WorldWideScience

Sample records for dry distillation technique

  1. Tomato yield responses to soil-incorporated dried distillers grains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distiller's grains (DDGs) are a coproduct of dry-grind corn ethanol production, most of which are used for animal feed, and are sold for under $150/metric ton. Developing higher-value uses for DDGs can increase the profitability of corn-based ethanol. Although DDGs applied directly to a pott...

  2. Development of a method for the production of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I by the dry distillation technique of tellurium oxide irradiated

    CERN Document Server

    Dias, L A P

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this work is to develop and study a new processing method of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I from irradiated targets of tellurium oxide at the IEA-R1 reactor form IPEN/CNEN/SP. The implementation of this method aims to assure the national distribution of this isotope, meeting the increasing market and updating the Brazilian technological capability in this developing area. The separation method consists of the distillation of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I from a tellurium oxide target, collecting it onto a sodium hydroxide solution, not leading to high amounts of liquid waste, what usually occurs in wet distillation procedures. The variables studied were: distillation lime and temperature and volume of the method and the good quality of sup 1 sup 3 sup 1 I. The last conditions were: 760 deg C, 3 hours of distillation for the sintered targets and 760 deg C and 1 hour of distillation for the powder target, using 5 mL of the NaOH absorption solution. The calculations of activation and separation wield showed that is ...

  3. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    OpenAIRE

    Jacek Koziorowski; Jesper Fonslet

    2013-01-01

    As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated wit...

  4. Dry Distillation of Radioiodine from TeO2 Targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jacek Koziorowski

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available As medical cyclotrons are becoming more abundant, 123I and 124I are getting more attention as alternatives to 131I for diagnostics of thyroid disease. Both 123I and 124I provide better diagnostics, deliver less dose to patients and both reduce the risk of thyroid stunning, facilitating subsequent therapy. Dry distillation of radioiodine from tellurium dioxide targets has become the standard approach to producing these radioiodines. Setting up such a production of radioiodine is associated with a lengthy optimization of the process and for this purpose natural tellurium is often used for economical reasons. In this paper, the distillation parameters are scrutinized to ensure optimal distillation temperature, in order to minimize time spent and prevent loss of expensive target material. It is further demonstrated how the individual iodine isotopes, produced from proton bombardment of natTe, will diffuse out of the target in a time dependent ratio. We believe the effect is due to the isotopes having their maximum cross section at different energies. The individual isotopes produced will thus have their highest concentration at different depths in the target. This results in individual mean diffusion lengths and diffusion times for the different isotopes.

  5. A comparative study of water-steam distillation with water-bubble distillation techniques to increase the quality of patchouli essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitri, Noor; Yandi, Nefri; Hermawati, Julianto, Tatang Shabur

    2017-03-01

    A comparative study of the quality of patchouli oil using Water-Steam Distillation (WSD) and Water Bubble Distillation (WBD) techniques has been studied. The raw materials were Patchouli plants from Samigaluh village, Kulon Progo district, Yogyakarta. This study is aimed to compare two distillation techniques in order to find out the optimal distillation technique to increase the content of patchouli alcohol (patchoulol) and the quality of patchouli oil. Pretreatment such as withering, drying, size reduction and light fermentation were intended to increase the yield. One kilogramm of patchouli was moisturized with 500 mL of aquadest. The light fermentation process was carried out for 20 hours in a dark container. Fermented patchouli was extracted for 6 hours using Water-Steam and Water Bubble Distillation techniques. Physical and chemical properties test of patchouli oil were performed using SNI standard No. SNI-06-2385-2006 and the chemical composition of patchouli oil was analysed by GC-MS. As the results, the higher yield oil is obtained using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 5.9% versus 2.4%. Spesific gravity, refractive index and acid number of patchouli oil in Water-Steam Distillation results did not meet the SNI standard, i.e. 0.991; 1.623 and 13.19, while the Water Bubble Distillation met the standard, i.e. 0.955; 1.510 and 6.61. The patchoulol content using Water Bubble Distillation technique is 61.53%, significant higher than those using Water-Steam Distillation, i.e. 38.24%. Thus, Water Bubble Distillation promises a potential technique to increase the content of patchoulol in the patchouli oil.

  6. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications

  7. Use of solar distillation for olive mill wastewater drying and recovery of polyphenolic compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sklavos, Sotirios; Gatidou, Georgia; Stasinakis, Athanasios S; Haralambopoulos, Dias

    2015-10-01

    Olive mill wastewater (OMW) is characterized by its high organic load and the presence of phenolic compounds. For first time, a solar distillator was used to investigate the simultaneous solar drying of OMW and the recovery of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties in the distillate. Two experiments were conducted and the role of thermal insulation on the performance of the distiller was studied. The use of insulation resulted to higher temperatures in the distillator (up to 84.3 °C and 78.5 °C at the air and sludge, respectively), shorter period for OMW dewatering (14 days), while it increased the performance of distillator by 26.1%. Chemical characterization of the distillate showed that pH and COD concentration gradually decreased during the experiments, whereas an opposite trend was noticed for conductivity and total phenols concentration. Almost 4% of the total phenols found initially in OMW were transferred to the distillate when an insulated solar distillator was used. Gas chromatographic analysis of collected distillates confirmed the presence of tyrosol in all samples; whereas hydroxytyrosol was found only in fresh collected distillate samples. Further experiments should be conducted to optimize the process and quantify the concentrations of recovered phenolic compounds. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Gels of ferulated arabinoxylans extracted from distillers dried grains with solubles: rheology, structural parameters and microstructure

    Science.gov (United States)

    One of the major by-products of bioethanol production is distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS). Maize is one of the main sources for the production of this biofuel. In this way, dietary fiber represents the principal fraction of DDGS, which could be a potential source of added-value biomolecu...

  9. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  10. Barley Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) as Feedstock for Production of Acetone, Butanol and Ethanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Houweling-Tan, G.B.N.; Sperber, B.L.H.M.; Wal, van der H.; Bakker, R.R.C.; Lopez Contreras, A.M.

    2016-01-01

    Distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) represent important co-product from commercial yeast fermentations, including bioethanol, from grains. In view of the current expansion of the bioethanol fermentation process, with the concomitant increase in production of DDGS, alternative applications t

  11. Twin screw extrusion processing of feed blends containing distillers dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  12. Evaluation of potential food applications of dried distillers spent grain (DSG). Final research report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1981-02-06

    Results from experimental test bakes indicate that dried distillers spent grain (DSG) can be used to replace up to 15% of the flour for the production of an acceptable variety bread, provided that the DSG is processed under optimum conditions for a satisfactory flavor and color development. The raw materials used for the mash bill may also affect the taste of the finished product. (MHR)

  13. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllum commune.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutivisedsak, Nongnuch; Leathers, Timothy D; Price, Neil Pj

    2013-01-01

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune were examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan from agricultural biomass. Strains were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1% (w/v) distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS), an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by the dry grind process. Ten of 11 strains tested produced more than 2 g schizophyllan/L. Two strains, ATCC 20165 and CBS 266.60, produced more than 10 g schizophyllan/L. Schizophyllan from these strains was similar to commercial product in terms of solution viscosity, molecular weight, and surface tension properties, suggesting that they would be equivalent in biomaterial applications.

  14. Troubleshooting Distillation Column by Gamma Ray Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    BAOXiaojun; WEIWeishen; 等

    2002-01-01

    A digitally controlled three-dimensional gamma-scanning apparatus was developed and used to troubleshoot distillation column in the present investigation. In a 140mm(ID) model colum, various malfunctional phenomena,both rate and process related conditions and structural problems, which may be frequently encountered in the operation of tray and packing columns, were experimentally simulated and tested with the developed scanning system. The experimental results showed that the scanning spectra can fairly reflect the simulated phenomena. The salient feature of the scanning apparatus lies in that it integrates the so called grid scan and computer-assisted tomography scan in a single system. It was confirmed that the gamma-scanning technique can serve as an important on-line troubleshooting and maintenance tool.

  15. Short-term effects of lower oil dried distillers grains with solubles in laying hen rations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Purdum, Sheila; Hanford, Kathy; Kreifels, Brett

    2014-10-01

    Extraction of oil from dried distillers grains has become a common practice among US ethanol producers. The valuable oil has been diverted to markets other than poultry feed, leaving new dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) products higher in fiber and purportedly lower in ME. This study compared 3 DDGS products with 10.3, 7.3, or 5.2% ether extract, respectively, with a corn-soy control ration in young Bovan laying hens for a feeding period from 20 to 33 wk of age. The DDGS was fed at the rate of 20% of the ration. Lower oil content of DDGS had no effect on short-term egg production parameters: feed intake, egg production, egg weight or mass, and hen weight gain. The diets containing lower fat DDGS (5.2%) did have reduced AME and kilocalories per day intake for laying hens. For each percent reduction in oil from a normal DDGS sample (10.3%) to medium oil (7.3%) DDGS, AME decreased 42.3 kcal/kg of diet. However, total kilocalories per day intake did sustain good egg production during this short trial.

  16. Hydrothermal Liquefaction of Dried Distillers Grains with solubles: A reaction temperature study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørup, Anders; Christensen, Per Runge; Aarup, David Friis

    2012-01-01

    The effect of the reaction temperature on hydrothermal liquefaction of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) was investigated using a novel stop-flow reactor system at varying temperatures (300–400 °C), fixed pressure (250 bar), and fixed reaction time (15 min). The stop-flow reactor......, and chemical composition. Higher reaction temperatures resulted in improved bio-oil yields, less char formation, and higher heating values of the bio-oil. A supercritical reaction temperature of 400 °C was found to produce bio-oil in the highest yields and of the best quality....... provides rapid heating of biomass feeds and the option of performing multiple sequential repetitions. This bypasses long, uncontrollable temperature gradients and unintended changes in the reaction chemistry. The product, a crude bio-oil, was characterized in terms of yield, elemental composition...

  17. Milk and methane production in lactating dairy cattle consuming distillers dried grains and solubles or canola meal

    Science.gov (United States)

    The use of byproducts as an alternative feed source is becoming increasingly popular among dairy producers. A study using 12 multiparous (79 ± 16 DIM) (mean ± SD) lactating Jersey cows, was conducted over 5 months to evaluate the effects of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or canola meal...

  18. Ferulic Acid Dehydrodimer and –Dehydrotrimer Profiles of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from Different Cereal Species

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Bunzel, Mirko; Schäfer, Judith

    2015-01-01

    of the plant cell wall. Corn-, wheat-, and mixed cereal distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated for composition of DFAs and TriFAs by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography with ultra violet detection. Corn DDGS contained 5.3 and 5.9 times higher contents of total DFAs...

  19. Characteristics of Wet and Dried Distillers Grains on Ruminal Fermentation and Effects of Dietary Wet Distillers Grains on Performance of Hanwoo Steers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ill Young Kim

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the nutrient composition, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD and organic matter disappearance (IVOMD of three kinds of distillers grains (DG; i wet distillers grains (WDG, KRW 25/kg, ii dried distillers grains (DDG, KRW 280/kg, iii dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS, KRW 270/kg produced from tapioca 70% and rice 30%, and to evaluate dietary effects of WDG on the performance of Hanwoo steers. In Exp. 1, twelve-WDG, four-DDG and one-DDGS were collected from seven ethanol plants. Average crude protein, crude fiber, neutral detergent fiber, and acid detergent fiber of WDG, DDG, and DDGS were: 32.6%, 17.8%, 57.5%, and 30.2% for WDG, 36.7%, 13.9%, 51.4%, and 30.5% for DDG, and 31.0%, 11.9%, 40.3%, and 21.2% for DDGS (DM basis, respectively. The DDGS had a higher quantity of water-soluble fraction than WDG and DDG and showed the highest IVDMD (p<0.05 in comparison to others during the whole experimental time. The IVDMD at 0 to 12 h incubation were higher (p<0.05 in DDG than WDG, but did not show significant differences from 24 to 72 h. The same tendency was observed in IVOMD, showing that DG made from tapioca and rice (7:3 can be used as a feed ingredient for ruminants. Considering the price, WDG is a more useful feed ingredient than DDG and DDGS. In Exp. 2, 36 Hanwoo steers of 21 months (495.1±91 kg were randomly assigned to one of three dietary treatments for 85 days; i Control (total mixed ration, TMR, ii WDG 10% (TMR containing 10% of WDG, as fed basis, and iii WDG 20% (TMR containing 20% of WDG, as fed basis. With respect to body weight and average daily gain, there were no differences between control and WDG treatments during the whole experimental period. Dry matter intake of control (9.34 kg, WDG 10% (9.21 kg and 20% (8.86 kg and feed conversion ratio of control (13.0, WDG 10% (13.2 and 20% (12.1 did not show differences between control and WDG treatments. Thus, the use of WDG up to 20

  20. Physical and sensory properties of corn flakes with added dry residue of wild oregano distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Košutić Milenko

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available According to the modern nutritionist opinions, cereal products such as flakes and snacks are the most common foods in the daily diet. Extrusion technology makes it possible to apply different sources of ingredients for the enrichment of cereal-based flakes or snack products. Substances with strong antioxidant properties such as wild oregano have a positive impact on human health. Therefore, they attract the attention of scientists, consumers and food industry experts. This paper investigates the effects of the simultaneous addition of dry residue from wild oregano distillation (0.5 g / 100g of sample and 1 g / 100g of sample, on the physical-textural and color properties of corn flakes in order to create a new product with improved nutritional properties. The addition of dry residue of wild oregano positively influenced physical characteristics (decreased bulk density 30.2 %, increased expansion rate 44.9 %, as well as texture hardness and the work of compression, 38.1 % and 40.3 %, respectively. Also, oregano significantly changed the color of flakes. Tukey’s HSD test showed statistically significant differences between most of the mean values of physical-textural, color and sensory attributes in the oregano-added corn flakes compared to the control sample. Principal component analysis has been applied to classify the samples according to differences in the studied parameters. The data pointed out that investigated corn flakes with the addition of wild oregano are new food products with good physical-textural and sensory properties due to a higher level of antioxidant activity. Moreover, it may contribute to the valorization of edible industrial waste in food production. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III 46005 i br. TR 31027

  1. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles as an alternative ingredient for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shim, M Y; Pesti, G M; Bakalli, R I; Tillman, P B; Payne, R L

    2011-02-01

    The effects of graded levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were investigated as a partial replacement for sources of protein, energy, and other nutrients for broilers when the digestible amino acid balance was maintained. Zero, 8, 16, and 24% DDGS were incorporated into isonutritive diets at the expense of corn, soybean meal, and dl-Met. Poultry oil, l-Lys, and l-Thr additions increased with increasing levels of DDGS. Diets were each fed to 36 Cobb 500 straight-run broilers in 6 floor pens in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, broilers fed ≥8% DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet during the 0- to 18-d starter period (P = 0.0164) but were almost identical in BW at 42 d (P = 0.9395). The only difference at 42 d was in the carcass fat composition of female broilers: percentage of fat pad decreased with increasing DDGS level (P = 0.0133). Corn DDGS reduced the pellet durability index. However, the pellet durability index was not related to growth or feed utilization. In experiment 2 at 42 d, broilers fed all levels of DDGS showed increased BW gain compared with those fed the control diet. Broilers may perform well when fed properly balanced feeds containing up to 24% DDGS despite reduced pellet quality.

  2. Synthesis and characterization of highly flexible thermoplastic films from cyanoethylated corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Chunyan; Reddy, Narendra; Yan, Kelu; Yang, Yiqi

    2011-03-09

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) can be made into highly flexible thermoplastic films without the need for plasticizers. DDGS is an abundantly available coproduct of ethanol production that is inexpensive ($80-130/ton) compared to most of the polymers used for thermoplastic applications. In this research, oil-and-zein-free DDGS was cyanoethylated using acrylonitrile, and cyanoethylation conditions were optimized to obtain high percent weight gain of up to 42%. Cyanoethylated DDGS was characterized using (1)H NMR, FTIR, DSC, and TGA. Cyanoethylated DDGS was compression molded into thermoplastic films, and the tensile properties of the films were studied. It was found that DDGS films with elongation as high as 38% and strength of 14 MPa could be obtained without the use of any plasticizers. Alternatively, films with strength as high as 651 MPa but with relatively low elongation (2.5%) were obtained by varying the extent of cyanoethylation. This research showed that cyanoethylation could be a viable approach to develop biothermoplastics from biopolymers for applications such as packing films, extrudates, and resins for composites.

  3. The influence of distillers dried grains with solubles during gestation on sow productivity and milk composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhan Shi

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS during gestation on sow productivity, litter performance and milk composition. Thirty-six second- and third-parity (2.27 parity sows (Yorkshire were bred with semen from a pool of Landrace boars. The sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 3 groups and fed diets containing 0 (control, 12.5 or 25% DDGS during gestation. The sows were divided into 12 blocks of three animals. Piglets were cross-fostered, within dietary treatment groups 48 h after birth to standardise litter size to a range of 9 to13 piglets. The 25% DDGS supplementation resulted in a greater (P=0.03 average daily feed intake (ADFI during lactation compared with control sows. The weaning-to-oestrus interval was shorter in sows receiving 25% DDGS diets compared to the control (P=0.01. The number of piglets born was similar among treatments. The addition of 12.5 and 25% DDGS to the gestation diet increased the average daily gain (ADG of the piglets during lactation (P=0.04. The results demonstrated that feeding 25% DDGS does not have negative effects on sow or litter performance and increases the sow ADFI and the piglet ADG during lactation.

  4. Supercritical CO2 extraction of lipids from grain sorghum dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lijun; Weller, Curtis L; Schlegel, Vicki L; Carr, Timothy P; Cuppett, Susan L

    2008-03-01

    Experiments were carried out on a lab supercritical CO(2) extraction system to determine the effects of extraction conditions, including mass ratio of CO(2) consumed to distillers dry grain with solubles (DDGS) extracted, extraction pressure, extraction temperature and time, on yield and composition of extracted lipids. A maximum lipid yield of 150 g/kg DDGS was achieved with a mass ratio approximately 45, an extraction pressure at 27.5 MPa, an extraction temperature at 70 degrees C and an extraction time of 4 h. Under these extraction conditions, the contents of tocols, phytosterols, policosanols and free fatty acids were 0.44, 15.6, 31.2 and 155.3 mg/g in the extract. Experimental results indicated that shorter extraction time and higher flow rate of CO(2) can achieve higher contents of tocols, phytosterols and policosanols but lower content of free fatty acids in the lipid extract. Extraction conditions had no observed effects on the composition of free fatty acids in the extract. Palmitic, oleic and linoleic acids were three main free fatty acids extracted and constituted about 94% of all free fatty acids.

  5. A comparison between corn and grain sorghum fermentation rates, Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles composition, and lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, David J; Moreau, Robert A

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to determine if the compositional difference between grain sorghum and corn impact ethanol yields and coproduct value when grain sorghum is incorporated into existing corn ethanol facilities. Fermentation properties of corn and grain sorghum were compared utilizing two fermentation systems (conventional thermal starch liquefaction and native starch hydrolysis). Fermentation results indicated that protease addition influenced the fermentation rate and yield for grain sorghum, improving yields by 1-2% over non-protease treated fermentations. Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles produced from sorghum had a statistically significant higher yields and significantly higher protein content relative to corn. Lipid analysis of the Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles showed statistically significant differences between corn and sorghum in triacylglycerol, diacylglycerol and free fatty acid levels.

  6. LIQUEFACTION OF CORN DISTILLERS DRIED GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS IN HOT-COMPRESSED PHENOL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huasu Su

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The present work aims to liquefy corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS, a by-product in corn ethanol production, to produce liquid products as a potential substitute for petroleum-derived phenol or an additive in the manufacturing of phenolic resins. Efficient liquefaction of DDGS has been realized with hot-compressed phenol at 200-450oC. Effects of liquefaction temperature, initial phenol/DDGS ratio, residence time and catalysts on yields of liquefaction products, as well as characterizations of typical liquid and solid products, have been investigated. The yield of liquid products increased with temperature, while it peaked at around 300oC, due to condensation/cracking reactions of the liquid intermediates/products to form solid products (i.e., coke/char at temperatures higher than 300oC. The liquid yield increased monotonically with the initial phenol/DDGS ratio for a specified treatment time and temperature. An increased residence time generally produced a lower yield of liquid products, and a higher yield of solid residue, which was likely due to the increased coke/char formation from liquid products for a prolonged residence time. The yield of liquid products reached a maximum of 97% at 300oC for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 2/1. K2CO3, Rb2CO3 and NaOH were found very effective catalysts for enhancing the liquid yields. The use of these catalysts resulted in 25% increase in the liquid yields for 5 min-operation with Phenol/DDGS of 1/1 at 300oC.

  7. Phosphorus digestibility response of growing pigs to phytase supplementation of triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, P C; Adeola, O

    2015-02-01

    An experiment was conducted in growing pigs to determine the true total-tract digestibility (TTTD) of P in triticale distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) with or without phytase using the regression method. Six diets were formulated in a 3 × 2 factorial arrangement, including 3 levels of triticale DDGS (300, 400, or 500 g/kg) and phytase (0 or 500 phytase units [FTU]/kg of diet). A total of 48 barrows (initial BW 22.2 ± 1.3 kg) were assigned to the 6 diets in a randomized complete block design. There was a 5-d adjustment period followed by a 5-d total collection of feces. The results show that P intake, fecal P output, and digested P increased linearly ( phytase on apparent total-tract digestibility (ATTD) of P. In diets without added phytase, the ATTD of P in triticale DDGS was 65.0, 67.7, and 63.2% for the diets with 300, 400, and 500 g/kg triticale DDGS, respectively; the corresponding values for diets with added phytase were 77.3, 76.3, and 75.7%. By regressing daily digested P against daily P intake, the TTTD of P was estimated at 75.4% for triticale DDGS or 81.1% with added phytase, respectively. In conclusion, the TTTD of P in triticale DDGS without supplemental phytase was 75.4%, and it was 81.1% in the presence of phytase at 500 FTU/kg of the diet, but the difference was not statistically significant. For triticale DDGS, the supplementation of 500 FTU/kg phytase in diet could increase the ATTD of P ( < 0.001) but not the TTTD of P.

  8. Feeding dried distillers grains with solubles affects composition but not oxidative stability of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Testroet, E D; Li, G; Beitz, D C; Clark, S

    2015-05-01

    Feeding lactating dairy cows dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) increases the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids in the milk from those cows, potentially leading to increased susceptibility to development of off-flavors. Feeding DDGS has been loosely implicated to be a cause of development of spontaneous oxidative off-flavor in milk. We hypothesized that increased feeding of DDGS would accelerate development of off-flavors and that fortification with vitamin E (0.06% wt/wt) or C (0.06% wt/wt) would prevent spontaneous oxidative off-flavors. The objective of this research was to determine the effects of feeding DDGS to lactating dairy cows on several parameters of milk quality as determined by both chemical and sensory evaluations. Twenty-four healthy mid-lactation Holstein dairy cows were fed total mixed rations containing DDGS (0, 10, or 25% dry matter). Cows were blocked by parity and randomly assigned to 1 of 2 groups (12 cows each). Each group received all 3 treatments in a 3-period Youden square design so that each cow served as her own control. Samples of milk from individual cows for proximate analysis and pooled milk for pasteurization and sensory analysis were collected on d 14, 21, and 28 of each experimental period. Pooled milk was assayed for peroxides and free fatty acids and evaluated by a trained sensory panel for the presence of 7 off-flavors common to milk on d 1, 3, and 7. Feeding 25% DDGS caused a significant decrease in daily milk yield. Increased dietary inclusion of DDGS also caused a concomitant decrease in percentage of milk fat and an increase in percentages of both solids nonfat and protein. Milk peroxides and free fatty acids were almost all below the detection limit, and the few exceptions were not found in replicated analyses. Sensory analysis revealed off-flavors only in milk from cows fed 0% DDGS when that milk was stored for 7d and when milk from cows fed 25% DDGS was fortified with 0.06% (wt/wt) vitamin C. Those few

  9. Replacement of Forage Fiber Sources with Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles and Corn Germ Meal in Holstein Calf Diets

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Jun; HOU Yu-jie; ZHAO Guo-qi; YU Ai-bing; SU Yan-jing; HUO Yong-jiu; ZHU Jian-ming

    2014-01-01

    This study was carried out to determine the effect of replacement of forage ifber sources from alfalfa and Leymus chinensis with nonforage ifber sources (NFFS) from dried distillers grains with solubles and corn germ meal on calves growth, rumen development and blood parameters. 48 female and 12 male calves ((110.55±15.36) kg of body weight and 12 wk of age) were assigned randomly to four dietary treatments (15 calves/treatment) in a completely randomized design. Experimental diets were:0%NFFS (control), 9%NFFS (group 1), 18%NFFS (group 2), 27%NFFS (group 3), and contained equivalent neutral detergent ifber and total digestible nutrients, respectively. The dry matter intake was similar among diets, averaging 3.33 kg d-1, and no differences were detected for body weight, withers height, body length and heart girth. In addition, the development of rumen, reticulum, omasum and abomasum also were similar among diets. Dry matter, crude protein, and neutral detergent ifber digestibilities increased with the increasing levels of NFFS in the experimental diets, but had no signiifcant effect. Blood urea nitrogen, total protein and glubulin were not affected by the dietary treatment, but group 3 resulted in the highest (P<0.05) concentrations of glucose and the lowest (P<0.05) concentrations of triglycerides and albumin. In conclusion, dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and corn germ meal (CGM) were available and alternative ifber sources for Holstein calf diets.

  10. The feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles to lactating sows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greiner, L; Neill, C; Allee, G L; Wang, X; Connor, J; Touchette, K; Usry, J L

    2015-12-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the feeding of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in sow lactation diets. In Exp. 1, 168 multiparous sows (PIC, Camborough 22) were fed a 10% DDGS diet throughout gestation. Sows were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 corn-soybean meal lactation diets formulated to contain different levels of DDGS (0, 10, 20, and 30%, respectively). All diets were formulated to be isocaloric (3.46 Mcal ME/kg) and all other nutrients exceeded NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. Sow ADFI was not different ( > 0.10) as DDGS level increased. Increasing DDGS resulted in a linear ( sow weight gain (7.5, 11.3, 20.3, and 17.2 kg, respectively) and a reduction in wean-to-first-service interval (7.1, 5.2, 5.0, and 4.9 d, respectively). Increasing DDGS did not affect subsequent total born per litter (13.7, 12.8, 13.3, and 12.3, respectively; > 0.10). In Exp. 2 and 3, lactation diets consisted of corn and 20, 30, 40, or 50% DDGS. Diets were formulated at 3.25 Mcal ME/kg, 1.05% standardized ileal digestible lysine, and all other nutrients to exceed NRC (1998) nutrient recommendations. In both experiments, sows (PIC, Camborough) were fed 40% DDGS in gestation and allocated to a randomized complete block based on the parity of the sow at the time of entry into the farrowing house. In Exp. 2, 256 gilts and multiparous sows were fed the randomly assigned diets. As DDGS inclusion increased, sow feed intake (6.2, 6.2, 6.0, and 5.9 kg/d, respectively) and sow weight gain (10.5, 10.3, 8.2, and 6.2 kg, respectively) tended to linearly decrease ( Sow wean to estrus differed between 20 and 30% DDGS inclusion (4.9 vs. 6.9 d; 0.10) as DDGS inclusion increased. In Exp. 3, 98 multiparous sows were randomly allotted to 1 of the 4 experimental diets during the summer months. Sow feed intake, sow weight gain, and litter gain were not different ( > 0.10) between treatments. The data suggest that feeding high levels of DDGS of 40 to 50% may reduce sow feed intake

  11. Effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal metabolism of feedlot cattle fed diets containing dried distillers grains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, T L; Pyatt, N A; Loerch, S C

    2012-11-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of monensin and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) on ruminal metabolism in 8 fistulated steers. In Exp. 1, treatments were (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 2) 22 mg monensin/kg diet DM, 3) 33 mg monensin/kg diet DM, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM. The remainder of the diet was 10% corn silage, 60% DDGS, 10% corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as the carrier. There was no effect (P > 0.80) of dietary monensin inclusion on DMI. Increasing dietary monensin did not affect (P > 0.05) ruminal VFA concentrations or lactic acid concentrations. There was no effect (P > 0.15) of increasing dietary monensin concentration on ruminal hydrogen sulfide gas (H(2)S) and liquid sulfide (S(2-)) concentrations, or ruminal pH. In Exp. 2, treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial and contained (DM basis): 1) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, 2) 0 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion, 3) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 25% DDGS inclusion, and 4) 44 mg monensin/kg diet DM + 60% DDGS inclusion. The remainder of the diet was 15% corn silage, corn, and 20% mineral supplement that used ground corn as a carrier. With 60% dietary DDGS inclusion, DMI decreased (P diet, 0 h postfeeding acetate concentration was decreased compared with when 60% DDGS was fed (P diets, regardless of monensin inclusion. This increase in propionate concentrations contributed to the increase (P = 0.03) in total VFA concentrations at 3 h postfeeding when 60% DDGS diets were fed. There was no interaction detected (P > 0.05) for H(2)S or S(2-) concentrations in Exp. 2. Feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean H(2)S by 71% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Similar to the response observed for H(2)S, feeding 60% DDGS diets increased mean S(2-) by 64% when compared with feeding 25% DDGS diets. Although these studies did not show beneficial effects of monensin supplementation on ruminal pH, VFA, or H(2)S

  12. Processing method and corn cultivar affected anthocyanin concentration from dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dia, Vermont P; Wang, Zhaoqin; West, Megan; Singh, Vijay; West, Leslie; de Mejia, Elvira Gonzalez

    2015-04-01

    Anthocyanins are water-soluble pigments with health benefits and potential use as food colorants. The objectives of this work were to (1) determine optimum parameters for the extraction of anthocyanins from dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), (2) develop a method of anthocyanin extraction from DDGS, (3) quantify and identify the extracted anthocyanins, and (4) determine the effect of processing methods and corn cultivars on anthocyanin concentration. DDGS samples were prepared from purple (PC) and dark (DC) corn and processed using conventional enzymes (C) and granular starch hydrolyzing enzymes (GC). Three independent variables (ethanol concentration (0, 12.5, and 25%); liquid-to-solid ratio (30:1, 40:1, 50:1 mL/g); and extraction temperature (4, 22, and 40 °C)) and two dependent variables (anthocyanin concentration and a-value (redness)) were used. Results showed that dark corn DDGS gave anthocyanin concentration higher than that of purple corn. The GC process showed total anthocyanin concentration higher than that of the conventional method of DDGS production. The maximum anthocyanin concentration was obtained at 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C for C-PC [321.0 ± 37.3 μg cyanidin-3 glucoside (C3G) equivalent/g DDGS]. For GC-PC, 25% ethanol, 30:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 22 °C gave 741.4 ± 12.8 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. For GC-DC, 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 liquid-to-solid ratio, and 40 °C extraction gave 1573.4 ± 84.0 μg C3G equivalent/g DDGS. LC/MS-MS analysis showed that the major anthocyanins were cyanidin-3-glucoside, cyanidin-3-(6″-malonyl) glucoside, and peonidin-3-(6″malonyl) glucoside. In conclusion, anthocyanin extraction from colored corn DDGS can be optimized using 12.5% ethanol, 40:1 mL/g ratio, and 22 °C.

  13. Rapid analysis of the essential oil components of dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim by Fe2O3-magnetic-microsphere-assisted microwave distillation and simultaneous headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Qing

    2013-06-01

    In this work, microwave distillation assisted by Fe2 O3 magnetic microspheres (FMMS) and headspace single-drop microextraction were combined, and developed for determination of essential oil compounds in dried Zanthoxylum bungeanum Maxim (ZBM). The FMMS were used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of dried ZBM. Using the proposed method, isolation, extraction, and concentration of essential oil compounds can be carried out in a single step. The experimental parameters including extraction solvent, solvent volume, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added FMMS, were studied. The optimal analytical conditions were: 2.0 μL decane as the extraction solvent, microwave power of 300 W, irradiation time of 2 min, and the addition of 0.1 g FMMS to ZBM. The method precision was from 4 to 10%. A total of 52 compounds were identified by the proposed method. The conventional steam distillation method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in dried ZBM and only 31 compounds were identified by steam distillation method. It was found that the proposed method is a simple, rapid, reliable, and solvent-free technique for the determination of volatile compounds in Chinese herbs. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Thermophilic Dry Methane Fermentation of Distillation Residue Eluted from Ethanol Fermentation of Kitchen Waste and Dynamics of Microbial Communities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-01-01

    Thermophilic dry methane fermentation is advantageous for feedstock with high solid content. Distillation residue with 65.1 % moisture content was eluted from ethanol fermentation of kitchen waste and subjected to thermophilic dry methane fermentation, after adjusting the moisture content to 75 %. The effect of carbon to nitrogen (C/N) ratio on thermophilic dry methane fermentation was investigated. Results showed that thermophilic dry methane fermentation could not be stably performed for >10 weeks at a C/N ratio of 12.6 and a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg sludge/d; however, it was stably performed at a C/N ratio of 19.8 and a VTS loading rate of 3 g/kg sludge/d with 83.4 % energy recovery efficiency. Quantitative PCR analysis revealed that the number of bacteria and archaea decreased by two orders of magnitude at a C/N ratio of 12.6, whereas they were not influenced at a C/N ratio of 19.8. Microbial community analysis revealed that the relative abundance of protein-degrading bacteria increased and that of organic acid-oxidizing bacteria and acetic acid-oxidizing bacteria decreased at a C/N ratio of 12.6. Therefore, there was accumulation of NH4(+) and acetic acid, which inhibited thermophilic dry methane fermentation.

  15. Spray drying technique: II. Current applications in pharmaceutical technology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sollohub, Krzysztof; Cal, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    This review presents current applications of spray drying in pharmaceutical technology. The topics discussed include the obtention of excipients and cospray dried composites, methods for increasing the aqueous solubility and bioavailability of active substances, and modified release profiles from spray-dried particles. This review also describes the use of the spray drying technique in the context of biological therapies, such as the spray drying of proteins, inhalable powders, and viable organisms, and the modification of the physical properties of dry plant extracts.

  16. Determination of {sup 129}I in simulated radioactive wastes using distillation technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Ke Chon; Song, Byung Cheol; Han, Sun Ho; Park, Yong Joon; Song, Kyu Seok [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2011-09-15

    It is clarified in the radioactive waste transfer regulation that the concentration of radioactive waste for the major radio nuclide has to be examined when radioactive waste is guided to the radioactive waste stores. In case of the low level radioactive waste sample, the analytical results of radioactive waste concentration frequently show a value lower than minimum detectable activity (MDA). Since the MDA value basically depends on the amount of a sample, background value, measurement time, counting efficiency, and etc, it would be necessary to increase a sample amount with a intention of minimizing MDA. In order to measure a concentration of {sup 129}I in low and medium level radioactive waste, {sup 129}I was collected by using a distillation technique after leaching the simulated radioactive waste sample with a non-volatile acid. The recovery of {sup 129}I measured was compared with that measured with column elution technique which is a conventional method using an anion-exchange resin. The recovery of inactive iodide by using the distillation method and column elution were found as 86.5 {+-} 0.9% and 87.3 {+-}2.7%, respectively. The recovery and MDA value calculated for distillation technique when 100 g of extracted solution of {sup 129}I was taken,were found to be 84.6 {+-} 1.6% and 1.2 X 10{sup -4} Bq/g, respectively. Consequently, the proposed technique with simplified process lowered the MDA value more than 10 times compared to the column elution technique that has a disadvantage of limited sampling amount.

  17. Molecular structure and metabolic characteristics of the proteins and energy in triticale grains and dried distillers grains with solubles for dairy cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bo; McKinnon, John J; Thacker, Philip; Yu, Peiqiang

    2012-10-10

    To our knowledge, there is no research on the molecular structure of triticale grain in comparison with other types of cereal grains and metabolic characteristics of the protein and energy in this grain and its coproducts, called dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), for dairy cattle. The objective of this study was to identify differences in molecular structures of proteins among grains and their DDGS using a molecular spectroscopy technique, namely, DRIFT, and to determine the nutrient profile and supply to dairy cattle. The protein molecular structure studies showed a difference (P triticale grain and DDGS. There were differences in the protein and carbohydrate subfractions (P triticale grain and DDGS. Triticale grain and DDGS had similar intestinal digestibility of rumen undegraded CP. However, triticale DDGS had higher (P triticale, indicating that triticale DDGS is a superior protein source for dairy cattle as compared with triticale grain. Bioethanol processing induced changes in the protein molecular structure.

  18. Corn Distiller s Dried Grains With Soluble Nutritional Value of Poultry and Its Application%玉米DDGS对家禽的营养价值及应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王照群; 戴求仲

    2011-01-01

    玉米DDGS是玉米发酵生产酒精的副产物,其产量巨大且营养价值较好。文章主要就DDGS对家禽的营养价值及其在家禽日粮中的应用进行了综述。%Corn distiller s dried grains with soluble is a corn by-products of alcohol fermentation, the production is huge and good nutritional value. This review focused on the nutritional value of corn distiller s dried grains with soluble in poultry diets and their application in poultry were reviewed.

  19. Compositional profile and variation of Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles from various origins with focus on non-starch polysaccharides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Mads Brøgger; Dalsgaard, S.; Knudsen, Knud Erik Bach

    2014-01-01

    Corn-, wheat- and mixed cereal Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles (DDGS) were investigated for compositional variability among DDGS origins, ethanol plants, and the relationship between corn and corresponding DDGS. A total of 138 DDGS samples were analyzed by use of Near Infrared Reflectance...... nutrients (e.g. protein, fat, fibre and minerals) after fermentation of starch to ethanol. Corn DDGS differentiated from wheat DDGS by a greater content of fat (P≤0.006), insoluble-NSP (P... of the DDGS, principal component analysis allowed for a visual differentiation of corn DDGS from five different ethanol plants, indicating the potential of each ethanol plant to produce DDGS with consistent compositional characteristics. Furthermore, investigation of corn and corresponding DDGS indicated...

  20. The composition-explicit distillation curve technique: Relating chemical analysis and physical properties of complex fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Thomas J; Ott, Lisa S; Lovestead, Tara M; Huber, Marcia L

    2010-04-16

    The analysis of complex fluids such as crude oils, fuels, vegetable oils and mixed waste streams poses significant challenges arising primarily from the multiplicity of components, the different properties of the components (polarity, polarizability, etc.) and matrix properties. We have recently introduced an analytical strategy that simplifies many of these analyses, and provides the added potential of linking compositional information with physical property information. This aspect can be used to facilitate equation of state development for the complex fluids. In addition to chemical characterization, the approach provides the ability to calculate thermodynamic properties for such complex heterogeneous streams. The technique is based on the advanced distillation curve (ADC) metrology, which separates a complex fluid by distillation into fractions that are sampled, and for which thermodynamically consistent temperatures are measured at atmospheric pressure. The collected sample fractions can be analyzed by any method that is appropriate. The analytical methods we have applied include gas chromatography (with flame ionization, mass spectrometric and sulfur chemiluminescence detection), thin layer chromatography, FTIR, corrosivity analysis, neutron activation analysis and cold neutron prompt gamma activation analysis. By far, the most widely used analytical technique we have used with the ADC is gas chromatography. This has enabled us to study finished fuels (gasoline, diesel fuels, aviation fuels, rocket propellants), crude oils (including a crude oil made from swine manure) and waste oils streams (used automotive and transformer oils). In this special issue of the Journal of Chromatography, specifically dedicated to extraction technologies, we describe the essential features of the advanced distillation curve metrology as an analytical strategy for complex fluids.

  1. Nutritional quality of eggs from hens fed distillers dried grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    A feeding trial was conducted with laying hens where either 10% or 20% regular-fat distiller’s dried grains with solubles (R-DDGS) or low-fat DDGS (L-DDGS) were incorporated into the feed. Production parameters and the effect of DDGS on egg nutritional quality, focusing on yolk lipids, were evaluate...

  2. Production of schizophyllan from distiller's dried grains with solubles by diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eleven diverse strains of Schizophyllan commune, to our knowledge never before examined for production of the biopolymer schizophyllan, were grown in malt extract (ME) basal medium containing 1.0% (w/v) distiller’s dried grains with solubles (DDGS, an abundant coproduct of fuel ethanol production by...

  3. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swine growers are increasingly supplementing animal diets with dried distillers grains soluble (DDGS) to offset cost of a typical corn-soybean meal diet. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of DDGS diets on both on manure composition and emissions of greenhouse gases (GHG), ammoni...

  4. Effects of increasing inclusion rates of a low-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (LF-DDGS) in finishing broiler diets

    Science.gov (United States)

    The biodiesel industry is now removing corn oil from distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in order to meet increasing demand. The objectives of this study were to determine the maximum inclusion rates in broiler diets fed from 28 to 42 d of age in the finishing phases of production and the ...

  5. The effect of brown midrib corn silage and dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk production, nitrogen utilization and microbial community structure in dairy cows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thirty-six Holstein cows, four of which were ruminally cannulated, (mean ± SD, 111 ± 35 DIM; 664 ± 76.5 kg BW) were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares to investigate the effects of brown midrib (bm3) and conventional (DP) corn silages and the inclusion of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDG...

  6. Properties of dried distillers grains with solubles, Paulownia wood, and pine wood reinforced high density polyethylene composites: Effect of maleation, chemical modification, and the mixing of fillers

    Science.gov (United States)

    There is a need to identify usable lignocellulosic materials that can be blended with thermoplastic resins to produced commercial lignocellulosic plastic composites (LPC) at lower costs with improved performance. The core objectives of this study are to: 1) evaluate the use of dried distillers grai...

  7. Reduction of the thickness of the boundary film at rectification of hydrocarbonic mixes with application of dry distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zakirjan Salimov

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes a negative impact of water vapor from the distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures. It is substantiated a promising method of primary distillation process for oil and raw materials.

  8. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS. Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet, 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10 and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30. Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C sequencing batch reactors (SBRs fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM, volatile solids (VS, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet.

  9. Effect of Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) in Dairy Cow Diets on Manure Bioenergy Production Potential

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I.; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Saady, Noori M. Cata

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary Among the measures proposed to reduce environmental pollution from the livestock sector, animal nutrition has a strong potential to reduce enteric and manure storages methane emissions. Changes in diet composition also affect the bioenergy potential of dairy manures. Corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), which are rich in fat, can be included in animal diets to reduce enteric methane (CH4) emissions, while increasing the bioenergy potential of the animal manure during anaerobic digestion. The inclusion of 30% DDGS in the cow diet caused a significant increase of 14% in daily bioenergy production (NL methane day−1·cow−1). abstract The main objective of this study was to obtain scientifically sound data on the bioenergy potential of dairy manures from cows fed different levels of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Three diets differing in corn DDGS content were formulated: 0% corn DDGS (DDGS0; control diet), 10% corn DDGS (DDGS10) and 30% corn DDGS (DDGS30). Bioenergy production was determined in psychrophilic (25 ± 1 °C) sequencing batch reactors (SBRs) fed 3 g COD L−1·day−1 during a two-week feeding period followed by a two-week react period. Compared to the control diet, adding DDGS10 and DDGS30 to the dairy cow diet increased the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry by 29% and 70%, respectively. The addition of DDGS30 increased the cows’ daily production of fresh feces and slurry by 15% and 11%, respectively. Furthermore, the incorporation of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of dry matter (DM), volatile solids (VS), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. While the addition of DDGS did not significantly affect the specific CH4 production per kg VS compared to the control diet, DDGS30 increased the per cow daily CH4 production by 14% compared to the control diet. PMID:26479885

  10. Biogas Production from Distilled Grain Waste by Thermophilic Dry Anaerobic Digestion: Pretreatment of Feedstock and Dynamics of Microbial Community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting-Ting; Sun, Zhao-Yong; Huang, Yu-Lian; Tan, Li; Tang, Yue-Qin; Kida, Kenji

    2017-08-24

    Distilled grain waste (DGW) eluted from the Chinese liquor making process poses potential serious environmental problems. The objective of this study is to evaluate the feasibility of converting DGW to biogas by thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion. To improve biogas production, the effects of dilute H2SO4 and thermal pretreatment on DGW were evaluated by biochemical methane potential (BMP) tests. The results indicate that 90 °C thermal pretreatment provided the highest methane production at 212.7 mL/g-VTSadd. The long-term thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion process was conducted in a 5-L separable flask for more than 3 years at a volatile total solid (VTS) loading rate of 1 g/kg-sludge/d, using synthetic waste, untreated and 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW as the feedstock, respectively. A higher methane production, 451.6 mL/g-VTSadd, was obtained when synthetic waste was used; the methane production decreased to 139.4 mL/g-VTSadd when the untreated DGW was used. The 90 °C thermal pretreated DGW increased the methane production to 190.5 mL/g-VTSadd, showing an increase of 36.7% in methane production compared with that using untreated DGW. The microbial community structure analysis indicates that the microbial community in the thermophilic dry anaerobic digestion system maintained a similar structure when untreated or pretreated DGW was used, whereas the structure differed significantly when synthetic waste was used as the feedstock.

  11. Production of no-carrier-added radiobromine. new nickel selenide target and optimized separation by dry distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Breunig, Katharina; Spahn, Ingo; Spellerberg, Stefan; Coenen, Heinz H. [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany). Inst. fuer Neurowissenschaften und Medizin (INM), Nuklearchemie (INM-5)

    2015-07-01

    Nickel(II) selenide (NiSe) was investigated as a new high-current target material for cyclotron production of radiobromine, as it contains a higher amount of selenium and has a lower melting point than the widely used Cu{sub 2}Se. Using a slanted target system, NiSe was successfully tested up to beam currents of 16 μA so far. With regard to the isolation of no-carrier-added (n.c.a.) radiobromide from the target material, an improved dry distillation device with high yields of 76%-86% was developed. The implementation of a special custom-made quartz funnel decreased the dead volume of the apparatus and a quartz capillary for trapping the radiobromine allowed to concentrate the radioactivity in a small volume of less than 100 μL of 0.1 M NaOH, ready for immediate subsequent radiosyntheses. Thus, the new apparatus improves the handling of the isolation procedure and the radioactive product. The radiochemical purity of the resulting solution of n.c.a. [*Br]bromide was verified by radio-IC where no other species were detected.

  12. Determination of the Mycotoxin Content in Distiller's Dried Grain with Solubles Using a Multianalyte UHPLC-MS/MS Method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oplatowska-Stachowiak, Michalina; Haughey, Simon A; Chevallier, Olivier P; Galvin-King, Pamela; Campbell, Katrina; Magowan, Elizabeth; Adam, Gerhard; Berthiller, Franz; Krska, Rudolf; Elliott, Christopher T

    2015-11-04

    There are more than 300 potential mycotoxins that can contaminate food and feed and cause adverse effects in humans and animals. The data on the co-occurrence of mycotoxins in novel animal feed materials, such as distiller's dried grain with solubles (DDGS), are limited. Thus, a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the quantitation of 77 mycotoxins and other fungal metabolites was used to analyze 169 DDGS samples produced from wheat, maize, and barley and 61 grain samples. All DDGS samples analyzed were contaminated with 13-34 different mycotoxins. Fumonisins were present in all 52 maize DDGS samples (81.0-6890 μg/kg for fumonisin B1), and deoxynivalenol was present in all 99 wheat DDGS samples (39.3-1120 μg/kg). A number of co-occurring mycotoxins were also identified. Due to the high co-occurrence of mycotoxins, routine screening of the animal feed ingredients is highly recommended to allow the highlighted risks to be effectively managed.

  13. A comparative study between standard dry needling technique and rapid dry needling technique on active gluteus medius muscle trigger points

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    M.Tech. This study aimed to determine the difference between the standard dry needling technique versus the rapid dry needling technique with regards to which technique would provide quicker relief of symptoms, as measured by an increase in participant’s pressure tolerance and range of motion and a decrease in subjective pain. Subjectively it was seen that both groups had a statistical decrease in the participants perceived pain with the Oswestry Disability Index, the McGill’s Pain Questio...

  14. Effects of vegetable drying techniques on nutrient content: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of vegetable drying techniques on nutrient content: a case study of ... African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... out in South Western Uganda, to identify the traditional methods of preservation of food plants.

  15. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry following microwave distillation and headspace solid-phase microextraction for fast analysis of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ning; Deng, Chunhui; Li, Yan; Ye, Hao; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2006-11-10

    In this paper, a novel method based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) following microwave distillation-headspace solid-phase microextraction (MD-HS-SPME) was developed for the determination of essential oil in dry traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). TCM is dried before being preserved and used, there is too little water to absorb microwave energy and heat the TCM samples. In the work, carbonyl iron powders (CIP) was added and mixed with the dried TCM sample, which was used as microwave absorption solid medium for dry distillation of the TCM. At the same time, SPME was used for the extraction and concentration of essential oil after MD. The dry rhizomes of Atractylodes lancea DC was used as the model TCM, and used in the study. The MD-HS-SPME parameters including fiber coating, microwave power, irradiation time, and the amount of added CIP, were studied. To demonstrate the method feasibility, the conventional HS-SPME method was also used for the analysis of essential oil in the TCM. Experimental results show that more compounds were isolated and identified by MD-HS-SPME than those by HS-SPME. Compared to conventional HS-SPME, the advantages of the proposed method are: short extraction time and high extraction efficiency. All experimental results show that the proposed method is an alternative tool for fast analysis of essential oils in dry TCMs.

  16. Assessment of Fevicol (adhesive Drying Process through Dynamic Speckle Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Z. Ansari

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Dynamic laser speckle (or biospeckle analysis is a useful measurement tool to analyze micro-motion on a sample surface via temporal statistics based on a sequence of speckle images. The aim of this work was to evaluate the use of dynamic speckles as an alternative tool to monitoring Fevicol drying process. Experimental demonstration of intensity-based algorithm to monitor Fevicol drying process is reported. The experiment was explored with the technique called Inertia Moment of co-occurrence matrix. The results allowed verifying the drying process and it was possible to observe different activity stages during the drying process. Statistical Tukey test at 5% significance level allowed differentiating different stages of drying. In conclusion, speckle activity, measured by the Inertia Moment, can be used to monitor drying processes of the Fevicol.

  17. Equipment and obtention process of {sup 131}I by dry distillation starting from TeO{sub 2}; Equipo y proceso de obtencion de {sup 131}I por destilacion seca a partir de TeO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alanis M, J. [ININ, Departamento de Materiales Radiactivos, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2000-08-15

    The present invention refers to an equipment and process for the obtaining of {sup 131}I by dry distillation starting from TeO{sub 2} that has three interconnected systems, the manipulation system, the electric system and the distillation system, the combination of these systems, allows to improve the yield and the separation of the {sup 131}I during the distillation process, since inside the electric system it is an oven that has a special design based on a temperature gradient. The more relevant aspects of the equipment its are the design of each one of its components that give as result the effectiveness of the production of {sup 131}I in routinary form (industrial) whose final product can end up reaching a radiochemical purity up to 99% and a radionuclide purity of approximately 100%. The object of this invention is to provide a distillation equipment different to those that at the moment exist, thanks to its novel internal construction whose main characteristics already gather advantages on those existent. The reaction of obtaining of the TeO{sub 2}, the development of the technique and studies of TeO{sub 2} sintering and the irradiation experiments, its contributed to characterize with more precision the 'new process of obtaining of {sup 131}I by dry via starting from the Te' developed in the ININ, and in this way it was achieved a more pure product, more economic, with less risks, from a point of view of Radiological Safety and mainly that it avoids the import to the country and it makes to self-sufficient Mexico in the production of {sup 131}I. (Author)

  18. EFFECT OF FEEDING CORN DRIED DISTILLERS GRAINS WITH SOLUBLES (DDGS ON MILK PRODUCTION OF COW UNDER HOT CLIMATE CONDITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Budi Tangendjaja

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS is a co-product of ethanol industry made from grains through fermentation process and it can be used for animal feeding especially for dairy cows. A feeding trial on US corn DDGS was conducted at commercial dairy farm in Vietnam during hot condition in 2010. One hundred and fifty six dairy cows in a later stage of milk production were allotted randomly in three groups of 52 cows with similar milk production. Three dietary treatments offered comprised control diet, diet with 7.5% DDGS and diet with 15% DDGS. The diets were formulated to contain similar nutrient profiles and comprised forages (corn, elephant grass and alfalfa hay, brewery waste, soybean curd waste, corn, soybean meal, molasses and commercial dairy supplement. The diet was manufactured locally in total mixed ration system and delivered two times per day. Milk production, feed consump-tion and milk quality were measured for 5 days before the trial and 45 days after the trial. The result demonstrated that feeding DDGS could support higher milk production without affecting feed consumption. Feeding DDGS at 7.5% and 15% resulted in higher milk production of 2 and 4 kg per day respectively compared to cows fed control diet. Feed intake remained unaffected at around 35 kg per day. Milk quality as measured by total solid and fat content was similar in cows fed the control diet and DDGS at 7.5%. Feeding DDGS at 15% tended to have slightly better total solid and fat content. Feeding DDGS was able to reduce cost of the diets; diet cost for control, DDGS 7.5% and DDGS 15% were VND 2537, 2460 and 2399 per kg, respectively. It is concluded that DDGS can be economically used for feeding dairy cows in hot climate condition and improving milk production.

  19. Evaluation of alternative microbial transglutaminase production from sorghum grain and distilled dried grains with solubles using computational simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guadalupe Concepción Rodríguez-Castillejos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available La enzima Transglutaminasa microbiana (MTGasa es ampliamente usada en la industria alimentaria como aditivo para mejorar las propiedades mecánicas y de textura de los alimentos. El proceso de producción de la enzima es caro debido al valor de los componentes del medio de fermentación utilizados, por ello se evaluó la posibilidad de utilizar materias primas baratas, como fuente de nutrientes para el crecimiento de Streptomyces mobaraensis. El estudio económico de la producción de MTGasa con una variedad de materias primas sería un proceso largo. El software de simulación de procesos industriales SuperPro Designer® v7.5 fue utilizado, basándose en datos obtenidos de fermentaciones a escala de banco, para estimar el consumo de servicios, costos de capital, costos de operación e ingreso por el producto. El modelo mostró el estimado de los costos de producción de MTGasa utilizando glucosa obtenida de la hidrólisis enzimática de granos de sorgo y suplementada con granos secos destilados con solubles (DDGS por sus siglas en inglés, Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles. En la planta productora de MTGasa, utilizando hidrolizados enzimáticos, se obtuvo una ganancia bruta anual de 12,326 x 106 US$ y un tiempo de recuperación de la inversión de 4.01 años.

  20. Comparison of the histology of (I) fresh, (II) solar dried and (III) solar dried/steam distilled ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome tissue prior to the extraction of its pungent principles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Bridgetown (Barbados). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-yen, I.; Duncan, E.J. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, (Trinidad and Tobago). Faculty of Engineering

    1999-06-01

    The histological analysis of the rhizome cells of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), has revealed some information about the cell`s design. Comparisons have shown that the oleoresin (pungent principles - gingerols and shogaols) were not observable in cell sections of the fresh ginger rhizomes. However, the number of the oleoresin organelles increased in the order of solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes, the latter having a high oleoresin extraction yield with acetone of 8.0 g per 100 g ginger rhizome (dry wt.). (author)

  1. The influence of duration of the distillation of fresh and dried flowers on the essential oil composition of lavandin cultivated in Republic of Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marija Karapandzova

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this study was to analyze the essential oil composition of cultivated lavandin (Lavandula x intermedia Emeric ex Loisel., Lamiaceae from Republic of Macedonia and to evaluate the influence of the drying time of plant material and the distillation duration on the oil composition. Four different essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation in a Clevenger type apparatus from freshly harvested and air dried flowers of lavandin and varying in distillation time (30 min and 2 h. Fifty-six compounds were identified by GC/ FID/MS representing 96.57% to 98.23% of the total oil. Prevailing constituents in all tested oils were linalool, borneol and terpinene-4-ol, present in amounts from 35.23 to 42.24%, 12.28 to 16.68% and 4.44 to 5.62%, respectively. The content of 1,8-cineole varied from 3.99% to 8.42% while that of camphor was between 5.96% and 7.04%. Linalyl acetate was present in amounts from 1.26% to 3.21%. Unexpectedly, the duration of distillation insignificantly influenced the essential oil composition. Few differences, mainly in the content of borneol (13.71% and 16.68% in the oil from fresh and dried flowers, respectively were recorded in the essential oils obtained by 30 minutes distillation, while the content of the other constituents was almost unchanged. However, the isolated essential oils of lavandin did not comply with the international standards requirements for the lavandin essential oil composition

  2. New approach for dry formulation techniques for rhizobacteria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elchin, A. A.; Mashinistova, A. V.; Gorbunova, N. V.; Muratov, V. S.; Kydralieva, K. A.; Jorobekova, Sh. J.

    2009-04-01

    Two beneficial Pseudomonas isolates selected from rhizosphere of abundant weed - couch-grass Elytrigia repens L. Nevski have been found to have biocontrol activity. An adequate biocontrol effect requires high yield and long stability of the bacterial preparation [1], which could be achieved by an effective and stable formulation. This study was aimed to test various approaches to dry formulation techniques for Pseudomonas- based preparations. To reach this goal, two drying formulation techniques have been tested: the first one, spray drying and the second, low-temperature contact-convective drying in fluidized bed. The optimal temperature parameters for each technique were estimated. Main merits of the selected approach to dry technique are high yield, moderate specific energy expenditures per 1 kg of evaporated moisture, minimal time of contact of the drying product with drying agent. The technological process for dry formulation included the following stages: the obtaining of cell liquids, the low-temperature concentrating and the subsequent drying of a concentrate. The preliminary technological stages consist in cultivation of the rhizobacteria cultures and concentrating the cell liquids. The following requirements for cultivation regime in laboratory conditions were proposed: optimal temperatures are 26-28°С in 3 days, concentration of viable cells in cell liquid makes 1010-1011 cell/g of absolutely dry substance (ADS). For concentrating the cell liquids the method of a vacuum evaporation, which preserves both rhizobacteria cells and the secondary metabolites of cell liquid, has been used. The process of concentrating was conducted at the minimum possible temperature, i.e. not above 30-33°С. In this case the concentration of viable cells has decreased up to 109-1010 cell/g of ADS. For spray drying the laboratory up-dated drier BUCHI 190, intended for the drying of thermolabile products, was used. The temperatures of an in- and outcoming air did not exceed

  3. Seed germination of Cistus creticus L. and Cistus laurifolius L. as influenced by dry-heat, soaking in distilled water and gibberellic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilki, Fahrettin

    2008-03-01

    The effects of dry-heat and seed soaking in distilled water or in gibberellic acid on germination performance of Cistus creticus L. and C. laurifolius L. were studied in the present study Germination percentages of two Cistus species were low due to dormancy Soaking in distilled water for 24 hr resulted in 28% germination in C. creticus and 43% in C. laurifolius. Gibberellic acid applications (20, 100 and 250 mg l(-1)) for 24 hr gave 32, 30 and 23% germination, respectively in Cistus creticus and 33, 37 and 28% germination, respectively in C. laurifolius. Dry-heat pretreatments at 50, 80 and 100 degrees C for several times (1-60 min) also significantly increased germination percentage in two species. The highest germination in C. creticus was obtained with dry-heat at 100 degrees C for 1 or 5 min (80% and 83%, respectively) and in C. laurifolius at 100 degrees C for 5 min (87%). A significant increase in germination rate was also achieved under different pretreatments. The physiological dormancy caused by an impermeable seed coat can be overcome by dry-heat pretreatments in two Cistus species.

  4. APPLICATION OF REGRESSION MODELLING TECHNIQUES IN DESALINATION OF SEA WATER BY MEMBRANE DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SELVI S. R

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work is to gain an idea about the statistical significance of experimental parameters on the performance of membrane distillation. In this work the raw sea water sample without pretreatment was collected from Puducherry and desalinated using direct contact membrane distillation method. Experimental data analysis was carried out using statistical methods. The experimental data involves the effects of feed temperature, feed flow rate and feed concentration on the permeate flux. In statistical methods, regression model was developed to correlate the significance of input parameters like feed temperature, feed concentration and feed flow rate with the output parameter like permeate flux in the process of membrane distillation. Since the performance of the membrane distillation in the desalination of water is characterised by permeate flux, regression model using simple linear method was carried out. Goodness of model fitting should always has to be validated. Regression model was validated using ANOVA. Estimates of ANOVA for the parameter study was given and the coefficient obtained by regression analysis was specified in the regression equation and concluded that the highest coefficient of input parameter is significant, highly influences the response. Feed flow rate and feed temperature has higher influence on permeate flux than that of feed concentration. The coefficient of feed concentration was found to be negative which indicates less significant factor on permeate flux. The chemical composition of sea water was given by water quality analysis . TDS of membrane distilled water was found to be 18ppm than the initial feed TDS of sea water 27,720 ppm. From the experimental work it was found, salt rejection as 99% and water analysis report confirms the quality of distillate obtained by this desalination process as potable water.

  5. Survey of oven during dry distillation by quenching coke oven. Part 3. ; Consideration concerning density distribution in coke mass. Cokes ro kyurei ni yoru kanryu tochu ronai chosa. Dai sanpo. ; Cokes kainai no mitsudo bunpu ni kansuru ichikosatsu

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nishimura, M.; Asada, S.; Kamimura, N. (The Kansai Coke and Chemicals Co. Ltd., Hyogo (Japan))

    1992-06-25

    Recently, in order to probe the coal carbonization mechanism, many companies are carrying out surveys of the inside of an oven by quenching the same which is in dry distillation by employing an actual oven or a test one, and the following are reported; the dry distillating progress are varied at respective positions inside the oven, the portion where dry distillation is greatly delayed is caused by virtue of the action of steam generated from the non-distillated coal layer existing near the coal core rather than the plastic layer, and so forth. The writer and others have already reported that, from the results of the quenching tests carried on actual ovens, the existence of variation of dry distillation, the state of uncarbonized part of coal, the existence of temperature distribution inside coal mass showing that steam was gushing toward the wall of the oven, making it clear that steam generated from the coal layer has great effect on the progress of dry distillation. This paper gives a consideration on the relationship between the pressure exerted on the resetting surface of the plastic substance and the flow of steam inside the oven based on the densness distribution in coal mass. 7refs., 8 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. Effect of distillers dried grains with solubles and ractopamine (Paylean) on quality and shelf-life of fresh pork and bacon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leick, C M; Puls, C L; Ellis, M; Killefer, J; Carr, T R; Scramlin, S M; England, M B; Gaines, A M; Wolter, B F; Carr, S N; McKeith, F K

    2010-08-01

    Pigs (n = 240) were allotted in a 5 x 2 factorial arrangement with 5 levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS): 0, 15, 30, 45, and 60%, and 2 ractopamine (RAC) levels: 0 and 5 mg/kg. Four pigs per pen (2 barrows, 2 gilts) closest to pen mean BW were used for meat quality evaluation. Loins (n = 119) were evaluated for objective color; moisture and fat; subjective color, marbling, and firmness; and drip loss. Bellies (n = 119) were evaluated for weight, length, width, thickness, objective fat color, and firmness. Cured bellies were evaluated for pump yield, cook loss, and sliced bacon cook loss. Loin thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) were evaluated on enhanced (salt and phosphate) boneless chops held in modified atmosphere (80% O(2)/20% CO(2)) packages for 0, 7, 14, and 21 d. Bacon TBARS were evaluated on sliced bacon held in vacuum packages for 0, 28, 56, and 84 d. Fat samples were collected from each jowl and belly and evaluated for fatty acid profile and iodine value (IV). Increasing DDGS decreased subjective marbling (P = 0.0134) and firmness (P = 0.0235), and increased drip loss (P = 0.0046). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin pH, subjective or objective color, percent moisture, or percent fat (P > 0.05). The RAC decreased subjective color (P = 0.0239), marbling (P = 0.0445), and a* (P = 0.0355). Increasing DDGS decreased belly weight (P = 0.0155), length (P = 0.0008), thickness (P = 0.0019), and firmness (P = 0.0054); decreased belly fat L* (P = 0.0818); and increased belly cook loss (P = 0.0890). Ractopamine did not affect any belly measurements, and there were no DDGS x RAC interactions (P > 0.05). Distillers dried grains with solubles did not affect loin TBARS at 0, 7, or 14 d. At 21 d, loin TBARS from 30, 45, and 60% DDGS groups were increased compared with 0 and 15% groups (P 0.05) loin TBARS, and there were no (P > 0.05) DDGS x RAC interactions. Distillers dried grains with solubles and RAC did not affect

  7. Evaluation of corn distillers dried grains with solubles and brewers yeast in diets for channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to examine the use of distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), ethanol extracted DDGS (EDDGS), and brewers yeast in channel catfish, Ictalurus punctatus, diets. Diets containing these ingredients were compared with all-plant and fish meal control diets. Juvenile channel catfish ...

  8. Fortification of dried distillers grains plus solubles with grape seed meal in the diet modulates methane mitigation and rumen microbiota in Rusitec.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khiaosa-Ard, R; Metzler-Zebeli, B U; Ahmed, S; Muro-Reyes, A; Deckardt, K; Chizzola, R; Böhm, J; Zebeli, Q

    2015-04-01

    The role of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) and associative effects of different levels of grape seed meal (GSM) fortified in DDGS, used as both protein and energy sources in the diet, on ruminal fermentation and microbiota were investigated using rumen-simulation technique. All diets consisted of hay and concentrate mixture with a ratio of 48:52 [dry matter (DM) basis], but were different in the concentrate composition. The control diet contained soybean meal (13.5% of diet DM) and barley grain (37%), whereas DDGS treatments, unfortified DDGS (19.5% of diet DM), or DDGS fortified with GSM, either at 1, 5, 10, or 20% were used entirely in place of soybean meal and part of barley grain at a 19.5 to 25% inclusion level. All diets had similar DM, organic matter, and crude protein contents, but consisted of increasing neutral detergent fiber and decreasing nonfiber carbohydrates levels with DDGS-GSM inclusion. Compared with the soy-based control diet, the unfortified DDGS treatment elevated ammonia concentration (19.1%) of rumen fluid associated with greater crude protein degradation (~19.5%). Methane formation decreased with increasing GSM fortification levels (≥ 5%) in DDGS by which the methane concentration significantly decreased by 18.9 to 23.4 and 12.8 to 17.6% compared with control and unfortified DDGS, respectively. Compared with control, unfortified DDGS decreased butyrate proportion, and GSM fortification in the diet further decreased this variable. The proportions of genus Prevotella and Clostridium cluster XIVa were enhanced by the presence of DDGS without any associative effect of GSM fortification. The abundance of methanogenic archaea was similar, but their composition differed among treatments; whereas Methanosphaera spp. remained unchanged, proportion of Methanobrevibacter spp. decreased in DDGS-based diets, being the lowest with 20% GSM inclusion. The abundance of Ruminococcus flavefaciens, anaerobic fungi, and protozoa were decreased

  9. Technique of ethanol food grade production with batch distillation and dehydration using starch-based adsorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Widjaja, Tri; Altway, Ali; Ni'mah, Hikmatun; Tedji, Namira; Rofiqah, Umi

    2015-12-01

    Development and innovation of ethanol food grade production are becoming the reasearch priority to increase economy growth. Moreover, the government of Indonesia has established regulation for increasing the renewable energy as primary energy. Sorghum is cerealia plant that contains 11-16% sugar that is optimum for fermentation process, it is potential to be cultivated, especially at barren area in Indonesia. The purpose of this experiment is to learn about the effect of microorganisms in fermentation process. Fermentation process was carried out batchwise in bioreactor and used 150g/L initial sugar concentration. Microorganisms used in this experiment are Zymomonas mobilis mutation (A3), Saccharomyces cerevisiae and mixed of Pichia stipitis. The yield of ethanol can be obtained from this experiment. For ethanol purification result, distillation process from fermentation process has been done to search the best operation condition for efficiency energy consumption. The experiment for purification was divided into two parts, which are distillation with structured packing steel wool and adsorption (dehydration) sequencely. In distillation part, parameters evaluation (HETP and pressure drop) of distillation column that can be used for scale up are needed. The experiment was operated at pressure of 1 atm. The distillation stage was carried out at 85 °C and reflux ratio of 0.92 with variety porosities of 20%, 40%, and 60%. Then the adsorption process was done at 120°C and two types of adsorbent, which are starch - based adsorbent with ingredient of cassava and molecular sieve 3A, were used. The adsorption process was then continued to purify the ethanol from impurities by using activated carbon. This research shows that the batch fermentation process with Zymomonas mobilis A3 obtain higher % yield of ethanol of 40,92%. In addition to that, for purification process, the best operation condition is by using 40% of porosity of stuctured packing steel wool in distillation

  10. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles on fatty acid digestibility in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    An experiment was conducted to measure the apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of fatty acids in diets containing 0 or 30% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and 0, 5, or 10% tallow. Barrows (n = 24; initial BW = 25 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula at the distal ileum. Pigs (n = 4/diet) were randomly assigned to diets: corn-soybean meal control (CON), CON plus 5% tallow (5T0D), CON plus 10% tallow (10T0D), CON plus 30% DDGS (0T30D), CON plus 5% tallow and 30% DDGS (5T30D), and CON plus 10% tallow and 30% DDGS (10T30D). Eight replicates per treatment were achieved by randomizing diets among pigs for a second collection period. Each pig was fed their respective diet for a 5-d adaptation period followed by 3-d fecal collection and 2-d ileal digesta collection periods. The AID and ATTD of fatty acids was calculated using the index method and acid-insoluble ash as an indigestible marker. When tallow was added to diets with 0% DDGS, there was no effect on AID of palmitic acid (C16:0) or SFA, while AID of stearic acid (C18:0) was increased (66.87% for CON, 72.06% for 5T0D, and 76.81% for 10T0D; P tallow increased C16:0 (77.62% for 0T30D, 69.66% for 5T30D, and 68.43% for 10T30D), C18:0 (85.87% for 0T30D, 64.08% for 5T30D, and 61.25% for 10T30D), and SFA (79.88% for 0T30D, 68.23% for 5T30D, and 66.29% for 10T30D). The AID of MUFA was not affected when tallow was added to diets with 30% DDGS but actually increased in 5T0D and 10T0D. The amount of apparent ileal digested fatty acids increased with the addition of DDGS and tallow regardless of their digestibility. Amounts of ileal digested MUFA and PUFA increased when both DDGS (P tallow (P tallow was observed. Interactions between DDGS and tallow were observed for ATTD of all fatty acids (P tallow addition independent from the inclusion level of DDGS and it was a function the dietary concentration of the fatty acid. Adding tallow to corn-soybean based

  11. Fatigue limits of enamel bonds with moist and dry techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barkmeier, Wayne W; Erickson, Robert L; Latta, Mark A

    2009-12-01

    Shear fatigue limit (SFL) testing, coupled with shear bond strength (SBS) measurements can provide valuable information regarding the ability of adhesive systems to bond to mineralized tooth structures. The clinical technique for enamel bonding with adhesive resins has shifted from bonding to a thoroughly dried acid conditioned surface to a moist surface to facilitate dentin bonding. The purpose of this study was to compare the performance of ethanol-containing etch-and-rinse adhesive (ERA) systems on moist and dry enamel by determining the resin composite to enamel SBS and SFL, and examining the relationship of SBS and SFL. Twelve specimens each were used to determine 24-h resin composite (Z100 - 3M ESPE) to enamel SBS to moist and dry surfaces with two ERA systems, Adper Single Bond Plus (SBP) and OptiBond Solo Plus (OBP). A staircase method of fatigue testing was used in a four-station fatigue cycler to determine the SFL of resin composite to enamel bonds (moist and dry) with the two ERA systems (20 specimens for each test condition) at 0.25Hz for 40,000 cycles. ANOVA and Tukey's post hoc test were used for the SBS data and a modified t-test with Bonferroni correction was used for comparisons of SFL. The two ERA systems each generated statistically similar SBS (p>0.05) to moist and dry enamel and the SBS of SBP was significantly higher than OBP on dry enamel (padhesive systems. The chemical composition, solvents and filler components of ERA systems may influence their ability to develop long-term durable bonds to both moist and dry enamel surfaces.

  12. A spin-drying technique for lyopreservation of mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chakraborty, Nilay; Chang, Anthony; Elmoazzen, Heidi; Menze, Michael A; Hand, Steven C; Toner, Mehmet

    2011-05-01

    Stabilization of cellular material in the presence of glass-forming sugars at ambient temperatures is a viable approach that has many potential advantages over current cryogenic strategies. Experimental evidence indicates the possibility to preserve biomolecules in glassy matrices of low-molecular mobility using "glass-forming" sugars like trehalose at ambient temperatures. However, when cells are desiccated in trehalose solution using passive drying techniques, a glassy skin is formed at the liquid/vapor interface of the sample. This glassy skin prevents desiccation of the sample beyond a certain level of dryness and induces non-uniformities in the final water content. Cells trapped underneath this glassy skin may degrade due to a relatively high molecular mobility in the sample. This undesirable result underscores the need for development of a uniform, fast drying technique. In the present study, we report a new technique based on the principles of "spin drying" that can effectively address these problems. Forced convective evaporation of water along with the loss of solution due to centrifugal force leads to rapid vitrification of a thin layer of trehalose containing medium that remains on top of cells attached to the spinning glass substrate. The glassy layer produced has a consistent thickness and a small "surface-area-to-volume" ratio that minimizes any non-homogeneity. Thus, the chance of entrapping cells in a high-mobility environment decreases substantially. We compared numerical predictions to experimental observations of the drying time of 0.2-0.6 M trehalose solutions at a variety of spinning speeds ranging from 1000 to 4000 rpm. The model developed here predicts the formation of sugar films with thicknesses of 200-1000 nm, which was in good agreement with experimental results. Preliminary data suggest that after spin drying cells to about 0.159 ± 0.09 gH₂O/gdw (n = 11, ±SE), more than 95% of cells were able to preserve their membrane integrity

  13. Simple Distillation and Fractional Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张萍

    2004-01-01

    A pure solvent can be separated from a solution by simple distillation. Distillation is the process of boiling a liquid and condensing the vapor. For example, pure water can be obtained from salt solution by distillation. The figure below shows the apparatus used for simple distillation in the laboratory.

  14. Development of the dry decontamination technique using plasma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Yong Soo; Seo, Yong Dae; Lee, Dong Uk; Jeon, Sang Hwan; Jung, Young Suk [Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea)

    2001-04-01

    In order to develop an advanced dry decontamination method, dry decontamination technique using gaseous plasma is studied. Scopes of the research are 1) literature survey and case studies of the international R and D activities and industrial application, 2) contaminant characteristics analysis, 3) feasibility and applicability study of the unit techniques, 4) process development study on the plasma decontamination, 5) plasma diagnostics and quantitative analysis by QMS and OES, and 6) design of (microwave) plasma torch system. The major research results are as belows. The maximum etching rate of UO{sub 2} is achieved to be 0.8 {mu}m/min. under 300 deg C, 150 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2}/N{sub 2} r.f. plasma maintaining the optimum ratio of CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} of four, and that of Co and Mo is 0.06 {mu}m/min. and 1.9 {mu}m/min., respectively, under 380 deg C, 220 W CF{sub 4}/O{sub 2} r.f. plasma. The optimum process for the dry decontamination of TRU, CP, and or FP nuclides, therefore, requires the optimum gas composition above 350 deg C and 220W power. It is also demonstrated that this optimum process can be extrapolated to atmospheric high power torch system. In conclusion, if plasma power and temperature increases with maintaining the optimum gas composition, this dry decontamination techniques must be definitely effective and efficient. 17 refs., 62 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  15. Control of a reactive batch distillation process using an iterative learning technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Hyunsoo; Lee, Kwang Soon [Sogang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Mansuk; Lee, Juhyun [Samsung Cheil Industries Inc., Uiwang (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-01-15

    Quadratic criterion-based iterative learning control (QILC) was applied to a numerical reactive batch distillation process, in which methacrylic anhydride (MAN) is produced through the reaction of methacrylic acid with acetic anhydride. The role of distillation is to shift the equilibrium conversion toward the direction of the product by removing acetic acid (AcH), a by-product of the reaction. Two temperatures at both ends of the column were controlled by individual control loops. A nonlinear PID controller manipulating the reflux ratio was employed to regulate the top temperature at the boiling point of AcH. A constrained QILC was used for the tracking of the reactor temperature. A time-varying reference trajectory for the reactor temperature that satisfies the target conversion and purity of MAN was obtained through repeated simulations and confirmation experiments in the pilot plant. The QILC achieved satisfactory tracking in several batch runs with gentle control movements, while the PID control as a substitute of the QILC in a comparative study exhibited unacceptable performance.

  16. Application of Dynamic Speckle Techniques in Monitoring Biofilms Drying Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Enes, Adilson M.; Júnior, Roberto A. Braga; Dal Fabbro, Inácio M.; da Silva, Washington A.; Pereira, Joelma

    2008-04-01

    Horticultural crops exhibit losses far greater than grains in Brazil which are associated to inappropriate maturation, mechanical bruising, infestation by microorganisms, wilting, etc. Appropriate packing prevents excessive mass loss associated to transpiration as well as to respiration, by controlling gas exchanging with outside environment. Common packing materials are identified as plastic films, waxes and biofilms. Although research developed with edible films and biopolymers has increased during last years to attend the food industry demands, avoiding environmental problems, little efforts have been reported on biofilm physical properties investigations. These properties, as drying time and biofilm interactions with environment are considered of basic importance. This research work aimed to contribute to development of a methodology to evaluate yucca (Maniot vulgaris) based biofilms drying time supported by a biospeckle technique. Biospeckle is a phenomenon generated by a laser beam scattered on a dynamic active surface, producing a time varying pattern which is proportional to the surface activity level. By capturing and processing the biospeckle image it is possible to attribute a numerical quantity to the surface bioactivity. Materials exhibiting high moisture content will also show high activity, which will support the drying time determination. Tests were set by placing biofilm samples on polyetilen plates and further submitted to laser exposition at four hours interval to capture the pattern images, generating the Intensities Dispersion Modulus. Results indicates that proposed methodology is applicable in determining biofilm drying time as well as vapor losses to environment.

  17. Spray drying technique. I: Hardware and process parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cal, Krzysztof; Sollohub, Krzysztof

    2010-02-01

    Spray drying is a transformation of feed from a fluid state into a dried particulate form by spraying the feed into a hot drying medium. The main aim of drying by this method in pharmaceutical technology is to obtain dry particles with desired properties. This review presents the hardware and process parameters that affect the properties of the dried product. The atomization devices, drying chambers, air-droplet contact systems, the collection of dried product, auxiliary devices, the conduct of the spray drying process, and the significance of the individual parameters in the drying process, as well as the obtained product, are described and discussed.

  18. The effects of feeder design and dietary dried distillers' grains with solubles on the performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergstrom, J R; Nelssen, J L; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; DeRouchey, J M

    2014-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to compare the effects of a conventional dry (five 30.5-cm spaces 152.4 cm wide; Staco Inc., Schaefferstown, PA) vs. a wet-dry (double sided; each side = 38.1-cm space; Crystal Spring; GroMaster Inc., Omaha, NE) finishing feeder (Exp. 1 and 2) and to evaluate the effects of feeder design and dietary level of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS; >10% oil; Exp. 3) on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing pigs. In Exp. 1, 1,186 pigs (32.1 kg BW) were used in a 69-d experiment. There were 26 to 28 pigs per pen and 22 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 4 phases. In Exp. 2, 1,236 pigs (28.7 kg BW) were used in a 104-d experiment, with 25 to 28 pigs per pen and 23 pens per feeder design, and all pigs received the same diets in 5 phases. Carcass measurements were obtained from 11 pens of each feeder design after harvest. In Exp. 3, 1,080 pigs (35.1 kg BW) were used in a 99-d 2 × 2 factorial with main effects of feeder design (dry vs. wet-dry feeders) and DDGS (20 vs. 60%) with 10 pens of 27 pigs per treatment and all diets fed in 4 phases. Jowl fat samples were collected from 2 pigs per pen for fatty acid analysis and iodine value (IV) determination. In all experiments, pigs fed with the wet-dry feeder had greater (P pigs fed with a wet-dry feeder, but G:F and fat-free lean index (FFLI) were reduced. Jowl IV was also reduced (P Pigs fed 60% DDGS in Exp. 3 had decreased (P pigs fed with this specific type of wet-dry feeder had improved ADG and ADFI, poorer G:F, and increased backfat depth compared to pigs fed with a conventional dry feeder. The poorer growth performance and increased jowl IV of pigs fed diets with 60% DDGS was similarly exhibited for pigs fed on both feeders.

  19. Survey of mycotoxins in corn distillers' dried grains with solubles from seventy-eight ethanol plants in twelve States in the U.S. In 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khatibi, Piyum A; McMaster, Nicole J; Musser, Robert; Schmale, David G

    2014-03-26

    Fuel ethanol co-products known as distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are a significant source of energy, protein, and phosphorous in animal feed. Fuel ethanol production may concentrate mycotoxins present in corn into DDGS. One hundred and forty one corn DDGS lots collected in 2011 from 78 ethanol plants located in 12 states were screened for the mycotoxins deoxynivalenol (DON), 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol (15-ADON), 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol (3-ADON), nivalenol (NIV), and zearalenone (ZON). DON ranged from 1 and 5.0 and 10.0 μg g-1 DON. All DDGS lots contaminated with unacceptable levels of DON evaded detection prior to their commercial distribution and were likely sold as feed products.

  20. The effects of deoxynivalenol-contaminated corn dried distillers grains with solubles in nursery pig diets and potential for mitigation by commercially available feed additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frobose, H L; Fruge, E D; Tokach, M D; Hansen, E L; DeRouchey, J M; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L

    2015-03-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of deoxynivalenol (DON) from naturally contaminated dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and the efficacy of feed additives in nursery pig diets. In Exp. 1, 180 pigs (10.3 ± 0.2 kg BW) were fed 1 of 5 diets for 21 d. Diets were 1) Positive Control (PC; clay, and 5) NC + 0.25% Defusion Plus (Cargill Animal Nutrition, Minneapolis, MN). Pigs fed the NC diet had poorer ( clay had reduced ADG ( pelleted. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( Pelleting improved ( pellet form: 1) PC (pellet form. No interactions were observed between pelleting and Defusion. Pigs fed the NC had decreased ( pelleting improved ( pelleting can help overcome some of the negative effects of DON, whereas other feed additives and additional nutrients do not.

  1. Evaluation of high dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains with solubles and supplementation of protease and xylanase in the diets of broiler chickens under necrotic enteritis challenge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barekatain, M R; Antipatis, C; Rodgers, N; Walkden-Brown, S W; Iji, P A; Choct, M

    2013-06-01

    A 2 × 2 × 2 factorial experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of a high level of sorghum distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 20%), with or without a combination of protease and xylanase in broiler chickens, under a necrotic enteritis disease challenge. A total of 576 male broiler chicks were randomly assigned to 8 experimental treatments, each replicated 6 times, with 12 birds per replicate for 35 d. Oral inoculation of the challenged group with Eimeria spp. occurred on d 9, followed by 3 consecutive inoculations of Clostridium perfringens from d 14 through 16. The disease challenge and DDGS inclusion significantly (P enteritis-related lesions (d 17) were more severe (P enteritis. Supplementation of enzymes did not reveal significant mitigation effect in infected birds but helped the birds fed DDGS to maintain feed intake and BW gain.

  2. Processing technologies and cell wall degrading enzymes to improve nutritional value of dried distillers grain with solubles for animal feed: an in vitro digestion study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Sonja; Pustjens, Annemieke M; Kabel, Mirjam A; Salazar-Villanea, Sergio; Hendriks, Wouter H; Gerrits, Walter J J

    2013-09-18

    Currently, the use of maize dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) as protein source in animal feed is limited by the inferior protein quality and high levels of non-starch polysaccharides (NSP). Processing technologies and enzymes that increase NSP degradability might improve digestive utilization of DDGS, enhancing its potential as a source of nutrients for animals. The effects of various combinations of processing technologies and commercial enzyme mixtures on in vitro digestion and subsequent fermentation of DDGS were tested. Wet-milling, extrusion, and mild hydrothermal acid treatment increased in vitro protein digestion but had no effect on NSP. Severe hydrothermal acid treatments, however, effectively solubilized NSP (48-78%). Addition of enzymes did not affect NSP solubilization in unprocessed or processed DDGS. Although the cell wall structure of DDGS seems to be resistant to most milder processing technologies, in vitro digestion of DDGS can be effectively increased by severe hydrothermal acid treatments.

  3. Effects of feeding pelleted diets without or with distillers dried grains with solubles on fresh belly characteristics, fat quality, and commercial bacon slicing yields of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Overholt, M F; Lowell, J E; Wilson, K B; Matulis, R J; Stein, H H; Dilger, A C; Boler, D D

    2016-05-01

    One hundred ninety-two pigs were blocked by age and stratified by initial BW (25.7 ± 2.3 kg) into pens (2 barrows and 2 gilts/pen), and within blocks, pens were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement, with main effects of diet form (meal vs. pelleted) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion (0% vs. 30%). Pigs were slaughtered after a 91-d feeding trial, and carcasses were fabricated after a 24-h chilling period. Belly dimensions and flop distance were measured, and an adipose tissue sample from each belly was collected for fatty acid analysis. Bacon was manufactured at a commercial processing facility before being returned to the University of Illinois Meat Science Laboratory for further evaluation. Although bellies from pigs fed pelleted diets were 5.3% heavier ( bacon weight and cooked yield were greater ( ≤ 0.01) for bellies from pellet-fed than meal-fed pigs. Despite pellet-fed pigs having a 3.1-unit greater iodine value (IV) than meal-fed pigs, there was no effect ( ≥ 0.16) of diet form on commercial bacon slicing yields. Bacon slabs from pellet-fed pigs produced more ( bacon slices, but 3.1% fewer ( bacon slices than feeding 30% DDGS. Distillers dried grains with solubles inclusion had no effect on slice yields ( ≥ 0.14) or slices per kilogram ( = 0.08). Overall, bellies from pellet-fed pigs were heavier and had greater IV but did not differ in commercial slicing yields from meal-fed pigs. Feeding pigs 30% DDGS produced thinner, softer bellies with greater IV, but slicing yields were not different from bellies of pigs fed 0% DDGS. Thus, swine producers can feed pelleted diets, without or with 30% DDGS, without negatively affecting commercial bacon slicing yield.

  4. Effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles on performance and carcass characteristics of finishing beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hales, K E; Freetly, H C; Shackelford, S D; King, D A

    2013-07-01

    Distillers grains and distillers solubles are by-products of grain fermentation used to produce ethanol and contain greater concentrations of NDF and ADF, compared with other grains and concentrates they replace in feedlot diets. Typical finishing diets in the United States contain 8.3% and 9.0% roughage. Therefore, it is plausible that the dietary concentration of roughage can be altered when distillers grains are included in feedlot diets. The effects of roughage concentration in dry-rolled, corn-based diets containing wet distillers grains with solubles (WDGS) were evaluated in steers (n = 128; initial BW = 339 kg), using Calan gates. Each diet was based on dry-rolled corn and contained 25% WDGS with coarsely ground alfalfa hay (AH), replacing corn at 2% (AH-2), 6% (AH-6), 10% (AH-10), and 14% (AH-14) of DM. Feed offered was recorded daily, orts were measured weekly, and BW was measured on d 0, 1, 35, 70, 105, 140, 174, and 175. After commercial harvest and chilling, carcasses were evaluated on-line with a beef carcass grading camera to assess marbling and yield grade traits. The data were analyzed using the Mixed Procedure of SAS, in which contrast statements were used to separate linear and quadratic effects of AH inclusion. Decreasing concentrations of AH in the finishing diet resulted in a tendency for a quadratic response (P = 0.07) in final BW, where BW increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion but then decreased from 6 to 14% inclusion. Similarly, ADG from d 0 to end responded quadratically (P < 0.01), in which ADG increased from 2 to 6% yet subsequently decreased from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Dry matter intake from d 0 to end increased linearly (P = 0.02) as AH inclusion increased in the diet, whereas G:F increased from 2 to 6% AH inclusion and then decreased linearly (P < 0.01) from 6 to 14% AH inclusion. Concentration of AH in the finishing diet did not affect HCW, marbling score, or the proportion of cattle grading USDA choice (P ≥ 0.18). However, dressing

  5. Improving the corn-ethanol industry: studying protein separation techniques to obtain higher value added product options for distillers grains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brehmer, B.; Bals, B.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Dale, B.

    2008-01-01

    Currently in America the biofuel ethanol is primarily being produced by the dry grind technique to obtain the starch contained in the corn grains and subsequently subjected to fermentation. This so-called 1st generation technology has two setbacks; first the lingering debate whether its life cycle c

  6. Distillation with labelled transition systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hamilton, Geoffrey William; Jones, Neil

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we provide an improved basis for the " distillation" program transformation. It is known that superlinear speedups can be obtained using distillation, but cannot be obtained by other earlier automatic program transformation techniques such as deforestation, positive supercompilation...... and partial evaluation. We give distillation an improved semantic basis, and explain how superlinear speedups can occur....

  7. Evaluation of commercially available enzymes, probiotics, or yeast on apparent total-tract nutrient digestion and growth in nursery and finishing pigs fed diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles

    Science.gov (United States)

    The ability of enzymes, direct fed microbials, or yeast to enhance nutrient utilization or growth performance in nursery or finishing pigs fed diets containing increased levels of corn fiber from dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) is largely unknown. Ten commercially available feed additiv...

  8. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains and enzyme supplementation on growth rates, feed conversion ratio and beef fatty acid profile in feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; He, M L; Zhao, Y L; Xu, L; Walker, N D; Beauchemin, K A; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-10-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine: (1) the effect of wheat dried distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) inclusion, and (2) dietary feed enzyme (FE; Econase XT) supplementation in a finishing diet containing wheat DDGS on fatty acid profile of the pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle of beef cattle. A total of 160 crossbred yearling steers with initial BW of 495 ± 38 kg were blocked by BW and randomized into 16 pens (10 head/pen). The pens were randomly assigned to one of the four treatments: (1) control (CON; 10% barley silage and 90% barley grain-based concentrate, dry matter (DM) basis); (2) diet containing 30% wheat DDGS in place of barley grain without FE (WDG); (3) WDG diet supplemented with low FE (WDGL; 1 ml FE/kg DM); and (4) WDG diet supplemented with high FE (2 ml FE/kg DM). The pars costalis diaphragmatis muscle samples were collected from cattle at slaughter at the end of the finishing period (120 days) with a targeted live weight of 650 kg. No differences in organic matter intake, final BW and average daily gain were observed among treatments. However, steers fed WDG had greater (Pfatty acids (PUFA) in muscle tended to be greater (Pacid (VA) in muscle and also resulted in a higher (Pfatty acids. These results suggest that inclusion of wheat DDGS in finishing diets may improve fatty acid profile of beef muscle which could benefit human health.

  9. Emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia, and hydrogen sulfide from pigs fed standard diets and diets supplemented with dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trabue, Steven; Kerr, Brian

    2014-07-01

    Swine producers are supplementing animal diets with increased levels of dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to offset the cost of a standard corn-soybean meal (CSBM) diet. However, the environmental impact of these diets on emissions of greenhouse gases, ammonia (NH), and hydrogen sulfide (HS) is largely unknown. Twenty-four pigs (103.6 kg initial body weight) were fed a standard CSBM diet or a CSBM diet containing 35% DDGS for 42 d. Pigs were fed and their manure was collected twice daily over the 42-d trial. Pigs fed diets containing DDGS had reduced manure pH ( < 0.01), increased surface crust coverage ( < 0.01), increased manure dry matter content ( < 0.01), and increased manure C ( < 0.01), N ( < 0.01), and S ( < 0.01) contents. Animals fed DDGS diets also had significantly higher concentrations of total ammoniacal nitrogen ( < 0.01) and sulfide ( < 0.01) in their manure compared with animals fed CSBM diets. Manure emissions of NH ( < 0.01) and HS ( < 0.05) were significantly higher in animals fed the CSBM diet. There was no dietary treatment effect for methane or nitrous oxide emissions from manure. This study demonstrates that diets containing DDGS can significantly affect manure composition and potentially lower emissions of NH and HS.

  10. Dried saliva spot as a sampling technique for saliva samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Rehim, Abbi; Abdel-Rehim, Mohamed

    2014-06-01

    For the first time, dried saliva spot (DSS) was used as a sampling technique for saliva samples. In the DSS technique 50 μL of saliva was collected on filter paper and the saliva was then extracted with an organic solvent. The local anesthetic lidocaine was used as a model compound, which was determined in the DSS using liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry. The results obtained for the determination of lidocaine in saliva using DSS were compared with those from a previous study using a microextraction by packed sorbent syringe as the sampling method for saliva. This study shows that DSS can be used for the analysis of saliva samples. The method is promising and very easy in terms of sampling and extraction procedures. The results from this study are in good agreement with those from our previous work on the determination of lidocaine in saliva. DSS can open a new dimension in the saliva handling process in terms of sampling, storing and transport. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Alternating dietary fat sources for growing-finishing pigs fed dried distillers grains with solubles: II. Fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Browne, N A; Apple, J K; Maxwell, C V; Yancey, J W; Johnson, T M; Galloway, D L; Bass, B E

    2013-03-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 216) were used to test the effects of phase-feeding beef tallow (BT) and yellow grease (YGr) on fresh belly and bacon quality characteristics of growing-finishing swine fed dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS). Pigs were blocked by initial BW (26.0 ± 5.3 kg) before allotment to pens (6 pigs/pen), and pens (6 pens/block) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 dietary treatments: 1) corn-soybean meal-based grower and finisher diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during all 5 feeding phases (YG15); 2) corn-soybean meal-based diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during all 5 phases (BT15); 3) diets containing 5.0% BT fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 4.7% YGr fed the last 3 phases (YG345); 4) diets formulated with 5.0% BT fed during first 3 phases and diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the last 2 phases (YG45); 5) diets containing 4.7% YGr fed during the first 3 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 2 feeding phases (BT45); or 6) diets formulated with 4.7% YGr fed during the first 2 phases and diets with 5.0% BT fed during the last 3 phases (BT345). All dietary treatments were formulated with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) during the first 3 phases, 15% DDGS in the fourth phase, and no DDGS during the last phase. Fresh belly quality data were collected on the left-side bellies, whereas bacon from the right-side bellies was prepared under commercial processing conditions. Additionally, USDA-certified No. 1 slices were collected for cooking characteristics and sensory panel evaluations. Bellies from the YG15-fed pigs were softer (P ≤ 0.05) than bellies from BT15-fed pigs; however, instrumentally measured belly firmness was not (P ≥ 0.06) different among treatments. Concentrations of palmitic, stearic, and oleic acids, as well as all SFA and all MUFA, were greater (P bacon (P ≥ 0.06), mechanical bacon tenderness (P ≥ 0.69), and bacon palatability attributes (P ≥ 0.55) were not affected by the dietary

  12. Application of Dry Air Drying Techniques on West-East Gas Pipeline Project

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GaoJianguo; XieLigong; DaiZongyu

    2004-01-01

    Based on the pre-eommissioning requirements of gas pipeline, the basic principles and influential factors of dry air drying adopted in long distance gas pipelines, and states in detail the technological flow and the equipment required, etc. are introduced, which will have practical significance in drying operation on gas pipeline.

  13. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. H. Al-Kayiem

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in four different drying modes, namely, open sun, mixed direct and indirect solar, thermal backup, and hybrid. The results from the four modes used to dry 2.5 kg of EFB were summarized and compared. The results indicated that the solar drying mode required around 52 to 80 hours to dry the EFB, while the open sun drying mode required 100 hours. Usage of the thermal backup as heat source reduced the drying time to 48–56 hours. With the hybrid mode, the drying time was considerably reduced to 24–32 hours. The results demonstrate that the combined solar and thermal backup effectively enhanced the drying performance. The application of a solar dryer with a biomass burner is practical for massive production of solid fuels from EFB.

  14. Effects of increasing amounts of corn dried distillers grains with solubles in dairy cow diets on methane production, ruminal fermentation, digestion, N balance, and milk production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benchaar, C; Hassanat, F; Gervais, R; Chouinard, P Y; Julien, C; Petit, H V; Massé, D I

    2013-04-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of including corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in the diet at the expense of corn and soybean meal on enteric CH4 emissions, ruminal fermentation characteristics, digestion (in sacco and apparent total-tract digestibility), N balance, and milk production of dairy cows. Twelve lactating Holstein cows were used in a triplicated 4×4 Latin square design (35-d periods) and fed (ad libitum intake) a total mixed ration containing (dry matter basis) 0, 10, 20, or 30% DDGS. Dry matter intake increased linearly, whereas apparent-total tract digestibility of dry matter and gross energy declined linearly as DDGS level in the diet increased. Increasing the proportion of DDGS in the diet decreased the acetate:propionate ratio, but this decrease was the result of reduced acetate concentration rather than increased propionate concentration. Milk yield increased linearly (up to +4kg/d) with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet and a tendency was observed for a quadratic increase in energy-corrected milk as the proportion of DDGS in the diet increased. Methane production decreased linearly with increasing levels of DDGS in the diet (495, 490, 477, and 475 g/d for 0, 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively). When adjusted for gross energy intake, CH4 losses also decreased linearly as DDGS proportion increased in the diet by 5, 8, and 14% for 10, 20, and 30% DDGS diets, respectively. Similar decreases (up to 12% at 30% DDGS) were also observed when CH4 production was corrected for digestible energy intake. When expressed relative to energy-corrected milk, CH4 production declined linearly as the amount of DDGS increased in the diet. Total N excretion (urinary and fecal; g/d) increased as the amount of DDGS in the diet increased. Efficiency of N utilization (milk N secretion as a proportion of N intake) declined linearly with increasing inclusion of DDGS in the diet. However, productive N increased linearly with

  15. Pretreatment of Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles by Soaking in Aqueous Ammonia and Subsequent Enzymatic/Dilute Acid Hydrolysis to Produce Fermentable Sugars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nghiem, Nhuan P; Montanti, Justin; Kim, Tae Hyun

    2016-05-01

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production in the dry-grind process, was pretreated by soaking in aqueous ammonia (SAA) using a 15 % w/w NH4OH solution at a solid/liquid ratio of 1:10. The effect of pretreatment on subsequent enzymatic hydrolysis was studied at two temperatures (40 and 60 °C) and four reaction times (6, 12, 24, and 48 h). Highest glucose yield of 91 % theoretical was obtained for the DDGS pretreated at 60 °C and 24 h. The solubilized hemicellulose in the liquid fraction was further hydrolyzed with dilute H2SO4 to generate fermentable monomeric sugars. The conditions of acid hydrolysis included 1 and 4 wt% acid, 60 and 120 °C, and 0.5 and 1 h. Highest yields of xylose and arabinose were obtained at 4 wt% acid, 120 °C, and 1 h. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by enzymatic hydrolysis of the SAA-pretreated DDGS was demonstrated in ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae. The fermentability of the hydrolysate obtained by consecutive enzymatic and dilute acid hydrolysis was demonstrated using a succinic acid-producing microorganism, strain Escherichia coli AFP184. Under the fermentation conditions, complete utilization of glucose and arabinose was observed, whereas only 47 % of xylose was used. The succinic acid yield was 0.60 g/g total sugar consumed.

  16. Effect of forage level and replacing canola meal with dry distillers grains with solubles in precision-fed heifer diets: Digestibility and rumen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suarez-Mena, F X; Lascano, G J; Rico, D E; Heinrichs, A J

    2015-11-01

    Objectives of this study were to determine the effects of feeding differing forage-to-concentrate ratios (F:C) and inclusion rates of corn dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS) on digestion and rumen fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifer rations. A split-plot design with F:C as whole plot and DDGS inclusion level as sub-plot was administered in a 4-period (19 d) 4 × 4 Latin square. Eight rumen-cannulated Holstein heifers (12.5 ± 0.5 mo of age and 344 ± 15 kg of body weight) housed in individual stalls were allocated to 2 F:C [50:50, low forage, or 75:25 high forage; dry matter (DM) basis] and to a sequence of DDGS inclusion (0, 7, 14, and 21%; DM basis). Forage was a mix of 50% corn silage and 50% grass hay (DM basis). Diets were fed to allow for 800 g/d of body weight gain and fed 1×/d. Rumen contents were sampled at -2, 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 20 h after feeding for rumen fermentation measures. Low-forage rations had greater DM and organic matter apparent digestibility. We detected a quadratic effect for DM, organic matter, acid detergent fiber, and neutral detergent fiber apparent digestibility, with the 14% DDGS inclusion level having the highest values. Nitrogen retention decreased with increasing levels of DDGS. Molar proportions of acetate tended to be greater for HF and decreased as DDGS increased; propionate increased as DDGS increased, resulting in the opposite effect on acetate to propionate ratio. Rumen protozoa count decreased as DDGS increased. Moderate levels (14% of DM) of DDGS appear to enhance nutrient utilization and fermentation in precision-fed dairy heifers fed different F:C diets.

  17. Nutritive value of single-screw extruded and nonextruded triticale distillers dried grains with solubles, with and without an enzyme complex, for broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oryschak, M; Korver, D; Zuidhof, M; Beltranena, E

    2010-07-01

    The nutritive value of triticale distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) for broilers was investigated in 2 experiments. In experiment 1, four hundred male broilers housed in battery cages were fed diets including 15 or 30% triticale DDGS (extruded or not) or a basal diet, supplemented with or without a multi-enzyme complex from d 21 to 28. Birds were killed and ileal digesta was collected on d 28 to establish the apparent ileal nutrient digestibility (AID) coefficients for both assay diets and DDGS as test ingredients based on 5 cages per diet. In experiment 2, a 42-d performance study compared growth phase-specific diets formulated to similar levels of AME, CP, and digestible lysine with graded levels (0, 5, or 10%) of triticale DDGS inclusion based on a minimum of 4 pens per diet x sex combination. Breast muscle weight and percentage yield were determined on d 37 by sampling 5 birds per pen. In experiment 1, there was a significant (P triticale DDGS increased (P triticale DDGS had no adverse effect on feed intake, weight gain, or feed efficiency of broilers compared with controls over the 42-d study. Feeding up to 10% triticale DDGS did not affect breast weight or yield on d 37. In conclusion, feed enzyme complex supplementation and extrusion both increased the nutritive value of triticale DDGS for broilers. Triticale DDGS can be fed at up to 10% of practical broiler diets without adverse effect on performance and breast muscle yield.

  18. Effect of dietary inclusion of triticale dried distillers' grain and oilseeds on quality and fatty acid profile of meat from feedlot steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, M L; McAllister, T A; Hernandez-Calva, L M; Aalhus, J L; Dugan, M E R; McKinnon, J J

    2014-05-01

    This study compared carcass, meat quality and fatty acid profiles of longissimus thoracis (LT) from feedlot cattle fed barley grain with or without oilseed (OS). Six diets containing no oilseed (No-OS), 10% ground flaxseed (FS), 10% high oleate sunflower seeds (SS) with or without 30% triticale dried distiller's grain (DDGS) were prepared. Feeding DDGS increased chroma at 24 and 144 h post mortem. Feeding FS increased weight% of LT PUFA (P<0.05) compared to No-OS or SS. An OS by DDGS interaction occurred for 18:3n-3 (P<0.05) where FS increased weight% of 18:3n-3 (P<0.05), a response accentuated (P<0.05) by DDGS. Feeding DDGS increased weight% of LT 18:2n-6 (P<0.05), but neither OS nor DDGS affected conjugated linoleic acid (CLA, t7,c9 &c9,t11-18:2). Feeding FS increased weight% of n-3 FA, and both FS and SS increased t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. Combination feeding of DDGS and FS further increased weight% of n-3 FA and tempered increases in t10-18:1 with no effect on CLA or t11-18:1. The findings suggest a new strategy to increase beef omega-3 fatty acids efficiently through inclusion of a combination of DDGS and FS in feedlot diet.

  19. Effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles and fibrolytic enzymes on ruminal fermentation, digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of beef cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Z X; Walker, N D; McAllister, T A; Yang, W Z

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and fibrolytic enzymes (FE) on ruminal fermentation, in situ ruminal and in vivo total tract digestibility, growth performance, and feeding behavior of growing beef cattle. In Exp. 1, 6 ruminally cannulated Angus heifers (average BW of 794 ± 44.2 kg) were used in a 6 × 6 Latin square design with 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of treatments. Treatments were a control diet consisting of 50% barley silage, 10% grass hay, and 40% barley grain-based concentrate (CON) and the CON with 15% DDGS substituted for barley grain (WDG) combined with either 0, 1, or 2 mL FE/kg diet DM, respectively. Inclusion of DDGS increased total tract digestibility of CP ( time spent at the feed bunk. Supplementing FE decreased ( time at the bunk and increased ( meal frequency ( = 0.02) were greater but eating duration was shorter ( < 0.01) for steers fed the WDG than for those fed the CON. These results indicate that inclusion of wheat DDGS in a growing diet increased total tract digestibility of NDF and CP and improved the feed efficiency of steers. Moreover, supplementation of FE in barley silage-based growing diets may also have the potential to increase profits, with the evidence of the trend for a decline on DMI without decreasing ADG when adding FE.

  20. Supplementation of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles to gestating beef cows fed low-quality forage: I. Altered intake behavior, body condition, and reproduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennedy, V C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Vonnahme, K A

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of corn dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation to cows fed corn stover and silage during late gestation, 27 multiparous beef cows (674 ± 17 kg; BCS, 5.6 ± 0.1) were divided randomly into 2 pens equipped with electronic feeders. For 10 wk, both groups were fed the basal diet for ad libitum intake while 1 group was supplemented (SUP; = 12) with DDGS at 0.3% of BW (DM basis). Following parturition, all cows received the same diet for an additional 8 wk. During gestation, SUP cows gained BW ( time spent consuming forage ( meals than SUP cows ( = 0.06) from d 201 to 218 of gestation. Supplemented cows tended ( = 0.09) to consume larger meals than CON cows and spent more ( time eating than CON cows around d 240 of gestation. Calves born to SUP cows tended ( = 0.06) to be heavier than calves born to CON cows. During lactation, both groups gained ( time but was not influenced ( = 0.44) by treatment. Supplemented cows spent more time ( meals increased with advancing lactation ( meals daily than SUP cows ( = 0.01). Conversely, meal size decreased as lactation advanced ( meals than CON cows ( = 0.05). Supplementation with DDGS during gestation influenced intake behavior during gestation and lactation as well as the maintenance of maternal BW and BCS and calf birth BW.

  1. An applied investigation of corn-based distillers dried grains with solubles in the production of natural fiber-plastic composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castillo, Hugo Eudosio

    The main objective of this research was to examine uses for distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a coproduct of ethanol production plant, in the fiber-reinforced plastic composites industry. Initially the effort intended to take advantage of the DDGS components, using chemical reactions, to produce coupling agents to improve the physical properties of the composite. Four different chemicals plus water were used to convert proteins into soluble amino acids. The results were not as expected, and appeared to show an early pyrolysis of DDGS components. This may be due to regeneration of proteins when pH of solutions is neutralized. Procedures were then investigated to utilize DDGS for different markets. Considering that oils and proteins of DDGS can thermally decompose, it seemed important to separate the major components and work with DDGS fiber alone. A procedure to extract oil from DDGS using ethanol and then to hydrolyze proteins with ethanol diluted with water, acid and sodium sulfite, was developed. The resulting DDGS fiber or residual material, with a low content of oil and proteins, was used as filler in a propylene matrix with a lubricant and coupling agent to make natural fiber plastic composites (NFPC). Composites containing wood flour (WPC) were prepared simultaneously with those of DDGS fiber to compare tensile properties and fracture surfaces of the specimens by scanning electron microscope (SEM). This study demonstrates that DDGS fiber can replace wood fiber as a filler in NFPC.

  2. Carcass fat quality of pigs is not improved by adding corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol to finishing diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J W; Kil, D Y; Keever, B D; Killefer, J; McKeith, F K; Sulabo, R C; Stein, H H

    2013-05-01

    The objective of this experiment was to test the hypothesis that the reduced carcass fat quality that is often observed in pigs fed diets containing distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) may be ameliorated if corn germ, beef tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol is added to diets fed during the finishing period. A total of 36 barrows and 36 gilts (initial BW 43.7 ± 2.0 kg) were individually housed and randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments in a 2 × 6 factorial arrangement, with gender and diet as main factors. Each dietary treatment had 12 replicate pigs. A corn-soybean meal control diet and a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS were formulated. Four additional diets were formulated by adding 15% corn germ, 3% beef tallow, 3% palm kernel oil, or 5% glycerol to the DDGS-containing diet. Growth performance, carcass characteristics, and LM quality were determined, and backfat and belly fat samples were collected for fatty acid analysis. There was no gender × diet interaction for any of the response variables measured. For the entire finisher period (d 0 to 88), diet had no effect on ADG, but pigs fed 3% palm kernel oil tended (P tallow, palm kernel oil, or glycerol in finishing diets could not be confirmed.

  3. Effects of immunological castration and distiller's dried grains with solubles on carcass cutability and commercial bacon slicing yields of barrows slaughtered at two time points.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tavárez, M A; Bohrer, B M; Asmus, M D; Schroeder, A L; Matulis, R J; Boler, D D; Dilger, A C

    2014-07-01

    Male pigs were randomly assigned to a castration method at birth and allotted to 48 pens (28 pigs/pen). Physically castrated (PC) barrows were castrated at 2 d of age; immunologically castrated (IC) barrows were administered Improvest (GnRF analog diphtheria toxoid conjugate; Zoetis, Kalamazoo, MI) at 16 and 20 wk of age. Distiller's dried grains with solubles (DDGS) feeding strategies included either 0% DDGS (control), 30% DDGS (30% DDGS) fed from 6 wk of age to slaughter, or 30% DDGS fed from 6 wk of age to second dose of Improvest and then fed 0% DDGS until slaughter (withdrawal). Four barrows closest to the median pen weight at 4.5 wk after second dose were selected for evaluation; two were randomly selected and slaughtered at 5 wk and the other two at 7 wk after second dose. Data from each slaughter time were analyzed independently as a 2 × 3 factorial design with pen as the experimental unit. At 5 wk after second dose, bone-in lean cutting yields were 2.63% units greater (P Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 6.10% units less (P Bacon slicing yields (percentage of green weight) were 4.27% units less (P = 0.05) in IC compared with PC. These data suggested that while bacon slicing yield was reduced in IC barrows fed control and 30% DDGS compared with PC barrow counterparts, withdrawal of DDGS improved bacon slicing yields of IC barrows.

  4. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS) to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Massé, Daniel I; Jarret, Guillaume; Benchaar, Chaouki; Hassanat, Fadi

    2014-12-09

    The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss) in dairy slurry on fugitive CH₄ emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29%) the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS), fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF), acid detergent fiber (ADF) and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH₄ emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH₄ emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05) in fugitive CH₄ emissions.

  5. Effects of Adding Corn Dried Distiller Grains with Solubles (DDGS to the Dairy Cow Diet and Effects of Bedding in Dairy Cow Slurry on Fugitive Methane Emissions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel I. Massé

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The specific objectives of this experiment were to investigate the effects of adding 10% or 30% corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS to the dairy cow diet and the effects of bedding type (wood shavings, straw or peat moss in dairy slurry on fugitive CH4 emissions. The addition of DDGS10 to the dairy cow diet significantly increased (29% the daily amount of fat excreted in slurry compared to the control diet. The inclusion of DDGS30 in the diet increased the daily amounts of excreted DM, volatile solids (VS, fat, neutral detergent fiber (NDF, acid detergent fiber (ADF and hemicellulose by 18%, 18%, 70%, 30%, 15% and 53%, respectively, compared to the control diet. During the storage experiment, daily fugitive CH4 emissions showed a significant increase of 15% (p < 0.05 for the slurry resulting from the corn DDGS30 diet. The addition of wood shavings and straw did not have a significant effect on daily fugitive CH4 emissions relative to the control diet, whereas the addition of peat moss caused a significant increase of 27% (p < 0.05 in fugitive CH4 emissions.

  6. Standardized Ileal Amino Acid Digestibility of Corn, Corn Distillers' Dried Grains with Solubles, Wheat Middlings, and Bakery By-Products in Broilers and Laying Hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Jaynes, P; Payne, R L; Applegate, T J

    2015-10-01

    Standardized ileal amino acid digestibility (SIAAD) of 5 samples of corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS), 5 samples of bakery by-products (BBP), 3 samples of corn, and 1 sample of wheat middlings (WM) were evaluated in broilers and laying hens. Diets containing each of the 14 feed ingredients were evaluated in 21 day-old broiler chickens. The DDGS and BBP containing diets were fed to 30-week-old laying hens, while corn and wheat middling were evaluated in 50-week-old laying hens. All the diets were semi-purified with each feed ingredient being the only source of amino acid (AA). To obtain SIAAD values, apparent ileal AA digestibility was corrected for basal ileal endogenous AA losses using values generated from broilers and laying hens fed a nitrogen-free diet. Ileal crude protein digestibility for the 5 DDGS samples was higher (P hens. Broilers had higher SIAAD for DDGS 2, 3, 4, and 5 while there was no difference for DDGS 1 except for 4 AA where broilers had higher (P hens, and SIAAD values for the 16 AA (9 indispensable and 7 dispensable) evaluated in this study were higher (P hens was observed for WM. Results from this study confirm that high variability in digestibility exists between different samples of DDGS. Differences in SIAAD between broilers and laying hens were observed in some samples of DDGS and BBP.

  7. High-shear, jet-cooking, and alkali treatment of corn distillers' dried grains to obtain products with enhanced protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inglett, G E; Chen, D; Rose, D J; Berhow, M

    2010-08-01

    Distillers dried grains (DDG) have potential to be a nutritionally important source of protein, oil and phenolic antioxidants. DDG was subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking, with or without alkaline pH adjustment and autoclaving. Soluble and insoluble fractions were analyzed for protein, oil and ash. Extracts were analyzed for phenolic acids and antioxidant activity. Protein contents were significantly elevated in the insoluble fractions after treatment and the oil content was drastically increased in the insoluble fraction after high-shear and jet-cooking without pH adjustment. Alkaline pH adjustment resulted in a soluble fraction that was highest in phenolic acids, but not antioxidant activity. The highest antioxidant activity was found in the 50% ethanol extract from DDG that had been subjected to high-shear and jet-cooking. These results suggest that high-shear and jet-cooking may be useful processing treatments to increase the value of DDG by producing fractions high in protein, oil and extractable phenolic acids with high antioxidant activity. The DDG fractions and extracts described herein may be useful as food and nutraceutical ingredients, and, if used for these applications, will increase the value of DDG and ease economic burdens on ethanol producers, allowing them to compete in the bio-fuel marketplace.

  8. Effects of alternate-day feeding of dried distiller's grain plus solubles to forage-fed beef cows in mid- to late gestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, S I; Steichen, P L; Islas, A; Goulart, R S; Gilbery, T C; Bauer, M L; Swanson, K C; Dahlen, C R

    2014-06-01

    Forty-six nonlactating beef cows were used to examine effects of dried distiller's grains plus solubles (DG) supplementation strategies to cows fed grass hay during mid- to late gestation on BW, ultrasound body composition characteristics, concentrations of serum NEFA and urea, feeding behavior, and calf birth weight. Cows were assigned to dietary treatments in a completely randomized design: 1) control, where hay was fed each day of the week (CON), 2) both hay and DG fed daily during the week (DG7), 3) hay fed daily but DG fed 3 d of the week (DG3), and 4) hay fed 4 d of the week alternating with DG fed on the remaining 3 d (DGA). Hay was offered ad libitum on days it was fed. The DG were fed at 0.40% of BW when offered daily and 0.93% of BW when offered 3 d per week (Monday, Wednesday, and Friday). Feed intake was monitored continuously over the 84-d feeding period. Hay intake and total DMI were reduced (P 0.05) were observed among treatments for change in BCS, intramuscular fat, rib fat, or rump fat from d 1 to 84. On a day when DG7, DG3, and DGA all received DG (Friday), DGA had reduced (P 0.05) were observed in calf birth weights among treatments. The alternate-day feeding strategy reduced hay and total intake, altered concentrations of serum urea and NEFA, and altered feeding behavior compared with other supplementation methods.

  9. DRYING OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCHES AS WASTED BIOMASS BY HYBRID SOLAR–THERMAL DRYING TECHNIQUE

    OpenAIRE

    H. H. Al-Kayiem; Y. Md Yunus

    2013-01-01

    Solar drying of EFB is highly feasible and economic, but the solar drying process is interrupted during cloudy or rainy days and also at night. In the present paper, a combined solar, as the main heat input, and biomass burner, as an auxiliary source of thermal energy, has been investigated experimentally to dry EFB. An experimental model consisting of a solar dryer integrated with a thermal backup unit was designed and fabricated. A series of experimental measurements were carried out in fou...

  10. Effect of feeding dried distillers' grains with solubles on milk yield and milk composition of cows in mid-lactation and digestibility in sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Westreicher-Kristen, E; Kaiser, R; Steingass, H; Rodehutscord, M

    2014-04-01

    We evaluated the effect of three sources of dried distillers' grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of mid-lactating dairy cows on milk production and milk composition and on digestibility in sheep. DDGS from wheat, corn and barley (DDGS1 ), wheat and corn (DDGS2 ) and wheat (DDGS3 ) were studied and compared with a rapeseed meal (RSM). RSM and DDGS were characterized through in situ crude protein (CP) degradability. Nutrient digestibility was determined in sheep. Twenty-four multiparous cows were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-day periods. Treatments included total mixed rations containing as primary protein sources RSM (control), DDGS1 (D1), DDGS2 (D2) or DDGS3 (D3). RSM contained less rapidly degradable CP (fraction a), more potentially degradable CP (fraction b) and more rumen undegradable CP (UDP) than the three DDGS. In vivo digestibility of RSM organic matter was similar to DDGS. Calculated net energy for lactation (NEL ) was lower for RSM (7.4 MJ/kg DM) than for DDGS, which averaged 7.7 MJ/kg DM. Cows' dry matter intake did not differ between diets (21.7 kg/day). Cows fed D1 yielded more milk than those fed D3 (31.7 vs. 30.4 kg/day); no differences were found between control and DDGS diets (31.3 vs. 31.1 kg/day). Energy-corrected milk was similar among diets (31.2 kg/day). Diets affected neither milk fat concentration (4.0%) nor milk fat yield (1.24 kg/day). Milk protein yield of control (1.12 kg/day) was significantly higher than D3 (1.06 kg/day) but not different form D1 and D2 (1.08 kg/day each). Feeding DDGS significantly increased milk lactose concentration (4.91%) in relation to control (4.81%). DDGS can be a suitable feed in relation to RSM and can be fed up to 4 kg dry matter per day in rations of dairy cows in mid-lactation. However, high variation of protein and energy values of DDGS should be considered when included in diets of dairy cows.

  11. Effect of Supplemental Corn Dried Distillers Grains with Solubles Fed to Beef Steers Grazing Native Rangeland during the Forage Dormant Season

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo, M.; Herrera, E.; Ruiz, O.; Reyes, O.; Carrete, F. O.; Gutierrez, H.

    2016-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of the level of corn dry distillers grains with solubles (CDDGS) supplementation on growing performance, blood metabolites, digestion characteristics and ruminal fermentation patterns in steers grazing dormant forage. In Exp. 1, of growth performance, 120 steers (204±5 kg initial body weight [BW]) were distributed randomly into 3 groups (each of 40 steers), which were provided with the following levels of CDDGS supplement: 0%, 0.25%, or 0.50% BW. All groups of steers were grazed for 30 days in each of 3 grazing periods (March, April, and May). Approximately 1,000 ha of the land was divided with electric fencing into 3 equally sized pastures (333 ha in size). Blood samples were collected monthly from 20 steers in each grazing group for analysis of glucose (G), urea-nitrogen (UN) and non-esterified fatty acids. Final BW, average daily gain (ADG) and supplement conversion (CDDGS-C) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05).The CDDGS supplementation also increased the plasma G and UN concentrations (p<0.05). In Exp. 2, of digestive metabolism, 9 ruminally cannulated steers (BW = 350±3 kg) were distributed, following a completely randomized design, into groups of three in each pasture. The ruminally cannulated steers were provided the same levels of CDDGS supplementation as in the growing performance study (0%, 0.25%, and 0.50% BW), and they grazed along with the other 40 steers throughout the grazing periods. The dry matter intake, crude protein intake, neutral detergent fiber intake (NDFI), apparent digestibility of dry matter (ADDM), crude protein (ADCP) and neutral detergent fiber (ADNDF) increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). The ruminal degradation rates of CP (kdCP), NDF (kdNDF) and passage rate (kp) also increased with increasing levels of CDDGS supplementation (p<0.05). Ruminal ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N) and propionate concentrations also increased with

  12. Research on the drying kinetics of household food waste for the development and optimization of domestic waste drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sotiropoulos, A; Malamis, D; Michailidis, P; Krokida, M; Loizidou, M

    2016-01-01

    Domestic food waste drying foresees the significant reduction of household food waste mass through the hygienic removal of its moisture content at source. In this manuscript, a new approach for the development and optimization of an innovative household waste dryer for the effective dehydration of food waste at source is presented. Food waste samples were dehydrated with the use of the heated air-drying technique under different air-drying conditions, namely air temperature and air velocity, in order to investigate their drying kinetics. Different thin-layer drying models have been applied, in which the drying constant is a function of the process variables. The Midilli model demonstrated the best performance in fitting the experimental data in all tested samples, whereas it was found that food waste drying is greatly affected by temperature and to a smaller scale by air velocity. Due to the increased moisture content of food waste, an appropriate configuration of the drying process variables can lead to a total reduction of its mass by 87% w/w, thus achieving a sustainable residence time and energy consumption level. Thus, the development of a domestic waste dryer can be proved to be economically and environmentally viable in the future.

  13. Overview of new techniques for drying biological materials with emphasis on energy aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G.S.V. Raghavan

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available With increasing concern about environmental degradation, it is desirable to decrease energy consumption in all sectors. Drying has been reported to account for anywhere from 12 to 20% of the energy consumption in the industrial sector. Drying processes are one of the most energy intensive unit operations. There are a number of approaches to reduce energy consumption in dryers. This paper reviews some novel strategies used to decrease energy consumption in drying operations. Drying conditions can be modified or the drying equipments can be modified to increase overall efficiencies. Hybrid drying techniques can also be used, such as combining vacuum or convective drying with electro-technologies (microwave, radio frequency, infrared heating. There is much debate on how to define drying and energy efficiencies. Some techniques to determine these efficiencies can be misleading when the goal is to take a holistic approach to determining energy consumption.

  14. Reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles reduces the risk for milk fat depression and supports milk production and ruminal fermentation in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez-Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Jenkins, C J R; Aluthge, N D; Anderson, C; Fernando, S C; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-03-01

    Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, with (mean ± SD) 91 ± 19 d in milk and 595 ± 81 kg were used in replicated 4 × 4 Latin squares to compare the effects of feeding conventional dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) and reduced-fat DDGS (RFDDGS) in combination with rumen-inert fat (RIF) on milk production and rumen fermentation; one square contained rumen cannulated animals for rumen measurements. In each 21-d period, cows were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (values on a dry matter basis): (1) control (CON) that contained 0% DDGS; (2) DG contained 30% DDGS; (3) RFDG contained 30% RFDDGS in substitution of DDGS; and (4) RFDG+RIF was similar to RFDG with the addition of 1.9% RIF. Unlike most practical diets in the dairy field, our diets had 18.0% crude protein. Dry matter intake was similar across treatments with any form of DDGS averaging 26.0 ± 0.6 kg/d, whereas the CON diet resulted in less dry matter intake, 21.6 ± 0.6 kg/d. Milk yield tended to be 1.7 kg/d greater for diets with either type of DDGS. Concentration of milk protein was greatest for the DG and RFDG diets, intermediate for the RFDG+RIF diet, and least for the CON diet, namely 3.22, 3.21, 3.12, and 3.07 ± 0.05%. Reduced milk fat percentage and yield were observed when cows consumed the DG diet, 3.27 ± 0.10% and 1.11 ± 0.04 kg/d, respectively, whereas these responses were similar among CON, RFDG, and RFDG+RIF, which averaged 3.68 ± 0.10% and 1.22 ± 0.04 kg/d. The presence of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid was only detected in milk from cows consuming the DG diet; similarly, concentration and yield of trans-10 18:1 were greater for cows consuming this diet. Rumen ammonia was similar across treatments averaging 27.0 ± 2.1mg/dL. The CON and RFDG+RIF diets had similar mean pH, 6.1 ± 0.11, whereas DG and RFDG resulted in lower pH averaging 5.79 ± 0.11. No effect on total concentration of volatile fatty acids was observed; the overall mean

  15. Extended release promethazine HCl using acrylic polymers by freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques: formulation considerations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruchi Tiwari

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The present study investigated a novel extended release system of promethazine hydrochloride (PHC with acrylic polymers Eudragit RL100 and Eudragit S100 in different weight ratios (1:1 and 1: 5, and in combination (0.5+1.5, using freeze-drying and spray-drying techniques. Solid dispersions were characterized by Fourier-transformed infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, Powder X-ray diffractometry (PXRD, Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, Scanning electron microscopy (SEM, as well as solubility and in vitro dissolution studies in 0.1 N HCl (pH 1.2, double-distilled water and phosphate buffer (pH 7.4. Adsorption tests from drug solution to solid polymers were also performed. A selected solid dispersion system was developed into capsule dosage form and evaluated for in vitro dissolution studies. The progressive disappearance of drug peaks in thermotropic profiles of spray-dried dispersions were related to increasing amount of polymers, while SEM studies suggested homogenous dispersion of drug in polymer. Eudragit RL100 had a greater adsorptive capacity than Eudragit S100, and thus its combination in (0.5+1.5 for S100 and RL 100 exhibited a higher dissolution rate with 97.14% drug release for twelve hours. Among different formulations, capsules prepared by combination of acrylic polymers using spray-drying (1:0.5 + 1.5 displayed extended release of drug for twelve hours with 96.87% release followed by zero order kinetics (r²= 0.9986.O presente trabalho compreendeu estudo de um novo sistema de liberação prolongada de cloridrato de prometazina (PHC com polímeros acrílicos Eudragit RL100 e Eudragit S100 em diferentes proporções em massa (1:1 e 1:5 e em combinação (0,5+1,5, utilizando técnicas de liofilização e de secagem por aspersão As dispersões sólidas foram caracterizadas por espectrofotometria no infravermelho por transformada de Fourier (FT-IR, calorimetria diferencial de varredura (DSC, difratometria

  16. Fouling in Membrane Distillation, Osmotic Distillation and Osmotic Membrane Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mourad Laqbaqbi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Various membrane separation processes are being used for seawater desalination and treatment of wastewaters in order to deal with the worldwide water shortage problem. Different types of membranes of distinct morphologies, structures and physico-chemical characteristics are employed. Among the considered membrane technologies, membrane distillation (MD, osmotic distillation (OD and osmotic membrane distillation (OMD use porous and hydrophobic membranes for production of distilled water and/or concentration of wastewaters for recovery and recycling of valuable compounds. However, the efficiency of these technologies is hampered by fouling phenomena. This refers to the accumulation of organic/inorganic deposits including biological matter on the membrane surface and/or in the membrane pores. Fouling in MD, OD and OMD differs from that observed in electric and pressure-driven membrane processes such electrodialysis (ED, membrane capacitive deionization (MCD, reverse osmosis (RO, nanofiltration (NF, ultrafiltration (UF, microfiltration (MF, etc. Other than pore blockage, fouling in MD, OD and OMD increases the risk of membrane pores wetting and reduces therefore the quantity and quality of the produced water or the concentration efficiency of the process. This review deals with the observed fouling phenomena in MD, OD and OMD. It highlights different detected fouling types (organic fouling, inorganic fouling and biofouling, fouling characterization techniques as well as various methods of fouling reduction including pretreatment, membrane modification, membrane cleaning and antiscalants application.

  17. High sulfur content in corn dried distillers grains with solubles protects against oxidized lipids by increasing sulfur-containing antioxidants in nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, R; Chen, C; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Kerr, B J; Weber, T E; Shurson, G C

    2013-06-01

    Some sources of corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) contain relatively high amounts of oxidized lipids produced from PUFA peroxidation during the production process. These oxidized lipids may impair metabolic oxidation status of pigs. The objective of this study was to understand the effects of feeding corn-soybean meal diets (CON) or diets containing 30% highly oxidized DDGS with 1 of 3 levels of supplemental vitamin E (dl-α-tocopheryl acetate), none, the 1998 NRC level (11 IU/kg), and 10x the 1998 NRC level (110 IU/kg), on oxidative status of nursery pigs. The DDGS source used in this study contained the greatest thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) value, peroxide value, and total S content (5.2 ng/mg oil, 84.1 mEq/kg oil, and 0.95%, respectively) relative to 30 other DDGS sources sampled (mean values = 1.8 ng/mg oil, 11.5 mEq/kg oil, and 0.50%, respectively). Barrows (n = 54) were housed in pens and fed the experimental diets for 8 wk after weaning and transferred to individual metabolism cages for collection of feces, urine, blood, and liver samples. Total S content was greater in DDGS diets than in CON (0.39 vs. 0.19%). Dietary inclusion of 30% DDGS improved apparent total tract digestibility of S (86.8 vs. 84.6%; P against oxidative stress when feeding highly oxidized DDGS. Therefore, the increased S content in DDGS may be beneficial, and increasing concentrations of vitamin E in diets may not be necessary to protect pigs against metabolic oxidative stress when feeding high S and highly peroxidized DDGS.

  18. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and local innate immune response of broiler chickens challenged with Clostridium perfringens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M; Rogiewicz, A; McMillan, E; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effect of yeast-derived products on growth performance, gut lesion score, intestinal population of Clostridium perfringens, and local innate immunity of broiler chickens challenged with C. perfringens. One-day-old broiler chickens were randomly assigned to eight dietary treatments providing six replicate pens of 55 birds each per treatment. Dietary treatments consisted of Control diets without and with C. perfringens challenge, and diets containing bacitracin methylene disalicylate (BMD, 55 g/tonne), nucleotides (150 g/tonne), yeast cell wall (YCW, 300 g/tonne), and a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus (1 kg/tonne) fed to chickens challenged with C. perfringens. Diets containing 10% distillers dried grains with solubles without and with C. perfringens challenge were also used. Birds were orally challenged with C. perfringens (10(8) colony-forming units (cfu)/bird) on day 14. On day 21, intestinal samples were collected for gene expression analysis. Pathogen challenge significantly (P intestinal lesion scores were observed for challenged birds except the BMD-containing diet. Over the entire trial (1-35 days), no difference in growth performance was observed except the BMD diet which improved FCR over the Control, challenged group. Birds receiving nucleotides showed increased expression of toll-like receptors and cytokines interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-18 compared to the Control, challenged group. Expression of macrophage mannose receptor and IL-18 was upregulated in birds receiving YCW. Increased expression of cytokines and receptors involved in innate immunity in broilers receiving nucleotides and YCW suggests the immunomodulatory properties of these products under pathogen challenge conditions.

  19. Rice Distillers Dried Grain Is a Promising Ingredient as a Partial Replacement of Plant Origin Sources in the Diet for Juvenile Red Seabream (

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Choi

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to test the effects of dietary distillers dried grain (DDG level on the growth performance, feed utilization, body composition and antioxidant activity of juvenile red seabream (Pagrus major. Six isonitrogenous and isocaloric diets were formulated to contain 0%, 5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, and 25% DDG from rice (designated as DDG0, DDG5, DDG10, DDG15, DDG20, and DDG25, respectively. Juvenile red seabream averaging 10.1±0.05 g were randomly distributed into 400-L tanks in a flow through systems. Three replicate groups of fish were fed one of the experimental diets to visual satiation two times a day for 10 weeks. Survival, weight gain, feed efficiency, protein efficiency ratio and hepatosomatic index of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05. Proximate and amino acid composition of whole body in juvenile red seabream were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05. Plasma content of total protein, glucose, cholesterol, glutamic-pyruvic transaminase, phospholipid and triglyceride were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05. 1, 1-Diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical and alkyl radical scavenging activities in plasma and liver of fish were not affected by dietary DDG levels (p>0.05. The results of this experiment suggest that DDG has the potential to replace plant origin ingredients such as wheat flour and corn gluten meal and could be used up to 25% in diet without incurring negative effects on the growth performance of juvenile red seabream.

  20. Comparison of amino acid digestibility coefficients for corn, corn gluten meal, and corn distillers dried grains with solubles among 3 different bioassays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Utterback, P L; Parsons, C M

    2012-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine standardized AA digestibility of corn, corn gluten meal, and 3 distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) using the precision-fed cecectomized rooster assay (PFR), the standardized ileal AA broiler chicken assay (SIAAD), and a newly developed precision-fed ileal broiler chicken assay (PFC). For the PFR, cecectomized roosters were precision-fed approximately 30 g of feed sample, and excreta were collected 48 h postfeeding. For the SIAAD, 16-d-old broilers were ad libitum fed a semi-purified diet containing the feed samples as the sole source of protein from 17 to 21 d, with ileal digesta collected at 21 d. For the PFC, 22-d-old broiler chickens were precision-fed 10 g of feed and ileal digesta were collected at 4 h postfeeding. For corn, the PFC yielded significantly higher digestibilities than the SIAAD and PFR for several AA. For corn gluten meal, the PFR yielded significantly higher values than the PFC for the majority of the AA, with the SIAAD yielding intermediate values. When 3 DDGS samples were evaluated, the PFR produced higher digestibilities than the PFC for all 3 DDGS samples for most of the AA. When comparing the PFR and the SIAAD, the PFR yielded higher values than the SIAAD for one DDGS, whereas there was generally no significant difference between these 2 methods for the other 2 DDGS samples. The results of this study indicate there were differences among standardized AA digestibility values for the PFR, SIAAD, and PFC in some instances. The differences among methods were not consistent; however, the PFR yielded higher digestibility values than the PFC for 4 of the 5 ingredient samples.

  1. EFFECT OF REPLACING CORN AND SOYBEAN MEAL WITH BREWERS RICE AND DRIED DISTILLERS BREWERS YEAST ON PERFORMANCE OF GROWING-FINISHING PIGS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ondieki Gekara

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to determine the effect of replacing corn and Soybean Meal (SBM with Brewers Rice (BR and Dried Distillers Brewers Yeast (DDBY, respectively, on ADG, G:F, Apparent Total Tract Digestibility (ATTD, fecal DM output and fecal loss of N and P of growing-finishing pigs. Sixty four Yorkshire x Duroc x Hampshire crosses (BW = 73±5.7 kg were randomly assigned to corn/SBM (CSM, BR/SBM (RSM, corn/DDBY (CBY or BR/DDBY (RBY diets. Compared with pigs finished on corn based diets, pigs fed BR based diets gained faster (0.868 vs. 0.730 kg.pig-1; p<0.01 and had better gain to feed ratio (0.30 vs. 0.25; p<0.01. Pigs finished on RBY diet had the least fecal DM output (0.245, 0.352, 0.575, 0.639 kg.pig-1; p<0.001 and greatest ATTD (91.5, 87.8, 80.0, 77.9%; p<0.001 followed by RSM, CBY and CSM pigs, respectively. Pigs finished on RBY diet lost the least (p<0.001 amount of N (0.010, 0.013, 0.019, 0.021 kg.pig-1 and P (0.010, 0.014, 0.016, 0.019 kg.pig-1 in the feces followed by pigs finished on RSM, CBY and CSM, respectively. In conclusion, BR and DDBY can replace all corn and SBM in swine diets with no negative effects on performance of growing-finishing pigs.

  2. Inclusion of sunflower seed and wheat dried distillers' grains with solubles in a red clover silage-based diet enhances steers performance, meat quality and fatty acid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapiye, C; Aalhus, J L; Turner, T D; Vahmani, P; Baron, V S; McAllister, T A; Block, H C; Uttaro, B; Dugan, M E R

    2014-12-01

    The current study compared beef production, quality and fatty acid (FA) profiles of yearling steers fed a control diet containing 70 : 30 red clover silage (RCS) : barley-based concentrate, a diet containing 11% sunflower seed (SS) substituted for barley, and diets containing SS with 15% or 30% wheat dried distillers' grain with solubles (DDGS). Additions of DDGS were balanced by reductions in RCS and SS to maintain crude fat levels in diets. A total of two pens of eight animals were fed per diet for an average period of 208 days. Relative to the control diet, feeding the SS diet increased (P<0.05) average daily gain, final live weight and proportions of total n-6 FA, non-conjugated 18:2 biohydrogenation products (i.e. atypical dienes) with the first double bond at carbon 8 or 9 from the carboxyl end, conjugated linoleic acid isomers with the first double bond from carbon 7 to 10 from the carboxyl end, t-18:1 isomers, and reduced (P<0.05) the proportions of total n-3 FA, conjugated linolenic acids, branched-chain FA, odd-chain FA and 16:0. Feeding DDGS-15 and DDGS-30 diets v. the SS diet further increased (P<0.05) average daily gains, final live weight, carcass weight, hot dressing percentage, fat thickness, rib-eye muscle area, and improved instrumental and sensory panel meat tenderness. However, in general feeding DGGS-15 or DDGS-30 diets did not change FA proportions relative to feeding the SS diet. Overall, adding SS to a RCS-based diet enhanced muscle proportions of 18:2n-6 biohydrogenation products, and further substitutions of DDGS in the diet improved beef production, and quality while maintaining proportions of potentially functional bioactive FA including vaccenic and rumenic acids.

  3. Effect of calcium oxide inclusion in beef feedlot diets containing 60% dried distillers grains with solubles on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nuñez, A J C; Felix, T L; Lemenager, R P; Schoonmaker, J P

    2014-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted to determine the effect of increasing dietary CaO on ruminal fermentation, diet digestibility, performance, and carcass characteristics of feedlot steers fed 60% dried distillers grains with solubles ( DDGS: ). In Exp. 1, 120 steers were allotted by weight (355 ± 7.9 kg) to 1 of 4 treatments containing 60% DDGS, 20% corn silage, 13.5 to 14.4% ground corn, 4% supplement, and 0 to 2.5% limestone on DM basis to determine the effects of CaO on performance and carcass characteristics. Treatments consisted of 0, 0.8, 1.6, or 2.4% CaO inclusion in the diet (DM basis), with CaO replacing limestone. Steers were slaughtered at a target BW of approximately 641 kg. In Exp. 2, 4 steers (initial BW = 288 ± 3 kg) were randomly allotted to the same diets in a 4 × 4 Latin square design (14-d periods) to determine the effects of CaO on ruminal pH, VFA, and nutrient digestibility. Statistical analyses were conducted using the MIXED procedure of SAS. Inclusion of CaO at 0.8, 1.6, and 2.4% increased ADG by 5.0, 3.9, and 0%, respectively, compared to 0% CaO (quadratic; P = 0.03). Intake was linearly decreased (P = 0.04) and G:F was linearly increased (P = 0.02) by CaO inclusion. Dressing percentage increased as CaO increased from 0 to 1.6% and then decreased for 2.4% CaO (quadratic; P diets. Inclusion of CaO up to 1.6% was effective in improving performance of feedlot cattle.

  4. Effects of supplementing sow diets with Saccharomyces cerevisiae refermented sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and progeny.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, D; Li, X; Cheng, Y; Wu, G; Xiao, X; Wang, F; Wang, Y; Lu, Z

    2017-05-01

    We performed 2 experiments to study the effects of supplementing sow diets with refermented sorghum dried distiller's grains with solubles (SSDDGS) from late gestation to weaning on the performance of sows and their progeny. In Exp. 1, 24 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated to the following 3 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal diet from late gestation to weaning ( = 8), 2) sows fed a diet with 2% SSDDGS ( = 8), and 3) sows fed a diet with 4% SSDDGS ( = 8). The 4% SSDDGS treatment significantly improved the sows' ADFI, the litter weaning alive rate, and the individual piglet weaning weights and significantly reduced the litter stillbirth rate and the levels of urea N and somatic cell counts (SCC) in the milk. However, the 2% SSDDGS treatment did not alter the performance of the sows or progeny. Therefore, we considered the volume of 4% SSDDGS to be more efficient than 2% SSDDGS. To verify the results of Exp. 1, we performed Exp. 2, in which 60 sows at 85 d of gestation were allocated into the following 2 dietary treatments: 1) sows fed a basal gestation diet from 85 d of gestation to weaning ( = 30) and 2) sows fed a basal diet with 4% SSDDGS from 85 d of gestation to weaning ( = 30). The 4% SSDDGS supplementation tended to increase the sows' ADFI, litter weaning size, litter weight gain during lactation, and individual piglet weaning weight and weight gain during lactation, and it also increased the milk yield and the fat and DM contents of the milk. This treatment also decreased the levels of urea N and SCC in the milk. Therefore, the present study indicates that supplementing sow diets with 4% SSDDGS from late gestation to weaning has the potential to 1) increase sow ADFI, 2) promote progeny growth performance, 3) increase sow milk production and quality, and 4) improve the maternal health status as indicated by improved protein utilization and reduced potential inflammatory response.

  5. Comparative study of two drying techniques used in radioactive source preparation: freeze-drying and evaporation using hot dry nitrogen jets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branger, T; Bobin, C; Iroulart, M-G; Lépy, M-C; Le Garrères, I; Morelli, S; Lacour, D; Plagnard, J

    2008-01-01

    Quantitative solid sources are used widely in the field of radionuclide metrology. With the aim to improve the detection efficiency for electrons and x-rays, a comparative study between two source drying techniques has been undertaken at LNE-Laboratoire National Henri Becquerel (LNE-LNHB, France). In this paper, freeze-drying using commercial equipment is compared with a system of drying using hot jets of nitrogen developed at Institute for Reference Materials and Measurements (IRMM, Belgium). In order to characterize the influence of self-absorption, the detection efficiencies for (51)Cr sources have been measured by coincidence counting and photon spectrometry.

  6. Effects of extruding wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas or canola meal on ruminal fermentation, microbial protein synthesis, nutrient digestion, and milk production in dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Claassen, R M; Christensen, D A; Mutsvangwa, T

    2016-09-01

    Our objective was to examine the effects of feeding coextruded and nonextruded supplements consisting of wheat dried distillers grains with solubles with peas (WDDGS-peas) or canola meal (WDDGS-CM) on ruminal fermentation, omasal flow, and production performance in Holstein cows. Eight cows (4 ruminally cannulated) were used in a replicated 4×4 Latin square with 28-d periods and a 2×2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Dietary treatments were coextruded or nonextruded mixtures of WDDGS-peas and WDDGS-CM that were included in total mixed rations at 15.1% [dry matter (DM) basis]. Diet had no effect on DM intake. Milk yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk fat content was greater in cows fed nonextruded diets compared with those fed coextruded diets, but milk fat yield was greater in cows fed coextruded diets compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Milk yield tended to be greater and milk protein yield was greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Cows fed nonextruded diets had a greater milk urea-N concentration compared with those fed coextruded diets. Cows fed coextruded diets had greater ruminal digestion of DM and tended to have greater ruminal digestion of organic matter compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibilities of organic matter, crude protein, ether extract, and starch were greater, whereas that of acid detergent fiber and neutral detergent fiber tended to be greater in cows fed coextruded compared with those fed nonextruded diets. Total-tract digestibility of ether extract was lower whereas that of starch was greater and that of crude protein tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-peas compared with those fed WDDGS-CM. Total N excretion and milk N efficiency were unaffected by diet. Ruminal NH3-N concentration tended to be greater in cows fed WDDGS-CM compared with those fed WDDGS-peas. Ruminal propionate concentration was greater whereas

  7. Impact of tylosin phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2013-12-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of tylosin phosphate (TP) on energy and nutrient digestibility and flow through the gastrointestinal tract in growing pigs fed corn-soybean meal or corn-soybean meal-distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) based diets. Eighteen barrows (initial BW = 32.6 ± 1.2 kg) were surgically fitted with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and allotted to a Youden square design with 6 diets and 3 replicate periods. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: TP (0 vs. 44 mg/kg) and DDGS (0 vs. 25%). Two N-free dietary treatments (0 vs. 44 mg/kg TP) were also included for determining basal ileal endogenous AA losses (IAAend) and the effect of TP on basal IAAend. Replicate periods included 4 d of adaptation to treatments and 2 sampling periods. Fecal collection occurred on d 5 and 6 and ileal digesta collection occurred on d 7 and 8 for sampling period 1 whereas sampling period 2 included fecal collection on d 11 and 12 and ileal digesta collection on d 13 and 14. Apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) were calculated for DM, energy, and NDF. The AID and standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA were calculated. Inclusion of DDGS reduced AID (68.0 vs. 72.8%; P < 0.001) and ATTD (79.9 vs. 85.0%; P < 0.001) of energy. There were no effects of TP on energy digestibility. The DDGS inclusion increased the amount of GE (1.47 vs. 1.18 Mcal/kg DMI; P < 0.001) and NDF (94 vs. 60 g/kg DMI; P < 0.001) remaining at the terminal ileum; however, hindgut disappearance of energy (0.55 vs. 0.53 Mcal/kg DMI) and NDF (13 vs. 15 g/kg DMI) was similar between the corn-soybean meal-DDGS and corn-soybean meal based diets. There were no effects of TP on basal IAAend; therefore, SID AA values were calculated using means of the 2 N-free diets. The SID of Lys (79.6 vs. 84.1%; P < 0.001) and all other indispensible AA, except Leu, was lower in the DDGS diets. Inclusion of TP did not influence SID of AA

  8. Live production and carcass characteristics of broilers fed a blend of poultry fat and corn oil derived from distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, E J; Purswell, J L; Davis, J D; Loar, R E; Karges, K

    2013-10-01

    Corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) are now being further processed to remove corn oil, which may be used as a dietary energy source for poultry. The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of a poultry fat (PF) and a new DDGS-derived corn oil blend (CO) on live performance and carcass characteristics of 49-d-old broilers. Four corn-soybean meal based diets were formulated with differing blends of PF and CO. All diets contained the same percentage of total fat, but differed in the fat source. One diet had the sole source of fat as PF (100:0% PF:CO) and was then replaced with 25% CO, 75% CO, and a 100% replacement of CO. Each of the diets was fed in a 3-phase feeding program to 6 replicate pens. At day of hatch, Ross × Ross 708 broilers were randomly allocated to 24 pens composed of 42 birds of equal sex. On d 49, 10 birds from each pen were processed, and carcass, abdominal fat pad, and breast muscle components were determined. There were no significant differences in live performance for the starter phase (0-18 d). For the grower phase (19-35 d), birds fed 75:25% PF:CO significantly (P ≤ 0.05) increased BW, BW gain, and decreased feed conversion compared with the control (100:0% PF:CO). Birds fed 0:100% PF:CO also observed similar improvements in BW, BW gain, and feed conversion during the grower phase. There were no significant differences for the finisher phase (36-48 d). On d 49, live weights for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO diets were significantly lower compared with other treatments. A trend for lower carcass and breast weights and increased abdominal fat was also observed for birds fed the 0:100% PF:CO. The addition of CO led to significant improvements in pellet durability for grower and finisher pellets. The results of this study indicate that DDGS-derived CO can be used to partially replace PF in broiler diets without any detrimental effects.

  9. Effects of adding supplemental tallow to diets containing 30% distillers dried grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and pork fat quality in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, J M; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C; Baidoo, S K; Johnston, L J

    2015-01-01

    Crossbred pigs (n = 315) were blocked by initial BW (6.8 ± 1.1 kg) and randomly assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments to evaluate the effects of dietary inclusion of tallow and corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on pig growth, carcass traits, and pork fat quality. Diets consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet (CON) and another 3 corn-soybean meal diets containing 5% tallow (T), 30% DDGS (D), or 5% tallow plus 30% DDGS (TD) in a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Diets were formulated to contain similar levels of available P and standardized ileal digestible Lys:ME among treatments. Pigs were housed in 40 pens, with 7 to 8 pigs per pen, to provide 10 replicates per treatment. Overall ADG did not differ among treatments. Compared with CON (2.76 kg/d) and T (2.59 kg/d), feeding 30% DDGS reduced the ADFI (interaction, P > 0.05) of pigs when fed with 5% tallow (2.45 kg/d for TD) but not when fed alone (2.76 kg/d for D). There was no effect of DDGS on overall G:F, but pigs fed diets with tallow had greater (P tallow (0.37). Feeding tallow increased (P tallow (D = 71.8° and TD = 57.7° vs. CON = 134.0° and T = 113.4°) and tallow also tended to reduce belly firmness (P tallow reduced the concentration of SFA in belly fat, while the concentration of MUFA were increased (P tallow but not DDGS. Conversely, feeding DDGS increased (P tallow. An interaction (P = 0.03) between DDGS and tallow for iodine value (IV) of belly fat was observed, in which addition of tallow or DDGS increased the IV of belly fat (64.22 for T and 71.22 for D vs. 59.01 for CON) but addition of both reduced IV (67.88 for TD). The IV of belly fat and backfat were correlated (P tallow to 30% DDGS diets improved G:F and carcass yield while reducing the IV of belly fat. However, pork fat firmness as measured by belly flop angle was not improved.

  10. Comparison of values for standardized total tract digestibility and relative bioavailability of phosphorus in dicalcium phosphate and distillers dried grains with solubles fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, S R; Kim, B G; Stein, H H

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to compare values for the standardized total tract digestibility (STTD) and the relative bioavailability of P in dicalcium phosphate (DCP) and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) when fed to growing pigs. In Exp. 1, the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD), the basal endogenous P loss (EPL), and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were determined. Eighteen pigs (initial BW: 34.93±1.04 kg) were allotted to 3 cornstarch-based diets in a randomized complete block design and housed individually in metabolism cages. Two diets contained DCP and DDGS, respectively, as the sole source of P and the last diet was a P-free diet that was used to measure EPL from the pigs. Results indicated that the ATTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 86.1 and 58.8%, respectively, and the STTD of P in DCP and DDGS were 93.1 and 63.1%, respectively. The EPL was determined at 174 mg/kg DMI. In Exp. 2, 42 pigs (initial BW: 29.02±2.03 kg) were allotted to 7 dietary treatments in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were housed individually and allowed ad libitum access to feed and water. A basal diet (0.22% P) based on corn, casein, cornstarch, and potato protein concentrate was formulated. Three additional diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DCP to the basal diet to create diets containing 0.26, 0.30, or 0.34% P. The last 3 diets were formulated by adding 0.04, 0.08, or 0.12% P from DDGS to the basal diet at the expense of cornstarch. Pigs were fed experimental diets for 28 d. They were then euthanized and the third and fourth metacarpals from the right front foot were collected. Metacarpal bone ash and bone P were regressed against P intake for each ingredient and via slope ratio methodology, it was determined that the bioavailability of P in DDGS was 87% relative to that in DCP. It was concluded from this work that the value for relative bioavailability of P in DDGS overestimates the digestibility of P in DDGS and values for the

  11. Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles in lamb feedlot diets: growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitney, T R; Lupton, C J; Muir, J P; Adams, R P; Stewart, W C

    2014-03-01

    Effects of using ground redberry juniper and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in Rambouillet lamb (n = 45) feedlot diets on growth, blood serum, fecal, and wool characteristics were evaluated. In a randomized design study with 2 feeding periods (Period 1 = 64% concentrate diet, 35 d; Period 2 = 85% concentrate diet, 56 d), lambs were individually fed 5 isonitrogenous diets: a control diet (CNTL) that contained oat hay but not DDGS or juniper or DDGS-based diets in which 0 (0JUN), 33 (33JUN), 66 (66JUN), or 100% (100JUN) of the oat hay was replaced by juniper. During Period 1, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets. Lamb DMI, ADG, and G:F quadratically increased (P diets. During Period 2, lambs fed CNTL had greater (P diets, but ADG was similar (P > 0.41). Compared to 0JUN, lambs fed CNTL had similar (P = 0.12) G:F and tended to have less G:F (P = 0.07) than lambs fed DDGS-based diets. Among lambs fed DDGS-based diets, DMI was similar (P > 0.19), ADG increased linearly (P = 0.03), and G:F tended to decrease quadratically (P = 0.06) as juniper increased in the diet. Serum IGF-1, serum urea N (SUN), and fecal N were greater (P 0.13) for lambs fed CNTL vs. lambs fed DDGS-based diets (CNTL). Within lambs fed DDGS-based diets, SUN increased quadratically (P = 0.01) and fecal N increased linearly (P = 0.004), which can partially be attributed to increased dietary urea and condensed tannin intake. Most wool characteristics were not affected, but wool growth per kilogram of BW decreased quadratically (P = 0.04) as percentage of juniper increased in the DDGS-based diets. When evaluating the entire 91-d feeding trial, results indicated that replacing all of the ground oat hay with ground juniper leaves and stems in lamb growing and finishing diets is not detrimental to animal performance and that DDGS-based diets can reduce total feedlot costs, as compared to sorghum grain and cottonseed meal-based diets. However, compared to using juniper or oat hay as the sole

  12. Effects of balancing crystalline amino acids in diets containing heat-damaged soybean meal or distillers dried grains with solubles fed to weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almeida, F N; Htoo, J K; Thomson, J; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate if adjustments in diet formulations either based on total analysed amino acids or standardized ileal digestible (SID) amino acids may be used to eliminate negative effects of including heat-damaged soybean meal (SBM) or heat-damaged corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets fed to weanling pigs. In Experiment 1, four corn-SBM diets were formulated. Diet 1 contained non-autoclaved SBM (315 g/kg), and this diet was formulated on the basis of analysed amino acid concentrations and using SID values from the AminoDat® 4.0 database. Diet 2 was similar to Diet 1 in terms of ingredient composition, except that the non-autoclaved SBM was replaced by autoclaved SBM at 1 : 1 (weight basis). Diet 3 was formulated using autoclaved SBM and amino acid inclusions in the diet were adjusted on the basis of analysed total amino acid concentrations in the autoclaved SBM and published SID values for non-autoclaved SBM (AminoDat® 4.0). Diet 4 also contained autoclaved SBM, but the formulation of this diet was adjusted on the basis of analysed amino acids in the autoclaved SBM and SID values that were adjusted according to the degree of heat damage in this source of SBM. Pigs (160; initial BW: 10.4 kg) were allotted to the four treatments with eight replicate pens per treatment in a randomized complete block design. Diets were fed to pigs for 21 days. The gain to feed ratio (G : F) was greater (PDiet 1 compared with pigs fed the other diets and pigs fed Diet 4 had greater (PDiet 2. In Experiment 2, 144 pigs (initial BW: 9.9 kg) were allotted to four diets with eight replicate pens per diet. The four diets contained corn, SBM (85 g/kg) and DDGS (220 g/kg), and were formulated using the concepts described for Experiment 1, except that heat-damaged DDGS, but not heat-damaged SBM, was used in the diets. Pigs fed Diet 1 had greater (PDiet 2, but no differences were observed for G : F among pigs fed diets containing autoclaved

  13. Effects of dietary wheat middlings, distillers dried grains with solubles, and choice white grease on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality of finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salyer, J A; DeRouchey, J M; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; Goodband, R D; Nelssen, J L; Petry, D B

    2012-08-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of adding combinations of wheat middlings (midds), distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), and choice white grease (CWG) to growing-finishing pig diets on growth, carcass traits, and carcass fat quality. In Exp. 1, 288 pigs (average initial BW = 46.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 9 pens per treatment. Treatments included a corn-soybean meal-based control, the control with 30% DDGS, the DDGS diet with 10% midds, or the DDGS diet with 20% midds. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys:ME ratios within each phase. Overall (d 0 to 84), pigs fed diets containing increasing midds had decreased (linear, P ≤ 0.02) ADG and G:F, but ADFI was not affected. Feeding 30% DDGS did not influence growth. For carcass traits, increasing midds decreased (linear, P pigs (initial BW = 42.3 kg) were used in an 87-d experiment with pens of pigs randomly allotted to 1 of 6 dietary treatments with 8 pigs per pen and 6 pens per treatment. Treatments were arranged in a 2 × 3 factorial with 2 amounts of midds (0 or 20%) and 3 amounts of CWG (0, 2.5, or 5.0%). All diets contained 15% DDGS. Diets were fed in 4 phases and formulated to constant SID Lys:ME ratios in each phase. No CWG × midds interactions were observed. Overall (d 0 to 87), feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs increasing CWG had improved ADG (quadratic, P = 0.03) and G:F (linear, P Dietary midds or CWG did not affect ADFI. For carcass traits, feeding 20% midds decreased (P Pigs fed CWG had decreased (linear, P pig growth performance, carcass yield, and increased jowl fat iodine value. Although increasing diet energy with CWG can help mitigate negative effects on live performance, CWG did not eliminate negative impacts of midds on carcass yield, HCW, and jowl fat iodine value.

  14. Pork fat quality of pigs fed distillers dried grains with solubles with variable oil content and evaluation of iodine value prediction equations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Shurson, G C

    2016-03-01

    Back, belly, and jowl fat samples of pigs fed control corn-soybean meal-based diets and diets containing 4 sources of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) were used to determine the impact of feeding DDGS with variable oil content on pork fat quality and to evaluate the precision and accuracy of published iodine value (IV) prediction equations. Dietary treatments consisted of 4 corn-soybean meal diets containing 40% DDGS from different sources with 10.7, 5.6, 14.2, or 16.0% ether extract (EE; as-fed) content. Diets did not contain any other supplemental lipid sources. Regardless of fat depot, SFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 5.6% EE DDGS (35.4) was greater ( fat depot, MUFA content (g/100 g fat) of pigs fed 10.7, 5.6, and 14.2% DDGS sources were similar (43.7, 43.1, and 43.0, respectively) but were greater ( fat depot interaction was observed for PUFA ( oil content of DDGS was greater in backfat than in belly and jowl fat. Carcass fat IV data were used to evaluate prediction error (PE) and bias of published carcass fat IV prediction equations. Equations using dietary C18:2 content or IV product as a single predictor resulted in highly variable PE (g/100 g) ranging from 3.43 to 8.36 and bias (g/100 g) ranging from -5.05 to 5.66. Using equations that included additional diet composition information and pig growth performance factors decreased PE (3.27 to 4.73) and bias (-3.37 to 1.73) of prediction for backfat compared with equations only based on the characteristics of dietary lipid, but this improvement was limited in the prediction for belly and jowl fat. Predictions based on percentage of DDGS in diets had the greatest PE (6.66 to 9.19) and bias (5.53 to 8.00).

  15. Effect of feeding peroxidized dried distillers grains with solubles to sows and progeny on growth performance and metabolic oxidative status of nursery pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanson, A R; Wang, L; Johnston, L J; Baidoo, S K; Torrison, J L; Chen, C; Shurson, G C

    2015-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of including peroxidized corn dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets for sows and nursery pigs on growth performance, vitamin E (VE), and Se status, and the incidence of mulberry heart disease (MHD) of nursery pigs. Sows (n = 12) were fed corn-soybean meal diets (C-SBM) or C-SBM diets with DDGS (40% and 20% in gestation and lactation, respectively) for 3 parities. In the third parity, 108 weaned pigs (BW = 6.6 ± 0.36 kg) were blocked by BW within litter, assigned to pens (2 pigs/pen; 5 and 4 pens per litter for groups 1 and 2, respectively), and pens were assigned 1 of 3 nursery diets: 1) corn-soybean meal (CON), 2) 30% peroxidized DDGS (Ox-D), and 3) 30% Ox-D with 5 × NRC (1998) level of VE (Ox-D+5VE) for 7 wk, in a 2 × 3 factorial arrangement of sow and nursery diets (n = 9 pens/treatment). The peroxidized DDGS source in nursery diets contained concentrations of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and peroxide values that were 25 and 27 times greater than a reference corn sample. Sow colostrum, milk, and serum, as well as pig serum and liver samples, were analyzed for α-tocopherol and Se concentrations. Pig serum was analyzed for glutathione peroxidase activity (GPx), TBARS, and sulfur-containing AA (SAA). Pig hearts were evaluated for gross and histopathological lesions indicative of MHD, but none were detected. Pigs from sows fed DDGS tended to have reduced (P = 0.07) VE in serum during lactation and reduced VE at weaning (P pigs from sows fed C-SBM. Inclusion of DDGS in sow diets reduced the VE status of pigs during lactation, but not in the nursery when MHD can be a concern. Pigs fed Ox-D+5VE (P = 0.08) tended to have, and those fed Ox-D (P = 0.04) had greater ADFI than pigs fed CON, but ADG was not affected (P > 0.1) by nursery diet. Feeding Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE increased (P pigs fed Ox-D or Ox-D+5VE compared with those fed C-SBM, which was likely due to greater (P pigs fed Ox-D. The

  16. Drying techniques for the visualisation of agarose-based chromatography media by scanning electron microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nweke, Mauryn C; Turmaine, Mark; McCartney, R Graham; Bracewell, Daniel G

    2017-03-01

    The drying of chromatography resins prior to scanning electron microscopy is critical to image resolution and hence understanding of the bead structure at sub-micron level. Achieving suitable drying conditions is especially important with agarose-based chromatography resins, as over-drying may cause artefact formation, bead damage and alterations to ultrastructural properties; and under-drying does not provide sufficient resolution for visualization under SEM. This paper compares and contrasts the effects of two drying techniques, critical point drying and freeze drying, on the morphology of two agarose based resins (MabSelect™/dw ≈85 µm and Capto™ Adhere/dw ≈75 µm) and provides a complete method for both. The results show that critical point drying provides better drying and subsequently clearer ultrastructural visualization of both resins under SEM. Under this protocol both the polymer fibers (thickness ≈20 nm) and the pore sizes (diameter ≈100 nm) are clearly visible. Freeze drying is shown to cause bead damage to both resins, but to different extents. MabSelect resin encounters extensive bead fragmentation, whilst Capto Adhere resin undergoes partial bead disintegration, corresponding with the greater extent of agarose crosslinking and strength of this resin. While freeze drying appears to be the less favorable option for ultrastructural visualization of chromatography resin, it should be noted that the extent of fracturing caused by the freeze drying process may provide some insight into the mechanical properties of agarose-based chromatography media.

  17. Evaluation of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles as a substitute for barley grain and barley silage in feedlot finishing diets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wierenga, K T; McAllister, T A; Gibb, D J; Chaves, A V; Okine, E K; Beauchemin, K A; Oba, M

    2010-09-01

    The objective of this study was to assess the value of triticale dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) as a replacement for barley silage in addition to a portion of the dry-rolled barley (DRB) in a grain-based feedlot finishing diet. The trial used 160 crossbred yearling steers: 144 noncannulated (478 +/- 84 kg) in a complete randomized design, and 16 ruminally cannulated (494 +/- 50 kg) in a replicated 4 x 4 Latin square design. The noncannulated steers were assigned to 8 standard pens (10 per pen) and 8 pens equipped with the GrowSafe system (GrowSafe Systems Ltd., Airdrie, Alberta, Canada; 8 per pen). The cannulated steers were placed (2 per pen) in the 8 GrowSafe pens and moved between pens at 28-d intervals. Each of 4 experimental diets was fed in 2 standard and 2 GrowSafe pens. The diets contained (DM basis) 1) 85% DRB and 10% barley silage (CON); 2) 65% DRB, 20% triticale DDGS, and 10% barley silage (D-10S), 3) 65% DRB, 25% triticale DDGS, and 5% barley silage, and 4) 65% DRB, 30% triticale DDGS, and no barley silage. Supplement (5% of dietary DM) was included in all diets. Ruminal pH was measured over four 7-d periods using indwelling electrodes. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS linearly decreased mean ruminal pH (P = 0.006), linearly increased duration (P = 0.006 and P = 0.01) and area under the curve (P = 0.02 and P = 0.05) below pH 5.5 and 5.2, and linearly increased the frequency of subacute (P = 0.005) and acute (P = 0.05) bouts of ruminal acidosis. Variation in mean ruminal pH decreased (P = 0.008) in steers fed D-10S compared with CON. Similarly, variation in DMI was less for steers fed triticale DDGS compared with CON. Steers fed D-10S tended to have greater DMI (P = 0.08) but similar ADG and G:F compared with CON steers. Replacing barley silage with triticale DDGS tended to linearly decrease DMI (P = 0.10) and increase (P = 0.06) G:F. Compared with CON, steers fed D-10S tended to have greater backfat thickness (P = 0.10) and

  18. Effect of inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles from barley, wheat and corn in isonutritive diets on the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Alagón

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate how the dietary inclusion of distillers dried grains and solubles (DDGS could affect the performance and caecal environment of growing rabbits, four experimental diets were formulated from a control diet without DDGS (C, including 20% of barley DDGS (Db20, 20% of wheat DDGS (Dw20 and 20 (Dc20 or 40% (Dc40 of corn DDGS. Animals had free access to medicated versions of the diets until 49 d, and then to unmedicated diets until 59 d of age. The performance trial was done using 475 three-way crossbred weaned rabbits of 28 d of age, individually housed in 5 batches. Caecal fermentation traits were determined in 20 animals per diet and at 42 d and at 59 d of age. No significant effect of the growing diet on mortality, morbidity or sanitary risk index was observed. In the whole period and respect to the control group, animals fed with Db20 showed higher dry matter (DM and digestible energy (DE intake (+6 and +12%, respectively; P<0.05, but similar daily weight gain (DWG and increased feed conversion ratio (+9%; P<0.05. Similarly, and regardless of its inclusion level, the increase in DE intake of animals fed with corn DDGS (+9, respectively; P<0.05 did not increase DWG. In contrast, higher DM and DE intake of animals fed with Dw20 (+8; P<0.05 resulted in a higher DWG (+2.8 g/d; P<0.05 than those fed with C. Although inclusion of DDGS at 20% did not affected main caecal parameters controlled at 42 d, caecum of animals fed with the diet Dc40 was characterized by greater N-NH3 and valeric acid and lower total volatile fatty acids and acetic acid concentrations than the average of the other groups (on av. +5.2±1.7 mmol/L, +0.29±0.07 mol/100 mol, –17.17±4.41 μmol/L and –2.60±0.99 mol/100 mol, respectively; P<0.05. At 59 d of age, higher caecal DM, and propionic and valeric acid concentration and lower values of total volatile fatty acids and acetic/propionic rate were observed for DDGS inclusion at 20% compared to the control (+1

  19. Freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franzen, Lutz; Vidlářová, Lucie; Kostka, Karl-Heinz; Schaefer, Ulrich F; Windbergs, Maike

    2013-01-01

    In vitro testing of drugs with excised human skin is a valuable prerequisite for clinical studies. However, the analysis of excised human skin presents several obstacles. Ongoing drug diffusion, microbial growth and changes in hydration state influence the results of drug penetration studies. In this work, we evaluate freeze-drying as a preserving preparation method for skin samples to overcome these obstacles. We analyse excised human skin before and after freeze-drying and compare these results with human skin in vivo. Based on comprehensive thermal and spectroscopic analysis, we demonstrate comparability to in vivo conditions and exclude significant changes within the skin samples due to freeze-drying. Furthermore, we show that freeze-drying after skin incubation with drugs prevents growth of drug crystals on the skin surface due to drying effects. In conclusion, we introduce freeze-drying as a preserving preparation technique for in vitro testing of human skin.

  20. The effects of medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles on growth performance, carcass traits, and nutrient digestibility in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graham, A B; Goodband, R D; Tokach, M D; Dritz, S S; DeRouchey, J M; Nitikanchana, S

    2014-02-01

    A total of 288 mixed-sex pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 68.9 kg BW) were used in a 67-d study to determine the effects of increasing medium-oil dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS; 7.63% ether extract, 30.1% CP, 19.53% ADF, 36.47% NDF, and 4.53% ash; as-fed basis) on growth performance and carcass traits in finishing pigs. Treatments consisted of a corn-soybean meal control diet or the control diet with 15, 30, or 45% medium-oil DDGS. Diets were fed over 2 phases (69 to 100 and 100 to 126 kg) and were not balanced for energy. Diets were formulated to meet or exceed the AA, vitamin, and mineral requirements and contained constant standardized ileal digestible lysine levels within phase. Increasing medium-oil DDGS decreased (linear, P < 0.02) ADG and G:F. Average daily gain decreased approximately 2.3% for every 15% added medium-oil DDGS whereas G:F decreased approximately 1.3% with every 15% added DDGS. In addition, final BW, HCW, carcass yield, and loin-eye depth decreased (linear, P < 0.03) and jowl iodine value (IV) increased (linear, P < 0.001) with increasing medium-oil DDGS. Nutrient digestibility of the DDGS source was determined using pigs (initially 25.6 kg BW) that were fed either a corn-based basal diet (96.6% corn and 3.4% vitamins and minerals) or a DDGS diet, which was a 50:50 blend of the basal diet and medium-oil DDGS. There were 12 replications for each diet consisting of a 5-d adaptation period followed by 2 d of total fecal collection on a timed basis. Feces were analyzed for GE, DM, CP, crude fiber, NDF, ADF, and ether extract. On an as-fed basis, corn was analyzed to contain 3,871 and 3,515 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively. Medium-oil DDGS was analyzed to contain 4,585 and 3,356 kcal/kg GE and DE, respectively (as-fed basis). Digestibility coefficients of the medium-oil DDGS were 70.3% DM, 82.9% CP, 61.4% ether extract, 77.4% ADF, 67.5% NDF, and 67.2% crude fiber. Caloric efficiency (ADFI × kcal energy intake/kg BW gain) was not

  1. Effects of dietary sulfur and distillers dried grains with solubles on carcass characteristics, loin quality, and tissue concentrations of sulfur, selenium, and copper in growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Kil, D Y; Mahan, D C; Hill, G M; Stein, H H

    2014-10-01

    Inclusion of up to 0.38% S in diets that contain 30% distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) has no negative effect on growth performance of growing-finishing pigs, but there is no information about the effects of dietary S on accumulation of S in tissues in pigs. Therefore, the objective of this experiment was to determine if the concentration of S in diets containing DDGS affects carcass characteristics, loin quality, or tissue mineral concentrations in growing-finishing pigs. A total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg BW) were allotted to 3 dietary treatments with 10 replicate pens and 4 pigs per pen in a randomized complete block design. Pigs were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. At the conclusion of the experiment, the pig in each pen with the BW closest to the pen average was slaughtered. The control diet was based on corn and soybean meal and the finisher diet contained 0.14% S, 0.19 mg/kg Se, and 15.3 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS diet was formulated with corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS and the finisher diet with DDGS contained 0.16% S, 0.32 mg/kg Se, and 14.0 mg/kg Cu. The DDGS plus S (DDGS-S) diet was similar to the DDGS diet, except that 1.10% CaSO4 (16.2% S) was included in this diet, and the finisher diet with DDGS-S contained 0.37% S, 0.35 mg/kg Se, and 13.8 mg/kg Cu. Results indicated that organ weights and loin quality, 24-h pH, drip loss, loin subjective color, marbling, and firmness did not differ among treatments, but loin a* was greater (P pigs fed the control diet than for pigs fed the DDGS-S diet. Concentrations of S in hair, liver, heart, loin, and all other tissues did not differ among treatments, but urinary S concentration was greater (P pigs fed the DDGS-S diet than for pigs fed the other diets. Pigs fed the DDGS diet or the DDGS-S diet had greater (P pigs fed the control diet, but liver concentrations of Cu did not differ among treatments. In conclusion, inclusion of 30% DDGS in diets fed to growing-finishing pigs did not

  2. 间歇萃取精馏技术的进展%The Development of Batch Extractive Distillation Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙伟民

    2012-01-01

    对间歇萃取精馏分离技术和进展进行了评述,主要从萃取精馏溶剂选择,操作方式,新型塔设备的研究,操作优化及过程模拟等几个方面,介绍了国内外关于间歇萃取精馏新兴分离技术的最新研究动态,最后指出了萃取精馏技术目前存在的问题和今后发展的方向。%The latest progress in the study on batch extractive distillation was summarized,and the researches such as its process,selection of solvent,new-style tower equipment,optimization and simulation etc.were introduced.The disadvantages and the development direction of batch extractive distillation in the future were proposed.

  3. Improved microwave steam distillation apparatus for isolation of essential oils. Comparison with conventional steam distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahraoui, Naima; Vian, Maryline Abert; Bornard, Isabelle; Boutekedjiret, Chahrazed; Chemat, Farid

    2008-11-14

    Steam distillation (SD) is routinely used by analysts for the isolation of essential oils from herbs, flowers and spices prior to gas chromatographic analysis. In this work, a new process design and operation for an improved microwave steam distillation (MSD) of essential oils from aromatic natural products was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, MSD was compared with the conventional technique, SD, for the analysis of volatile compounds from dry lavender flowers (Lavandula angustifolia Mill., Lamiaceae). Essential oils isolated by MSD were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by SD, but MSD was better than SD in terms of rapidity (6 min versus 30 min for lavender flowers), thereby allowing substantial savings of costs in terms of time and energy. Lavender flowers treated by MSD and SD were observed by scanning electron microscopy. Micrographs provide evidence of more rapid opening of essential oil glands treated by MSD, in contrast to conventional SD.

  4. Concurrent reduction and distillation: an improved technique for the recovery and chemical refinement of the isotopes of cadmium and zinc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caudill, H.H.; McBride, L.E.; McDaniel, E.W.

    1982-01-01

    The Electromagnetic Isotope Separations Program of the Oak Ridge National Laboratory has been involved in the separation, chemical recovery, and refinement of the stable isotopes of cadmium and zinc since 1946. Traditionally, the chemical refinement procedures for these elements consisted of ion exchange separations using anion exchange resins followed by pH-controlled hydrogen sulfide precipitations. The procedures were quite time-consuming and made it difficult to remove trace quantities of sulfur which interferes in subsequent attempts to prepare rolled metal foils. As demands for /sup 113/Cd and /sup 68/Zn (a precursor for the production of the radiopharmaceutical /sup 67/Ga) increased, it became evident that a quicker, more efficient refinement procedure was needed. Details of an improved method, which employs concurrent hydrogen reduction and distillation in the recovery and refinement of isotopically enriched zinc, are described. Modifications of the procedure suitable for the refinement of cadmium isotopes are also described. 3 figures, 1 table.

  5. Tensile bond strength of hydroxyethyl methacrylate dentin bonding agent on dentin surface at various drying techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kun Ismiyatin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: There are several dentin surface drying techniques to provide a perfect resin penetration on dentin. There are two techniques which will be compared in this study. The first technique was by rubbing dentin surface gently using cotton pellet twice, this technique is called blot dry technique. The second technique is by air blowing dentin surface for one second and continued by rubbing dentin surface gently using moist cotton. Purpose: This experiment was aimed to examine the best dentin surface drying techniques after 37% phosphoric acid etching to obtain the optimum tensile bond strength between hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA and dentin surface. Method: Bovine teeth was prepared flat to obtain the dentin surface and than was etched using 37% phosphoric acid for 15 seconds. After etching the dentin was cleaned using 20 cc plain water and dried with blot dry techniques (group I, or dried with air blow for one second (group II, or dried with air blow for one second, and continued with rubbing gently using moist cotton pellet (group III, and without any drying as control group (group IV. After these drying, the dentin surfaces were applied with resin dentin bonding agent and put into plunger facing the composite mould. The antagonist plunger was filled with composite resin. After 24 hours, therefore bond strength was measured using Autograph. Result: Data obtained was analyzed using One-Way ANOVA with 95% confidence level and continued with LSD test on p≤0.05. The result showed that the highest tensile bond strength was on group I, while the lowest on group IV. Group II and IV, III and IV, II and III did not show signigicant difference (p>0.05. Conclusion: Dentin surface drying techniques through gentle rubbing using cotton pellet twice (blot dry technique gave the greatest tensile bond strength.Latar belakang masalah: Tehnik pengeringan permukaan dentin agar resin dapat penetrasi dengan sempurna adalah dengan cara pengusapan secara

  6. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay;

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the past decades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Various techniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packed bed, dividing-wall columns...... and reactive distillation were studied and reported in literature. All these techniques employ the conventional continuous counter-current contact of vapor and liquid phases. Cyclic distillation technology is based on an alternative operating mode using separate phase movement which leads to key practical...... advantages in both chemical and biochemical processes. This article provides a mini-review of cyclic distillation technology. The topics covered include the working principle, design and control methods, main benefits and limitations as well as current industrial applications. Cyclic distillation can...

  7. Partial root drying irrigation technique: Practical application of drought stress signaling mechanism in plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savić Slađana

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Partial root-zone drying (PRD technique, a novel approach to watering crops, was developed on the basis of knowledge of root-to-shoot signaling in drying soil. The aim of the present paper was to investigate the effects of the PRD treatment on tomato growth and the water regime. The obtained PRD results showed significant reduction in shoot but not fruit growth in the absence of any changes in shoot water status, indicating the involvement of chemical root-to-shoot signals. Higher water use efficiency (WUE results mean that the PRD technique can be used to reduce irrigation water without significant reduction of tomato yield.

  8. Spray freeze drying as an alternative technique for lyophilization of polymeric and lipid-based nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Mohamed Ehab; Lamprecht, Alf

    2017-01-10

    The use of nanoparticles for drug delivery is still restricted by their limited stability when stored in an aqueous medium. Freeze drying is the standard method for long-term storage of colloidal nanoparticles; however the method needs to be elaborated for each formulation. Spray freeze drying (SFD) is proposed here as a promising alternative for lyophilizing colloidal nanoparticles. Different types of polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were prepared and characterized. Afterwards, samples were spray freeze dried by spraying into a column of cold air with a constant concentration of different cryoprotectants, and the frozen spherules were collected for further freeze drying. Similar samples were prepared using the commonly used technique, freeze drying, as controls. Using SFD, fast-dissolving, spherical and porous nanocomposite microparticles with remarkably high flowability (CI≤10) were produced. On the contrary to similar samples prepared using the freeze drying technique, the investigated polymeric and lipid nanoparticles were completely reconstituted (Sf/Si ratio nanoparticles. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Drying techniques of probiotic bacteria as an important step towards the development of novel pharmabiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broeckx, Géraldine; Vandenheuvel, Dieter; Claes, Ingmar J J; Lebeer, Sarah; Kiekens, Filip

    2016-05-30

    The increasing knowledge about the human microbiome leads to the awareness of how important probiotics can be for our health. Although further substantiation is required, it appears that several pathologies could be treated or prevented by the administration of pharmaceutical formulations containing such live health-beneficial bacteria. These pharmabiotics need to provide their effects until the end of shelf life, which can be optimally achieved by drying them before further formulation. However, drying processes, including spray-, freeze-, vacuum- and fluidized bed drying, induce stress on probiotics, thus decreasing their viability. Several protection strategies can be envisaged to enhance their viability, including addition of protective agents, controlling the process parameters and prestressing the probiotics prior to drying. Moreover, probiotic viability needs to be maintained during long-term storage. Overall, lower storage temperature and low moisture content result in good survival rates. Attention should also be given to the rehydration conditions of the dried probiotics, as this can exert an important effect on their revival. By describing not only the characteristics, but also the viability results obtained by the most relevant drying techniques in the probiotic industry, we hope to facilitate the deliberate choice of drying process and protection strategy for specific probiotic and pharmabiotic applications.

  10. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ofori, H.; Dziedzoave, N. T.; Kortei, N. K.

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎ = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L⁎ = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p < 0.05) higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently. PMID:27034924

  11. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. T. Akonor

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L⁎=47.4 than the air-oven-dried (L⁎=49.0. Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p<0.05 higher in oven-dried meat (2.1%, compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%. Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  12. Drying Characteristics and Physical and Nutritional Properties of Shrimp Meat as Affected by Different Traditional Drying Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akonor, P T; Ofori, H; Dziedzoave, N T; Kortei, N K

    2016-01-01

    The influence of different drying methods on physical and nutritional properties of shrimp meat was investigated in this study. Peeled shrimps were dried separately using an air-oven dryer and a tunnel solar dryer. The drying profile of shrimp meat was determined in the two drying systems by monitoring moisture loss over the drying period. Changes in color, proximate composition, and rehydration capacity were assessed. The rate of moisture removal during solar drying was faster than the air-oven drying. The development of red color during drying was comparable among the two methods, but solar-dried shrimps appeared darker (L (⁎) = 47.4) than the air-oven-dried (L (⁎) = 49.0). Chemical analysis indicated that protein and fat made up nearly 20% and 2% (wb) of the shrimp meat, respectively. Protein and ash content of shrimp meat dried under the two dryer types were comparable but fat was significantly (p dried meat (2.1%), compared to solar-dried meat (1.5%). Although rehydration behavior of shrimp from the two drying systems followed a similar pattern, solar-dried shrimp absorbed moisture more rapidly. The results have demonstrated that different approaches to drying may affect the physical and nutritional quality of shrimp meat differently.

  13. 蒸馏塔/填料塔故障现象的模拟和诊断%Troubleshooting Distillation Column by Gamma Ray Scanning Technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鲍晓军; 魏伟胜; 刘艳升; 石冈; 沈复

    2002-01-01

    A digitally controlled three-dimensional gamma-scanning apparatus was developed and used to troubleshoot distillation column in the present investigation. In a 140 mm (ID) model column, various malfunctional phenomena, both rate and process related conditions and structural problems, which may be frequently encountered in the operation of tray and packing columns, were experimentally simulated and tested with the developed scanning system. The experimental results showed that the scanning spectra can fairly reflect the simulated phenomena.The salient feature of the scanning apparatus lies in that it integrates the so called grid scan and computer-assisted tomography scan in a single system. It was confirmed that the gamma-scanning technique can serve as an important on-line troubleshooting and maintenance tool.

  14. Gelatin microparticles containing propolis obtained by spray-drying technique: preparation and characterization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruschi, M L; Cardoso, M L C; Lucchesi, M B; Gremião, M P D

    2003-10-02

    Gelatin microparticles containing propolis extractive solution (PES) were prepared by spray-drying technique. The optimization of the spray-drying operating conditions and the proportions of gelatin and mannitol were investigated. Regular particle morphology was obtained when mannitol was used, whereas mannitol absence produced a substantial number of coalesced and agglomerated microparticles. Microparticles had a mean diameter of 2.70 microm without mannitol and 2.50 microm with mannitol. The entrapment efficiency for propolis of the microparticles was upto 41% without mannitol and 39% with mannitol. The microencapsulation by spray-drying technique maintained the activity of propolis against Staphylococcus aureus. These gelatin microparticles containing propolis would be useful for developing intermediary or eventual propolis dosage form without the PES' strong and unpleasant taste, aromatic odour, and presence of ethanol.

  15. The effects of coarse ground corn, whole sorghum, and a prebiotic on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and cecal microbial populations in broilers fed diets with and without corn distillers dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobs, China; Parsons, Carl M

    2013-09-01

    Two experiments were conducted from 0 to 21 d of age and evaluated diets containing combinations of fine or coarse ground corn (557 or 1,387 μm, respectively), whole sorghum, 15% corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), or a prebiotic-type product containing yeast cell wall, lactose, citric acid, and other fermentable carbohydrates. In experiment 1, feed efficiency was decreased (P whole sorghum, whereas broilers receiving diets with 15% DDGS had increased feed efficiency (P whole sorghum diets had increased (P whole sorghum in combination with DDGS can be fed to broilers with no long-term adverse effects on growth performance and nutrient digestibility and that these ingredients can have beneficial effects on AMEn, gizzard size, and cecal microflora in some instances.

  16. Effect of Spray Drying Technique on Processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata Farl: Murrill Blanching Liquid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchen Chen

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Blanching liquid from processing of Stropharia rugoso-annulata fruits were traditionally discarded as bio-waste although it contains certain amount of soluble nutrients. The discarding may result not only in environment pollution but also in loss of valuable mushroom nutrients. In this study, spray drying technique was applied to process the liquid; and the processing factors were optimized with Response Surface Methodology. The results showed that the factors on Inlet Air Temperature, Atomization Pressure and Total Soluble Solid Content were for 172C, 920 bar and 15%, respectively, with the best spray drying efficiency for 60.26%. The products were estimated for the proper storage conditions based on the free radical scavenging activity for •OH. The results indicated that the storage temperature, lights and packaging are important for the products in maintaining their scavenging activity and the proper conditions to preserve the spray drying powder lasted for 60 days were at 0C, no lights and with packaged. It is suggested that spray drying technique may play effectively for processing of any mushroom blanching liquid and the darkness and dryness are crucial for the drying powder preservation.

  17. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  18. Recycling of Waste Acetone by Fractional Distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weires, Nicholas A.; Johnston, Aubrey; Warner, Don L.; McCormick, Michael M.; Hammond, Karen; McDougal, Owen M.

    2011-01-01

    Distillation is a ubiquitous technique in the undergraduate organic chemistry curriculum; the technique dates back to ca. 3500 B.C.E. With the emergence of green chemistry in the 1990s, the importance of emphasizing responsible waste management practices for future scientists is paramount. Combining the practice of distillation with the message…

  19. Simultaneous Preservation of Soil Structural Properties and Phospholipid Profiles: A Comparison of Three Drying Techniques

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    L.J.DEACON; D.V.GRINEV; J.W.CRAWFORD; J.HARRIS; K.RITZ; I.M.YOUNG

    2008-01-01

    There is a need to simultaneously preserve evidence of interactions between the biological community and soil structural properties of a soil in as near an intact (natural) state as possible.Three dehydration techniques were implemented and assessed for their ability to minimise disruption of both biological and physical properties of the same arable soil sample.Dehydration techniques applied until samples were at constant weight were i) air-drying at 20℃ (AD); ii)-80℃ freeze for 24 h,followed by freeze-drying (-80FD); and iii) liquid nitrogen snap freeze,followed by freeze-drying(LNFD) and were compared to a moist control.Physical structure was determined and quantified in three dimensions using X-ray computed tomography and microbial phenotypic community composition was assessed using phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA) profiling.This study confirms that any form of dehydration,when preparing soil for simultaneous biological and physical analysis,will alter the soil physical properties,and cause some change in apparent community structure.Freeze-drying (both the LNFD and -80FD treatments) was found to minimise disruption (when compared to the moist control soil) to both the soil physical properties and the community structure and is a preferable technique to air-drying which markedly alters the size and character of the pore network,as well as the phenotypic profile.The LNFD was the preferred treatment over the -80FD treatment as samples show low variability between replicates and a fast turn-around time between samples.Therefore snap freezing in liquid nitrogen,followed by freeze drying is the most appropriate form of dehydration when two sets of data,both physical and biological,need to be preserved simultaneously from a soil core.

  20. Comparison of three-dimensional printing and vacuum freeze-dried techniques for fabricating composite scaffolds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Kai [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Ruixin [Institute of Medical Equipment, Academy of Military and Medical Sciences, No. 106, Wandong Street, Hedong District, Tianjin 300000 (China); Jiang, Wenxue, E-mail: jiangortholivea@sina.cn [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Sun, Yufu [Tianjin First Center Hospital, No. 24 Fukang Road, Tianjin, TJ 300192 (China); Li, Hui [Tianjin Medical University General Hospital, No. 154 Anshan Road, Tianjin, TJ 300052 (China)

    2016-09-02

    In this study, the performances of different preparation methods of the scaffolds were analyzed for chondrocyte tissue engineering. Silk fibroin/collagen (SF/C) was fabricated using a vacuum freeze-dried technique and by 3D printing. The porosity, water absorption expansion rates, mechanical properties, and pore sizes of the resulting materials were evaluated. The proliferation and metabolism of the cells was detected at different time points using an MTT assay. Cell morphologies and distributions were observed by histological analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The porosity, water absorption expansion rate, and Young’s modulus of the material obtained via 3D printing were significantly higher than those obtained by the freeze-dried method, while the pore size did not differ significantly between the two methods. MTT assay results showed that the metabolism of cells seeded on the 3D printed scaffolds was more viable than the metabolism on the freeze-dried material. H&E staining of the scaffolds revealed that the number of cells in the 3D printed scaffold was higher in comparison to a similar measurement on the freeze-dried material. Consequently, stem cells grew well inside the 3D printed scaffolds, as measured by SEM, while the internal structure of the freeze-dried scaffold was disordered. Compared with the freeze-dried technique, the 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance and was more suitable for cartilage tissue engineering. - Highlights: • Silk fibroin/collagen was fabricated using 3D printing. • Physical characterization and Cell compatibility were compared. • 3D printed scaffold exhibited better overall performance.

  1. Reduction in energy consumption and operating cost in a dried corn warehouse using logistics techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Korrakot Y. Tippayawong

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Corn is one of the major economic crops in Thailand. Corn postharvest operation involves various practices that consume a large amount of energy. Different energy conservation measures have been implemented but logistics consideration is not normally employed. In this work, attempt has been made to demonstrate that logistics techniques can offer a significant reduction in energy and cost. The main objective of this work is to identify and demonstrate possible approaches to improving energy efficiency and reducing operating cost for a dried corn warehouse operator. Three main problems are identified: (i relatively high fuel consumption for internal transfer process, (ii low quality of dried corn, and (iii excess expenditure on outbound transportation. Solutions are proposed and implemented using logistics operations. Improvement is achieved using plant layout and shortest path techniques, resulting in a reduction of almost 50% in energy consumption for the internal transfer process. Installation of an air distributor in the grain storage unit results in a decrease in loss due to poor-quality dried corn from 17% to 10%. Excess expenditure on dried corn distribution is reduced by 6% with application of a global positioning system.

  2. Study of Photosensitive Dry Films Absorption for Printed Circuit Boards by Photoacoustic Technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernández, R.; Zaragoza, J. A. Barrientos; Jiménez-Pérez, J. L.; Orea, A. Cruz; Correa-Pacheco, Z. N.

    2017-08-01

    In this work, the study of photosensitive dry-type films by photoacoustic technique is proposed. The dry film photoresist is resistant to chemical etching for printed circuit boards such as ferric chloride, sodium persulfate or ammonium, hydrochloric acid. It is capable of faithfully reproducing circuit pattern exposed to ultraviolet light (UV) through a negative. Once recorded, the uncured portion is removed with alkaline solution. It is possible to obtain good results in surface mount circuits with tracks of 5 mm. Furthermore, the solid resin films are formed by three layers, two protective layers and a UV-sensitive optical absorption layer in the range of 325 nm to 405 nm. By means of optical absorption of UV-visible rays emitted by a low-power Xe lamp, the films transform this energy into thermal waves generated by the absorption of optical radiation and subsequently no-radiative de-excitation occurs. The photoacoustic spectroscopy is a useful technique to measure the transmittance and absorption directly. In this study, the optical absorption spectra of the three layers of photosensitive dry-type films were obtained as a function of the wavelength, in order to have a knowledge of the absorber layer and the protective layers. These analyses will give us the physical properties of the photosensitive film, which are very important in curing the dry film for applications in printed circuit boards.

  3. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique

    OpenAIRE

    Gohel, Mukesh; Patel, Madhabhai; Amin, Avani; Agrawal, Ruchi; Dave, Rikita; Bariya, Nehal

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influe...

  4. Utilization of spray drying technique for improvement of dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of Meloxicam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shazly, Gamal; Badran, Mohamed; Zoheir, Khairy; Alomrani, Abdullah

    2015-01-01

    Meloxicam (MLX) is a poorly water-soluble non steroidal anti-inflammatory drug (NSAID). The main objective of the present work was to enhance the dissolution of MLX and thus its bioavailability by the aid of additives. The novelty of this work rises from the utilization of spray drying technology to produce micro particulates solid dispersion systems containing MLX in the presence of small amount of additives. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and Scan Electron Microscope (SEM) were used for studying the physico-chemical and morphological properties of MLX samples. The dissolution of MLX samples was investigated in two different pH media. The morphology of MLX solid dispersion micro-particles was spherical in shape according to SEM. FT-IR profiles indicated that a complex was formed between MLX and the additives. DSC patterns of the MLX micro-particles suggested a reduction in the crystallinity of MLX and probability of presence of an interaction between MLX and the additives. The rate of dissolution of the spray-dried MLX enhanced as compared with the unprocessed MLX in both acidic and neutral media. It was found that 100% of the added MLX released within 5 min in phosphate buffer dissolution medium (pH 7.4) compared to that of the unprocessed MLX (15% in 60 min). Such increase rate in the dissolution of the spray dried MLX could be attributed to the increase in wettability of MLX particles and the hydrophilic nature of the additives. The anti-inflammatory effect of the spray dried MLX was explored using formalin induced rat paw edema model. The spray-dried samples showed an increase in the anti-inflammatory activity of MLX as compared to the unprocessed MLX. This work reveals that the spray drying technique is suitable for preparation of micro-particles with improved dissolution and anti-inflammatory effect of MLX.

  5. Evaluation of different drying techniques on the nutritional and biofunctional properties of a traditional fermented sheep milk product.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alu'datt, Muhammad H; Rababah, Taha; Alhamad, Mohammad N; Obaidat, Mohammad M; Gammoh, Sana; Ereifej, Khalil; Al-Ismail, Khaild; Althnaibat, Rami M; Kubow, Stan

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of solar and freeze drying techniques on the physicochemical, nutritional and biofunctional properties of salted or unsalted Jameed from fermented sheep milk product. The highest yield of Jameed was obtained via the salted-solar drying process. As measured by colorimetry, salted freeze-dried Jameed showed improved consumer characteristics in terms of increased lightness and decreased red and yellow color components. When unsalted Jameed was prepared by solar or freeze drying, additional major peptide bands were detected by SDS-PAGE treatments as compared to the solar or freeze drying of the salted Jameed. Use of salt in the preparation of solar dried Jameed also led to the highest ACE inhibitory activities whereas antioxidant activity was lowest in unsalted solar dried Jameed. The study findings indicate that both greater yield and better overall nutritional and biofunctional properties were associated with solar dried salted Jameed.

  6. Short communication: Forage particle size and fat intake affect rumen passage, the fatty acid profile of milk, and milk fat production in dairy cows consuming dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2016-01-01

    Four ruminally cannulated Holstein cows averaging (± SD) 116 ± 18 d in milk and 686 ± 52 kg of body weight were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments to test the effects of forage particle size and concentration of corn oil on milk fat depression. Cows were housed in individual stalls, milked daily at 0700 and 1800 h, and individually fed daily at 0900 h for ad libitum consumption allowing approximately 10% orts. Four 28-d periods, in which each cow was offered 1 of 4 total mixed rations, included reduced-fat dried distillers grains with solubles at 30% of dietary dry matter and differed in forage particle size by inclusion of chopped grass hay (LONGP) or grass hay pellets (SHORTP) and 0 or 2% corn oil (CO). Dietary treatments were 0% corn oil + short particle size (CO0+SHORTP), 0% corn oil + long particle size (CO0+LONGP), 2% corn oil + short particle size (CO2 + SHORTP), and 2% corn oil + long particle size (CO2 + LONGP). Dry matter intake and milk yield were not affected by treatment averaging 26.5 ± 1.19 kg/d and 32.8 ± 3.34 kg/d, respectively. A decrease was found in 3.5% fat-corrected milk with the inclusion of oil resulting in 34.6 and 26.6 ± 2.6 kg/d for 0 and 2% oil diets, respectively. An oil × size interaction was found for milk fat concentration resulting in 2.27, 3.02, 3.62, and 3.62 ± 0.23% for CO2+SHORTP, CO2 + LONGP, CO0 + SHORTP, and CO0 + LONGP, respectively. Fat yield was reduced from 1.22 to 0.81 ± 0.09 kg/d with 2% oil diets. Cows consuming diets with long particle size spent 29 more minutes eating compared with the cows consuming short particle size (198 and 169 ± 15 min/d). Rumination time decreased from 504 to 400 ± 35 min/d for cows consuming short particle size compared with long particle size. Total chewing was reduced from 702 to 570 ± 4 min/d when cows consumed short particle size. Feeding long particle size decreased rate of passage of dry matter from 3.38 to 2.89 ± 0.42%/h

  7. Material accountancy measurement techniques in dry-powdered processing of nuclear spent fuels.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wolf, S. F.

    1999-03-24

    The paper addresses the development of inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry (ICPMS), thermal ionization-mass spectrometry (TIMS), alpha-spectrometry, and gamma spectrometry techniques for in-line analysis of highly irradiated (18 to 64 GWD/T) PWR spent fuels in a dry-powdered processing cycle. The dry-powdered technique for direct elemental and isotopic accountancy assay measurements was implemented without the need for separation of the plutonium, uranium and fission product elements in the bulk powdered process. The analyses allow the determination of fuel burn-up based on the isotopic composition of neodymium and/or cesium. An objective of the program is to develop the ICPMS method for direct fissile nuclear materials accountancy in the dry-powdered processing of spent fuel. The ICPMS measurement system may be applied to the KAERI DUPIC (direct use of spent PWR fuel in CANDU reactors) experiment, and in a near-real-time mode for international safeguards verification and non-proliferation policy concerns.

  8. Catalytic distillation structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1984-04-17

    Catalytic distillation structure is described for use in reaction distillation columns, and provides reaction sites and distillation structure consisting of a catalyst component and a resilient component intimately associated therewith. The resilient component has at least about 70 volume % open space and is present with the catalyst component in an amount such that the catalytic distillation structure consists of at least 10 volume % open space. 10 figs.

  9. Effect of different drying techniques on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and volatile profile of robusta coffee beans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Wenjiang; Hu, Rongsuo; Chu, Zhong; Zhao, Jianping; Tan, Lehe

    2017-11-01

    This study investigated the effect of different drying techniques, namely, room-temperature drying (RTD), solar drying (SD), heat-pump drying (HPD), hot-air drying (HAD), and freeze drying (FD), on bioactive components, fatty acid composition, and the volatile compound profile of robusta coffee beans. The data showed that FD was an effective method to preserve fat, organic acids, and monounsaturated fatty acids. In contrast, HAD was ideal for retaining polyunsaturated fatty acids and amino acids. Sixty-two volatile compounds were identified in the differently dried coffee beans, representing 90% of the volatile compounds. HPD of the coffee beans produced the largest number of volatiles, whereas FD resulted in the highest volatile content. A principal component analysis demonstrated a close relationship between the HPD, SD, and RTD methods whereas the FD and HAD methods were significantly different. Overall, the results provide a basis for potential application to other similar thermal sensitive materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  11. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Fei; Guo, Shiyan; Gan, Yong; Zhang, Xinxin

    2014-01-01

    In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD) technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF). Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.

  12. Effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, H S; Kim, J W; Kim, J H; Lee, D G; Lee, S; Kil, D Y

    2016-10-01

    This experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding duration of diets containing corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on productive performance, egg quality, and lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolk in laying hens. A total of 300 57-week-old Hy-Line Brown laying hens were randomly assigned to one of 5 treatment groups (feeding duration) with 6 replicates consisting of 5 consecutive cages with 2 hens per cage. Diets were formulated to contain either 0% (the control diet) or 20% DDGS. Experimental diets were fed to hens for 12 wk. The feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS was 0, 3, 6, 9, or 12 wk before the conclusion of the experiment. Feeding the diet containing 20% DDGS for 3, 6, or 9 wk followed feeding the control diet for 9, 6, or 3 wk, respectively. The data for productive performance were summarized for 12 wk of the feeding trial. Results indicated that increasing feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS had no effects on productive performance of laying hens, but increased egg yolk color (linear, P hens has no adverse effects on productive performance. Increasing the feeding duration of diets containing 20% DDGS improves egg yolk coloration with a concomitant increase in lutein and zeaxanthin concentrations of egg yolks in laying hens.

  13. Comparative feeding value of distillers dried grains plus solubles as a partial replacement for steam-flaked corn in diets for calf-fed Holstein steers: characteristics of digestion, growth performance, and dietary energetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrasco, R; Arrizon, A A; Plascencia, A; Torrentera, N G; Zinn, R A

    2013-04-01

    Two experiments were conducted to examine the effect of level of dried distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) supplementation (0, 10, 20, and 30%; DM basis), replacing steam-flaked (SF) corn in finishing diets, on characteristics of digestion (Exp. 1) and growth performance (Exp. 2) in calf-fed Holstein steers. In Exp.1, 4 cannulated Holstein steers (349 ± 12 kg) were used to evaluate treatment effects on characteristics of digestion. Ruminal NDF digestion tended to increase (quadratic effect, P = 0.09) and ruminal OM digestion decreased (linear effect, P = 0.01) with DDGS substitution. There were no treatment effects on duodenal flow of microbial N (MN). Substitution with DDGS increased (linear effect, P feeding period), treatment effects on ADG and G:F were small (P ≥ 0.22). Compared with the other treatments, HCW was greater (3.4; P = 0.03) at the 20% level of DDGS substitution. The NE value for DDGS in SF corn-based diets for the calf-fed Holstein are consistent with current tabular standards. Extra-caloric value of DDGS as a metabolizable AA source is apparent during the initial growing phase. The UIP value of DDGS used in this study (35%) was considerably less than current tabular estimates (52%; NRC, 2000).

  14. Effect of heat damage in an autoclave on the reactive lysine contents of soy products and corn distillers dried grains with solubles. Use of the results to check on lysine damage in common qualities of these ingredients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontaine, Johannes; Zimmer, Ulrike; Moughan, Paul J; Rutherfurd, Shane M

    2007-12-26

    The suitability of the homoarginine reaction for determining the reactive lysine in soy products and corn distillers dried grain with solubles (DDGS) was tested. For this purpose, some batches were subjected to deliberate heat damage for up to 30 min in an autoclave with 135 degrees C hot steam, and the samples were analyzed for total lysine and reactive lysine. In addition, 84 samples of common soy and 80 samples of corn DDGS were tested for their content of total and reactive lysine, and the contents were compared with those of the autoclave tests. For soy products conclusive results were obtained. In the case of heat treatment, both total lysine and reactive lysine decrease, but the latter is clearly a more sensitive indicator of lysine damage. Most normal products are quite similar, with toasting-induced damage to reactive lysine of ca. 15% compared to untoasted beans. The cause of the constantly occurring residual lysine after guanidination and the poorer reaction balance in the case of damage were explained. For common DDGS samples, however, less favorable results were obtained. Reactive and total lysine decreased almost in parallel due to heat damage, showing a great gap between them. Results showed indeed that variation of total and reactive lysine in DDGS is high, proving that its production conditions are not yet optimal for a feed ingredient.

  15. Hydrophobicity control by a supercritical drying technique in a sol–gel process with hybrid materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ren, Hongbo; Qiao, Zemin; Liu, Xiao; Cui, Xudong, E-mail: xudcui@gmail.com

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Sol–gel route is combined with polymerization without using modifier. • Supercritical drying control is the key to obtain super-hydrophobic surfaces. • The whole fabrication is technologically controllable and with low costs. • The production rate is higher than 90%. • The method provides a cost-effective way for industry applications. - Abstract: We successfully synthesized one type of cheap super-hydrophobic hybrid porous materials in a sol–gel process. In this route, hydrophilic polymers and TEOS-base sol are used as precursors, the ultraviolet ray-initiated polymerization and supercritical fluid drying techniques are combined together to fulfill this task. All fabricated samples exhibit lotus-leaf-like surface structures with super-hydrophobicity. The underlying mechanisms are carefully investigated using a field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). We found that a well-controlled drying process is crucial to the formation of such super-hydrophobic surfaces. As high as 90% production rate is obtained in our route and thus, it might provide a cost-effective way to produce super-hydrophobic hybrid materials for industry applications.

  16. Color measurement of tea leaves at different drying periods using hyperspectral imaging technique.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuanqi Xie

    Full Text Available This study investigated the feasibility of using hyperspectral imaging technique for nondestructive measurement of color components (ΔL*, Δa* and Δb* and classify tea leaves during different drying periods. Hyperspectral images of tea leaves at five drying periods were acquired in the spectral region of 380-1030 nm. The three color features were measured by the colorimeter. Different preprocessing algorithms were applied to select the best one in accordance with the prediction results of partial least squares regression (PLSR models. Competitive adaptive reweighted sampling (CARS and successive projections algorithm (SPA were used to identify the effective wavelengths, respectively. Different models (least squares-support vector machine [LS-SVM], PLSR, principal components regression [PCR] and multiple linear regression [MLR] were established to predict the three color components, respectively. SPA-LS-SVM model performed excellently with the correlation coefficient (rp of 0.929 for ΔL*, 0.849 for Δa*and 0.917 for Δb*, respectively. LS-SVM model was built for the classification of different tea leaves. The correct classification rates (CCRs ranged from 89.29% to 100% in the calibration set and from 71.43% to 100% in the prediction set, respectively. The total classification results were 96.43% in the calibration set and 85.71% in the prediction set. The result showed that hyperspectral imaging technique could be used as an objective and nondestructive method to determine color features and classify tea leaves at different drying periods.

  17. Solar power water distillation unit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, Kamran; Muzammil Khan, Muhammad; Shahrukh Ateeq, Ijlal; Omair, Syed Muhammad; Ahmer, Muhammad; Wajid, Abdul

    2013-06-01

    Clean drinking water is the basic necessity for every human being, but about 1.1 billion people in the world lacked proper drinking water. There are many different types of water purification processes such as filtration, reverse osmosis, ultraviolet radiation, carbon absorption, but the most reliable processes are distillation and boiling. Water purification, such as distillation, is especially important in regions where water resources or tap water is not suitable for ingesting without boiling or chemical treatment. In design project It treats the water by combining different methods such as Filtration, Distillation and a technique called concentrated solar power (CSP). Distillation is literally the method seen in nature, whereby: the sun heats the water on the earth's surface, the water is turned into a vapor (evaporation) and rises, leaving contaminants behind, to form clouds. As the upper atmosphere drops in temperature the vapors cool and convert back to water to form water. In this project distillation is achieved by using a parabolic mirror which boils water at high temperature. Filtration is done by sand filter and carbon filter. First sand filter catches the sand particles and the carbon filter which has granules of active carbon is used to remove odor dissolved gases from water. This is the Pre-treatment of water. The filtered water is then collected in a water container at a focus of parabolic mirror where distillation process is done. Another important feature of designed project is the solar tracking of a parabolic mirror which increases the efficiency of a parabolic mirror [1],[2].

  18. Experimental improvements in sample preparation for the track registration technique from dry and solution media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suarez-Navarro, M.J. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)]. E-mail: he04@caminos.upm.es; Pujol, Ll. [Centro de Estudios y Experimentacion de Obras Publicas (CEDEX), Alfonso XII, 3, 28014 Madrid (Spain); Gonzalez-Gonzalez, J.A. [Universidad Politecnica de Madrid (UPM), E.T.S.I de Caminos, Canales y Puertos, Profesor Aranguren s/n, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2006-04-15

    This paper describes the sample preparation studies carried out to determine gross alpha activities in waste materials by means of alpha-particle track counting using CR-39 detector. Sample preparation for the track registration technique using evaporation or electroplating methods (also known as conventional 'dry methods') has a number of drawbacks. The distribution of tracks in different areas of the detector surface is non-uniform, so accurate quantitative determinations depend on tedious and time-consuming counting of tracks under an optical microscope. In this paper, we propose the use of tensioactives in sample preparation to achieve uniform track distribution over the entire detector surface, which enables track density to be evaluated by scanning a small representative area. Under our counting conditions, uniform distribution was achieved with 0.2 ml of Teg from a planchetted source. Furthermore, track registration techniques using solution media (also known as the 'wet methods') and conventional 'dry methods' were analysed and compared with the proposed method. The reproducibility of the procedure described in the study was tested by analysing gross alpha activity in two low-level nuclear waste samples at two different laboratories.

  19. Preparation of redispersible liposomal dry powder using an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying technique for transdermal delivery of human epithelial growth factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yin F

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Fei Yin,1 Shiyan Guo,2 Yong Gan,2 Xinxin Zhang21Department of Pharmacy, Liaoning Cancer Hospital and Institute, Shenyang, 2Shanghai Institute of Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of Science, Shanghai, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: In this work, an ultrasonic spray freeze-drying (USFD technique was used to prepare a stable liposomal dry powder for transdermal delivery of recombinant human epithelial growth factor (rhEGF. Morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, in vitro release, and skin permeability were systematically compared between rhEGF liposomal dry powder prepared using USFD and that prepared using a conventional lyophilization process. Porous and spherical particles with high specific area were produced under USFD conditions. USFD effectively avoided formation of ice crystals, disruption of the bilayer structure, and drug leakage during the liposome drying process, and maintained the stability of the rhEGF liposomal formulation during storage. The reconstituted rhEGF liposomes prepared from USFD powder did not show significant changes in morphology, particle size, entrapment efficiency, or in vitro release characteristics compared with those of rhEGF liposomes before drying. Moreover, the rhEGF liposomal powder prepared with USFD exhibited excellent enhanced penetration in ex vivo mouse skin compared with that for powder prepared via conventional lyophilization. The results suggest that ultrasonic USFD is a promising technique for the production of stable protein-loaded liposomal dry powder for application to the skin.Keywords: spray freeze-drying, recombinant human epithelial growth factor, liposomes, skin permeability, transdermal drug delivery

  20. Effects of replacing wild rye, corn silage, or corn grain with CaO-treated corn stover and dried distillers grains with solubles in lactating cow diets on performance, digestibility, and profitability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, H T; Li, S L; Cao, Z J; Wang, Y J; Alugongo, G M; Doane, P H

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this study was to measure the effects of partially replacing wild rye (Leymus chinensis; WR), corn silage (CS), or corn grain (CG) in dairy cow diets with CaO-treated corn stover (T-CS) and corn dried distillers grains with soluble (DDGS) on performance, digestibility, blood metabolites, and income over feed cost. Thirty tonnes of air-dried corn stover was collected, ground, and mixed with 5% CaO. Sixty-four Holstein dairy cows were blocked based on days in milk, milk yield, and parity and were randomly assigned to 1 of 4 treatments. The treatments were (1) a diet containing 50% concentrate, 15% WR, 25% CS, and 10% alfalfa hay (CON); (2) 15% WR, 5% CG, and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 15% T-CS and 12% DDGS (RWR); (3) 12.5% CS, 6% CG, and 5% soybean meal were replaced by 12.5% T-CS and 12%DDGS (RCS); (4) 13% CG and 6% soybean meal were replaced by 7% T-CS and 13% DDGS (RCG). Compared with CON treatment, cows fed RCS and RCG diets had similar dry matter intake (CON: 18.2 ± 0.31 kg, RCS: 18.6 ± 0.31 kg, and RCG: 18.4 ± 0.40 kg). The RWR treatment tended to have lower dry matter intake than other treatments. The inclusion of T-CS and DDGS in treatment diets as a substitute for WR, CS, or CG had no effects on lactose percentage (CON: 4.96 ± 0.02%, RWR: 4.97 ± 0.02%, RCS: 4.96 ± 0.02%, and RCG: 4.94 ± 0.02%), 4% fat-corrected milk yield (CON: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, RWR: 22.1 ± 0.60 kg, RCS: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg, and RCG: 22.7 ± 0.60 kg), milk fat yield (CON: 0.90 ± 0.03 kg, RWR: 0.86 ± 0.03 kg, RCS: 0.87 ± 0.03 kg, and RCG: 0.89 ± 0.03 kg), and milk protein yield (CON: 0.74 ± 0.02 kg, RWR: 0.72 ± 0.02 kg, RCS: 0.73 ± 0.02 kg, and RCG: 0.71 ± 0.02 kg). Cows fed the RWR diet had higher apparent dry matter digestibility (73.7 ± 1.30 vs. 70.2 ± 1.15, 69.9 ± 1.15, and 69.9 ± 1.15% for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG, respectively) and lower serum urea N (3.55 ± 0.11 vs. 4.03 ± 0.11, 3.95 ± 0.11, and 3.99 ± 0.11 mmol/L for RWR vs. CON, RCS, and RCG

  1. Regenerative adsorption distillation system

    KAUST Repository

    Ng, Kim Choon

    2013-12-26

    There is provided a regenerative adsorption distillation system comprising a train of distillation effects in fluid communication with each other. The train of distillation effects comprises at least one intermediate effect between the first and last distillation effects of the train, each effect comprising a vessel and a condensing tube for flow of a fluid therein. The system further comprises a pair of adsorption-desorption beds in vapour communication with the last effect and at least one intermediate effect, wherein the beds contain an adsorbent that adsorbs vapour from the last effect and transmits desorbed vapour into at least one of the intermediate effect.

  2. Effects of feeding wheat or corn-wheat dried distillers grains with solubles in low- or high-crude protein diets on ruminal function, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and performance in cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chibisa, G E; Mutsvangwa, T

    2013-10-01

    A study was conducted to determine the effects of including either wheat-based (W-DDGS) or corn-wheat blend (B-DDGS) dried distillers grains with solubles as the major protein source in low- or high-crude protein (CP) diets fed to dairy cows on ruminal function, microbial protein synthesis, omasal nutrient flows, urea-N recycling, and milk production. Eight lactating Holstein cows (768.5 ± 57.7 kg of body weight; 109.5 ± 40.0 d in milk) were used in a replicated 4 × 4 Latin square design with 28-d periods (18d of dietary adaptation and 10d of measurements) and a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of dietary treatments. Four cows in one Latin square were ruminally cannulated for the measurement of ruminal fermentation characteristics, microbial protein synthesis, urea-N recycling kinetics, and omasal nutrient flow. The treatment factors were type of distillers co-product (W-DDGS vs. B-DDGS) and dietary CP content [15.2 vs. 17.3%; dry matter (DM) basis]. The B-DDGS was produced from a mixture of 15% wheat and 85% corn grain. All diets were formulated to contain 10% W-DDGS or B-DDGS on a DM basis. No diet effect was observed on DM intake. Yields of milk, fat, protein, and lactose, and plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations were lower in cows fed the low-CP compared with those fed the high-CP diet. Although feeding B-DDGS tended to reduce ruminal ammonia-N (NH3-N) concentration compared with feeding W-DDGS (9.3 vs. 10.5mg/dL), no differences were observed in plasma urea-N and milk urea-N concentrations. Additionally, dietary inclusion of B-DDGS compared with W-DDGS did not affect rumen-degradable protein supply, omasal flows of total N, microbial nonammonia N (NAN), rumen-undegradable protein, and total NAN, or urea-N recycling kinetics and milk production. However, cows fed the low-CP diet had lower N intake, rumen-degradable protein supply, ruminal NH3-N concentration, and omasal flows of N, microbial NAN, and total NAN compared with those fed the high-CP diet

  3. The interaction of fiber, supplied by distillers dried grains with solubles, with an antimicrobial and a nutrient partitioning agent on nitrogen balance, water utilization, and energy digestibility in finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pilcher, C M; Arentson, R; Patience, J F

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was to determine if a higher-fiber diet alters the response of finishing pigs to an antimicrobial (tylosin phosphate [TP]) and a nutrient partitioning agent (ractopamine HCl [RAC]) in terms of N and water utilization and energy digestibility. Seventy-two gilts (initial BW = 107.4 ± 4.2 kg) were blocked by weight and allotted to 1 of 8 dietary treatments. Treatments were arranged as a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial: distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS; 0 vs. 30%), RAC (0 mg of RAC/kg and 0.70% standardized ileal digestible [SID] Lys vs. 5 mg of RAC/kg and 0.95% SID Lys) and TP (0 vs. 44 mg of TP/kg). Pig was the experimental unit, with 9 replications per treatment. Pigs were housed in individual metabolism crates and fed treatment diets for 17 d. Feed was provided twice daily, as much as the pigs could consume within 1 h per meal, and water was provided to the pigs between feeding periods, ad libitum. Fecal and urine collection occurred on d 7 and 8 and on d 15 and 16, for sampling periods 1 and 2, respectively. Pigs fed the DDGS diets had reduced ADG ( interaction ( 0.10). Pigs fed DDGS diets had higher N intake ( < 0.01) and higher fecal ( < 0.0001) and urinary ( < 0.01) N excretion with no difference in N retention (g/d). Overall, RAC increased N retention by 33% ( < 0.0001) and the response to RAC was similar in both corn-soybean meal-based and corn-soybean meal-DDGS-based diets. Tylosin phosphate tended to improve growth performance in pigs fed corn-soybean meal-based diets but not in diets containing 30% DDGS; however, this response was not explained by changes in N balance or in energy digestibility.

  4. Investigation of the impact of increased dietary insoluble fiber through the feeding of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the incidence and severity of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilberts, Bailey L; Arruda, Paulo H; Kinyon, Joann M; Frana, Tim S; Wang, Chong; Magstadt, Drew R; Madson, Darin M; Patience, John F; Burrough, Eric R

    2014-01-01

    Diet has been implicated as a major factor impacting clinical disease expression of swine dysentery and Brachyspira hyodysenteriae colonization. However, the impact of diet on novel pathogenic strongly beta-hemolytic Brachyspira spp. including "B. hampsonii" has yet to be investigated. In recent years, distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a source of insoluble dietary fiber, has been increasingly included in diets of swine. A randomized complete block experiment was used to examine the effect of increased dietary fiber through the feeding of DDGS on the incidence of Brachyspira-associated colitis in pigs. One hundred 4-week-old pigs were divided into five groups based upon inocula (negative control, Brachyspira intermedia, Brachyspira pilosicoli, B. hyodysenteriae or "B. hampsonii") and fed one of two diets containing no (diet 1) or 30% (diet 2) DDGS. The average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery in the B. hyodysenteriae groups was significantly shorter for diet 2 when compared to diet 1 (P = 0.04 and P = 0.0009, respectively). A similar difference in the average days to first positive culture and days post inoculation to the onset of clinical dysentery was found when comparing the "B. hampsonii" groups. In this study, pigs receiving 30% DDGS shed on average one day prior to and developed swine dysentery nearly twice as fast as pigs receiving 0% DDGS. Accordingly, these data suggest a reduction in insoluble fiber through reducing or eliminating DDGS in swine rations should be considered an integral part of any effective disease elimination strategy for swine dysentery.

  5. Influence of feeding increasing levels of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles in whole corn grain-based finishing diets on total tract digestion, nutrient balance, and excretion in beef steers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salim, H; Wood, K M; Abo-Ismail, M K; McEwen, P L; Mandell, I B; Miller, S P; Cant, J P; Swanson, K C

    2012-12-01

    Four crossbred steers (average BW = 478 ± 33 kg) were used in a 4 × 4 Latin square design to determine the effects of dietary concentration of dry corn distillers grains plus solubles (DDGS) in whole corn-based finishing diets on total tract digestion and nutrient balance and excretion. The DDGS were fed at 0% (control), 16.7%, 33.3%, and 50% of dietary DM. All diets contained 10% (DM basis) alfalfa/grass haylage and were formulated to meet or exceed the estimated requirements for CP. Steers were fed the experimental diets ad libitum for a 14-d adaptation period followed by a 5-d period for fecal and urine collection. Increasing concentration of DDGS in diets from 0 to 50% of DM linearly decreased (P 0.38) among treatments. Retention (g/d; intake minus urinary and fecal excretion) of N did not differ (P > 0.16) among treatments. Retention of P tended (P = 0.07) to linearly increase and retention of S (g/d) linearly increased (P = 0.004), with increasing DDGS concentration. There were no effects (P > 0.16) of dietary treatment on digestion and retention of Se, Mg, K, and Na. Plasma P and S concentrations increased (P = 0.03 and 0.01, respectively) with increasing DDGS concentration. These data indicate that feeding DDGS up to 50% of dietary DM in whole corn grain-based finishing diets does not have a negative effect on nutrient retention but decreases digestibility. Total excretion of N, P, Ca, Mg, S, and K increased as DDGS concentration increased.

  6. INVESTIGATION OF DAMPENED SYSTEM AND DRY OFFSET PRINTING TECHNIQUES AND COMPARISON OF REPRODUCTION RESULTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinan ULU

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Printing ; is the process of reproduction rapid transfering of the images, inscriptions, figures and graphics on to a surface in the original format. The dampened system offset printing is the smooth printing system. Smooth printing is based on the principal of repelling of the water by the oil inside the ink and not to be mixed with. The printed and unprinted surfaces on the plate has a chemical characteristic. The process of printing occurs in the way that. The unprinted areas captures water and repell ink, the printed areas captures ink and repell water.The dry offset system is; the combination of the flexo and dampened system offset methods. In the method the relief part of the plate transfers the image to the smooth surfaced rubber printing cylinder and the image is transferred to the material by the cylinder. Water is not needed for humidification. So the plate is not wetted before printing. The pictures or positive dias are not printed by dry ofset method but, the hand dravings, very detailed desings and quite small texts could be printed to the range of six colors. In this study, an evaluation of the comparison of the process stages and reproduction results of the two techniques is conducted.

  7. 膜蒸馏-结晶技术及在海水制盐中的应用%Membrane Distillation- Crystallization Technique and Its Application in Sea Salt Industry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹冬梅; 张雨山; 高春娟; 骆碧君; 武海虹

    2012-01-01

    Membrane distillation - crystallization technique is a new separation and purification technology that develpos rapidly in recent years. The research and application progress of membrane distillation crystallization in trastewater treatment, solvent recovery and salt water separation are reviewed in this paper. Facing with the problems such as the relative scarcity of land resources of Chinas coastal areas, the status of water shortages and the urgent requirement for environment protection of offshore area, it is feasible to utilize the brine and the concentrated seawatei from sea-water desalination process by membrane distillation crystallization technique.%膜蒸馏-结晶技术是近几年来发展迅速的一种新兴分离净化技术.文章综述了该技术在废水处理、溶质回收及盐水分离等方面的应用研究进展.根据我国沿海地区土地资源紧张、水资源短缺的现状和近岸海域环境保护的迫切需求,探讨了利用膜蒸馏-结晶技术对苦卤和海水淡化副产浓海水浓缩利用的可行性.

  8. Depositing nanoparticles on a silicon substrate using a freeze drying technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sigehuzi, Tomoo

    2017-08-01

    For the microscopic observation of nanoparticles, an adequate sample preparation is an essential part of this task. Much research has been performed for usable preparation methods that will yield aggregate-free samples. A freeze drying technique, which only requires a -80 °C freezer and a freeze dryer, is shown to provide an on-substrate dispersion of mostly isolated nanoparticles. The particle density could be made sufficiently high for efficient observations using atomic force microscopy. Since this sandwich method is purely physical, it could be applied to deposit various nanoparticles independent of their surface chemical properties. Suspension film thickness, or the dimensionality of the suspension film, was shown to be crucial for the isolation of the particles. Silica nanoparticles were dispersed on a silicon substrate using this method and the sample properties were examined using atomic force microscopy.

  9. Wean-to-finish feeder space availability effects on nursery and finishing pig performance and total tract digestibility in a commercial setting when feeding dried distillers grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, E K; Stalder, K J; Patience, J F

    2015-04-01

    The study objectives were to determine nursery phase feeder space allowance effects on pig performance when double stocked and, second, to determine feeder space allowance and dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) inclusion level effects on pig performance and nutrient digestibility during the growing-finishing phase. This study was performed on the same group of pigs within a commercial wean-finish system. For the nursery phase, a completely randomized design was used to compare 3 feeder space allowance treatments (2.1, 2.5, and 2.9 cm/pig). A total of 3,720 pigs were randomly allotted to same-sex pens (10 feeders/treatment) housing 62 pigs/pen. Thirty 7-hole, double-sided feeders were utilized in the study. Differing linear feeder space treatments were established by blocking off sections for the nursery and grow-finish portions of this experiment. All pigs were provided equal floor space (0.26 m2/pig). In the grow-finish phase, a total of 1,860 pigs (n = 60 pens) were utilized in a 2 × 3 factorial design with 3 feeder space allowances (4.1, 4.9, or 5.7 cm/pig) and 2 dietary DDGS treatments (30% [D30] or 60% [D60]). Fecal and diet samples were collected and analyzed to estimate apparent total tract digestibility percentage (ATTD %). In the nursery portion of the trial, there was no feeder space treatment effect on ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.10) from weaning to d 56 postweaning or during any weigh period. In the grow-finish portion of the trial, feeder space allowance and DDGS inclusion level did not affect ADG, ADFI, or feed efficiency (P > 0.05) from d 57 postweaning to market. Pigs fed the D30 diet had greater HCW, percent yield, and loin depth than those on the D60 diet (P finish production phases. Inclusion of DDGS at higher levels will decrease ADFI but not ADG or efficiency when isocaloric diets are fed. The inclusion level of DDGS does impact HCW and percent yield because of increasing intestinal weights when pigs are fed diets containing

  10. Dried urine spots - A novel sampling technique for comprehensive LC-MS(n) drug screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michely, Julian A; Meyer, Markus R; Maurer, Hans H

    2017-08-22

    Dried matrix spot (DMS) technique as alternative sampling strategy, especially dried urine spots (DUS), might be an alternative for drug screening. So far only particular drugs or drug classes were covered in DMS screenings. Therefore, workup of DUS for a broad comprehensive library-based LC-MS(n) screening was developed. It consisted of enzymatic on-spot deconjugation followed by liquid extraction and LC-MS(n) analysis. This workup was compared to established urine precipitation (UP) and validated according to international guidelines for qualitative approaches, using exemplary compounds of several drug classes (antidepressants, benzodiazepines, cardiovascular drugs, neuroleptics, opioids, stimulants, etc.) with a broad range of (physico-)chemical properties and chromatographic behaviors. On-spot conjugate cleavage and liquid extraction was sufficient for most compounds and the validation results comparable to those obtained after simple UP. For demonstrating the applicability, 103 authentic urine samples, six rat urine samples after low dose substance administrations, and two proficiency tests for systematic toxicological urinalysis were worked up with the new DUS approach or by UP without or with conjugate cleavage. In the authentic urine samples, 112 different drugs out of 43 categories plus metabolites were identified via the used LC-MS(n) library. With the new DUS approach, 5% less positive hits could be found compared to the UP approach and 15% less than the latter after conjugate cleavage. The differences should be caused mainly by smaller urine volumes used for DUS. In the two proficiency tests, all 15 drugs could be detected. Unfortunately, all three approaches were not able to detect very low-dosed substances in rat urine samples. However, they could be detected using a more sensitive LC-high resolution-MS/MS approach showing that the DUS workup was also suitable for those. In conclusion, DUS might be an alternative sampling technique for comprehensive

  11. Low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique for delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asfahani, J; Borsaru, M

    2007-06-01

    A low-activity spectrometric gamma-ray logging technique is proposed in this paper as a sensitive tool for the delineation of coal/rock interfaces in dry blast holes. The advantages and superiority of this technique over traditional micro-density non-spectrometric gamma-ray tools are demonstrated.

  12. Extractive Distillation with Salt in Solvent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1999-01-01

    Extractive distillation with salt in solvent is a new process for producing anhydrous ethanol by combining the principle of "salt effect" and some traditional extractive distillation methods. Compared with the common extractive distillation the performance of solvent is improved, the recycling amount of solvent is reduced to 1/4-1/5, and the number of theoretical plates is reduced to 1/3. Energy consumption and cost of equipment are also reduced and continuous production is realized. High efficiency and low solvent wastage make this technique feasible.

  13. Distilling solid carbonaceous materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J.W.H.

    1928-11-19

    Carbonaceous materials such as coal or oil shale are distilled by being passed in a continuous stream through a retort heated externally and at temperatures increasing from the inlet to the outlet end, the distillates being taken off through openings in the retort wall.

  14. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Jr., Lawrence A.

    1982-01-01

    A method for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C.sub.4 feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  15. Catalytic distillation process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, L.A. Jr.

    1982-06-22

    A method is described for conducting chemical reactions and fractionation of the reaction mixture comprising feeding reactants to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone and concurrently contacting the reactants with a fixed bed catalytic packing to concurrently carry out the reaction and fractionate the reaction mixture. For example, a method for preparing methyl tertiary butyl ether in high purity from a mixed feed stream of isobutene and normal butene comprising feeding the mixed feed stream to a distillation column reactor into a feed zone at the lower end of a distillation reaction zone, and methanol into the upper end of said distillation reaction zone, which is packed with a properly supported cationic ion exchange resin, contacting the C[sub 4] feed and methanol with the catalytic distillation packing to react methanol and isobutene, and concurrently fractionating the ether from the column below the catalytic zone and removing normal butene overhead above the catalytic zone.

  16. Nonlinear control of high purity distillation columns

    OpenAIRE

    Groebel, Markus; Allgöwer, Frank; Storz, Markus; Gilles, Ernst Dieter

    1994-01-01

    Two simple models of distillation columns are studied to investigate their suitability for the practical use with exact I/O-linearization. An extension of exact I/O-linearization, the asymptotically exact I/O-linearization is applied to the control of a high purity distillation column, using one of these models to derive the static state feedback law. Simulation studies demonstrate the advantage of asymptotically exact I/O-linearization versus classical exact I/O-linearization techniques. Exp...

  17. Dry etching techniques for active devices based on hexagonal boron nitride epilayers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grenadier, Samuel; Li, Jing; Lin, Jingyu; Jiang, Hongxing [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas 79409 (United States)

    2013-11-15

    Hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) has emerged as a fundamentally and technologically important material system owing to its unique physical properties including layered structure, wide energy bandgap, large optical absorption, and neutron capture cross section. As for any materials under development, it is necessary to establish device processing techniques to realize active devices based on hBN. The authors report on the advancements in dry etching techniques for active devices based on hBN epilayers via inductively coupled plasma (ICP). The effect of ICP radio frequency (RF) power on the etch rate and vertical side wall profile was studied. The etching depth and angle with respect to the surface were measured using atomic force microscopy showing that an etching rate ∼1.25 μm/min and etching angles >80° were obtained. Profilometer data and scanning electron microscope images confirmed these results. This work demonstrates that SF{sub 6} is very suitable for etching hBN epilayers in RF plasma environments and can serve as a guide for future hBN device processing.

  18. Preparation and characterization of hydroxyapatite-coated iron oxide particles by spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    karina Donadel

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Magnetic particles of iron oxide have been increasingly used in medical diagnosis by magnetic resonance imaging and in cancer therapies involving targeted drug delivery and magnetic hyperthermia. In this study we report the preparation and characterization of iron oxide particles coated with bioceramic hydroxyapatite by spray-drying. The iron oxide magnetic particles (IOMP were coated with hydroxyapatite (HAp by spray-drying using two IOMP/HAp ratios (0.7 and 3.2. The magnetic particles were characterized by way of scanning electronic microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray, X-ray diffraction, Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy, flame atomic absorption spectrometry,vibrating sample magnetometry and particle size distribution (laser diffraction. The surface morphology of the coated samples is different from that of the iron oxide due to formation of hydroxyapatite coating. From an EDX analysis, it was verified that the surface of the coated magnetic particles is composed only of HAp, while the interior containsiron oxide and a few layers of HAp as expected. The results showed that spray-drying technique is an efficient and relatively inexpensive method for forming spherical particles with a core/shell structure.As partículas de óxido de ferro têm sido extensivamente usadas em diagnósticos médicos como agente de contraste para imagem por ressonância magnética e na terapia do câncer, dentre estas, liberação de fármacos em sitos alvos e hipertermia magnética. Neste estudo nós reportamos a preparação e caracterização de partículas magnéticas de óxido de ferro revestidas com a biocerâmica hidroxiapatita. As partículas magnéticasde óxido de ferro (PMOF foram revestidas com hidroxiapatita por spray-drying usando duas razões PMOF/HAp (0,7 e 3,2. As partículas magnéticas foram caracterizadas por microscopia eletrônica de varredura, energia dispersiva de raios X, difração de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção no infra

  19. Ultrasonic atomization for spray drying: a versatile technique for the preparation of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, B; Kissel, T

    1999-01-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BDA) loaded microspheres with a spherical shape and smooth surface structure were successfully prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) using an ultrasonic nozzle installed in a Niro laboratory spray dryer. Process and formulation parameters were investigated with respect to their influence on microsphere characteristics, such as particle size, loading capacity, and release properties. Preparation of microspheres in yields of more than 50% was achieved using an ultrasonic atomizer connected to a stream of carrier air. Microsphere characteristics could be modified by changing several technological parameters. An increased polymer concentration of the feed generated larger particles with a significantly reduced initial release of the protein. Moreover, microspheres with a smooth surface structure were obtained from the organic polymer solution with the highest viscosity. Microparticles with a low BSA loading showed a large central cavity surrounded by a thin polymer layer in scanning electron microspheres. A high protein loading led to an enlargement of the shell layer, or even to dense particles without any cavities. A continuous in vitro release pattern of BSA was obtained from the particles with low protein loading. Glass transition temperatures (Tg) of the microspheres before and after lyophilization did not differ from those of the BSA loaded particles prepared by spray drying with a rotary atomizer. Analysis of the polymer by gel permeation chromatography indicated that ultrasonication had no effect on polymer molecular weight. Molecular weight and polydispersity of the pure polymer, placebo microspheres prepared by spray drying, and placebo microspheres prepared using the ultrasonic nozzle were in the same range. In conclusion, ultrasonic atomization represents a versatile and reliable technique for the production of protein loaded biodegradable microspheres without inducing a degradation of the polymer matrix. Particle characteristics

  20. Effect of urea inclusion in diets containing corn dried distillers grains on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine index.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceconi, I; Ruiz-Moreno, M J; DiLorenzo, N; DiCostanzo, A; Crawford, G I

    2015-01-01

    Increased availability of rapidly fermentable carbohydrates and a great proportion of corn-derived CP in the diet may result in a degradable intake protein (DIP) deficit. Therefore, ruminal DIP deficit may result from high dietary inclusion of processed corn grain and small to moderate inclusion of corn distillers grains (DG). Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of increasing dietary DIP concentration through the inclusion of urea on feedlot cattle performance, carcass characteristics, ruminal fermentation, total tract digestibility, and purine derivatives-to-creatinine (PDC) index. In Exp. 1, 42 steers (428 ± 5 kg initial BW) were assigned randomly to 1 of 3 diets containing (DM basis) 0 (control [CON]), 0.4 (low urea [LU]), or 0.6% urea (high urea [HU]) to provide 6.4, 7.5, or 8.0% dietary DIP, respectively, and 12% high-moisture corn (HMC), 20% corn dried DG with solubles (DDGS), 10% ryegrass haylage, 2.9% dry supplement, and dry-rolled corn (DRC). Steers were fed ad libitum once daily using a Calan gate system. Carcass-adjusted final BW and DMI were similar among treatments (P ≥ 0.58). Carcass-adjusted ADG was greater (P ≤ 0.04) for the HU diet compared with the LU and CON diets and was similar (P = 0.73) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass-adjusted G:F was greater (P = 0.03) for the HU diet compared with the LU diet, tended (P = 0.09) to be greater compared with the CON diet, and was similar (P = 0.61) between the LU and CON diets. Carcass characteristics were similar (P ≥ 0.34) among treatments. In Exp. 2, 4 ruminally cannulated steers (347 ± 18 kg initial BW) were randomly assigned to a replicated 2 × 2 Latin square design. Steers were fed the same CON or HU diet used in Exp. 1 ad libitum once daily. Differences in the PDC index were used as indicators of differences in microbial CP synthesis. Ruminal pH, OM intake, and starch and CP digestibility were not affected by treatment (P ≥ 0.13). Digestibility of OM and NDF and

  1. Advanced Distillation Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maddalena Fanelli; Ravi Arora; Annalee Tonkovich; Jennifer Marco; Ed Rode

    2010-03-24

    The Advanced Distillation project was concluded on December 31, 2009. This U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) funded project was completed successfully and within budget during a timeline approved by DOE project managers, which included a one year extension to the initial ending date. The subject technology, Microchannel Process Technology (MPT) distillation, was expected to provide both capital and operating cost savings compared to conventional distillation technology. With efforts from Velocys and its project partners, MPT distillation was successfully demonstrated at a laboratory scale and its energy savings potential was calculated. While many objectives established at the beginning of the project were met, the project was only partially successful. At the conclusion, it appears that MPT distillation is not a good fit for the targeted separation of ethane and ethylene in large-scale ethylene production facilities, as greater advantages were seen for smaller scale distillations. Early in the project, work involved flowsheet analyses to discern the economic viability of ethane-ethylene MPT distillation and develop strategies for maximizing its impact on the economics of the process. This study confirmed that through modification to standard operating processes, MPT can enable net energy savings in excess of 20%. This advantage was used by ABB Lumus to determine the potential impact of MPT distillation on the ethane-ethylene market. The study indicated that a substantial market exists if the energy saving could be realized and if installed capital cost of MPT distillation was on par or less than conventional technology. Unfortunately, it was determined that the large number of MPT distillation units needed to perform ethane-ethylene separation for world-scale ethylene facilities, makes the targeted separation a poor fit for the technology in this application at the current state of manufacturing costs. Over the course of the project, distillation experiments were

  2. The Study on Technique of Making Freeze - dried Specimen of Mongolia Horse%The Study on Technique of Making Freeze-dried Specimen of Mongolia Horse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨虹; 芒来

    2008-01-01

    冻干标本是在冷态条件下制作的,其方法为:迅速且完全地冷冻所选材料,待其干燥后进行加工.此方法比较简单且能真实的反应组织的位置、形状及它们的关系.以蒙古马为实验材料介绍了冻干标本工艺,以及如何保存维护冻干标本的方法.%The freeze - dried specimen is a kind of specimen made under cold conditions. The method is as follows: freeze the separated materials quickly and completely, then process the specimen after it has been dried. This kind of method is simple and can truly reflect the location and the shape of organs and also reflect their reciprocity. This study takes Mongolian home as the experimental animal to introduce the process. And then introduces the methods about how to preserve and protect freeze - dried specimen

  3. Effect of yeast-derived products and distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, gut morphology, and gene expression of pattern recognition receptors and cytokines in broiler chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alizadeh, M; Rodriguez-Lecompte, J C; Rogiewicz, A; Patterson, R; Slominski, B A

    2016-03-01

    An experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of yeast-derived products and distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance, small intestinal morphology, and innate immune response in broiler chickens from 1 to 21 d of age. Nine replicates of 5 birds each were assigned to dietary treatments consisting of a control diet without antibiotic (C), and diets containing 11 mg/kg of virginiamycin, 0.25% of yeast cell wall (YCW), 0.2% of a commercial product Maxi-Gen Plus, 0.025% of nucleotides, 0.05% of nucleotides, or a diet containing 10% of DDGS. On d 21, 5 birds per treatment were euthanized and approximately 5-cm long duodenum, jejunum, and ileum segments were collected for intestinal morphology measurements. Cecal tonsils and spleen were collected to measure the gene expression of toll-like receptors TLR2b, TLR4, and TLR21, macrophage mannose receptor (MMR), and cytokines IFN-γ, IL-12, IL-10, and IL-4. No significant difference was observed for growth performance parameters. However, diets containing 0.05% of nucleotides and YCW significantly increased (P yeast-derived products. The expression of TLR2b in the spleen was down-regulated for diets supplemented with nucleotides and antibiotic. In addition, lower expression of TLR21 and MMR was observed in the spleen of birds receiving yeast-derived products and antibiotic. However, expression of TLR4 in the spleen was up-regulated in diets supplemented with YCW and nucleotides. The expression of IFN-γ and IL-12 was down-regulated in the spleen of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products. In addition, inclusion of YCW, Maxi-Gen Plus, or 0.05% of nucleotides down-regulated the expression of IL-10 and IL-4 in the cecal tonsils. In conclusion, down-regulation of receptors and cytokines in spleen and cecal tonsils of birds fed diets supplemented with yeast-derived products may suggest that yeast products do not exert immune stimulating effect under normal health conditions.

  4. Effects of abrupt introduction and removal of high and low digestibility corn distillers dried grains with solubles from the diet on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilbrands, A M; Johnston, L J; McClelland, K M; Cox, R B; Baidoo, S K; Souza, L W O; Shurson, G C

    2013-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding continuously a diet containing 40% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) or intermittently diets containing 20 or 40% DDGS on growth performance and carcass quality of pigs. Responses of the pigs to abrupt introduction and removal of dietary DDGS with differing concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) AA were also evaluated. In Exp. 1, crossbred pigs (n=216; initial BW=51.3±3.1 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 4 treatments, which included a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 20% DDGS diet (D20), a switch between D20 and CON (D20-CON), and a switch between a 40% DDGS diet and CON (D40-CON) with 6 pens per treatment. Pigs abruptly introduced and removed from a 20% DDGS diet (D20-CON) exhibited no differences in growth performance or carcass quality compared with CON pigs. However, intermittently feeding a 40% DDGS diet (D40-CON) resulted in lighter HCW (Ppigs (n=324; initial BW=33.2±3.0 kg) were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 treatments, including a corn-soybean meal control (CON), a 40% low SID AA DDGS diet (LD), a 40% high SID AA DDGS diet (HD), LD and CON diets alternated (LD-CON), HD and CON diets alternated (HD-CON), or HD and LD diets alternated (HD-LD) with 6 pens per treatment. Final BW and ADG were less (Ppigs compared with CON pigs, but HD pigs tended to have reduced (Ppigs compared with CON pigs (Pdietary treatment. Backfat of DDGS-fed pigs was more unsaturated than CON pigs, but AA digestibility of DDGS did not affect this response. Digestibility of AA in DDGS can influence pig performance and carcass quality when fed at high concentrations (40% or more). The use of a high SID AA DDGS source may diminish some of the negative responses observed for growth performance and carcass characteristics when feeding high concentrations of DDGS if accurate values of SID AA are used in diet formulation. Periodic inclusion and removal of 40% DDGS from diets did not adversely affect

  5. Effects of feeding diets containing distillers' dried grains with solubles and wheat middlings with equal predicted dietary net energy on growth performance and carcass composition of growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, F; Johnston, L J; Urriola, P E; Hilbrands, A M; Shurson, G C

    2016-01-01

    This experiment evaluated the effects of feeding distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and wheat middlings (WM) in diets with similar estimated NE content on growth performance and carcass characteristics of growing-finishing pigs. Pigs ( = 384; 29.1 ± 3.6 kg initial BW) were blocked by initial BW, and within blocks, pens were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 dietary treatments (8 pigs/pen and 12 replicates/treatment) in a 4-phase feeding program (29 to 50, 50 to 75, 75 to 100, and 100 to 120 kg BW). Dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial design and formulated to consist of: 1) corn and soybean meal (CON), 2) CON with 30% DDGS, 3) CON with 15% WM, and 4) CON with 30% DDGS and 15% WM. Diets met or exceeded nutrient requirements published by the and were formulated to contain the same concentrations of standardized ileal digestible (SID) Lys and meet or exceed minimum SID AA to Lys ratios within phases. No significant interactions for DDGS × WM × phase or DDGS × WM were observed for all growth performance criteria. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS in phase 1 but not in other phases. The G:F of pigs fed diets containing DDGS was not different during phase 1 to 3 but was greater ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had similar ADFI and G:F but reduced ( pigs fed diets without WM in phase 1, but no difference in ADG was observed in phases 2 to 4. No DDGS × WM interaction was observed for carcass traits. Pigs fed diets containing 30% DDGS had reduced ( pigs fed diets with no DDGS. Pigs fed diets containing 15% WM had lower carcass yield (72.7 vs. 73.1%; pigs fed diets with no addition of WM, but other carcass traits were not affected. In conclusion, overall ADG and G:F were not affected by feeding 30% DDGS or 15% WM when diets were formulated on the NE basis, but more accurate and dynamic estimation of NE content for DDGS sources is needed to optimize caloric efficiency at

  6. Effects of distillers dried grains with solubles on amino acid, energy, and fiber digestibility and on hindgut fermentation of dietary fiber in a corn-soybean meal diet fed to growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urriola, P E; Stein, H H

    2010-04-01

    The objective of this experiment was to measure the effect of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on the digestibility of AA, energy, and fiber, on the fermentation of fiber, and on the first appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and in the feces of growing pigs fed a corn-soybean meal-based diet. Sixteen pigs (initial BW = 38.0 +/- 1.6 kg) were prepared with a T-cannula in the distal ileum and a T-cannula in the cecum and allotted to 2 treatments. In period 1, all pigs were fed a corn-soybean meal diet. In periods 2, 3, and 4, pigs were fed the control diet or a diet containing corn, soybean meal, and 30% DDGS. First appearance of digesta at the end of the ileum, in the cecum, and over the entire intestinal tract was measured at the end of period 4. The apparent ileal digestibility (AID) and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients were measured, and the concentration of VFA was analyzed in ileal, cecal, and fecal samples. The AID of Lys (74.1%) in the DDGS diet was less (P dietary fiber (TDF) were not different between the 2 diets. The ATTD of GE (81.0%), NDF (57.2%), TDF (55.5%), and DM (81.7%) were less (P pigs fed the 2 diets. The pH of ileal and cecal digesta from pigs fed the DDGS diet (6.3 and 5.5) was greater (P pigs fed the control diet (5.8 and 5.3). The ATTD of DM, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF did not change with collection period, but the AID of ADF, NDF, and TDF increased (P pigs fed the diet containing DDGS had less digestibility of Lys, GE, ADF, NDF, and TDF than pigs fed the control diet. The digestibility of DM and GE was not influenced by collection period, but the concentration of VFA in cecal digesta and feces increased with the length of time pigs received the diets.

  7. Effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Bingdong; Nie, Shaoping; Meng, Qingwei; Qu, Zhe; Shan, Anshan; Chen, Zhihui

    2016-08-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of l-carnitine and/or maize distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in diets of gestating and lactating sows on the intestinal barrier functions of their offspring. The experiment was designed as a 2×2 factorial with two dietary treatments (soyabean meal v. DDGS) and two l-carnitine levels (0 v. 100 mg/kg in gestating diets and 0 v. 200 mg/kg in lactating diets). Sows (Landrace×Large White) with an average parity of 4·2 with similar body weight were randomly assigned to four groups of thirty each. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the total superoxide dismutase activity but decreased the concentration of malondialdehyde of the jejunal mucosa in newborn piglets and weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine decreased the concentrations of IL-1β, IL-12 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets and decreased the concentrations of IL-6 and TNF-α in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. There was an interaction between dietary treatment and l-carnitine on the bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Bacterial numbers of total eubacteria in weaning piglets on day 21 were significantly increased by l-carnitine only in soyabean meal diet, but there was no significant effect of l-carnitine in DDGS-based diet. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine increased the bacterial numbers of Lactobacillus spp. and bifidobacteria spp. in the digesta of caecum in weaning piglets on day 21. Dietary supplementation with l-carnitine in sows affected the expression of tight junction proteins (claudin 1, zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and occludin) in the jejunal mucosa of their offspring by increasing the expression of ZO-1 mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of newborn piglets, and by increasing the expression of ZO-1 and occludin mRNA in the jejunal mucosa of weaning piglets on day 21. In conclusion, dietary

  8. Optimization of polyphenols extraction from dried chokeberry using maceration as traditional technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćujić, Nada; Šavikin, Katarina; Janković, Teodora; Pljevljakušić, Dejan; Zdunić, Gordana; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-03-01

    Traditional maceration method was used for the extraction of polyphenols from chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa) dried fruit, and the effects of several extraction parameters on the total phenolics and anthocyanins contents were studied. Various solvents, particle size, solid-solvent ratio and extraction time have been investigated as independent variables in two level factorial design. Among examined variables, time was not statistically important factor for the extraction of polyphenols. The optimal extraction conditions were maceration of 0.75mm size berries by 50% ethanol, with solid-solvent ratio of 1:20, and predicted values were 27.7mgGAE/g for total phenolics and 0.27% for total anthocyanins. Under selected conditions, the experimental total phenolics were 27.8mgGAE/g, and total anthocyanins were 0.27%, which is in agreement with the predicted values. In addition, a complementary quantitative analysis of individual phenolic compounds was performed using HPLC method. The study indicated that maceration was effective and simple technique for the extraction of bioactive compounds from chokeberry fruit.

  9. Formulation design and optimization of mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide using vacuum drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohel, Mukesh; Patel, Madhabhai; Amin, Avani; Agrawal, Ruchi; Dave, Rikita; Bariya, Nehal

    2004-04-26

    The purpose of this research was to develop mouth dissolve tablets of nimesulide. Granules containing nimesulide, camphor, crospovidone, and lactose were prepared by wet granulation technique. Camphor was sublimed from the dried granules by exposure to vacuum. The porous granules were then compressed. Alternatively, tablets were first prepared and later exposed to vacuum. The tablets were evaluated for percentage friability, wetting time, and disintegration time. In the investigation, a 32 full factorial design was used to investigate the joint influence of 2 formulation variables: amount of camphor and crospovidone. The results of multiple linear regression analysis revealed that for obtaining a rapidly disintegrating dosage form, tablets should be prepared using an optimum concentration of camphor and a higher percentage of crospovidone. A contour plot is also presented to graphically represent the effect of the independent variables on the disintegration time and percentage friability. A checkpoint batch was also prepared to prove the validity of the evolved mathematical model. Sublimation of camphor from tablets resulted in superior tablets as compared with the tablets prepared from granules that were exposed to vacuum. The systematic formulation approach helped in understanding the effect of formulation processing variables.

  10. Synthesis, microstructure and mechanical properties of ceria stabilized tetragonal zirconia prepared by spray drying technique

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S C Sharma; N M Gokhale; Rajiv Dayal; Ramji Lal

    2002-02-01

    Ceria stabilized zirconia powders with ceria concentration varying from 6 to 16 mol% were synthesized using spray drying technique. Powders were characterized for their particle size distribution and specific surface area. The dense sintered ceramics fabricated using these powders were characterized for their microstructure, crystallite size and phase composition. The flexural strength, fracture toughness and microhardness of sintered ceramics were measured. High fracture toughness and flexural strength were obtained for sintered bodies with 12 mol% of CeO2. Flexural strength and fracture toughness were dependent on CeO2 concentration, crystallite size and phase composition of sintered bodies. Correlation of data has indicated that the transformable tetragonal phase is the key factor in controlling the fracture toughness and strength of ceramics. It has been demonstrated that the synthesis method is effective to prepare nanocrystalline tetragonal ceria stabilized zirconia powders with improved mechanical properties. Ce–ZrO2 with 20 wt% alumina was also prepared with flexural strength, 1200 MPa and fracture toughness, 9.2 MPa √m.

  11. Effect of drying techniques on the retention of antioxidant activities of Saskatoon berries

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranabendu Mitra

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The main objective of this research was to compare the retention of antioxidant activity and total anthocyanin content of Saskatoon berries dried by freeze drying, microwave-vacuum drying, thin layer hot air drying and vacuum drying. Antioxidant activity of berry samples was determined by DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging, and the pH differential method was used to determine total anthocyanin content of the berry samples. The results showed that the freeze dried Saskatoon berries exhibited the highest retention of anthocyanin and antioxidant activity among the dried samples, followed by microwave-vacuum dried berries, thin layer hot air dried berries and vacuum dried berries. There were significant differences between the berry samples at P<0.05.  DPPH radical scavenging and ABTS radical scavenging were correlated linearly with an R2 value of 0.99 at P<0.05 showing their effectiveness for the determination of the antioxidant activity of the Saskatoon berries. However, the DPPH radical scavenging assay was more effective than the ABTS radical scavenging assay. The results also showed that antioxidant activity of the berries was highly correlated with the total anthocyanin content of the fruit. The reduction of anthocyanin in dried berry samples was linearly correlated with the reduction of DPPH radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.97 at P<0.05 and, also, linearly correlated with the reduction of ABTS radical scavenging with an R2 value of 0.88 at P<0.05.

  12. Solvent-free microwave extraction of essential oil from aromatic herbs: comparison with conventional hydro-distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucchesi, Marie E; Chemat, Farid; Smadja, Jacqueline

    2004-07-23

    Solvent-free microwave extraction (SFME) is a combination of microwave heating and dry distillation, performed at atmospheric pressure without added any solvent or water. Isolation and concentration of volatile compounds are performed by a single stage. SFME has been compared with a conventional technique, hydro-distillation (HD), for the extraction of essential oil from three aromatic herbs: basil (Ocimum basilicum L.), garden mint (Mentha crispa L.), and thyme (Thymus vulgaris L.). The essential oils extracted by SFME for 30min were quantitatively (yield) and qualitatively (aromatic profile) similar to those obtained by conventional hydro-distillation for 4.5 h. The SFME method yields an essential oil with higher amounts of more valuable oxygenated compounds, and allows substantial savings of costs, in terms of time, energy and plant material. SFME is a green technology and appears as a good alternative for the extraction of essential oils from aromatic plants.

  13. Ruminal degradability and intestinal digestibility of protein and amino acids in soybean and corn distillers grains products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mjoun, K; Kalscheur, K F; Hippen, A R; Schingoethe, D J

    2010-09-01

    New fractionation and fermentation technologies in the ethanol industry have resulted in the production of different forms of distillers grains (DG). Such products are reduced-fat, high-protein, and "modified" wet feeds. Characterization of protein fractions of these co-products and other commonly used feedstuffs is important for the formulation of dairy cattle diets. In situ and in vitro techniques were conducted to compare crude protein (CP) availability in 4 DG products with commonly used soybean proteins. Soybean protein products included solvent-extracted soybean meal (SBM; 44% CP), expeller soybean meal (ESBM), and extruded soybeans (ES). The DG products were conventional distillers dried grains with solubles, reduced-fat distillers dried grains with solubles (RFDGS), high-protein distillers dried grains, and modified wet distillers grains with solubles (MWDGS). Nylon bags containing 5 g of each feed were incubated in the rumen of 3 cannulated lactating cows for 2, 4, 8, 16, 24, and 48 h. The rapidly degradable CP fraction varied from 8.1 to 37.2% for SBM and MWDGS, respectively. The slowly degradable CP fraction was greatest for SBM, ES, and high-protein distillers dried grains (88.0%+/-3.7), followed by ESBM, distillers dried grains with solubles, and RFDGS (76.8+/-4.1%). The MWDGS had the lowest slowly degradable CP fraction (61.1%). The rate of degradation of the slowly degradable CP fraction ranged from 11.8 for SBM to 2.7%/h for RFDGS. Rumen-undegradable protein varied widely (32.3 to 60.4%), with RFDGS having the greatest and SBM the lowest concentrations. Intestinal digestibility of rumen-undegradable protein (IDP) was estimated by pepsin-pancreatin digestion of ruminally preincubated (16 h) samples. The IDP was greatest for SBM, ESBM, and ES (97.7%+/-0.75), whereas IDP of DG products was 92.4%+/-0.87. Similarly, total digestible protein was greatest (99.0%) for soybean products, whereas DG products had a total digestible protein of 96.0%. Intestinal

  14. Processing of Polysulfone to Free Flowing Powder by Mechanical Milling and Spray Drying Techniques for Use in Selective Laser Sintering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicolas Mys

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Polysulfone (PSU has been processed into powder form by ball milling, rotor milling, and spray drying technique in an attempt to produce new materials for Selective Laser Sintering purposes. Both rotor milling and spray drying were adept to make spherical particles that can be used for this aim. Processing PSU pellets by rotor milling in a three-step process resulted in particles of 51.8 μm mean diameter, whereas spray drying could only manage a mean diameter of 26.1 μm. The resulting powders were characterized using Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC, Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC and X-ray Diffraction measurements (XRD. DSC measurements revealed an influence of all processing techniques on the thermal behavior of the material. Glass transitions remained unaffected by spray drying and rotor milling, yet a clear shift was observed for ball milling, along with a large endothermic peak in the high temperature region. This was ascribed to the imparting of an orientation into the polymer chains due to the processing method and was confirmed by XRD measurements. Of all processed powder samples, the ball milled sample was unable to dissolve for GPC measurements, suggesting degradation by chain scission and subsequent crosslinking. Spray drying and rotor milling did not cause significant degradation.

  15. A Dry Membrane Protection Technique to Allow Surface Acoustic Wave Biosensor Measurements of Biological Model Membrane Approaches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Enachescu

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Model membrane approaches have attracted much attention in biomedical sciences to investigate and simulate biological processes. The application of model membrane systems for biosensor measurements is partly restricted by the fact that the integrity of membranes critically depends on the maintenance of an aqueous surrounding, while various biosensors require a preconditioning of dry sensors. This is for example true for the well-established surface acoustic wave (SAW biosensor SAM®5 blue. Here, a simple drying procedure of sensor-supported model membranes is introduced using the protective disaccharide trehalose. Highly reproducible model membranes were prepared by the Langmuir-Blodgett technique, transferred to SAW sensors and supplemented with a trehalose solution. Membrane rehydration after dry incorporation into the SAW device becomes immediately evident by phase changes. Reconstituted model membranes maintain their full functionality, as indicated by biotin/avidin binding experiments. Atomic force microscopy confirmed the morphological invariability of dried and rehydrated membranes. Approximating to more physiological recognition phenomena, the site-directed immobilization of the integrin VLA-4 into the reconstituted model membrane and subsequent VCAM-1 ligand binding with nanomolar affinity were illustrated. This simple drying procedure is a novel way to combine the model membrane generation by Langmuir-Blodgett technique with SAW biosensor measurements, which extends the applicability of SAM®5 blue in biomedical sciences.

  16. A Centrifuge-Based Technique for Dry Extraction of Air for Ice Core Studies of Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grachev, A. M.; Brook, E. J.

    2008-12-01

    High resolution CO2 data from the Law Dome ice core document an abrupt ~10 ppm drop in CO2 at about 1600 AD (MacFarling Meure et al., Geophys. Res Lett., v. 33, L14810), which has been attributed to changes in human activities. CO2 measurements in ice cores are difficult, however, making verification of this feature an important task. We are undertaking a high-resolution study of CO2 between 1400 and 1800 AD in the WAIS Divide (Antarctica) ice core with a new dry extraction technique. The need for a dry extraction technique as opposed to a melt-refreeze technique in studies of CO2 from ice cores arises because of the well-documented artifacts in CO2 imposed by the presence of liquid water. Three dry-extraction methods have been employed by previous workers to measure CO2: needle-crushing method, ball-bearings method, and cheese-grater method (B. Stauffer, in: Encyclopedia of Quaternary Science, p. 1181, Elsevier 2007). Each has limitations, and we propose a simpler dry extraction technique, based on a large-capacity refrigerated centrifuge (the "centrifuge technique"), which eliminates the need to employ cryogenic temperatures to collect extracted gas and is more compatible with high sample throughput. The technique is now being tested on ~25-gram WAIS Divide samples in conjunction with CO2 measurements with a gas chromatograph. The technique employs a Beckman J- 6B centrifuge, in which evacuated stainless steel flask is placed: the flask has a weight inside positioned directly over a tall-standing piece of ice whose cross-section is small compared to that of the flask. Upon acceleration to 3000 rpm the weight moves down and presses the ice sample into a thin tablet covering flask's bottom, yielding the air extraction efficiency of ~80%. Preliminary tests suggest that precision and accuracy can be achieved at the level of ~1 ppm once the system is fine-tuned.

  17. Preparation and characterization of fast dissolving flurbiprofen and esomeprazole solid dispersion using spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pradhan, Roshan; Tran, Tuan Hiep; Kim, Sung Yub; Woo, Kyu Bong; Choi, Yong Joo; Choi, Han-Gon; Yong, Chul Soon; Kim, Jong Oh

    2016-04-11

    We aimed to develop an immediate-release flurbiprofen (FLU) and esomeprazole (ESO) combination formulation with enhanced gastric aqueous solubility and dissolution rate. Aqueous solubility can be enhanced by formulating solid dispersions (SDs) with a polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP)-K30 hydrophilic carrier, using spray-drying technique. Aqueous and gastric pH dissolution can be achieved by macro-environmental pH modulation using sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) and magnesium hydroxide (Mg(OH)2) as the alkaline buffer. FLU/ESO-loaded SDs (FLU/ESO-SDs) significantly improved aqueous solubility of both drugs, compared to each drug powder. Dissolution studies in gastric pH and water were compared with the microenvironmental pH modulated formulations. The optimized FLU/ESO-SD powder formulation consisted of FLU/ESO/PVP-K30/sodium carbonate (Na2CO3) in a weight ratio 1:0.22:1.5:0.3, filled in the inner capsule. The outer capsule consisted of NaHCO3 and Mg(OH)2, which created the macro-environmental pH modulation. Increased aqueous and gastric pH dissolution of FLU and ESO from the SD was attributed to the alkaline buffer effects and most importantly, to drug transformation from crystalline to amorphous SD powder, clearly revealed by scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, and powder X-ray diffraction studies. Thus, the combined FLU and ESO SD powder can be effectively delivered as an immediate-release formulation using the macro-environmental pH modulation concept.

  18. Sulfur concentration in diets containing corn, soybean meal, and distillers dried grains with solubles does not affect feed preference or growth performance of weanling or growing-finishing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, B G; Zhang, Y; Stein, H H

    2012-01-01

    Four experiments were conducted to investigate the effects of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and dietary S on feed preference and performance of pigs. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 1), 48 barrows (20.1 ± 2.2 kg of BW) were randomly allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 8 replicate pens per treatment and 2 pigs per pen. A control diet based on corn and soybean meal, a DDGS diet containing 20% DDGS, and a DDGS-sulfur (DDGS-S) diet were prepared. The DDGS-S diet was similar to the DDGS diet with the exception that 0.74% CaSO(4) was added to the diet. Two diets were provided in separate feeders in each pen: 1) the control diet and the DDGS diet, 2) the control diet and the DDGS-S diet, or 3) the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet. Preference for the DDGS diet and the DDGS-S diet vs. the control diet was 35.2 and 32.6%, respectively (P diet and the DDGS-S diet. In Exp. 2, a total of 90 barrows (10.3 ± 1.4 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatments, with 10 replicate pens and 3 pigs per pen, and were fed the diets used in Exp. 1 for 28 d, but only 1 diet was provided per pen. Pigs fed the control diet gained more BW (497 vs. 423 and 416 g/d; P diet, but no differences between the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets were observed. In a 10-d feed preference experiment (Exp. 3), 30 barrows (49.6 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were allotted to 3 treatment groups, with 10 replicates per group. The experimental procedures were the same as in Exp. 1, except that 30% DDGS was included in the DDGS and DDGS-S diets and 1.10% CaSO(4) was added to the DDGS-S diet. Feed preference for the DDGS and the DDGS-S diets, compared with the control diet, was 29.8 and 32.9%, respectively (P diets. In Exp. 4, a total of 120 barrows (34.2 ± 2.3 kg of BW) were fed grower diets for 42 d and finisher diets for 42 d. Diets were formulated as in Exp. 3. Pigs on the control diets gained more BW (1,021 vs. 912 and 907 g/d; P diet, respectively, but no differences between pigs fed the DDGS and the DDGS

  19. DISTILLATION OF CALCIUM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barton, J.

    1954-07-27

    This invention relates to an improvement in the process for the purification of caicium or magnesium containing an alkali metal as impurity, which comprises distiiling a batch of the mixture in two stages, the first stage distillation being carried out in the presence of an inert gas at an absolute pressure substantially greater than the vapor pressure of calcium or maguesium at the temperature of distillation, but less than the vaper pressure at that temperature of the alkali metal impurity so that only the alkali metal is vaporized and condensed on a condensing surface. A second stage distilso that substantially only the calcium or magnesium distills under its own vapor pressure only and condenses in solid form on a lower condensing surface.

  20. Qutrit Magic State Distillation

    CERN Document Server

    Anwar, Hussain; Browne, Dan E

    2012-01-01

    Magic state distillation (MSD) is a purification protocol that plays a central role in fault tolerant quantum computation. Repeated iteration of the steps of a MSD protocol, generates pure single non-stabilizer states, or magic states, from multiple copies of a mixed resource state using stabilizer operations only. Thus mixed resource states promote the stabilizer operations to full universality. Magic state distillation was introduced for qubit-based quantum computation, but little has been known concerning MSD in higher dimensional qudit-based computation. Here, we describe a general approach for studying MSD in higher dimensions. We use it to investigate the features of a qutrit MSD protocol based on the 5-qutrit stabilizer code. We show that this protocol distills non-stabilizer magic states, and identify two types of states, that are attractors of this iteration map. Finally, we show how these states may be converted, via stabilizer circuits alone, into a state suitable for state injected implementation ...

  1. A novel collagen film with micro-rough surface structure for corneal epithelial repair fabricated by freeze drying technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Yang [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Ren, Li, E-mail: psliren@scut.edu.cn [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Wang, Yingjun, E-mail: imwangyj@163.com [School of Materials Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510641 (China); National Engineering Research Center for Tissue Restoration and Reconstruction, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Guangdong Province Key Laboratory of Biomedical Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou 510006 (China)

    2014-05-01

    Highlights: • Collagen film with micro-rough surface is fabricated by freeze drying technique. • The film has suitable water uptake capability and toughness performance. • The film has good optical performance. • Human corneal epithelial cells studies confirmed the biocompatibility of the film. - Abstract: Corneal epithelial defect is a common disease and keratoplasty is a common treatment method. A collagen film with micro-rough surface was fabricated through a simple freeze drying technique in this study. Compared with the air-dried collagen film (AD-Col), this freeze-dried collagen film (FD-Col) has a more suitable water uptake capability (about 85.5%) and toughness performance. Both of the two films have good optical properties and the luminousness of them is higher than 80%. Besides, the adhesion and proliferation rate of human corneal epithelial cells on the micro-rough surface of FD-Col film is higher than that on the smooth surface of AD-Col film. The results indicate that this FD-Col film may have potential applications for corneal epithelial repair.

  2. Surface code implementation of block code state distillation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowler, Austin G.; Devitt, Simon J.; Jones, Cody

    2013-01-01

    State distillation is the process of taking a number of imperfect copies of a particular quantum state and producing fewer better copies. Until recently, the lowest overhead method of distilling states produced a single improved |A〉 state given 15 input copies. New block code state distillation methods can produce k improved |A〉 states given 3k + 8 input copies, potentially significantly reducing the overhead associated with state distillation. We construct an explicit surface code implementation of block code state distillation and quantitatively compare the overhead of this approach to the old. We find that, using the best available techniques, for parameters of practical interest, block code state distillation does not always lead to lower overhead, and, when it does, the overhead reduction is typically less than a factor of three. PMID:23736868

  3. Drying of lucuma (Pouteria obovata) using the technique of Refracting WindowTM

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Lucuma is a fruit that is experiencing a growing trend in commercial ground into flour for use in the food industry. This study aimed to obtain lucuma flour using the method of refractive window drying and evaluate the effect of the thickness of lucuma pulp and drying time on flour moisture and color. It was used a Composite Design Central Rotary (DCCR) with time between 10 and 50 min and the thickness between 1 and 3 mm. A fixed temperature of 95 °C and mylar film (metallized polyethylene te...

  4. Tritium Attenuation by Distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wittman, N.E.

    2001-07-31

    The objective of this study was to determine how a 100 Area distillation system could be used to reduce to a satisfactory low value the tritium content of the dilute moderator produced in the 100 Area stills, and whether such a tritium attenuator would have sufficient capacity to process all this material before it is sent to the 400 Area for reprocessing.

  5. Membrane distillation for milk concentration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moejes, S.N.; Romero Guzman, Maria; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Barrera, K.H.; Feenstra, L.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2015-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging technology to concentrate liquid products while producing high quality water as permeate. Application for desalination has been studied extensively the past years, but membrane distillation has also potential to produce concentrated food products like concentrate

  6. Strip-dried whole milk sampling technique for progesterone detection in cows by ELISA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samsonova, J V; Osipov, A P; Kondakov, S E

    2017-12-01

    New sampling format of whole cows' milk in strip-dried form was proposed. Few methodological issues of whole milk progesterone ELISA using samples dried on a membrane carrier in a form of strip were investigated and optimized: width of a strip, shape of punched/cut-off part of membrane, sample application method. It was shown that distribution of the hormone along narrow strip was even except the initial part of a strip (the first 0.5 × 0.5cm piece) where recovered concentration of progesterone was higher. Storage stability of progesterone in strip-dried whole cows' milk samples at 4°C, ambient temperature, 37°C and 60°C was investigated. Rising of the detected progesterone concentration over storage period at elevated temperatures was observed predominantly in milk samples with low hormone concentration (from non-pregnant cows). Strip-dried whole milk samples can be used for collection, transportation, storage and ELISA analysis of progesterone level which is correlated with reproductive status of cows. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Extractive distillation: recent advances in operation strategies

    OpenAIRE

    Shen,Weifeng; Benyounes, Hassiba; Gerbaud, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    International audience; Extractive distillation is one of the efficient techniques for separating azeotropic and low-relativevolatility mixtures in various chemical industries. This paper first provides an overview of thermodynamic insight covering residue curve map analysis, the application of univolatility and unidistribution curves, and thermodynamic feasibility study. The pinch-point analysis method combining bifurcation shortcut presents another branch of study, and several achievements ...

  8. Integrated membrane distillation-crystallization: process design and cost estimations for seawater treatment and fluxes of single salt solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Creusen, R.J.M.; Medevoort, J. van; Roelands, C.P.M.; Renesse van Duivenbode, J.A.D. van; Hanemaaijer, J.H.; Leerdam, R.C. van

    2013-01-01

    The goal of this research is to design an integrated membrane distillation-crystallization (MDC) process for desalination of seawater with pure water and dry salts as the only products. The process is based on a combination of membrane distillation (MD) and osmotic distillation (OD) steps with

  9. Effect of different drying techniques on flowability characteristics and chemical properties of natural carbohydrate-protein Gum from durian fruit seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhosseini Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A natural carbohydrate biopolymer was extracted from the agricultural biomass waste (durian seed. Subsequently, the crude biopolymer was purified by using the saturated barium hydroxide to minimize the impurities. Finally, the effect of different drying techniques on the flow characteristics and functional properties of the purified biopolymer was investigated. The present study elucidated the main functional characteristics such as flow characteristics, water- and oil-holding capacity, solubility, and foaming capacity. Results In most cases except for oven drying, the bulk density decreased, thus increasing the porosity. This might be attributed to the increase in the inter-particle voids of smaller sized particles with larger contact surface areas per unit volume. The current study revealed that oven-dried gum and freeze-dried gum had the highest and lowest compressibility index, thus indicating the weakest and strongest flowability among all samples. In the present work, the freeze-dried gum showed the lowest angle of repose, bulk, tapped and true density. This indicates the highest porosity degree of freeze dried gum among dried seed gums. It also exhibited the highest solubility, and foaming capacity thus providing the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics among all drying techniques. Conclusion The present study revealed that freeze drying among all drying techniques provided the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics for durian seed gum.

  10. 玉米干酒糟及其可溶物家禽表观代谢能预测模型%Prediction Model for APParent Metabolizable Energy of Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles in Poultry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李婷婷; 蔡辉益; 闫海洁; 张姝; 刘国华; 杨禄良; 王晓睿

    2014-01-01

    This study was designed to establish the optimal model for predicting poultry apparent metabolizable energy(AME)of corn distillers dried grains with solubles( DDGS)from proximate composition. A total of 30 corn DDGS were sampled from all representative manufacturers in China. All samples were analyzed for crude protein(CP),ether extract(EE),crude fiber(CF),ash,neutral detergent fiber(NDF),acid deter-gent fiber(ADF),lightness(L*),redness(a*),yellowness(b*)and gross energy(GE). A total of 72 Hy-Line brown roosters with body weight of(2.5±0.2)kg and at more than 18 weeks of age were randomly divided into 6 groups with 6 replicates per group and 2 roosters per replicate in a completely random experiment design,and each group randomly received one of corn DDGS samples for one time to detect the AME of corn DDGS in 5 periods of metabolism trial. The optimal regression model was established by phenotype correlation, path analysis and stepwise regression analysis between physical and chemical indicators and AME. The results showed as follows:1)all proximate composition content had different levels of variations. Means for each nu-trient were CP 27.86%,EE 8.49%,CF 8.52%,NDF 47.76%,ADF 15.55%,GE 19.47 MJ/ kg and AME 8.62 MJ/ kg,respectively,and the coefficients of variation were 8. 49%,36. 77%,18. 07%,22. 85%, 17.04%,4.31% and 12.87%,respectively. 2)The means of L*,a* and b* of corn DDGS samples were 36.62,7.59 and 18.52,respectively,and the coefficients of variation were 8.81%,15.88% and 16.34%,re-spectively. The optimal regression model for AME of corn DDGS is AME = - 3. 950( ± 2. 041)- 0. 533( ± 0.055 3)CF+0.245( ±0.033 3)EE+0.771( ±0.115)GE(R2 = 0.902,P<0.000 1).%本文旨在对玉米干酒糟及其可溶物(DDGS)进行概略养分分析,建立利用理化指标快速预测玉米 DDGS 家禽表观代谢能(AME)的最优模型。采集我国有代表性的30种玉米 DDGS样品,测定粗蛋白质(CP)、粗脂肪(EE)、粗纤维(CF)、粗灰

  11. Cascade Distillation System Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Sargushingh, Miriam; Shull, Sarah

    2014-01-01

    NASA's Advanced Exploration Systems (AES) Life Support System (LSS) Project is chartered with de-veloping advanced life support systems that will ena-ble NASA human exploration beyond low Earth orbit (LEO). The goal of AES is to increase the affordabil-ity of long-duration life support missions, and to re-duce the risk associated with integrating and infusing new enabling technologies required to ensure mission success. Because of the robust nature of distillation systems, the AES LSS Project is pursuing develop-ment of the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) as part of its technology portfolio. Currently, the system is being developed into a flight forward Generation 2.0 design.

  12. Renormalizing Entanglement Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waeldchen, Stephan; Gertis, Janina; Campbell, Earl T; Eisert, Jens

    2016-01-15

    Entanglement distillation refers to the task of transforming a collection of weakly entangled pairs into fewer highly entangled ones. It is a core ingredient in quantum repeater protocols, which are needed to transmit entanglement over arbitrary distances in order to realize quantum key distribution schemes. Usually, it is assumed that the initial entangled pairs are identically and independently distributed and are uncorrelated with each other, an assumption that might not be reasonable at all in any entanglement generation process involving memory channels. Here, we introduce a framework that captures entanglement distillation in the presence of natural correlations arising from memory channels. Conceptually, we bring together ideas from condensed-matter physics-ideas from renormalization and matrix-product states and operators-with those of local entanglement manipulation, Markov chain mixing, and quantum error correction. We identify meaningful parameter regions for which we prove convergence to maximally entangled states, arising as the fixed points of a matrix-product operator renormalization flow.

  13. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  14. Effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subp. gracilis) on milk and cheese properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boutoial, Khalid; García, Victor; Rovira, Silvia; Ferrandini, Eduardo; Abdelkhalek, Oussama; López, María Belén

    2013-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of feeding goats with distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves (Thymus zygis subsp. gracilis) on the physicochemical composition and technological properties of pasteurised goat milk, and on the physicochemical composition, phenolic content, oxidative stability, microbiology, sensory and texture profile of Murcia al Vino goat cheese. One group of goats was fed the basal diet (control), the second and third groups were fed with different levels of distilled (10 and 20%) or non-distilled (3·75 and 7·5%) thyme leaves. Goat milk physicochemical composition was significantly affected by the substitution of 7·5% of basal goat diet with non-distilled thyme leaves (increase in fat, protein, dry matter and PUFA content), while goat milk clotting time was increased significantly by the introduction of 20% distilled thyme leaves, which reduces its technological suitability. Microbiology, sensory and texture profiles were not affected by the introduction of distilled thyme leaves. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves as an alternative feed to diet can lead to an inhibition of lipids oxidation. The introduction of distilled and non-distilled thyme leaves into goat's diet can be successfully adopted as a strategy to reduce feeding costs and to take advantage of the waste from the production of essential oils, minimising waste removing costs and the environmental impact.

  15. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szekalska, Marta; Amelian, Aleksandra; Winnicka, Katarzyna

    2015-03-01

    The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG) microspheres with ranitidine (RNT) by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers--gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9%. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach.

  16. Alginate microspheres obtained by the spray drying technique as mucoadhesive carriers of ranitidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szekalska Marta

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study is aimed at formulation of alginate (ALG microspheres with ranitidine (RNT by the spray drying method. Obtained microspheres were characterized for particle size, surface morphology, entrapment efficiency, drug loading, in vitro drug release and zeta potential. Mucoadhesive properties were examined by a texture analyser and three types of adhesive layers - gelatine discs, mucin gel and porcine stomach mucosa. Microspheres showed a smooth surface with narrow particle size distribution and RNT loading of up to 70.9 %. All formulations possessed mucoadhesive properties and exhibited prolonged drug release according to the first-order kinetics. DSC reports showed that there was no interaction between RNT and ALG. Designed microspheres can be considered potential carriers of ranitidine with prolonged residence time in the stomach

  17. COMPARISON OF VOLATILE COMPOUNDS IN TEUCRIUM POLIUM L. BY HEADSPACE AND HYDRODISTILLATION TECHNIQUES

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Aerial parts of Teucrium polium were subjected to headspace (HS) and hydro-distillation (HD) techniques after drying, then headspace volatiles and the essential oil were analyzed by GC/MS. Forty-eight and Thirty-nine constituents were identified in hydro-distillation and CombiPAL system which represented 99.7% and 99.8% of the oils, respectively. hydro-distillation method were α-pinene (30.8%), β- pinene (12.0%), myrcene (8.9%), limonene (7.9%), (E)-caryophyllene (5.6%), Germacrene D (6.9%), ...

  18. Preparation of sustained-release coated particles by novel microencapsulation method using three-fluid nozzle spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kondo, Keita; Niwa, Toshiyuki; Danjo, Kazumi

    2014-01-23

    We prepared sustained-release microcapsules using a three-fluid nozzle (3N) spray drying technique. The 3N has a unique, three-layered concentric structure composed of inner and outer liquid nozzles, and an outermost gas nozzle. Composite particles were prepared by spraying a drug suspension and an ethylcellulose solution via the inner and outer nozzles, respectively, and mixed at the nozzle tip (3N-PostMix). 3N-PostMix particles exhibited a corrugated surface and similar contact angles as ethylcellulose bulk, thus suggesting encapsulation with ethylcellulose, resulting in the achievement of sustained release. To investigate the microencapsulation process via this approach and its usability, methods through which the suspension and solution were sprayed separately via two of the four-fluid nozzle (4N) (4N-PostMix) and a mixture of the suspension and solution was sprayed via 3N (3N-PreMix) were used as references. It was found that 3N can obtain smaller particles than 4N. The results for contact angle and drug release corresponded, thus suggesting that 3N-PostMix particles are more effectively coated by ethylcellulose, and can achieve higher-level controlled release than 4N-PostMix particles, while 3N-PreMix particles are not encapsulated with pure ethylcellulose, leading to rapid release. This study demonstrated that the 3N spray drying technique is useful as a novel microencapsulation method.

  19. Hot Resistance Estimation for Dry Type Transformer Using Multiple Variable Regression, Multiple Polynomial Regression and Soft Computing Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Srinivasan

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: This study presents a novel method for the determination of average winding temperature rise of transformers under its predetermined field operating conditions. Rise in the winding temperature was determined from the estimated values of winding resistance during the heat run test conducted as per IEC standard. Approach: The estimation of hot resistance was modeled using Multiple Variable Regression (MVR, Multiple Polynomial Regression (MPR and soft computing techniques such as Artificial Neural Network (ANN and Adaptive Neuro Fuzzy Inference System (ANFIS. The modeled hot resistance will help to find the load losses at any load situation without using complicated measurement set up in transformers. Results: These techniques were applied for the hot resistance estimation for dry type transformer by using the input variables cold resistance, ambient temperature and temperature rise. The results are compared and they show a good agreement between measured and computed values. Conclusion: According to our experiments, the proposed methods are verified using experimental results, which have been obtained from temperature rise test performed on a 55 kVA dry-type transformer.

  20. Antioxidant activity, the content of total phenols and flavonoids in the ethanol extracts of Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson dried by the use of different techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanisavljević Dragana M.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we have examined the yield of extracted substances obtained by means of extraction using 70 % ethanol (v/v, the content of total phenols and flavonoids, as well as the antioxidant activity of the extracts obtained from the samples of the herbs dried by means of different techniques. Wild mint Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson was dried naturally in a laboratory oven at a temperature of 45 °C and in an absorptive low temperature condensation oven at 35°C. The highest yield of extracts was obtained from the naturally dried herbs and the lowest from the herbs dried in the low temperature condensation drying oven. The content of total phenols and flavonoids was determined by spectrophotometric methods with an FC reagent and by the complexation reaction with aluminium-chloride, respectively. The extract of the naturally dried herbs had the highest overall content of phenols (113.8±2.0 mg of gallic acid/g of the dry extract and flavonoids (106.7±0.3 mg of rutin/g of the dry extract. The highest antioxidant activity determined by the FRAP and DPPH assay was determined in the extracts obtained from naturally dried herbs (2.76±0.15 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.022±0.001 mg/ml, while the lowest was obtained from the extracts of herbs dried in the laboratory oven (1.13±0.11 mmol Fe2+/mg of the dry extract and EC50=0.033±0.001 mg/ml. The HPLC-DAD analysis result show that the greatest content of phenolic compounds show extract obtained from naturally dried plant material. The dominant phenolic component in the all extracts is Kaempferol 3-O-glucoside. The content of all phenolic compound strongly depend on the drying conditions.

  1. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobar-Grande B

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Blanca Tobar-Grande,1 Ricardo Godoy,1 Paulina Bustos,2 Carlos von Plessing,1 Elias Fattal,3,4 Nicolas Tsapis,3,4 Claudia Olave,1 Carolina Gómez-Gaete11Departamento de Farmacia, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 2Departamento de Bioquímica Clínica e Inmunología, Facultad de Farmacia, Universidad de Concepción, Concepción, Chile; 3Univ Paris-Sud, Institut Galien Paris-Sud, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, France; 4CNRS, UMR 8612, Faculté de Pharmacie, Châtenay-Malabry, FranceAbstract: In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1ß, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in

  2. The Feasibility of Cask "Fingerprinting" as a Spent-Fuel, Dry-Storage Cask Safeguards Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziock, K P; Vanier, P; Forman, L; Caffrey, G; Wharton, J; Lebrun, A

    2005-07-27

    This report documents a week-long measurement campaign conducted on six, dry-storage, spent-nuclear-fuel storage casks at the Idaho National Laboratory. A gamma-ray imager, a thermal-neutron imager and a germanium spectrometer were used to collect data on the casks. The campaign was conducted to examine the feasibility of using the cask radiation signatures as unique identifiers for individual casks as part of a safeguards regime. The results clearly show different morphologies for the various cask types although the signatures are deemed insufficient to uniquely identify individual casks of the same type. Based on results with the germanium spectrometer and differences between thermal neutron images and neutron-dose meters, this result is thought to be due to the limitations of the extant imagers used, rather than of the basic concept. Results indicate that measurements with improved imagers could contain significantly more information. Follow-on measurements with new imagers either currently available as laboratory prototypes or under development are recommended.

  3. Nanospray Drying as a Novel Technique for the Manufacturing of Inhalable NSAID Powders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aquino Rita Patrizia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research was to evaluate the potential of the nanospray drier as a novel apparatus for the manufacturing of a dry powder for inhalation containing ketoprofen lysinate, a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug able to control the inflammation in cystic fibrosis patients. We produced several ketoprofen lysinate and leucine powder batches by means of nanospray dryer, studying the influence of process parameters on yield, particle properties (size distribution and morphology, and, mainly, aerodynamic properties of powders. Micronized particles were prepared from different hydroalcoholic solutions (alcohol content from 0 to 30% v/v using ketoprofen in its lysine salt form and leucine as dispersibility enhancer in different ratios (from 5 to 15% w/w with a total solid concentration ranging from 1 to 7% w/v. Results indicated that the spray head equipped with a 7 µm nozzle produced powders too big to be inhaled. The reduction of nozzle size from 7 to 4 µm led to smaller particles suitable for inhalation but, at the same time, caused a dramatic increase in process time. The selection of process variables, together with the nozzle pretreatment with a surfactant solution, allowed us to obtain a free flowing powder with satisfying aerosol performance, confirming the usefulness of the nanospray drier in the production of powder for inhalation.

  4. Development of biodegradable methylprednisolone microparticles for treatment of articular pathology using a spray-drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tobar-Grande, Blanca; Godoy, Ricardo; Bustos, Paulina; von Plessing, Carlos; Fattal, Elias; Tsapis, Nicolas; Olave, Claudia; Gómez-Gaete, Carolina

    2013-01-01

    In this work, microparticles were prepared by spray-drying using albumin, chondroitin sulfate, and hyaluronic acid as excipients to create a controlled-release methylprednisolone system for use in inflammatory disorders such as arthritis. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that these microparticles were almost spherical, with development of surface wrinkling as the methylprednisolone load in the formulation was increased. The methylprednisolone load also had a direct influence on the mean diameter and zeta potential of the microparticles. Interactions between formulation excipients and the active drug were evaluated by x-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermal gravimetric analysis, showing limited amounts of methylprednisolone in a crystalline state in the loaded microparticles. The encapsulation efficiency of methylprednisolone was approximately 89% in all formulations. The rate of methylprednisolone release from the microparticles depended on the initial drug load in the formulation. In vitro cytotoxic evaluation using THP-1 cells showed that none of the formulations prepared triggered an inflammatory response on release of interleukin-1β, nor did they affect cellular viability, except for the 9.1% methylprednisolone formulation, which was the maximum test concentration used. The microparticles developed in this study have characteristics amenable to a therapeutic role in inflammatory pathology, such as arthritis.

  5. A modified serial blood sampling technique and utility of dried-blood spot technique in estimation of blood concentration: application in mouse pharmacokinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurawattimath, Vishwanath; Pocha, Krishna; Mariappan, T Thanga; Trivedi, Ravi Kumar; Mandlekar, Sandhya

    2012-03-01

    Pharmacokinetic (PK) studies in mice usually require discrete and parallel blood sampling owing to a restriction on the volume of blood that can be withdrawn. This results in dosing large number of animals and generating composite PK profile. To reduce the number of animals and generate individual animal PK profiles, we developed a serial sampling technique via tail vein bleeding in mice, in which only 20-30 μL blood was withdrawn per time point. Due to the small blood volume, a dried-blood spot (DBS) technique was applied for sample processing. The utility of this technique was demonstrated using three test compounds (amodiaquine, chloroquine and chlorthalidone), with varying degrees of blood-to-plasma partition ratios. The PK studies were carried out in male Balb/c mouse weighing 25-30 g. The compounds were administered intravenously via the saphenous vein. Blood was collected by composite (retro-orbital plexus) or serial (tail vein bleeding) sampling techniques at different time points. Blood samples were processed as blood lysate or DBS. Blood or plasma samples were analyzed by sensitive and rapid UPLC-MS/MS methods. The blood concentrations (both from blood lysate and DBS) obtained from serial sampling matched with those from composite sampling. The ratio of blood AUC to plasma AUC correlated well with the in vitro blood-to-plasma partition ratio of the compounds. The systemic clearance and volume of distribution at steady state calculated from blood or plasma AUCs were in proportion to the respective AUCs. Our results indicated that the serial sampling technique would reduce the number of animals and also compound usage, as well as improve the quality of pharmacokinetic data. Also, the serial sampling technique does not require the use of anesthesia and allows estimation of inter-animal variability in PK. A small volume serial sampling is possible due to the availability of the DBS technique.

  6. Dry-plasma-free chemical etch technique for variability reduction in multi-patterning (Conference Presentation)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kal, Subhadeep; Mohanty, Nihar; Farrell, Richard A.; Franke, Elliott; Raley, Angelique; Thibaut, Sophie; Pereira, Cheryl; Pillai, Karthik; Ko, Akiteru; Mosden, Aelan; Biolsi, Peter

    2017-04-01

    Scaling beyond the 7nm technology node demands significant control over the variability down to a few angstroms, in order to achieve reasonable yield. For example, to meet the current scaling targets it is highly desirable to achieve sub 30nm pitch line/space features at back-end of the line (BEOL) or front end of line (FEOL); uniform and precise contact/hole patterning at middle of line (MOL). One of the quintessential requirements for such precise and possibly self-aligned patterning strategies is superior etch selectivity between the target films while other masks/films are exposed. The need to achieve high etch selectivity becomes more evident for unit process development at MOL and BEOL, as a result of low density films choices (compared to FEOL film choices) due to lower temperature budget. Low etch selectivity with conventional plasma and wet chemical etch techniques, causes significant gouging (un-intended etching of etch stop layer, as shown in Fig 1), high line edge roughness (LER)/line width roughness (LWR), non-uniformity, etc. In certain circumstances this may lead to added downstream process stochastics. Furthermore, conventional plasma etches may also have the added disadvantage of plasma VUV damage and corner rounding (Fig. 1). Finally, the above mentioned factors can potentially compromise edge placement error (EPE) and/or yield. Therefore a process flow enabled with extremely high selective etches inherent to film properties and/or etch chemistries is a significant advantage. To improve this etch selectivity for certain etch steps during a process flow, we have to implement alternate highly selective, plasma free techniques in conjunction with conventional plasma etches (Fig 2.). In this article, we will present our plasma free, chemical gas phase etch technique using chemistries that have high selectivity towards a spectrum of films owing to the reaction mechanism ( as shown Fig 1). Gas phase etches also help eliminate plasma damage to the

  7. Effect of Microencapsulation by Spray-Drying and Freeze-Drying Technique on the Antioxidant Properties of Blueberry (Vaccinium myrtillus Juice Polyphenolic Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkowska Agnieszka

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Blueberry juice with high polyphenol concentration was spray- or freeze-dried using different coating materials: HP-β-cyclodextrin and β-cyclodextrin. The quality of the obtained powders was characterised by their anthocyanin content, total polyphenols and antioxidant capacity. SEM was used for monitoring structures and size (2–20 μm of the microparticles. The losses of total phenolic compounds during spray-drying reached 76–78% on average, while these of anthocyanins about 57%. Freeze-dried powders showed better retention values of anthocyanins, which was about 1.5-fold higher than for the spray-dried counterparts. All blueberry preparations studied were characterised by very high radical scavenging activity.

  8. Dry deposition of acidic air pollutants to tree leaves, determined by a modified leaf-washing technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Mirai; Takamatsu, Takejiro; Koshikawa, Masami K.; Yamamura, Shigeki; Inubushi, Kazuyuki

    Dry deposition fluxes ( FL) of NO 3- and SO 42- to leaf surfaces were measured for Japanese red pine ( Pinus densiflora), Japanese cedar ( Cryptomeria japonica), Japanese cypress ( Chamaecyparis obtusa), and Japanese white oak ( Quercus myrsinaefolia), together with atmospheric concentrations ( CL) of NO x (NO + NO 2), T-NO 3 (gaseous HNO 3 + particulate NO 3-) and SO x (gaseous SO 2 + particulate SO 42-) around the leaves in a suburban area of Japan, using a modified leaf-washing technique. FL of NO 3- and SO 42- decreased as follows: pine >> cedar > cypress ≥ oak and pine >> cedar > oak ≥ cypress, respectively. FL of NO 3- for all tree species fluctuated synchronously with CL of T-NO 3. FL of SO 42- fluctuated with CL of SO x, but the dominant pollutant deposited (SO 2 or SO 42-) appeared to differ for different tree species. Dry deposition conductance ( KL) of T-NO 3 and SO x was derived as an FL/ CL ratio. Seasonal variations of KL likely reflect the gas/particle ratios of T-NO 3 and SO x, which were affected by meteorological conditions such as temperature. Dry deposition velocities ( Vd) of T-NO 3 and SO x were obtained as the mathematical product of annual mean KL and the total leaf surface areas in the forests. The comparison of Vd among tree species indicated that the loads of acidic air pollutants were higher to coniferous forests than broad-leaved forest because of the higher KL and/or larger leaf surface areas.

  9. Dried blood spots as a sampling technique for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in clinical studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanyuan; Henion, Jack; Abbott, Richard; Wang, Phillip

    2011-11-01

    Dried blood spot (DBS) technology was evaluated for the quantitative determination of guanfacine in human blood in clinical studies. A very sensitive DBS assay has been developed using HPLC coupled with an AB Sciex 5500 QTRAP® (Applied Biosystems/MDS Sciex, ON, Canada) MS system (LC-MS/MS) with a linear calibration range of 0.05 to 25 ng/ml. High-resolution MS using an Exactive Orbitrap® (ThermoFisher, LLC., CA, USA) was compared with the QTRAP using extracted exact mass ion current profiles for guanfacine and its stable-isotope-incorporated internal standard. The sample preparation employed liquid-liquid extraction with methyl t-butyl ether of 5 mm punched DBS card disks, followed by reversed-phase HPLC separation coupled with either MS/MS or high-resolution MS. Routine experiments were performed to establish the robustness of the DBS assay, including precision, accuracy, linearity, selectivity, sensitivity and long-term stability of up to 76 days. In addition, several factors that potentially affect quantitation were investigated, including blood volume for DBS spotting, punch size and punch location. A sensitive research assay with a LLOQ of 0.05 ng/ml was developed and subjected to several components of a method validation common to a regulated bioanalysis procedure employing DBS. This method development and partial validation study determined that spot volume, punch size or punch location do not affect assay accuracy and precision. The DBS approach was successfully applied to a clinical study (a Phase I, randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover study to assess the effect of varying multiple oral doses of guanfacine on the pharmacokinetic, pharmacodynamic, safety, and tolerability profiles in healthy adult subjects). The pharmacokinetic profiles for 12 volunteers generated from the DBS assay and from a previously validated plasma assay were compared and were found to be comparable. DBS incurred samples collected from finger prick blood and

  10. Constraint control of distillation processes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Roffel, B.; Fontein, H.J.

    1979-01-01

    There is a growing interest to design and operate chemical processes for reduced energy consumption. As an example a comparison is made between the distillation of binary mixtures in a conventional distillation column, a vapour recompression system and a two column heat integrated system. For all

  11. Distillation Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange,Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2010-01-01

    Gravity-based distillation methods may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be more advantageous than many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams.

  12. Trigger point dry needling versus strain-counterstrain technique for upper trapezius myofascial trigger points: a randomised controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Segura-Ortí, E; Prades-Vergara, S; Manzaneda-Piña, L; Valero-Martínez, R; Polo-Traverso, J A

    2016-06-01

    Treatment of active myofascial trigger points includes both invasive and non-invasive techniques. To compare the effects of upper trapezius trigger point dry needling (DN) and strain-counterstrain (SCS) techniques versus sham SCS. Randomised controlled trial. 34 study subjects with active trigger points were randomly assigned to one of three treatment groups, and received either three sessions of DN (n=12), six sessions of SCS (n=10), or sham SCS (n=12) over a 3-week period. Subjective pain response and subjects' own ratings of perceived disability were measured. The analysis of variance mixed model showed a significant time effect for pain (ppoints) were significant in the SCS group (5.5, 95% CI 1.6 to 9.4) but not in the DN (1.4, 95% CI -4.9 to 2.1) or sham SCS (1.8, 95% CI -6.4 to 2.7) groups. There was no significant group×time interaction effect for any variables studied. There were no differences between the sham SCS, SCS, and DN groups in any of the outcome measures. DN relieved pain after fewer sessions than SCS and sham SCS, and thus may be a more efficient technique. Future studies should include a larger sample size. NCT01290653. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  13. A technique for ultrasound-guided blood sampling from a dry and gel-free puncture area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, Sofie; Gopalasingam, Nigopan; Bendtsen, Thomas Fichtner; Knudsen, Lars; Sloth, Erik

    2016-05-07

    Vein punctures are performed daily to sample blood. Ultrasound (US) offers an alternative to the blind landmark technique for difficult vascular access. A challenge for this procedure is the presence of US gel in the puncture area. We present a technique for US-guided puncture from extremity veins not palpable or visible to the human eye, while keeping the puncture area dry and gel-free. Ten healthy volunteers underwent two US-guided vein punctures from veins that were neither palpable nor visible. One was drawn from an antebrachial vein and another from a brachial vein. A sterile barrier drape was made from a commercially available dressing and a piece of transparent sterile plastic. The barrier drape consists of an adhesive part placed on the skin designed for sonography and a free transparent flap constituting the barrier between the unsterile sonographic site and the sterile gel-free puncture site. The success rate for vein puncture was 100% in both locations. A total of 22 skin punctures were performed (11 antebrachial and 11 brachial). Gain output was increased 7% (4-12%), and 8% (4-15%), respectively, to compensate for attenuation of the US signal due to the drape. Alignment of the centre of the transducer with the long-axis of the target vein during the procedure was reported as a challenge. US-guided blood sampling from a brachial and antebrachial vein was possible with a 100% success rate, while ensuring a dry and gel-free venipuncture area on one side and the transducer on the other side of a sterile barrier.

  14. One step preparation of spherical drug particles by contamination-free dry milling technique with corn starch beads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Yoshida, Maria; Hayashi, Naoko; Kondo, Keita

    2017-08-07

    The novel dry milling technique has been developed by using a mechanical powder processor for improving the dissolution properties of poorly water-soluble drugs. It was found that the drug crystals were well pulverized by co-processing with fine particles of corn starch (CS). The morphological observation and particle size evaluation revealed that the processed products formed the composite particles with ordered-mixed structure, having double-layered particles with a core of CS and a coating layer of phenytoin (Phe), as a model drug. This result suggested that the drug crystals were selectively micronized and the resultant miniaturized Phe particles were adhered/fixed on the surface of un-milled CS particles. The mechanical characteristics detected by the indentation test assumed that the brittle Phe crystals sandwiched between elastic CS particles would be successfully crushed down by high shearing stress in the processor. The newly-established dispersion-sedimentation test indicated that the fine Phe particles were immediately detached from the composite particles in aqueous phase, constructing the suspension. The dissolution behavior from the processed particles was found to be improved and strongly dependent on the size and amount of detached Phe particles. Such milling and ordered-mixturization have been also successfully done by using recrystallized larger Phe particles than 100μm. These results would propose the contamination-free dry milling technique without using hard milling balls or beads. The mechanism of the current milling and ordered-mixing phenomena is also provided in this report. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Cyclic distillation technology - A mini-review

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bîldea, Costin Sorin; Pătruţ, Cătălin; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    2016-01-01

    Process intensification in distillation systems has received much attention during the pastdecades, with the aim of increasing both energy and separation efficiency. Varioustechniques, such as internal heat-integrated distillation, membrane distillation, rotating packedbed, dividing-wall columns ...

  16. Drying poly(ethylene glycol)

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2015-01-01

    Authors: Lucas Kinard, Kurtis Kasper & Antonios Mikos ### Abstract This protocol describes the drying of poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) by a simple 6 step procedure. One can implement this protocol using common lab glass and lab equipment. Water is removed from PEG by azeotropic distillation in toluene. The two components are mixed and toluene and water are distilled off by heating the solution to 170°C. This procedure can be implemented in ~2 h. ### Introduction In many ...

  17. Determination of low methylmercury concentrations in peat soil samples by isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS using distillation and solvent extraction methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietilä, Heidi; Perämäki, Paavo; Piispanen, Juha; Starr, Mike; Nieminen, Tiina; Kantola, Marjatta; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa

    2015-04-01

    Most often, only total mercury concentrations in soil samples are determined in environmental studies. However, the determination of extremely toxic methylmercury (MeHg) in addition to the total mercury is critical to understand the biogeochemistry of mercury in the environment. In this study, N2-assisted distillation and acidic KBr/CuSO4 solvent extraction methods were applied to isolate MeHg from wet peat soil samples collected from boreal forest catchments. Determination of MeHg was performed using a purge and trap GC-ICP-MS technique with a species-specific isotope dilution quantification. Distillation is known to be more prone to artificial MeHg formation compared to solvent extraction which may result in the erroneous MeHg results, especially with samples containing high amounts of inorganic mercury. However, methylation of inorganic mercury during the distillation step had no effect on the reliability of the final MeHg results when natural peat soil samples were distilled. MeHg concentrations determined in peat soil samples after distillation were compared to those determined after the solvent extraction method. MeHg concentrations in peat soil samples varied from 0.8 to 18 μg kg(-1) (dry weight) and the results obtained with the two different methods did not differ significantly (p=0.05). The distillation method with an isotope dilution GC-ICP-MS was shown to be a reliable method for the determination of low MeHg concentrations in unpolluted soil samples. Furthermore, the distillation method is solvent-free and less time-consuming and labor-intensive when compared to the solvent extraction method. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    OpenAIRE

    Emrullah Hayta; Nur Mine Umdu

    2016-01-01

    Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS) is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized st...

  19. A RANDOMIZED TRIAL TO STUDY THE COMPARISON OF TRIGGER POINT DRY NEEDLING VERSUS KINESIO TAPING TECHNIQUE IN MYOFASCIAL PAIN SYNDROME DURING A 3-MONTH FOLLOW UP

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emrullah Hayta

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Managemen of myofascial pain syndrome (MPS is a current research subject since there is a small number of randomized studies comparing different management techniques. Multiple studies attempted to assess various treatment options including trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping. We compared the effects of trigger point dry needling and kinesiotaping in the management of myofascial pain syndome during a 3-month follow-up period. Methods: In this prospective randomized studyin MPS patients with upper trapezius muscle trigger points, the effects of dry needling (n=28 and kinesiotaping (n=27 was compared with regard to the visual analog scale (VAS, neck disability index (NDI, and Nottingham health profile (NHP scores measured at the weeks 0, 4, and 12. Results: Both dry needling and kinesiotaping comparably reduced VAS scores measured at the weeks 4 and 12 and their efficacies were more remarkable at the week 12 (p<0.05. These interventions significantly reduced the NDI and NHP score and their effects were also more remarkable at the week 12; however, dry needling was found more effective (p<0.05. Conclusion: Overall, in current clinical settings, during the management of MPS, pain can be reduced comparably by both dry needling and kinesiotaping; however, restriction in the range of motionin neck region and quality of life are more remarkably reduced by dry needling. Both dry needling and kinesiotaping can provide an increasing effectiveness up to 12 weeks.

  20. PARAFFIN SEPARATION VACUUM DISTILLATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zaid A. Abdulrahman

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Simulated column performance curves were constructed for existing paraffin separation vacuum distillation column in LAB plant (Arab Detergent Company/Baiji-Iraq. The variables considered in this study are the thermodynamic model option, top vacuum pressure, top and bottom temperatures, feed temperature, feed composition & reflux ratio. Also simulated columns profiles for the temperature, vapor & liquid flow rates composition were constructed. Four different thermodynamic model options (SRK, TSRK, PR, and ESSO were used, affecting the results within 1-25% variation for the most cases.The simulated results show that about 2% to 8 % of paraffin (C10, C11, C12, & C13 present at the bottom stream which may cause a problem in the LAB plant. The major variations were noticed for the top temperature & the  paraffin weight fractions at bottom section with top vacuum pressure. The bottom temperature above 240 oC is not recommended because the total bottom flow rate decreases sharply, where as  the weight fraction of paraffins decrease slightly. The study gives evidence about a successful simulation with CHEMCAD

  1. Quantum distillation of bosons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, David

    2015-05-01

    The non-equilibrium dynamics of many-body quantum systems present a series of challenges for theory and opportunities for cold atom experiments. I will describe an experiment in which a bundle of initially trapped superfluid 1D Bose lattice gases is quenched to an untrapped, flat lattice potential. This simple experimental situation in the intermediate coupling regime (U/J between 4 and 9.6) leads to interesting dynamics. These include the progressive dissolution of a fraction of the doublons, as well as the quantum distillation and long term confinement of singlons out of and within the central, doublon-dominated region. We measure these processes by combining absorption imaging, photoassociation and 3-body loss to separately reconstruct the spatial distributions of the expectation values of singlons, doublons and triplons. The qualitative dynamics is reproduced by a Gutzwiller mean field model and the essence of the experiment can be understood by considering simple spatial pictures of site occupancies. This work was supported by the NSF and the ARO.

  2. Distillation of carbonaceous material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ainscow, J.W.H.

    1936-10-03

    To recover hydrocarbon products by distillation of carbonaceous material in a plurality of horizontal zones maintained at different temperatures, a retort has a plurality of superimposed (3) retort chambers, the uppermost being in communication at one end with a hopper and at the other end through coupled junction not shown with one end of the next lower chamber, whose opposite end communicates with lowermost chamber, the other end of which has a sealed discharge passage, tank, and conveyor not shown. Each retort chamber has stirring and conveying means consisting of helical blades (2) attached to radial arms on shaft mounted in water cooled bearings and driven through suitably mounted sprocket wheels and chains not shown. Each retort chamber has a gas dome, with pyrometer tube, and off-take connected to a common main opening into a dust eliminator which in turn connects with a plurality of vertical condensation towers of known construction, maintained at different temperatures by means of steam from a superheater not shown situated in one retort chamber. The retort heating gases pass from the furnace via zig-zag, (three) baffles under and around each retort chamber to a flue not shown.

  3. Field-flow fractionation as analytical technique for the characterization of dry yeast: correlation with wine fermentation activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanz, Ramsés; Galceran, Ma Teresa; Puignou, Lluís

    2003-01-01

    Important oenological properties of wine depend on the winemaking yeast used in the fermentation process. There is considerable controversy about the quality of yeast, and a simple and cheap analytical methodology for quality control of yeast is needed. Gravitational field flow fractionation (GFFF) was used to characterize several commercial active dry wine yeasts from Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Saccharomyces bayanus and to assess the quality of the raw material before use. Laboratory-scale fermentations were performed using two different S. cerevisiae strains as inocula, and GFFF was used to follow the behavior of yeast cells during alcoholic fermentation. The viable/nonviable cell ratio was obtained by flow cytometry (FC) using propidium iodide as fluorescent dye. In each experiment, the amount of dry wine yeast to be used was calculated in order to provide the same quantity of viable cells. Kinetic studies of the fermentation process were performed controlling the density of the must, from 1.071 to 0.989 (20/20 density), and the total residual sugars, from 170 to 3 g/L. During the wine fermentation process, differences in the peak profiles obtained by GFFF between the two types of commercial yeasts that can be related with the unlike cell growth were observed. Moreover, the strains showed different fermentation kinetic profiles that could be correlated with the corresponding fractograms monitored by GFFF. These results allow optimism that sedimentation FFF techniques could be successfully used for quality assessment of the raw material and to predict yeast behavior during yeast-based bioprocesses such as wine production.

  4. Purification of cadmium up to 5N+ by vacuum distillation

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    S T Ali; J V Rao; K S Varma; T L Prakash

    2002-11-01

    Cadmium was refined by vacuum distillation, a technique suitable for low boiling and melting point materials, to remove the heavy and low vapour pressure impurities at ppm level. The detailed analysis of the purified Cd as well as raw Cd was done by ICP–OES techniques for 27 impurity elements. Purification was carried out in an efficient high-yield vacuum distillation system designed and fabricated for purifying 3N+ purity indigenous cadmium to 5N+ (99.999%). Analysis confirmed the reduction of total impurity content from 134 ppm (3N7) for raw Cd to 3 ppm (5N7) upon vacuum distilled Cd. The present study shows that the analysis of impurities such as Fe, Mg and Ca are contributed from environmental effect, whereas impurities such as Pb, Bi, Ag, Ni, Cu, Zn and Tl require adaptation of elemental analysing technique to counter dilution effect. The Hg trace analysis can however be carried out by hydride generation techniques.

  5. Research on vacuum membrane distillation technique disposing of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dense dewatering%减压膜蒸馏技术处理无机高盐 RO 浓排水研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭建中; 路全忠; 杨才伟

    2012-01-01

      针对无机高盐 RO 浓排水具有含盐量高难处理的特点,本文研究了减压膜蒸馏技术处理无机高盐RO 浓排水试验阶段中不同料液温度、真空度、流速对膜通量的影响.结果表明:料液温度、真空度、流速与膜通量存在相关性.随着料液温度和真空度的提高,膜通量会相应增加;随着料液流速的增加膜通量也有增加,但流速小于0.2 m/s 时对膜通量的影响明显,当流速大于0.2m/s 时对膜通量影响小%  Aimed at the characteristic of high salinity and difficult dispose of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dewatering, this paper studies the vacuum membrane distillation technique dispose of high concentration inorganic salt reverse osmosis dewatering, and analyse the influence of different vacuum, material fluid temperature, flow velocity to membrane flux. The result shows that there is a correlation between membrane flux and vacuum, material fluid temperature and flow velocity. With increasing of vacuum and material fluid temperature, membrane flux increased accordingly; and when the velocity increased and membrane flux increased at the same time. With the velocity was less than 0.2 m/s, the influence to membrane flux came to be obvious, when the velocity was above 0.2 m/s, the influence to membrane flux went light.

  6. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, all food waste from the Swedish food industry would, according to national environmental goals, be recycled through biological treatment. For food waste from households and food establishments, the corresponding goal is at least 35%. The project aims to explore the potential for reducing costs and energy consumption, as well as decreasing the environmental impact, by decreasing the moisture content of food waste. Dried food waste has a long shelf-life and can be used as a bio fuel substrate together with other material of low dry matter content. It is expected to increase the bio fuel potential by improved possibilities to control the organic load. The storage costs are also reduced, as is the collecting frequency. Additionally, collecting can be done from a larger number of collecting points at the same occasion. Furthermore, the collection vehicle does not need to be equipped with collecting trays for silage effluent from the food waste. Since dried food waste can be stored for a longer period, this results in more optimal use of the energy of the food waste. The dried material requires neither decomposition nor sieving, has a very high purity degree (>99%), and does not result in reject material at treatment. The nutritional content of the dried material was also in principle intact. Composting of food waste from households was performed as a practical reference, in laboratory scale. The results show that rehydrated dried food waste works as good as a conventional compost fraction. However, the material has a tendency to dry out faster than conventional compost. Further rehydration may therefore be needed during the process. In this project, an assessment was made of two possible techniques for drying readily biodegradable organic waste: microwave vacuum drying of waste from food establishments and air-drying of food waste from households. The techniques were compared individually with current systems for handling waste, with respect to quality of the

  7. Assessment of two techniques for drying of easily degradable organic bio-waste; Bedoemning av tvaa tekniker foer torkning av laett nedbrytbart organiskt matavfall

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raaholt, Birgitta; Bergstroem, Birgitta; Broberg, Agneta; Holtz, Emma; Nordberg, Ulf; Del Pilar Castillo, Maria; Baky, Andras

    2011-10-15

    In 2010, all food waste from the Swedish food industry would, according to national environmental goals, be recycled through biological treatment. For food waste from households and food establishments, the corresponding goal is at least 35%. The project aims to explore the potential for reducing costs and energy consumption, as well as decreasing the environmental impact, by decreasing the moisture content of food waste. Dried food waste has a long shelf-life and can be used as a bio fuel substrate together with other material of low dry matter content. It is expected to increase the bio fuel potential by improved possibilities to control the organic load. The storage costs are also reduced, as is the collecting frequency. Additionally, collecting can be done from a larger number of collecting points at the same occasion. Furthermore, the collection vehicle does not need to be equipped with collecting trays for silage effluent from the food waste. Since dried food waste can be stored for a longer period, this results in more optimal use of the energy of the food waste. The dried material requires neither decomposition nor sieving, has a very high purity degree (>99%), and does not result in reject material at treatment. The nutritional content of the dried material was also in principle intact. Composting of food waste from households was performed as a practical reference, in laboratory scale. The results show that rehydrated dried food waste works as good as a conventional compost fraction. However, the material has a tendency to dry out faster than conventional compost. Further rehydration may therefore be needed during the process. In this project, an assessment was made of two possible techniques for drying readily biodegradable organic waste: microwave vacuum drying of waste from food establishments and air-drying of food waste from households. The techniques were compared individually with current systems for handling waste, with respect to quality of the

  8. Quantum entanglement distillation with metamaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    al Farooqui, Md Abdullah; Breeland, Justin; Aslam, Muhammad I; Sadatgol, Mehdi; Özdemir, Şahin K; Tame, Mark; Yang, Lan; Güney, Durdu Ö

    2015-07-13

    We propose a scheme for the distillation of partially entangled two-photon Bell and three-photon W states using metamaterials. The distillation of partially entangled Bell states is achieved by using two metamaterials with polarization dependence, one of which is rotated by π/2 around the direction of propagation of the photons. On the other hand, the distillation of three-photon W states is achieved by using one polarization dependent metamaterial and two polarization independent metamaterials. Upon transmission of the photons of the partially entangled states through the metamaterials the entanglement of the states increases and they become distilled. This work opens up new directions in quantum optical state engineering by showing how metamaterials can be used to carry out a quantum information processing task.

  9. Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2010-11-23

    The Flooding Predictor™ is a patented advanced control technology proven in research at the Separations Research Program, University of Texas at Austin, to increase distillation column throughput by over 6%, while also increasing energy efficiency by 10%. The research was conducted under a U. S. Department of Energy Cooperative Agreement awarded to George Dzyacky of 2ndpoint, LLC. The Flooding Predictor™ works by detecting the incipient flood point and controlling the column closer to its actual hydraulic limit than historical practices have allowed. Further, the technology uses existing column instrumentation, meaning no additional refining infrastructure is required. Refiners often push distillation columns to maximize throughput, improve separation, or simply to achieve day-to-day optimization. Attempting to achieve such operating objectives is a tricky undertaking that can result in flooding. Operators and advanced control strategies alike rely on the conventional use of delta-pressure instrumentation to approximate the column’s approach to flood. But column delta-pressure is more an inference of the column’s approach to flood than it is an actual measurement of it. As a consequence, delta pressure limits are established conservatively in order to operate in a regime where the column is never expected to flood. As a result, there is much “left on the table” when operating in such a regime, i.e. the capacity difference between controlling the column to an upper delta-pressure limit and controlling it to the actual hydraulic limit. The Flooding Predictor™, an innovative pattern recognition technology, controls columns at their actual hydraulic limit, which research shows leads to a throughput increase of over 6%. Controlling closer to the hydraulic limit also permits operation in a sweet spot of increased energy-efficiency. In this region of increased column loading, the Flooding Predictor is able to exploit the benefits of higher liquid

  10. Distillation process using microchannel technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tonkovich, Anna Lee; Simmons, Wayne W.; Silva, Laura J.; Qiu, Dongming; Perry, Steven T.; Yuschak, Thomas; Hickey, Thomas P.; Arora, Ravi; Smith, Amanda; Litt, Robert Dwayne; Neagle, Paul

    2009-11-03

    The disclosed invention relates to a distillation process for separating two or more components having different volatilities from a liquid mixture containing the components. The process employs microchannel technology for effecting the distillation and is particularly suitable for conducting difficult separations, such as the separation of ethane from ethylene, wherein the individual components are characterized by having volatilities that are very close to one another.

  11. 27 CFR 19.316 - Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distillation. 19.316 Section 19.316 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production § 19.316 Distillation. The distillation...

  12. Nano Spray Drying Technique as a Novel Approach To Formulate Stable Econazole Nitrate Nanosuspension Formulations for Ocular Use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maged, Amr; Mahmoud, Azza A; Ghorab, Mahmoud M

    2016-09-06

    The effect of using methyl-β-cyclodextrin and hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin as carriers for econazole nitrate nanoparticles prepared by nano spray dryer was explored in this work. Stabilizers, namely, poly(ethylene oxide), polyvinylpyrrolidone k30, poloxamer 407, Tween 80, and Cremophor EL, were used. The nano spray dried formulations revealed almost spherical particles with an average particle size values ranging from 121 to 1565 nm and zeta potential values ranging from -0.8 to -2.5 mV. The yield values for the obtained formulations reached 80%. The presence of the drug in the amorphous state within the nanosuspension matrix system significantly improved drug release compared to that for pure drug. Combination of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin with Tween 80 achieved an important role for preserving the econazole nanosuspension from aggregation during storage for one year at room temperature as well as improving drug release from the nanosuspension. This selected formulation was suspended in chitosan HCl to increase drug release and bioavailability. The in vivo evaluation on albino rabbit's eyes demonstrated distinctly superior bioavailability of the selected formulation suspended in chitosan compared to its counterpart formulation suspended in buffer and crude drug suspension due to its mucoadhesive properties and nanosize. The nano spray dryer could serve as a one step technique toward formulating stable and effective nanosuspensions.

  13. Highly Attrition Resistant Zinc Oxide-Based Sorbents for H2S Removal by Spray Drying Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, C.K.; Lee, J.B.; Ahn, D.H.; Kim, J.J.; Yi, C.K.

    2002-09-19

    Primary issues for the fluidized-bed/transport reactor process are high attrition resistant sorbent, its high sorption capacity and regenerability, durability, and cost. The overall objective of this project is the development of a superior attrition resistant zinc oxide-based sorbent for hot gas cleanup in integrated coal gasification combined cycle (IGCC). Sorbents applicable to a fluidized-bed hot gas desulfurization process must have a high attrition resistance to withstand the fast solid circulation between a desulfurizer and a regenerator, fast kinetic reactions, and high sulfur sorption capacity. The oxidative regeneration of zinc-based sorbent usually initiated at greater than 600 C with highly exothermic nature causing deactivation of sorbent as well as complication of sulfidation process by side reaction. Focusing on solving the sorbent attrition and regenerability of zinc oxide-based sorbent, we have adapted multi-binder matrices and direct incorporation of regeneration promoter. The sorbent forming was done with a spray drying technique that is easily scalable to commercial quantity.

  14. Optimization of Drying Technique of Lentinus Edodes (Berk. Sing with Microwave Vacuum Equipment via Response Surface Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi Zhang

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available In this study, microwave vacuum equipment was employed to dry lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing. Response Surface Methodology was used to determine the optimal drying conditions. The significant levels were obtained by the equations. The optimal conditions for drying lentinus edodes (Berk. Sing with microwave vacuum equipment were obtained as following: microwave power 2650W, lentinus edodes load 171 g. Under these optimum conditions, lentinus edodes sensory evaluation, lentinan content and drying time were 80, 4.33% and 11 min, respectively.

  15. Improvement of Physico-mechanical Properties of Partially Amorphous Acetaminophen Developed from Hydroalcoholic Solution Using Spray Drying Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatemeh Sadeghi

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: This study was performed aiming to investigate the effect of particle engineering via spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution on solid states and physico-mechanical properties of acetaminophen.   Materials and Methods: Spray drying of hydroalcoholic solution (25% v/v ethanol/water of acetaminophen (5% w/v in the presence of small amounts of polyninylpyrrolidone K30 (PVP (0, 1.25, 2.5 and 5% w/w based on acetaminophen weight was carried out. The properties of spray dried particles namely morphology, surface characteristics, particle size, crystallinity, dissolution rate and compactibility were evaluated. Results: Spray drying process significantly changed the morphology of acetaminophen crystals from acicular (rod shape to spherical microparticle. Differential scanning calorimetery (DSC and x-ray powder diffraction (XRPD studies ruled out any polymorphism in spray dried samples, however, a major reduction in crystallinity up to 65%, especially for those containing 5% w/w PVP was observed. Spray dried acetaminophen particles especially those obtained in the presence of PVP exhibited an obvious improvement of the dissolution and compaction properties. Tablets produced from spray dried samples exhibited excellent crushing strengths and no tendency to cap. Conclusions: The findings of this study revealed that spray drying of acetaminophen from hydroalcoholic solution in the presence of small amount of PVP produced partially amorphous particles with improved dissolution and excellent compaction properties.

  16. Demonstration of the vacuum drying technique on sludge from the paper and pulp industry; Demonstration av vakuumtorktekniken paa skogsindustriellt slam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eklund, Anders [AaF-Energikonsult AB, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2003-10-01

    Previous studies have indicated that a cost effective drying of sludge from the paper and pulp mills can be done by the use of vacuum at a lower water temperature. The purpose was to erect a pilot plant and test different types of sludge. Therefore, advantages and problems with this method could be determined. This work has planned and erected a complete pilot plant for continuous drying of sludge and the pilot plant occupies a hard surface of 10x10 meters. A drum type dryer is in the centre of the pilot plant and it has been modified for lower pressures. Other vital components are: handling of vapours, vacuum pump, hot water generation and materials handling of the sludge, both in wet and dry condition. First, tests where carried out to verify theories and previous laboratory studies. These test successfully confirmed that difficult sludge types could effectively be dried at lower temperatures by the use of vacuum. Then, tests where carried out on 9 different sludges from 7 different mills. Average sample weight was about 170 kg or 250 litres. All sludge samples could successfully be dried but with different levels of complexity. For an easier comprehension of the handling and drying, the different sludges were organised into three classes: sludge with a clear resemblance of clay, sludge with a resemblance of mud or earth and finally, sludge with a majority of fibres. Fibre type sludges were easy to dry to a high degree of dryness. However, they also dusted easily and thus, fibres easily carried over into the condensate. Earth type sludge was in wet condition difficult to handle. The drying was more time consuming and the sludge formed small round balls during the drying. These balls slowed the drying process but they were eventually gradually reduced and a higher degree of drying could continue. Clay type sludges formed already in the handling round balls and during drying these balls formed a hard dry outer layer, which contained moisture inside the balls. By

  17. Wine distillates: practical operating recipe formulation for stills.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osorio, Daniel; Pérez-Correa, J Ricardo; Biegler, Lorenz T; Agosin, Eduardo

    2005-08-10

    Consumer perceptions of flavors are associated with the chemical composition of foods. However, consumer preferences change; therefore, it is necessary for food manufacturers to be able to adapt their products. Unlike in aged spirits, the chemical composition of young spirits is determined during distillation; therefore, this is where distillers must tailor their operating recipes to the new trends. Even for an experienced distiller, the complexity of the process makes adapting the operating recipe far from straightforward. In this study, we developed a methodology for generating practical recipes that makes use of computer simulations and optimization techniques. We used Pisco Brandy, a young Muscat wine distillate from Chile and Peru as our case study. Even so, because our methodology is independent of the chemical composition of the broth, it can be applied throughout the industry. Drawing on the experience and preferences of industry enologists, we designed a preferred distillate and used our methodology to obtain the appropriate recipe. This recipe was validated in lab scale experiments, and we obtained a much closer distillate to the desired prescription than commercial products.

  18. Deep-Cut Vacuum Distillation in the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin Zhuwei; Mao Fuzhong; Jiang Bing; Chen Kaibei; Chi Ling; Yan Chun

    2009-01-01

    This article introduces the concepts relating to deep-cut vacuum distillation and its suitability, and analyzes the deep-cut vacuum distillation technique licensed by the KBC Advanced Technologies to the 10 Mt/a CDUNDU of the Qingdao refinery and makes comparison on the test run data after commissioning of the distillation unit. The test results have confirmed that the operation of the CDU/VDU had reached the expected goal to achieve good social and economic benefits.

  19. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    OpenAIRE

    2012-01-01

    Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Dis...

  20. Study of Products Distilled Spirits with Cassava Dregs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG le; WANG Jun-gao; LIU Wen-long

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, Cassava dregs are an outgrowth produced during starchy production which uses cassava as raw material. It is usually dropped out or used as cheap feedstuff. In order to make the best use of cassava dregs, increase industries' benefits and reduce castoff this study developed a new technique which used cassava dregs as raw material to produce distilled spirits based on cassava dregs characteristics. The technique adopt solid-ferment procedure. At first, the ferment is processed by solid-state distilling, and then rectification extra care refinement: at last the tequila was produced with characteristics of simple and elegant fragrance and mellow-tasting.

  1. The influence of microwave-assisted drying techniques on the rehydration behavior of blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielinska, Magdalena; Markowski, Marek

    2016-04-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effect of: (a) different drying methods, (b) hot air temperature in a convection oven, and (c) the moisture content of fruits dehydrated by multi-stage drying which involves a transition between different stages of drying, on the rehydration kinetics of dry blueberries. Models describing rehydration kinetics were also studied. Blueberries dehydrated by multi-stage microwave-assisted drying, which involved a hot air pre-drying step at 80 °C until the achievement of a moisture content of 1.95 kg H2O kg(-1)DM, were characterized by significantly higher rates of initial and successive rehydration as well as smaller initial loss of soluble solids in comparison with the samples dried by other methods. The highest initial rehydration rate and the smallest loss of soluble solids after 30 min of soaking were determined at 0.46 min(-1) and 0.29 kg DM kg(-1)DM, respectively. The Peleg model and the first-order-kinetic model fit the experimental data well.

  2. Present status of solar distillation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tiwari, G.N.; Singh, H.N.; Tripathi, R. [Indian Inst. of Technology, New Delhi (India). Centre for Energy Studies

    2003-11-01

    In this communication an attempt has been made to review, in brief, work on solar distillation, its present status in the world today and its future perspective. The review also includes water sources, water demand, availability of potable water and purification methods including the state of art and historical background. The classification of distillation units has been done on the basis of literature survey till today. The basic heat and mass transfer relation responsible for developing, testing procedure for various designs of solar stills have also been discussed. The present status of solar distillation units in India, economics of single and double slope fibre reinforced plastic on the basis of long-term performance and recommendations for future have been discussed in brief. (author)

  3. 发芽糙米干燥工艺研究%Study on Drying Technique for Germinated Brown Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周玉东; 唐淑芬; 姚妙爱; 张红

    2011-01-01

    [目的]得到发芽糙米干燥的最佳工艺.[方法]以稻谷为原料制得发芽糙米,采用普通热风干燥与微波干燥2种不同的干燥方式,普通热风干燥设置55、65和75℃,微波干燥设置低火、中火和高火,对发芽后的糙米进行干燥,记录发芽糙米达到安全储藏水分的时间.然后对达到安全储藏水分的发芽糙米进行加工性能、感观质量和营养成分的研究.[结果]微波干燥时中火干燥4 min与普通热风干燥65℃干燥1.5h都能达到发芽糙米的安全储藏水分,同时发芽糙米的加工性能、感官及营养品质较好.[结论]微波干燥中火干燥4min为发芽糙米的最佳干燥工艺条件,其次是普通热风干燥65℃干燥1.5h.%[Objective] The aim was to obtain the best drying technology of germinated brown rice. [ Method] Rice was taken as the raw material to make germinated brown rice, and using two different drying methods of common hot-air drying and microwave drying. Drying of germinated brown rice at three different temperatures of 55 , 65 and 75 ℃ for common hot-air drying, low temperature, moderate temperature and high temperature for microwave drying, after that we recorded the time to safety storage moisture. Then we studied on germinated brown rice of processing performance, sensory quality and nutrition ingredient. [ Result] When the processing performance, sensory quality and nutrition ingredient of the germinated brown rice was optimum, the microwave drying time was 4 min and the common hot-air drying was 1.5 h at 65 ℃.[ Conclusion] Thus microwave drying temperature drying at 4 min was the best condition of germinated brown rice, followed by ordinary drying at 65 ℃ for 1.5 h.

  4. Antimicrobial and Antioxidant Activity of the Essential Oils Obtained from Mentha longifolia L. Hudson, Dryed by Three Different Techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dragana Stanisavljević

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The way of drying the fresh herbal material influences the chemical content and the biological activities of their essential oils. The influence of the different drying methods of the herb Mentha longifolia (L. Hudson on the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of the extracted essential oils has been analyzed in this study. Drying has been carried out in three ways: in the natural way, in the laboratory oven (45°C and in the absorptional low-temperature condensational drier (35°C. The antioxidant activity of the essential oil has been estimated by FRAP and DPPH assays, while the antimicrobial activity has been estimated by the diffusible and micro-delusional method, testing on the nine types of bacteria and two types of fungi. The essential oil obtained from the herb dried in the natural way has shown the highest antioxidant activity and the lowest from the herb dried in the laboratory oven. Bacillus subtilis , Micrococcus luteus and Enterococcus faecalis have shown the highest sensitivity on the three samples. The oil obtained from the herb dried in the absorptional low-temperature drier has shown the strongest antimicrobial effect.

  5. A Comparison of the Detectability of Dry Contact Kissing Bonds in Adhesive Joints Using Longitudinal, Shear and High Power Ultrasonic Techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brotherhood, C. J.; Drinkwater, B. W.; Guild, F. J.

    2003-03-01

    This paper details a study on the detectability of dry contact kissing bonds in adhesive joints using three ultrasonic inspection techniques. Conventional normal incidence longitudinal and shear wave inspection were conducted on dry contact kissing bonds using a standard immersion transducer and an EMAT respectively. The detectability of the dry contact kissing bonds was assessed by calculating the reflection coefficient of the interface at varying loads for a number of surface roughnesses. A high power ultrasonic method was also employed to determine the non-linear behavior of the adhesive interface. The non-linearity of the interface was determined by the ratio of the amplitudes of the first harmonic and fundamental frequencies of the transmitted waveform. It was found that the high power technique showed the greatest sensitivity to kissing bonds at low contact pressures, however at high loads conventional longitudinal wave testing was more sensitive. It was also noted that a combination of two or more techniques could provide enhanced information about the kissing bond compared to a single technique alone.

  6. PVDF hollow fiber and nanofiber membranes for fresh water reclamation using membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-11-26

    Polyvinylidene fluoride hollow fiber and nanofibrous membranes are engineered and successfully fabricated using dry-jet wet spinning and electrospinning techniques, respectively. Fabricated membranes are characterized for their morphology, average pore size, pore size distribution, nanofiber diameter distribution, thickness, and water contact angle. Direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) performances of the fabricated membranes have been investigated using a locally designed and fabricated, fully automated MD bench scale unit and DCMD module. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes showed a water flux as high as 36 L m-2 h-1 whereas hollow fiber membranes showed a water flux of 31.6 L m-2 h-1, at a feed inlet temperature of 80 °C and at a permeate inlet temperature of 20 °C.

  7. Dry development rinse (DDR) process and material for ArF/EUV extension technique toward 1Xnm hp and beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigaki, Shuhei; Onishi, Ryuji; Sakamoto, Rikimaru

    2015-03-01

    Since the pattern pitch is getting smaller and smaller, the pattern collapse issue has been getting sever problem in the lithography process. Pattern collapse is one of the main reasons for minimizing of process margin at fine pitch by ArF-immersion or EUV lithography. The possible major cause of pattern collapse is the surface tension of the rinsing liquid and the shrinkage of resist pattern's surface. These surface tension or shrinkage are occurred in the spin drying process of the rinsing liquid. The influence of surface tension against very small pitch pattern is particularly severe. One of the most effective solution for this problem is thinning of the resist film thickness, however this strategy is reaching to its limits in terms of substrate etching process anymore. Recently the tri-layer resist process or hard mask processes have been used, but there is a limit to the thinning of resist film and there is no essential solution for this problem. On the other hand, dry development process such a supercritical drying method or DSA patterning by dry etching have been known as an ultimate way to suppress the pattern collapse issue. However, these processes are not applied to the mass production process right now because these have some problems such a defect issue, requirement of the special equipment and so on. We newly developed the novel process and material which can prevent the pattern collapse issue perfectly without using any special equipment. The process is Dry Development Rinse process (DDR process), and the material used in the process is Dry Development Rinse material (DDR material). DDR material is containing the special polymer which can replace the exposed and developed part. And finally, the resist pattern is developed by dry etching process without any pattern collapse issue. In this paper, we will discuss the approach for preventing the pattern collapse issue in ArF and EUV lithography process, and propose DDR process and DDR material as the

  8. Corrosion inhibition for distillation apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumert, Kenneth L.; Sagues, Alberto A.; Davis, Burtron H.; Schweighardt, Frank K.

    1985-01-01

    Tower material corrosion in an atmospheric or sub-atmospheric distillation tower in a coal liquefaction process is reduced or eliminated by subjecting chloride-containing tray contents to an appropriate ion-exchange resin to remove chloride from such tray contents materials.

  9. Prototype of an Interface for Hyphenating Distillation with Gas Chromatography and Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Ya-Ru; Yang, Hui-Hsien; Urban, Pawel L.

    2017-01-01

    Chemical analysis of complex matrices—containing hundreds of compounds—is challenging. Two-dimensional separation techniques provide an efficient way to reduce complexity of mixtures analyzed by mass spectrometry (MS). For example, gasoline is a mixture of numerous compounds, which can be fractionated by distillation techniques. However, coupling conventional distillation with other separations as well as MS is not straightforward. We have established an automatic system for online coupling of simple microscale distillation with gas chromatography (GC) and electron ionization MS. The developed system incorporates an interface between the distillation condenser and the injector of a fused silica capillary GC column. Development of this multidimensional separation (distillation-GC-MS) was preceded by a series of preliminary off-line experiments. In the developed technique, the components with different boiling points are fractionated and instantly analyzed by GC-MS. The obtained data sets illustrate dynamics of the distillation process. An important advantage of the distillation-GC-MS technique is that raw samples can directly be analyzed without removal of the non-volatile matrix residues that could contaminate the GC injection port and the column. Distilling the samples immediately before the injection to the GC column may reduce possible matrix effects—especially in the early phase of separation, when molecules with different volatilities co-migrate. It can also reduce losses of highly volatile components (during fraction collection and transfer). The two separation steps are partly orthogonal, what can slightly increase selectivity of the entire analysis. PMID:28337400

  10. Facial Toner Preparation Using Distilled Fragrant Compounds of Natural Herbal Plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, Wayne C.; Lien, Ching-Yi

    2011-01-01

    This experiment is designed to teach entry-level, nonchemistry-major students some basic organic chemistry through the procedure for making cosmetics. The experiment combines facial toner preparation with distillation techniques to create a stimulating learning environment. During the experiment, students perform a distillation to collect some…

  11. The efficacy of a new 6-phytase obtained from Buttiauxella spp. expressed in Trichoderma reesei on digestibility of amino acids, energy, and nutrients in pigs fed a diet based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers' dried grains with solubles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adedokun, S A; Owusu-Asiedu, A; Ragland, D; Plumstead, P; Adeola, O

    2015-01-01

    Sixteen cannulated pigs were used to evaluate the effect of a new 6-phytase derived from Buttiauxella spp. and expressed in Trichoderma reesei on apparent ileal digestibility (AID) of AA and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of DM, N, Ca, P, Na, Mg, K, Cl, and energy. Pigs were fed 4 diets for 2 periods in a crossover design. Within each period, there were 4 blocks of 4 pigs per block with each diet represented within each block. The average initial BW in periods 1 and 2 were 22 and 30 kg, respectively. Each period lasted 9 d with fecal collection on d 5 and 6 and a 12-h ileal digesta collection on d 7, 8, and 9. Pigs received a daily feed allowance of approximately 4.5% of their BW. The experimental diets were based on corn, soybean meal, wheat middlings, and corn distillers dried grain with solubles. Phytase was added at 0; 500; 1,000; or 2,000 phytase units/kg of diet to a basal diet that contained 205, 15, 5.4, and 10 g of CP, Lys, total P (1.6 g of nonphytate P), and Ca/kg diet, respectively. The addition of phytase improved (P phytase supplementation linearly and quadratically increased (P Phytase supplementation of the basal diet improved (P Phytase supplementation increased (P phytase supplementation of the basal diet increased (P phytase supplementation to the basal diet showed a tendency (P phytase supplementation. Increasing the level of phytase supplementation resulted in linear increases (P phytase expressed in Trichoderma reesei enhanced ileal digestibility of N and several AA in growing pigs in a dose-dependent manner.

  12. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  13. Distillation and Air Stripping Designs for the Lunar Surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boul, Peter J.; Lange, Kevin E.; Conger, Bruce; Anderson, Molly

    2009-01-01

    Air stripping and distillation are two different gravity-based methods, which may be applied to the purification of wastewater on the lunar base. These gravity-based solutions to water processing are robust physical separation techniques, which may be advantageous to many other techniques for their simplicity in design and operation. The two techniques can be used in conjunction with each other to obtain high purity water. The components and feed compositions for modeling waste water streams are presented in conjunction with the Aspen property system for traditional stage distillation models and air stripping models. While the individual components for each of the waste streams will vary naturally within certain bounds, an analog model for waste water processing is suggested based on typical concentration ranges for these components. Target purity levels for the for recycled water are determined for each individual component based on NASA s required maximum contaminant levels for potable water Distillation processes are modeled separately and in tandem with air stripping to demonstrate the potential effectiveness and utility of these methods in recycling wastewater on the Moon. Optimum parameters such as reflux ratio, feed stage location, and processing rates are determined with respect to the power consumption of the process. Multistage distillation is evaluated for components in wastewater to determine the minimum number of stages necessary for each of 65 components in humidity condensate and urine wastewater mixed streams. Components of the wastewater streams are ranked by Henry s Law Constant and the suitability of air stripping in the purification of wastewater in terms of component removal is evaluated. Scaling factors for distillation and air stripping columns are presented to account for the difference in the lunar gravitation environment. Commercially available distillation and air stripping units which are considered suitable for Exploration Life Support

  14. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye > Facts About Dry Eye Facts About Dry Eye This information was developed by the National Eye ... the best person to answer specific questions. Dry Eye Defined What is dry eye? Dry eye occurs ...

  15. Water recycling and desalination by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2005-01-01

    Because salt and other small components are the most common compounds in wastewater from the process industry, desalination techniques are likely to be suitable as treatment processes in many cases. Although membrane distillation (MD) is a well-known technology for desalination and water treatment,

  16. Simulation for Synthesis of TAME with Catalytic Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Liu Boxue; Deng Zhengyong; Weng Huixin; Gao Buliang

    2008-01-01

    The triangular matrixing modified relaxation model equation was established for the synthesis of TAME with catalytic distillation process, and a new accelerated convergence technique was adopted. The simulation on the synthesis of TAME showed that the calculated data agreed well with the experimental results.

  17. Isopropyl alcohol recovery by heteroazeotropic batch distillation

    OpenAIRE

    Van Baelen, Guy; Vreysen, Steven; Gerbaud, Vincent; Rodriguez-Donis, Ivonne; Geens, Jeroen; Janssens, Bart

    2010-01-01

    Solvent recovery is becoming a major issue in the pharmaceutical and specialty chemical industries. Solvent recovery by conventional batch distillation is limited by the frequent presence of azeotropes in the used solvent mixtures. Most distillation processes for the separation of azeotropic or difficult zeotropic mixtures involve the addition of an entrainer (homogeneous and heterogeneous azeotropic distillation or extractive distillation). In this study the recovery of IPA (isopropyl alc...

  18. Green chemical engineering aspects of reactive distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malone, Michael F; Huss, Robert S; Doherty, Michael F

    2003-12-01

    Reactive or catalytic distillation technology combines chemical synthesis steps with separations by distillation. This combination can lead to intensified, high-efficiency process systems with significant green engineering attributes. New applications and understanding have prompted growth in the use of reactive distillation for a variety of chemical syntheses, especially esterifications and etherifications involving oxygenated hydrocarbons. We describe several applications and the potential and tradeoffs for reactive distillation technology in the context of green engineering principles.

  19. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Progress Toward a Distillation Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, M. R.; Lubman, A.; Pickering, Karen D.

    2009-01-01

    Recovery of potable water from wastewater is essential for the success of long-duration manned missions to the Moon and Mars. Honeywell International and a team from NASA Johnson Space Center (JSC) are developing a wastewater processing subsystem that is based on centrifugal vacuum distillation. The wastewater processor, referred to as the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS), utilizes an innovative and efficient multistage thermodynamic process to produce purified water. The rotary centrifugal design of the system also provides gas/liquid phase separation and liquid transport under microgravity conditions. A five-stage subsystem unit has been designed, built, delivered and integrated into the NASA JSC Advanced Water Recovery Systems Development Facility for performance testing. A major test objective of the project is to demonstrate the advancement of the CDS technology from the breadboard level to a subsystem level unit. An initial round of CDS performance testing was completed in fiscal year (FY) 2008. Based on FY08 testing, the system is now in development to support an Exploration Life Support (ELS) Project distillation comparison test expected to begin in early 2009. As part of the project objectives planned for FY09, the system will be reconfigured to support the ELS comparison test. The CDS will then be challenged with a series of human-gene-rated waste streams representative of those anticipated for a lunar outpost. This paper provides a description of the CDS technology, a status of the current project activities, and data on the system s performance to date.

  20. Enhanced oral bioavailability of novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan prepared by a dry powder-coating technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Qing-Ri; Liu, Yan; Xu, Wei-Juan;

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop novel mucoadhesive pellets containing valsartan (VAL) with enhanced oral bioavailability. Two types of VAL loaded core pellets were prepared by an extrusion/spheronization method, and further dry-coated with a mixture of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HPMC) and...

  1. Assisted distillation of quantum coherence

    CERN Document Server

    Chitambar, E; Rana, S; Bera, M N; Adesso, G; Lewenstein, M

    2015-01-01

    We introduce and study the task of assisted coherence distillation. This task arises naturally in bipartite systems where both parties work together to generate the maximal possible coherence on one of the subsystems. Only incoherent operations are allowed on the target system while general local quantum operations are permitted on the other, an operational paradigm that we call local quantum-incoherent operations and classical communication (LQICC). We show that the asymptotic rate of assisted coherence distillation for pure states is equal to the coherence of assistance, a direct analog of the entanglement of assistance, whose properties we characterize. Our findings imply a novel interpretation of the von Neumann entropy: it quantifies the maximum amount of extra quantum coherence a system can gain when receiving assistance from a collaborative party. Our results are generalized to coherence localization in a multipartite setting and possible applications are discussed.

  2. Mise au point d'un nouvel appareil de "distillation isotherme" Disterm Development of Distherm, a New Isothermal Distillation Apparatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouton M.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available Les études analytiques de distillats pétroliers d'intervalles d'ébullition élevés doivent être réalisées sur des produits préparés dans des conditions de distillation extrêmement douces, de manière à conserver intactes toutes les espèces chimiques initialement contenues dans le pétrole brut en l'état. Pour répondre à cet objectif, le Comité de Distillation du GEC (Groupe d'Études Concertées sur l'analyse des fractions lourdes du pétrole, réunissant Compagnie Francaise de Raffinage (CFR, Société Nationale Elf Aquitaine (SNEA et Institut Français du Pétrole (IFP a mis au point un schéma de préparation spécial de ces distillats, faisant appel à des techniques de distillation continue, de type « isotherme» et « moléculaire ». Dans ce cadre, le Comité de Distillation du GEC a été amené à développer un nouvel appareillage de distillation x isotherme », permettant de réduire, sans craquage, tout pétrole brut jusqu'à une température maximale comprise entre 350 et 380 °C. On décrit dans cet article ce nouvel ensemble de distillation, ainsi que ses conditions opératoires de fonctionnement. On y donne aussi un aperçu de la précision de la méthode de distillation réalisable avec cet appareil, ainsi que de la qualité de fractionnement obtenu.Enfin, à l'aide de quelques exemples particuliers, on montre que le domaine d'application de l'appareil peut être étendu à des produits autres que des pétroles bruts. Analytical examinations of high-boiling-range petroleum distillates must be made with products prepared under extremely mild distillation conditions so as ta maintain intact all the chemical species initially present in the original crude oil.

  3. Impact of Drying Methods on Wettability of Populus tomentosa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Plantation poplar is one of the most important resources for wood industry, its utilization field is vast. The wettability of Populus tomentosa with different drying methods was judged by measurement of contact angle using distilled water in this paper. The results showed that the specimens from conventional drying have the biggest contact angle, and the air dried have the smallest contact angle, air dried lumbers have a better wettability than the kiln dried. The changes of contact angle in a period of tim...

  4. Synthesis of Al[2]O[3]-ZrO[2] powders from differently concentrated suspensions with a spray drying technique

    OpenAIRE

    Lyamina, Galina Vladimirovna; Ilela, Alfa; Khasanov, Oleg Leonidovich; Petyukevich, Mariya Stanislavovna; Vaytulevich (Vaitulevich), Elena Anatolievna

    2016-01-01

    The composite powders of aluminium and zirconium oxides containing 10, 50 and 90 mol % Al{3+} without a stabilizer have been obtained from suspensions using a spray drying method. The powders obtained at equal mole ratios of zirconium and aluminum in the original solution (0.5:0.5 mol/l) have the largest contents of cubic and tetragonal phases of ZrO[2], strictly uniform distribution of phases and the largest value of the specific surface area. The particles with two different morphologies ha...

  5. Identification of bovine material in porcine spray-dried blood derivatives using the Polymerase Chain Reaction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sánchez A.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to the widely supported theory of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE spread in cattle by contaminated animal feeds, screening of feed products has become essential. For many years, manufacturers have used blood and plasma proteins as high quality ingredients of foods for both pets and farm animals. However, in Europe, the Commission Regulation 1234/2003/EC temporally bans the use of processed animal proteins, including blood-derivative products, in feedstuffs for all farm animals which are fattened or bred for the production of food. This regulation has some exceptions, such as the use of non ruminant blood products into the feed of farm fish. Authorization of the re-introduction of these proteins into animal feed formulations, especially non ruminant proteins into the feed for non ruminant farm animals, is expected when adequate control methods to discriminate ruminant proteins exist. Currently, the number of validated methods to differentiate the species of origin for most of the animal by-products is limited. Here we report the development of a rapid and sensitive polymerase chain reaction (PCR-based assay, which allows detection of bovine or porcine specific mitochondrial DNAfrom spray-dried blood derivate products (plasma, whole blood and red cells, as a marker for bovine contamination in porcine products. Sample extracts, suitable for PCR, were easily and quickly obtained with the commercial PrepManTM Ultra reagent (Applied Biosystems. To confirm the porcine origin of the samples, primers targeting a specific region of 134 bp of the porcine cytochrome b coding sequence were designed (cytbporc1-F and cytbporc2-R. Previously published PCR primers (L8129 and H8357, specific for a 271 bp fragment of the bovine mitochondrial ATPase 8-ATPase 6 genes, were chosen to accomplish amplification of bovine DNA. The limit of detection (LOD of the bovine PCR assay was at least of 0.05% (v/v of bovine inclusion in spray-dried porcine plasma or red

  6. Distributive Distillation Enabled by Microchannel Process Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arora, Ravi

    2013-01-22

    The application of microchannel technology for distributive distillation was studied to achieve the Grand Challenge goals of 25% energy savings and 10% return on investment. In Task 1, a detailed study was conducted and two distillation systems were identified that would meet the Grand Challenge goals if the microchannel distillation technology was used. Material and heat balance calculations were performed to develop process flow sheet designs for the two distillation systems in Task 2. The process designs were focused on two methods of integrating the microchannel technology 1) Integrating microchannel distillation to an existing conventional column, 2) Microchannel distillation for new plants. A design concept for a modular microchannel distillation unit was developed in Task 3. In Task 4, Ultrasonic Additive Machining (UAM) was evaluated as a manufacturing method for microchannel distillation units. However, it was found that a significant development work would be required to develop process parameters to use UAM for commercial distillation manufacturing. Two alternate manufacturing methods were explored. Both manufacturing approaches were experimentally tested to confirm their validity. The conceptual design of the microchannel distillation unit (Task 3) was combined with the manufacturing methods developed in Task 4 and flowsheet designs in Task 2 to estimate the cost of the microchannel distillation unit and this was compared to a conventional distillation column. The best results were for a methanol-water separation unit for the use in a biodiesel facility. For this application microchannel distillation was found to be more cost effective than conventional system and capable of meeting the DOE Grand Challenge performance requirements.

  7. GeneDistiller--distilling candidate genes from linkage intervals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dominik Seelow

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Linkage studies often yield intervals containing several hundred positional candidate genes. Different manual or automatic approaches exist for the determination of the gene most likely to cause the disease. While the manual search is very flexible and takes advantage of the researchers' background knowledge and intuition, it may be very cumbersome to collect and study the relevant data. Automatic solutions on the other hand usually focus on certain models, remain "black boxes" and do not offer the same degree of flexibility. METHODOLOGY: We have developed a web-based application that combines the advantages of both approaches. Information from various data sources such as gene-phenotype associations, gene expression patterns and protein-protein interactions was integrated into a central database. Researchers can select which information for the genes within a candidate interval or for single genes shall be displayed. Genes can also interactively be filtered, sorted and prioritised according to criteria derived from the background knowledge and preconception of the disease under scrutiny. CONCLUSIONS: GeneDistiller provides knowledge-driven, fully interactive and intuitive access to multiple data sources. It displays maximum relevant information, while saving the user from drowning in the flood of data. A typical query takes less than two seconds, thus allowing an interactive and explorative approach to the hunt for the candidate gene. ACCESS: GeneDistiller can be freely accessed at http://www.genedistiller.org.

  8. Surelease or organic solution of ethylcellulose in preparation of sustained release theophylline micromatrices or matrices using spray drying technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afrasiabi Garekani, Hadi; Sedighi, Samira; Sadeghi, Fatemeh

    2015-03-01

    This study evaluated ethylcellulose (EC) in two forms in preparation of sustained release theophylline microparticles using spray drying. Spray dried (SD) samples at different drug:polymer ratios were prepared using Surelease (SDaq) or organic solutions of ethylcellulose (SDor). Properties of particles (yield, particle morphology, size distribution and release profiles) were examined. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and infrared spectroscopy (IR) studies were performed to track polymorphic changes and/or drug polymer interactions. SD samples were compressed and crushing strengths and release profiles were determined. The yields were in the range of 55-70%. The SD samples were nearly spherical with numerous fine particles attached to their surfaces. The SDor samples showed the smallest particle size. No polymorphism or drug-polymer interaction was observed. Uncompressed SDaq samples showed inadequate sustained release of drug compared to SDor samples. Surelease content did not affect drug release from SDaq samples. Tablets prepared from SDaq were softer and showed some plasticity, while those prepared from SDor exhibited higher crushing strengths. Tablets prepared from SDaq showed sustained release properties while the release of drug from compressed SDor samples were too slow. Overall Surelease was unable to sustain release of theophylline from SDaq microparticles, however, in compacted form showed more appropriate drug release than compacted SDor.

  9. Spray drying as a fast and simple technique for the preparation of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) microparticles in a fixed dose combination (FDC) product with aspirin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamishehkar, H; Valizadeh, H; Alasty, P; Monajjemzadeh, F

    2014-02-01

    Recent advances have proven that the combinational therapy of extended release dipyridamole (DYP) and fast release aspirin (ASP) can improve clinical indices of heart failure in several vascular disorders. Although pharmaceutical industries always supported fast, simple and cost saving techniques in their productions, there is no simple reported method available for this purpose. The aim of this study was to check the possibility of preparing a FDC product, containing individual dosage units of extended release DYP microparticles and fast release ASP, using the spray-drying technique as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries. Solid dispersions of DYP in different polymeric substances (ethyl cellulose, carnauba wax, and Eudragit PO 100), were prepared using the spray-drying method. The physicochemical properties and structure of the prepared microparticles were analyzed using different techniques, such as the particle size analyzer (PSA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X ray diffraction (XRD), and USP dissolution tester. ASP tablets were prepared individually and tested according to pharmacopeia. Results showed that prepared microparticles measured about 2.3 µm in size. Statistical analysis of the release data revealed that there is no significant difference in the mean release amount of the selected formulation compared to the innovative brand (Aggrenox®). Findings proposed a new formulation (F7) as an alternative to innovative brand and proved spray drying as a practice compatible with pharmaceutical industries and as a successful method for sustaining the DYP release rate from prepared microparticles in a FDC dosage form. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  10. Free Boundary Problems in Distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wohlhuter, Frederick Karl

    Design and scaleup of distillation equipment requires an understanding of the vapor-liquid equilibria as well as an understanding of the column hydraulics. This work focuses on two problems of fluid mechanics important in understanding the behavior of distillation columns: the shapes and stability of dielectric drops in an electric field and the flow patterns on distillation trays. Axisymmetric equilibrium shapes and stability of dielectric drops subject to an applied electric field are determined by solving simultaneously the Young-Laplace equation for drop shape and the Maxwell equations for field distribution. Both linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops are studied, as are drops that are pendant/sessile on a supporting plate and those that are floating freely between two plates. The range of parameters for which hysteresis in drop deformation can be observed is given for linearly and nonlinearly polarizable drops. Properly accounting for the effects of nonlinear polarization brings the theoretical results of this work into accord with previously published experimental results. Detailed examination of the electric fields inside nonlinearly polarizable drops reveals that they are very nonuniform, in contrast to the nearly uniform fields usually found in linearly polarizable drops. The concept of depth averaging the equations of motion for a thin film (relative to the length of the distillation tray) is used to reduce the three-dimensional, free surface flow problem to two dimensions. A one-dimensional model is first used to gain understanding into the behavior of the bulk flow, ignoring any edge effects. A rise in the height profile on the tray, or hydraulic jump, is predicted. The effects of Reynolds number, capillary number (surface tension), tray geometry, and film thickness are all examined. The importance of the downcomers is shown. The two-dimensional model allows examination not only of rectangular trays, but also round trays and trays which are annular

  11. Don't Forget Product Recovery in Catalysis Research-Check the Distillation Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Jean-Paul

    2017-01-10

    When investigating a new catalytic reaction, scientists may wonder if the crude reaction product can be easily separated and purified. We present here a new concept-distillation resistance-to assess the potential of distillation as a purification technique and to guide catalyst formulation or operation at the very early stage of the research. Distillation resistance, which has been developed from the analysis of 15 industrial distillation trains, can be quickly calculated with knowledge of only the product composition and atmospheric boiling points of the components. It can be directly converted into a preliminary distillation cost that considers investment and energy cost. Its application and its potential guidance in catalysis research are illustrated through a few cases studies derived from biorefinery processes. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. Distillation Parameters for Pilot Plant Production of Laurus nobilis Essential oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Temel Özek

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Essential oils have increasing importance in flavour and fragrance industries. They are obtained by distillation techniques. In order to produce an oil with market potential its optimum production parameters have to be well known prior to its commercial production. Determination of the steam distillation parameters of commercially available Laurel leaves oil in pilot plant scale is described. The effect of steam rate and processing time play a major role in distillation of essential oils. Distillation speed was high in the beginning of the process, then gradually reduced as the distillation proceeded. The main component of the oil of Laurel leaf oil was 1,8-cineole accumulating significantly in the early fractions.

  13. Comparison, limitations and uncertainty of wet chemistry techniques, loss on ignition and dry combustion in soil organic carbon analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ćirić, Vladimir; Manojlović, Maja; Belić, Milivoj; Nešić, Ljiljana; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Sitaula, Bishal K.

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic carbon (SOC) has an important role in natural processes (carbon cycle, global climate change and plant growth), agriculture, soil protection and biodiversity. Determination of SOC is usually based on the oxidation of soil organic matter (SOM). Many methods are available, each with advantages and disadvantages in terms of accuracy, costs, convenience and repeatability. Therefore, it is necessary to make a comprehensive overview in order to select appropriate method with the purpose of accurate SOC determination. Most errors in SOC stocks assessment and SOC monitoring occur due to differences in analytical approaches and procedures. This can be a key factor in making incorrect conclusions. The purpose of this research was to compare methods for SOC determination and highlight the strengths and weaknesses of individual methods. The research was conducted on soil samples collected from different soil types and different land uses of temperate region. The concentration of SOC in every sample was determined by the following methods: Tyrin's method, Tyrin's method without addition of AgSO4, Kotzmann's method, loss on ignition (LOI) method, Walkley-Black method, dry combustion by CHN analyzer with pretreatment with HCl and subtraction of volumetrically determined soil inorganic carbon (SIC) from dry combustion by CHN analyzer without pretreatment. Each of the applied methods demonstrated specific limitations. The average SOC concentration determined by different methods ranged from 16.1-28.5 g kg-1. It has been established that different methods for the determination of total SOC recovered 76-157% of SOC compared to the reference dry combustion method by CHN analyzer. The correlation coefficients between applied methods ranged from 0.74-0.98. The Tyrin's method without addition of AgSO4 can be recommended as the most suitable method for the determination of SOC, with mandatory use of the correction factor 1.14. For the purpose of reducing the difference

  14. Treating thin stillage or condensed distillers solubles with phytase for production of low phytate co-products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol production from grains is mainly based on dry grind processing, during which phytate is concentrated about three fold in distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS), a major co-product. For reducing phyate in DDGS, two industrial phytase preparations (Natuphos and Ronozyme) were used ...

  15. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2016-11-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  16. Spray Drying as a Processing Technique for Syndiotactic Polystyrene to Powder Form for Part Manufacturing Through Selective Laser Sintering

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mys, N.; Verberckmoes, A.; Cardon, L.

    2017-03-01

    Selective laser sintering (SLS) is a rapidly expanding field of the three-dimensional printing concept. One stumbling block in the evolution of the technique is the limited range of materials available for processing with SLS making the application window small. This article aims at identifying syndiotactic polystyrene (sPS) as a promising material. sPS pellets were processed into powder form with a lab-scale spray dryer with vibrating nozzle. This technique is the focus of this scope as it almost eliminates the agglomeration phenomenon often encountered with the use of solution-based processing techniques. Microspheres obtained were characterized in shape and size by scanning electron microscopy and evaluation of the particle size distribution. The effect the processing technique imparts on the intrinsic properties of the material was examined by differential scanning calorimetry analysis.

  17. Operation and Design of Diabatic Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas

    nature of the modelling framework is favourable for benchmarking distillation column configurations. To further facilitate benchmarking of distillation column configurations, a conceptual design algorithm was formulated, which systematicallyaddresses the selection of the design variables. The conceptual...... design of the heat-integrated distillation column configurations is challenging as a result of the increased number of decision variables compared to the CDiC. Finally, themodel is implemented in Matlab and a database of the considered configurations, case studies, pure component properties, and binary...

  18. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    OpenAIRE

    Ninić Neven; Klarin Branko; Tolj Ivan

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen usi...

  19. 南瓜脆片微波干燥工艺研究%Study on the Microwave Drying Technique of Pumpkin Crisp Chip

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    熊涛; 龙娇

    2011-01-01

    [目的]研究南瓜脆片微波干燥的方法.[方法]对微波功率、切片厚度、处理时间和预处理后南瓜片初始含水率等因素对膨化干燥南瓜脆片的影响进行研究和比较.[结果]在微波功率为中高火,南瓜片的切片厚度为3mm,预处理后南瓜片初始含水率为18%左右的条件下,可得到高品质的南瓜脆片,干燥390 s时膨化率高达220%.[结论]微波干燥很适合南瓜脆片的制作.%[Objective] To study the microwave drying method of pumpkin crisp chip. [ Method ] The effects of microwave power, slice thick ness, treatment time and water content in pumpkin chip after pretreatment on the puffed drying of pumpkin crisp chip were studied and compared. [ Result] High-quality pumpkin crisp chip could be produced by setting the microwave power at medium-high heat, the slice thickness at 3mm and the water content in pumpkin chip after pretreatment at 18% , the puffing rate could reach as high as 220% after 390 s drying. [Conclusion] Microwave drying was a good technique to produce pumpkin crisp chip.

  20. 喷雾干燥速溶香蕉粉制备工艺研究%Study on technique of instant banana powder by spray drying

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许学勤; 李丹

    2011-01-01

    从全利用香蕉可食部分出发研究喷雾干燥法制备速溶香蕉粉的工艺,主要研究了干燥前果汁的浓缩与调配.酶处理后的香蕉果浆经离心分离,上清液喷雾干燥制备速溶香蕉粉.以含水量、吸湿性、溶解性、粒径、颗粒微观结构为指标考察麦芽糊精DE值、添加量、果汁浓度及抗结剂对喷雾干燥产品的影响,得到最佳工艺为:果汁浓缩至20°Brix,添加0.6(kg/kg香蕉固形物)DE15~20麦芽糊精,0.015(kg/kg香蕉固形物)SiO2.%From the point of full utilization of banana edible part, the technique for processing instant banana powder was studied ,especially the concentration and preparation of juice before drying. Banana pulp was firstly separated into supernatant and insoluble marc by centrifugation after enzymatic treatment of fragmentized banana pulp. Then supernatant was dried by spray-drying to prepare instant banana powder. The quality of spray-drying products was evaluated by water content, hygroscopicity, dissolubility, average diameter and microstructure to study the indexes of DE value and levels of maltodextrin(MD) added to the pulp,juice concentration and anti-caking agent.The optimum conditions were : the juice was concentrated to 20° Brix, the addition of MD ( DEl 5 : 20) and SiO2 was found to be 0.6 and 0.015( kg per kg banana solids).

  1. Dynamic Effects of Diabatization in Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2012-01-01

    The dynamic eects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation with primary focus on the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, rst-principle model has been formulated, which is exible to describe various diabatic distillation congurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found. Control...

  2. Dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic effects of diabatization in distillation columns are investigated in simulation emphasizing the heat-integrated distillation column (HIDiC). A generic, dynamic, first-principle model has been formulated, which is flexible enough to describe various diabatic distillation configurations....... Dynamic Relative Gain Array and Singular Value Analysis have been applied in a comparative study of a conventional distillation column and a HIDiC. The study showed increased input-output coupling due to diabatization. Feasible SISO control structures for the HIDiC were also found and control...

  3. Hybrid wind-power-distillation plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ninić Neven

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper reports and elaborates on the idea of a solar distiller and an offshore wind power plant operating together. The subject under discussion is a single-stage solar distillation plant with vaporization, using adiabatic expansion in the gravitational field inside a wind power plant supporting column. This scheme divides investment costs for electric power and distillate production. In the region of the Adriatic Sea, all electric power produced could be “converted” to hydrogen using less than 10% of the distillate produced.

  4. Physical properties of extrudates containing distillers grains extruded in a twin screw extruder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Extrusion trials were conducted with varying levels of distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) along with soy flour, corn flour, fish meal, vitamin mix, mineral mix and net protein content adjusted to 28% using a Wenger TX-52 twin screw extruder. The properties of extrudates obtained with exper...

  5. THEORETICAL & EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF VACUUM MEMBRANE DISTILLATION FOR TAP WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prof .V.C. Renge

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a thermally driven process in which only vapor molecules pass through a membrane. The liquid feed to be treated by membrane distillation should be in direct contact with one side of the membrane and should not penetrate inside the dry pores of the membrane. It is a rising technology for seawater or brine desalination process. In this process, vacuum is applied on the permeate side to drive the evaporation of water. The performance of vacuum membrane distillation studied by the effect of feed flow rate , effect of permeate pressure,& effect of feed temperature etc The process was a found to be sensitive with respect to permeate-sidepressure; it is always negative and therefore on increasing permeate-side pressure, the mass flux decreases. The process sensitivity is not much affected by changing membrane characteristics parameter and membrane pore diameter, however mass flux increase linearly with membrane characteristics and pore diameter both. Theprocess is much sensitive below feed temperature of 52oC and is always positive.

  6. Volatile organic emissions from the distillation and pyrolysis of vegetation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Greenberg

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and woody plant tissue (Pinus ponderosa, Eucalyptus saligna, Quercus gambelli, Saccharum officinarum and Oriza sativa were heated from 30 to 300°C and volatile organic compound (VOC emissions were identified and quantified. Major VOC emissions were mostly oxygenated and included acetic acid, furylaldehyde, acetol, pyrazine, terpenes, 2,3-butadione, phenol and methanol, as well as smaller emissions of furan, acetone, acetaldehyde, acetonitrile and benzaldehyde. Total VOC emissions from distillation and pyrolysis were on the order of 10 gC/kgC dry weight of vegetation, as much as 33% and 44% of CO2 emissions (gC(VOC/gC(CO2 measured during the same experiments, in air and nitrogen atmospheres, respectively. The emissions are similar in identity and quantity to those from smoldering combustion of woody tissue and of different character than those evolved during flaming combustion. VOC emissions from the distillation of pools and endothermic pyrolysis under low turbulence conditions may produce flammable concentrations near leaves and may facilitate the propagation of wildfires. VOC emissions from charcoal production are also related to distillation and pyrolysis; the emissions of the highly reactive VOCs from production are as large as the carbon monoxide emissions.

  7. 40 CFR 721.4500 - Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Isopropylamine distillation residues and ethylamine distillation residues. 721.4500 Section 721.4500 Protection of Environment... SUBSTANCES Significant New Uses for Specific Chemical Substances § 721.4500 Isopropylamine distillation...

  8. Distillation of nonstabilizer states for universal quantum computation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duclos-Cianci, Guillaume; Svore, Krysta M.

    2013-10-01

    Magic-state distillation is a fundamental technique for realizing fault-tolerant universal quantum computing and produces high-fidelity Clifford eigenstates, called magic states, which can be used to implement the non-Clifford π/8 gate. We propose an efficient protocol for distilling other nonstabilizer states that requires only Clifford operations, measurement, and magic states. One critical application of our protocol is efficiently and fault-tolerantly implementing arbitrary, non-Clifford, single-qubit rotations in, on average, constant online circuit depth and polylogarithmic (in precision) offline resource cost, resulting in significant improvements over state-of-the-art decomposition techniques. Finally, we show that our protocol is robust to noise in the resource states.

  9. Evaluation of three gas chromatography and two direct mass spectrometry techniques for aroma analysis of dried red bell peppers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.; Boscaini, E.; Mayr, D.; Pugh, J.; Posthumus, M.A.

    2003-01-01

    Three gas chromatography methods and two direct mass spectrometry techniques were compared for the analysis of the aroma of rehydrated diced red bell peppers. Gas chromatography methods included systems with olfactometry detection (GC-O), flame ionisation detection (GC-FID) and mass spectrometry (GC

  10. Studies on biosorption of Cr(VI) on a green resin: dry cow dung powder and tracer technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barot, N.S.; Bagla, H.K. [Kishinchand Chellaram College, Mumbai (India). Nuclear and Radiochemistry Dept.

    2012-07-01

    The present investigation entails the application of dry cow dung powder (DCP) as an indigenous, inexpensive and eco-friendly material for the removal of Cr(VI) from aqueous medium. Batch biosorption experiments were conducted employing {sup 51}Cr(VI) as a tracer and the effect of various process parameters such as optimum pH, temperature, amount of resin, time of equilibration, agitation speed, concentration of metal ions and interfering effect of different salts etc. were studied. The kinetic studies were carried out employing various models but the best fitting was given by Lagergren Pseudo-second order model with high correlation coefficient R{sup 2} value of 0.997 and adsorption capacity of 10.20 mg/g. The thermodynamic parameters for biosorption were evaluated as {Delta}G = -2.837 kJ/mol, {Delta}H = -4.757 kJ/mol and {Delta}S = 16.64 J/mol K, which indicated spontaneous and exothermic process with high affinity of DCP for Cr(VI). Many naturally available materials are used for the biosorption of heavy metal pollutants, where most of them are physically or chemically modified. In this research work, DCP has been utilized without any pre or post chemical treatment. Thus it manifests the principle of green chemistry and proves to be an eco-friendly resin. (orig.)

  11. Anaerobic biogasification of domestic wastes and direct solar energy use to produce biogas, biofertilizer and distilled water in a city - a pilot plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    kumar, R.A.; Pandya, N.H.; Patil, A.M.; Annamalai, M.; Iyer, M.V.; Nirmala, K.A.; Venkatesh, P.; Prasad, C.R.; Subramani, C.

    1982-01-01

    Domestic wastes are a source of gas of high calorific value as well as biofertilizer and distilled water. A pilot project undertaken by the Tata Electric Cos., Bombay on recycling sewage, garbage and garden wastes of a community by converting them into biogas, organic fertilizer and distilled water is described. Techniques used are anaerobic fermentation and Solar drying using Solar stills. A fish pond also can be fed the output slurry as feed material. In this pilot plant, 1 to 2 m/sup 3/ raw sewage and one to two tons of processed garden wastes and garbage would be input daily into the digester. The production is expected to be about 100 m/sup 3/ of gas per day, along with about 1500 litres of slurry from which organic fertilizer of 100 200 Kgs can be bagged and transported as well as distilled water of about 500 to 1000 litres Laboratory studies and studies on an approximate scale model of the plant are described. Scaling up to a pilot plant by about 2000 times would increase the efficiency of the rate of gas production as has been found by other workers. These tests and studies have shown that the project is technically and eonomically viable. Applications of the process on a mass scale would result in increasing replacement of fossil energy intensive processes with negentropic methods of economic and social activities.

  12. A Sustainable Ethanol Distillation System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuelei Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The discarded fruit and vegetable waste from the consumer and retailer sectors provide a reliable source for ethanol production. In this paper, an ethanol distillation system has been developed to remove the water contents from the original wash that contains only around 15% of the ethanol. The system has an ethanol production capacity of over 100,000 liters per day. It includes an ethanol condenser, a wash pre-heater, a main exhaust heat exchanger as well as a fractionating column. One unique characteristic of this system is that it utilizes the waste heat rejected from a power plant to vaporize the ethanol, thus it saves a significant amount of energy and at the same time reduces the pollution to the environment.

  13. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  14. A Comprehensive Real-World Distillation Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazameas, Christos G.; Keller, Kaitlin N.; Luyben, William L.

    2015-01-01

    Most undergraduate mass transfer and separation courses cover the design of distillation columns, and many undergraduate laboratories have distillation experiments. In many cases, the treatment is restricted to simple column configurations and simplifying assumptions are made so as to convey only the basic concepts. In industry, the analysis of a…

  15. Benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler technique in patients with asthma and COPD: a study from the Central Development Region, Nepal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poudel RS

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ramesh Sharma Poudel,1 Rano Mal Piryani,2 Shakti Shrestha,3 Aastha Prajapati1 1Hospital Pharmacy, 2Department of Internal Medicine, Chitwan Medical College Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Pharmacy, Shree Medical and Technical College, Chitwan, Nepal Background: The majority of patients with asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD have been known to perform inhaler technique inadequately. We aimed to evaluate the benefit of hospital pharmacy intervention on the current status of dry powder inhaler (Rotahaler® technique in such patients and the factors associated with the correct use. Methods: A pre–post interventional study was conducted at the outpatient pharmacy in a teaching hospital of the Central Development Region, Nepal, in patients with asthma and COPD currently using a Rotahaler device. Patients’ demographics and Rotahaler technique were assessed before intervention. Those who failed to demonstrate the correct technique were educated and trained by the pharmacist, and their technique was reassessed after 2 weeks of intervention. Descriptive statistics, including Wilcoxon signed rank test, Mann–Whitney U test, Spearman’s correlations and Kruskal–Wallis test, were performed for statistical analysis. Results: Before intervention, only 5.7% (10 of 174 of the patients demonstrated the correct Rotahaler technique and the most common errors observed were failure to breathe out gently before inhalation (98.8% and failure to hold breath for about 10 seconds after inhalation (84.8%. After the intervention (n=164, 67.1% of the patients showed their technique correctly (p≤0.001 and failure to breathe out gently before inhalation was the most common error (27.44%. Age (p=0.003, previous instruction (p=0.007, patient’s education level (p=0.013 and source of instruction (p<0.001 were associated with an appropriate technique before intervention, while age (p=0.024, duration of therapy (p=0.010 and gender (p=0.008 were

  16. Nanoencapsulation of water-soluble drug, lamivudine, using a double emulsion spray-drying technique for improving HIV treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tshweu, Lesego, E-mail: tshweull@gmail.com [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites (South Africa); Katata, Lebogang [North West University, Chemistry Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Science and Technology (South Africa); Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda [Council for Scientific and Industrial Research, Materials Science and Manufacturing, Polymers and Composites (South Africa)

    2013-11-15

    Current treatments available for human immunodeficiency virus, namely antiretrovirals, do not completely eradicate the virus from the body, leading to life-time commitment. Many antiretrovirals suffer drawbacks from toxicity and unpleasant side effects, causing patience non-compliance. To minimize challenges associated with the antiretrovirals, biodegradable nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential to enhance patience compliance. The main objective of this work was to load lamivudine (LAM) into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. LAM is a hydrophilic drug with low plasma half-life of 5–7 h and several unpleasant side effects. LAM was nanoencapsulated into PCL polymer via the double emulsion spray-drying method. Formulation parameters such as the effect of solvent, excipient and drug concentration were optimized for the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 215 ± 3 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.227 ± 0.01 were obtained, when ethyl acetate and lactose were used in the preparation. However, dichloromethane presented sizes larger than 454 ± 11 nm with PDI of more than 0.4 ± 0.05, irrespective of whether lactose or trehalose was used in the preparation. Some of the nanoparticles prepared with trehalose resulted in crystal formation. UV spectroscopy showed encapsulation efficiency ranging from 68 ± 4 to 78 ± 4 % for LAM depending on the starting drug concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the possibility of preparing amorphous PCL nanoparticles containing LAM. Drug release extended for 4 days in pH 1.3, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. These results indicated that LAM-loaded PCL nanoparticles show promise for controlled delivery.

  17. Limited sampling strategy for prolonged-release tacrolimus in renal transplant patients by use of the dried blood spot technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Boekel, G A J; Donders, A R T; Hoogtanders, K E J; Havenith, T R A; Hilbrands, L B; Aarnoutse, R E

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a clinically applicable limited sampling strategy for ambulatory Caucasian kidney transplant patients to estimate area under the curve in a 24-h period (AUC0-24) of prolonged-release tacrolimus. Twenty six kidney recipients, at least 6 months after transplantation, receiving prolonged-release tacrolimus, were enrolled. In each patient, seven blood samples were collected during a period of 24 h by use of the validated dried blood spot method. Best subset selection multiple linear regression was performed to derive limited sampling strategy (LSS). The equations were constrained to include a maximum of three samples collected within 4 h after the intake to maintain clinical applicability. To assess the predictive performance of LSS, residuals for each patient were calculated based on models fitted to a dataset where that patient was omitted. The prediction formula for the AUC(0-24) using the time points 0, 2, and 4 h after ingestion (C(0h)-C(2h)-C(4h)) provided the highest correlation with the AUC(0-24) (r(2) = 0.95): AUC0-24 = 44.9 + 8.9 × C(0h) + 2.1 × C(2h) + 7.6 × C(4h). Measures for bias and precision, i.e., median percentage prediction error (MPPE) and median absolute prediction error (MAPE), were 0.4 and 4.8%, respectively. For the same patients, the correlation between C(24h) and AUC0-24 was worse (r(2) = 0.77) while MPPE and MAPE were 6.2 and 7.2%, respectively. In the outpatient department, a LSS using C(0h)-C(2h)-C(4h) can be used for reliable estimation of the AUC(0-24) of prolonged-release tacrolimus.

  18. Nanoencapsulation of water-soluble drug, lamivudine, using a double emulsion spray-drying technique for improving HIV treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tshweu, Lesego; Katata, Lebogang; Kalombo, Lonji; Swai, Hulda

    2013-11-01

    Current treatments available for human immunodeficiency virus, namely antiretrovirals, do not completely eradicate the virus from the body, leading to life-time commitment. Many antiretrovirals suffer drawbacks from toxicity and unpleasant side effects, causing patience non-compliance. To minimize challenges associated with the antiretrovirals, biodegradable nanoparticles used as drug delivery systems hold tremendous potential to enhance patience compliance. The main objective of this work was to load lamivudine (LAM) into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) (PCL) nanoparticles. LAM is a hydrophilic drug with low plasma half-life of 5-7 h and several unpleasant side effects. LAM was nanoencapsulated into PCL polymer via the double emulsion spray-drying method. Formulation parameters such as the effect of solvent, excipient and drug concentration were optimized for the synthesis of the nanoparticles. Spherical nanoparticles with an average size of 215 ± 3 nm and polydispersity index (PDI) of 0.227 ± 0.01 were obtained, when ethyl acetate and lactose were used in the preparation. However, dichloromethane presented sizes larger than 454 ± 11 nm with PDI of more than 0.4 ± 0.05, irrespective of whether lactose or trehalose was used in the preparation. Some of the nanoparticles prepared with trehalose resulted in crystal formation. UV spectroscopy showed encapsulation efficiency ranging from 68 ± 4 to 78 ± 4 % for LAM depending on the starting drug concentration. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction confirmed the possibility of preparing amorphous PCL nanoparticles containing LAM. Drug release extended for 4 days in pH 1.3, pH 4.5 and pH 6.8. These results indicated that LAM-loaded PCL nanoparticles show promise for controlled delivery.

  19. Novel spray freeze-drying technique using four-fluid nozzle-development of organic solvent system to expand its application to poorly water soluble drugs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niwa, Toshiyuki; Shimabara, Hiroko; Danjo, Kazumi

    2010-02-01

    Spray freeze-drying (SFD) technique using four-fluid nozzle (4N), which is a novel particle design technique previously developed by authors, has been further developed to expand its application in pharmaceutical industry. The organic solvent was utilized as a spray solvent to dissolve the poorly soluble drug instead of conventional aqueous solution. Acetonitrile solution of the drug and aqueous solution of the polymeric carrier were separately and simultaneously atomized through 4N, and collided each other at the tip of nozzle edge. The spray mists were immediately frozen in the liquid nitrogen to form a suspension. Then, the iced droplets were freeze-dried to prepare the composite particles of the drug and carrier according to our proprietary method developed before. The resultant composite particles with phenytoin prepared by using acetonitrile (4N-SFD-MeCN system) were deeply characterized compared to those using aqueous solution (4N-SFD-aqua system) from morphological and physicochemical perspectives. The characteristic porous structure was observed in 4N-SFD-MeCN particles as well as 4N-SFD-aqua particles. However, it was found that the size and quantity of pore in 4N-SFD-MeCN particles were smaller than those of 4N-SFD-aqua particles. As a result, the former particles had 2- to 3-times smaller specific surface area than the latter particles independent of the type of carrier loaded. The slight difference of release profiles from the particles prepared between both systems was discussed from the microscopically structural viewpoint. In addition, ciclosporin was applied to organic solvent SFD system because this drug was poorly water soluble and cannot be applied to conventional aqueous SFD system. The release profiles from SFD particles were dramatically improved compared to the bulk material, suggesting that the new SFD technique using organic solvent has potential to develop the novel solubilized formulation for poorly water-soluble active pharmaceutical

  20. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Ponnampalam, Elankovan; Quispe-Chavez, Nohemi; Weeks, Mike; Duke, Mikel

    2011-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD) mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer. PMID:24957495

  1. Direct Contact Membrane Distillation of Dairy Process Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mike Weeks

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation (MD was applied for the concentration of a range of dairy streams, such as whole milk, skim milk and whey. MD of a pure lactose solution was also investigated. Direct contact MD (DCMD mode experiments were carried out in continuous concentration mode, keeping the warm feed/retentate and cold permeate stream temperatures at 54 °C and 5 °C respectively. Performance in terms of flux and retention was assessed. The flux was found to decrease with an increase of dry-matter concentration in the feed. Retention of dissolved solids was found to be close to 100% and independent of the dry-matter concentration in the feed. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR of the fouled membranes confirms organics being present in the fouling layer.

  2. Aromatic characterization of pot distilled kiwi spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Vázquez, Cristina; García-Llobodanin, Laura; Pérez-Correa, José Ricardo; López, Francisco; Blanco, Pilar; Orriols, Ignacio

    2012-03-07

    This study contributes fundamental knowledge that will help to develop a distillate of kiwi wine, made from kiwis of the Hayward variety grown in the southwest of Galicia (Spain). Two yeast strains, L1 (Saccharomyces cerevisiae ALB-6 from the EVEGA yeast collection) and L2 (S. cerevisiae Uvaferm BDX from Lallemand) were assessed to obtain a highly aromatic distillate. The kiwi spirits obtained were compared with other fruit spirits, in terms of higher alcohols, minor alcohols, monoterpenols, and other minor compounds, which are relevant in determining the quality and taste of the kiwi spirits. It was found that the kiwi juice fermented with yeast L1 produced a more aromatic distillate. In addition, kiwi distillates produced with both yeasts had the same ratio of trans-3-hexen-1-ol and cis-3-hexen-1-ol, which is lower than that found in other fruit distillates.

  3. Phase distribution of products of radiation and post-radiation distillation of biopolymers: Cellulose, lignin and chitin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ponomarev, A.V., E-mail: ponomarev@ipc.rssi.ru [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation); Kholodkova, E.M.; Metreveli, A.K.; Metreveli, P.K.; Erasov, V.S.; Bludenko, A.V.; Chulkov, V.N. [A.N. Frumkin Institute of Physical Chemistry and Electrochemistry, Russian Academy of Sciences, Leninsky Prospect 31, 119991 Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2011-11-15

    Influence of both the absorbed dose and the dose rate of 8 MeV electron-beam radiation on destruction of microcrystalline cellulose, pine lignin and krill chitin was investigated. Two conversion modes were compared: (1) post-radiation distillation PRD and (2) electron-beam distillation EBD. Cellulose, chitin and lignin demonstrate different responses to irradiation and distillation in PRD and EBD modes. Treatment in EBD mode transforms biopolymers to organic liquid more productively than conventional dry distillation and treatment in PRD mode. Both radiation heating and an irradiation without heating intensify chitin and cellulose decomposition and distillation. At the same time lignin decaying rather efficiently in EBD mode appears to be insensitive to a preliminary irradiation in PRD mode up to a dose of 2.4 MGy. - Highlights: > Direct conversion of cellulose, chitin and lignin to organic liquid is intensified by electron-beam irradiation. > Alternative approach to bio-oil production. > Both electron-beam distillation mode and post-radiation distillation mode are effective for cellulose and chitin conversion. > Electron-beam distillation mode is preferable for lignin conversion. > Preliminary deep dehydration of biopolymers is realizable at low dose rates.

  4. 27 CFR 24.183 - Use of distillates containing aldehydes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... the fermentation of wine and then returned to the distilled spirits plant from which distillates were... fermentation of wine made from a different kind of fruit. Distillates containing aldehydes which are...

  5. 27 CFR 19.322 - Distillates containing extraneous substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... therein for fermentation of wine to be used as distilling material at the distilled spirits plant from... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Production §...

  6. Distillation of bi-partite entanglement from W state with cavity QED

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Deng Li; Chen Ai-Xi; Chen De-Hai; Huang Ke-Lin

    2008-01-01

    Following the theoretical protocol described by Fortescue and Lo [Fortescue B and Lo H K 2007 Phys. Rev. Lett. 98 260501], we present a scheme in which one can distill maximally entangled bi-partite states from a tri-partite W state with cavity QED. Our scheme enables the concrete physical system to realize its protocol. In our scheme, the rate distillation also asymptotically approaches one. Based on the present cavity QED techniques, we discuss the experimental feasibility.

  7. Flavonoid extraction from Ficus carica leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trifunschi Svetlana I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The current study presents the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Ficus carica. Dried leaves were extracted using distilled water and ethanol 70% by extraction method of maceration, microwave and stirring. Using of TLC and HPLC techniques, the rutin and kaempferol were detected. For flavonoids extraction ethanol 70% was more efficient than water. The relative concentration of rutin and kaempferol was higher by microwave methods ussing ethanol.

  8. Comparing Trigger Point Dry Needling and Manual Pressure Technique for the Management of Myofascial Neck/Shoulder Pain: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Meulemeester, Kayleigh E; Castelein, Birgit; Coppieters, Iris; Barbe, Tom; Cools, Ann; Cagnie, Barbara

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate short-term and long-term treatment effects of dry needling (DN) and manual pressure (MP) technique with the primary goal of determining if DN has better effects on disability, pain, and muscle characteristics in treating myofascial neck/shoulder pain in women. In this randomized clinical trial, 42 female office workers with myofascial neck/shoulder pain were randomly allocated to either a DN or MP group and received 4 treatments. They were evaluated with the Neck Disability Index, general numeric rating scale, pressure pain threshold, and muscle characteristics before and after treatment. For each outcome parameter, a linear mixed-model analysis was applied to reveal group-by-time interaction effects or main effects for the factor "time." No significant differences were found between DN and MP. In both groups, significant improvement in the Neck Disability Index was observed after 4 treatments and 3 months (P Dry needling was found to be no more effective than MP in the treatment of myofascial neck/shoulder pain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  9. Fabrication of FOX-7 quasi-three-dimensional grids of one-dimensional nanostructures via a spray freeze-drying technique and size-dependence of thermal properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Bing; Qiao, Zhiqiang; Nie, Fude; Cao, Minhua; Su, Jing; Huang, Hui; Hu, Changwen

    2010-12-15

    1,1-Diamino-2,2-dinitroethylene (C(2)H(4)N(4)O(4), FOX-7) quasi-three-dimensional (3D) grids, a promising high-energy-density material with superior sensitivity properties, were synthesized by a spray freeze-drying technique. The FOX-7 3D grids were constructed from one-dimensional nanostructures. The sizes and structures of the FOX-7 3D grids strongly depend on the concentration of the aqueous solution of FOX-7. A possible formation mechanism of this structure was proposed in detail. Thermal analysis reveals that decrease in average particle sizes of FOX-7 grids results in a lower decomposition temperature and a much higher decomposition rate, which is in agreement with those reported about inorganic nanomaterials.

  10. Structural Decoupling and Disturbance Rejection in a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahar, Mehrdad; Jantzen, Jan; Commault, C.

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references.......Introduction, distillation column model, input-output decoupling, disturbance rejection, concluding remarks, references....

  11. Microbubble Distillation for Ethanol-Water Separation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atheer Al-yaqoobi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the current study, a novel approach for separating ethanol-water mixture by microbubble distillation technology was investigated. Traditional distillation processes require large amounts of energy to raise the liquid to its boiling point to effect removal of volatile components. The concept of microbubble distillation by comparison is to heat the gas phase rather than the liquid phase to achieve separation. The removal of ethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths was taken as a case of study. Consequently the results were then compared with those which could be obtained under equilibrium conditions expected in an “ideal” distillation unit. Microbubble distillation has achieved vapour compositions higher than that which could be obtained under traditional equilibrium conditions. The separation was achieved at liquid temperature significantly less than the boiling point of the mixture. In addition, it was observed that the separation efficiency of the microbubble distillation could be increased by raising the injected air temperature, while the temperature of the liquid mixture increased only moderately. The separation efficiency of microbubble distillation was compared with that of pervaporation for the recovery of bioethanol from the thermally sensitive fermentation broths. The technology could be controlled to give high separation and energy efficiency. This could contribute to improving commercial viability of biofuel production and other coproducts of biorefinery processing.

  12. A review on recent developments in solar distillation units

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Pankaj Kalita; Anupam Dewan; Sangeeta Borah

    2016-02-01

    The solar still is gaining popularity among the scientific community for the production of distillate and fluoride free water due to its low cost and simple working principle. Continuous efforts have been made by various researchers to increase its productivity. Various techniques and configurations have been attempted in the literature to enhance the efficiency of the solar still. Many researchers have also studied different parameters influencing the performance of solar stills. Thermodynamic analysis, such as, energy balance and losses by using the second law of thermodynamics have also been reported in the literature. However, optimum combinations of the operating parameters in addition to thermodynamic optimization for high distillate yield as well as the efficiency have not been thoroughly studied in the literature. In the present work, an emphasis has been given to review the effects of various operating and geometric parameters, and thermodynamic optimization on the performance of a solar still.

  13. On Two-Distillable Werner States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Đoković, Dragomir

    2016-06-01

    We consider bipartite mixed states in a $d\\otimes d$ quantum system. We say that $\\rho$ is PPT if its partial transpose $1 \\otimes T (\\rho)$ is positive semidefinite, and otherwise $\\rho$ is NPT. The well-known Werner states are divided into three types: (a) the separable states (the same as the PPT states); (b) the one-distillable states (necessarily NPT); and (c) the NPT states which are not one-distillable. We give several different formulations and provide further evidence for validity of the conjecture that the Werner states of type (c) are not two-distillable.

  14. Wiped-Film Molecular Distillation Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Guobing; ZHANG Xubin; XU Chunjian; ZHOU Ming

    2005-01-01

    Based on the Bhatnagar-Gross-Krook equation, a new scheme of wiped-film molecular distillation for two components in the presenceof inert gas is developed. The equations in the scheme are solved numerically by the method of finite difference and iteration. The new scheme is used to simulate the molecular distillation of dibutyl phthalate and dibutyl sebacate (DBP-DBS) mixture. The effects of the inert gas pressure, the distance between the evaporation surface and condensation surface, the rotation rate of blade, and the number of blades on the distillation rate and separation factor are discussed.

  15. [His Majesty's distillers: distillation and chemical medicine in the court of Phillip II].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rey Bueno, M; Alegre Pérez, M E

    2001-01-01

    The present work studies the appearance and development of Paracelsian Practices in the Spanish Court through a linked series of events that took place between 1564 and 1602. These were: the creation of Philippine distillation laboratories, the ordenance of the protophysician Francisco de Valles regarding distilled waters; the concession of a patent to Diego de Santiago for the invention of a steam distillery; the publication of the last treatise by Francisco de Valles, dedicated to weights, measures, and distilled waters; the appearance of a distiller on the founding staff of the Royal Apothecary, in charge of preparing all the distilled waters and chemical medicines; and the creation of a new post within the Court health organigram, that of Distiller Major.

  16. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-01-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution. PMID:27241946

  17. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J.; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-01

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  18. Efficient entanglement distillation without quantum memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdelkhalek, Daniela; Syllwasschy, Mareike; Cerf, Nicolas J; Fiurášek, Jaromír; Schnabel, Roman

    2016-05-31

    Entanglement distribution between distant parties is an essential component to most quantum communication protocols. Unfortunately, decoherence effects such as phase noise in optical fibres are known to demolish entanglement. Iterative (multistep) entanglement distillation protocols have long been proposed to overcome decoherence, but their probabilistic nature makes them inefficient since the success probability decays exponentially with the number of steps. Quantum memories have been contemplated to make entanglement distillation practical, but suitable quantum memories are not realised to date. Here, we present the theory for an efficient iterative entanglement distillation protocol without quantum memories and provide a proof-of-principle experimental demonstration. The scheme is applied to phase-diffused two-mode-squeezed states and proven to distil entanglement for up to three iteration steps. The data are indistinguishable from those that an efficient scheme using quantum memories would produce. Since our protocol includes the final measurement it is particularly promising for enhancing continuous-variable quantum key distribution.

  19. Entanglement of Distillation for Lattice Gauge Theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Acoleyen, Karel; Bultinck, Nick; Haegeman, Jutho; Marien, Michael; Scholz, Volkher B.; Verstraete, Frank

    2016-09-01

    We study the entanglement structure of lattice gauge theories from the local operational point of view, and, similar to Soni and Trivedi [J. High Energy Phys. 1 (2016) 1], we show that the usual entanglement entropy for a spatial bipartition can be written as the sum of an undistillable gauge part and of another part corresponding to the local operations and classical communication distillable entanglement, which is obtained by depolarizing the local superselection sectors. We demonstrate that the distillable entanglement is zero for pure Abelian gauge theories at zero gauge coupling, while it is in general nonzero for the non-Abelian case. We also consider gauge theories with matter, and show in a perturbative approach how area laws—including a topological correction—emerge for the distillable entanglement. Finally, we also discuss the entanglement entropy of gauge fixed states and show that it has no relation to the physical distillable entropy.

  20. Batch Extractive Distillation with Light Entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol/water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water/ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotro...

  1. Batch extractive distillation with light entrainer

    OpenAIRE

    Varga, Viktoria; Rev, Endre; Gerbaud, Vincent; Lelkes, Zoltan; Fonyo, Zsolt; Joulia, Xavier

    2006-01-01

    Use of a light entrainer in batch extractive distillation is justified when the mixture boils at a high temperature, or when an appropriate heavy or intermediate entrainer cannot be found. Feasibility of batch extractive distillation with light entrainer for separating minimum and maximum boiling azeotropes and close boiling mixtures is studied in this article. Our test mixtures are: ethanol / water (minimum boiling azeotrope) with methanol, water / ethylene diamine (maximum boiling azeotrope...

  2. Fuzzy Based composition Control of Distillation Column

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guru.R

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposed a control scheme based on fuzzy logic for a methanol - water system of bubble cap distillation column. Fuzzy rule base and Inference System of fuzzy (FIS is planned to regulatethe reflux ratio (manipulated variable to obtain the preferred product composition (methanol for a distillation column. Comparisons are made with conventional controller and the results confirmed the potentials of the proposed strategy of fuzzy control.

  3. Effect of distillers feedstuffs and lasalocid on Campylobacter carriage in feedlot cattle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robin C; Harvey, Roger B; Wickersham, Tryon A; MacDonald, Jim C; Ponce, Christian H; Brown, Mike; Pinchak, William E; Osterstock, Jason B; Krueger, Nathan; Nisbet, David J

    2014-11-01

    Campylobacter bacteria are foodborne pathogens that can colonize the gut of food animals. Limited in their ability to ferment sugars, Campylobacter can derive energy for growth via amino acid catabolism. The objectives of the present studies were to test whether supplemental distillers grains containing high amounts of rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid may, by promoting amino acid flow to the lower bovine gut, increase intestinal carriage of Campylobacter. In study one, 10 steers (5 per treatment) were adapted to diets formulated to achieve 0 or 30% dried distillers grains. After an initial 14-day adaptation to the basal diet, control and treated steers were fed their respective diets for 23 days, after which time they were fed supplemental lasalocid for an additional 8 days, followed by a 5-day withdrawal. In study two, 24 steers preacclimated to a basal diet were adapted via 3-day periodic increases to dietary treatments formulated to achieve 0, 30, or 60% wet corn distillers grains with solubles. Analysis of Campylobacter bacteria cultured from duodenal and fecal samples in study one and from fecal samples in study two revealed no effect of dried distillers grains or wet corn distillers grains with solubles on the prevalence or concentrations of duodenal or fecal Campylobacter. The results from study one indicated that colonized steers, regardless of treatment, harbored higher Campylobacter concentrations when transitioned to the basal diet than when coming off pasture. Campylobacter carriage was unaffected by lasalocid. These results provide no evidence that feeding distillers grains high in rumen-undegradable intake protein or supplemental lasalocid contributes to increased intestinal carriage of Campylobacter in fed cattle.

  4. Integrated Multiscale Latent Variable Regression and Application to Distillation Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muddu Madakyaru

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Proper control of distillation columns requires estimating some key variables that are challenging to measure online (such as compositions, which are usually estimated using inferential models. Commonly used inferential models include latent variable regression (LVR techniques, such as principal component regression (PCR, partial least squares (PLS, and regularized canonical correlation analysis (RCCA. Unfortunately, measured practical data are usually contaminated with errors, which degrade the prediction abilities of inferential models. Therefore, noisy measurements need to be filtered to enhance the prediction accuracy of these models. Multiscale filtering has been shown to be a powerful feature extraction tool. In this work, the advantages of multiscale filtering are utilized to enhance the prediction accuracy of LVR models by developing an integrated multiscale LVR (IMSLVR modeling algorithm that integrates modeling and feature extraction. The idea behind the IMSLVR modeling algorithm is to filter the process data at different decomposition levels, model the filtered data from each level, and then select the LVR model that optimizes a model selection criterion. The performance of the developed IMSLVR algorithm is illustrated using three examples, one using synthetic data, one using simulated distillation column data, and one using experimental packed bed distillation column data. All examples clearly demonstrate the effectiveness of the IMSLVR algorithm over the conventional methods.

  5. 76 FR 9079 - Revision of Distilled Spirits Plant Regulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-02-16

    ...: Distilled Spirits Plants in General Distilled spirits taxation is a specialized area of Federal law. The... language principles in order to improve the clarity and readability of the regulatory texts. DATES... regulated, and how taxes on distilled spirits are collected, under Federal law. Basic Definitions Distilled...

  6. 玉米脱水酒精糟及其可溶物和维生素E水平对肥育猪生长性能、胴体和肉品质的影响%Effects of Dietary Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles and Vitamin E on Growth Performance, Carcass Characteristics and Meat Quality of Finishing Pigs

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王红; 石宝明; 单安山; 王连生

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中玉米脱水酒精糟及其可溶物( DDGS)和维生素E(VE)水平对肥育猪生长性能、胴体和肉品质的影响.采用3×2两因子完全随机试验设计,设3个玉米DDGS水平(0、15%、30%)和2个维生素E水平(10、210 mg/kg).选取平均体重为(60±2) kg的“杜×长×大”三元杂交肥育猪48头(公母各占1/2),按性别、体重随机分为6个组,每个组8个重复,每个重复1头猪.试验期为42 d.结果表明:1)玉米DDGS水平对肥育猪平均日增重和料重比无显著影响(P>0.05),对平均日采食量影响极显著(P =0.006),维生素E水平及玉米DDGS和维生素E的互作对生长性能无显著影响(P>0.05);2)玉米DDGS和维生素E水平及其互作对胴体重、屠宰率、胴体斜长、背膘厚度、板油率和眼肌面积等胴体品质评定指标影响均不显著(P>0.05),胴体脂肪碘值随饲粮中玉米DDGS水平的提高而极显著升高(P=0.001);3)玉米DDGS水平对肌肉pH、肉色、剪切力、滴水损失和大理石评分影响均不显著(P>0.05),饲粮中添加210mg/kg维生素E可显著降低肌肉剪切力和滴水损失(P<0.05).可见,在肥育猪基础饲粮中添加15% ~30%玉米DDGS和210 mg/kg维生素E对其生长性能、胴体和肉品质无显著负影响.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) and vitamin E (VE) on growth performance, carcass characteristics and meat quality of finishing pigs. The experiment was designed in a 3 ×2 factorial arrangement with three corn DDGS levels (0, 15% and 30% ) and two VE levels (10 and 210 mg/kg). A total of forty-eight crossbred pigs ( Duroc x Landrace x Large) with an average body weight of (60 ± 2) kg were randomly allotted into 6 groups with 8 replicates per group and one pig in each pen. The results showed as follows; 1) different levels of dietary corn DDGS had no significant effects on average daily gain

  7. 玉米干酒糟及其可溶物对仔鹅生长性能及肉品质的影响%Effects of Feeding Corn Distillers Dried Grains with Solubles on Growth Performance and Meat Quality in Geese

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李小娟; 王志跃; 杨海明; 王信喜

    2012-01-01

    本试验旨在研究饲粮中添加不同水平玉米干酒糟及其可溶物( DDGS)对仔鹅生长性能和肉品质的影响.选取160只3周龄扬州鹅(母),随机分为4个组,每个组4个重复,每个重复10只鹅.对照组饲喂玉米-豆粕型基础饲粮,试验Ⅰ、Ⅱ、Ⅲ组玉米DDGS占饲粮的比例分别为10%、20%、30%.在试验期每周末称量禁食12 h后的仔鹅体重,以重复为单位记录周采食量,在仔鹅10周龄末屠宰采样,分离胸肌和腿肌,测定仔鹅肉品质.预试期1周,正试期6周(4~10周龄).结果表明:饲粮中添加玉米DDGS对试验组的平均日采食量、料重比无显著影响(P>0.05);5周龄时,试验Ⅰ组的体重显著高于试验Ⅲ组(P<0.05),8、9周龄时,试验Ⅱ组的体重显著高于对照组(P<0.05),但在整个试验期间各组的平均日增重无显著差异(P>0.05).试验组胸肌的pH、肉色、剪切力、失水率与对照组无显著差异(P>0.05).在脂质过氧化水平测试期第1天,试验Ⅰ和Ⅱ组硫代巴比妥酸反应物含量显著高于对照组(P<0.05),在第4、5天,3个试验组均显著高于对照组(P<0.05),从整个测试期的每天测试结果看,各组间的硫代巴比妥酸反应物含量均有随着玉米DDGS添加水平的增加呈先上升后下降的趋势.综上所述,在仔鹅的饲粮中添加至30%的玉米DDGS对仔鹅的生长和常规的肉品质指标无不利影响,但会提高仔鹅肌肉的脂质氧化水平,容易引起酸败.%This experiment was conducted to study the effects of dietary levels of corn distillers dried grains with solubles (DDGS) on growth performance and meat quality in geese. One hundred and sixty Yangzhou geese aged 3 weeks were randomly divided into 4 groups, each of which was replicated 4 times with 10 geese per replicate. The control group was fed a corn-soybean meal based diet, and experimental groups I , II and III were fed the basal diets containing 10% , 20% and 30% corn DDGS

  8. Conversion Coefficients for Distilling Wood in Running Standards and Everyday Practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srđan Ljubojević

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Need for distilling wood is rather significant on the wood market in Republic of Srpska. Delivering of distilling wood is done according JUS standard. Purpose of this research was to explore how much this standard is appropriate for present assortment of wood which deliver and use as distilling wood, and what are main problems. Material and Methods: Research was conducted at the premises of the company “Destilacija” a.d. Teslic. It was selected samples of distillation wood in a random manner, so as to check accuracy of conversion factors stated in the delivery note. Subject of interest were loads with one-meter log wood for distillation. Conversion coefficients are determined by using xylometry method and dendrometric method. Results and Conclusion: Conversion factor based on xylometry varies considerably between 0.45 – 0.58. Results lead to the conclusion that appliance of officially prescribed conversion factor leads to over estimation of delivered distillation wood. Also results of dendrometric measurements and calculating of volume show that conversions factors are significantly lower than those one obtain with the xylometry 0.36-0.52. Main reason for that may laying in the fact that measurements was done according to JUS which prescribes measurement with rounding down for diameter (round centimeters and length (round decimeters. Dendrometric measurement according JUS is not appropriate for assortments from the category of staked wood. Conversion coefficients must be determined for different moisture content. One solution for described gap may be shift to weight scaling. In that case mistakes caused by measurement could be avoided but it must be considered moisture of wood also. Wood for distilling should be as dry as much as possible before use, around 20 % moisture content.

  9. Distillation time effect on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheljazkov, Valtcho D; Cantrell, Charles L; Astatkie, Tess; Jeliazkova, Ekaterina

    2013-01-01

    Lavender (Lavandula angustifolia Mill.) is one of the most widely grown essential oil crops in the world. Commercial extraction of lavender oil is done using steam distillation. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of the length of the distillation time (DT) on lavender essential oil yield and composition when extracted from dried flowers. Therefore, the following distillation times (DT) were tested in this experiment: 1.5 min, 3 min, 3.75 min, 7.5 min, 15 min, 30 min, 60 min, 90 min, 120 min, 150 min, 180 min, and 240 min. The essential oil yield (range 0.5-6.8%) reached a maximum at 60 min DT. The concentrations of cineole (range 6.4-35%) and fenchol (range 1.7-2.9%) were highest at the 1.5 min DT and decreased with increasing length of the DT. The concentration of camphor (range 6.6-9.2%) reached a maximum at 7.5-15 min DT, while the concentration of linalool acetate (range 15-38%) reached a maximum at 30 min DT. Results suggest that lavender essential oil yield may not increase after 60 min DT. The change in essential oil yield, and the concentrations of cineole, fenchol and linalool acetate as DT changes were modeled very well by the asymptotic nonlinear regression model. DT may be used to modify the chemical profile of lavender oil and to obtain oils with differential chemical profiles from the same lavender flowers. DT must be taken into consideration when citing or comparing reports on lavender essential oil yield and composition.

  10. Thermal Stability of Oil Palm Empty Fruit Bunch (OPEFB) Nanocrystalline Cellulose: Effects of post-treatment of oven drying and solvent exchange techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Indarti, E.; Marwan; Wanrosli, W. D.

    2015-06-01

    Nanocrystallinecellulose (NCC) from biomass is a promising material with huge potentials in various applications. A big challenge in its utilization is the agglomeration of the NCC's during processing due to hydrogen bonding among the cellulose chains when in close proximity to each other. Obtaining NCC's in a non-agglomerated and non-aqueous condition is challenging. In the present work NCC's was isolated from oil palm empty fruit bunch (OPEFB) using TEMPO-oxidation reaction method. To obtain non-agglomerated and non-aqueous products, the NCC's underwent post-treatment using oven drying (OD) and solvent exchanged (SE) techniques. The thermal stability of all samples was determined from TGA and DTG profiles whilst FTIR was used to analyzethe chemical modifications that occurred under these conditions. NCC-SE has better thermal stability than the NCC-OD and its on-set degradation temperature and residue are also higher. FTIR analysis shows that NCC-SE has a slightly different chemical composition whereby the absorption band at 1300 cm-1 (due to C-O symmetric stretching) is absent as compared to NCC-OD indicating that in NCC-SE the carboxylate group is in acid form which contribute to its thermal stability

  11. New co-products from grain-based fuel ethanol production and their drying performance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuel ethanol production in the U.S. and elsewhere is an important and growing industry. In the U.S, about 40% of annual corn production is now converted into fuel ethanol. During co-product recovery, condensed distillers solubles (CDS) has to be mixed with distillers wet grains before drying due to ...

  12. Polyazole hollow fiber membranes for direct contact membrane distillation

    KAUST Repository

    Maab, Husnul

    2013-08-07

    Porous hollow fiber membranes were fabricated from fluorinated polyoxadiazole and polytriazole by a dry-wet spinning method for application in desalination of Red Sea water by direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD). The data were compared with commercially available hollow fiber MD membranes prepared from poly(vinylidene fluoride). The membranes were characterized by electron microscopy, liquid entry pressure (LEP), and pore diameter measurements. Finally, the hollow fiber membranes were tested for DCMD. Salt selectivity as high as 99.95% and water fluxes as high as 35 and 41 L m -2 h-1 were demonstrated, respectively, for polyoxadiazole and polytriazole hollow fiber membranes, operating at 80 C feed temperature and 20 C permeate. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

  13. The minimum work requirement for distillation processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yunus, Cerci; Yunus, A. Cengel; Byard, Wood [Nevada Univ., Las Vegas, NV (United States). Dept. of Mechanical Engineering

    2000-07-01

    A typical ideal distillation process is proposed and analyzed using the first and second-laws of thermodynamics with particular attention to the minimum work requirement for individual processes. The distillation process consists of an evaporator, a condenser, a heat exchanger, and a number of heaters and coolers. Several Carnot engines are also employed to perform heat interactions of the distillation process with the surroundings and determine the minimum work requirement for processes. The Carnot engines give the maximum possible work output or the minimum work input associated with the processes, and therefore the net result of these inputs and outputs leads to the minimum work requirement for the entire distillation process. It is shown that the minimum work relation for the distillation process is the same as the minimum work input relation found by Cerci et al [1] for an incomplete separation of incoming saline water, and depends only on the properties of the incoming saline water and the outgoing pure water and brine. Also, certain aspects of the minimum work relation found are discussed briefly. (authors)

  14. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  15. Comparison of Drying Techniques for Vanilla Bean%香草兰豆荚不同干燥方法的比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谷风林; 董智哲; 潘思轶; 徐飞; 王庆煌; 赵建平

    2014-01-01

    对热风干燥和冷冻干燥处理香草兰样品的干燥效果进行比较,结果表明热风干燥的干燥速率随温度的增加而增加,冷冻干燥的干燥速率介于40和50℃热风干燥的速率之间。电子鼻分析结果表明,与40、50和60℃热风干燥相比,相同干燥时间条件下,冷冻干燥能更好的保留香草兰原有风味,同时冷冻干燥处理的香草兰样品具有更强的香气强度。%Desiccative effects of hot-air drying and vacuum freeze-drying for vanilla were compared in this research. The results showed that drying rate of hot-air drying increased with the increasing drying temperature, and the rate of vacuum freeze-drying is between the rates of hot-air drying at 40℃and 50℃. E-nose analysis revealed that, compared with hot-air drying at 40℃, 50℃and 60℃, the drying vanilla treated by vacuum freeze-drying at the same drying time can retain its original flavor and give higher odor intensity.

  16. Enzyme characterization for hydrolysis of AFEX and liquid hot-water pretreated distillers' grains and their conversion to ethanol

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), a co-product of corn ethanol production, was investigated as a feedstock for additional ethanol production. DDGS was pretreated with liquid hot water (LHW) and ammonia fiber explosion (AFEX) processes. Cellulose was readily converted to glucose from bo...

  17. Refreshment topics II: Design of distillation columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Milojević Svetomir

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available For distillation column design it is necessary to define all the variable parameters such as component concentrations in different streams temperatures, pressures, mass and energy flow, which are used to represent the separation process of some specific system. They are related to each other according to specific laws, and if the number of such parameters exceeds the number of their relationships, in order to solve a problem some of them must be specified in advance or some constraints assumed for the mass balance, the balance of energy, phase equilibria or chemical equilibria. Knowledge of specific elements which are the constituents of a distillation unit must be known to define the number of design parameters as well as some additional apparati also necessary to realize the distilation. Each separate apparatus might be designed and constructed only if all the necessary and variable parameters for such a unit are defined. This is the right route to solve a distilation unit in many different cases. The construction of some distillation unit requires very good knowledge of mass, heat and momentum transfer phenomena. Moreover, the designer needs to know which kind of apparatus will be used in the distillation unit to realize a specific production process. The most complicated apparatus in a rectification unit is the distillation column. Depending on the complexity of the separation process one, two or more columns are often used. Additional equipment are heat exchangers (reboilers, condensers, cooling systems, heaters, separators, tanks for reflux distribution, tanks and pumps for feed transportation, etc. Such equipment is connected by pipes and valves, and for the normal operation of a distillation unit other instruments for measuring the flow rate, temperature and pressure are also required. Problems which might arise during the determination and selection of such apparati and their number requires knowledge of the specific systems which must

  18. Static multiplicities in heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Esbjerg, Klavs; Andersen, Torben Ravn; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    1998-01-01

    In this paper the results of a bifurcation analysis on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences are given. Two sequences suitable for ethanol dehydration are compared: The 'direct' and the 'indirect' sequence. It is shown, that the two sequences, despite their similarities, exhibit very...... different static behavior. The method of Petlyuk and Avet'yan (1971), Bekiaris et al. (1993), which assumes infinite reflux and infinite number of stages, is extended to and applied on heterogeneous azeotropic distillation sequences. The predictions are substantiated through simulations. The static sequence...

  19. 香菇中短波红外干燥的试验%Research on the Techniques for Infrared Drying of Shiitake Mushroom

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王洪彩; 张慜; 王兆进

    2013-01-01

    In order to obtain high-quality dried mushroom efficiently,this paper investigated the impact of infrared drying on the drying characteristics of shiitake mushrooms,and compared with hot air drying methods,analysis of the impact of two different drying methods on the products quality of dried shiitake mushroom.The results showed that Pre-drying,Gill-up position have higher dryi ng rate than cap-up position;As the temperature increases,the irradiation distance decreases,the loading coefficient decreases,the wind velocity increases,the time required for drying is gradually reduced.The products sensory and chemical quality dried by infrared is superior to hot air.%为了高效地得到高品质的干香菇,研究了中短波红外干燥技术对香菇干燥特性的影响,并与热风干燥的方法相比较,比较两种干燥方法对香菇干制品品质的影响.结果表明:在中短波长红外干燥条件下,干燥前期,菌褶向上放置比菌盖向上放置的干燥速率大;随着温度的升高、辐照距离的减小,风速的增加,装载系数的减小,干燥时间逐渐降低;此外,中短波红外干燥的香菇的感官品质和化学品质均优于热风干燥后的香菇.

  20. Water as a green solvent combined with different techniques for extraction of essential oil from lavender flowers

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Using water as a green solvent with a variable geometry makes use of physical and chemical phenomena that are fundamentally different from those applied in conventional extraction techniques such as hydro-distillation, steam distillation or solvent extraction. Advantages and drawbacks of using water as a solvent with different physical and chemical states have been compared. A total of ten extraction techniques: hydro-distillation (HD), steam distillation (SD), turbo-hydro-distillation (THD),...

  1. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    Production of large-area flat panel displays (FPDs) involves several pattern transfer and device fabrication steps that can be performed with dry etching technologies. Even though the dry etching using capacitively coupled plasma is generally used to maintain high etch uniformity, due to the need...... for the higher processing rates in FPDs, high-density plasma processing tools that can handle larger-area substrate uniformly are more intensively studied especially for the dry etching of polysilicon thin films. In the case of FPD processing, the current substrate size ranges from 730 × 920 mm (fourth...... generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  2. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorupska, Elżbieta; Rychlik, Michał; Samborski, Włodzimierz

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN) for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs) diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative) and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (T avr), maximum temperature (T max), low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP) that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, T avr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.). The sensitivity for T avr, T max, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for T avr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for T avr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present.

  3. Validation and Test-Retest Reliability of New Thermographic Technique Called Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling for Gluteus Minimus Trigger Points in Sciatica Subjects and TrPs-Negative Healthy Volunteers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Skorupska

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to assess the validity and test-retest reliability of Thermovision Technique of Dry Needling (TTDN for the gluteus minimus muscle. TTDN is a new thermography approach used to support trigger points (TrPs diagnostic criteria by presence of short-term vasomotor reactions occurring in the area where TrPs refer pain. Method. Thirty chronic sciatica patients (n=15 TrP-positive and n=15 TrPs-negative and 15 healthy volunteers were evaluated by TTDN three times during two consecutive days based on TrPs of the gluteus minimus muscle confirmed additionally by referred pain presence. TTDN employs average temperature (Tavr, maximum temperature (Tmax, low/high isothermal-area, and autonomic referred pain phenomenon (AURP that reflects vasodilatation/vasoconstriction. Validity and test-retest reliability were assessed concurrently. Results. Two components of TTDN validity and reliability, Tavr and AURP, had almost perfect agreement according to κ (e.g., thigh: 0.880 and 0.938; calf: 0.902 and 0.956, resp.. The sensitivity for Tavr, Tmax, AURP, and high isothermal-area was 100% for everyone, but specificity of 100% was for Tavr and AURP only. Conclusion. TTDN is a valid and reliable method for Tavr and AURP measurement to support TrPs diagnostic criteria for the gluteus minimus muscle when digitally evoked referred pain pattern is present.

  4. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak.

  5. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, JA; Darton, R

    1997-01-01

    There are nasty conceptual problems in the classical way of describing distillation columns via equilibrium stages, and efficiencies or HETP's. We can nowadays avoid these problems by simulating the behaviour of a complete column in one go using a non-equilibrium model. Such a model has phase

  6. Robust Geometric Control of a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kymmel, Mogens; Andersen, Henrik Weisberg

    1987-01-01

    A frequency domain method, which makes it possible to adjust multivariable controllers with respect to both nominal performance and robustness, is presented. The basic idea in the approach is that the designer assigns objectives such as steady-state tracking, maximum resonance peaks, bandwidth, m...... is used to examine and improve geometric control of a binary distillation column....

  7. Lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crutchley, Ian [Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port (United Kingdom); Green, Michael [Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington (United Kingdom)

    2012-08-15

    This article from Innospec Fuel Specialties, Ellesmere Port, UK, and Intertek Lintec ShipCare Services, Darlington, UK, examines the lubricity characteristics of marine distillate fuels available today in relation to the requirements and limits imposed in ISO8217:2010. It will estimate expected failure rates and also asses the perceived relationship between lubricity, sulphur content and viscosity. (orig.)

  8. Distillation of Liquid Xenon to Remove Krypton

    CERN Document Server

    Abe, K; Iida, T; Ikeda, M; Kobayashi, K; Koshio, Y; Minamino, A; Miura, M; Moriyama, S; Nakahata, M; Nakajima, Y; Namba, T; Ogawa, H; Sekiya, H; Shiozawa, M; Suzuki, Y; Takeda, A; Takeuchi, Y; Ueshima, K; Yamashita, M; Kaneyuki, K; Ebizuka, Y; Kikuchi, J; Ota, A; Suzuki, S; Takahashi, T; Hagiwara, H; Kamei, T; Miyamoto, K; Nagase, T; Nakamura, S; Ozaki, Y; Sato, T; Fukuda, Y; Sato, T; Nishijima, K; Sakurai, M; Maruyama, T; Motoki, D; Itow, Y; Ohsumi, H; Tasaka, S; Kim, S B; Kim, Y D; Lee, J I; Moon, S H; Urakawa, Y; Uchino, M; Kamioka, Y

    2008-01-01

    A high performance distillation system to remove krypton from xenon was constructed, and a purity level of Kr/Xe = $\\sim 3 \\times 10^{-12}$ was achieved. This development is crucial in facilitating high sensitivity low background experiments such as the search for dark matter in the universe.

  9. Non-equilibrium modelling of distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wesselingh, J.A

    1997-01-01

    This is a lecture on the way that we engineers model distillation. How we have done such modelling, how we would like to do it, and how far we have come at this moment. The ideas that I will be bringing forward are not my own. I owe them mostly to R. Krishna, R. Taylor, H. Kooijman and A. Gorak. The

  10. Designing reactive distillation processes with improved efficiency

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.P.

    2005-01-01

    In this dissertation a life-span inspired perspective is taken on the conceptual design of grassroots reactive distillation processes. Attention was paid to the economic performance of the process and to potential losses of valuable resources over the process life span. The research was cast in a se

  11. Holoprosencephaly: A mythologic and teratologic distillate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, M Michael

    2010-02-15

    This review of holoprosencephaly provides a mythologic and teratologic distillate of the subject under the following headings: Babylonian tablets; Greek mythology; pictures from the 16th through the 20th Centuries; 19th Century teratology; history of more modern concepts and their terminologies; and ocean-going ships named "Cyclops."

  12. Effects of drying method on preparation of nanometer α-Al2O3

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIAO Jin; WAN Ye; DENG Hua; LI Jie; LIU Ye-xiang

    2007-01-01

    Ammonium aluminum carbonate hydroxide (AACH) precursor was synthesized by the precipitation reaction of aluminum sulfate and ammonium carbonate. Then the precursor was dealt with five drying methods including ordinary drying, alcohol exchange, vacuum freeze-drying, glycol distillation, n-butanol azeotropic distillation respectively and calcined at 1 200 ℃ for 2 h to get α-Al2O3. The effects of drying methods on preparation of nanometer α-Al2O3 were discussed, and the optimal drying method was confirmed. The structural properties of powders were characterized by XRD, SEM and BET measurements. The results show that vacuum freeze-drying, glycol distillation and n-butanol azeotropic distillation can prevent the powders from aggregating, and among them the n-butanol azeotropic distillation is the best method. The nanometer α-Al2O3 powder with non-aggregation can be manufactured using n-butanol azeotropic distillation and the average particle size is about 40 nm.

  13. Microbial development in distillers wet grains produced during fuel ethanol production from corn (Zea mays).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lehman, R Michael; Rosentrater, Kurt A

    2007-09-01

    Distillers grains are coproduced with ethanol and carbon dioxide during the production of fuel ethanol from the dry milling and fermentation of corn grain, yet there is little basic microbiological information on these materials. We undertook a replicated field study of the microbiology of distillers wet grains (DWG) over a 9 day period following their production at an industrial fuel ethanol plant. Freshly produced DWG had a pH of about 4.4, a moisture content of about 53.5% (wet mass basis), and 4 x 10(5) total yeast cells/g dry mass, of which about 0.1% were viable. Total bacterial cells were initially below detection limits (ca. 10(6) cells/g dry mass) and then were estimated to be approximately 5 x 10(7) cells/g dry mass during the first 4 days following production. Culturable aerobic heterotrophic organisms (fungi plus bacteria) ranged between 10(4) and 10(5) CFU/g dry mass during the initial 4 day period, and lactic acid bacteria increased from 36 to 10(3) CFU/g dry mass over this same period. At 9 days, total viable bacteria and yeasts and (or) molds topped 10(8) CFU/g dry mass and lactic acid bacteria approached 10(6) CFU/g dry mass. Community phospholipid fatty acid analysis indicated a stable microbial community over the first 4 days of storage. Thirteen morphologically distinct isolates were recovered, of which 10 were yeasts and molds from 6 different genera, 2 were strains of the lactic-acid-producing Pediococcus pentosaceus and only one was an aerobic heterotrophic bacteria, Micrococcus luteus. The microbiology of DWG is fundamental to the assessment of spoilage, deleterious effects (e.g., toxins), or beneficial effects (e.g., probiotics) in its use as feed or in alternative applications.

  14. 太阳能供暖与制蒸馏水综合应用技术%Comprehensive application technology of solar energy heating and distilled water system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任胜义; 宋秀静

    2012-01-01

    在非供暖期,为了维护太阳能供暖系统的完好,避免太阳能集热器因干烧导致损坏,提出了一种太阳能供暖与制蒸馏水综合应用技术方案.通过对太阳能集热供暖设施进行技术改造,使太阳能集热装置在冬季用于建筑供暖,在非供暖期用于制蒸馏水,提高了太阳能集热系统的利用率.%During the non-heating period, in order to avoid the problem that the solar collectors are damaged due to the dry burning and maintain the integrity of the solar heating system, an integrated solution of applied technique is achieved to develop a solar heating system as well as a distilled water system. Through the technological innovation of the solar collector and heating facilities, the solar collector device can be used for building heating in winter and used for water distilling during non -heating period to improve the utilization of the solar collector system.

  15. Combination of supercritical CO2 and vacuum distillation for the fractionation of bergamot oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Tao; Goto, Motonobu; Sasaki, Mitsuru; Hirose, Tsutomu

    2004-08-11

    Supercritical CO2 can be used to separate oxygenated compounds from essential oils. This technique still cannot replace vacuum distillation as an industrial process because of low recoveries and inconsistent results. In the present work, a comparison between the two methods was made in terms of composition, recovery, and color. Vacuum distillation and supercritical CO2 are complementary processes for producing high quality oxygenated compounds with high recovery rates. The former is more suitable for removing monoterpenes at low fraction temperatures ( or =85%) and without other macromolecules, such as pigments and waxes.

  16. Fabrication of electrospun nanofibrous membranes for membrane distillation application

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2013-02-01

    Nanofibrous membranes of Matrimid have been successfully fabricated using an electrospinning technique under optimized conditions. Nanofibrous membranes are found to be highly hydrophobic with a high water contact angle of 130°. Field emission scanning electron microscopy and pore size distribution analysis revealed the big pore size structure of electrospun membranes to be greater than 2 μm and the pore size distribution is found to be narrow. Flat sheet Matrimid membranes were fabricated via casting followed by phase inversion. The morphology, pore size distribution, and water contact angle were measured and compared with the electrospun membranes. Both membranes fabricated by electrospinning and phase inversion techniques were tested in a direct contact membrane distillation process. Electrospun membranes showed high water vapor flux of 56 kg/m2-h, which is very high compared to the casted membrane as well as most of the fabricated and commercially available highly hydrophobic membranes. ©2013 Desalination Publications.

  17. A Modeling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a generic, modular model framework for describing fluid separation by distillation is presented. At present, the framework is able to describe a conventional distillation column and a heat-integrated distillation column, but due to a modular structure the database can be further ex...

  18. 27 CFR 27.31 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... BEER Dealer Registration and Recordkeeping § 27.31 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for distilled spirits is equivalent to the sale of distilled...

  19. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  20. Continuous and Batch Distillation in an Oldershaw Tray Column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Carlos M.; Vaz, Raquel V.; Santiago, Ana S.; Lito, Patricia F.

    2011-01-01

    The importance of distillation in the separation field prompts the inclusion of distillation experiments in the chemical engineering curricula. This work describes the performance of an Oldershaw column in the rectification of a cyclohexane/n-heptane mixture. Total reflux distillation, continuous rectification under partial reflux, and batch…

  1. 40 CFR 721.9635 - Terpene residue distillates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Terpene residue distillates. 721.9635... Substances § 721.9635 Terpene residue distillates. (a) Chemical substance and significant new uses subject to reporting. (1) The chemical substance identified generically as terpene residue distillates (PMN...

  2. Improvement of solar ethanol distillation using ultrasonic waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaruwat Jareanjit

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available This report presents a study on the use of ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation to investigate the performance of ultrasonic waves at a frequency of 30 kHz and at 100 Watts that were installed in the inlet area of a 10-litre distillation tank. Based on the non-continuous distillation process (batch distillation, the experiment demonstrated that using ultrasonic waves in solar ethanol distillation caused the average concentration of hourly distilled ethanol to be higher than that of a normal system (solar ethanol distillation without ultrasonic wave at the same or higher distillation rate and hourly distillation volume. The ultrasonic wave was able to enhance the separation of ethanol from the solution (water-ethanol mixture through solar distillation. The amount of pure ethanol product from each distilled batch was clearly larger than the amount of product obtained from a normal system when the initial concentration of ethanol was lower than 50%v/v (% by volume, where an average of approximately 40% and 20% are obtained for an initial ethanol concentration of 10%v/v and 30%v/v, respectively. Furthermore, the distillation rate varied based on the solar radiation value.

  3. Povacoat affecting solid-state polymorphic changes of indomethacin after co-evaporation from different types of solvents via conventional and microwave drying techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-Yang Lin

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of Povacoat on the solid state characteristics and polymorphic transformation of γ-form of indomethacin (γ-IMC after solvent co-evaporation via two drying methods was investigated by thermoanalytical and FTIR spectroscopic studies. The types of solvents (water, ethanol, and water:ethanol (1:9 ~ 2:8, v/v, weight ratios of Povacoat:IMC (4:1 ~ 4:10, w/w, and drying methods (air-drying and microwave-drying were selected as variables in this study. A physical mixture of Povacoat and γ-IMC was also carried out by neat grinding process. The results indicate that there was no interaction between Povacoat and γ-IMC or no polymorphic change of γ-IMC after the neat co-grinding process. Since Povacoat was only soluble in water or <30% ethanol aqueous solution but γ-IMC was only soluble in organic solvents, different solvents and drying methods might significantly influence the solid-state characteristics of IMC formed in the presence of Povacoat. It was found that the amorphous IMC was formed in the Povacoat/IMC evaporates after dissolving both Povacoat and γ-IMC in water:ethanol (mixed ratio=1:9 and 2:8, v/v and co-evaporation via microwave-drying, whereas the α-IMC was formed in the Povacoat/IMC evaporates via the air-drying method. In addition, the predominate α-IMC formation was only found in all the Povacoat/IMC evaporates with different weight ratios prepared by previously dissolving in water:ethanol (1:9, v/v and co-evaporation via air-drying, but the amorphous IMC formation after co-evaporation via microwave-drying was obtained except the 4:10 (w/w weight ratio. The thermal effect of microwave irradiation and the presence of Povacoat might be responsible for the amorphous IMC formation in the Povacoat/IMC evaporates.

  4. GOBF-ARMA based model predictive control for an ideal reactive distillation column.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seban, Lalu; Kirubakaran, V; Roy, B K; Radhakrishnan, T K

    2015-11-01

    This paper discusses the control of an ideal reactive distillation column (RDC) using model predictive control (MPC) based on a combination of deterministic generalized orthonormal basis filter (GOBF) and stochastic autoregressive moving average (ARMA) models. Reactive distillation (RD) integrates reaction and distillation in a single process resulting in process and energy integration promoting green chemistry principles. Improved selectivity of products, increased conversion, better utilization and control of reaction heat, scope for difficult separations and the avoidance of azeotropes are some of the advantages that reactive distillation offers over conventional technique of distillation column after reactor. The introduction of an in situ separation in the reaction zone leads to complex interactions between vapor-liquid equilibrium, mass transfer rates, diffusion and chemical kinetics. RD with its high order and nonlinear dynamics, and multiple steady states is a good candidate for testing and verification of new control schemes. Here a combination of GOBF-ARMA models is used to catch and represent the dynamics of the RDC. This GOBF-ARMA model is then used to design an MPC scheme for the control of product purity of RDC under different operating constraints and conditions. The performance of proposed modeling and control using GOBF-ARMA based MPC is simulated and analyzed. The proposed controller is found to perform satisfactorily for reference tracking and disturbance rejection in RDC.

  5. Long palatal connective tissue rolled pedicle graft with demineralized freeze-dried bone allograft plus platelet-rich fibrin combination: A novel technique for ridge augmentation - Three case reports

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pathakota Krishnajaneya Reddy

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Replacement of missing maxillary anterior tooth with localized residual alveolar ridge defect is challenging, considering the high esthetic demand. Various soft and hard tissue procedures were proposed to correct alveolar ridge deformities. Novel techniques have evolved in treating these ridge defects to improve function and esthetics. In the present case reports, a novel technique using long palatal connective tissue rolled pedicle graft with demineralized freeze-dried bone allografts (DFDBAs plus Platelet-rich fibrin (PRF combination was proposed to correct the Class III localized anterior maxillary anterior alveolar ridge defect. The present technique resulted in predictable ridge augmentation, which can be attributed to the soft and hard tissue augmentation with a connective tissue pedicle and DFDBA plus PRF combination. This technique suggests a variation in roll technique with DFDBA plus PRF and appears to promise in gaining predictable volume in the residual ridge defect and can be considered for the treatment of moderate to severe maxillary anterior ridge defects.

  6. Stagewise dilute-acid pretreatment and enzyme hydrolysis of distillers' grains and corn fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noureddini, Hossein; Byun, Jongwon; Yu, Ta-Jen

    2009-11-01

    Distillers' grains and corn fiber are the coproducts of the corn dry grind and wet milling industries, respectively. Availability of distillers' grains and corn fiber at the ethanol plant and their high levels of lignocellulosic material make these coproducts attractive feedstocks for conversion to ethanol. In this study, dilute sulfuric acid hydrolysis of these coproducts was investigated in a multistage scheme. After the completion of each pretreatment stage, the liquid substrate was separated and reused in the succeeding pretreatment stage with a fresh substrate. The substrate from each stage was also subjected to enzyme hydrolysis in a separate experiment. The sulfuric acid concentration and the substrate loading were maintained at 1.0 vol% and 15.0 wt.%, respectively, and the temperature was maintained at 120 degrees C in all the experiments. Experiments were also performed to study the effect of removing oil from the samples prior to the pretreatment. The highest concentration of monomeric sugars (MS) was observed when three stages of pretreatment were followed by the enzyme reaction. The enzyme hydrolysis of the three-stage pretreated dried distillers' grains and corn fiber yielded 122.6 +/- 5.8 and 184.5 +/- 4.1 mg/mL of MS, respectively. The formation of inhibitory products was also monitored.

  7. century drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdon, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-11-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twenty-first century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman-Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both

  8. Solar drying of fodder in the Roquefort area. Abstract of the technical final report; Sechage solaire des fourrages en zone roquefort. Resume du rapport technique final

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1997-05-01

    Usually the drying air for the fodder drying, is heating by the fossil energies. This technology uses solar cells to heat the air from 3 to 5 degrees. This document presents the context and the program management, the installations description, the operating and the results, the cost of the installations and the economic efficiency, the environmental impacts and concludes on the efficiency of this technology in the context of a sustainable agriculture, respectful of the environment and the energy conservation. (A.L.B.)

  9. Pinch Point Calculations and Its Implications on Robust Distillation Design

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Daniel A. Beneke; Seon B. Kim; Andreas A. Linninger

    2011-01-01

    Rising energy costs and growing environmental awareness motivate a critical revision of the design of distillation units. Systematic design techniques, such as the rectification body, column profile map, and temperature collocation methods, require exact knowledge of all pinch points in a particular system, because these stationary points delineate the possible composition trajectories realizable in separation columns. This paper demonstrates novel methods for rigorously determining all pinch points for the constant relative volatility, ideal and non-ideal systems. Constant relative volatility and ideal solution systems are transformed into one-dimensional polynomial and nonlinear functions, regardless of the number of the components. A deflation method is proposed to locate all zeros in ideal and non-ideal zeotropic problems. For more challenging non-ideal problems, a novel hybrid sequential niche algorithm is used to solve hard azeotropic problems successfully. Finally, the design implications of these pinch point locations are investigated to show how new separation configurations can be devised. Methodically the paper points out the use of rigorous pinch point computations in conjunction with continuous composition profiles for robust distillation design.

  10. Toxicology of petroleum naphtha distillate vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, F W

    1976-12-01

    A unique opportunity was presented to observe the potentially toxic effects of an acute exposure to the vapors of petroleum naphtha distillate on a relatively large number of individuals. The immediate manifestation in all was dyspnea. The action on motor vehicle combustion suggested that some of this could have been due to oxygen deprivation; however, all individuals were dyspneic for several minutes after exposure. A few were cyanotic for several minutes after exposure. All were excited. Tremulousness and mild nausea followed the initial symptoms but were of brief duration. One individual manifested numerous premature ventricular contractions. Since his exposure was brief and since none of the others showed similar findings, it is unlikely that the exposure was causal. The central nervous system depression described in acute exposure cases of the intact (not distillate) petroleum naphtha fumes was not observed in any of this series. There were no delayed manifestations or complications.

  11. Nonadditivity of Rains' bound for distillable entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2017-06-01

    Rains' bound is arguably the best known upper bound of the distillable entanglement by operations completely preserving positivity of partial transpose (PPT) and was conjectured to be additive and coincide with the asymptotic relative entropy of entanglement. We disprove both conjectures by explicitly constructing a special class of mixed two-qubit states. We then introduce an additive semidefinite programming lower bound (EM) for the asymptotic Rains' bound, and it immediately becomes a computable lower bound for entanglement cost of bipartite states. Furthermore, EM is also proved to be the best known upper bound of the PPT-assisted deterministic distillable entanglement and gives the asymptotic rates for all pure states and some class of genuinely mixed states.

  12. Innovative Vacuum Distillation for Magnesium Recycling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Tianbai; Li, Naiyi; Mei, Xiaoming; Yu, Alfred; Shang, Shixiang

    Magnesium recycling now becomes a very important subject as magnesium consumption increases fast around the world. All commonly used magnesium die-casting alloys can be recycled and recovered to the primary metal quality. The recycled materials may be comprised of biscuits, sprues, runners, flash, overflows, dross, sludge, scrap parts, and old parts that are returned from service, An innovative magnesium recycle method, vacuum distillation, is developed and proved out to be able to recycle magnesium scraps, especially machining chips, oily magnesium, smelting sludge, dross or the mixture. With this process at a specific temperature and environment condition, magnesium in scraps can be gasified and then solidified to become crystal magnesium crown. This `recycled' magnesium crown is collected and used as the raw material of magnesium alloys. The experimental results show the vacuum distillation is a feasible and plausible method to recycle magnesium. Further, the cost analysis will be addressed in this paper.

  13. Controllability analysis of thermally coupled distillation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, S.; Jimenez, A.

    1999-10-01

    A comparison of the controllability properties of three thermally coupled distillation sequences (Petlyuk, sequence with side rectifier, and sequence with side stripper) using singular value decomposition is developed. Those properties are also compared to the energy consumption required for separating ternary mixtures. The parameters obtained via singular value decomposition show that sequences with a side rectifier or a side stripper have better control properties than the Petlyuk system, although the Petlyuk scheme has lower energy requirements than the systems with side columns.

  14. Microfluidic distillation chip for methanol concentration detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yao-Nan; Liu, Chan-Chiung; Yang, Ruey-Jen; Ju, Wei-Jhong; Fu, Lung-Ming

    2016-03-17

    An integrated microfluidic distillation system is proposed for separating a mixed ethanol-methanol-water solution into its constituent components. The microfluidic chip is fabricated using a CO2 laser system and comprises a serpentine channel, a boiling zone, a heating zone, and a cooled collection chamber filled with de-ionized (DI) water. In the proposed device, the ethanol-methanol-water solution is injected into the microfluidic chip and driven through the serpentine channel and into the collection chamber by means of a nitrogen carrier gas. Following the distillation process, the ethanol-methanol vapor flows into the collection chamber and condenses into the DI water. The resulting solution is removed from the collection tank and reacted with a mixed indicator. Finally, the methanol concentration is inversely derived from the absorbance measurements obtained using a spectrophotometer. The experimental results show the proposed microfluidic system achieves an average methanol distillation efficiency of 97%. The practicality of the proposed device is demonstrated by detecting the methanol concentrations of two commercial fruit wines. It is shown that the measured concentration values deviate by no more than 3% from those obtained using a conventional bench top system.

  15. The attractor mechanism as a distillation procedure

    CERN Document Server

    Lévay, Péter

    2010-01-01

    In a recent paper it has been shown that for double extremal static spherically symmetric BPS black hole solutions in the STU model the well-known process of moduli stabilization at the horizon can be recast in a form of a distillation procedure of a three-qubit entangled state of GHZ-type. By studying the full flow in moduli space in this paper we investigate this distillation procedure in more detail. We introduce a three-qubit state with amplitudes depending on the conserved charges the warp factor, and the moduli. We show that for the recently discovered non-BPS solutions it is possible to see how the distillation procedure unfolds itself as we approach the horizon. For the non-BPS seed solutions at the asymptotically Minkowski region we are starting with a three-qubit state having seven nonequal nonvanishing amplitudes and finally at the horizon we get a GHZ state with merely four nonvanishing ones with equal magnitudes. The magnitude of the surviving nonvanishing amplitudes is proportional to the macros...

  16. Study on spray drying processing technique of honey powder%固体蜂蜜粉的喷雾干燥加工工艺研究*

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包凯; 陈文伟; 张墨楠; 洪瑶; 黄光荣

    2013-01-01

    In this paper the preparation technology of dried honey powder was studied. Core-wall ratio, solid content, spray drying inlet temperature and input quantity were optimized through evaluating the yield of dried honey powder. Results manifested that optimal preparation conditions were 0.8∶1 of core-wall ratio, 50 g/100g of solid content, 200℃of spray drying inlet temperature, and 50 mL/min of input quantity.%  对固体蜂蜜粉的制备工艺进行研究。考察了芯壁比、固形物含量、进风温度、进料量对固体蜂蜜粉得率的影响,确定最优的制备工艺条件:芯壁质量比0.8∶1,固形物含量50 g/100g,进风温度200℃,进料量50 mL/min。

  17. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  18. A novel purification process for dodecanedioic acid by molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jiang Yu; Xigang Yuan; Aiwu Zeng

    2015-01-01

    A novel purification process is involved to obtain the high purity [N 99%(by mass)] dodecanedioic acid (DC12). It involves a re-crystal ization followed by molecular distil ation from the crude product. The objective of this study is to investigate general conditions, feed rate, distil ing temperature and vacuum, necessary for centrifugal distil-lation of DC12. Under the optimum conditions, distilling temperature 180 °C, pressure 30 Pa and feed flow rate 700 ml·h−1, the purity of DC12 in the residence reached 97.55%with a yield of 53.18%by the analysis of gas chromatography. Multiple-pass distillation made a considerable contribution by improving the purity to 99.22%. Additionally, the effect of pretreatment (re-crystallization) on distillation process was revealed through a series of comparative experiments.

  19. Purification of 3-hydroxypropionitrile by wiped molecular distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU; Songlin; XIANG; Aishuang; YING; Anguo

    2004-01-01

    A new separation method, wiped molecular distillation (WMD), was applied and experimental work was carried out to study the effect of operation parameters such as distillation temperature, pressure, feed flow rate, wiped speed and the separation stages on purifying the raw material containing 95% 3-hydroxypropionitrile (HPN). It was an excellent result that the mass concentration of HPN in the final product can be more than 99.5% under the optimistic operation conditions. The high purity cannot be achieved with normal separating method including rectification and extraction in practice. As for the raw material, a function of HPN purity in distillate was plotted with distillation temperature and pressure in experiment ranges. According to the experiment data obtained and the theory in molecular distillation, the distillation speed of HPN and separation efficiency were computed. It was concluded that the distillation speed of HPN and the separation efficiency were satisfying for industrial production.

  20. Oxidative production of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth by Gluconobacter oxydans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Hongsen; Han, Xushen; Wei, Chengxiang; Bao, Jie

    2017-01-01

    An oxidative production process of xylonic acid using xylose in distillation stillage of cellulosic ethanol fermentation broth was designed, experimentally investigated, and evaluated. Dry dilute acid pretreated and biodetoxified corn stover was simultaneously saccharified and fermented into 59.80g/L of ethanol (no xylose utilization). 65.39g/L of xylose was obtained in the distillation stillage without any concentrating step after ethanol was distillated. Then the xylose was completely converted into 66.42g/L of xylonic acid by Gluconobacter oxydans. The rigorous Aspen Plus modeling shows that the wastewater generation and energy consumption was significantly reduced comparing to the previous xylonic acid production process using xylose in pretreatment liquid. This study provided a practical process option for xylonic acid production from lignocellulose feedstock with significant reduction of wastewater and energy consumption. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.;

    2004-01-01

    A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer of photo......A dry release method for fabrication of suspended nanostructures is presented. The technique has been combined with an anti-stiction treatment for fabrication of nanocantilever based nanoelectromechanical systems (NEMS). The process combines a dry release method, using a supporting layer......, the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  2. GC/MS analysis of volatiles obtained by headspace solid-phase microextraction and simultaneous-distillation extraction from Rabdosia serra (MAXIM.) HARA leaf and stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Lianzhu; Zhuang, Mingzhu; Lei, Fenfen; Yang, Bao; Zhao, Mouming

    2013-01-15

    Volatiles in Rabdosia serra were investigated by headspace solid phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and simultaneous-distillation extraction (SDE). The HS-SPME technique was previously evaluated to optimise sampling conditions. A total of 56 and 48 compounds including alcohols, aldehydes, hydrocarbons, ketones, carboxylic acid, ester, and aromatics were identified in leaf and stem by optimised HS-SPME method (CAR/PDMS fibre; incubation time, 10 min; extraction temperature, 50°C; extraction time, 40 min), respectively. 1-Octen-3-ol and (2E)-hexenal had significant contribution to R. serra aroma. Cluster analysis indicated that leaf and stem exhibited different volatile diversity. Air drying was favourable for the retention of the volatiles, while freeze- and sun-drying led to the loss of volatiles. SDE method preferred to the analysis of compounds with low volatility including fatty acids and esters. HS-SPME was a useful technique for the analysis of readily volatile components for the characteristics of R. serra aroma.

  3. Complete nutrient recovery from source-separated urine by nitrification and distillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udert, K M; Wächter, M

    2012-02-01

    In this study we present a method to recover all nutrients from source-separated urine in a dry solid by combining biological nitrification with distillation. In a first process step, a membrane-aerated biofilm reactor was operated stably for more than 12 months, producing a nutrient solution with a pH between 6.2 and 7.0 (depending on the pH set-point), and an ammonium to nitrate ratio between 0.87 and 1.15 gN gN(-1). The maximum nitrification rate was 1.8 ± 0.3 gN m(-2) d(-1). Process stability was achieved by controlling the pH via the influent. In the second process step, real nitrified urine and synthetic solutions were concentrated in lab-scale distillation reactors. All nutrients were recovered in a dry powder except for some ammonia (less than 3% of total nitrogen). We estimate that the primary energy demand for a simple nitrification/distillation process is four to five times higher than removing nitrogen and phosphorus in a conventional wastewater treatment plant and producing the equivalent amount of phosphorus and nitrogen fertilizers. However, the primary energy demand can be reduced to values very close to conventional treatment, if 80% of the water is removed with reverse osmosis and distillation is operated with vapor compression. The ammonium nitrate content of the solid residue is below the limit at which stringent EU safety regulations for fertilizers come into effect; nevertheless, we propose some additional process steps that will increase the thermal stability of the solid product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of Selected Nutrients and Contaminants in Distillers Grains from Ethanol Production in Texas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Kyung-Min; Herrman, Timothy J

    2015-10-01

    This study evaluated distillers grain (DG) by-products produced in different ethanol plants and supplemented in animal diets in Texas, based on samples analyzed from 2008 to 2014. The samples were assessed for concentration, occurrence, and prevalence of selected nutrients and contaminants. Protein and sulfur contents of DG were largely different between corn and sorghum by-products as well as wet distillers grain with solubles and dry distillers grain with solubles (DDGS), indicating a significant effect of grain feedstock and dry-grind process stream on DG composition and quality. Salmonella was isolated in 4 DDGS samples out of a total of 157 DG samples, a percentage (2.5%) that is much lower than the percentage of Salmonella-positive samples found in other feed samples analyzed during the same period. A small amount of virginiamycin residue was found in 24 corn DDGS, 1 corn wet distillers grain with solubles, and 2 sorghum DDGS samples out of 242 samples in total. One sorghum DDGS sample out of 168 DG samples was contaminated with bovine spongiform encephalopathy, but the transmission route of the bovine spongiform encephalopathy agent could not be clearly defined. The concentrations of aflatoxin and fumonisin DG by-products averaged 3.4 μg/kg and 0.7 mg/kg, respectively. Among contaminated corn DG samples, five DDGS samples for aflatoxin contained a higher concentration than the U.S. Food and Drug Administration action level for use in animal feed, whereas no sample for fumonisin was found above the action level. The study results raised some important issues associated with the quality and use of DG by-products, suggesting several approaches and strategies for their effective and safe use as a feed ingredient to promote animal and human health and welfare.

  5. Discrimination of Cognacs and other distilled drinks by mid-infrared spectropscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picque, Daniel; Lieben, Pascale; Corrieu, Georges; Cantagrel, Roger; Lablanquie, Odile; Snakkers, Guillaume

    2006-07-26

    Mid-infrared spectroscopy was applied to the analysis and discrimination of Cognacs and other distilled drinks (Armagnacs, whiskies, brandies, bourbons, rums, and counterfeit products). Strong correlations were found between dry extract spectra, polyphenolic dry extract spectra, and the total polyphenol concentration of samples, notably of Cognacs. Principal component analysis applied to spectral data made it possible to emphasize the importance of dry extract data when a distinction is made between Cognacs and Armagnacs, whiskies, bourbons, and rums, and of polyphenol concentration when Cognacs, brandies, and counterfeit products are separated. Ninety-six percent of samples in the test set were correctly assigned to Cognacs and non-Cognacs by partial least-squares discriminant analysis.

  6. Electrohydrodynamic drying of carrot slices.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Changjiang Ding

    Full Text Available Carrots have one of the highest levels of carotene, and they are rich in vitamins, fiber and minerals. However, since fresh carrots wilt rapidly after harvest under inappropriate storage conditions, drying has been used to improve their shelf life and retain nutritional quality. Therefore, to further investigate the potential of this method, carrot slices were dried in an EHD system in order to study the effect of different voltages on drying rate. As measures of quality, carotene content and rehydration ratio were, respectively, compared against the conventional oven drying regime. Carotene, the main component of the dried carrot, and rehydration characteristics of the dried product can both indicate quality by physical and chemical changes during the drying process. Mathematical modeling and simulation of drying curves were also performed, using root mean square error, reduced mean square of the deviation and modeling efficiency as the primary criteria to select the equation that best accounts for the variation in the drying curves of the dried samples. Theoretically, the Page model was best suited for describing the drying rate curve of carrot slices at 10kV to 30kV. Experimentally, the drying rate of carrots was notably greater in the EHD system when compared to control, and quality, as determined by carotene content and rehydration ratio, was also improved when compared to oven drying. Therefore, this work presents a facile and effective strategy for experimentally and theoretically determining the drying properties of carrots, and, as a result, it provides deeper insight into the industrial potential of the EHD drying technique.

  7. Use of Reactive Distillation for Biodiesel Production: A Literature Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Dani Supardan

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Biodiesel has been shown to be the best substitute for fossil-based fuels to its environmental advantages and renewable resource availability. There is a great demand for the commercialization of biodiesel production, which in turn calls for a technically and economically reactor technology. The production of biodiesel in existing batch and continuous-flow processes requires excess alcohol, typically 100%, over the stoichiometric molar requirement in order to drive the chemical reaction to completion. In this study, a novel reactor system using a reactive distillation (RD technique was discussed for biodiesel production. RD is a chemical unit operation in which chemical reactions and separations occur simultaneously in one unit. It is an effective alternative to the classical combination of reactor and separation units especially when involving reversible or consecutive chemical reactions such as transesterication process in biodiesel production.

  8. Minimum Amount of Slop Cut in Batch Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The pulse-control operation technique which alternates between total reflux operation and total efflux operation in batch distillation was studied along with the minimum amount of slop cut.Total reflux time was confirmed by dynamic simulation, and total efflux time was adopted by statistic method. For the mixture of hexane and cyclohexane and the traditional constant reflux ratio operation strategy, the amount of slop cut is 1.8-2.1 times of the minimum amount of slop cut; whereas for the pulse-control operation strategy, it is 1.2-1.4 times of the minimum amount of slop cut. So compared with the traditional constant reflux ratio operation, the pulse-control operation can decrease the amount of slop cut and operation time, and meanwhile, enhance separation efficiency and yield.

  9. Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Use a fluoride rinse or brush-on fluoride gel before bedtime. See your dentist at least twice yearly to have your teeth examined and plaque removed, to help prevent tooth decay. Several herbal remedies have been used historically to treat dry ...

  10. 旱坡地果树抗旱栽培技术%Drought-resistant cultivation techniques of fruit tree in dry slopdand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈欣兰

    2012-01-01

    This paper summarized the technology of orchard building and afforestation of fruit trees in dry slopeland, fertilizer and water maintenance technology in orchard area and drought resistance technology of fruit trees.%总结了旱坡地果树建园与营造技术、果园保水保肥技术以及果树抗旱技术。

  11. Filler leachability of composites stored in distilled water or artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Söderholm, K J; Mukherjee, R; Longmate, J

    1996-09-01

    Though dental composite materials leach filler elements when stored in distilled water, it is not known whether similar leaching occurs in saliva. The hypothesis to be tested was that due to ion exchange occurring at the filler surfaces, more filler elements leach from composites stored in a salt solution simulating saliva than from composites stored in distilled water. Another aim was to determine how matrix selection, filler composition, and filler silanization affect filler leachability of composites after storage in the simulated saliva and water media. We made 128 batches of experimental composites. Half of these used a bis-GMA/TEGDMA matrix and the other a UEDMA/TEGDMA matrix. Either silica or barium glass filler particles were incorporated into these matrices. Filler silanization was followed by a filler drying at 60 degrees C for 24 h. Half of the silanized particles received an additional heat treatment for 1 h at 110 degrees C in vacuum. One specimen per batch was stored in distilled water and the other in artificial saliva at 37 degrees C. After each 30-day interval for one year, the specimens were transferred to either freshly distilled water or newly mixed artificial saliva. The "old" solutions were analyzed by ICP for determination of the Si, Ba, and Al concentrations. Analysis of variance revealed that storage solution, filler composition, and total time in the storage solution had strong effects on the leachability (p water) and 2.80 +/- 1.20 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). For barium-glass-filled composites, the corresponding Si leaching values were 0.73 +/- 0.48 microgram/mL and 5.00 +/- 2.20 microgram/mL. The monthly means of the barium leaching values were 2.00 +/- 1.00 microgram/mL (distilled water) and 3.10 +/- 1.80 microgram/mL (artificial saliva). The large difference between leaching in artificial saliva and in distilled water, as well as the interaction between storage medium and filler, cast doubt on the clinical relevance of in vitro

  12. A comparison between use of spray and freeze drying techniques for preparation of solid self-microemulsifying formulation of valsartan and in vitro and in vivo evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Sanjay Kumar; Vuddanda, Parameswara Rao; Singh, Sanjay; Srivastava, Anand Kumar

    2013-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop self micro emulsifying formulation (SMEF) of valsartan to improve its oral bioavailability. The formulations were screened on the basis of solubility, stability, emulsification efficiency, particle size and zeta potential. The optimized liquid SMEF contains valsartan (20% w/w), Capmul MCM C8 (16% w/w), Tween 80 (42.66% w/w) and PEG 400 (21.33% w/w) as drug, oil, surfactant and co-surfactant, respectively. Further, Liquid SMEF was adsorbed on Aerosol 200 by spray and freeze drying methods in the ratio of 2 : 1 and transformed into free flowing powder. Both the optimized liquid and solid SMEF had the particle size drying methods are equally capable for producing stable solid SMEF and immediate release of drug in in vitro and in vivo conditions. However, the solid SMEF produced by spray drying method showed high flowability and compressibility. The solid state characterization employing the FTIR, DSC and XRD studies indicated insignificant interaction of drug with lipid and adsorbed excipient. The relative bioavailability of solid SMEF was approximately 1.5 to 3.0 folds higher than marketed formulation and pure drug. Thus, the developed solid SMEF illustrates an alternative delivery of valsartan as compared to existing formulations with improved bioavailability.

  13. Economic Analysis in Series-Distillation Desalination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirna Rahmah Lubis

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability to produce potable water economically is the primary purpose of seawater desalination research. Reverse osmosis (RO and multi-stage flash (MSF cost more than potable water produced from fresh water resources. Therefore, this research investigates a high-efficiency mechanical vapor-compression distillation system that employs an improved water flow arrangement. The incoming salt concentration was 0.15% salt for brackish water and 3.5% salt for seawater, whereas the outgoing salt concentration was 1.5% and 7%, respectively. Distillation was performed at 439 K and 722 kPa for both brackish water feed and seawater feed. Water costs of the various conditions were calculated for brackish water and seawater feeds using optimum conditions considered as 25 and 20 stages, respectively. For brackish water at a temperature difference of 0.96 K, the energy requirement is 2.0 kWh/m3. At this condition, the estimated water cost is $0.39/m3 achieved with 10,000,000 gal/day distillate, 30-year bond, 5% interest rate, and $0.05/kWh electricity. For seawater at a temperature difference of 0.44 K, the energy requirement is 3.97 kWh/m3 and the estimated water cost is $0.61/m3. Greater efficiency of the vapor compression system is achieved by connecting multiple evaporators in series, rather than the traditional parallel arrangement. The efficiency results from the gradual increase of salinity in each stage of the series arrangement in comparison to parallel. Calculations using various temperature differences between boiling brine and condensing steam show the series arrangement has the greatest improvement at lower temperature differences. Keywords: desalination, dropwise condensation, mechanical-vapor compression

  14. Final Report, Distillation Column Flooding Predictor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    George E. Dzyacky

    2003-05-31

    The Flooding Predictor is an advanced process control strategy comprising a patented pattern-recognition methodology that identifies pre-flood patterns discovered to precede flooding events in distillation columns. The grantee holds a U.S. patent on the modeling system. The technology was validated at the Separations Research Program, The University of Texas at Austin under a grant from the U. S. Department of Energy, Inventions & Innovation Program. Distillation tower flooding occurs at abnormally high vapor and/or liquid rates. The loss in tray efficiencies is attributed to unusual behavior of liquid inventories inside the column leading to conditions of flooding of the space in between trays with liquid. Depending on the severity of the flood condition, consequences range from off spec products to equipment damage and tower shutdown. This non-intrusive pattern recognition methodology, processes signal data obtained from existing column instrumentation. Once the pattern is identified empirically, it is modeled and coded into the plant's distributed control system. The control system is programmed to briefly "unload" the tower each time the pattern appears. The unloading takes the form of a momentary reduction in column severity, e.g., decrease bottom temperature, reflux or tower throughput. Unloading the tower briefly at the pre-flood state causes long-term column operation to become significantly more stable - allowing an increase in throughput and/or product purity. The technology provides a wide range of value between optimization and flooding. When a distillation column is not running at capacity, it should be run in such a way ("pushed") that optimal product purity is achieved. Additional benefits include low implementation and maintenance costs, and a high level of console operator acceptance. The previous commercial applications experienced 98% uptime over a four-year period. Further, the technology is unique in its ability to distinguish between

  15. Application of Irreversible Thermodynamics to Distillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Signe Kjelstrup

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available We compare three different ways of modelling tray distillation to each other, and to experimental data: the most common way that assumes equilibrium between the liquid and vapour phases at the outlets of each tray, and two more precise methods that use irreversible thermodynamics. Irreversible thermodynamics determines the driving forces and fluxes of a system in agreement with the second law. It is shown that the methods using irreversible thermodynamics (Maxwell-Stefan equations are superior to the method that assumes that equilibrium is reached on each tray. The Soret effect must be included to have a good description of the heat flux.

  16. Ocean thermocline driven membrane distillation process

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2017-07-20

    Systems and methods using membrane distillation are provided for desalinating water, for example for the production of potable water, to address freshwater requirements. In an aspect the systems and methods do not require applying an external heat source, or the energy cost of the heating source, to heat the feed stream to the membrane. In an aspect, the sensible heat present in surface seawater is used for the heat energy for the warm stream fed to the membrane, and deep seawater is used as the cold/coolant feed to the membrane to provide the needed temperature gradient or differential across the membrane.

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: ... your eyes do not produce enough tears, it is called dry eye. Dry eye is also when ...

  18. Flavonoid extraction from Alpinia zerumbet (Pers.) Burtt et Smith leaves using different techniques and solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Victorio, Cristiane P.; Lage, Celso Luiz S. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho. Lab. de Fisiologia Vegetal], e-mail: cris.pvictor@gmail.com; Kuster, Ricardo M. [Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro (UFRJ), RJ (Brazil). Nucleo de Pesquisas de Produtos Naturais. Lab. de Fitoquimica

    2009-01-15

    The current study aims to verify the best method for a rapid and efficient extraction of flavonoids from Alpinia zerumbet. Dried leaves were extracted using distillated water and ethanol 70% by extraction methods of shaking maceration, ultrasonic, microwave and stirring. By the application of TLC and reversed phase HPLC techniques the rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide were detected. Ethanol 70% was more efficient for flavonoids extraction than water. No significant yielding variation was verified for ultrasonic, microwave and stirring methods using ethanol 70% (11 to 14%). The relative concentration of rutin and kempferol-3-O-glucuronide, respectively, was higher by ultrasonic (1.5 and 5.62 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves, respectively) and by microwave (1.0 and 6.64 mg g{sup -1} dried leaves) methods using ethanol. Rapid and simplified extraction proceeding optimize phyto chemical work and acquisition of secondary metabolites. (author)

  19. A Modelling Framework for Conventional and Heat Integrated Distillation Columns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bisgaard, Thomas; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted; Abildskov, Jens

    2013-01-01

    Diabatic operation of distillation columns can lead to signicant reductions in energy utilization and operation cost compared to conventional (adiabatic) distillation columns, at an expense of an increased complexity of design and operation. The earliest diabatic distillation conguration dates back...... to the late 70s, and various dierent congurations have appeared since. However, at present, no full-scale diabatic distillation columns are currently operating in the industry. Current studies related to alternative distillation congurations report very dierent gures for potential energy savings which...... constitutes a problem in relations to achieving industrial acceptance. There is clearly a need for research and comparative studies which can help to provide analysis of the pros and cons of novel and intensied distillation processes compared to conventional columns for a range of separations. These studies...

  20. Cascade Distillation Subsystem Development: Early Results from the Exploration Life Support Distillation Technology Comparison Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Callahan, Michael R.; Patel, Vipul; Pickering, Karen D.

    2010-01-01

    In 2009, the Cascade Distillation Subsystem (CDS) wastewater processor (Honeywell International, Torrance, California) was assessed in the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Exploration Life Support (ELS) distillation comparison test. The purpose of the test was to collect data to support down-selection and development of a primary distillation technology for application in a lunar outpost water recovery system. The CDS portion of the comparison test was conducted between May 6 and August 19, 2009. The system was challenged with two pretreated test solutions, each intended to represent a feasible wastewater generated in a surface habitat. The 30-day equivalent wastewater loading volume for a crew of four was intended to be processed for each wastewater solution. Test Solution 1 consisted of a mixed stream containing human-generated urine and humidity condensate. Test Solution 2 contained the addition of human-generated hygiene wastewater to the solution 1 waste stream components. Approximately 1500 kg of total wastewater was processed through the CDS during testing. Respective recoveries per solution were 93.4 +/- 0.7 and 90.3 +/- 0.5 percent. The average specific energy of the system during testing was calculated to be less than 120 W-hr/kg. The following paper provides detailed information and data on the performance of the CDS as challenged per the ELS distillation comparison test.

  1. Assisted distillation cleanup of pesticide residues in animal fats: new beadless distillation tube.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heath, A B; Black, R R

    1987-01-01

    A new assisted distillation tube has been developed which contains no glass beads or glass wool. The sample is injected into the top of the tube, and a septum is not required. Large ground-glass joints (10/19) are used at the gas inlet and at the Florisil trap connection for maximum strength. Existing assisted distillation apparatus was easily modified to accept the new tubes. Recoveries of 9 organochlorine pesticides from butter and cattle fat ranged from 87 to 104% at a tube temperature of 230 degrees C and a nitrogen flow rate of 250 mL/min. No significant change occurred in recoveries of 8 of the 9 pesticides after 85 uses of the beadless tube. Only the recovery of HCB from butter decreased, from 95 to 80%, after 51 runs. The new tube was compared with the Unitrex glass bead-packed concentric tube at flow rates of 230, 400, and 600 mL nitrogen/min. Recoveries from the Unitrex tube were similar to those of the beadless tube for all pesticides except DDT which was significantly lower, indicating incomplete distillation at 250 mL/min and possible partial breakdown at 400 and 600 mL/min. A procedure is introduced for pressurized solvent washing of distillation tubes. This procedure is more efficient than vacuum washing.

  2. Study on a continuous heat integrated distillation column

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Glenchur, T.; Govind, R.

    1987-12-01

    A novel continuous heat integrated distillation column called a concentric column has been studied using computer simulation. It is shown that a concentric column is a novel implementation of a thermodynamically reversible distillation column and has a lower energy loss than an ordinary distillation column. Their studies show that a concentric column has reduced column height, since the stripping section is configured concentrically around the rectifying section, and uses less utilities than a conventional column.

  3. Asymptotic speedups, bisimulation and distillation (Work in progress)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Neil; Hamilton, G. W.

    2015-01-01

    Distillation is a fully automatic program transformation that can yield superlinear program speedups. Bisimulation is a key to the proof that distillation is correct, i.e., preserves semantics. However the proof, based on observational equivalence, is insensitive to program running times. This pa....... This paper shows how distillation can give superlinear speedups on some “old chestnut” programs well-known from the early program transformation literature: naive reverse, factorial sum, and Fibonacci....

  4. Purification of Octacosanol by Agitated Short-Path Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许松林; 王军武; 徐世民; 王淑华

    2003-01-01

    Octacosanol is purified by agitated short-path distillation (SPD). Effects of evaporation temperature,number of SPD steps in series and other distillation method on the octacosanol recovery and decomposition are studied. Although the experimental results indicate some decomposition when the mixture of higher primary aliphatic alcohols is distillated by SPD, SPD is still an effective method to purify octacosanol. It is concluded that evaporation temperature affects greatly on the purity and recovery of octacosanol.

  5. High pressure liquid chromatographic analysis of the main pungent principles of solar dried West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies, Cave Hill Campus, St. Michael, Barbados (West Indies). Centre for Resource Management and Environmental Studies; Chang-Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Faculty of Agriculture and Natural Sciences; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine Campus, Trinidad (West Indies). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1998-12-31

    The main pungent principles of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) were quantified and qualified using High Pressure Liquid Chromatography. This procedure was used to evaluate the pungency profile of fresh, solar dried and solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes. In this investigation, the total oleoresin extracted was in the ratio [20: 1: 2] for [fresh ginger: solar dried: solar dried/steam distilled ginger rhizomes] with respect to the [6]-gingerol content. This simple isocratic HPLC method can be used to investigate the pungency profile of the extracted oleoresin from the ginger rhizomes. (author)

  6. Volatile Oil Constituents of Rosa canina L.: Quality As Affected by the Distillation Method

    OpenAIRE

    Karim Hosni; Amel Kerkenni; Wafa Medfei; Nadia Ben Brahim; Houcine Sebei

    2010-01-01

    The volatile oils of R. canina flowers were isolated by hydrodistillation (HD) and traditional dry distillation (DD) and analyzed by HRGC-FID and GC-MS. Compared to HD, DD at 50°C leads to the isolation of high quality oil which contains the highest content of oxygenated compounds (83%). The main components are the 2-phenethyl alcohol and eugenol. The percentage of the 2-phenethyl alcohol, a highly desirable component in rose oil, was significantly higher (58.4%) in DD extract when compared t...

  7. Influence of Low Temperature Enzyme Maceration Techniques on Volatile Compounds of Semi-dry Wine Made with cv. Premier of Rabbiteye Blueberries (Vaccinium ashei

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueling Gao

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available A low temperature enzyme maceration treatment was conducted during fermentation process of semi-dry cv. Premier blueberry wine. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of maceration conditions on the wine aroma. As a pre-treatment, blueberry must was divided into 6 samples which were respectively treated by pectinase with 6 different maceration conditions at 6°C 1day, 6°C 2 days, 6°C 3 days, 16°C 1 day, 16°C 2 days and 16°C 3 days. After that wines were obtained by fermentation with Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Volatile compounds of wines were analyzed by GC-MS. Overall, the typical aroma compounds of semi-dry cv. Premier wines were constituted by three groups of organic compounds including esters, alcohols and fatty acids. Isoamyl acetate, ethyl caprylate, ethyl decanoate, 2-phenethanol and 3-methylbutanoic acid, which occupied 60% of the typical volatile aromatic compounds, all had higher Odor Activity Values (OAVs in 6°C 3 days than other conditions. Maceration temperature and time had a significant effect on concentration and varieties of wines aroma substances. The results presented will help to better understand the aroma winemaking potential of this variety.

  8. The effect of extrusion and drying on roller techniques concerning the rheological characteristics of rice-, corn-, sweet potato-, bean- and cassava root- and leaf- based composite flour

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Aristizábal Galvis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Promoting food security in Latin-America and the Caribbean is directly related to agricultural products. The region faces a food crisis which has reduced large population groups’ access to food. This work contributes to the study of obtaining precooked composite flour made from biofortified crops using protein, vitamin A and/or minerals. This study evaluated the effect of precooked flour’s composition and precooking on its solubility in water, water absorption capacity, consistency and viscosity; such flour was obtained by extrusion and drying on rollers. The composite flours were obtained from cassava roots, sweet potato tubers, corn, rice and bean grains and cassava leaves. Four composite flours were formulated taking four- to six-year-old children’s daily nutrient requirements (protein, iron, zinc and beta-carotenes as a basis. The extruder was operated at 90ºC, 300 rpm screw rotation speed, 17.64 g/min feed flow, with 30% moisture mixture. The dryer rollers were operated at 4 rpm roller rotation speed, 90ºC surface temperature and 1 mm separation between rollers. It was determined that flour dried on rollers led to more complete cooking and modified starch granule structure than precooking by extrusion, thereby producing flour having greater solubility in water, less water absorption, higher consistency and smaller viscosity, comparable to that of pattern flour.

  9. Evolution of Volatile Compounds during the Distillation of Cognac Spirit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Awad, Pierre; Athès, Violaine; Decloux, Martine Esteban; Ferrari, Gérald; Snakkers, Guillaume; Raguenaud, Patrick; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2017-09-06

    Cognac wine spirit has a complex composition in volatile compounds which contributes to its organoleptic profile. This work focused on the batch distillation process and, in particular, on volatile compounds specifically produced by chemical reactions during the distillation of Cognac wine spirit, traditionally conducted in two steps with charentais pot stills. The aim of this study was to characterize these volatile compounds formed during distillation. Sampling has been performed on the distillates and inside the boiler during a typical Cognac distillation. The analysis of these samples allowed us to perform a mass balance and to point out several types of volatile compounds whose quantities strongly increased during the distillation process. These compounds were distinguished by their chemical family. It has been found that the first distillation step was decisive for the formation of volatile compounds. Moreover, 2 esters, 3 aldehydes, 12 norisoprenoids, and 3 terpenes were shown to be generated during the process. These results suggest that some volatile compounds found in Cognac spirit are formed during distillation due to chemical reactions induced by high temperature. These findings give important indications to professional distillers in order to enhance the product's quality.

  10. Advances in Membrane Distillation for Water Desalination and Purification Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan Gomez

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Membrane distillation is a process that utilizes differences in vapor pressure to permeate water through a macro-porous membrane and reject other non-volatile constituents present in the influent water. This review considers the fundamental heat and mass transfer processes in membrane distillation, recent advances in membrane technology, module configurations, and the applications and economics of membrane distillation, and identifies areas that may lead to technological improvements in membrane distillation as well as the application characteristics required for commercial deployment.

  11. Optimization of existing heat-integrated refinery distillation systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gadalla, M.; Jobson, M.; Smith, R.

    2003-01-01

    Existing refinery distillation systems are highly energy-intensive, and have complex column configurations that interact strongly with the associated heat exchanger network. An optimization approach is developed for existing refinery distillation processes. The optimization framework includes shortcut models developed for the simulation of the existing distillation column, and a retrofit shortcut model for the heat exchanger network. The existing distillation process is optimized by changing key operating parameters, while simultaneously accounting for hydraulic limitations and the design and the performance of the existing heat exchanger network. A case study shows that a reduction in energy consumption and operating costs of over 25% can be achieved. (Author)

  12. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  13. Unified framework for magic state distillation and multiqubit gate synthesis with reduced resource cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, Earl T.; Howard, Mark

    2017-02-01

    The standard approach to fault-tolerant quantum computation is to store information in a quantum error correction code, such as the surface code, and process information using a strategy that can be summarized as distill then synthesize. In the distill step, one performs several rounds of distillation to create high-fidelity logical qubits in a magic state. Each such magic state provides one good T gate. In the synthesize step, one seeks the optimal decomposition of an algorithm into a sequence of many T gates interleaved with Clifford gates. This gate-synthesis problem is well understood for multiqubit gates that do not use any Hadamards. We present an in-depth analysis of a unified framework that realizes one round of distillation and multiqubit gate synthesis in a single step. We call these synthillation protocols, and show they lead to a large reduction in resource overheads. This is because synthillation can implement a general class of circuits using the same number of T states as gate synthesis, yet with the benefit of quadratic error suppression. This general class includes all circuits primarily dominated by control-control-Z gates, such as adders and modular exponentiation routines used in Shor's algorithm. Therefore, synthillation removes the need for a costly round of magic state distillation. We also present several additional results on the multiqubit gate-synthesis problem. We provide an efficient algorithm for synthesizing unitaries with the same worst-case resource scaling as optimal solutions. For the special case of synthesizing controlled unitaries, our techniques are not just efficient but exactly optimal. We observe that the gate-synthesis cost, measured by T count, is often strictly subadditive. Numerous explicit applications of our techniques are also presented.

  14. Membrane distillation combined with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for treating municipal wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hyun-Chul; Shin, Jaewon; Won, Seyeon; Lee, Jung-Yeol; Maeng, Sung Kyu; Song, Kyung Guen

    2015-03-15

    A fermentative strategy with an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AMBBR) was used for the treatment of domestic wastewater. The feasibility of using a membrane separation technique for post-treatment of anaerobic bio-effluent was evaluated with emphasis on employing a membrane distillation (MD). Three different hydrophobic 0.2 μm membranes made of polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE), polyvinylidene fluoride (PVDF), and polypropylene (PP) were examined in this study. The initial permeate flux of the membranes ranged from 2.5 to 6.3 L m(-2) h(-1) when treating AMBBR effluent at a temperature difference between the feed and permeate streams of 20 °C, with the permeate flux increasing in the order PP distillation, while a flux decline in MD with either the PVDF or PP membrane was not found under the identical distillation conditions. During long-term distillation with the PVDF membrane, total phosphorus was completely rejected and >98% rejection of dissolved organic carbon was also achieved. The characterization of wastewater effluent organic matter (EfOM) using an innovative suite of analytical tools verified that almost all of the EfOM was rejected via the PVDF MD treatment. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Studies on corrosion control of naphtha fractions in overhead condensing system using laboratory distillation device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saxena, R.C.; Jayaraman, A.; Chauhan, R.K; Goyal, H.B. [Indian Institute of Petroleum, Dehradun-248005 (India)

    2010-10-15

    Corrosion in the overhead condensing system of atmospheric distillation units is a common occurrence in petroleum refineries worldwide. These corrosion problems are influenced by the presence of three phases: vapours, liquid hydrocarbons and aqueous phase containing hydrochloric acid formed during distillation by decomposition of chloride salts of calcium and magnesium. Present studies highlight the corrosion control of naphtha fractions of Bombay High and Dubai crude oils in laboratory distillation device by chemical treatment using various corrosion inhibitors having different functional groups. These studies were carried out using two phase systems (aqueous-hydrocarbon) in the distillation device having facilities for monitoring the corrosion and temperatures in vapour condensing region and liquid condensate. Corrosion monitoring was carried out by potentiodynamic polarization technique and dissolved iron analysis using inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICPAES). Experimental findings indicate that Dubai naphtha fraction is more corrosive in nature when compared to Bombay High naphtha. This observation can also be explained on the basis of characterization of both crude oils and their naphtha fractions. At normally recommended dosage level as in refinery overhead systems, water soluble corrosion inhibitors are more effective than hydrocarbon soluble ones in the vapour condensing region as well as in the liquid condensate of both naphtha fractions. (author)

  16. Corn or sorghum wet distiller's grains with solubles in combination with steam-flaked corn: In vitro fermentation and hydrogen sulfide production

    Science.gov (United States)

    The effects of wet distiller's grains with solubles (WDG) on in vitro rate of gas production, in vitro dry matter disappearance (IVDMD), hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production, and volatile fatty acids (VFA) were evaluated. Five substrate treatments that were balanced for ether extract content were arran...

  17. Growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion for Holstein heifers limit-fed diets high in distillers grains with different forage particle size

    Science.gov (United States)

    This study evaluated dairy heifer growth performance and total tract nutrient digestion when fed diets high in dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS) with different forage particle size. An 8-wk randomized complete block design study was conducted utilizing twenty-two Holstein heifers (123 ±...

  18. Synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of wine and wine distillates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreeva, Ya.; Borisova, E.; Genova, Ts.; Zhelyazkova, Al.; Avramov, L.

    2015-01-01

    Wine and brandies are multicomponent systems and conventional fluorescence techniques, relying on recording of single emission or excitation spectra, are often insufficient. In such cases synchronous fluorescence spectra can be used for revealing the potential of the fluorescence techniques. The technique is based on simultaneously scanning of the excitation and emission wavelength with constant difference (Δλ) maintained between them. In this study the measurements were made using FluoroLog3 spectrofluorimeter (HORIBA Jobin Yvon, France) and collected for excitation and emission in the wavelength region 220 - 700 nm using wavelength interval Δλ from 10 to 100 nm in 10 nm steps. This research includes the results obtained for brandy and red wine samples. Fluorescence analysis takes advantage in the presence of natural fluorophores in wines and brandies, such as gallic, vanillic, p-coumaric, syringic, ferulic acid, umbelliferone, scopoletin and etc. Applying of synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy for analysis of these types of alcohols allows us to estimate the quality of wines and also to detect adulteration of brandies like adding of a caramel to wine distillates for imitating the quality of the original product aged in oak casks.

  19. Barley fibre and wet distillers' solubles in the diet of growing cattle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. ROOT

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Twenty-eight bulls were used in a 3 × 2 factorial design to study the effects of two by-products from the integrated starch-ethanol process, barley fibre and distillers' solubles, as supplements for grass silage. The animals were divided into five blocks and slaughtered when the average live weight (LW of each block reached 500 kg. The three energy supplements were barley (B, a mixture (1:1 on a dry matter (DM basis of barley and barley fibre (BF, and barley fibre (F, fed without (DS- or with (DS+ wet distillers' solubles (200 g kg-1 concentrate on DM basis. Concentrates were given at the rate of 95 g DM kg-1 LW0.6. Including barley fibre in the diet did not affect feed intake, but distillers' solubles tended to increase both silage and total DM intakes as well as amino acids absorbed in the intestine and energy intake. The protein balance in the rumen increased with the inclusion of barley fibre (P

  20. Detection of mucus glycoconjugates in human conjunctiva by using the lectin-colloidal gold technique in TEM. II. A quantitative study in dry-eye patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Versura, P; Maltarello, M C; Cellini, M; Caramazza, R; Laschi, R

    1986-08-01

    The mucus glycoconjugates produced by conjunctival goblet cells in dry-eye patients were studied by a specific cytochemical reaction in Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM). Four lectins, proteins of vegetal origin which specifically bind glycosidic residues, (WGA, PNA, SBA and ConA) were used conjugated with colloidal gold as ultrastructural marker. We performed a quantitative analysis by counting the colloidal gold particles present on mucus granules. The results were compared with normal conditions. We found a decrease in sialic acid, N-acetyl-glucosamine, N-acetyl-galactosamine and galactose-N-acetyl-galactosamine and an increase in mannose. The different content of glycoconjugates in goblet cells may reflect in the change of physical and functional properties of mucus. We think these data may be useful in the search for a therapeutic mucomimetic drug.

  1. A dried blood spots technique based LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Todime M; Tama, Cristina I; Hayes, Roger N

    2011-11-15

    A rugged and robust liquid chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric (LC-MS/MS) method utilizing dried blood spots (DBS) was developed and validated for the analysis of posaconazole in human whole blood. Posaconazole fortified blood samples were spotted (15 μL) onto Ahlstrom Alh-226 DBS cards and dried for at least 2h. Punched spots were then extracted by using a mixture of acetonitrile and water containing stable labeled internal standard (IS). Posaconazole and its IS were separated from endogenous matrix components on a Kinetex™ C18 column under gradient conditions with a mobile phase A consisting of 0.1% formic acid and a mobile phase B consisting of 0.1% formic acid in acetonitrile/methanol (70/30, v/v). The analyte and IS were detected using a Sciex API 4000 triple quadrupole LC-MS/MS system equipped with a TurboIonSpray™ source operated in the positive ion mode. The assay was linear over the concentration range of 5-5000 ng/mL. The inter-run accuracy and precision of the assay were -1.8% to 0.8% and 4.0% to 10.4%, respectively. Additional assessments unique to DBS were investigated including sample spot homogeneity, spot volume, and hematocrit. Blood spot homogeneity was maintained and accurate and precise quantitation results were obtained when using a blood spot volume of between 15 and 35 μL. Human blood samples with hematocrit values ranging between 25% and 41% gave acceptable quantitation results. The validation results indicate that the method is accurate, precise, sensitive, selective and reproducible.

  2. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  3. The influence of sun drying process and prolonged storage on composition of essential oil from clove buds (Syzygium aromaticum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hastuti, L. T.; Saepudin, E.; Cahyana, A. H.; Rahayu, D. U. C.; Murni, V. W.; Haib, J.

    2017-07-01

    Clove (Syzygium aromaticum) is native to Indonesia and used as a spice in virtually all of the world's cuisine. Clove bud oil, a yellow liquid, is obtained from distillation of buds. The quality of oil is influenced by origin, post-harvest processing, pre-treatment before distillation, the distillation method, and post-distillation treatment. The objective of this study is to investigate the effect of drying process and prolonged storage on essential oil composition of clove bud from the Tolitoli, Indonesia. To determine the effect of drying, fresh clove bud was dried under sunlight until it reached moisture content 13±1 %. The effect of storage was studied in the oil extracted from clove bud that was stored in laboratory at 25 °C for 4 months. The essential oil of each treatment was obtained by steam distillation and its chemical composition was analyzed by GC/MS. The major components found in fresh and dried clove are as follows: eugenol, eugenyl acetate, and caryophyllene. Percentage of caryophyllene was slightly increase after drying but decrease during storage. While the content of eugenyl acetate decreased during drying and storage, the content of eugenol increased. The drying and storage also affect to the change on minor compounds of essential oil of clove.

  4. Operation of a Batch Stripping Distillation Column

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    A stripping batch distillation column is preferred when the amount of the light component in the feed is small and the products are to be recovered at high purity. The operation modes of a batch stripping are believed to be the same as those of a rectifier. However, the control system of a stripper is different. In this paper, we explore three different control methods with Hysys (Hyprotech Ltd. 1997) for a batch stripper. The main difference is the control scheme for reboiler liquid level: (a) controlled by reflux flow; (b) controlled by reboiler heat duty; (c) controlled by bottom product flow. The main characteristics of operating a batch stripper with different control scheme are presented in this paper. Guidelines are provided for the startup of a batch stripper, the effects of somecontrol tuning parameters on the column performance are discussed.

  5. Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility of distillers' grains for growing pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olayiwola Adeola

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the experiment reported here was to investigate and compare the amino acid (AA digestibility of distillers' dried grains (DDG, distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS, high protein distillers' dried grains (HP-DDG, and high protein distillers' dried grains with solubles (HP-DDGS in growing pigs. Five semi-purified diets consisting of DDG, DDGS, HP-DDG, HP-DDGS, and nitrogen-free diet (NFD were fed to pigs fitted with simple T-cannula for 5 observations per diet. Endogenous losses of AA at the terminal ileum of pigs that received the NFD were used to calculate standardized ileal digestibility (SID of AA from apparent ileal digestibility (AID of AA. The AID of Lys in DDGS was lower (P < 0.05 than that in DDG, which was also lower (P < 0.05 than that in HP-DDG. There were no differences in AID of Met among DDG, DDGS and HP-DDGS, but was greater (P < 0.05 in HP-DDG than in DDG or DDGS. The AID of Thr in HP-DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that in DDGS but not different from that in DDG or HP-DDGS. The branched-chain AA Ile and Leu had greater (P < 0.05 AID in HP-DDG than in DDG, DDGS or HP-DDGS, and there was no difference among DDG, DDGS, and HP-DDGS. The AID of Trp in DDG and DDGS or HP-DDG and HP-DDGS were not different, but the AID of Trp in HP-DDGS was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS. The greatest SID of the indispensable AA was in HP-DDG. Except for Arg and Lys in which DDG had greater (P < 0.05 digestibility, there was no difference between DDG and DDGS in the SID of the indispensable AA. The SID of Lys in DDG was greater (P < 0.05 than that of DDGS but there was no difference between that of DDG and HP-DDGS. Only His, Ile, and Met had lower (P < 0.05 SID in HP-DDGS than HP-DDG within the indispensable AA. The SID of Ala, Asp, Cys, Glu, Gly, Ser and Tyr were lower (P < 0.05 in DDGS than in HP-DDG. There SID of dispensable AA in DDG was not different from that of HP-DDGS. The current study provided

  6. 二甲基甲酰胺法萃取精馏生产1,3-丁二烯的模拟计算%Simulation of 1,3-Butadiene Production Process by Dimethylfomamide Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨小健; 殷绚; 欧阳平凯

    2009-01-01

    Nowadays, extractive distillation is the main technique to produce 1,3-butadiene. This study simulated the 1,3-butadiene production process with DMF extractive distillation by Aspen Plus. The solvent ratio is the most important parameter to the extractive distillation process. The article has given out the proper solvent ratios, reflux ratios, distillate ratios, and bottom product ratios of the columns. It also discusses the thermal loads of several columns. The results of simulation are consequently compared with the plant data, which shows good accordance with each other.

  7. An integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction apparatus for the extraction of essential oils from herb materials and its application in Flos Magnoliae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Yuhui; Li, Boxia; Duan, Haogang; Wu, Xin'an; Yao, Xiaojun

    2010-03-01

    A large number of herb materials contain essential oils with extensive bioactivities. In this work, an integrated simultaneous distillation-extraction (ISDE) apparatus was developed. To demonstrate its feasibility, the performance of ISDE was evaluated for the extraction of essential oil from Flos Magnoliae and compared with conventional techniques including steam distillation (SD) and simultaneous distillation-extraction (SDE). According to the product yield, the time consumed and the composition of oil, the essential oils isolated by ISDE were better than that obtained by SD and similar to those obtained by SDE. ISDE was also better than SDE due to its simple operation and lower consumption of energy and organic solvent.

  8. Submerged membrane distillation for seawater desalination

    KAUST Repository

    Francis, Lijo

    2014-08-11

    A submerged membrane distillation (SMD) process for fresh water production from Red Sea water using commercially available hollow fiber membranes has been successfully employed and compared with the conventional direct contact membrane distillation (DCMD) process. The hollow fiber membranes have been characterized for its morphology using field effect scanning electron microscope. In SMD process, a bunch of hollow fiber membranes are glued together at both ends to get a simplified open membrane module assembly submerged into the coolant tank equipped with a mechanical stirrer. Hot feed stream is allowed to pass through the lumen side of the membrane using a feed pump. Continuous stirring at the coolant side will reduce the temperature and concentration polarization. During the conventional DCMD process, using feed-coolant streams with co-current and counter-current flows has been tested and the results are compared in this study. In SMD process, a water vapor flux of 10.2 kg m-2 h-1 is achieved when using a feed inlet temperature of 80°C and coolant temperature of 20°C. Under the same conditions, during conventional DCMD process, a water vapor flux of 11.6 and 10.1 kg m-2 h-1 were observed during counter-current and co-current flow streams, respectively. Results show that the water production in the SMD process is comparable with the conventional DCMD process, while the feed-coolant flow streams are in the co-current direction. During conventional DCMD operation, a 15% increase in the water production is observed when feed-coolant streams are in the counter-current direction compared to the co-current direction. © 2014 © 2014 Balaban Desalination Publications. All rights reserved.

  9. Graph Modelling Approach: Application to a Distillation Column

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hovelaque, V.; Commault, C.; Bahar, Mehrdad

    1997-01-01

    Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks.......Introduction, structured systems and digraphs, distillation column model, generic input-output decoupling problem, generic disturbance rejection problem, concluding remarks....

  10. 27 CFR 19.65 - Experimental distilled spirits plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... spirits plants. 19.65 Section 19.65 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Administrative and Miscellaneous Provisions Activities Not Subject to This Part § 19.65 Experimental distilled spirits plants....

  11. Desalination and Water Recycling by Air Gap Membrane Distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; de Haan, A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are

  12. 27 CFR 26.45 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... Recordkeeping § 26.45 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse receipts for... distilled spirits into the United States from Puerto Rico who sells, or offers for sale, warehouse...

  13. 27 CFR 26.211 - Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Warehouse receipts... and Recordkeeping § 26.211 Warehouse receipts covering distilled spirits. The sale of warehouse..., warehouse receipts for distilled spirits stored in warehouses, or elsewhere, must register and keep...

  14. Desalination and water recycling by air gap membrane distillation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meindersma, G.W.; Guijt, C.M.; Haan, de A.B.

    2006-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging technology for desalination. Membrane distillation differs from other membrane technologies in that the driving force for desalination is the difference in vapour pressure of water across the membrane, rather than total pressure. The membranes for MD are hyd

  15. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  16. An integrated approach for impact assessement of water harvesting techniques in dry areas: the case of oued Oum Zessar watershed (Tunisia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ouessar, M.; Sghaier, M.; Mahdhi, F.; Abdeli, F.; Graaff, de J.; Chaieb, H.; Yahyaoui, H.; Gabriels, D.

    2004-01-01

    In the arid regions of Tunisia, considerable investments are being made to maintain the old water harvesting techniques and introduce new ones to capture the scarce amount of rainwater (100 mm to 230 mm annually) for agricultural and domestic purposes. However, no detailed assessment of the multiple

  17. Integrated Process Design and Control of Reactive Distillation Processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mansouri, Seyed Soheil; Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Huusom, Jakob Kjøbsted

    2015-01-01

    In this work, integrated process design and control of reactive distillation processes is presented. Simple graphical design methods that are similar in concept to non-reactive distillation processes are used, such as reactive McCabe-Thiele method and driving force approach. The methods are based...... on the element concept, which is used to translate a system of compounds into elements. The operation of the reactive distillation column at the highest driving force and other candidate points is analyzed through analytical solution as well as rigorous open-loop and closed-loop simulations. By application...... of this approach, it is shown that designing the reactive distillation process at the maximum driving force results in an optimal design in terms of controllability and operability. It is verified that the reactive distillation design option is less sensitive to the disturbances in the feed at the highest driving...

  18. Improved semidefinite programming upper bound on distillable entanglement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin; Duan, Runyao

    2016-11-01

    An additive and semidefinite programming (SDP) computable entanglement measure is introduced to upper bound the amount of distillable entanglement in bipartite quantum states by operations completely preserving the positivity of partial transpose (PPT). This quantity is always smaller than or equal to the logarithmic negativity, the previously best known SDP bound on distillable entanglement, and the inequality is strict in general. Furthermore, a succinct SDP characterization of the one-copy PPT deterministic distillable entanglement for any given state is also obtained, which provides a simple but useful lower bound on the PPT distillable entanglement. Remarkably, there is a genuinely mixed state of which both bounds coincide with the distillable entanglement, while being strictly less than the logarithmic negativity.

  19. Dry needling — peripheral and central considerations

    OpenAIRE

    Dommerholt, Jan

    2011-01-01

    Dry needling is a common treatment technique in orthopedic manual physical therapy. Although various dry needling approaches exist, the more common and best supported approach targets myofascial trigger points. This article aims to place trigger point dry needling within the context of pain sciences. From a pain science perspective, trigger points are constant sources of peripheral nociceptive input leading to peripheral and central sensitization. Dry needling cannot only reverse some aspects...

  20. New valorization process for refinery slop oil and oily wastes by hetero-azeotropic distillation; Nouveau procede de valorisation des ''slops'' de raffineries et dechets huileux par distillation heteroazeotropique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lucena, E. [Universidad Centrocidental Lisandro Alvarado, Decanato de Ingenieria Civil, Lab. de Calidad Ambiental, Barquisimeto (Venezuela); Verdun, P.; Aurelle, Y. [Institut National des Sciences Appliquees (INSA), Dept. de Genie des Procedes Industriels, Lab. d' Ingenierie des Procedes de l' Environnement (EA 833), 31 - Toulouse (France); Secq, A. [TotalFinaElf, Centre de Recherche Gonfreville, Dept. Procedes et Raffinage, 76 - Harfleur (France)

    2003-07-01

    The petroleum exploitation, at the production level as well as at the refining process, produces important amounts of oily wastes that have a 'mayonnaise-like' mud appearance, called slops oils. These slop oils are very stable inverse water emulsions in crude oil containing solid sediments. The proportion of each of the three phases is very variable from one slop oil to another, however, the watery phase is often majority, from 40 to 80% of the mixture. The slop oils, up to the present, constitute a waste with very little or no valorization at all. The main processing methods used today, incineration and centrifugation, do not allow carrying out a total separation of the present liquid (water and oil) and solid phases. Moreover, they are not optimal from the economic and ecological point of view as well as from the energetic point of view. The processing technique of the petroleum slop oils proposed in this study is based on distillation principles, specifically on the hetero-azeotropic distillation. The method consists in forming a hetero-azeotropic mixture adding a carrier (kerosene) to the slop oil, then distilling the mixture and extracting a distillate, water and carrier, causing simultaneously a destabilization of the emulsion. By simple condensation of the distillate, the water is separated from the kerosene, which can be recycled. After distillation, the obtained dehydrated oil remains can be valorized in the distillation units of the refinery. This study points out the relevance of the proposed method, which presents the advantages of obtaining a complete separation of the phases and without generating any remainder sub-product from it. Moreover, it perfectly fits in the processing logic of any oil refinery. (authors)

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd ... your vision. Privacy Policy Related New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. Performance assessment of membrane distillation for skim milk and whey processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hausmann, Angela; Sanciolo, Peter; Vasiljevic, Todor; Kulozik, Ulrich; Duke, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation is an emerging membrane process based on evaporation of a volatile solvent. One of its often stated advantages is the low flux sensitivity toward concentration of the processed fluid, in contrast to reverse osmosis. In the present paper, we looked at 2 high-solids applications of the dairy industry: skim milk and whey. Performance was assessed under various hydrodynamic conditions to investigate the feasibility of fouling mitigation by changing the operating parameters and to compare performance to widespread membrane filtration processes. Whereas filtration processes are hydraulic pressure driven, membrane distillation uses vapor pressure from heat to drive separation and, therefore, operating parameters have a different bearing on the process. Experimental and calculated results identified factors influencing heat and mass transfer under various operating conditions using polytetrafluoroethylene flat-sheet membranes. Linear velocity was found to influence performance during skim milk processing but not during whey processing. Lower feed and higher permeate temperature was found to reduce fouling in the processing of both dairy solutions. Concentration of skim milk and whey by membrane distillation has potential, as it showed high rejection (>99%) of all dairy components and can operate using low electrical energy and pressures (<10 kPa). At higher cross-flow velocities (around 0.141 m/s), fluxes were comparable to those found with reverse osmosis, achieving a sustainable flux of approximately 12 kg/h·m(2) for skim milk of 20% dry matter concentration and approximately 20 kg/h·m(2) after 18 h of operation with whey at 20% dry matter concentration. Copyright © 2014 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. 蓝莓果干粉制备工艺中载体添加及干燥技术的影响%Effect of carrier and drying techniques on the process of blueberry powder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林西; 吕兆林; 张柏林; 郭弘璇; 侯智霞

    2013-01-01

    For the purpose of making blueberry powder with rich nutrition and good appearance, different drying techniques(Oven drying and freeze drying)and carrier(maltodextrin and sodium carboxymethyl cellulose( CMC)) were taken to make blueberry powder.By the contrast of appearance,moisture content,anthocyanin content and antioxidant ability of each blueberry powder,the result showed that;freeze-drying adding maltodextrin could get crisp and dry blueberry powder;the moisture content was 1.65%±0.34%(<5%);the total anthocyanin content was 132mg/100g fresh weight,decreased 22mg/100g fresh weight;antioxidant capacity was 5.816mgVc/g fresh weight and the retention rate was 96.45%.%以制备营养价值高、外观干燥细腻的高品质蓝莓果干粉为目标,分别对比了添加麦芽糊精、羧甲基纤维素钠(CMC)为载体,经烘箱干燥法、冷冻干燥法干燥的蓝莓果干粉制备工艺,以感官评价为指标评价了蓝莓果干粉外观形态,以含水率、花色苷含量、抗氧化能力为指标评价了蓝莓果干粉品质,同时考察了活性成分的保留情况.结果表明:添加麦芽糊精的冷冻干燥工艺最优,能够得到外观结构酥松、干燥的蓝莓果干粉;蓝莓果干粉含水率为1.65%±0.34%(均干燥至低于5%);蓝莓果干粉总花青素含量为132mg/100g鲜重,与鲜果花色苷154 mg/100g鲜重相比仅下降了22mg/100g鲜重,营养价值保持良好;蓝莓果干粉抗氧化能力为5.816mgVC/g鲜重,保持率为96.45%.

  4. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2017-07-19

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  5. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Written By: Kierstan Boyd Reviewed By: Brenda Pagan- ...

  6. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué Es el Ojo Seco? ...

  7. Genetic screening of spinal muscular atrophy using a real-time modified COP-PCR technique with dried blood-spot DNA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ar Rochmah, Mawaddah; Harahap, Nur Imma Fatimah; Niba, Emma Tabe Eko; Nakanishi, Kenta; Awano, Hiroyuki; Morioka, Ichiro; Iijima, Kazumoto; Saito, Toshio; Saito, Kayoko; Lai, Poh San; Takeshima, Yasuhiro; Takeuchi, Atsuko; Bouike, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Maya; Nishio, Hisahide; Shinohara, Masakazu

    2017-10-01

    Spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) is a common neuromuscular disorder caused by mutations in SMN1. More than 95% of SMA patients carry homozygous SMN1 deletion. SMA is the leading genetic cause of infant death, and has been considered an incurable disease. However, a recent clinical trial with an antisense oligonucleotide drug has shown encouraging clinical efficacy. Thus, early and accurate detection of SMN1 deletion may improve prognosis of many infantile SMA patients. A total of 88 DNA samples (37 SMA patients, 12 carriers and 39 controls) from dried blood spots (DBS) on filter paper were analyzed. All participants had previously been screened for SMN genes by PCR restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) using DNA extracted from freshly collected blood. DNA was extracted from DBS that had been stored at room temperature (20-25°C) for 1week to 5years. To ensure sufficient quality and quantity of DNA samples, target sequences were pre-amplified by conventional PCR. Real-time modified competitive oligonucleotide priming-PCR (mCOP-PCR) with the pre-amplified PCR products was performed for the gene-specific amplification of SMN1 and SMN2 exon 7. Compared with PCR-RFLP using DNA from freshly collected blood, results from real-time mCOP-PCR using DBS-DNA for detection of SMN1 exon 7 deletion showed a sensitivity of 1.00 (CI [0.87, 1.00])] and specificity of 1.00 (CI [0.90, 1.00]), respectively. We combined DNA extraction from DBS on filter paper, pre-amplification of target DNA, and real-time mCOP-PCR to specifically detect SMN1 and SMN2 genes, thereby establishing a rapid, accurate, and high-throughput system for detecting SMN1-deletion with practical applications for newborn screening. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society of Child Neurology. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Risk element sorption/desorption characteristics of dry olive residue: a technique for the potential immobilization of risk elements in contaminated soils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hovorka, Miloš; Száková, Jiřina; García-Sánchez, Mercedes; Acebal, Mercedes Blanc; García-Romera, Inmaculada; Tlustoš, Pavel

    2016-11-01

    Olive oil production is one of the most relevant agroindustrial activities in the Mediterranean region and generates a huge amount of both solid and semi-solid wastes, the uncontrolled disposal of which might lead to serious environmental problems. Due to its organic matter and mineral nutrient content, the waste material can be applied to agricultural soil as a fertilizer. However, due to its high organic matter content, dry olive residue (DOR), commonly called "alperujo," has the potential to immobilize risk elements in contaminated soils. The main objective of this study was to assess the possible effect of DOR on sorption of risk elements such as cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) in the soil. A set of batch sorption experiments were carried out to assess the ability of DOR to adsorb Cd, Pb, and Zn where the effect of the preceding biotransformation of DOR by four species of fungi: Penicillium chrysogenum, Coriolopsis floccosa, Bjerkhandera adusta, and Chondrostereum purpureum was compared. The Freundlich and Langmuir sorption isotherms were calculated to assess the sorption characteristics of both transformed and non-transformed DOR. The results showed good potential sorption capacity of DOR, especially for Pb and to a lesser extent for Cd and Zn. Better sorption characteristics were reported for the biotransformed DOR samples, which are expected to show higher humification of the organic matter. However, the desorption experiments showed weakness and instability of the DOR-bound elements, especially in the case of Zn. Thus, future research should aim to verify the DOR sorption pattern in contaminated soil as well as the potential stabilization of the DOR element bounds where the increase of the pH levels of the DOR samples needs to be taken into account.

  9. Behaviour of Tributylamine as Entrainer for the Separation of Water and Acetic Acid with Reactive Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    雷志刚; 李成岳; 陈标华

    2003-01-01

    A new separation method, reactive extractive distillation, was put forward for separating water and acetic acid. The separation mechanism was analyzed through infrared spectra technique. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data at 101.33 kPa for the binary or ternary systems consisting of water, acetic acid and tributylamine were measured. The activity coefficients were correlated by using Wilson, NRTL, and UNIQUAC Equations.The VLE experiment showed that tributylamine could enhance the relative volatility of water to acetic acid. An extractive distillation experiment was carried out and proved that tributylamine was a good extractive solvent.

  10. Fabrication of Dry Electroencephalography Electrode Using Flexible Substrate MEMS Technique%柔性衬底MEMS技术制备脑电图干电极阵列研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴澄; 陈迪; 胡锐军; 陈景东; 陈翔; 王晓韡; 吕宝粮

    2011-01-01

    A novel dry electroencephalography(EEG) electrode was fabricated for the vigilance analysis based on EEG signal acquisition,which is conventionally acquired by wet electrodes.Flexible substrate MEMS fabrication technique was applied to fabricate the flexible dry micro-needle electrode array,which is chemical stable and bio-compatible.Featuring its cantilever structured micro-needles,the electrode was fabricated by wet etching of Cu sacrificial layer process.The electrodes were then released from substrate by PDMS lift-off process and packaged by polyimide,and finally fabricated a three-dimensional electrode array by multi-layer assembly.Ni was electroplated to fabricate the micro-needles,the wire and the pads of the dry electrode to obtain mechanical strength while Au was electroplated on the surface of micro-needles for bio-compatibility.The performance of the dry electrode was tested by the amplifier of EEG acquisition,Neuroscan.The impedance of dry electrode was approximately 10 kΩ,and the similarity between the performances of dry and wet electrodes was proved by comparison of their time domain and frequency domain signals.With the advantage of high yield,small size,simple assembly,fine shielding,good reliability and mechanical strength,the dry electrode is capable of convenient and painless EEG signal acquisition.%设计了一种新型的脑电图干电极,主要用于采集脑电信号以进行基于脑电图的警觉度分析,替代传统的湿电极.采用柔性衬底微电子机械系统(MEMS)加工技术,在柔性衬底上制备出具有化学稳定性与生物相容性的微针状干电极阵列.通过铜牺牲层实现干电极微针的悬臂梁结构,利用聚二甲基硅氧烷(PDMS)剥离层实现器件从玻璃基底的完全释放,并经平面电极的多层组装实现了立体电极阵列.实验中干电极以聚酰亚胺作为柔性衬底,其针端及导线部分材料为镍,针端部分表面镀金.采用Neuroscan的脑电信号采

  11. 基于综合加权评分法研究不同干燥方法对龙眼肉品质特性的影响%Influence of Different Drying Techniques on the Quality of Longan Pulps Based on Synthetic Weighted Mark Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张良清; 邱佳容; 康彬彬; 余阳; 陈绍军; 甄文博; 陈团伟

    2015-01-01

    为了提高龙眼肉干制品的品质,采用太阳能辅助热泵干燥、微波真空干燥、热风干燥、热泵干燥等干燥方法对龙眼肉进行干制,并应用综合加权评分法对龙眼肉干制品感官品质、单位能耗、多糖含量等指标进行评价. 结果表明:太阳能辅助热泵干燥龙眼肉所测指标的综合加权评分在4种干燥方法中得分最高. 该方法可作为最佳干燥方法应用于生产.%In order to improve the quality of dried longan pulps ,the techniques of solar assisted heat pump drying,microwave vacuum drying ,hot air drying ,heat pump drying were applied to dried longan pulps and the synthetic weighted mark method has been used to give comprehensive effect of the longan pulps sensory quali -ty,unit energy consumption and polysaccharides content in the thesis.The results showed that the solar assisted heat pump drying was the highest comprehensive score in the 4 kinds of drying techniques ,it can be regarded as the best technology applied to the production.

  12. Input-Output Decoupling of a Distillation Column LV-Configuration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yazdi, H.; Jørgensen, Sten Bay; Bahar (fratrådt), Mehrdad

    1996-01-01

    Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references.......Introduction, digraph approach, distillation column, digraph analysis, solution analysis, discussion and conclusion, references....

  13. Tetracycline-HCl-loaded poly(DL-lactide-co-glycolide) microspheres prepared by a spray drying technique: influence of gamma-irradiation on radical formation and polymer degradation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittner, B; Mäder, K; Kroll, C; Borchert, H H; Kissel, T

    1999-05-01

    Tetracycline-HCl (TCH)-loaded microspheres were prepared from poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLGA) by spray drying. The drug was incorporated in the polymer matrix either in solid state or as w/o emulsion. The spin probe 4-hydroxy-2,2,6, 6-tetramethyl-piperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPOL) and the spin trap tert-butyl-phenyl-nitrone (PBN) were co-encapsulated into the TCH-loaded and placebo particles. We investigated the effects of gamma-irradiation on the formation of free radicals in polymer and drug and the mechanism of chain scission after sterilization. Gamma-Irradiation was performed at 26.9 and 54.9 kGy using a 60Co source. The microspheres were characterized especially with respect to the formation of radicals and in vitro polymer degradation. Electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) spectroscopy, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for characterization of the microspheres. Using EPR spectroscopy, we successfully detected gamma-irradiation induced free radicals within the TCH-loaded microspheres, while unloaded PLGA did not contain radicals under the same conditions. The relatively low glass transition temperature of the poly(dl-lactide-co-glycolide) (37-39 degrees C) seems to favor subsequent reactions of free radicals due to the high mobility of the polymeric chains. Because of the high melting point of TCH (214 degrees C), the radicals can only be stabilized in drug loaded microspheres. In order to determine the mechanism of polymer degradation after exposure to gamma-rays, the spin trap PBN and the spin probe TEMPOL were encapsulated in the microspheres. gamma-Irradiation of microspheres containing PBN resulted in the formation of a lipophilic spin adduct, indicating that a polymeric radical was generated by random chain scission. Polymer degradation by an unzipping mechanism would have

  14. Shortcut Algorithm for Simulation of Batch Extractive Distillation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Huixiong; XU Shimin; HU Hui; XIAO Bin

    2007-01-01

    The batch extractive distillation (BED) process has the advantages of both batch and extractive distillation. It is one of the most promising means for the separation of azeotropic and close-boiling point systems. However, so far this process has not been applied in industry due to its over-complexity. A new shortcut model was proposed to simulate the operation of the batch extractive distillation operations. This algorithm is based on the assumption that the batch extractive distillation column can be considered as a continuous extractive distillation column with changing feed at anytime. Namely, the whole batch process is simulated as a succession of a finite number of steady states of short duration, in which holdup is considered as constant mole. For each period of time the batch extractive distillation process is solved through the algorithm for continuous extractive distillation. Finally, the practical implementation of the shortcut model is discussed and data from the lab-oratory and literature are presented. It is found that this model has better adaptability, more satisfactory accuracy and less calculative load than previous rigorous model. Hence the algorithm for simulating BED is verified.

  15. Evaluation method of membrane performance in membrane distillation process for seawater desalination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Seungjoon; Seo, Chang Duck; Choi, Jae-Hoon; Chung, Jinwook

    2014-01-01

    Membrane distillation (MD) is an emerging desalination technology as an energy-saving alternative to conventional distillation and reverse osmosis method. The selection of appropriate membrane is a prerequisite for the design of an optimized MD process. We proposed a simple approximation method to evaluate the performance of membranes for MD process. Three hollow fibre-type commercial membranes with different thicknesses and pore sizes were tested. Experimental results showed that one membrane was advantageous due to the highest flux, whereas another membrane was due to the lowest feed temperature drop. Regression analyses and multi-stage calculations were used to account for the trade-offeffects of flux and feed temperature drop. The most desirable membrane was selected from tested membranes in terms of the mean flux in a multi-stage process. This method would be useful for the selection of the membranes without complicated simulation techniques.

  16. PSO-BELBIC scheme for two-coupled distillation column process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassen T. Dorrah

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available In the two-coupled distillation column process, keeping the tray temperatures within a specified range around their steady state values assures the specifications for top and bottom product purity. The two-coupled distillation column is a 4 Input/4 Output process. Normally, control engineers decouple the process into four independent loops. They assign a PID controller to control each loop. Tuning of conventional PID controllers is very difficult when the process is subject to external unknown factors. The paper proposes a Brain Emotional Learning Based Intelligent Controller (BELBIC to replace conventional PID controllers. Moreover, the values of BELBIC and PID gains are optimized using a particle swarm optimization (PSO technique with minimization of Integral Square Error (ISE for all loops. The paper compares the performance of the proposed PSO-BELBICs with that of conventional PSO-PID controllers. PSO-BELBICs prove their usefulness in improving time domain behavior with keeping robustness for all loops.

  17. Improved waste water vapor compression distillation technology. [for Spacelab

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, K. L.; Nuccio, P. P.; Reveley, W. F.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor compression distillation process is a method of recovering potable water from crewman urine in a manned spacecraft or space station. A description is presented of the research and development approach to the solution of the various problems encountered with previous vapor compression distillation units. The design solutions considered are incorporated in the preliminary design of a vapor compression distillation subsystem. The new design concepts are available for integration in the next generation of support systems and, particularly, the regenerative life support evaluation intended for project Spacelab.

  18. Exergy analysis of a MSF distillation plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahraman, Nafiz [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Erciyes University, Kayseri (Turkey)]. E-mail: nafiz@erciyes.edu.tr; Cengel, Yunus A. [Department of Mechanical Engineering/312, University of Nevada, Reno, NV 89557 (United States)

    2005-09-15

    In this paper, a large MSF distillation plant in the gulf area is analyzed thermodynamically using actual plant operation data. Exergy flow rates are evaluated throughout the plant, and the exergy flow diagram is prepared. The rates of exergy destruction and their percentages are indicated on the diagram so that the locations of highest exergy destruction can easily be identified. The highest exergy destruction (77.7%) occurs within the MSF unit, as expected, and this can be reduced by increasing the number of flashing stages. The exergy destruction in the pumps and motors account for 5.3% of the total, and this also can be reduced by using high efficiency motors and pumps. The plant is determined to have a second law efficiency of just 4.2%, which is very low. This indicates that there are major opportunities in the plant to reduce exergy destruction and, thus, the amount of electric and thermal energy supplied, making the operation of the plant more cost effective.

  19. Changes in oil content, fatty acid composition, and functional lipid profiles during dry grind ethanol production from corn.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demand for alternatives to fossil fuels has resulted in a dramatic increase in ethanol production from corn. The dry grind method has been the major process, resulting in a large volume of dried distiller grains with solubles (DDGS) as a co-product. This presentation reports our study to monitor ...

  20. Ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction followed by GC-MS for the rapid analysis of essential oil in Dryopteris fragrans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiao, Jiao; Gai, Qing-Yan; Wang, Wei; Luo, Meng; Zhao, Chun-Jian; Fu, Yu-Jie; Ma, Wei

    2013-12-01

    A rapid, green and effective miniaturized sample preparation technique, ionic-liquid-assisted microwave distillation coupled with headspace single-drop microextraction was developed for the extraction of essential oil from dried Dryopteris fragrans. 1-Ethyl-3-methylimidazolium acetate was the optimal ionic liquid as the destruction agent of plant cell walls and microwave absorption was medium. n-Heptadecane (2.0 μL) was adopted as the suspended microdrop solvent in the headspace for the extraction and concentration of essential oil. The optimal parameters of the proposed method were an irradiation power of 300 W, sample mass of 0.9 g, mass ratio of ionic liquids to sample of 2.8, extraction temperature of 79°C, and extraction time of 3.6 min. In comparison to the previous reports, the proposed technique could equally monitor all the essential oil components with no significant differences in a simple way, which was more rapid and required a much lower amount of sample. © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.