographic predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Satellite-derived sea surface height, sea surface temperature, and productivity (chlorophyll-a) were the most important environmental predictors of blue whale call occurrence. Call rates of D-calls were strongly predicted by the location of the SBACC, latitude and visually detected number of whales in an area while call rates of Z-call were predicted by the SBACC, latitude and longitude. Satellite-derived sea surface height, wind stress, wind direction, water depth, sea surface temperatures, chlorophyll-a and wind speed were important environmental predictors of blue whale call rates in the Southern Ocean. Blue whale call occurrence and call rates varied significantly in response to inter-annual and long term variability of those environmental predictors. Our results identify the response of Antarctic blue whales to inter-annual variability in environmental conditions and highlighted potential suitable habitats for this population. Such emerging knowledge about the acoustic behaviour, environmental and habitat preferences of Antarctic blue whales is

  10. Effect of nitrogen on partitioning and yield in grain sorghum under differing environmental conditions in the semi-arid tropics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muchow, R.C.

    1990-01-01

    The effect of nitrogen (N) supply on the relative contributions of pre- and post-anthesis net above-ground biomass accumulation and N uptake to grain-yield and grain N concentration was examined in four contrasting environments in semi-arid tropical Australia. The four environments had different radiation and temperature regimes, and varying levels of water deficit. The grain-yield achieved under high N supply ranged from 156 to 621 g m −2 (on an oven-dry basis). In all but the lowest-yielding environment, there was substantial biomass accumulation during grain-filling and it increased with N application. Only in the lowest-yielding environment was there substantial mobilization of pre-anthesis biomass to grain. Biomass mobilization was not affected by N application. Nitrogen uptake during grain-filling was unresponsive to N application, and was small relative to total N uptake during the life-cycle. Mobilization of pre-anthesis N to the grain was much more significant. In all but the lowest-yielding environment, N mobilization increased with N application. Grain-yield under variable N supply and differing environmental conditions was not dependent on the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis growth. However, grain-yield was proportional to biomass at maturity over the entire yield range in this study and variability in biomass accounted for 95% of the variance in grain-yield. Similarly, grain N concentration was not related to the proportions of pre- and post-anthesis N uptake, but variability in total N uptake accounted for 92% of the variance in grain N accumulation. Consequently, there was no differential effect of N supply or environmental factors on yield physiology that could not be explained by their effect on biomass and N uptake. (author)

  11. Environmental conditions can modulate the links among oxidative stress, age, and longevity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marasco, Valeria; Stier, Antoine; Boner, Winnie; Griffiths, Kate; Heidinger, Britt; Monaghan, Pat

    2017-06-01

    Understanding the links between environmental conditions and longevity remains a major focus in biological research. We examined within-individual changes between early- and mid-adulthood in the circulating levels of four oxidative stress markers linked to ageing, using zebra finches (Taeniopygia guttata): a DNA damage product (8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine; 8-OHdG), protein carbonyls (PC), non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (OXY), and superoxide dismutase activity (SOD). We further examined whether such within-individual changes differed among birds living under control (ad lib food) or more challenging environmental conditions (unpredictable food availability), having previously found that the latter increased corticosterone levels when food was absent but improved survival over a three year period. Our key findings were: (i) 8-OHdG and PC increased with age in both environments, with a higher increase in 8-OHdG in the challenging environment; (ii) SOD increased with age in the controls but not in the challenged birds, while the opposite was true for OXY; (iii) control birds with high levels of 8-OHdG died at a younger age, but this was not the case in challenged birds. Our data clearly show that while exposure to the potentially damaging effects of oxidative stress increases with age, environmental conditions can modulate the pace of this age-related change. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Non steady-state model for dry oxidation of nuclear wastes metallic containers in long term interim storage conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertrand, Nathalie; Desgranges, Clara; Poquillon, Dominique; Monceau, Daniel

    2006-01-01

    For high-level nuclear waste containers in long-term interim storage, dry oxidation will be the first and the main degradation mode. The reason is that, for this kind of waste, the temperature on the surface of the containers will be high enough to avoid any condensation phenomena for several years. Even if the scale growth kinetics is expected to be very slow since the temperature will be moderate at the beginning of the storage (around 300 deg. C) and will keep on decreasing, the metal thickness lost by dry oxidation over such a long period must be evaluated with a good reliability. To achieve this goal, modelling of the oxide scale growth is necessary and this is the aim of the dry oxidation studies, performed in the frame of the COCON programme. All existing oxidation models are based on the two main oxidation theories developed by Wagner between the 1930's and 1970's on the one hand, and by Cabrera and Mott in the 1960 and next by Fromhold on the other hand. These used to be associated with high temperature behaviour for Wagner's theory and with low temperature for the second one. Indeed it is certainly more relevant to consider their range of application in terms of the oxide scale thickness rather than in terms of temperature. The question is posed about which theory should an appropriate model rely on. It can be expected that the oxide scale could have a thickness ranging from a few tens of nanometers up to several tens of micrometers depending on temperature and class of alloys chosen. At the present time, low-alloyed steels or carbon steels are considered candidate materials for high-level nuclear waste containers in long term interim storage. For this type of alloys, the scale formed during the dry oxidation stage will be 'rapidly' thick enough to neglect the Mott field. Hence, in a first step, some basic models based on a parabolic rate assumption, that is to say Wagner's model, have been derived from experimental data on iron and on low-alloy steel

  13. Influence of packaging and storage conditions on quality parameters and shelf life of solar-dried banana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nina Phothapaeree

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Effects of packaging materials (metalized or polylactic acid, PLA, based pouches, storage temperatures (30-50°C and time (up to 6 months on quality of solar-dried banana were investigated. At 30°C in both packaging materials, change in moisture content, water activity (a w and hardness were minimal while darkening of the surface color progressed. No microbial spoilage was found. Hedonic scores of color, flavor, taste, texture and overall acceptance of the 6th month aged samples were lowest (p≤0.05. Based on the sensory test, product packed in both packaging materials had shelf life of 5 months at 30°C. Higher storage temperature greatly induced time-dependent decrease in moisture content and a w with an increase in hardness, especially for the samples in PLA-based pouches. Fractional conversion model was used to predicted time-dependent change in total color difference (ΔE (R2 ≥ 0.84. Temperature dependence of the rate constant followed Arrhenius-type relationship (R2 ≥ 0.99.

  14. Effects of Regeneration Conditions on Sorption Capacity of CO{sub 2} Dry Potassium Sorbent During Carbonation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yunseop; Park, Young Cheol; Jo, Sung-Ho; Ryu, Ho-Jung; Yi, Chang-Keun [Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Rhee, Young Woo [Chungnam National University, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    In this study, we investigated carbonation-regeneration and agglomeration characteristics of dry sorbents. Experiment has been proceeded in the batch-type reactor, which is made of quartz: 0.05 m of I.D and 0.8 m in height. The sorbents that is collected at the cyclone of the carbonation reactor of continuous process were used in this study. The reactivity was studied at the various concentrations of water vapor, N{sub 2} and CO{sub 2} in the fluidizing gas at regeneration reaction. As a result, the reactivity increased as the regeneration temperature increased, the reactivity decreased as the concentration of water vapor increased. The absorption capacity showed the highest value in case of using N{sub 2} 100% as regeneration gas. And decreased in order of H{sub 2}O+N{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} 100% and H{sub 2}O+CO{sub 2}. The agglomeration characteristics were investigated according to the particle sizes and concentrations of water vapor at carbonation reaction. As a result, the particle with smaller size and higher concentration of water vapor showed the higher agglomeration characteristic.

  15. Elevated dry-season malaria prevalence associated with fine-scale spatial patterns of environmental risk: a case-control study of children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townes, Lindsay R; Mwandama, Dyson; Mathanga, Don P; Wilson, Mark L

    2013-11-11

    Understanding the role of local environmental risk factors for malaria in holo-endemic, poverty-stricken settings will be critical to more effectively implement- interventions aimed at eventual elimination. Household-level environmental drivers of malaria risk during the dry season were investigated in rural southern Malawi among children Authority (TA) regions dominated by small-scale agriculture. Ten villages were randomly selected from TA Sitola (n = 6) and Nsamala (n = 4). Within each village, during June to August 2011, a census was conducted of all households with children under-five and recorded their locations with a geographic position system (GPS) device. At each participating house, a nurse administered a malaria rapid diagnostic test (RDT) to children under five years of age, and a questionnaire to parents. Environmental data were collected for each house, including land cover within 50-m radius. Variables found to be significantly associated with P. falciparum infection status in bivariate analysis were included in generalized linear models, including multivariate logistic regression (MLR) and multi-level multivariate logistic regression (MLLR). Spatial clustering of RDT status, environmental factors, and Pearson residuals from MLR and MLLR were analysed using the Getis-Ord Gi* statistic. Of 390 children enrolled from six villages in Sitola (n = 162) and four villages in Nsamala (n = 228), 45.6% tested positive (n = 178) for Plasmodium infection by RDT. The MLLR modelled the statistical relationship of Plasmodium positives and household proximity to agriculture ( 2.58, p < 0.01) predominantly within TA Sitola, while residuals from MLLR showed no such clustering. This study provides evidence for significant, dry-season heterogeneity of malaria prevalence strongly linked to peridomestic land use, and particularly of elevated risk associated with nearby crop production.

  16. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-10-01

    This paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since AD 1300, involving: (1) a well-dated, 1.5-year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China (2) links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet conditions, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China (3) correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO (El Niño-Southern Oscillation) variation. We present a highly precise, 230Th / U-dated, 1.5-year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in the Wuling Mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents indicates that (1) the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon intensity and dry-wet conditions in the Wuling Mountain area. (2) A stronger East Asian summer monsoon (EASM) enhances the tropical monsoon trough controlled by ITCZ (Intertropical Convergence Zone), which produces higher spring quarter rainfall and isotopically light monsoonal moisture in the central China. (3) The summer quarter/spring quarter rainfall ratio in central China can be a potential indicator of the EASM strength: a lower ratio corresponds to stronger EASM and higher spring rainfall. The ratio changed from 1 after 1950, reflecting that the summer quarter rainfall of the study area became dominant under stronger influence of the Northwestern Pacific High. Eastern China temperatures varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperatures under stronger solar irradiation, which produced stronger summer monsoons. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating a weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal timescales. On an interannual timescale, dry conditions in the study area prevailed under El Niño conditions, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record

  17. Variation in the Asian monsoon intensity and dry-wet condition since the Little Ice Age in central China revealed by an aragonite stalagmite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, J.-J.; Yuan, D.-X.; Li, H.-C.; Cheng, H.; Li, T.-Y.; Edwards, R. L.; Lin, Y.-S.; Qin, J.-M.; Tang, W.; Zhao, Z.-Y.; Mii, H.-S.

    2014-04-01

    Highlight: this paper focuses on the climate variability in central China since 1300 AD, involving: 1. A well-dated, 1.5 year resolution stalagmite δ18O record from Lianhua Cave, central China; 2. Links of the δ18O record with regional dry-wet condition, monsoon intensity, and temperature over eastern China; 3. Correlations among drought events in the Lianhua record, solar irradiation, and ENSO index. We present a highly precisely 230Th/U dated, 1.5 year resolution δ18O record of an aragonite stalagmite (LHD1) collected from Lianhua Cave in Wuling mountain area of central China. The comparison of the δ18O record with the local instrumental record and historical documents exhibits at least 15 drought events in the Wuling mountain and adjacent areas during the Little Ice Age, in which some of them were corresponding to megadrought events in the broad Asian monsoonal region of China. Thus, the stalagmite δ18O record reveals variations in the summer monsoon precipitation and dry-wet condition in Wuling mountain area. The eastern China temperature varied with the solar activity, showing higher temperature under stronger solar irradiation which produces stronger summer monsoon. During Maunder, Dalton and 1900 sunspot minima, more severe drought events occurred, indicating weakening of the summer monsoon when solar activity decreased on decadal time scales. On interannual time scale, dry conditions in the studying area were prevailing under El Niño condition, which is also supported by the spectrum analysis. Hence, our record illustrates the linkage of Asian summer monsoon precipitation to solar irradiation and ENSO: wetter condition under stronger summer monsoon during warm periods and vice versa; During cold periods, the Walker circulation will shift toward central Pacific under El Niño condition, resulting further weakening of Asian summer monsoon. However, the δ18O of LHD1 record is positively correlated with temperature after ~1940 AD which is opposite to the

  18. Effects of surface condition on aqueous corrosion and environmental embrittlement of iron aluminides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perrin, R.L.; Buchanan, R.A. [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    1996-08-01

    Effects of retained high-temperature surface oxides, produced during thermomechanical processing and/or heat treatment, on the aqueous-corrosion and environmental-embrittlement characteristics of Fe{sub 3}Al-based iron aluminides (FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo), a FeAl-based iron aluminide (FA-385), and a disordered low-aluminum Fe-Al alloy (FAPY) were evaluated. All tests were conducted at room temperature in a mild acid-chloride solution. In cyclic-anodic-polarization testing for aqueous-corrosion behavior, the surface conditions examined were: as-received (i.e., with the retained high-temperature oxides), mechanically cleaned and chemically cleaned. For all materials, the polarization tests showed the critical pitting potentials to be significantly lower in the as-received condition than in the mechanically-cleaned and chemically-cleaned conditions. These results indicate detrimental effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased susceptibilities to localized corrosion. In 200-hour U-bend stress-corrosion-cracking tests for environmental-embrittlement behavior, conducted at open-circuit corrosion potentials and at a hydrogen-charging potential of {minus}1500 mV (SHE), the above materials (except FA-385) were examined with retained oxides and with mechanically cleaned surfaces. At the open-circuit corrosion potentials, none of the materials in either surface condition underwent cracking. At the hydrogen-charging potential, none of the materials with retained oxides underwent cracking, but FA-84, FA-129 and FAL-Mo in the mechanically cleaned condition did undergo cracking. These results suggest beneficial effects of the retained high-temperature oxides in terms of increased resistance to environmental hydrogen embrittlement.

  19. Distribution of intermediate host snails of schistosomiasis and fascioliasis in relation to environmental factors during the dry season in the Tchologo region, Côte d'Ivoire

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krauth, Stefanie J.; Wandel, Nathalie; Traoré, Seïdinan I.; Vounatsou, Penelope; Hattendorf, Jan; Achi, Louise Y.; McNeill, Kristopher; N'Goran, Eliézer K.; Utzinger, Jürg

    2017-10-01

    Snail-borne trematodiases, such as fascioliasis and schistosomiasis, belong to the neglected tropical diseases; yet, millions of people and livestock are affected. The spatial and temporal distribution of intermediate host snails plays an important role in the epidemiology and control of trematodiases. Snail distribution is influenced by numerous environmental and anthropomorphic factors. The aim of this study was to assess the distribution and constitution of the snail fauna during the dry season in constructed and natural water bodies in the Tchologo region, northern Côte d'Ivoire, and to relate these findings to environmental factors and human infections. Snails were collected using standard procedures and environmental parameters were assessed from a total of 50 water bodies in and around 30 randomly selected villages. A canonical correspondence analysis was performed to establish the relationship between snail occurrence and environmental factors. Furthermore, a total of 743 people from the same 30 villages and nearby settlements were invited for stool and urine examination for the diagnosis of Fasciola spp., Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni. Snails of medical importance of the genera Biomphalaria, Bulinus, Lymnaea and Physa were found. Differences in snail occurrence from sites sampled in December 2014 and snails sampled in February 2015, as well as between the northern and southern part of the study area, were revealed. Various environmental factors, such as temperature and human activities, were related to the occurrence of intermediate host snail species in the region. Only 2.3% of human participants tested positive for schistosomiasis, while no Fasciola eggs were found in stool samples. We conclude that intermediate host snails of Fasciola and Schistosoma co-occur in water bodies in the Tchologo region and that the distribution of these snails correlates not only with environmental factors, but also with the presence of humans and animals

  20. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poirier-Larabie, S.; Segura, P.A.; Gagnon, C.

    2016-01-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15 years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4 days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57 days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11 days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58 days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70 days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental

  1. Degradation of the pharmaceuticals diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole and their transformation products under controlled environmental conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poirier-Larabie, S. [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada); Segura, P.A. [Department of Chemistry, Université de Sherbrooke, Sherbrooke, Québec J1K 2R1 (Canada); Gagnon, C., E-mail: christian.gagnon@canada.ca [Aquatic Contaminants Research Division, Science and Water Technology Directorate, Environment Canada, Montréal, Québec H2Y 2E7 (Canada)

    2016-07-01

    Contamination of the aquatic environment by pharmaceuticals via urban effluents is well known. Several classes of drugs have been identified in waterways surrounding these effluents in the last 15 years. To better understand the fate of pharmaceuticals in ecosystems, degradation processes need to be investigated and transformation products must be identified. Thus, this study presents the first comparative study between three different natural environmental conditions: photolysis and biodegradation in aerobic and anaerobic conditions both in the dark of diclofenac and sulfamethoxazole, two common drugs present in significant amounts in impacted surface waters. Results indicated that degradation kinetics differed depending on the process and the type of drug and the observed transformation products also differed among these exposure conditions. Diclofenac was nearly degraded by photolysis after 4 days, while its concentration only decreased by 42% after 57 days of exposure to bacteria in aerobic media and barely 1% in anaerobic media. For sulfamethoxazole, 84% of the initial concentration was still present after 11 days of exposure to light, while biodegradation decreased its concentration by 33% after 58 days of exposure under aerobic conditions and 5% after 70 days of anaerobic exposure. In addition, several transformation products were observed and persisted over time while others degraded in turn. For diclofenac, chlorine atoms were lost primarily in the photolysis, while a redox reaction was promoted by biodegradation under aerobic conditions. For sulfamethoxazole, isomerization was favored by photolysis while a redox reaction was also favored by the biodegradation under aerobic conditions. To summarize this study points out the occurrence of different transformation products under variable degradation conditions and demonstrates that specific functional groups are involved in the tested natural attenuation processes. Given the complexity of environmental

  2. Effects of dry period length and concentrate protein content in late lactation on body condition score change and subsequent lactation performance of thin high genetic merit dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, A J; Purcell, P J; Wylie, A R G; Gordon, A W; Ferris, C P

    2017-03-01

    Improving body condition score of thin cows in late lactation is necessary, because cows that are thin at drying off exhibit decreased fertility postpartum and are at increased risk of disease and of being culled in the subsequent lactation. Offering a diet low in crude protein (CP) content in late lactation may help to improve body condition score (BCS) at drying off, whereas imposing an extended dry period (EDP) has been advocated as another way to increase BCS at calving. To test these hypotheses, 65 thin cows (mean BCS 2.25 at 14 wk precalving) were managed on 1 of 3 treatments between 13 and 9 wk prepartum: normal protein control {NP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a normal protein concentrate [228 g of CP/kg of dry matter (DM)]}, low protein [LP; grass silage + 5 kg/d of a low-protein concentrate (153 g of CP/kg of DM)], or EDP (cows dried off at 13 wk precalving and offered a grass silage-only diet). Both NP and LP cows were dried off at wk 8 prepartum, after which all cows were offered a grass silage-only diet until calving. After calving, all cows were offered a common diet (supplying 11.1 kg of concentrate DM/cow per day) for 19 wk. Between 13 and 9 wk prepartum, LP cows had lower DM intake, milk yield, and body weight than NP cows. Whereas EDP cows had lower serum β-hydroxybutyrate and fatty acid concentrations than those of NP cows, BCS at wk 9 prepartum did not differ between treatments. Cows on the LP treatment continued to have lower DMI and BW than those of NP and EDP cows between 8 wk prepartum and calving, but only EDP cows had a higher BCS at calving. Treatment did not affect calving difficulty score or calf birth weight. Although all cows were offered a common diet postpartum, cows on the LP treatment had lower DM intake and milk fat + plus protein yield than cows on any other treatment during the 19-wk period postpartum, but we found no differences in any postpartum indicator of body tissue reserves. The treatments imposed from wk 13 to 9 prepartum

  3. Comparison of sliding friction and wear behaviour of overhead conveyor steels tested under dry and lubrication conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castro-Regal, G.; Fernandez-Vicente, A.; Martinez, M. A.

    2005-01-01

    The sliding friction and wear behaviour of different steel qualities were investigated with and without lubrication conditions. Steel qualities tested are normally used in the overhead conveyor system of many industrial fields, like the automotive sector. Sliding wear tests have been conducted by means of a pin-on-disk machine. A 100Cr6 steel similar to that used within the overhead conveyor trolleys has been employed as a pin. Friction coefficient values obtained under lubrication conditions were three times smaller than those obtained without lubrication. The mechanism that controls wear behaviour under lubrication conditions is an abrasive one and the wear values obtained are almost worthless. On the other hand, mechanism controlling wear during non lubrication tests, was a combination of abrasion and adhesion. (Author) 20 refs

  4. Dry Storage at long term of nuclear fuels: Influence of the fuel design and commercial irradiation conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marino, Armando C

    2009-01-01

    The BaCo code was applied to simulate the behaviour for a PHWR fuel under storage conditions showing a strong dependence on the original design of the fuel and the irradiation history. In particular, the results of the statistical analysis of BaCo indicate that the integrity of the fuel is influenced by the manufacture tolerances and the solicitations during the NPP irradiation. The main conclusion of the present study is that the fuel temperature of the device should be carefully controlled in order to ensure safe storage conditions. [es

  5. Physiological And Blood Biochemical Responses To Dried Live Yeast Plus Vitamin E As A Dietary Supplement To Bovine Baladi Calves Under Hot Summer Conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    ABDALLA, E.B.; EL-MASRY, K.A.; TEAMA, F.E.; EMARA, S.S.

    2009-01-01

    The experiment was designed to study the effect of supplemented dried live yeast (DLY) + vitamin E to the diet of growing calves under hot summer conditions in Egypt. Six bovine Baladi calves with 115 kg initial body weight and 8-10 months old were used during two periods. In the first period, the calves were offered the concentrated basal diet only for one month and considered as a control period. In the second period, the calves were fed the same basal diet which supplemented with 15 g dried live yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) + 600 IU vitamin E (alpha- tocopherol) per calf daily for one month and considered as a treated period. Body weight was recorded at the beginning and the end of each period, and daily gain was calculated for each animal. Blood samples were collected from each animal at the end of each period to determine some blood biochemical parameters and T 3 and T 4 concentrations as well as some immunological indices.The results showed that supplementation of DLY + 600 IU vitamin E to the diet of calves reduced significantly (P 3 and T 4 levels and improved feed efficiency and daily gain. It is concluded that supplementation of growing calves with 15 g DLY + 600 IU vitamin E / calf / day under Egyptian hot summer conditions reduced the effect of heat stress as shown by a decline in RT and modified most blood constituents and thyroid function which leads to an improvement in growing calves

  6. A combination of extreme environmental conditions favor the prevalence of Endospore-forming Firmicutes

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    Sevasti Filippidou

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Environmental conditions unsuitable for microbial growth are the rule rather than the exception in most habitats. In response to this, microorganisms have developed various strategies to withstand environmental conditions that limit active growth. Endospore-forming Firmicutes (EFF deploy a myriad of survival strategies in order to resist adverse conditions. Like many bacterial groups, they can form biofilms and detect nutrient scarcity through chemotaxis. Moreover, within this paraphyletic group of Firmicutes, ecophysiological optima are diverse. Nonetheless, a response to adversity that delimits this group is the formation of wet-heat resistant spores. These strategies are energetically demanding and therefore might affect the biological success of EFF. Therefore, we hypothesize that abundance and diversity of EFF should be maximized in those environments in which the benefits of these survival strategies offsets the energetic cost. In order to address this hypothesis, geothermal and mineral springs and drillings were selected because in these environments of steep physicochemical gradients, diversified survival strategies may become a successful strategy. We collected 71 samples from geothermal and mineral environments characterized by none (null, single or multiple limiting environmental factors (temperature, pH, UV radiation and specific mineral composition. To measure success, we quantified EFF gene copy numbers (GCN; spo0A gene in relation to total bacterial GCN (16S rRNA gene, as well as the contribution of EFF to community composition. The quantification showed that relative GCN for EFF reached up to 20% at sites characterized by multiple limiting environmental factors, whereas it corresponded to less than 1% at sites with one or no limiting environmental factor. Pyrosequencing of the 16S rRNA gene supports a higher contribution of EFF at sites with multiple limiting factors. Community composition suggested a combination of phylotypes

  7. Relationship between accumulated heat stress during the dry period, body condition score, and reproduction parameters of Holstein cows in tropical conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avendaño-Reyes, Leonel; Fuquay, John W; Moore, Reuben B; Liu, Zhanglin; Clark, Bruce L; Vierhout, C

    2010-02-01

    To estimate the relationship between heat stress during the last 60 days prepartum, body condition score and certain reproductive traits in the subsequent lactation of Holstein cows, 564 multiparous cows and 290 primiparous cows from four dairy herds were used in a hot, humid region. Maximum prepartum degree days were estimated to quantify the degree of heat stress. Multiple regressions analyses and logistic regression analysis were performed to determine the effect of prepartum heat stress and body condition change on reproductive parameters, which were obtained from DHIA forms at the end of the lactation. Multiparous and primiparous cows which gained body condition score from calving to 60 d postpartum exhibited 28 and 27 fewer days open (P 0.05) of heat stress measurement on days open or services per conception in either multiparous or primiparous cows. During hotter months of calving, multiparous cows showed higher services per conception and primiparous cows showed higher days open and services per conception (P score. Multiparous cows with high body condition score at calving were 1.47 times more likely to present a very difficult calving than cows that calved in October (P reproductive performance was not affected by cumulative prepartum heat stress although it was associated with very difficult calving score.

  8. Effect of conditioning methods on the microtensile bond strength of phosphate monomer-based cement on zirconia ceramic in dry and aged conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amaral, Regina; Ozcan, Mutlu; Valandro, Luiz Felipe; Balducci, Ivan; Bottino, Marco Antonio

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the durability of bond strength between a resin cement and aluminous ceramic submitted to various surface conditioning methods. Twenty-four blocks (5 X 5 X 4 mm 3) of a glass-in filtrated zirconia-alumina ceramic (inCeram Zirconia Classic) were randomly

  9. Experimental study of performance of a dry cooling and dedicated ventilation (DCDV) system under different space cooling load conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jia, Jie; Lee, W.L.; Chen, Hua

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • This is an experimental study of the use of DCDV system for achieving the decoupling and energy saving objectives. • The study focuses on side-by-side comparison of the DCDV and conventional systems. • DCDV system can better achieve the desired space air conditions and is more energy efficient. • A prediction model has been developed to relate the possible condensation period with different operating parameters. • The results are useful for wider application of DCDV system. - Abstract: The use of DCDV system for decoupling dehumidification from cooling to achieve energy saving objective for air-conditioning of office environments in Hong Kong was confirmed effective based on simulation studies by the authors. However, given that simulation typically assumes a perfect control and feedback system, whether or not the benefits of DCDV system can be realized in practice, in particular under various space part load ratio (PLR) and sensible heat ratio (SHR) conditions, is subject to experimental verifications. In this study, a prototype which could be switched between the proposed DCDV system mode and the conventional system mode was constructed in a test facility for laboratory experiments. Through two sets of identical experiments under various space cooling load conditions, it was found that if compared to the conventional system, DCDV system could perform slightly better in achieving the desired indoor condition and in reducing the moisture-related air quality problems, but would result in 1–3% higher in cooling output. As for the overall coefficient of performance (COP o ), the DCDV system was found performed better by 5.6–7.2%. Additional experimental analysis was conducted for the development of a prediction model to relate the possible condensation period (ψ) on the DC coil with different operating parameters

  10. Detection of respiratory viruses in shelter dogs maintained under varying environmental conditions

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    Francielle Liz Monteiro

    Full Text Available Abstract Three dog shelters in Rio Grande do Sul were investigated for associations between the occurrence of respiratory viruses and shelter environmental conditions. Nasal secretions randomly collected during the cold season were tested via PCR, and this data collection was followed by nucleotide sequencing of the amplicons. In shelter #1 (poor sanitary and nutritional conditions, high animal density and constant contact between dogs, 78% (58/74 of the nasal samples were positive, 35% (26/74 of which were in single infections and 44% (32/74 of which were in coinfections. Shelters #2 and #3 had satisfactory sanitary and nutritional conditions, outdoors exercise areas (#2 and animal clustering by groups (#3. In shelter #2, 9% (3/35 of the samples were positive for Canine parainfluenza virus (CPIV, and 6% (2/35 were positive for Canid herpesvirus 1 (CaHV-1. In shelter #3, 9% (7/77 of the samples were positive for Canine adenovirus type 2 (CAdV-2, and 1% (1/77 were positive for Canine distemper virus (CDV. The amplicon sequences (CPIV and CDV nucleoprotein gene; CAdV-2 E3 gene; CaHV-1 glycoprotein B gene showed 94-100% nucleotide identity with GenBank sequences. Our results demonstrate that CPIV, CAdV-2 and CDV are common in dog shelters and that their frequencies appear to be related with environmental and nutritional conditions. These results indicate the need for control/prevention measures, including vaccination and environmental management, to minimize these infections and improve dog health.

  11. Environmental conditions affecting the efficiency and efficacy of piscicides for use in nonnative fish eradication

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Peter James

    2010-01-01

    Conservation of native fish is a pressing issue for fisheries managers. Conservation efforts often require eliminating threats posed by nonnative fish by eradicating them with piscicides. The piscicides rotenone and antimycin are used for eradication but their application is often inefficient or ineffective. My goal was to increase the efficiency and efficacy of nonnative fish eradication using piscicides. I identified environmental conditions affecting piscicide application, researched methods to overcome these problems, and provided tools that piscicide applicators can use to make piscicide application more efficient and effective. Rotenone and antimycin were exposed to varying levels of sunlight, turbulence, and dissolved organic matter (DOM) to determine the effect these environmental conditions have on piscicides. Bioassay fish were used to determine the toxicity of the piscicides. Sunlight and turbulence affected rotenone and antimycin but DOM did not. Increasing the concentration of chemical can increase the resistance to the effects of these environmental conditions; however, the effects of these conditions are considerable in natural settings. Observations of bioassay fish in stream applications of rotenone were used to develop a statistical model to predict the persistence of the piscicide. The model can be used to predict rotenone persistence in small montane streams and to estimate where rotenone concentrations need to be fortified. I measured the mixing rate of a chemical plume in different channel morphologies and at center or edge applications. Center application had a significantly shorter mixing distance than edge application, but mixing distance was not different among meandering, straight, and riffle/pool morphologies. Application of my findings will increase the efficiency and efficacy of native fish conservation using piscicides.

  12. Working conditions, psychosocial environmental factors, and depressive symptoms among wage workers in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Minsung; Choi, Mankyu; Jung, Minsoo

    2016-07-01

    In South Korea, the number of workers suffering from mental illnesses, such as depression, has rapidly increased. There is growing concern about depressive symptoms being associated with both working conditions and psychosocial environmental factors. To investigate potential psychosocial environmental moderators in the relationship between working conditions and occupational depressive symptoms among wage workers. Data were obtained from the wage worker respondents (n = 4,095) of the Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey of 2009. First, chi-square tests confirmed the differences in working conditions and psychosocial characteristics between depressive and non-depressive groups. Second, multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to examine the moderating effects of the psychosocial environmental factors between working conditions and depressive symptoms. After adjusting for potential covariates, the likelihood of depressive symptomatology was high among respondents who had dangerous jobs and flexible work hours compared to those who had standard jobs and fixed daytime work hours (OR = 1.66 and 1.59, respectively). Regarding psychosocial factors, respondents with high job demands, low job control, and low social support were more likely to have depressive symptoms (OR = 1.26, 1.58 and 1.61, respectively). There is a need to develop non-occupational intervention programs, which provide workers with training about workplace depression and improve social support, and the programs should provide time for employees to have active communication. Additionally, companies should provide employees with support to access mental healthcare thereby decreasing the occurrence of workplace depression.

  13. Dry eye syndrome. Etiological and therapeutic aspects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apostol, Silvia; Filip, M; Dragne, Carmen; Filip, A

    2003-01-01

    "Dry eye syndrome" is a common disorder of the tear film that results from inadequate tear production, excessive tear evaporation or abnormality in mucin or lipid components of the tear film. A number of 53 patients suffering from dry eye syndrome were followed up for a period of 18 months. The study group was heterogeneous, including a lot of conditions accompanied by dry eye syndrome: Syogren's syndrome, lupus erythematous, ocular rosacea, patients with systemic treatments with antidepressants, betablockers, diuretics, oral contraceptives, glaucomatous patients with topical beta-blockers, postmenopausal women, aging people, computer users and long-term contact lens wearers. The therapeutical options were dictated by the severity of the syndrome: substitution therapy, treatment of the underlying eyelid diseases, modifying of the environmental conditions and treatment of the complications in the most severe cases. The new pathological approach is innovative and it may provide a real therapeutical measure for this condition: topical A Cyclosporine and androgen drops.

  14. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Chung-Liang; Huang, Yi-Ming; Hong, Guo-Fong

    2015-11-12

    The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  15. Using a Novel Wireless-Networked Decentralized Control Scheme under Unpredictable Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chung-Liang Chang

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The direction of sunshine or the installation sites of environmental control facilities in the greenhouse result in different temperature and humidity levels in the various zones of the greenhouse, and thus, the production quality of crop is inconsistent. This study proposed a wireless-networked decentralized fuzzy control scheme to regulate the environmental parameters of various culture zones within a greenhouse. The proposed scheme can create different environmental conditions for cultivating different crops in various zones and achieve diversification or standardization of crop production. A star-type wireless sensor network is utilized to communicate with each sensing node, actuator node, and control node in various zones within the greenhouse. The fuzzy rule-based inference system is used to regulate the environmental parameters for temperature and humidity based on real-time data of plant growth response provided by a growth stage selector. The growth stage selector defines the control ranges of temperature and humidity of the various culture zones according to the leaf area of the plant, the number of leaves, and the cumulative amount of light. The experimental results show that the proposed scheme is stable and robust and provides basis for future greenhouse applications.

  16. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

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    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani* Hasan.H.Al-Baid

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.  

  17. Some Properties of Emulsified Asphalt Paving Mixture at Iraqi Environmental Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakir.A.Al-Mishhadani

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Cold emulsified asphalt mixture is generally a mix made of emulsified asphalt withaggregate. Emulsified asphalt is manufactured from base asphalt, emulsifier agent and waterwith approximate percentage of 40% to 75% asphalt, 0.1% to 2.5% emulsifier and 25% to60% water plus some minor components. This study aims to use the cold emulsified asphaltmixtures for road construction and maintenance in Iraq as an alternative to the hot asphaltmixtures, due to its economical, practical and environmental advantages. This studyfocusedto test and evaluates the emulsified asphalt material properties to be used as paving mixture.The tested properties of emulsified asphalt mixture were bulk density, air voids, dry Marshallstability, wet Marshall stability, retained Marshall stability, flow tests and compared with thecommon used specification.The results indicate that the emulsified asphalt type cationic slowsetting low viscosity (CSS-1 is very suitable with quartz type of aggregate from Al-Nibaayquarry. From many trial mixes it is found that the best percentages of initial residual bitumencontent to produced adequateresults for coating test ,mixing ,compaction ,curing and Marshallstability were ranged from (2.5%, 3%,3.5%,4% and 4.5%, andthe optimum percentage is(3.5%.Finally it can be conducted that the emulsified asphalt mixture is a suitable alternativemixture to the hot asphalt mixture for road construction and maintenance in Iraq.

  18. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae) reflecting environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivula, Matti J

    2011-01-01

    Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in 'natural' conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as 'indicators' - a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1) Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2) Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3) Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and 'ecosystem health'. (4) Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5) Carabids reflect variation in 'natural' conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6) Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7) Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because they are diverse

  19. Useful model organisms, indicators, or both? Ground beetles (Coleoptera, Carabidae reflecting environmental conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matti Koivula

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Classic studies have successfully linked single-species abundances, life-history traits, assemblage structures and biomass of carabid beetles to past and present, human-caused environmental impacts and variation in ‘natural’ conditions. This evidence has led many to suggest carabids to function as ‘indicators’ − a term that bears multiple meanings. Here, a conservation-oriented definition for an indicator is used, carabid indicator potential from seven views is evaluated, and ways to proceed in indicator research are discussed. (1 Carabid species richness poorly indicates the richness and abundance of other taxa, which underlines the importance of using multiple taxa in environmental assessments. The ability of assemblage indices and specialist or functional-group abundances to reflect rare species and habitats should be examined in detail. (2 Experimental evidence suggests that carabids may potentially serve as keystone indicators. (3 Carabids are sensitive to human-altered abiotic conditions, such as pesticide use in agro-ecosystems and heavy metal contamination of soils. Carabids might thus reflect ecological sustainability and ‘ecosystem health’. (4 Carabid assemblages host abundant species characteristic of particular habitat types or successional stages, which makes them promising dominance indicators. (5 Carabids reflect variation in ‘natural’ conditions, but vegetation and structural features are more commonly adopted as condition indicators. Carabids nevertheless provide yet another, equally accurate, view on the structure of the environment. (6 Carabids may function as early-warning signalers, as suggested by recent studies linking climate and carabid distributions. (7 Carabids reflect natural and human-caused disturbances and management, but the usefulness of these responses for conservation purposes requires further research. In summary, European carabids appear useful model organisms and possibly indicators because

  20. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deo D Shirima

    Full Text Available We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m, stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps, soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand

  1. Interactions between Canopy Structure and Herbaceous Biomass along Environmental Gradients in Moist Forest and Dry Miombo Woodland of Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shirima, Deo D; Pfeifer, Marion; Platts, Philip J; Totland, Ørjan; Moe, Stein R

    2015-01-01

    We have limited understanding of how tropical canopy foliage varies along environmental gradients, and how this may in turn affect forest processes and functions. Here, we analyse the relationships between canopy leaf area index (LAI) and above ground herbaceous biomass (AGBH) along environmental gradients in a moist forest and miombo woodland in Tanzania. We recorded canopy structure and herbaceous biomass in 100 permanent vegetation plots (20 m × 40 m), stratified by elevation. We quantified tree species richness, evenness, Shannon diversity and predominant height as measures of structural variability, and disturbance (tree stumps), soil nutrients and elevation as indicators of environmental variability. Moist forest and miombo woodland differed substantially with respect to nearly all variables tested. Both structural and environmental variables were found to affect LAI and AGBH, the latter being additionally dependent on LAI in moist forest but not in miombo, where other factors are limiting. Combining structural and environmental predictors yielded the most powerful models. In moist forest, they explained 76% and 25% of deviance in LAI and AGBH, respectively. In miombo woodland, they explained 82% and 45% of deviance in LAI and AGBH. In moist forest, LAI increased non-linearly with predominant height and linearly with tree richness, and decreased with soil nitrogen except under high disturbance. Miombo woodland LAI increased linearly with stem density, soil phosphorous and nitrogen, and decreased linearly with tree species evenness. AGBH in moist forest decreased with LAI at lower elevations whilst increasing slightly at higher elevations. AGBH in miombo woodland increased linearly with soil nitrogen and soil pH. Overall, moist forest plots had denser canopies and lower AGBH compared with miombo plots. Further field studies are encouraged, to disentangle the direct influence of LAI on AGBH from complex interrelationships between stand structure, environmental

  2. A Research on Functional Status, Environmental Conditions, and Risk of Falls in Dementia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sima Ataollahi Eshkoor

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the effects of disability, physical activity, and functional status as well as environmental conditions on the risk of falls among the elderly with dementia after adjusting for sociodemographic factors. Data were derived from a group including 1210 Malaysian elderly who were demented and noninstitutionalized. The study was a national cross-sectional survey that was entitled “Determinants of Health Status among Older Malaysians.” Approximately 17% of subjects experienced falls. The results showed that ethnic non-Malay (OR=1.73 and functional decline (OR=1.67 significantly increased the risk of falls in samples (P0.05. It was concluded that functional decline and ethnic non-Malay increased the risk of falls but the increased environmental quality reduced falls.

  3. Environmental conditions influence the plant functional diversity effect on potential denitrification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariana E Sutton-Grier

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Global biodiversity loss has prompted research on the relationship between species diversity and ecosystem functioning. Few studies have examined how plant diversity impacts belowground processes; even fewer have examined how varying resource levels can influence the effect of plant diversity on microbial activity. In a field experiment in a restored wetland, we examined the role of plant trait diversity (or functional diversity, (FD and its interactions with natural levels of variability of soil properties, on a microbial process, denitrification potential (DNP. We demonstrated that FD significantly affected microbial DNP through its interactions with soil conditions; increasing FD led to increased DNP but mainly at higher levels of soil resources. Our results suggest that the effect of species diversity on ecosystem functioning may depend on environmental factors such as resource availability. Future biodiversity experiments should examine how natural levels of environmental variability impact the importance of biodiversity to ecosystem functioning.

  4. From soaking wet to bone dry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Nicolajsen, Sascha Veggerby

    2015-01-01

    A hydrological gradient from pond to dry limestone pavements on the Island of Öland, South Sweden. Methods Plant community composition and six morpho-physiogical plant traits were measured along a pronounced gradient in water supply and soil depth. The strength of filtering was quantified using a trait...... and resistance to water loss on drying. For individual traits, the strength of filtering waxes and wanes along the gradient. This strongly suggests that the mechanism, through which species are filtered into communities, acts through different traits as environmental conditions change along the gradient......, and most traits are strongly filtered only in parts of the gradient (e.g. root porosity in wet soils and water loss on drying on thin dry soils). Evidence for congruence between trait dispersion indices and the CATS model was established, underpinning the importance to plant community assembly...

  5. Efficiency assessment of indoor environmental policy for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wong, L.T.; Mui, K.W.

    2009-01-01

    To reduce carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) emissions through thermal energy conservation, air-conditioned offices in the subtropics are recommended to operate within specified ranges of indoor temperature, relative humidity and air velocity. As thermal discomfort leads to productivity loss, some indoor environmental policies for air-conditioned offices in Hong Kong are investigated in this study with relation to thermal energy consumption, CO 2 emissions from electricity use, and productivity loss due to thermal discomfort. Occupant thermal response is specifically considered as an adaptive factor in evaluating the energy consumption and productivity loss. The energy efficiency of an office is determined by the productivity which corresponds to the CO 2 generated. The results found that a policy with little impact on occupant thermal comfort and worker productivity would improve the office efficiency while the one with excessive energy consumption reduction would result in a substantial productivity loss. This study is a useful reference source for evaluating an indoor thermal environmental policy regarding the energy consumption, CO 2 emissions reduction, thermal comfort and productivity loss in air-conditioned offices in subtropical areas.

  6. Role of Ocean Initial Conditions to Diminish Dry Bias in the Seasonal Prediction of Indian Summer Monsoon Rainfall: A Case Study Using Climate Forecast System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koul, Vimal; Parekh, Anant; Srinivas, G.; Kakatkar, Rashmi; Chowdary, Jasti S.; Gnanaseelan, C.

    2018-03-01

    Coupled models tend to underestimate Indian summer monsoon (ISM) rainfall over most of the Indian subcontinent. Present study demonstrates that a part of dry bias is arising from the discrepancies in Oceanic Initial Conditions (OICs). Two hindcast experiments are carried out using Climate Forecast System (CFSv2) for summer monsoons of 2012-2014 in which two different OICs are utilized. With respect to first experiment (CTRL), second experiment (AcSAL) differs by two aspects: usage of high-resolution atmospheric forcing and assimilation of only ARGO observed temperature and salinity profiles for OICs. Assessment of OICs indicates that the quality of OICs is enhanced due to assimilation of actual salinity profiles. Analysis reveals that AcSAL experiment showed 10% reduction in the dry bias over the Indian land region during the ISM compared to CTRL. This improvement is consistently apparent in each month and is highest for June. The better representation of upper ocean thermal structure of tropical oceans at initial stage supports realistic upper ocean stability and mixing. Which in fact reduced the dominant cold bias over the ocean, feedback to air-sea interactions and land sea thermal contrast resulting better representation of monsoon circulation and moisture transport. This reduced bias of tropospheric moisture and temperature over the Indian land mass and also produced better tropospheric temperature gradient over land as well as ocean. These feedback processes reduced the dry bias in the ISM rainfall. Study concludes that initializing the coupled models with realistic OICs can reduce the underestimation of ISM rainfall prediction.

  7. Individual Characteristics of Environmental Conditions of Settlement in Endemic Area of Leptospirosis in Semarang City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tri Ramadhani

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonosis and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13.27/100,000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. This study aimed to know the epidemiological characteristics of leptospirosis cases and the relationship of environmental conditions of settlement with the incidence of leptospirosis. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Data population are the people who visit the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis and secondary data from the Health Department of Semarang. Sample are people who visited the health center with clinical symptoms of leptospirosis (mainly: fever (body temperature > 37C or fever accompanied by headache, muscle aches, conjunctivitis and rash. Data environmental conditions of settlement had beed observed and interviewed using, and analyzed bivariat with chi-square. The results show characteristics of respondents most of the age group 10-19 years (38.1%, male sex (56.2%, education level did not complete primary school (30.5% Distribution cases of leptospirosis attack more men (55% with mortality rate (CFR = 3.6, and in the age group 0-19 years that is as much as 32.5% (CFR=14.29. Environmental conditions associated with the occurrence of leptospirosis include kitchen wall not a wall, no plavond, open dumping and dirty house. To prevention transmission of leptospirosis, among others, hygiene sanitation,rat proofing so it does not make to nest rat.

  8. Responses of five Mediterranean halophytes to seasonal changes in environmental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil, Ricardo; Bautista, Inmaculada; Boscaiu, Monica; Lidón, Antonio; Wankhade, Shantanu; Sánchez, Héctor; Llinares, Josep; Vicente, Oscar

    2014-08-19

    In their natural habitats, different mechanisms may contribute to the tolerance of halophytes to high soil salinity and other abiotic stresses, but their relative contribution and ecological relevance, for a given species, remain largely unknown. We studied the responses to changing environmental conditions of five halophytes (Sarcocornia fruticosa, Inula crithmoides, Plantago crassifolia, Juncus maritimus and J. acutus) in a Mediterranean salt marsh, from summer 2009 to autumn 2010. A principal component analysis was used to correlate soil and climatic data with changes in the plants' contents of chemical markers associated with stress responses: ions, osmolytes, malondialdehyde (MDA, a marker of oxidative stress) and antioxidant systems. Stress tolerance in S. fruticosa, I. crithmoides and P. crassifolia (all succulent dicots) seemed to depend mostly on the transport of ions to aerial parts and the biosynthesis of specific osmolytes, whereas both Juncus species (monocots) were able to avoid accumulation of toxic ions, maintaining relatively high K(+)/Na(+) ratios. For the most salt-tolerant taxa (S. fruticosa and I. crithmoides), seasonal variations of Na(+), Cl(-), K(+) and glycine betaine, their major osmolyte, did not correlate with environmental parameters associated with salt or water stress, suggesting that their tolerance mechanisms are constitutive and relatively independent of external conditions, although they could be mediated by changes in the subcellular compartmentalization of ions and compatible osmolytes. Proline levels were too low in all the species to possibly have any effect on osmotic adjustment. However-except for P. crassifolia-proline may play a role in stress tolerance based on its 'osmoprotectant' functions. No correlation was observed between the degree of environmental stress and the levels of MDA or enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants, indicating that the investigated halophytes are not subjected to oxidative stress under natural

  9. Contribution of environmental conditions in dental offices of Antioquia to the risk of mercury contamination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jairo A. Ruiz C

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This article is a product from the project “Environmental Management of Dental Amalgam in the State of Antioquia” which was carried out by the following research groups belonging to the University of Antioquia: Science and Biomedical Technology, Precious Materials, and Pirometallurgical and Materials Researches, as well as the private company New Stetic S. A., between February 2005 and February 2007. Objective: to describe the environmental conditions in 30 big dental offices of the State of Antioquia, Colombia. Those dental offices having more than five dental chairs in the same work place were defined as “big” for the purpose of this project. Due to the fact that these dental offices represents 85% of the population of reference, the results described in this article can be consequently considered as is they were derived from a census. The description is made bearing in mind the people who are exposed to the risk of mercury contamination due to their occupation. Materials and method: an observation tool was designed in order to be applied in each dental office. It contained aspects as floor and wall characteristics, ventilation, room temperature, storing place for mercury, elements for handling amalgam scraps, and those activities which deviate from the regular dental service in the same site. Each dental office was visited by a research engineer and an advanced engineering student on a previously defined date. The researchers were trained in advance to collect the information. Results: it was found that some big dental offices have inadequate conditions in their premises for offering their services, and do not have a good handling of the environmental conditions. That’s why immediate actions are mandatory to minimize the risk of mercury contamination.

  10. An empirical model to predict infield thin layer drying rate of cut switchgrass

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khanchi, A.; Jones, C.L.; Sharma, B.; Huhnke, R.L.; Weckler, P.; Maness, N.O.

    2013-01-01

    A series of 62 thin layer drying experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of solar radiation, vapor pressure deficit and wind speed on drying rate of switchgrass. An environmental chamber was fabricated that can simulate field drying conditions. An empirical drying model based on maturity stage of switchgrass was also developed during the study. It was observed that solar radiation was the most significant factor in improving the drying rate of switchgrass at seed shattering and seed shattered maturity stage. Therefore, drying switchgrass in wide swath to intercept the maximum amount of radiation at these stages of maturity is recommended. Moreover, it was observed that under low radiation intensity conditions, wind speed helps to improve the drying rate of switchgrass. Field operations such as raking or turning of the windrows are recommended to improve air circulation within a swath on cloudy days. Additionally, it was found that the effect of individual weather parameters on the drying rate of switchgrass was dependent on maturity stage. Vapor pressure deficit was strongly correlated with the drying rate during seed development stage whereas, vapor pressure deficit was weakly correlated during seed shattering and seed shattered stage. These findings suggest the importance of using separate drying rate models for each maturity stage of switchgrass. The empirical models developed in this study can predict the drying time of switchgrass based on the forecasted weather conditions so that the appropriate decisions can be made. -- Highlights: • An environmental chamber was developed in the present study to simulate field drying conditions. • An empirical model was developed that can estimate drying rate of switchgrass based on forecasted weather conditions. • Separate equations were developed based on maturity stage of switchgrass. • Designed environmental chamber can be used to evaluate the effect of other parameters that affect drying of crops

  11. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming model for sustainable irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Mo; Fu, Qiang; Singh, Vijay P.; Ma, Mingwei; Liu, Xiao

    2017-12-01

    Water scarcity causes conflicts among natural resources, society and economy and reinforces the need for optimal allocation of irrigation water resources in a sustainable way. Uncertainties caused by natural conditions and human activities make optimal allocation more complex. An intuitionistic fuzzy multi-objective non-linear programming (IFMONLP) model for irrigation water allocation under the combination of dry and wet conditions is developed to help decision makers mitigate water scarcity. The model is capable of quantitatively solving multiple problems including crop yield increase, blue water saving, and water supply cost reduction to obtain a balanced water allocation scheme using a multi-objective non-linear programming technique. Moreover, it can deal with uncertainty as well as hesitation based on the introduction of intuitionistic fuzzy numbers. Consideration of the combination of dry and wet conditions for water availability and precipitation makes it possible to gain insights into the various irrigation water allocations, and joint probabilities based on copula functions provide decision makers an average standard for irrigation. A case study on optimally allocating both surface water and groundwater to different growth periods of rice in different subareas in Heping irrigation area, Qing'an County, northeast China shows the potential and applicability of the developed model. Results show that the crop yield increase target especially in tillering and elongation stages is a prevailing concern when more water is available, and trading schemes can mitigate water supply cost and save water with an increased grain output. Results also reveal that the water allocation schemes are sensitive to the variation of water availability and precipitation with uncertain characteristics. The IFMONLP model is applicable for most irrigation areas with limited water supplies to determine irrigation water strategies under a fuzzy environment.

  12. Environmental conditions associated with bat white-nose syndrome in the north-eastern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flory, Abigail R.; Kumar, Sunil; Stohlgren, Thomas J.; Cryan, Paul M.

    2012-01-01

    1. White-nose syndrome (WNS) is an emerging disease of hibernating North American bats that is caused by the cold-growing fungus Geomyces destructans. Since first observed in the winter of 2007, WNS has led to unprecedented mortality in several species of bats and may threaten more than 15 additional hibernating bat species if it continues across the continent. Although the exact means by which fungal infection causes mortality are undetermined, available evidence suggests a strong role of winter environmental conditions in disease mortality.

  13. Accumulation of uranium by filamentous green algae under natural environmental conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aleissa, K.A.; Shabana, El-Said K.; Al-Masoud, F.L.S.

    2004-01-01

    The capacity of algae to concentrate uranium under natural environmental conditions is measured by a-spectrometry. Spirogyra, a filamentous green fresh-water alga, has concentrated uranium from a surface concrete ponds with elevated uranium levels (140-1140 ppb). The concentration factors (CFs) ranged from 8.9-67 with an average value of 22. Cladophora spp, a filamentous green marine alga has concentrated uranium from the marine water with a concentration factor ranged from 220-280. The average concentration factor was 250. The factors affecting the sorption process are discussed in detail. (author)

  14. Study on the etching conditions of polycarbonate detectors for particle analysis of safeguards environmental samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iguchi, K.; Esaka, K.T.; Lee, C.G.; Inagawa, J.; Esaka, F.; Onodera, T.; Fukuyama, H.; Suzuki, D.; Sakurai, S.; Watanabe, K.; Usuda, S.

    2005-01-01

    The fission track technique was applied to the particle analysis for safeguards environmental samples to obtain information about the isotope ratio of nuclear materials in individual particles. To detect the particles containing nuclear material with high detection efficiency and less particle loss, the influence of uranium enrichments on etching conditions of a fission track detector made of polycarbonate was investigated. It was shown that the increase in uranium enrichment shortened the suitable etching time both for particle detection and for less particle loss. From the results obtained, it was suggested that the screening of the uranium particles according to the enrichment is possible by controlling the etching time of the detector

  15. Development of the BWR Dry Core Initial and Boundary Conditions for the SNL XR2 Experiments; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, L.J.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of the Boiling Water Reactor Experimental Analysis and Model Development for Severe Accidents (BEAMD) Program at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) are: (1) the development of a sound quantitative understanding of boiling water reactor (BWR) core melt progression; this includes control blade and channel box effects, metallic melt relocation and possible blockage formation under severe accident conditions, and (2) provision of BWR melt progression modeling capabilities in SCDAP/RELAP5 (consistent with the BWR experimental data base). This requires the assessment of current modeling of BWR core melt progression against the expanding BWR data base. Emphasis is placed upon data from the BWR tests in the German CORA test facility and from the ex-reactor experiments[Sandia National Laboratories (SNL)] on metallic melt relocation and blockage formation in BWRs, as well as upon in-reactor data from the Annular Core Research Reactor (ACRR) DF-4 BWR test (conducted in 1986 at SNL). The BEAMD Program is a derivative of the BWR Severe Accident Technology Programs at ORNL. The ORNL BWR programs have studied postulated severe accidents in BWRs and have developed a set of models specific to boiling water reactor response under severe accident conditions. These models, in an experiment-specific format, have been successfully applied to both pretest and posttest analyses of the DF-4 experiment, and the BWR severe fuel damage (SFD) experiments performed in the CORA facility at the Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe (KfK) in Germany, resulting in excellent agreement between model prediction and experiment. The ORNL BWR models have provided for more precise predictions of the conditions in the BWR experiments than were previously available. This has provided a basis for more accurate interpretation of the phenomena for which the experiments are performed. The experiment-specific models, as used in the ORNL DF-4 and CORA BWR experimental analyses, also provide a basis

  16. Dry Sliding Wear Behavior of A356 Alloy/Mg2Sip Functionally Graded in-situ Composites: Effect of Processing Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.C. Ram

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In present study, the effect of dry sliding wear conditions of A356 alloy/Mg2Sip functionally graded in-situ composites developed by centrifugal casting method has been studied. A pure commercial A356 alloy (Al–7.5Si–0.3Mg was selected to be the matrix of the composites and primary Mg2Sip reinforcing particles were formed by in-situ chemical reaction with an average grain size of 40-47.8 µm. The Al–(Mg2Sip functionally graded metal matrix composites (FGMMC’s were synthesized by centrifugal casting technique with radial geometry, using two different mould rotating speeds ( 1200 and 1600 rpm. The X-ray diffraction (XRD characterization technique was carried out to confirm the in-situ formed Mg2Si particles in composites. Optical microscopy examination was carried out to reveals the grain refinement of Al-rich grains due to in-situ formed Mg2Si particles. Scanning electron microscope (SEM and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS techniques were carried out to reveal the distribution of phases, morphological characteristics and confirmation of primary Mg2Si particles in the matrix. The sliding wear behavior was studied using a Pin-on-Disc set-up machine with sliding wear parameters: effect of loads (N, effect of sliding distances (m and effect of Mg on wear at room temperature with a high-carbon chromium steel disc (HRC-64 as counter surfaces. A good correlation was evidenced between the dry sliding behaviour of functionally graded in-situ composites and the distribution of Mg2Si reinforcing particles. Beside the above processing conditions, the dominant wear mechanisms of functionally graded in-situ composites have been correlated with the microstructures. The hardness and wear resistance properties of these composites increase with increasing volume percent of reinforced primary Si/Mg2Si particles toward inner zone of cast cylindrical shapes. The objective of this works was to study the tribological characteristics under dry sliding

  17. The Effect of Peak Temperatures and Hoop Stresses on Hydride Reorientations of Zirconium Alloy Cladding Tubes under Interim Dry Storage Condition

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cha, Hyun Jin; Jang, Ki Nam; Kim, Kyu Tae

    2016-01-01

    In this study, the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on hydride reorientation in cladding was investigated. It was shown that the 250ppm-H specimens generated larger radial hydride fractions and longer radial hydrides than the 500ppm-H ones. The precipitated hydride in radial direction severely degrades mechanical properties of spent fuel rod. Hydride reorientation is related to cladding material, cladding temperature, hydrogen contents, thermal cycling, hoop stress and cooling rate. US NRC established the regulation on cladding temperature during the dry storage, which is the maximum fuel cladding temperature should not exceed 400 .deg. C for all fuel burnups under normal conditions of storage. However, if it is proved that the best estimate cladding hoop stress is equal to or less than 90MPa for the temperature limit proposed, a higher short-term temperature limit is allowed for low burnup fuel. In this study, 250ppm and 500ppm hydrogen-charged Zr-Nb alloy cladding tubes were selected to evaluate the effect of peak temperatures and hoop tensile stresses on the hydride reorientation during the dry storage. In order to evaluate threshold stresses in relation to various peak temperatures, four peak temperatures of 250, 300, 350, and 400 .deg. C and three tensile hoop stresses of 80, 100, 120MPa were selected.

  18. Tool Condition Monitoring and Remaining Useful Life Prognostic Based on a Wireless Sensor in Dry Milling Operations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cunji Zhang

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Tool breakage causes losses of surface polishing and dimensional accuracy for machined part, or possible damage to a workpiece or machine. Tool Condition Monitoring (TCM is considerably vital in the manufacturing industry. In this paper, an indirect TCM approach is introduced with a wireless triaxial accelerometer. The vibrations in the three vertical directions (x, y and z are acquired during milling operations, and the raw signals are de-noised by wavelet analysis. These features of de-noised signals are extracted in the time, frequency and time–frequency domains. The key features are selected based on Pearson’s Correlation Coefficient (PCC. The Neuro-Fuzzy Network (NFN is adopted to predict the tool wear and Remaining Useful Life (RUL. In comparison with Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN and Radial Basis Function Network (RBFN, the results show that the NFN has the best performance in the prediction of tool wear and RUL.

  19. Nonlinear Dielectric Properties of Yeast Cells Cultured in Different Environmental Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawanishi, Gomon; Fukuda, Naoki; Muraji, Masafumi

    The harmonics of the electric current through yeast suspensions, the nonlinear dielectric properties of yeast cells, have particular patterns according to the biological activity of the cells and the measurement of these patterns is a technique for determining the activity of living cells. The concentration of glucose and oxygen in yeast culture medium influences the manifestation of fermentation or respiration of yeast cells. Measurements were made with yeast cells (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) cultured aerobically and anaerobically in sufficient glucose concentration, aerobic fermentation and anaerobic fermentation, and aerobically in limited glucose concentration, respiration. The results showed that the harmonics were barely apparent for yeast cells in aerobic fermentation and respiratory; however, cells in the anaerobic fermentation displayed substantial third and fifth harmonics. We can say that environmental condition affects the yeast cells' nonlinear properties, from another viewpoint, the measurements of the nonlinear properties are available to determine the activity of yeast cells adjusted to the conditions of their cultivation.

  20. Avian migrants adjust migration in response to environmental conditions en route

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tøttrup, Anders P; Thorup, Kasper; Rainio, Kalle

    2008-01-01

    The onset of migration in birds is assumed to be primarily under endogenous control in long-distance migrants. Recently, climate changes appear to have been driving a rapid change in breeding area arrival. However, little is known about the climatic factors affecting migratory birds during...... covering the entire migration period every year from observatories located in the Middle East and northern Europe, we show that passage of the Sahara Desert is delayed and correlated with improved conditions in the wintering areas. By contrast, migrants travel more rapidly through Europe, and adjust...... the migration cycle, or whether recently reported phenological changes are caused by plastic behavioural responses or evolutionary change. Here, we investigate how environmental conditions in the wintering areas as well as en route towards breeding areas affect timing of migration. Using data from 1984 to 2004...

  1. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaun Smith

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Materials and methods: Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85% and low (≤70% relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. Results and discussion: C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01 in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter

  2. The impact of environmental conditions on Campylobacter jejuni survival in broiler faeces and litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Shaun; Meade, Joseph; Gibbons, James; McGill, Kevina; Bolton, Declan; Whyte, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Campylobacter jejuni is the leading bacterial food-borne pathogen within the European Union, and poultry meat is an important vehicle for its transmission to humans. However, there is limited knowledge about how this organism persists in broiler litter and faeces. The aim of this study was to assess the impact of a number of environmental parameters, such as temperature, humidity, and oxygen, on Campylobacter survival in both broiler litter and faeces. Used litter was collected from a Campylobacter-negative broiler house after final depopulation and fresh faeces were collected from transport crates. Samples were confirmed as Campylobacter negative according to modified ISO methods for veterinary samples. Both sample matrices were inoculated with 9 log10 CFU/ml C. jejuni and incubated under high (≥85%) and low (≤70%) relative humidity conditions at three different temperatures (20°C, 25°C, and 30°C) under both aerobic and microaerophilic atmospheres. Inoculated litter samples were then tested for Campylobacter concentrations at time zero and every 2 hours for 12 hours, while faecal samples were examined at time zero and every 24 hours for 120 hours. A two-tailed t-test assuming unequal variance was used to compare mean Campylobacter concentrations in samples under the various temperature, humidity, and atmospheric conditions. C. jejuni survived significantly longer (P≤0.01) in faeces, with a minimum survival time of 48 hours, compared with 4 hours in used broiler litter. C. jejuni survival was significantly enhanced at 20°C in all environmental conditions in both sample matrices tested compared with survival at 25°C and 30°C. In general, survival was greater in microaerophilic compared with aerobic conditions in both sample matrices. Humidity, at the levels examined, did not appear to significantly impact C. jejuni survival in any sample matrix. The persistence of Campylobacter in broiler litter and faeces under various environmental conditions has