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Sample records for dry density

  1. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    represents maximum dry density, signifies plastic limit and is liquid limit. Researchers [6, 7] estimate compaction parameters. Aside from the correlation existing between compaction parameters and other physical quantities there are some other correlations that have been investigated by other researchers. The well-known.

  2. correlation between maximum dry density and cohesion of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    HOD

    investigation on sandy soils to determine the correlation between relative density and compaction test parameter. Using twenty soil samples, they were able to develop correlations between relative density, coefficient of uniformity and maximum dry density. Khafaji [5] using standard proctor compaction method carried out an ...

  3. True density and apparent density during the drying process for vegetables and fruits: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Ramírez, J; Méndez-Lagunas, L; López-Ortiz, A; Torres, S Sandoval

    2012-12-01

    This review presents the concepts involved in determining the density of foodstuffs, and summarizes the volumetric determination techniques used to calculate true density and apparent density in foodstuffs exposed to the drying process. The behavior of density with respect to moisture content (X) and drying temperature (T) is presented and explained with a basis in changes in structure, conformation, chemical composition, and second-order phase changes that occur in the processes of mass and heat transport, as reported to date in the literature. A review of the empirical and theoretical equations that represent density is presented, and their application in foodstuffs is discussed. This review also addresses cases with nonideal density behavior, including variations in ρ(s) and ρ(w) as a function of the inside temperature of the material, depending on drying conditions (X, T). A compilation of studies regarding the density of dehydrated foodstuffs is also presented. © 2012 Institute of Food Technologists®

  4. Porosity, Bulk Density, and Volume Reduction During Drying: Review of Measurement Methods and Coefficient Determinations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qiu, J.; Khalloufi, S.; Martynenko, A.; Dalen, van G.; Schutyser, M.A.I.; Almeida-Rivera, C.

    2015-01-01

    Several experimental methods for measuring porosity, bulk density and volume reduction during drying of foodstuff are available. These methods include among others geometric dimension, volume displacement, mercury porosimeter, micro-CT, and NMR. However, data on their accuracy, sensitivity, and

  5. The effect of osmotic pretreatment on the density of hot-air-dried carrot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimani

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of large amounts of fruits and vegetables throughout the world, have encouraged the development of various methods for their processing. Drying is considers as the most common method for preservation of vegetable and fruits. Although drying extend the shelf-life, it has various side effects on keeping quality of these foods; including decreasing of the color and texture quality as well as missing the flavor and nutritional values. These negative effects have increased the demand for the discovering the alternative drying methods and consequently for the production of fresh-like products. The aim of this study was to introduce and optimize the novel method for the drying of carrot as well as to develop and optimize the quality of osmo-air-dried carrots with special respect to the color, flavor, texture, rehydration properties, density and shriveling of the product. For this, the effect of osmotic pretreatment on the density of carrot slices was investigated, using 50% glucose syrup +5% salt at 40°C with 150 rpm, followed by complementary drying step. The result of treated group was compared with control samples which were dried only by hot-air-drier. The results showed that using osmotic pretreatment could increase the density through inhibition of the product's shrinkage. Meanwhile, in air-dried samples the density was decreased considerably and high shrinkage was also observed.

  6. Effect of Viscous Agents on Corneal Density in Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wegener, Alfred R; Meyer, Linda M; Schönfeld, Carl-Ludwig

    2015-10-01

    To investigate the effect of the viscous agents, hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone on corneal density in patients with dry eye disease. In total, 98 eyes of 49 patients suffering from dry eye and 65 eyes of 33 healthy age-matched individuals were included in this prospective, randomized study. Corneal morphology was documented with Scheimpflug photography and corneal density was analyzed in 5 anatomical layers (epithelium, bowman membrane, stroma, descemet's membrane, and endothelium). Corneal density was evaluated for the active ingredients HPMC, carbomer, povidone, and a combination of HPMC and povidone as the viscous agents contained in the artificial tear formulations used by the dry eye patients. Data were compared to the age-matched healthy control group without medication. Corneal density in dry eye patients was reduced in all 5 anatomical layers compared to controls. Corneal density was highest and very close to control in patients treated with HPMC containing ocular lubricants. Patients treated with lubricants, including carbomer as the viscous agent displayed a significant reduction of corneal density in layers 1 and 2 compared to control. HPMC containing ocular lubricants can help to maintain physiological corneal density and may be beneficial in the treatment of dry eye disease.

  7. Pulsed high-density plasmas for advanced dry etching processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banna, Samer; Agarwal, Ankur; Cunge, Gilles; Darnon, Maxime; Pargon, Erwine; Joubert, Olivier

    2012-01-01

    Plasma etching processes at the 22 nm technology node and below will have to satisfy multiple stringent scaling requirements of microelectronics fabrication. To satisfy these requirements simultaneously, significant improvements in controlling key plasma parameters are essential. Pulsed plasmas exhibit considerable potential to meet the majority of the scaling challenges, while leveraging the broad expertise developed over the years in conventional continuous wave plasma processing. Comprehending the underlying physics and etching mechanisms in pulsed plasma operation is, however, a complex undertaking; hence the full potential of this strategy has not yet been realized. In this review paper, we first address the general potential of pulsed plasmas for plasma etching processes followed by the dynamics of pulsed plasmas in conventional high-density plasma reactors. The authors reviewed more than 30 years of academic research on pulsed plasmas for microelectronics processing, primarily for silicon and conductor etch applications, highlighting the potential benefits to date and challenges in extending the technology for mass-production. Schemes such as source pulsing, bias pulsing, synchronous pulsing, and others in conventional high-density plasma reactors used in the semiconductor industry have demonstrated greater flexibility in controlling critical plasma parameters such as ion and radical densities, ion energies, and electron temperature. Specifically, plasma pulsing allows for independent control of ion flux and neutral radicals flux to the wafer, which is key to eliminating several feature profile distortions at the nanometer scale. However, such flexibility might also introduce some difficulty in developing new etching processes based on pulsed plasmas. Therefore, the main characteristics of continuous wave plasmas and different pulsing schemes are compared to provide guidelines for implementing different schemes in advanced plasma etching processes based on

  8. Effect of ethanol, dry extract and reducing sugars on density and viscosity of Brazilian red wines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neto, Flávia S P P; de Castilhos, Maurício B M; Telis, Vânia R N; Telis-Romero, Javier

    2015-05-01

    Density and viscosity are properties that exert great influence on the body of wines. The present work aimed to evaluate the influence of the alcoholic content, dry extract, and reducing sugar content on density and viscosity of commercial dry red wines at different temperatures. The rheological assays were carried out on a controlled stress rheometer, using concentric cylinder geometry at seven temperatures (2, 8, 14, 16, 18, 20 and 26 °C). Wine viscosity decreased with increasing temperature and density was directly related to the wine alcohol content, whereas viscosity was closely linked to the dry extract. Reducing sugars did not influence viscosity or density. Wines produced from Italian grapes were presented as full-bodied with higher values for density and viscosity, which was linked to the higher alcohol content and dry extract, respectively. The results highlighted the major effects of certain physicochemical properties on the physical properties of wines, which in turn is important for guiding sensory assessments. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Density and dry weight of pigweed by various weed control methods ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates effects of various weeds control methods and nitrogen fertilizer resources on density and dry weight of pigweed and the performance of corn forage as factorial in full random block design with 3 repetitions in research farm of Ferdowsi Mashhad University in 2014. The test treatments include weed ...

  10. Effects of bentonite kinds and dry density on the amount of settlement of overpack

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, Kunihiko; Tanaka, Yukihisa

    2009-01-01

    The effects of bentonite kinds and dry density on the settlement behavior of overpack for high level radioactive waste disposal were investigated using both experimental (i.e. centrifuge) and analytical approaches. The nonlinear elastic analysis using a tangent modulus of elasticity obtained from the diffuse double layer theory was carried out to explain the settlement behavior from centrifuge experiments. The difference of properties between bentonites can be considered by this analysis. The results of nonlinear elastic analysis agreed with experimental results. The amount of settlement was decreased with an increase in the dry density and was exponentially decreased with an increase in the swelling pressure. Furthermore, no difference of the amount of settlement was observed if swelling pressure of each bentonite is same. When swelling pressure is more than 1 MPa, the amount of settlement of model overpack into bentonite with 400 mm thickness was less than 10 mm. (author)

  11. Optimising mechanical strength and bulk density of dry ceramic bodies through mixture design

    OpenAIRE

    Correia, S. L.; Hotza, D.; Segadães, A. M.

    2005-01-01

    In industrial practice, it is desirable to be able to predict, in an expeditious way, what the effects of a change in raw materials or the proportions thereof might be in the various processing steps towards the final product. When the property of interest is basically determined by the combination (or mixture) of raw materials, an optimisation methodology specific to the design of mixture experiments can be successfully used. In the present study, dry bending strength and bulk density were s...

  12. Influence of effective stress and dry density on the permeability of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zhenying; Wang, Yingfeng; Xu, Hui; Fang, Yuehua; Wu, Dazhi

    2018-05-01

    A landfill is one of the main sites for disposal of municipal solid waste and the current landfill disposal system faces several problems. For instance, excessive leachate water is an important factor leading to landfill instability. Understanding the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is a relevant topic in the field of environmental geotechnical engineering. In this paper, the current research progress on permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste is discussed. A review of recent studies indicates that the research in this field is divided into two categories based on the experimental method employed: field tests and laboratory tests. This paper summarizes test methods, landfill locations, waste ages, dry densities and permeability coefficients across different studies that focus on permeability characteristics. Additionally, an experimental study on compressibility and permeability characteristics of fresh municipal solid waste under different effective stresses and compression times was carried out. Moreover, the relationships between the permeability coefficient and effective stress as well as dry density were obtained and a permeability prediction model was established. Finally, the experimental results from the existing literature and this paper were compared and the effects of effective stress and dry density on the permeability characteristics of municipal solid waste were summarized. This study provides the basis for analysis of leachate production in a landfill.

  13. Chronic migraine is associated with reduced corneal nerve fiber density and symptoms of dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kinard, Krista I; Smith, A Gordon; Singleton, J Robinson; Lessard, Margaret K; Katz, Bradley J; Warner, Judith E A; Crum, Alison V; Mifflin, Mark D; Brennan, Kevin C; Digre, Kathleen B

    2015-04-01

    We used in vivo corneal confocal microscopy to investigate structural differences in the sub-basal corneal nerve plexus in chronic migraine patients and a normal population. We used a validated questionnaire and tests of lacrimal function to determine the prevalence of dry eye in the same group of chronic migraine patients. Activation of the trigeminal system is involved in migraine. Corneal nociceptive sensation is mediated by trigeminal axons that synapse in the gasserian ganglion and the brainstem, and serve nociceptive, protective, and trophic functions. Noninvasive imaging of the corneal sub-basal nerve plexus is possible with in vivo corneal confocal microscopy. For this case-control study, we recruited chronic migraine patients and compared them with a sex- and age-similar group of control subjects. Patients with peripheral neuropathy, a disease known to be associated with a peripheral neuropathy, or prior corneal or intraocular surgery were excluded. Participants underwent in vivo corneal confocal microscopy using a Heidelberg Retinal Tomography III confocal microscope with a Rostock Cornea Module. Nerve fiber length, nerve branch density, nerve fiber density, and tortuosity coefficient were measured using established methodologies. Migraine participants underwent testing of basal tear production with proparacaine, corneal sensitivity assessment with a cotton-tip applicator, measurement of tear break-up time, and completion of a validated dry eye questionnaire. A total of 19 chronic migraine patients and 30 control participants completed the study. There were no significant differences in age or sex. Nerve fiber density was significantly lower in migraine patients compared with controls (48.4 ± 23.5 vs. 71.0 ± 15.0 fibers/mm2 , P dry eye syndrome. We found that in the sample used in this study, the presence of structural changes in nociceptive corneal axons lends further support to the hypothesis that the trigeminal system plays a critical role

  14. Hydrophobic and low density silica aerogels dried at ambient pressure using TEOS precursor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurav, Jyoti L.; Rao, A. Venkateswara; Bangi, Uzma K.H.

    2009-01-01

    In the conventional ambient pressure drying of silica aerogels, tedious repetitive gel washing and solvent exchange steps (∼6 days) are involved. Therefore, in the present studies, we intended to reduce the processing time of TEOS based ambient pressure dried silica aerogels. Solvents such as methanol, hexane and Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDZ) as surface chemical modification agents have been used. To get good quality aerogels in terms of low density, high porosity, high contact angle and low volume shrinkage in less processing time, we varied MeOH/TEOS, HMDZ/TEOS molar ratios, oxalic acid (A) and NH 4 OH (B) concentrations and stirring time from 1 to 27.7, 0.34 to 2.1, 0 to 0.1 M, 0 to 2 M and 15 to 90 min respectively. The transparent and low-density aerogels were obtained for TEOS:MeOH:acidic H 2 O:basic H 2 O:HMDZ molar ratio of 1:16.5:0.81:0.50:0.681 respectively. The thermal stability and hydrophobicity have been confirmed with Thermogravimetric and Differential Thermal (TG-DT) analyses and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy. Microstructural study was carried out by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM)

  15. Mathematical modelling in simulate bulk density as a function of shrinkage and collapse mechanics during drying of food products

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Almeida-Rivera, C.; Khalloufi, S.; Janssen, J.; Bongers, P.M.M.; Pierucci, S.; Buzzi Ferraris, G.

    2010-01-01

    During drying, food products undergo several physical and structural changes. These changes have a direct impact on properties such as bulk density which is involved in heat and mass transfer processes. Therefore, the prediction of the bulk density as function of water content will be an interesting

  16. The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kato, Fujitaka; Ishihara, Yoshinao; Makino, Hitoshi; Ishiguro, Katsuhiko

    2000-01-01

    The evaluation of the effects of buffer thickness and dry density, one of the buffer design, on radionuclides migration behavior is important from the viewpoint of performance assessment since they have relation to radionuclides migration retardation. It is also considered to help investigation of buffer design that satisfy both safety and economy to condition of the disposal site, which may be required with development of disposal project in the future. Therefore we have performed a sensitivity analysis used buffer thickness and dry density as parameter and considered their combination in this report. Based on this, we have evaluated the effects of buffer thickness and dry density on radionuclides migration in engineered barrier system. And, we have considered about radionuclides migration retardation quality of the buffer which is based on the design (relationship between thickness and dry density) set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. In results, the maximum release rates from the engineered barrier system for the nuclides which have high distribution coefficients and short half lives are sensitive to changes in buffer thickness and dry density. And, using dose converted from the nuclide release rates from the engineered barrier system as a convenient index, it is almost shown that the maximum of total dose is less than 10 μ Sv/y in the cases which buffer thickness and dry density are based on the buffer design set in the second progress report on research and development for the geological disposal of HLW in Japan. These can be used as an information when design of buffer thickness and dry density is set by synthetically judgement of balance of safety and economy. (author)

  17. Effect of Cultural Practices in Night on Weed Density and Weed Dry Matter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.H Rashed Mohasel

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract In order to evaluate the response of weed seeds to light, two experiments, at two different locations were conducted at Ferdowsi university of Mashhad in 2009. At the first experiment, field was ploughed in day and night. Weed density was evaluated 70 d after plough, with 1×1 quadrate. At the second experiment, at night treatment, ploughing, potato planting and weeding with cultivator were done at night. Weed sampling was done twice at 43 and 130 days after planting with 1×1 quadrate and weeds were identified and counted. Result showed pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L., sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L., crabgrass (Digitaria sanguinalis (L. scop, jimsonweed (Datura stramonium L. and mallow (Hibiscus trionum L. did not observed at night plough, in contrast, night plough has no significance influence on common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L., and black nightshade (Solanum nigrum L.. Only common lambsquarters had similar appearance in two treatments, indicating insusceptibility of this weed to time of plough. Interestingly, at the second experiment, result was very similar. Potato yield was higher at night treatment, but not significant. This research showed that some cultural practice like plough, planting and weeding with cultivator in night can reduce weed density and weed dry matter. Keywords: Germination, Time of plough, Sustainable weeds management, Light

  18. Effect of dry density and salinity on Cl- diffusion of compacted Na-montmorillonite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goto, T.; Gorai, M.; Kozaki, T.; Sato, S.

    2010-01-01

    Document available in extended abstract form only. Compacted bentonite is candidate buffer material in geological disposal of high-level radioactive waste (HLW). One of the expected functions of the buffer is to retard the migration of radionuclides from waste form to biosphere. Due to low hydraulic conductivity of the compacted bentonite, diffusion is considered to be predominant process in radionuclide migrations. Therefore, it is important for safety assessment of the geological disposal to clarify the diffusion behavior of radionuclides in montmorillonite, which is a major clay mineral of bentonite. However, detail diffusion mechanism has not been fully understood especially for the compacted bentonite saturated with groundwater having relatively high salt concentration. In this study, apparent diffusion coefficient (D a [m 2 s -1 ]) of Cl- ions was determined by one-dimensional, non-steady diffusion method for Na-montmorillonite saturated with NaCl solutions with different concentrations. Activation energy for Cl - diffusion (E a [kJ mol -1 ]) was also obtained from the temperature dependence of Da at each NaCl concentration. Based on these experimental results together with the basal spacing of the montmorillonite determined by XRD measurements, the diffusion mechanism of Cl - ions was discussed. The montmorillonite used in this study was Kunipia-F, a commercial product of Kunimine Industries Co. Ltd., Japan. The montmorillonite sample was homo-ionized into Na-type before use. The Na-montmorillonite was compacted into an acrylic resin cell (20 mm in diameter, 20 mm in height for diffusion experiment or 10 mm in height for XRD measurement) and fully saturated with NaCl solutions of concentration from 0 to 0.5 M. The dry densities of the Na-montmorillonite were 1.0 and 1.3 Mg m -3 for diffusion experiments, and from 0.7 to 1.4 Mg m -3 for the XRD measurements. The apparent diffusion coefficients of 36 Cl - ions in the solution-saturated, compacted

  19. Optimising mechanical strength and bulk density of dry ceramic bodies through mixture design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Correia, S. L.

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available In industrial practice, it is desirable to be able to predict, in an expeditious way, what the effects of a change in raw materials or the proportions thereof might be in the various processing steps towards the final product. When the property of interest is basically determined by the combination (or mixture of raw materials, an optimisation methodology specific to the design of mixture experiments can be successfully used. In the present study, dry bending strength and bulk density were selected as the properties to model, given the simplicity of their experimental determination and because they are frequently used as quality control parameter in the development and manufacture stages of floor and wall ceramic tiles. Ten formulations of three raw materials (a clay mixture, potash feldspar and quartz sand were processed in the laboratory under fixed conditions, similar to those used in the ceramics industry, and characterised. The use of this methodology enabled the calculation of valid regression models (equations relating dry bending strength and bulk density with the contents, in the starting mixture, of the particular raw materials used.

    En el trabajo industrial es deseable poder predecir de manera efectiva, los efectos que los cambios en las materias primas o en sus proporciones pueden ejercer sobre las variables del proceso y como estos afectan al producto final. Cuando la propiedad de interés depende preferentemente de la mezcla de las materias primas, una metodología específica de optimización para el diseño de los experimentos de mezclas puede ser empleada con éxito. En este trabajo, la resistencia mecánica en seco y la densidad se emplearon como los parámetros de control en el desarrollo y producción de azulejos cerámicos para pavimento y revestimiento. Diez formulaciones a partir de tres materias primas ( una mezcla de arcilla, feldespato potásico y arena de cuarzo fueron procesadas en el laboratorio bajo

  20. [Effects of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lin Lin; Sun, Shi Jun; Chen, Zhi Jun; Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Xu Dong; Chi, Dao Cai

    2018-01-01

    In order to investigate the effect of different colored plastic film mulching and planting density on spring maize dry matter accumulation and yield in the rain-fed area of the Northeast China, a complete combination field experiment which was comprised by three types of mulching (non-mulching, transparent plastic film mulching and black plastic film mulching) and five densities (60000, 67500, 75000, 82500 and 90000 plants·hm -2 ), was conducted to analyze the water and heat effect, dry matter accumulation and yield of spring maize (Liangyu 99). The results showed that, compared with the other mulching treatments, the black plastic film mulching treatment significantly increased the maize dry matter accumulation and maize biomass by 3.2%-8.2%. In mature stage, the biomass increased firstly and then decreased with the increasing plant density. When planting density was 82500 plants·hm -2 , the biomass was the highest, which was 5.2%-28.3% higher than that of other plant density treatments. The mean soil temperature in prophase of transparent plastic film mulching treatment was 0.4-2.7 ℃ higher than that of other treatments, which accelerated the maize growth process and augmented the dry matter transportation amount (T), dry matter transportation efficiency (TE) and contribution rate of dry matter transportation to the grain yield (TC) of maize stalk and leaf. The T, TE, TC of leaf and leaf-stalk under 60000 plants·hm -2 treatment were the highest. The highest T, TE, TC of stalk were observed under 75000 plants·hm -2 treatment. In heading period, the water consumption and daily water consumption intensity of maize under the treatment of black film mulching were the largest, which were 9.4%-10.6% and 10.6%-24.5% higher than that of other mulching treatments, respectively. The highest water consumption and daily water consumption intensity were both obtained under 90000 plants·hm -2 treatment, which increased by 6.8%-15.7% and 7.0%-20.0% compared with other

  1. Impact of animal density on cattle nutrition in dry Mediterranean rangelands: a faecal near-IR spectroscopy-aided study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landau, S Y; Dvash, L; Yehuda, Y; Muklada, H; Peleg, G; Henkin, Z; Voet, H; Ungar, E D

    2018-02-01

    In the context of determining the sustainable carrying capacity of dry-Mediterranean herbaceous rangelands, we examined the effect of animal density on cattle nutrition, which is fundamental to animal performance and welfare. The effects on dietary components of low (0.56 cows/ha; L) and high (1.11 cows/ha; H) animal densities were monitored for three consecutive years in grazing beef cows. In the dry season (summer and early autumn), cows had free access to N-rich poultry litter (PL) given as a dietary supplement. In each season, near-IR spectroscopy (NIRS) was used to predict the chemical composition of herbage samples (ash, NDF, CP, in vitro dry matter digestibility (IVDMD) and metabolizable energy (ME) content from IVDMD). Near-IR spectroscopy was applied also to faecal samples to determine the chemical composition of the diet selected by the animal, as well as the contents of ash, NDF and CP in the faeces themselves. A faecal-NIRS equation was applied to estimate the dietary proportion of PL. Seasonal categories were green, dry without PL supplementation and dry with it. We found no effects of animal density on nutrition during the green season but effects were apparent when cows consumed dry pasture. Ash content predicted by faecal NIRS was higher in the diet than in plant samples clipped from pasture, which infers that cows ingested soil. Dietary and faecal ash contents were higher (Panimals. During the dry period, dietary contents of ME were higher in L than in H (Panimal health, the above results cast doubts on the long-term sustainability of the higher of the animal densities tested. Although it may be sustainable vis-à-vis the vegetation, treatment H may have exceeded the boundaries of what is acceptable for cow health. Chemical information revealed with NIRS can be used to evaluate whether animal densities are compatible with animal health and welfare standards and can play a role in determining the carrying capacity of Mediterranean rangelands.

  2. THE SPACE DENSITY EVOLUTION OF WET AND DRY MERGERS IN THE CANADA-FRANCE-HAWAII TELESCOPE LEGACY SURVEY

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chou, Richard C. Y.; Abraham, Roberto G.; Bridge, Carrie R.

    2011-01-01

    We analyze 1298 merging galaxies with redshifts up to z = 0.7 from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Legacy Survey, taken from the catalog presented in the work of Bridge et al. By analyzing the internal colors of these systems, we show that the so-called wet and dry mergers evolve in different senses, and quantify the space densities of these systems. The local space density of wet mergers is essentially identical to the local space density of dry mergers. The evolution in the total merger rate is modest out to z ∼ 0.7, although the wet and dry populations have different evolutionary trends. At higher redshifts, dry mergers make a smaller contribution to the total merging galaxy population, but this is offset by a roughly equivalent increase in the contribution from wet mergers. By comparing the mass density function of early-type galaxies to the corresponding mass density function for merging systems, we show that not all the major mergers with the highest masses (M stellar >10 11 M sun ) will end up with the most massive early-type galaxies, unless the merging timescale is dramatically longer than that usually assumed. On the other hand, the usually assumed merging timescale of ∼0.5-1 Gyr is quite consistent with the data if we suppose that only less massive early-type galaxies form via mergers. Since low-intermediate-mass ellipticals are 10-100 times more common than their most massive counterparts, the hierarchical explanation for the origin of early-type galaxies may be correct for the vast majority of early types, even if incorrect for the most massive ones.

  3. Effects of Plant Density and Nitrogen Fertilizer on Dry Flower Yield and Essential Oil Content of Chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gh. Sharafi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chamomile is a valuable medicinal plant and is used as spice and herbal medicine. Application of agronomical methods has important role in increasing quantitative and qualitative traits of this medicinal plant. Fertilizer management is an important factor in successful cultivation of medicinal plants, which could have positive effects on their quantitative and qualitative indices. This experiment was conducted in order to determine the effects of plant density and nitrogen (N fertilizer on dry flower yield and essential oil content of chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla using factorial randomized complete blocks design with three replications. Three N rates from urea source (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha and three plant densities (28.6, 40 and 66.7 plants per m2 were considered. The results showed that the highest single plant yield was produced in the lowest plant density (28.6 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N. The highest dry flower yield of 474.1 kg/ha and essential oil content of 0.2% was produced in 25 cm row width and fixed plant spacing of 10 cm (40 plants per m2 and application of 100 kg/ha N.

  4. Understanding the apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ion for MX-80 in different salinity condition at low dry density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahmad Hasnulhadi Che Kamaruddin

    2012-01-01

    The apparent diffusivity of strontium-85 in the compacted MX-80 bentonite under different salinity conditions and dry densities was conducted were studied from the viewpoint of activation energy. Through in-diffusions experiments the effect of salinity on diffusion behavior of Sr-85 ions can also can be explained. As we know, Sr-90 is by product of the fission materials of nuclear wastes and should be manage properly. Sr-85 is radioactive isotope with the same chemical properties of Sr-90. Adsorption affects only non-steady-state diffusion while at the steady state (e.g., a constant concentration gradient between a constant source and a constant sink), there is no net uptake or release by adsorption, so adsorption has no effect on diffusion (Drever, James I., 1997). The changes in the basal spacing of bentonite as a function of salinity are needed to be observed by the X-ray diffraction method to understand the microstructure changes in diffusion pathways for Sr-85 in MX-80 bentonite. As we know, there could be three potential pathways for radionuclide diffusion in solution-saturated, compacted montmorillonite, i.e., pore water, external surfaces and the internal surface (interlayer spaces) of montmorillonite aggregates (Kozaki et al., 2008). So, it is important to understand the diffusion processes in term of apparent diffusivity of Sr-85 ions in different salinity concentration at low dry density of MX-80. Several parameters are needed in explaining the process such as dry density, activation energy, temperature dependence and concentration of the salinity solutions. (author)

  5. The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on light interception and dry matter yield in hemp (Cannabis sativa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    mohamad reza asghari poor

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of plant density and nitrogen fertilizer on canopy light interception and on flowering was investigated in hemp (Cannabis sativa L. cv. ‘Kompolti’ Crop grown at initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 at the Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 at the Shirvan. Nitrogen fertilizer was applied before and 45 days after sowing at a rates of 50 and 200 kg/ha at the Mashhad, and 50, 150 and 250 kg/ha at the Shirvan. Rate of canopy development increased with increasing plant density and nitrogen fertilizer in both sites. At the Mashhad, interception of 90% of light was attained at 380 to 665 degree days (base 2°C from emergence for the crop grown at different densities. At Shirvan, rate of canopy development was slower. Interception of 90% of light was attained at 586 degree days from emergence for the crop grown at 30 plants/m2 and at 712 degree days for the crop grown at 150 plants/m2, probably as a result of cold weather. Nitrogen fertilizer in a similar way as plant density increased light interception. Maximum light interception did not depend on plant density and nitrogen fertilizer and was about 95%. In both sites, the flowering date was later with increasing plant density. Dates of 75% flowering for the initial densities of 50, 150 and 250 plants/m2 in Mashhad and 30, 90 and 150 plants/m2 in Shirvan were, respectively 26 August, 1, 6, 6, 11 and 12 September. Independent of plant density, canopy light interception started to decline at about 150 degree days after flowering, reaching 58 to 75% at about 700 degree days post-flowering. Morphological characteristics at both sites were highly correlated with plant sexual, plant population and nitrogen fertilizer. Highest stem, leaf and inflorescence yield were obtained in Mashhad at 250 plant/m-2 and in Shirvan at 150 plant m-2 when 200 kg N ha-1 in Mashhad and 250 kg N/ha in Shirvan was used. Above ground dry matter increased at both sites with increasing plant density and

  6. Simultaneous harvesting of straw and chaff for energy purposes : influence on bale density, yield, field drying process and combustion characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lundin, G. [JTI Swedish Inst. of Agricultural and Environmental Engineering, Uppsala (Sweden); Ronnback, M. [SP Technical Research Inst. of Sweden, Boras (Sweden)

    2010-07-01

    The potential to increase the productivity of fuel straw harvest and transportation was examined. When harvesting straw for energy purposes, only the long fraction is currently collected. However, technological improvements have now rendered it possible to harvest chaff, thus increasing the amount of harvest residues and bale density. The purpose of this study was to determine how harvest yield, bale density, field-drying behaviour and combustion characteristics are affected by the simultaneous harvest of straw and chaff. Field experiments were conducted in 2009 for long- and short-stalked winter wheat crops. Combine harvesting was carried out with 2 different types of combine harvesters. A high-density baler was used to bale the crop residues. Mixing chaff in with the straw swath by combine harvesting gave a lower initial moisture content compared with straw only. The density and the weight of each bale were not affected by the treatments. However, the added chaff increased the total yield of crop residues by 14 per cent, indicating that about half of the biologically available chaff was harvested. Although mixing in chaff increased the ash content by 1 percentage unit, there was no considerable change in net calorific value or ash melting behaviour.

  7. Shoot growth, radiation interception and dry matter production and partitioning during the establishment phase of Miscanthus sinensis 'Giganteus' grown at two densities in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bullard, M.J.; Heath, M.C.; Nixon, P.M.I.

    1995-01-01

    Photosynthetic area index (PAI), radiation interception (I) and dry matter partitioning between shoots and roots were measured for Miscanthus sinensis‘Giganteus' grown from micro-propagated transplants on a fertile peaty loam soil in eastern England. In the establishment year, Miscanthus plants produced 35 and 70 shoots plant -1 at densities of 4.0 and 1.8 plants m -2 respectively. At the higher density, there were 140 shoots m -2 with the largest reaching a height of 1.8 m; these canopies attained a maximum PAI of 5.45, intercepting 94% of incident radiation. Leaf lamina contributed c. 90% of total photosynthetic area with stems contributing the remainder. At the lower density, maximum PAI and I values were 2.88 and 86% respectively. PAI was related to I by calculating attenuation coefficients (k); these indicated that Miscanthus canopies were more effective at intercepting radiation per unit PAI at the lower density (k= -0.31) compared with the higher density (k= -0.20). Radiation interception was related to dry matter accumulated by calculating conversion efficiencies (e). At 4 plants m -2 , × for shoot dry matter production was 1.17g MJ -1 . Miscanthus partitioned a relatively large amount of total dry matter into below-ground biomass. By plant senescence, c. 30% of total dry matter had been partitioned into root and rhizome; rhizome biomass contributed 80% of below-ground dry matter, × increased to 1.62 g MJ -1 when calculated on a total dry matter basis (shoot + root + rhizome). Total dry matter production was increased 68% by a 2.2-fold increase in plant density. (author)

  8. Effect of Varieties and Plant Population Densities on Dry Matter Production, Radiation Interception and Radiation Energy Conversion in Peanut

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    agus suprapto

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The solar radiation is one of the major criteria to obtaining advantages on peanuts (Arachishypogaea L.. Although various combinations of crops have been reported, but variety association and plant population densities (PPD during the periodically stage of growth on peanuts have yet to be analyzed. Dry matter production (DM, radiation energy interception, and radiation energy conversions were monitored over the growth period of two varieties of peanut. An experiment was conducted in Jambegede Research Farm, Indonesian Legume and Tuber Crops Research Institute, Malang, East Java, Indonesia, from July until October 2011. The experiment was arranged in a Split Plot Design with three replications. Peanut varieties, as the main plot consisted of two treatments: Kelinci andKancil variety. In addition, five PPD variations as sub plot consisted of 8.1, 11.1, 16.0, 25.0 and 44.4 plant m-2 were arranged in a square spacing. The results showed that DM production from high PPD increased gradually to lower PPD in all varieties. Interception efficiency (IE increased in all varieties from early sowing. A plant population density of 25.0 m-2 and 44.4 plants m-2 intercepted more radiation over 11.1 or 16.0 plants m-2. Conversion efficiency of radiation energy (CE to total dry matter production on Kelinci variety (1.52% indicated a slight higher percentage than on Kancil variety (1.41%. Moreover, the CE and IE values indicated a decrease as the PPD increased on maximum DM.

  9. Calibration, field-testing, and error analysis of a gamma-ray probe for in situ measurement of dry bulk density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bertuzzi, P.; Bruckler, L.; Gabilly, Y.; Gaudu, J.C.

    1987-01-01

    This paper describes a new gamma-ray probe for measuring dry bulk density in the field. This equipment can be used with three different tube spacings (15, 20 and 30 cm). Calibration procedures and local error analyses are proposed for two cases: (1) for the case where the access tubes are parallel, calibration equations are given for three tube spacings. The linear correlation coefficient obtained in the laboratory is satisfactory (0.999), and a local error analysis shows that the standard deviation in the measured dry bulk density is small (+/- 0.02 g/cm 3 ); (2) when the access tubes are not parallel, a new calibration procedure is presented that accounts for and corrects measurement bias due to the deviating probe spacing. The standard deviation associated with the measured dry bulk density is greater (+/- 0.05 g/cm 3 ), but the measurements themselves are regarded as unbiased. After comparisons of core samplings and gamma-ray probe measurements, a field validation of the gamma-ray measurements is presented. Field validation was carried out on a variety of soils (clay, clay loam, loam, and silty clay loam), using gravimetric water contents that varied from 0.11 0.27 and dry bulk densities ranging from 1.30-1.80 g°cm -3 . Finally, an example of dry bulk density field variability is shown, and the spatial variability is analyzed in regard to the measurement errors

  10. Effect of dry density and temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of domestic compacted bentonite as a buffer material in the high level waste repository

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cho, Won Jin; Chun, Kwan Sik; Lee, Jae Owan

    1999-02-01

    This study is intended to investigate the effect of dry density and temperature on the hydraulic conductivity of domestic calcium bentonite. The dry densities of bentonite are 1.4 Mg/m 3 , 1.6 Mg/m 3 and 1.6 Mg/m, and the temperatures are in the range of 20 dg C to 150 dg C. The hydraulic conductivities of compacted bentonite with dry densities higher than 1.4 Mg/m 3 are lower than 10 -1 1 m/s, and are low enough to inhibit the radionuclide release by advection through the buffer. The hydraulic conductivities at the temperature of 150 dg C increase up to about 1 order higher than those at 20 dg C. (author). 28 refs., 5 tabs., 20 figs

  11. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leopoldo Vázquez

    Full Text Available It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha, though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  12. High density of tree-cavities and snags in tropical dry forest of western Mexico raises questions for a latitudinal gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vázquez, Leopoldo; Renton, Katherine

    2015-01-01

    It has been suggested that a latitudinal gradient exists of a low density of snags and high density of naturally-formed tree-cavities in tropical vs. temperate forests, though few cavities may have characteristics suitable for nesting by birds. We determined snag and cavity density, characteristics, and suitability for birds in a tropical dry forest biome of western Mexico, and evaluated whether our data fits the trend of snag and cavity density typically found in tropical moist and wet forests. We established five 0.25-ha transects to survey and measure tree-cavities and snags in each of three vegetation types of deciduous, semi-deciduous, and mono-dominant Piranhea mexicana forest, comprising a total of 3.75 ha. We found a high density of 77 cavities/ha, with 37 cavities suitable for birds/ha, where density, and characteristics of cavities varied significantly among vegetation types. Lowest abundance of cavities occurred in deciduous forest, and these were in smaller trees, at a lower height, and with a narrower entrance diameter. Only 8.6% of cavities were excavated by woodpeckers, and only 11% of cavities were occupied, mainly by arthropods, though 52% of all cavities were unsuitable for birds. We also found a high density of 56 snags/ha, with greatest density in deciduous forest (70 snags/ha), though these were of significantly smaller diameter, and snags of larger diameter were more likely to contain cavities. The Chamela-Cuixmala tropical dry forest had the highest density of snags recorded for any tropical or temperate forest, and while snag density was significantly correlated with mean snag dbh, neither latitude nor mean dbh predicted snag density in ten forest sites. The high spatial aggregation of snag and cavity resources in tropical dry forest may limit their availability, particularly for large-bodied cavity adopters, and highlights the importance of habitat heterogeneity in providing resources for primary and secondary cavity-nesters.

  13. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu

    2013-05-20

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half-pitch without alignment issues. Depending on the different dry-etch mechanisms in transferring high and low density nanopatterns, suitable dry-etch angles and methods are studied for the transfer of high density nanopatterns. Some novel process methods have also been developed to eliminate the sidewall and other conversion obstacles for obtaining high density of uniform metallic nanopatterns. With these methods, ultrahigh density trilayer crossbar devices (∼2 × 1010 bit cm-2-kilobit electronic memory), which are composed of built-in practical magnetoresistive nanocells, have been achieved. This scalable process that we have developed provides the relevant industries with a cheap means to commercially fabricate three-dimensional high density metal-cell-metal nanodevices. © 2013 IOP Publishing Ltd.

  14. Fabrication of ultrahigh density metal-cell-metal crossbar memory devices with only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures

    KAUST Repository

    Zong, Baoyu; Goh, J. Y.; Guo, Zaibing; Luo, Ping; Wang, Chenchen; Qiu, Jinjun; Ho, Pin; Chen, Yunjie; Zhang, Mingsheng; Han, Guchang

    2013-01-01

    A novel approach to the fabrication of metal-cell-metal trilayer memory devices was demonstrated by using only two cycles of lithography and dry-etch procedures. The fabricated ultrahigh density crossbar devices can be scaled down to ≤70 nm in half

  15. Antioxidant effects of aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn. (Roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirunpanich, Vilasinee; Utaipat, Anocha; Morales, Noppawan Phumala; Bunyapraphatsara, Nuntavan; Sato, Hitoshi; Herunsalee, Angkana; Suthisisang, Chuthamanee

    2005-03-01

    The present study quantitatively investigated the antioxidant effects of the aqueous extracts from dried calyx of Hibiscus sabdariffa LINN. (roselle) in vitro using rat low-density lipoprotein (LDL). Formations of the conjugated dienes and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARs) were monitored as markers of the early and later stages of the oxidation of LDL, respectively. Thus, we demonstrated that the dried calyx extracts of roselle exhibits strong antioxidant activity in Cu(2+)-mediated oxidation of LDL (proselle inhibited TBARs-formation with greater potency than 100 microM of vitamin E. In conclusion, this study provides a quantitative insight into the potent antioxidant effect of roselle in vitro.

  16. Density-dependent seedling mortality varies with light availability and species abundance in wet and dry Hawaiian forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faith Inman-Narahari; Rebecca Ostertag; Stephen P. Hubbell; Christian P. Giardina; Susan Cordell; Lawren Sack; Andrew MacDougall

    2016-01-01

    Conspecific density may contribute to patterns of species assembly through negative density dependence (NDD) as predicted by the Janzen-Connell hypothesis, or through facilitation (positive density dependence; PDD). Conspecific density effects are expected to be more negative in darker and wetter environments due to higher pathogen abundance and...

  17. Users' perceptions of urine diversion dry toilets in Hull street medium density mixed housing, Kimberley, South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Matsebe, G

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available and practices of users of the UDD toilet in the Hull Street Medium Density Mixed Housing (MDMH) project in Kimberley, Northern Cape Province, and the extent to which users accepted or rejected these toilets. The study was qualitative in nature and employed a...

  18. CFD based exploration of the dry-low-NOx hydrogen micromix combustion technology at increased energy densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Haj Ayed

    2017-03-01

    The study reveals great optimization potential of the micromix combustion technology with respect to the DLN characteristics and gives insight into the impact of geometry modifications on flame structure and NOx emission. This allows to further increase the energy density of the micromix burners and to integrate this technology in industrial gas turbines.

  19. A novel method for extracting nucleic acids from dried blood spots for ultrasensitive detection of low-density Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zainabadi, Kayvan; Adams, Matthew; Han, Zay Yar; Lwin, Hnin Wai; Han, Kay Thwe; Ouattara, Amed; Thura, Si; Plowe, Christopher V; Nyunt, Myaing M

    2017-09-18

    Greater Mekong Subregion countries are committed to eliminating Plasmodium falciparum malaria by 2025. Current elimination interventions target infections at parasite densities that can be detected by standard microscopy or rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs). More sensitive detection methods have been developed to detect lower density "asymptomatic" infections that may represent an important transmission reservoir. These ultrasensitive polymerase chain reaction (usPCR) tests have been used to identify target populations for mass drug administration (MDA). To date, malaria usPCR tests have used either venous or capillary blood sampling, which entails complex sample collection, processing and shipping requirements. An ultrasensitive method performed on standard dried blood spots (DBS) would greatly facilitate the molecular surveillance studies needed for targeting elimination interventions. A highly sensitive method for detecting Plasmodium falciparum and P. vivax 18S ribosomal RNA from DBS was developed by empirically optimizing nucleic acid extraction conditions. The limit of detection (LoD) was determined using spiked DBS samples that were dried and stored under simulated field conditions. Further, to assess its utility for routine molecular surveillance, two cross-sectional surveys were performed in Myanmar during the wet and dry seasons. The lower LoD of the DBS-based ultrasensitive assay was 20 parasites/mL for DBS collected on Whatman 3MM filter paper and 23 parasites/mL for Whatman 903 Protein Saver cards-equivalent to 1 parasite per 50 µL DBS. This is about 5000-fold more sensitive than standard RDTs and similar to the LoD of ≤16-22 parasites/mL reported for other ultrasensitive methods based on whole blood. In two cross-sectional surveys in Myanmar, nearly identical prevalence estimates were obtained from contemporaneous DBS samples and capillary blood samples collected during the wet and dry season. The DBS-based ultrasensitive method described in this

  20. Plant Killing by Mutualistic Ants Increases the Density of Host Species Seedlings in the Dry Forest of Costa Rica

    OpenAIRE

    Amador-Vargas, Sabrina

    2012-01-01

    Some species of plant-mutualistic ants kill the vegetation growing in the vicinities of their host plant, creating an area of bare ground (clearing). The reduced competition in the clearing may facilitate the establishment of host species sprouts (clones and seedlings), which in turn benefits the ants with additional food and shelter (“sprout-establishment hypothesis”). To test this hypothesis, the density and origin of Acacia collinsii sprouts growing inside clearings and in the vicinities o...

  1. The measurement of moisture content and dry bulk-density of the top layer of agricultural soils, with minimum calibration, using a gamma-ray attenuation method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van der Westhuizen, M.; Van der Bank, D.J.; Meulke, M.

    1978-06-01

    Various methods of measuring moisture content and dry bulk-density of soil by means of gamma-ray attenuation are discussed. A new method is described in which the same parameters can be measured in consecutive determinations, but for which only one sample of unknown volume is needed for calibration. This method employs a radioactive source in a lead container in an aluminium tube in the soil. From the container the gamma rays follow a path at an angle upwards through the soil towards the detector. The method was tested in a number of experiments and the results are given in tables and graphs. The conclusion is that this method, which is fairly easy and quick to use, is accurate enough for most applications [af

  2. Corneal Dendritic Cell Density Is Associated with Subbasal Nerve Plexus Features, Ocular Surface Disease Index, and Serum Vitamin D in Evaporative Dry Eye Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rohit Shetty

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Dry eye disease (DED has evolved into a major public health concern with ocular discomfort and pain being responsible for significant morbidity associated with DED. However, the etiopathological factors contributing to ocular pain associated with DED are not well understood. The current IVCM based study investigated the association between corneal dendritic cell density (DCD, corneal subbasal nerve plexus (SBNP features, and serum vitamin D and symptoms of evaporative dry eye (EDE. The study included age and sex matched 52 EDE patients and 43 heathy controls. A significant increase in the OSDI scores (discomfort subscale was observed between EDE (median, 20.8 and control (median, 4.2 cohorts (P23 (P<0.05. A positive correlation was observed between DCD and OSDI discomfort subscale (r=0.348; P<0.0003 and SBNP features. An inverse correlation was observed between vitamin D and OSDI scores (r=-0.332; P=0.0095 and DCD with dendritic processes (r=-0.322; P=0.0122. The findings implicate DCD, SBNP features, and vitamin D with EDE symptoms.

  3. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A; Camarero, J Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  4. Differential growth responses to water balance of coexisting deciduous tree species are linked to wood density in a Bolivian tropical dry forest.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hooz A Mendivelso

    Full Text Available A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs. There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability.

  5. Differential Growth Responses to Water Balance of Coexisting Deciduous Tree Species Are Linked to Wood Density in a Bolivian Tropical Dry Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mendivelso, Hooz A.; Camarero, J. Julio; Royo Obregón, Oriol; Gutiérrez, Emilia; Toledo, Marisol

    2013-01-01

    A seasonal period of water deficit characterizes tropical dry forests (TDFs). There, sympatric tree species exhibit a diversity of growth rates, functional traits, and responses to drought, suggesting that each species may possess different strategies to grow under different conditions of water availability. The evaluation of the long-term growth responses to changes in the soil water balance should provide an understanding of how and when coexisting tree species respond to water deficit in TDFs. Furthermore, such differential growth responses may be linked to functional traits related to water storage and conductance. We used dendrochronology and climate data to retrospectively assess how the radial growth of seven coexisting deciduous tree species responded to the seasonal soil water balance in a Bolivian TDF. Linear mixed-effects models were used to quantify the relationships between basal area increment and seasonal water balance. We related these relationships with wood density and sapwood production to assess if they affect the growth responses to climate. The growth of all species responded positively to water balance during the wet season, but such responses differed among species as a function of their wood density. For instance, species with a strong growth response to water availability averaged a low wood density which may facilitate the storage of water in the stem. By contrast, species with very dense wood were those whose growth was less sensitive to water availability. Coexisting tree species thus show differential growth responses to changes in soil water balance during the wet season. Our findings also provide a link between wood density, a trait related to the ability of trees to store water in the stem, and wood formation in response to water availability. PMID:24116001

  6. Effect of Heat Drawing Process on Mechanical Properties of Dry-Jet Wet Spun Fiber of Linear Low Density Polyethylene/Carbon Nanotube Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jong Won Kim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Polyethylene is one of the most commonly used polymer materials. Even though linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE has better mechanical properties than other kinds of polyethylene, it is not used as a textile material because of its plastic behavior that is easy to break at the die during melt spinning. In this study, LLDPE fibers were successfully produced with a new approach using a dry-jet wet spinning and a heat drawing process. The fibers were filled with carbon nanotubes (CNTs to improve the strength and reduce plastic deformation. The crystallinity, degree of orientation, mechanical properties (strength to yield, strength to break, elongation at break, and initial modulus, electrical conductivity, and thermal properties of LLDPE fibers were studied. The results show that the addition of CNTs improved the tensile strength and the degree of crystallinity. The heat drawing process resulted in a significant increase in the tensile strength and the orientation of the CNTs and polymer chains. In addition, this study demonstrates that the heat drawing process effectively decreases the plastic deformation of LLDPE.

  7. Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye » Facts About Dry Eye Listen Facts About Dry Eye Fact Sheet Blurb The National Eye Institute (NEI) ... and their families search for general information about dry eye. An eye care professional who has examined the ...

  8. NOAA Point Shapefile - 100m2 Fish Density for Dry Tortugas, United States, Project NF-08-06-SACS, 2008, WGS84

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The research mission was conducted in the Dry Tortugas, FL by National Ocean Service scientists from the Center for Coastal Habitat and Fisheries Research (CCFHR)...

  9. Dry socket

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alveolar osteitis; Alveolitis; Septic socket ... You may be more at risk for dry socket if you: Have poor oral health Have a ... after having a tooth pulled Have had dry socket in the past Drink from a straw after ...

  10. To study of different level of nitrogen manure and density on yield and yield component of variety of K.S.C 704 in dry region of sistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahmardeh, M.; Forghani, F.; Khammari, E.

    2008-01-01

    Out of three grain of the world, Corn is one of the best, About 7 to 10 thousand years ago in south of Mexico corn become domesticated. In the year 1995 culfivation of corn in the world was 130 mil/ha, and to Total production of the world of corn is 507 M/Tons. Average yield of corn in the year 1995 Among Producer countries was 7.78 To 7.60 t/ha in fance and united state was state was 2.36 To 2.20 t/ha, but in Brazil and Mexico Production of corn was different. With this regards, special manner has been arranged for the suitable cultivation or suitable density plants in one heactar on cultivation variety of K.S.C 704 corn. Also suitable level of Nitrogen manure, this Protect in climatic condition of Sistan region done, sith complete block design with 3 replication. Experiment has been selected as split plot, the main plot with 4 different concentration level such as (200-250-3500 and 350 Kg/ha) and sub plot density with 3 different level such as 111000,83000 and 66000 plan/ha respectively. From stage growth up to harvesting of corn in this reache having Data for each treat. ment, After harvesting Analysis of variance and companion of Average of each treatment has been done by DunKan method. Results has been shown, Measurment of characteristics (yield component) seed yield effected different density level of manure, with increasing of manure weight of one thousand seed yield and also in high density showed high significant differente amoung each other. These are with suitable climatic condition of sistan region if enough water will be available ed using Amount of 350 ks/ha Nitrogen manure and with density 111000 plants/ha we can product suitable seed yield Biological yield

  11. Dry Etching

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stamate, Eugen; Yeom, Geun Young

    2016-01-01

    generation) to 2,200 × 2,500 mm (eighth generation), and the substrate size is expected to increase further within a few years. This chapter aims to present relevant details on dry etching including the phenomenology, materials to be etched with the different recipes, plasma sources fulfilling the dry...

  12. Design of a New Sensor for Determination of the Effects of Tractor Field Usage in Southern Spain: Soil Sinkage and Alterations in the Cone Index and Dry Bulk Density

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego L. Valera

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Variations in sinkage and cone index are of crucial importance when planning fieldwork, and for determining the trafficability of farm machinery. Many studies have highlighted the link between higher values of these parameters and dramatic decreases in crop yield. Variations in the dry bulk density and cone index of clayey soil in Southern Spain were measured following each of five successive passes over the same land with the three types of tractor most widely used in the area (tracked, two-wheel drive and four-wheel drive. In addition, sinkage (rut depth of the running gear was measured using a laser microrelief profile meter. This device, which integrates three sensors, was specifically designed for these experiments, as was an electrical penetrometer to determine the cone index, and both instruments proved reliable and accurate in the field. The main goal of this study was to design, manufacture and test these new devices. The first pass caused most soil alteration when compared to successive passes for all types of tractor tested and soil conditions prevailing during the tests. (Heavier four-wheel drive tractors were found to cause greater soil damage (sinkage, cone index and dry bulk density than two-wheel drive and track tractors. There was no statistically significant difference between the two latter types. The greatest alterations were recorded in the top 10 cm of the soil. The results show that soil compaction should be avoided as much as possible. This can be achieved by ensuring that tractors always travel along the same tracks, especially in the wet season. At present these aspects are not considered by farmers in this area.

  13. Dry cell battery poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batteries - dry cell ... Acidic dry cell batteries contain: Manganese dioxide Ammonium chloride Alkaline dry cell batteries contain: Sodium hydroxide Potassium hydroxide Lithium dioxide dry cell batteries ...

  14. Dry storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnott, Don.

    1985-01-01

    The environmental movement has consistently argued against disposal of nuclear waste. Reasons include its irretrievability in the event of leakage, the implication that reprocessing will continue and the legitimacy attached to an expanding nuclear programme. But there is an alternative. The author here sets out the background and a possible future direction of a campaign based on a call for dry storage. (author)

  15. Dry efficient cleaning of poly-methyl-methacrylate residues from graphene with high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cunge, G., E-mail: gilles.cunge@cea.fr; Petit-Etienne, C.; Davydova, A. [Laboratoire des Technologies de la Microélectronique, CNRS-UJF, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Ferrah, D.; Renault, O. [CEA, LETI, MINATEC, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Okuno, H. [CEA, INAC/SP2M/LEMMA, 17 rue des Martyrs, 38054 Grenoble (France); Kalita, D.; Bouchiat, V. [Institut Néel, CNRS-UJF-INP, BP 166, 38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France)

    2015-09-28

    Graphene is the first engineering electronic material, which is purely two-dimensional: it consists of two exposed sp{sup 2}-hybridized carbon surfaces and has no bulk. Therefore, surface effects such as contamination by adsorbed polymer residues have a critical influence on its electrical properties and can drastically hamper its widespread use in devices fabrication. These contaminants, originating from mandatory technological processes of graphene synthesis and transfer, also impact fundamental studies of the electronic and structural properties at the atomic scale. Therefore, graphene-based technology and research requires “soft” and selective surface cleaning techniques dedicated to limit or to suppress this surface contamination. Here, we show that a high-density H{sub 2} and H{sub 2}-N{sub 2} plasmas can be used to selectively remove polymeric residues from monolayer graphene without any damage on the graphene surface. The efficiency of this dry-cleaning process is evidenced unambiguously by a set of spectroscopic and microscopic methods, providing unprecedented insights on the cleaning mechanisms and highlighting the role of specific poly-methyl-methacrylate residues at the graphene interface. The plasma is shown to perform much better cleaning than solvents and has the advantage to be an industrially mature technology adapted to large area substrates. The process is transferable to other kinds of two-dimensional material and heterostructures.

  16. Local Variability in Firn Layering and Compaction Rates Using GPR Data, Depth-Density Profiles, and In-Situ Reflectors in the Dry Snow Zone Near Summit Station, Greenland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lines, A.; Elliott, J.; Ray, L.; Albert, M. R.

    2017-12-01

    Understanding the surface mass balance (SMB) of the Greenland ice sheet is critical to evaluating its response to a changing climate. A key factor in translating satellite and airborne elevation measurements of the ice sheet to SMB is understanding natural variability of firn layer depth and the relative compaction rate of these layers. A site near Summit Station, Greenland was chosen to investigate the variation in layering across a 100m by 100m grid using a 900 MHz and a 2.6 GHz ground penetrating radar (GPR) antenna. These radargrams were ground truthed by taking depth density profiles of five 2m snow pits and five 5m firn cores within the 100m by 100m grid. Combining these measurements with the accumulation data from the nearby ICECAPS weekly bamboo forest measurements, it's possible to see how the snow deposition from individual storm events can vary over a small area. Five metal reflectors were also placed on the surface of the snow in the bounds of the grid to serve as reference reflectors for similar measurements that will be taken in the 2018 field season at Summit Station. This will assist in understanding how one year of accumulation in the dry snow zone impacts compaction and how this rate can vary over a small area.

  17. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  18. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms ... Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? ...

  19. Drying characteristics and engineering properties of fermented ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-03-06

    Mar 6, 2009 ... fermented ground cassava. J. T. Nwabanne ... The drying characteristics of fermented ground local variety of ... effect of variety on the drying and engineering properties of fermented .... Figure 2 shows that the bulk density of each cultivar ... very close thermal conductivities as depicted in the shape of Figure ...

  20. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  1. What Is Dry Eye?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Inside of Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Ophthalmology/Strabismus Ocular Pathology/Oncology Oculoplastics/Orbit Refractive Management/Intervention Retina/Vitreous Uveitis Focus On ... Dry Eye Sections What Is Dry Eye? Dry Eye Symptoms Causes of ...

  3. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djeison Cesar Batista

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii physical properties and the drying quality. Five 11-year-old trees of each clone were felled, and only flatsawn boards of the first log were used. Basic density and total shrinkage were determined, and the drying test with wood specimens at 100 °C was carried out. Kiln drying of boards was performed, and initial and final moisture content, moisture gradient in thickness, drying stresses and drying defects were assessed. The defect scoring method was used to verify the behavior between the defects detected by specimen testing and the defects detected in kiln-dried boards. As main results, the drying schedule was too severe for the wood, resulting in a high level of boards with defects. The behavior between the defects in the drying test with specimens and the defects of kiln-dried boards was different, there was no correspondence, according to the defect scoring method.

  4. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  5. Drying of building lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Washimi, Hiroshi

    1988-08-20

    Dried lumber is classified into air dried and kiln-dried lumber. The water content of kiln-dried lumber is specified by the Japan Agricultural Standards. However, since building lumber varies in such factors as the location where it was growing, species and shape, the standards, though relaxed, are not being observed. In fact, lumbered products which are not ''Kiln-dried'' frequently bear ''kiln-dried lumber'' marks. In an attempt to correct the situation, the Forestry Agency has set up voluntary standards, but problems still remain. The conventional drying method consists of first subjecting the lumber to optimum drying, then letting bending and deformations to freely and fully appear, and follow this with corrective sawing to produce planks straight from end to end. Compared with air dried lumber in terms of moisture content, kiln-dried lumber remains much with same with minimal shrinkage and expansion. For oil-containing resin, such normal treatments as drying by heating, steaming and boiling seem to be quite effective. Kiln drying, which is becoming more and more important with changes in the circulation system, consists of the steaming-drying-heating method and the dehumidizing type drying method. The major factor which determines the drying cost is the number of days required for drying, which depends largely on the kind of lumber and moisture content. The Forestry Angency is promoting production of defoiled lumber. (2 figs, 2 tables)

  6. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Finding Dental Care Home Health Info Health Topics Dry Mouth Saliva, or spit, is made by the salivary ... help keep teeth strong and fight tooth decay. Dry mouth, also called xerostomia (ZEER-oh-STOH-mee-ah), ...

  7. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Dry Eye Symptoms Related Ask an Ophthalmologist Answers Can a six-month dissolvable punctal plug be removed ... my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes ...

  8. Characteristics of a Dry Fog Ionizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murata, Y; Kudo, Y; Yonezawa, M

    2008-01-01

    The newly developed 'Dry Fog Ionizer' generates charged dry fog. The dry fog consists of very fine water droplets 8μm in mean diameter. This system consists of a dry fog nozzle (H.Ikeuchi and Co., LTD.), a ring electrode for induction charging (50mm outside diameter, and 10mm thick) in front of the nozzle, and a fan for dissipating charged dry fog. The ring electrode is DC or AC-biased and fine droplets ejected from the nozzle are electrified by induction charging. The particle size of the charged water droplets are reduced through evaporation during the transporting process by air flow, and completely evaporate approximately 2m from the nozzle under normal atmospheric conditions (25 deg. C, 60%R.H.) leaving high density ions. Using this system, high density ionic space charge can be realized in a remote spot from the ionizer. By this principle, the Dry Fog Ionizer shows strong charge-eliminating ability in the region away from the ionizer. When a dc bias of 5kV was applied to a ring electrode with the rate of water flow from the nozzle being 21/h, an ionic space-charge density of 1200nC /m 3 was able to be obtained at a distance 2m away from the ionizer, which was 10 2 times the value produced by an ordinary corona-type ionizer with an air blower.

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Eye Health A-Z Symptoms Glasses & Contacts Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye ... Eye Symptoms Causes of Dry Eye Dry Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué ...

  10. Dry and Semi-Dry Tropical Cyclones

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cronin, T.; Chavas, D. R.

    2017-12-01

    Our understanding of dynamics in our real moist atmosphere is strongly informed by idealized dry models. It is widely believed that tropical cyclones (TCs) are an intrinsically moist phenomenon - relying fundamentally on evaporation and latent heat release - yet recent numerical modeling work has found formation of dry axisymmetric tropical cyclones from a state of dry radiative-convective equilibrium. What can such "dry hurricanes" teach us about intensity, structure, and size of real moist tropical cyclones in nature? Are dry TCs even stable in 3D? What about surfaces that are nearly dry but have some latent heat flux - can they also support TCs? To address these questions, we use the SAM cloud-system resolving model to simulate radiative-convective equilibrium on a rapidly rotating f-plane, subject to constant tropospheric radiative cooling. We use a homogeneous surface with fixed temperature and with surface saturation vapor pressure scaled by a factor 0-1 relative to that over pure water - allowing for continuous variation between moist and dry limits. We also explore cases with surface enthalpy fluxes that are uniform in space and time, where partitioning between latent and sensible heat fluxes is specified directly. We find that a completely moist surface yields a TC-world where multiple vortices form spontaneously and persist for tens of days. A completely dry surface can also yield a parallel dry TC-world with many vortices that are even more stable and persistent. Spontaneous cyclogenesis, however, is impeded for a range of low to intermediate surface wetness values, and by the combination of large rotation rates and a dry surface. We discuss whether these constraints on spontaneous cyclogenesis might arise from: 1) rain evaporation in the subcloud layer limiting the range of viable surface wetness values, and 2) a natural convective Rossby number limiting the range of viable rotation rates. Finally, we discuss simulations with uniform surface enthalpy

  11. Dry vacuum pumps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sibuet, R

    2008-01-01

    For decades and for ultimate pressure below 1 mbar, oil-sealed Rotary Vane Pumps have been the most popular solution for a wide range of vacuum applications. In the late 80ies, Semiconductor Industry has initiated the development of the first dry roughing pumps. Today SC applications are only using dry pumps and dry pumping packages. Since that time, pumps manufacturers have developed dry vacuum pumps technologies in order to make them attractive for other applications. The trend to replace lubricated pumps by dry pumps is now spreading over many other market segments. For the Semiconductor Industry, it has been quite easy to understand the benefits of dry pumps, in terms of Cost of Ownership, process contamination and up-time. In this paper, Technology of Dry pumps, its application in R and D/industries, merits over conventional pumps and future growth scope will be discussed

  12. Solar drying of uruguayan red gum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrés Ono

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available he use of solar energy as an alternative to non-renewable energy sources has been widely researched in the last decades. Compared to air drying, solar drying kilns can better control the drying process, resulting in a higher quality of the dry wood and lower final wood moisture content values. Investment and running costs for a solar drying kiln are lower than those of a conventional kiln. Moreover, the solar drying process can be advantageous for drying hardwoods which are traditionally considered difficult to dry such as eucalyptus wood of medium and high density (Red gums, known in Spanish as “Eucaliptos colorados”. The solar drying kiln naturally incorporates a daily high relative humidity period that can be similar to a conditioning or steaming step, although at a lower temperature.This results in fewer defects due to the drying process.A pilot scale 2.5 m3 semi-greenhouse type solar wood drying kiln was constructed at LATU (Uruguay Technological Laboratory in Montevideo, Uruguay. The operating conditions and the results from two drying runs are presented. Two species of red gum (Eucalyptus tereticornis Sm., ADD 870 kg/m3, and Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh., ADD 800 kg/m3 were dried from initial average moisture contents (WMC of around 60% down to 10.0% and 12.7% in 108 days and 76 days, respectively. Boards were provided by the Grupo Forestal San Gregorio from trees harvested at Tacuarembo and Paysandu Departments from cattle shelter forests 60 and 70 years old.Mean volume shrinkage was 18% for E. tereticornis, and 16% for E. camaldulensis, and the level of defects was moderate. Residual stresses and moisture content gradients were observed for both species. Final moisture content values were similar compared to those obtained in conventional drying kilns but with longer drying periods and lower operating costs. This would make the solar drying process attractive to small and medium sized forest products industries in a small country

  13. Drying and energy technologies

    CERN Document Server

    Lima, A

    2016-01-01

    This book provides a comprehensive overview of essential topics related to conventional and advanced drying and energy technologies, especially motivated by increased industry and academic interest. The main topics discussed are: theory and applications of drying, emerging topics in drying technology, innovations and trends in drying, thermo-hydro-chemical-mechanical behaviors of porous materials in drying, and drying equipment and energy. Since the topics covered are inter- and multi-disciplinary, the book offers an excellent source of information for engineers, energy specialists, scientists, researchers, graduate students, and leaders of industrial companies. This book is divided into several chapters focusing on the engineering, science and technology applied in essential industrial processes used for raw materials and products.

  14. Ambient Dried Aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Steven M.; Paik, Jong-Ah

    2013-01-01

    A method has been developed for creating aerogel using normal pressure and ambient temperatures. All spacecraft, satellites, and landers require the use of thermal insulation due to the extreme environments encountered in space and on extraterrestrial bodies. Ambient dried aerogels introduce the possibility of using aerogel as thermal insulation in a wide variety of instances where supercritically dried aerogels cannot be used. More specifically, thermoelectric devices can use ambient dried aerogel, where the advantages are in situ production using the cast-in ability of an aerogel. Previously, aerogels required supercritical conditions (high temperature and high pressure) to be dried. Ambient dried aerogels can be dried at room temperature and pressure. This allows many materials, such as plastics and certain metal alloys that cannot survive supercritical conditions, to be directly immersed in liquid aerogel precursor and then encapsulated in the final, dried aerogel. Additionally, the metalized Mylar films that could not survive the previous methods of making aerogels can survive the ambient drying technique, thus making multilayer insulation (MLI) materials possible. This results in lighter insulation material as well. Because this innovation does not require high-temperature or high-pressure drying, ambient dried aerogels are much less expensive to produce. The equipment needed to conduct supercritical drying costs many tens of thousands of dollars, and has associated running expenses for power, pressurized gasses, and maintenance. The ambient drying process also expands the size of the pieces of aerogel that can be made because a high-temperature, high-pressure system typically has internal dimensions of up to 30 cm in diameter and 60 cm in height. In the case of this innovation, the only limitation on the size of the aerogels produced would be in the ability of the solvent in the wet gel to escape from the gel network.

  15. Dry etching for microelectronics

    CERN Document Server

    Powell, RA

    1984-01-01

    This volume collects together for the first time a series of in-depth, critical reviews of important topics in dry etching, such as dry processing of III-V compound semiconductors, dry etching of refractory metal silicides and dry etching aluminium and aluminium alloys. This topical format provides the reader with more specialised information and references than found in a general review article. In addition, it presents a broad perspective which would otherwise have to be gained by reading a large number of individual research papers. An additional important and unique feature of this book

  16. Inflammation in dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Michael E; Pflugfelder, Stephen C

    2004-04-01

    Dry eye is a condition of altered tear composition that results from a diseased or dysfunctional lacrimal functional unit. Evidence suggests that inflammation causes structural alterations and/or functional paralysis of the tear-secreting glands. Changes in tear composition resulting from lacrimal dysfunction, increased evaporation and/or poor clearance have pro-inflammatory effects on the ocular surface. This inflammation is responsible in part for the irritation symptoms, ocular surface epithelial disease, and altered corneal epithelial barrier function in dry eye. Anti-inflammatory therapies for dry eye target one or more of the inflammatory mediators/pathways that have been identified in dry eye.

  17. Drying hardwood lumber

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chow, A T

    1988-11-14

    Dried lumber is a high-value-added product, especially when it is of high quality. Lumber damaged during the drying operation can represent substantial lost revenue. It has been demonstrated that dehumidification kilns can improve lumber quality, and reduce energy consumption over conventional drying methods. A summary of the literature on drying hardwood lumber, particularly using heat pump dehumidification, has been prepared to allow the information to be readily accessible to Ontario Hydro personnel who work with customers in the lumber industry. For that purpose, this summary has been prepared from the perspective of the customer, a dry kiln operator. Included are brief descriptions of drying schedules, precautions needed to minimize drying defects in the lumber, and rules-of-thumb for selecting and estimating the capital cost of the drying equipment. A selection of drying schedules and moisture contents of green lumber, a glossary of lumber defects and brief descriptions of the possible preventive measures are also included. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  18. Physical properties of sunflower seeds during drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thaís Adriana de Souza Smaniotto

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to determine the effect that the moisture content has on the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The cultivar Olisun 3, with an initial moisture content of 34.1 (% wb, was used and then subjected to drying in an oven with forced air ventilation under three temperature conditions: 40, 60 and 80 °C. The reduction in the moisture content during drying was monitored by the gravimetric method until it reached a final moisture content of 8.0 ± 1.0 (% wb. The physical properties were analysed: the bulk density, true density, intergranular porosity and volumetric shrinkage of the mass and unit and terminal velocity. The reduction in the moisture content influenced the physical properties of sunflower seeds and caused a decrease in the intergranular porosity, bulk density and true density at all examined temperatures. The mass and volumetric contractions of the unit and reduction in shrinkage rates all increased with the drying of sunflower seeds at all studied temperatures. The terminal velocity increased as the moisture content of the grains increased, which was more evident at the drying temperature of 80 °C.

  19. Sysnthesis of powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Hildenbrand, D.L.

    1988-01-01

    The freeze-drying method of synthesizing powders of the superconducting oxide YBa 2 Cu 3 O 7 - δ is described. This process produces homogeneous, submicron powders of high purity. The effects of salt selection, solution concentration and pH on the process are described. Some evaluation of the sintering behavior and the effects on critical current density are included

  20. Road density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  1. Physical properties of sunflower grains after drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo Carteri Coradi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The knowledge of the physical properties of the grains is important for the optimization of post-harvest operations. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of convective drying with different air temperatures (45, 55, 65 and 75 °C the physical properties of sunflower seeds. The drying sunflower grains was performed in convection oven with forced air. In natural conditions, samples of 5 kg of pellets were used for each repetition drying. During the drying process, the grains samples were weighed periodically until they reach 10% (wet basis, w.b., then were subjected to evaluations of physical properties. According to the results it was observed that the porosity, apparent density, thousand kernel weight to the drag coefficient, roundness, sphericity and width of sunflower seed did not change with increasing temperature drying air. It was concluded that the drying air temperatures of 45 °C and 55 retained the initial physical characteristics of sunflower seeds. The temperature of the drying air of 75 °C had greater influence on changes in volumetric shrinkage of the grains.

  2. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Tips & Prevention News Ask an Ophthalmologist Patient Stories Español Eye Health / Eye Health A-Z Dry Eye ... Eye Treatment What Is Dry Eye? Leer en Español: ¿Qué es el ojo seco? Written By: Kierstan ...

  3. Dry eye syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/000426.htm Dry eye syndrome To use the sharing features on this page, ... second-hand smoke exposure Cold or allergy medicines Dry eye can also be caused by: Heat or ... Symptoms may include: Blurred vision Burning, itching, ...

  4. Dry Mouth (Xerostomia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouth Trouble chewing, swallowing, tasting, or speaking A burning feeling in the mouth A dry feeling in the throat Cracked lips ... Food and Drug Administration provides information on dry mouth and offers advice for ... Syndrome Clinic NIDCR Sjogren’s Syndrome Clinic develops new therapies ...

  5. Dry well cooling device

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suzuki, Hiroyuki.

    1997-01-01

    A plurality of blowing ports with introduction units are disposed to a plurality of ducts in a dry well, and a cooling unit comprising a cooler, a blower and an isolating valve is disposed outside of the dry well. Cooling air and the atmosphere in the dry well are mixed to form a cooling gas and blown into the dry well to control the temperature. Since the cooling unit is disposed outside of the dry well, the maintenance of the cooling unit can be performed even during the plant operation. In addition, since dampers opened/closed depending on the temperature of the atmosphere are disposed to the introduction units for controlling the temperature of the cooling gas, the temperature of the atmosphere in the dry well can be set to a predetermined level rapidly. Since an axial flow blower is used as the blower of the cooling unit, it can be contained in a ventilation cylinder. Then, the atmosphere in the dry well flowing in the ventilation cylinder can be prevented from leaking to the outside. (N.H.)

  6. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Rabidin Zairul Amin; Seng Gan Kee; Wahab Mohd Jamil Abdul

    2017-01-01

    Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be ac...

  7. Digital radioisotope moisture-density meter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bychvarov, N.; Vankov, I.; Dimitrov, L.

    1982-01-01

    The primary information from the detectors of a combined radioisotope moisture-density meter is obtained as pulses, their counting rate being functionally dependent on the humidity per unit volume and the wet density. However, most practical cases demand information on the moisture per unit weight and the mass density of the dry skeleton. The paper describes how the proposed electronic circuit processes the input primary information to obtain the moisture in weight % and the mass density of the dry skeleton in g/cm 3 . (authors)

  8. Lung density

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Garnett, E S; Webber, C E; Coates, G

    1977-01-01

    The density of a defined volume of the human lung can be measured in vivo by a new noninvasive technique. A beam of gamma-rays is directed at the lung and, by measuring the scattered gamma-rays, lung density is calculated. The density in the lower lobe of the right lung in normal man during quiet...... breathing in the sitting position ranged from 0.25 to 0.37 g.cm-3. Subnormal values were found in patients with emphsema. In patients with pulmonary congestion and edema, lung density values ranged from 0.33 to 0.93 g.cm-3. The lung density measurement correlated well with the findings in chest radiographs...... but the lung density values were more sensitive indices. This was particularly evident in serial observations of individual patients....

  9. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, 2015 Choosing Wisely When It Comes to Eye Care, Part ... Name: Member ID: * Phone Number: * Email: * Enter code: * Message: Thank you Your feedback has been sent.

  10. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... month dissolvable punctal plug be removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal ... Your Eyelid Nov 29, 2017 New Dry Eye Treatment is a Tear-Jerker Jul 21, 2017 Three ...

  11. Dry Skin Relief

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... on a budget Skin care products Skin care secrets Skin lighteners Skin of color Summer skin problems ... condition, such as eczema. Additional related information Dermatologists' top tips for relieving dry skin FIND A DERMATOLOGIST ...

  12. Dry process potentials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faugeras, P.

    1997-01-01

    Various dry processes have been studied and more or less developed in order particularly to reduce the waste quantities but none of them had replaced the PUREX process, for reasons departing to policy errors, un-appropriate demonstration examples or too late development, although realistic and efficient dry processes such as a fluoride selective volatility based processes have been demonstrated in France (CLOVIS, ATILA) and would be ten times cheaper than the PUREX process. Dry processes could regain interest in case of a nuclear revival (following global warming fears) or thermal wastes over-production. In the near future, dry processes could be introduced in complement to the PUREX process, especially at the end of the process cycle, for a more efficient recycling and safer storage (inactivation)

  13. Freeze drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coppa, N.V.; Stewart, P.; Renzi, E.

    1999-01-01

    The present invention provides methods and apparatus for freeze drying in which a solution, which can be a radioactive salt dissolved within an acid, is frozen into a solid on vertical plates provided within a freeze drying chamber. The solid is sublimated into vapor and condensed in a cold condenser positioned above the freeze drying chamber and connected thereto by a conduit. The vertical positioning of the cold condenser relative to the freeze dryer helps to help prevent substances such as radioactive materials separated from the solution from contaminating the cold condenser. Additionally, the system can be charged with an inert gas to produce a down rush of gas into the freeze drying chamber to also help prevent such substances from contaminating the cold condenser

  14. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... removed or pushed down the tear duct to insert a permanent punctal plug? Sep 12, 2017 Why ... Eye from Jennifer Aniston Sep 02, 2016 The link between seasonal allergens and dry eye Apr 27, ...

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — Located near the K-Basins (see K-Basins link) in Hanford's 100 Area is a facility called the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF).Between 2000 and 2004, workers at the...

  16. Preparation of superconducting powders by freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, S.M.; Gusman, M.I.; Rowcliffe, D.J.; Geballe, T.H.; Sun, J.Z.

    1987-01-01

    A method of preparing superconducting powders by freeze-drying is described. Powders produced by this method are homogeneous, have high purities, and are very reactive. Materials sintered from these powders have densities up to 89% of the theoretical density, and exhibit very sharp resistivity drops and large Meissner effects. The microstructure of the materials is very sensitive to the sintering temperature

  17. Low Bone Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Density Exam/Testing › Low Bone Density Low Bone Density Low bone density is when your bone density ... people with normal bone density. Detecting Low Bone Density A bone density test will determine whether you ...

  18. Drying of Concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard; Geiker, Mette Rica; Nygaard, Peter Vagn

    2002-01-01

    Estimated and measured relative humidity (RH) change during drying are compared for two concretes, 1: w/c=0.46 and 2: w/(c+0.5fa+2sf)=0.50. The estimations were undertaken by means of the Swedish program TorkaS 1.0. Measurements were performed by RH-sensors type Humi-Guard. Drying of 150 mm thick...... samples from sides at 60% RH and 22 °C took place from 4 to 56 days after casting. At the end of the drying period the measured RH was about 4% lower than the estimated RH at 1/5th depth from the exposed surface for both concretes. In the middle of the samples, the measured RH of concretes 1 and 2 were 2...

  19. PREDICTION OF MAXIMUM DRY DENSITY OF LOCAL GRANULAR ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Proctor test, solid unit weight, optimum moisture content .... that' the average value of deviation between the computed and the measured .... difference between the estimate made from the sample and the .... the total population is broken into a number of strata or ... classified under one of the three stratified groups that are ...

  20. Pecan drying with silica gel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghate, S.R.; Chhinnan, M.S.

    1983-07-01

    High moisture in-shell pecans were dried by keeping them in direct and indirect contact with silica gel to investigate their drying characteristics. In-shell pecans were also dried with ambient air from a controlled environment chamber and with air dehumidified by silica gel. Direct contact and dehumidified air drying seemed feasible approaches.

  1. Sintering of a freeze-dried 10 mol% Y2O3-stabilized zirconia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rakotoson, A.; Paulus, M.

    1983-01-01

    After presenting the results of freeze drying a sulfate solution, the authors describe a preparation process in which the freeze-drying technique by addition of a suspension of stabilized zirconia in the liquid solution before freeze-drying. This process breaks the polymeric chains, increases the green density of the compact, and decreases the sintering temperature. The mechanisms involved are discussed

  2. Botanical and ecological basis for the resilience of Antillean dry forests

    Science.gov (United States)

    A.E. Lugo; E. Medina; J. Carlos Trejo Torres; E. Helmer

    2006-01-01

    Dry forest environments limit the number of species that can survive there. Antillean dry forests have low floristic diversity and stature, high density of small and medium-sized trees, and are among the least conserved of the tropical forests. Their canopies are smooth with no emergent trees and have high species dominance. Antillean dry forests occur mostly on...

  3. Characteristics of Timbers Dried Using Kiln Drying and Radio Frequency-Vacuum Drying Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabidin Zairul Amin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Heavy hardwoods are difficult-to-dry timbers as they are prone to checking and internal stresses when dried using a conventional kiln drying system. These timbers are usually dried naturally to reach 15% to 19% moisture content with an acceptable defects. Besides long drying time, timbers at these moisture contents are not suitable for indoor applications since they will further dry and causing, for example, jointing and lamination failures. Drying to a lower moisture content could only be achieved in artificial drying kilns such as conventional kiln, dehumidification kiln, solar kiln, radio frequency-vacuum, etc. The objective of this study was to evaluate the characteristics of 30 mm and 50 mm thick kekatong (Cynometra spp. timber dried using kiln drying (KD and radio frequency-vacuum drying (RFV system. The investigation involved drying time, moisture content (MC variations between and within boards, drying defects, shrinkage, and drying stress. Drying defects include checks (surface, end, and internal checks and warping (bowing, cuping, spring, and twisting. The results showed that RFV drying time was reduced to 50% compared to the KD. RFV dried boards demonstrated a more uniform MC between and within boards. Shrinkage in width and thickness, as well as tangential/radial and volumetric shrinkages were substantially less in RFV boards. The amount of cupping, bowing and spring were very low and negligible in all drying runs. There was no twisting observed in all drying methods. The number of stress-free RFV board was higher than KD. With proper procedure, the RFV technology could be used for drying heavy hardwoods which are difficult to dry in conventional kilns due to excessive drying times and degradation.

  4. Convective, vacuum and microwave drying kinetics of mallow leaves and comparison of color and ascorbic acid values of three drying methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Mallow leaves (Malva sylvestris L. with initial moisture of 5.02±0.003 on dry basis (82.5% on wet basis were dried using three different drying methods, microwave, convective and vacuum. The leaves that weigh 75 g each were dried until their moisture fell down to 0.10±0.005 on dry basis (approximately 9% on wet basis. The following drying levels were used in each of the drying processes: 6.67, 8.67, 10, 11.33 W g-1 microwave power density; 50, 75, 100 and 125 °C for convective drying; and 3, 7 kPa at 50 and 75 °C for vacuum drying. Drying periods ranged from 6-10, 26-150 and 38-130 min. for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. Effective moisture diffisuvities ranged from 2.04403 10-10-3.63996 10-12 m2 s-1, 1.70182 10-11-1.10084 10-10 m2 s-1 and 1.85599 10-11-5.94559 10-10 m2 s-1 for microwave, convective and vacuum drying, respectively. According to ascorbic acid content and color parameters, the best microwave power density was found 10 W g-1 with a drying period of 6.5 min.

  5. DRY MIX FOR OBTAINING FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Leonovich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Composition of a dry mix has been developed for production of non-autoclaved foam concrete with natural curing. The mix has been created on the basis of Portland cement, UFAPORE foaming agent, mineral additives (RSAM sulfoaluminate additive, MK-85 micro-silica and basalt fiber, plasticizing and accelerating “Citrate-T” additive and   redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder. It has been established that foam concrete with  density of 400–800 kg/m3, durability of 1,1–3,4 MPa, low water absorption (40–50 %, without shrinkable cracks has been formed while adding water of Water/Solid = 0.4–0.6 in the dry mix,  subsequent mechanical swelling and curing of foam mass.Introduction of the accelerating and plasticizing “Citrate-T” additive into composition of the dry mix leads to an increase of rheological properties in expanded foam mass and  time reduction of its drying and curing. An investigation on microstructure of foam-concrete chipping surface carried out with the help of a scanning electron microscope has shown that the introduction of  basalt fiber and redispersible Vinnapas-8034 H powder into the composition of the dry mix promotes formation of more finely-divided crystalline hydrates. Such approach makes it possible to change purposefully morphology of crystalline hydrates and gives the possibility to operate foam concrete structurization process.

  6. FREEZE DRYING PROCESS: A REVIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Soham Shukla

    2011-01-01

    Among the various methods of drying, this article has mentioned only one most important method, “Freeze drying”. This method is mainly used for the drying of thermo labile materials. This method works on the principle of sublimation. This method is divided into 3 steps for its better understanding; these are Freezing, Primary drying, and secondary drying. There are many advantages and disadvantages of this method, but still this is the most useful drying method nowadays.

  7. Evaluating energy efficient strategies and product quality for distillers' dried grains with solubles (DDGS) in dry-grind ethanol plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lan, Tian

    tested and the response variables were measured which included energy performance (specific power consumption, energy efficiency, drying efficiency, drying rate), physical properties [particle size distribution (PSD), geometric mean particle size (dwg), bulk density, tapped bulk density, true density, color, compressibility index (CI), Hausner ratio (HR)], and chemical properties [acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), oil, crude protein, starch, ash, etc]. The results of the bench-scale study were also compared with data from a previous plant-scale DDGS production process investigation that used similar drying strategies. Results from the experiments indicated that among all 16 drying strategies, the 10% CDS content and 60% DDGS add-back strategy achieved the least specific power consumption (SPC) while the 40% CDS content and 20% DDGS add-back strategy had the highest SPC. The energy efficiency and drying efficiency of the bench-scale data in both drying stage I and drying stage II presented similar trends as process parameters changed. The highest energy and drying efficiencies were achieved in strategies with 10% CDS content while the lowest were in strategies with 40% CDS content. A comparison of the energy and drying efficiencies for the bench-scale strategies conducted in this study with those of similar plant-scale strategies from a previous study showed a similar trend in the data for drying stage 1, even though the actual numbers were quite different for the two experimental scales. On average, the energy and drying efficiencies for the bench-scale study was 40% less than the corresponding plant-scale strategy. CDS content had the most influence on the energy performance during DDGS drying, while percent DDGS add-back had more impact on the SPC given a constant CDS content level. By comparing both the physical properties, bulk density in particular which relates to logistics, and energy performance data, the drying strategy with 20% CDS and

  8. Dry piston coal feeder

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hathaway, Thomas J.; Bell, Jr., Harold S.

    1979-01-01

    This invention provides a solids feeder for feeding dry coal to a pressurized gasifier at elevated temperatures substantially without losing gas from the gasifier by providing a lock having a double-acting piston that feeds the coals into the gasifier, traps the gas from escaping, and expels the trapped gas back into the gasifier.

  9. Dry Macular Degeneration

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a combination of heredity and environmental factors, including smoking and diet. The condition develops as the eye ages. Dry ... nonsmokers. Ask your doctor for help to stop smoking. Maintain a ... controlling your diet. Choose a diet rich in fruits and vegetables. ...

  10. Essays on Dry Ports

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G.G. Chandrakant (Gujar)

    2011-01-01

    textabstractDue to several reasons, currently the global supply chains are getting stretched further away into the hinterlands from the gateway seaports. This single fact enhances the importance of dry ports. It would not be against logic, to state that in coming times, as a result of ever-growing

  11. What Is Dry Eye?

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... bloodshot when I wake up? Jun 26, 2016 Why are my eyes dry after LASIK? Jun 19, 2016 Can I be tested whether I close my eyes when I sleep? Feb 10, 2016 Can light sensitivity from Parkinson’s ...

  12. Infrared Drying Parameter Optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, Matthew R.

    In recent years, much research has been done to explore direct printing methods, such as screen and inkjet printing, as alternatives to the traditional lithographic process. The primary motivation is reduction of the material costs associated with producing common electronic devices. Much of this research has focused on developing inkjet or screen paste formulations that can be printed on a variety of substrates, and which have similar conductivity performance to the materials currently used in the manufacturing of circuit boards and other electronic devices. Very little research has been done to develop a process that would use direct printing methods to manufacture electronic devices in high volumes. This study focuses on developing and optimizing a drying process for conductive copper ink in a high volume manufacturing setting. Using an infrared (IR) dryer, it was determined that conductive copper prints could be dried in seconds or minutes as opposed to tens of minutes or hours that it would take with other drying devices, such as a vacuum oven. In addition, this study also identifies significant parameters that can affect the conductivity of IR dried prints. Using designed experiments and statistical analysis; the dryer parameters were optimized to produce the best conductivity performance for a specific ink formulation and substrate combination. It was determined that for an ethylene glycol, butanol, 1-methoxy 2- propanol ink formulation printed on Kapton, the optimal drying parameters consisted of a dryer height of 4 inches, a temperature setting between 190 - 200°C, and a dry time of 50-65 seconds depending on the printed film thickness as determined by the number of print passes. It is important to note that these parameters are optimized specifically for the ink formulation and substrate used in this study. There is still much research that needs to be done into optimizing the IR dryer for different ink substrate combinations, as well as developing a

  13. Spray Drying of Honey: The Effect of Drying Agents on Powder Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samborska Katarzyna

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate the possibility of honey spray drying with addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic as drying agents. The influence of the concentration of the solution subjected to drying, the type and content of the drying agents upon the physical properties of obtained powders was examined. An attempt was undertaken to obtain powder with a honey content of more than 50% d.b. Spray drying of multifloral honey with the addition of maltodextrin and gum Arabic was carried out at inlet air temperature of 180°C, feed rate of 1 mL/s and rotational speed of a disc atomizer of 39,000 rpm. The properties of obtained powders were quantified in terms of moisture content, bulk density, Hausner ratio, apparent density, hygroscopicity and wettability. Using gum Arabic it was possible to obtain a product with a higher content of honey (67% solids than in the case of maltodextrin (50% d.b.. However, the powders obtained with gum Arabic were characterised by worse physical properties: higher hygroscopicity and cohesion, and longer wetting time.

  14. Level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ignatyuk, A.V.

    1998-01-01

    For any applications of the statistical theory of nuclear reactions it is very important to obtain the parameters of the level density description from the reliable experimental data. The cumulative numbers of low-lying levels and the average spacings between neutron resonances are usually used as such data. The level density parameters fitted to such data are compiled in the RIPL Starter File for the tree models most frequently used in practical calculations: i) For the Gilber-Cameron model the parameters of the Beijing group, based on a rather recent compilations of the neutron resonance and low-lying level densities and included into the beijing-gc.dat file, are chosen as recommended. As alternative versions the parameters provided by other groups are given into the files: jaeri-gc.dat, bombay-gc.dat, obninsk-gc.dat. Additionally the iljinov-gc.dat, and mengoni-gc.dat files include sets of the level density parameters that take into account the damping of shell effects at high energies. ii) For the backed-shifted Fermi gas model the beijing-bs.dat file is selected as the recommended one. Alternative parameters of the Obninsk group are given in the obninsk-bs.dat file and those of Bombay in bombay-bs.dat. iii) For the generalized superfluid model the Obninsk group parameters included into the obninsk-bcs.dat file are chosen as recommended ones and the beijing-bcs.dat file is included as an alternative set of parameters. iv) For the microscopic approach to the level densities the files are: obninsk-micro.for -FORTRAN 77 source for the microscopical statistical level density code developed in Obninsk by Ignatyuk and coworkers, moller-levels.gz - Moeller single-particle level and ground state deformation data base, moller-levels.for -retrieval code for Moeller single-particle level scheme. (author)

  15. Pysical Properties of Soil with Addition of Sewage Dried with Heated Edible Oil

    OpenAIRE

    大坪, 政美; 中司, 敬; 中園, 修三; 中園, 英司; 徳留, 斉将

    2000-01-01

    The present study investigates the water holding capacity, density, permeability, and swelling properties of the soil samples mixed with the sewage that was dried with heated edible oil. For comparison similar experiments were conducted for the soil samples mixed with sun-dried sewage and sewage compost. The water holding capacity was higher for the soil samples with oil-dried and sun-dried sewage addition than for those with sewage-compost addition. For statically compacted soil samples, wit...

  16. INFLUÊNCIA DA DENSIDADE DE INÓCULO DE Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli NA SEVERIDADE DA PODRIDÃO RADICULAR SECA DO FEIJOEIRO EFFECT OF Fusarium solani f.sp. phaseoli INOCULUM DENSITY ON DRY ROOT ROT SEVERITY IN THE COMMON BEAN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gesimária Ribeiro Costa

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    Foram testadas quatro densidades de inóculo de Fusarium solani, em gramas por litro de solo (1,0; 2,0; 4,0 e 8,0 e um tratamento testemunha, em solo tipo Latossolo Vermelho-Escuro, cultivado e não cultivado, com o objetivo de determinar a densidade mínima de inóculo no solo necessária para a ocorrência de podridão radicular seca do feijoeiro. Como variáveis respostas foram avaliadas: número de microorganismos totais do solo, número de propágulos de F. solani, atividade microbiológica total do solo e severidade da doença em plântulas. Os resultados indicaram que a densidade de inóculo do fungo variou com o tipo de solo. Para um solo não cultivado a densidade necessária para causar a doença esteve acima de 5.127 propágulos por grama de solo, enquanto para o solo cultivado a densidade de inóculo para causar doença foi de 3.701 propágulos por grama de solo. Os índices de doença em plântulas cultivadas sob o solo cultivado foram duas vezes superiores ao índice de doença de plântulas sob o solo não cultivado. A atividade microbiológica total nos solos, determinada pela desidrogenase de fluorescina diacetato, não se correlacionou com a população dos microorganismos, indicando que a simples presença desses não implica em que estejam ativos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solo supressivo; solo conducivo; Phaseolus vulgaris.

    Four densities of Fusarium solani inoculum (1, 2, 4 and 8 g/L of soil were tested for determining the minimum inoculum density for the occurrence of bean dry root rot, in two soil types. The response variables evaluated were the total number of microorganisms in the soil, the number of F. solani f. sp. phaseoli propagules, total soil microbial activity and seedling disease severity

  17. Spray Drying Processing: granules production and drying kinetics of droplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mondragon, R.; Julia, J. E.; Barba, A.; Jarque, J. C.

    2013-01-01

    Spray drying is a unit operation very common in many industrial processes. For each particular application, the resulting granulated material must possess determined properties that depend on the conditions in which the spray drying processing has been carried out, and whose dependence must be known in order to optimize the quality of the material obtained. The large number of variables that influence on the processes of matter and energy transfer and on the formation of granular material has required a detailed analysis of the drying process. Over the years there have been many studies on the spray drying processing of all kind of materials and the influence of process variables on the drying kinetics of the granulated material properties obtained. This article lists the most important works published for both the spray drying processing and the drying of individual droplets, as well as studies aimed at modeling the drying kinetics of drops. (Author)

  18. Cassava Sun Drying Performance on Various Surfaces and Drying ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Traditional processing methods that include ... The traditional sun drying method is very inefficient as the product can take 2-. 3 days to dry. .... using a digital balance (Ohaus Corporation type). The same applied .... preservation and marketing.

  19. Dry alcohol production plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stanković Mirjana S.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The IGPC Engineering Department designed basic projects for dry alcohol production plant, using technology developed in the IGPC laboratories. Several projects were completed: technological, machine, electrical, automation. On the basis of these projects a production plant with a capacity of 40 m3/y was manufactured, at "Zorka Pharma", Šabac in 1995-1996. The product meets all quality demands, as well as environmental regulations. The dry alcohol production process is fully automatized. There is no waste in the process, neither gaseous, nor liquid. The chosen process provides safe operation according to temperature regime and resistance in the pipes, air purification columns and filters. Working at increased pressure is suitable for evaporation and condensation at increased temperatures. The production process can be controlled manually, which is necessary during start-up, and repairs.

  20. Stabilization of Live Attenuated Influenza Vaccines by Freeze Drying, Spray Drying, and Foam Drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovalenti, Phillip M; Anderl, Jeff; Yee, Luisa; Nguyen, Van; Ghavami, Behnaz; Ohtake, Satoshi; Saxena, Atul; Voss, Thomas; Truong-Le, Vu

    2016-05-01

    The goal of this research is to develop stable formulations for live attenuated influenza vaccines (LAIV) by employing the drying methods freeze drying, spray drying, and foam drying. Formulated live attenuated Type-A H1N1 and B-strain influenza vaccines with a variety of excipient combinations were dried using one of the three drying methods. Process and storage stability at 4, 25 and 37°C of the LAIV in these formulations was monitored using a TCID50 potency assay. Their immunogenicity was also evaluated in a ferret model. The thermal stability of H1N1 vaccine was significantly enhanced through application of unique formulation combinations and drying processes. Foam dried formulations were as much as an order of magnitude more stable than either spray dried or freeze dried formulations, while exhibiting low process loss and full retention of immunogenicity. Based on long-term stability data, foam dried formulations exhibited a shelf life at 4, 25 and 37°C of >2, 1.5 years and 4.5 months, respectively. Foam dried LAIV Type-B manufactured using the same formulation and process parameters as H1N1 were imparted with a similar level of stability. Foam drying processing methods with appropriate selection of formulation components can produce an order of magnitude improvement in LAIV stability over other drying methods.

  1. Dry mouth during cancer treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000032.htm Dry mouth during cancer treatment To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Some cancer treatments and medicines can cause dry mouth. Symptoms you ...

  2. Nitramine Drying & Fine Grinding Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Nitramine Drying and Fine Grinding Facility provides TACOM-ARDEC with a state-of-the-art facility capable of drying and grinding high explosives (e.g., RDX and...

  3. Analysis of Drying Process Quality in Conventional Dry-Kilns

    OpenAIRE

    Sedlar Tomislav; Pervan Stjepan

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents testing results of drying quality in a conventional dry kiln. Testing is based on a new methodology that will show the level of success of the drying process management by analyzing the quality of drying process in a conventional dry kiln, using a scientifi cally improved version of the check list in everyday practical applications. A company that specializes in lamel and classic parquet production was chosen so as to verify the new testing methodology. A total of 56 m3 of...

  4. Oral antioxidant therapy for marginal dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blades, K J; Patel, S; Aidoo, K E

    2001-07-01

    To assess the efficacy of an orally administered antioxidant dietary supplement for managing marginal dry eye. A prospective, randomised, placebo controlled trial with cross-over. Eye Clinic, Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University. Forty marginal dry eye sufferers composed of 30 females and 10 males (median age 53 y; range 38-69 y). Baseline assessments were made of tear volume sufficiency (thread test), tear quality (stability), ocular surface status (conjunctival impression cytology) and dry eye symptoms (questionnaire). Each subject was administered courses of active treatment, placebo and no treatment, in random order for 1 month each and results compared to baseline. Tear stability and ocular surface status were significantly improved following active treatment (Ptreatment (P>0.05). Absolute increase in tear stability correlated with absolute change in goblet cell population density. Tear volume was not improved following any treatment period and dry eye symptom responses were subject to placebo effect. Oral antioxidants improved both tear stability and conjunctival health, although it is not yet understood whether increased ocular surface health mediates increased tear stability or vice versa. This study was supported by a PhD scholarship funded by the Department of Vision Sciences, Glasgow Caledonian University, Scotland. Antioxidant supplements and placebos were kindly donated by Vitabiotics.

  5. Fluid flow in drying drops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gelderblom, Hanneke

    2013-01-01

    When a suspension drop evaporates, it leaves behind a drying stain. Examples of these drying stains encountered in daily life are coffee or tea stains on a table top, mineral rings on glassware that comes out of the dishwasher, or the salt deposits on the streets in winter. Drying stains are also

  6. A review of dry ports

    OpenAIRE

    Violeta Roso; Kent Lumsden

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this article is to present the previous research on the dry port concept and to review the world's existing dry ports, that is freight terminals that use the term ‘dry port’ in their name. Therefore, the purpose of this article is to clarify the concept by showing potential discrepancies or agreements between theory and practice. Starting from a literature review on the dry port concept, this article presents a review of existing dry ports in the world. A number of qualitativ...

  7. Development of spent fuel dry storage technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maruoka, Kunio; Matsunaga, Kenichi; Kunishima, Shigeru

    2000-01-01

    The spent fuels are the recycle fuel resources, and it is very important to store the spent fuels in safety. There are two types of the spent fuel interim storage system. One is wet storage system and another is dry storage system. In this study, the dry storage technology, dual purpose metal cask storage and canister storage, has been developed. For the dual purpose metal cask storage, boronated aluminum basket cell, rational cask body shape and shaping process have been developed, and new type dual purpose metal cask has been designed. For the canister storage, new type concrete cask and high density vault storage technology have been developed. The results of this study will be useful for the spent fuel interim storage. Safety and economical spent fuel interim storage will be realized in the near future. (author)

  8. Pharmaceutical Particle Engineering via Spray Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-01-01

    This review covers recent developments in the area of particle engineering via spray drying. The last decade has seen a shift from empirical formulation efforts to an engineering approach based on a better understanding of particle formation in the spray drying process. Microparticles with nanoscale substructures can now be designed and their functionality has contributed significantly to stability and efficacy of the particulate dosage form. The review provides concepts and a theoretical framework for particle design calculations. It reviews experimental research into parameters that influence particle formation. A classification based on dimensionless numbers is presented that can be used to estimate how excipient properties in combination with process parameters influence the morphology of the engineered particles. A wide range of pharmaceutical application examples—low density particles, composite particles, microencapsulation, and glass stabilization—is discussed, with specific emphasis on the underlying particle formation mechanisms and design concepts. PMID:18040761

  9. Drying and decontamination of pistachios with sequential infrared drying, tempering and hot air drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    The pistachio industry is in need of improved drying technology as the current hot air drying has low energy efficiency and drying rate and high labor cost and also does not produce safe products against microbial contamination. In the current study, dehulled and water- sorted pistachios with a mois...

  10. Effect of paddy drying depth using open-sun drying on drying time ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The smallholder rice farmers in the Uganda dry their paddy using open-sun drying method. In most cases the paddy is badly dried and has very high fissure levels. Such paddy on milling contributes to low levels of mill recovery and whole grain in the milled rice. This study was therefore done to find a recommendable ...

  11. Kudu foraging behaviour: influenced by animal density? | van der ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The dry season utilisation patterns of two woody species, Acacia tortilis and Boscia albitrunca, in two comparable sites but subjected to different kudu densities, were studied to determine if kudu adapt their feeding behaviour in response to animal density. Shoots of plants in the high-density area were vertically more ...

  12. Avaliação da densidade de uma pastagem de coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers em níveis residuais de matéria seca sob pastejo Density evaluation of a coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers pasture under grazing in different levels of dry matter residue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcia Regina Coelho

    2000-05-01

    Full Text Available O experimento foi realizado no Câmpus do Arenito - UEM, em Cidade Gaúcha, no período de outubro de 1997 a março de 1998, com o objetivo de avaliar na pastagem de coastcross -1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers, em quatro níveis de resíduo de matéria seca (RMS: 1.978, 2.130, 2.545 e 3.857 kg de MS/ha, com lotação contínua e carga animal variável, as densidades e participação dos componentes botânicos. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi inteiramente casualizado, com duas repetições. As avaliações da densidade de forragem, participação dos componentes botânicos e a relação folha/colmo foram estudados nos estratos inferiores (0 - 10 cm e superiores (10 - 20 cm da pastagem, em função dos níveis RMS. A densidade da pastagem (g de MS/m3 nos estratos inferior e superior teve uma relação positiva com os níveis de RMS e negativa em relação ao tempo (dias do experimento. A percentagem de material morto (MM foi superior no estrato inferior em relação à percentagem de colmos verdes (CV e de folhas verdes (FV. No estrato superior o MM e CV tiveram a maior participação, porém FV, aumentou à medida que se elevaram os níveis de RMS.This experiment was carried out in Arenito Research Center-UEM, in Cidade Gaúcha-PR, from October/1997 to March /1998, to evaluate in coastcross-1 (Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers grazing, in four levels of dry matter residue (DMR: 1,978; 2,130; 2,545; 3,857 kg of DM/ha, with a continuous allotment system and variable number of allotments, the densities and participation of botanical component. A completely randomized design with two replications was used. Forage density, participation of botanical components and leaf/stem ratio were evaluated in inferior strata (0-10 cm and superior ones (10-20 cm of the pasture, according to the levels of DMR. The pasture density (g of DM/m3 in superior and inferior strata had a positive relation with the DMR levels and negative when associated to the period (days

  13. Intracellular water exchange for measuring the dry mass, water mass and changes in chemical composition of living cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Feijó Delgado

    Full Text Available We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell's buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell's water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell's dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density - the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein, we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell.

  14. Intracellular Water Exchange for Measuring the Dry Mass, Water Mass and Changes in Chemical Composition of Living Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hecht, Vivian C.; Son, Sungmin; Li, Yingzhong; Knudsen, Scott M.; Olcum, Selim; Higgins, John M.; Chen, Jianzhu; Grover, William H.; Manalis, Scott R.

    2013-01-01

    We present a method for direct non-optical quantification of dry mass, dry density and water mass of single living cells in suspension. Dry mass and dry density are obtained simultaneously by measuring a cell’s buoyant mass sequentially in an H2O-based fluid and a D2O-based fluid. Rapid exchange of intracellular H2O for D2O renders the cell’s water content neutrally buoyant in both measurements, and thus the paired measurements yield the mass and density of the cell’s dry material alone. Utilizing this same property of rapid water exchange, we also demonstrate the quantification of intracellular water mass. In a population of E. coli, we paired these measurements to estimate the percent dry weight by mass and volume. We then focused on cellular dry density – the average density of all cellular biomolecules, weighted by their relative abundances. Given that densities vary across biomolecule types (RNA, DNA, protein), we investigated whether we could detect changes in biomolecular composition in bacteria, fungi, and mammalian cells. In E. coli, and S. cerevisiae, dry density increases from stationary to exponential phase, consistent with previously known increases in the RNA/protein ratio from up-regulated ribosome production. For mammalian cells, changes in growth conditions cause substantial shifts in dry density, suggesting concurrent changes in the protein, nucleic acid and lipid content of the cell. PMID:23844039

  15. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M; Harper, Daniel E; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A; Clauw, Daniel J

    2016-08-01

    To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; P dry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; P dry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye.

  16. Diagnostic of dry rot in living trees

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schaetzler, H.P.

    1978-01-01

    The γ-desorption method has been used in the early diagnosis of dry rot in trees. The attenuation of a 60 keV γ-beam ( 241 Am) has been measured on eleven healthy spruce disks. It is seen that early diagnostic of rotten trees is limited by natural density variation of the wood itself, but for a 95% confidence level that the wood is diseased, a tree must have an average of less than 0.59 g./cm 3 . (Auth/C.F.)

  17. Design of solar drying-plant for bulk material drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Horbaj

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available A generally well-known high energy requirement for technological processes of drying and the fact that the world’s supplyof the conventional energy sources has considerably decreased are the decisive factors forcing us to look for some new, if possible,renewable energy sources for this process by emphasising their environmental reliability. One of the possibilities how to replace, atleast partly, the conventional energy sources – heat in a drying process is solar energy.Air-drying of bulk materials usually has a series of disadvantages such as time expenditure, drying defects in the bulk materialand inadequate final moisture content. A method that obviates or reduces the disadvantages of air-drying and, at the same time, reducesthe costs of kiln drying, is drying with solar heat. Solar energy can replace a large part of this depletable energy since solar energy cansupply heat at the temperatures most often used to dry bulk material. Solar drying-plant offer an attractive solution.

  18. Comparison of drying characteristic and uniformity of banana cubes dried by pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying, freeze drying and microwave freeze drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Hao; Zhang, Min; Mujumdar, Arun S; Lim, Rui-Xin

    2014-07-01

    To overcome the flaws of high energy consumption of freeze drying (FD) and the non-uniform drying of microwave freeze drying (MFD), pulse-spouted microwave vacuum drying (PSMVD) was developed. The results showed that the drying time can be dramatically shortened if microwave was used as the heating source. In this experiment, both MFD and PSMVD could shorten drying time by 50% as compared to the FD process. Depending on the heating method, MFD and PSMVD dried banana cubes showed trends of expansion while FD dried samples demonstrated trends of shrinkage. Shrinkage also brought intensive structure and highest fracturability of all three samples dried by different methods. The residual ascorbic acid content of PSMVD dried samples can be as high as in FD dried samples, which were superior to MFD dried samples. The tests confirmed that PSMVD could bring about better drying uniformity than MFD. Besides, compared with traditional MFD, PSMVD can provide better extrinsic feature, and can bring about improved nutritional features because of the higher residual ascorbic acid content. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.

  19. Neuropathic pain and dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galor, Anat; Moein, Hamid-Reza; Lee, Charity; Rodriguez, Adriana; Felix, Elizabeth R; Sarantopoulos, Konstantinos D; Levitt, Roy C

    2018-01-01

    Dry eye is a common, multifactorial disease currently diagnosed by a combination of symptoms and signs. Its epidemiology and clinical presentation have many similarities with neuropathic pain outside the eye. This review highlights the similarities between dry eye and neuropathic pain, focusing on clinical features, somatosensory function, and underlying pathophysiology. Implications of these similarities on the diagnosis and treatment of dry eye are discussed. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  20. Post-LASIK dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding of the development of dry eyes after LASIK will advance our understanding of the complex pathophysiology of dry eye disease. PMID:22174730

  1. Quality of dry chemistry testing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, H; Tatsumi, N

    1999-01-01

    Since the development of the qualitative test paper for urine in 1950s, several kinds of dry-state-reagents and their automated analyzers have been developed. "Dry chemistry" has become to be called since the report on the development of quantitative test paper for serum bilirubin with reflectometer in the end of 1960s and dry chemistry has been world widely known since the presentation on the development of multilayer film reagent for serum biochemical analytes by Eastman Kodak Co at the 10th IFCC Meeting in the end of 1970s. We have reported test menu, results in external quality assessment, merits and demerits, and the future possibilities of dry chemistry.

  2. a comparative study of the drying rate constant, drying efficiency

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The drying rate constants for the solar dryer and open- air sun dried bitter leaf were 0.8 and ... of cost benefit but the poorest when other considerations ... J. I. Eze, National Centre for Energy Research and Development (NCERD), University of ...

  3. Drying Spirulina with Foam Mat Drying at Medium Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aji Prasetyaningrum

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Spirulina is a single cell blue green microalgae (Cyanobacteria containing many Phytonutrients (Beta-carotene, Chlorophyl, Xanthophyl, Phyocianin using as anti-carcinogen in food. Producing dry spirulina by quick drying process at medium temperature is very important to retain the Phytonutrient quality. Currently, the work is still challenging due to the gel formation that block the water diffusion from inside to the surface.  This research studies the performance of foam-mat drying on production of dry spirulina. In this method the spirulina was mixed with foaming agent (glair/egg albumen, popular as white egg at 2.5% by weight at air velocity 2.2 m/sec. Here, the effect of spirulina thickness and operational temperature on drying time and quality (Beta-carotene and color were observed. The drying time was estimated based on the measurement of water content in spirulina versus time. Result showed that the thicker spirulina, the longer drying time. Conversely, the higher operational temperature, faster drying time. At thickness ranging 1-3 mm and operational temperature below 70oC, the quality of spirulina can fit the market requirement

  4. Carrageenan drying with dehumidified air: drying characteristics and product quality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Djaeni, M.; Sasongko, S.B.; Prasetyaningrum, Aji A A.A.; Jin, X.; Boxtel, van A.J.B.

    2012-01-01

    Applying dehumidified air is considered as an option to retain quality in carrageenan drying. This work concerns the effects of operational temperature, air velocity, and carrageenan thickness on the progress of drying and product quality when using dehumidified air. Final product quality and

  5. The antisickling effects of dried fish (tilapia) And dried prawn ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The antisickling effect of dried fish (Tilapia) and dried prawn (Astacus red) were investigated to ascertain the ability of the extracts of these samples to inhibit polymerisation of sickle cell haemoglobin (HbS), improve the Fe 2+/Fe 3+ ratio and lower the activity of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in blood plasma. The samples ...

  6. [Investigation of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ning; Zhan, Xiao-dong; Sun, En-tao; Li, Chao-pin

    2015-12-01

    To study the species and density of Acaroid mites breeding in stored dry fruits. The samples from the dried fruit stores and warehouses were collected, and the mites breeding in them were separated, then the slides with mites were prepared and observed by a light microscope for species identification and counting. The indexes such as the breeding density, species richness index, diversity index and evenness index were calculated. Totally 12 species of Acaroid mites belonging to 6 families and 10 genera were obtained from the total 49 samples. The dominant mite species were Carpoglyphus lactis, Tyrophagus putrescentiae, Acarus siro, and Caloglyphus berlesei. The breeding densities of mites in longans, filberts and plum candies were 79.78, 48.91, 35.73 mites/g, respectively, which were higher than those in other dry fruits. The seasonal variation experiment of mites found that the average breeding density of acaroid mites was higher in July and October, the richness index and diversity index reached the highest value in July, and the evenness index was higher in January and April. The observation of the growth and decline of Acaroid mites under the artificial condition found the number of Caloglyphus berlesei declined sharply and Tyrophagus putrescentiae first increased and then decreased. The pollution of Acaroid mites is serious in the stored dried fruits, for which the positive prevention and control measures to the mite breeding should be taken to reduce the harm.

  7. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14-18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (Pdry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes.

  8. Generalized drying curves in conductive/convective paper drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O.C. Motta Lima

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available This work presents a study related to conductive/convective drying of paper (cellulose sheets over heated surfaces, under natural and forced air conditions. The experimental apparatus consists in a metallic box heated by a thermostatic bath containing an upper surface on which the paper samples (about 1 mm thick are placed. The system is submitted to ambient air under two different conditions: natural convection and forced convection provide by an adjustable blower. The influence of initial paper moisture content, drying (heated surface temperature and air velocity on drying curves behavior is observed under different drying conditions. Hence, these influence is studied through the proposal of generalized drying curves. Those curves are analyzed individually for each air condition exposed above and for both together. A set of equations to fit them is proposed and discussed.

  9. Market opportunities for solar drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Voskens, R.G.J.H.; Out, P.G.; Schulte, B.

    2000-01-01

    One of the most promising applications for solar heating is the drying of agricultural products. The drying of agricultural products requires large quantities of low temperature air, in many cases, on a year-round basis. Low cost air-based collectors can provide heated air at solar collection efficiencies of 30 to 70%. In 1998/1999 a study was commissioned to better understand the technical and economic potential for solar drying of agricultural products in the world. The practical potential for solar drying was then determined for 59 crops and 22 regions. The world market for solar drying can be divided into three market segments: 1) mechanical drying T 50 deg. C; 3) sun drying. The most promising market for solar drying is generally market segment 1. For this segment the potential amount of energy displaced by solar is in between 216 770 PJ (World-wide). For Western Europe this potential is estimated between 23 88 PJ and for Eastern Europe between 7 and 13 PJ. A different market introduction strategy is required for each market segment. A total of 13 combinations of crops and regions are selected that appear to have the highest practical potential for solar drying. In the Netherlands a programme of activities was carried out by Ecofys and other organisations, to identify and develop the market potential for solar (assisted) drying of agricultural products. A promotional campaign for the use of renewable energy in the (promising) flower bulb sector is planned on a short-term basis to speed up market developments. It can be concluded that there is a large market for solar drying in the World as well as in Europe. (au)

  10. Dry wall Kras 2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domen Zupančič

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite the modesty of hiska, they show a simple understanding of corbelling technique. One could say they are all examples of human landscape cultivation. Although there is no evident common line when comparing all types of hiska, the cunning eye may observe one shared feature: the positioning of the entrance. More or less all the documented shelters have south or south-western facing entrances. The burja is a cold northerly wind; from the south (Adriatic Sea the winds are warmer. When resting, the setting sun is taken as a sign of the ending of the working day and a reward for the whole day’s efforts. Entrances are the only openings to these structures, and they should serve as well as possible - to watch over the crops, to wait when hunting, to enjoy the calm of evening light, to breathe the sea wind.The syntax of the architectural language of layering stone and shaping the pattern of the landscape remain an inventive realisation of spatial ideas from the past until today. Not only ideas of shaping space - these ideas are basic interventions in the natural habitat which contribute to survival. Culture and an awareness of its values are the origins of local development and reasonable heritage preservation. The next step are tutorial days with workshops on how to build dry stone structures, walls and other stone architecture, as the DSWA organisation in the UK is doing.

  11. Forward Osmosis Brine Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali; Hyde, Deirdre; Beeler, David; Parodi, Jurek

    2015-01-01

    The Forward Osmosis Brine Drying (FOBD) system is based on a technique called forward osmosis (FO). FO is a membrane-based process where the osmotic potential between brine and a salt solution is equalized by the movement of water from the brine to the salt solution. The FOBD system is composed of two main elements, the FO bag and the salt regeneration system. This paper discusses the results of testing of the FO bag to determine the maximum water recovery ratio that can be attained using this technology. Testing demonstrated that the FO bag is capable of achieving a maximum brine water recovery ratio of the brine of 95%. The equivalent system mass was calculated to be 95 kg for a feed similar to the concentrated brine generated on the International Space Station and 86 kg for an Exploration brine. The results have indicated that the FOBD can process all the brine for a one year mission for between 11% to 10% mass required to bring the water needed to make up for water lost in the brine if not recycled. The FOBD saves 685 kg and when treating the International Space Station brine and it saves 829 kg when treating the Exploration brine. It was also demonstrated that saturated salt solutions achieve a higher water recovery ratios than solids salts do and that lithium chloride achieved a higher water recovery ratio than sodium chloride.

  12. Wet Mars, Dry Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fillingim, M. O.; Brain, D. A.; Peticolas, L. M.; Yan, D.; Fricke, K. W.; Thrall, L.

    2012-12-01

    The magnetic fields of the large terrestrial planets, Venus, Earth, and Mars, are all vastly different from each other. These differences can tell us a lot about the interior structure, interior history, and even give us clues to the atmospheric history of these planets. This poster highlights the third in a series of presentations that target school-age audiences with the overall goal of helping the audience visualize planetary magnetic field and understand how they can impact the climatic evolution of a planet. Our first presentation, "Goldilocks and the Three Planets," targeted to elementary school age audiences, focuses on the differences in the atmospheres of Venus, Earth, and Mars and the causes of the differences. The second presentation, "Lost on Mars (and Venus)," geared toward a middle school age audience, highlights the differences in the magnetic fields of these planets and what we can learn from these differences. Finally, in the third presentation, "Wet Mars, Dry Mars," targeted to high school age audiences and the focus of this poster, the emphasis is on the long term climatic affects of the presence or absence of a magnetic field using the contrasts between Earth and Mars. These presentations are given using visually engaging spherical displays in conjunction with hands-on activities and scientifically accurate 3D models of planetary magnetic fields. We will summarize the content of our presentations, discuss our lessons learned from evaluations, and show (pictures of) our hands-on activities and 3D models.

  13. Energy cost of seed drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weerachet Jittanit

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the energy costs of drying corn, rice and wheat seeds between 3 drying options were compared. They consisted of 1 two-stage drying by using fluidised bed dryer (FBD in the 1st stage and in-store dryer (ISD in the 2nd stage, 2 single-stage drying by fixed bed dryer (FXD and 3 two-stage drying by using FXD in the 1st  stage and ISD in the 2nd  stage. The drying conditions selected for comparison were proved to be safe for seed viability by the previous studies. The results showed that the drying options 2 and 3 consumed less energy than option 1. However, the benefits from lower energy cost must be weighed against some advantages of using FBD. Furthermore, it appeared that running the burners of FXD and ISD for warming up the ambient air during humid weather condition could shorten drying time significantly with a little higher energy cost.

  14. Cyclosporine Amicellar delivery system for dry eyes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Han; Cha, Kwang-Ho; Cho, Wonkyung; Park, Junsung; Park, Hee Jun; Sun, Bo Kyung; Hyun, Sang-Min; Hwang, Sung-Joo

    2016-01-01

    Background The objectives of this study were to develop stable cyclosporine A (CsA) ophthalmic micelle solutions for dry-eye syndrome and evaluate their physicochemical properties and therapeutic efficacy. Materials and methods CsA-micelle solutions (MS-CsA) were created by a simple method with Cremophor EL, ethanol, and phosphate buffer. We investigated the particle size, pH, and osmolarity. In addition, long-term physical and chemical stability for MS-CsA was observed. To confirm the therapeutic efficacy, tear production in dry eye-induced rabbits was evaluated using the Schirmer tear test (STT). When compared to a commercial product, Restasis, MS-CsA demonstrated improvement in goblet-cell density and conjunctival epithelial morphology, as demonstrated in histological hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results MS-CsA had a smaller particle size (average diameter 14–18 nm) and a narrow size distribution. Physicochemical parameters, such as particle size, pH, osmolarity, and remaining CsA concentration were all within the expected range of 60 days. STT scores significantly improved in MS-CsA treated groups (P<0.05) in comparison to those of the Restasis-treated group. The number of goblet cells for rabbit conjunctivas after the administration of MS-CsA was 94.83±8.38, a significantly higher result than the 65.17±11.51 seen with Restasis. The conjunctival epithelial morphology of dry eye-induced rabbits thinned with loss of goblet cells. However, after 5 days of treatment with drug formulations, rabbit conjunctivas recovered epithelia and showed a relative increase in the number of goblet cells. Conclusion The results of this study indicate the potential use of a novel MS for the ophthalmic delivery of CsA in treating dry eyes. PMID:27382280

  15. Dry eyes: etiology and management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latkany, Robert

    2008-07-01

    Until recently, the cause of dry eye syndrome was uncertain and the treatment was palliative. Since discovering that dry eyes are caused by inflammation, there has been an abundance of research focusing on anti-inflammatory therapies, other contributing causes, and better diagnostic testing. This review summarizes some of the interesting published research on ocular surface disease over the past year. The definition of dry eye now highlights the omnipresent symptom of blurry vision. The re-evaluation of ocular surface staining, tear meniscus height, and visual change will allow for a better diagnosis and understanding of dry eyes. Punctal plugs, and oral and topical anti-inflammatory use will strengthen our arsenal against ocular surface disease. Major progress has occurred in the past few years in gaining a better understanding of the etiology of dry eye syndrome, which will inevitably lead to more effective therapeutic options.

  16. Drying kinetics of atemoya pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Plúvia O. Galdino

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT This study was conducted in order to obtain drying curves of whole atemoya pulp through the foam-mat drying method. The suspension was prepared with whole atemoya pulp mixed with 2% of Emustab® and 2% of Super Liga Neutra® with mixing time of 20 min, and dried in a forced-air oven at different temperatures (60; 70 and 80 °C and thicknesses of the foam layer (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 cm. The drying rate curves were plotted against the water content ratio and the semi-theoretical models of Henderson & Pabis, Page and Midilli were used. All tested models showed coefficient of determination (R2 above 0.993, and the Midilli model showed the best fit for all conditions. Drying curves were affected by temperature and layer thickness.

  17. In vivo Confocal Microscopy Evaluation of Meibomian Gland Dysfunction in Dry Eye Patients with Different Symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Zhao

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: IVCM application provides a strong support to differentiate dry eye patients with different symptoms: meibomian gland dysfunction (MGD plays a pivotal role in dry eye aggravation, and using IVCM to observe MG fibrosis, changes in size and density of MG as well as status of inflammation cells can help not only correctly diagnose the type and severity of dry eye, but also possibly prognosticate in routine eye examination in the occurrence of MGD.

  18. Space and Industrial Brine Drying Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Harry W.; Wisniewski, Richard S.; Flynn, Michael; Shaw, Hali

    2014-01-01

    This survey describes brine drying technologies that have been developed for use in space and industry. NASA has long considered developing a brine drying system for the International Space Station (ISS). Possible processes include conduction drying in many forms, spray drying, distillation, freezing and freeze drying, membrane filtration, and electrical processes. Commercial processes use similar technologies. Some proposed space systems combine several approaches. The current most promising candidates for use on the ISS use either conduction drying with membrane filtration or spray drying.

  19. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu; Jeong, Hoon-Eui; Suh, Kahp Y.

    2011-01-01

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive

  20. Drying of α-amylase by spray drying and freeze-drying - a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. de Jesus

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study is aimed at comparing two traditional methods of drying of enzymes and at verifying the efficiency of each one and their advantages and disadvantages. The experiments were performed with a laboratory spray dryer and freeze-dryer using α-amylase as the model enzyme. An experimental design in star revealed that spray drying is mainly influenced by the inlet air temperature and feed flow rate, which were considered to be the main factors influencing the enzymatic activity and water activity; the long period of material exposure to high temperatures causes a partial activity loss. In the experiments of freeze drying, three methods of freezing were used (freezer, acetone and dry ice, and liquid nitrogen and samples subsequently freeze-dried for times ranging between 0-24 hours. The product obtained from the two techniques showed high enzymatic activity and low water activity. For the drying of heat-resistant enzymes, in which the product to be obtained does not have high added value, spray drying may be more economically viable because, in the freeze drying process, the process time can be considered as a limiting factor when choosing a technique.

  1. Discordant Dry Eye Disease (An American Ophthalmological Society Thesis)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shtein, Roni M.; Harper, Daniel E.; Pallazola, Vincent; Harte, Steven E.; Hussain, Munira; Sugar, Alan; Williams, David A.; Clauw, Daniel J.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose To improve understanding of dry eye disease and highlight a subgroup of patients who have a component of central sensitization and neuropathic pain contributing to their condition. Methods Prospective, cross-sectional, IRB-approved study comparing isolated dry eye disease (n=48) to fibromyalgia (positive control; n=23) and healthy (negative control; n=26) individuals with ocular surface examination, corneal confocal microscopy, quantitative sensory testing, and self-reported ocular symptoms and systemic associations. A subset of patients also underwent skin biopsy and/or brain neuroimaging. Dry eye patients were split into concordant (ie, those with dry eyes on examination) and discordant (ie, those with dry eye symptoms but normal examination) subgroups for further analysis. We hypothesized that on the systemic measures included, concordant patients would resemble healthy controls, whereas discordant patients would show evidence of centralized mechanisms similar to fibromyalgia. Results Schirmer test and Ocular Surface Disease Index (OSDI) scores indicated significant decreases in tear production (Schirmer: healthy, 18.5±8.2 mm; dry, 11.2±5.4 mm; fibromyalgia, 14.4±7.5; Pdry eye symptoms (OSDI: healthy, 1.9±3.0; dry, 20.3±17.7; fibromyalgia, 20.3±17.1; Pdry eye and fibromyalgia patients, compared to controls. The discordant subgroup had decreased corneal nerve density and decreased visual quality-of-life scores, similar to patients with fibromyalgia. Concordant patients were more similar to healthy controls on these measures. Conclusions Individuals with discordant dry eye may have a central pathophysiologic mechanism leading to their eye pain symptoms, which could be an important factor to consider in treatment of chronic idiopathic dry eye. PMID:28050051

  2. Still rethinking the value of high wood density.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larjavaara, Markku; Muller-Landau, Helene C

    2012-01-01

    In a previous paper, we questioned the traditional interpretation of the advantages and disadvantages of high wood density (Functional Ecology 24: 701-705). Niklas and Spatz (American Journal of Botany 97: 1587-1594) challenged the biomechanical relevance of studying properties of dry wood, including dry wood density, and stated that we erred in our claims regarding scaling. We first present the full derivation of our previous claims regarding scaling. We then examine how the fresh modulus of rupture and the elastic modulus scale with dry wood density and compare these scaling relationships with those for dry mechanical properties, using almost exactly the same data set analyzed by Niklas and Spatz. The derivation shows that given our assumptions that the modulus of rupture and elastic modulus are both proportional to wood density, the resistance to bending is inversely proportional to wood density and strength is inversely proportional with the square root of wood density, exactly as we previously claimed. The analyses show that the elastic modulus of fresh wood scales proportionally with wood density (exponent 1.05, 95% CI 0.90-1.11) but that the modulus of rupture of fresh wood does not, scaling instead with the 1.25 power of wood density (CI 1.18-1.31). The deviation from proportional scaling for modulus of rupture is so small that our central conclusion remains correct: for a given construction cost, trees with lower wood density have higher strength and higher resistance to bending.

  3. Freeze drying vs microwave drying–methods for synthesis of sinteractive thoria powders

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Annie, D.; Chandramouli, V. [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India); Anthonysamy, S., E-mail: sas@igcar.gov.in [Materials Chemistry Division, Chemistry Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India); Ghosh, Chanchal; Divakar, R. [Materials Synthesis and Structural Characterization Division, Materials and Metallurgy Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam, 602103 (India)

    2017-02-15

    Thoria powders were synthesized by oxalate precipitation from an aqueous solution of the nitrate. The filtered precipitates were freeze dried or microwave dried before being calcined at 1073 K. The thoria powders obtained were characterized for crystallite size, specific surface area, bulk density, particle size distribution and residual carbon. Microstructure of the product was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Sinterability of the synthesized powders was studied by measuring the density of the sintered compacts. Powders that can be consolidated and sintered to densities ∼96% theoretical density (TD) at 1773 K were obtained.

  4. Comparison of carrot (Daucus carota drying in microwave and in vacuum microwave

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Béttega

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying is a single operation employed to prolong the life of a large quantity of vegetables. Carrot (Daucus carota drying has been the subject of many studies. This plant has been highlighted in the human diet for having high nutritional value, mainly due to the high content of β-carotene. In this work, carrot drying behavior was studied in a regular microwave dryer and a vacuum microwave dryer. A vacuum of 450 mmHg was applied for drying of carrot in different geometrical shapes (cubes, discs and sticks. The samples were dried at power ratings of 1.0 W/g, 1.5 W/g and 2.0 W/g for both methods of drying. The evolution of physical properties such as density, volume and porosity was monitored and related to the moisture content of the sample and to the method of drying and power rating used. The geometric shape of the sample influenced the drying kinetics and it was verified that the cubic form was responsible for a slower drying. The application of vacuum showed no major changes in the drying kinetics in microwave but influenced the physical properties of the material. The influence of power ratings on the content of β-carotene was also evaluated and discussed. The main difference observed was the lower shrinkage of the samples dried in the vacuum microwave compared to those dried only in microwave.

  5. No Heat Spray Drying Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beetz, Charles [ZoomEssence, Inc., Hebron, KY (United States)

    2016-06-15

    No Heat Spray Drying Technology. ZoomEssence has developed our Zooming™ spray drying technology that atomizes liquids to powders at ambient temperature. The process of drying a liquid into a powder form has been traditionally achieved by mixing a heated gas with an atomized (sprayed) fluid within a vessel (drying chamber) causing the solvent to evaporate. The predominant spray drying process in use today employs air heated up to 400° Fahrenheit to dry an atomized liquid into a powder. Exposing sensitive, volatile liquid ingredients to high temperature causes molecular degradation that negatively impacts solubility, stability and profile of the powder. In short, heat is detrimental to many liquid ingredients. The completed award focused on several areas in order to advance the prototype dryer to a commercial scale integrated pilot system. Prior to the award, ZoomEssence had developed a prototype ‘no-heat’ dryer that firmly established the feasibility of the Zooming™ process. The award focused on three primary areas to improve the technology: (1) improved ability to formulate emulsions for specific flavor groups and improved understanding of the relationship of emulsion properties to final dry particle properties, (2) a new production atomizer, and (3) a dryer controls system.

  6. Dry Mouth Treatment: Tips for Controlling Dry Mouth

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... mouthwashes that contain alcohol because they can be drying. Stop all tobacco use if you smoke or ... also help your condition: Avoid sugary or acidic foods and drinks because they increase your risk of ...

  7. Is dry cleaning all wet?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, M.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical solvents from dry cleaning, particularly perchloroethylene (perc), have contributed to groundwater contamination, significant levels of air pollution in and around cleaners, and chemical accumulation in food. Questions are being raised about the process of cleaning clothes with chemical, and other less toxic cleaning methods are being explored. The EPA has focused attention on the 50 year old Friedburg method of cleaning, Ecoclean, which uses no dangerous chemicals and achieves comparable results. Unfortunately, the cleaning industry is resistant to change, so cutting back on amount of clothes that need dry cleaning and making sure labels aren't exaggerating when they say dry clean only, is frequently the only consumer option now

  8. Spent fuel drying system test results (second dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks have been detected in the basins and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site (WHC 1995). Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the second dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. With the concurrence of project management, the test protocol for this run, and subsequent drying test runs, was modified. These modifications were made to allow for improved data correlation with drying procedures proposed under the IPS. Details of these modifications are discussed in Section 3.0

  9. Dry gel conversion synthesis of SAPO-34 nanocrystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirota, Yuichiro; Murata, Kenji; Tanaka, Shunsuke; Nishiyama, Norikazu; Egashira, Yasuyuki; Ueyama, Korekazu

    2010-01-01

    SAPO-34 nanocrystals were synthesized by a dry gel conversion method using tetraethylammonium hydroxide as a structure-directing agent. The crystal growth of SAPO-34 was studied by X-ray diffraction and field-emission scanning electron microscopy. After 3 h, 45-nm SAPO-34 crystals with an amorphous phase were observed. The crystal size increased to 70 nm after 6 h, but did not increase greatly thereafter. The average crystal size of the final product was 75 nm. The nucleation density for SAPO-34 crystals in dry gel conversion appeared to be much higher than that under hydrothermal conditions, resulting in the formation of small crystals.

  10. Air dehumidification and drying processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steiner, R.

    1988-07-01

    Details are given on the physical principles of air dehumidification and drying as well as on appropriate systems available on the market. Reference is made to dehumidification through condensation (intermittent compressor or electric auxiliary heater defrosting, reversible-circuit hot gas bypass defrosting), air drying through sorption (sorbents, regeneration through heat inputs), the operation of absorptive dryers (schematic sketches), and the change of state of air (Mollier h,x-diagramm). Practical examples refer to the dehumidification of storage rooms, archives, and waterworks as well as to air drying in the pharmaceutical industry, the pastry and candy industry, the food industry, and the drying (preservation) of turbines and generators during long standstill periods. A diagramm shows that while adsorption processes are efficient at temperatures below 80/sup 0/C, low-temperature dehumidification is efficient at temperatures above. (HWJ).

  11. Simple Solutions for Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patient Education Sheet Simple Solutions for Dry Eye The SSF thanks J. Daniel Nelson, MD, Associate Medical Director, Specialty Care HealthPartners Medical Group & Clinics, and Professor of Ophthalmology, University of ...

  12. Sustaining dry surfaces under water

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Paul R.; Hao, Xiuqing; Cruz-Chu, Eduardo R.

    2015-01-01

    Rough surfaces immersed under water remain practically dry if the liquid-solid contact is on roughness peaks, while the roughness valleys are filled with gas. Mechanisms that prevent water from invading the valleys are well studied. However, to remain practically dry under water, additional...... mechanisms need consideration. This is because trapped gas (e.g. air) in the roughness valleys can dissolve into the water pool, leading to invasion. Additionally, water vapor can also occupy the roughness valleys of immersed surfaces. If water vapor condenses, that too leads to invasion. These effects have...... not been investigated, and are critically important to maintain surfaces dry under water.In this work, we identify the critical roughness scale, below which it is possible to sustain the vapor phase of water and/or trapped gases in roughness valleys – thus keeping the immersed surface dry. Theoretical...

  13. Dry skin - self-care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... pat skin dry then apply your moisturizer. Avoid skin care products and soaps that contain alcohol, fragrances, dyes, or other chemicals. Take short, warm baths or showers. Limit your ... gentle skin cleansers or soap with added moisturizers. Only use ...

  14. Emulsion type dry cleaning system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kohanawa, Osamu; Matsumoto, Hiroyo.

    1988-01-01

    Protective clothing against radioactive contamination used in the radiation controlled areas of nuclear plants has been washed by the same wet washing as used for underwear washing, but recently dry cleaning is getting used in place of wet washing, which generates a large quantity of laundry drain. However, it was required to use wet washing once every five to ten dry cleanings for washing protective clothing, because conventional dry cleaning is less effective in removing water-soluble soils. Therefore, in order to eliminate wet washing, and to decrease the quantity of laundry drains, the emulsion type dry cleaning system capable of removing both oil-soluble and water-soluble soils at a time has been developed. The results of developmental experiments and actual application are presented in this paper. (author)

  15. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille [AREVA, Paris (France)

    2012-03-15

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different.

  16. Anthology of dry storage solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allimann, Nathalie; Otton, Camille

    2012-01-01

    Around 35,000 PWR, BWR or Veer used fuel elements with various enrichment value up to 5%, various cooling time down to 2 years and various burn-ups up to 60,000 Mwd/tU are currently stored in AREVA dry storage solutions. These solutions are delivered in the United States, in Japan and in many European countries like Belgium, Switzerland, Italy, Armenia and Germany. With more than 1000 dry storage solutions delivered all over the world AREVA is the leader on this market. Dealing with dry storage is not an easy task. Products have to be flexible, to be adapted to customer needs and to the national regulations which may stipulate very strict tests such as airplane crash or simulation of earthquake. To develop a dry storage solution for a foreign country means to deal with its national competent authorities. All the national competent authorities do not have the same requirements. Storage conditions may also be different

  17. Post-LASIK dry eye

    OpenAIRE

    Shtein, Roni M

    2011-01-01

    Laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK) is a frequently performed corneal refractive surgery with excellent refractive outcomes. The most common complication of LASIK is dry eyes, with virtually all patients developing some degree of dryness in the immediate postoperative period. Identifying preoperative dry eyes, and conscientious attention and treatment in the perioperative time period, can lead to enhanced patient satisfaction and more accurate visual outcomes. Improved understanding...

  18. Dry and coating of powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alonso, M.; Alguacil, F. J.

    1999-01-01

    This paper presents a review on the mixing and coating of powders by dry processes. The reviews surveys fundamental works on mixture characterization (mixing index definitions and sampling techniques), mixing mechanisms and models, segregation with especial emphasis on free-surface segregation, mixing of cohesive powders and interparticle forces, ordered mixing (dry coating) including mechanism, model and applications and mixing equipment selection. (Author) 180 refs

  19. Photovoltaic assisted solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ali, M.I.; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    A photovoltaic assisted solar drying system has been constructed at the Solar Energy Research Park, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. This drying system uses a custom designed parallel flow V-groove type collector. A fan powered by photovoltaic source assists the air flow through the drying system. A funnel with increasing diameter towards the top with ventilator turbine is incorporated into the system to facilitate the air flow during the absence of photovoltaic energy source. This drying system is designed with high efficiency and portability in mind so that it can readily be used at plantation sites where the crops are harvested or produced. A daily mean efficiency about 44% with mean air flow rate 0.16 kgs -1 has been achieved at mean daily radiation intensity of 800 Wm -2 . daily mean temperature of air drying chamber under the above conditions is 46 o C. Study has shown that the air flow and air temperature increase with the increase of solar radiation intensity. On a bright sunny day with instantaneous solar intensity about 600 Wm -2 , the temperature of air entering the drying chamber of 45 o C has been measured. In the absence of photovoltaic or in natural convection flow, the instantaneous efficiency decreased when solar radiation increased. The instantaneous efficiency recorded are 35% and 27% respectively at 570 Wm -2 and 745 Wm -2 of solar radiation. The temperature of drying chamber for the same amount of solar radiation are 42 o C and 48 o C respectively. Thus, the solar dryer shows a great potential for application in drying process of agricultural produce

  20. Dry Orgasm (Orgasm without Discharge of Semen)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Symptoms Dry orgasm By Mayo Clinic Staff Dry orgasm occurs when a man reaches sexual climax but doesn't release (ejaculate) ... the thick, white fluid that carries sperm. Dry orgasm usually isn't harmful, but it can interfere ...

  1. Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Involved News About Us Donate In This Section Dry Eyes and Glaucoma: Double Trouble email Send this article ... eye disease bothers the patient more. What Causes Dry Eye Syndrome? Dry eye can be caused by many ...

  2. Dry mouth and older people.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomson, W M

    2015-03-01

    Dry mouth is more common among older people than in any other age group. Appropriate definition and accurate measurement of dry mouth is critical for better understanding, monitoring and treatment of the condition. Xerostomia is the symptom(s) of dry mouth; it can be measured using methods ranging from single questions to multi-item summated rating scales. Low salivary flow (known as salivary gland hypofunction, or SGH) must be determined by measuring that flow. The relationship between SGH and xerostomia is not straightforward, but both conditions are common among older people, and they affect sufferers' day-to-day lives in important ways. The major risk factor for dry mouth is the taking of particular medications, and older people take more of those than any other age group, not only for symptomatic relief of various age-associated chronic diseases, but also in order to reduce the likelihood of complications which may arise from those conditions. The greater the number taken, the greater the associated anticholinergic burden, and the more likely it is that the individual will suffer from dry mouth. Since treating dry mouth is such a challenge for clinicians, there is a need for dentists, doctors and pharmacists to work together to prevent it occurring. © 2015 Australian Dental Association.

  3. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krahn, J; Menon, C

    2013-01-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm 2 . (paper)

  4. Dry adhesives with sensing features

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krahn, J.; Menon, C.

    2013-08-01

    Geckos are capable of detecting detachment of their feet. Inspired by this basic observation, a novel functional dry adhesive is proposed, which can be used to measure the instantaneous forces and torques acting on an adhesive pad. Such a novel sensing dry adhesive could potentially be used by climbing robots to quickly realize and respond appropriately to catastrophic detachment conditions. The proposed torque and force sensing dry adhesive was fabricated by mixing Carbon Black (CB) and Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) to form a functionalized adhesive with mushroom caps. The addition of CB to PDMS resulted in conductive PDMS which, when under compression, tension or torque, resulted in a change in the resistance across the adhesive patch terminals. The proposed design of the functionalized dry adhesive enables distinguishing an applied torque from a compressive force in a single adhesive pad. A model based on beam theory was used to predict the change in resistance across the terminals as either a torque or compressive force was applied to the adhesive patch. Under a compressive force, the sensing dry adhesive was capable of measuring compression stresses from 0.11 Pa to 20.9 kPa. The torque measured by the adhesive patch ranged from 2.6 to 10 mN m, at which point the dry adhesives became detached. The adhesive strength was 1.75 kPa under an applied preload of 1.65 kPa for an adhesive patch with an adhesive contact area of 7.07 cm2.

  5. Dry dock gate stability modelling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oktoberty; Widiyanto; Sasono, E. J.; Pramono, S.; Wandono, A. T.

    2018-03-01

    The development of marine transportation needs in Indonesia increasingly opens national shipyard business opportunities to provide shipbuilding services to the shipbuilding vessels. That emphasizes the stability of prime. The ship's decking door becomes an integral part of the efficient place and the specification of the use of the asset of its operational ease. This study aims to test the stability of Dry Dock gate with the length of 35.4 meters using Maxsurf and Hydromax in analyzing the calculation were in its assessment using interval per 500 mm length so that it can get detail data toward longitudinal and transverse such as studying Ship planning in general. The test result shows dry dock gate meets IMO standard with ballast construction containing 54% and 68% and using fix ballast can produce GMt 1,924 m, tide height 11,357m. The GMt value indicates dry dick gate can be stable and firmly erect at the base of the mouth dry dock. When empty ballast produces GMt 0.996 which means dry dock date is stable, but can easily be torn down. The condition can be used during dry dock gate treatment.

  6. Effect of drying technique on quality of UO2 sintered spheres

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benadik, A.; Becvar, J.; Jakesova, L.

    1978-01-01

    A comparison was made of the appearance and quality of UO 2 sintered spheres prepared from gel particles by drying in the air saturated with gaseous products of thermal decomposition at 225 degC, and by azeotropic distillation. The quality of the end product was controlled by the gel particle size and drying technique. Coarser particles (0.95 mm in diameter) were of inhomogeneous structure and after drying by azeotropic distillation had a lower specific density. Particles 0.82 and 0.75 mm in diameter had a specific density >= 98.2% of theoretical value and a homogeneous structure. (author)

  7. Noninvasive characterization of the fission yeast cell cycle by monitoring dry mass with digital holographic microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rappaz, Benjamin; Cano, Elena; Colomb, Tristan; Kühn, Jonas; Depeursinge, Christian; Simanis, Viesturs; Magistretti, Pierre J; Marquet, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    Digital holography microscopy (DHM) is an optical technique which provides phase images yielding quantitative information about cell structure and cellular dynamics. Furthermore, the quantitative phase images allow the derivation of other parameters, including dry mass production, density, and spatial distribution. We have applied DHM to study the dry mass production rate and the dry mass surface density in wild-type and mutant fission yeast cells. Our study demonstrates the applicability of DHM as a tool for label-free quantitative analysis of the cell cycle and opens the possibility for its use in high-throughput screening.

  8. Spray-drying nanocapsules in presence of colloidal silica as drying auxiliary agent: formulation and process variables optimization using experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tewa-Tagne, Patrice; Degobert, Ghania; Briançon, Stéphanie; Bordes, Claire; Gauvrit, Jean-Yves; Lanteri, Pierre; Fessi, Hatem

    2007-04-01

    Spray-drying process was used for the development of dried polymeric nanocapsules. The purpose of this research was to investigate the effects of formulation and process variables on the resulting powder characteristics in order to optimize them. Experimental designs were used in order to estimate the influence of formulation parameters (nanocapsules and silica concentrations) and process variables (inlet temperature, spray-flow air, feed flow rate and drying air flow rate) on spray-dried nanocapsules when using silica as drying auxiliary agent. The interactions among the formulation parameters and process variables were also studied. Responses analyzed for computing these effects and interactions were outlet temperature, moisture content, operation yield, particles size, and particulate density. Additional qualitative responses (particles morphology, powder behavior) were also considered. Nanocapsules and silica concentrations were the main factors influencing the yield, particulate density and particle size. In addition, they were concerned for the only significant interactions occurring among two different variables. None of the studied variables had major effect on the moisture content while the interaction between nanocapsules and silica in the feed was of first interest and determinant for both the qualitative and quantitative responses. The particles morphology depended on the feed formulation but was unaffected by the process conditions. This study demonstrated that drying nanocapsules using silica as auxiliary agent by spray drying process enables the obtaining of dried micronic particle size. The optimization of the process and the formulation variables resulted in a considerable improvement of product yield while minimizing the moisture content.

  9. EFFECT OF CHEMICAL MODIFICATION AND HOT-PRESS DRYING ON POPLAR WOOD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guo-Feng Wu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Urea-formaldehyde prepolymer and hot-press drying were used to improve the properties of poplar wood. The wood was impregnated with the prepolymer using a pulse-dipping machine. The impregnated timbers were compressed and dried by a multilayer hot-press drying kiln. The drying rate was more rapid during the chemical modification and hot-press drying than conventional kiln-drying. In addition, the properties of timber were also enhanced obviously. When the compression rate was 28.6%, the basic density, oven dry density and air-dried density of modified wood improved 22%, 71%, and 70%, respectively. The bending strength and compressive strength parallel to grain increased 60% and 40%. The water uptake of treated wood was significantly decreased compared with the untreated wood. The FTIR analysis successfully showed that the intensity of hydroxyl and carbonyl absorption peaks decreased significantly, which was attributed to a reaction of the NHCH2OH of urea-formaldehyde prepolymer with the wood carboxyl (C=O and hydroxyl (-OH groups. The XRD results indicated that the degree of crystallinity increased from 35.09% to 36.91%. The morphologic models of chemical within wood were discovered by SEM.

  10. Properties and sinterability of wet and dry attrition-milled OREOXed powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J. W.; Kim, J. H.; Kim, W. K.; Park, K. I.; Lee, J. W.

    2001-01-01

    The powder properties and sinterability were investigated with the powder prepared by wet and dry attrition milling of OREOX-treated powder. The OREOX-treated powder was prepared from the simulated spent fuel. Powder having less than 1 μm of average particle size could be obtained by dry milling, but not be obtained by wet milling. Thus, specific surface area of dry milled powder was higher than that of wet milled powder. With increasing of milling time, dry milled powder formed dense agglomerate while wet milled powder showed loose agglomerate. The pellets with higher than 95% T.D. of sintered density and larger than 7 μm of grain size were made with the milled powder regardless of milling method. The milling time in wet milling has greatly improved the sinterability. The pellets produced with dry milled powder have higher sintered density and larger grain size

  11. Changes in corneal epithelial layer inflammatory cells in aqueous tear-deficient dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Hui; Li, Wei; Dong, Nuo; Chen, Wensheng; Liu, Jing; Chen, Lelei; Yuan, Hongxia; Geng, Zhixin; Liu, Zuguo

    2010-01-01

    To investigate the morphology, distribution, and density of inflammatory cells in the corneal epithelium of aqueous tear-deficient dry eye. Thirty-two patients with non-Sjögren's syndrome (NSS) dry eye, 14 patients with Sjögren's syndrome (SS) dry eye, and 33 healthy volunteers were studied. In vivo laser scanning confocal microscopy was used to investigate both Langerhans cell (LCs) and leukocyte distribution and density in the peripheral and central corneal epithelium. LC morphology was also evaluated. Multifactor regression analysis assessed whether there is a correlation between clinical manifestations and inflammatory cell densities. LCs were present in both central (34.9 +/- 5.7 cells/mm(2)) and peripheral (90.7 +/- 8.2 cells/mm(2)) parts of the normal corneal epithelium. Moreover, LC density increased dramatically in the central corneal epithelium in patients with NSS (89.8 +/- 10.8 cells/mm(2)) and SS (127.9 +/- 23.7 cells/mm(2)). The ratio of LCs with obvious processes was much higher in patients with dry eye than in healthy volunteers. LC density also increased in peripheral corneal epithelium in patients with SS, but not in those with NSS. Leukocyte density in normal corneal epithelium was very low, whereas it increased in the central corneal epithelium (4.6 +/- 1.0 cells/mm(2)) in NSS and in both central (49.0 +/- 12.9 cells/mm(2)) and peripheral (84.2 +/- 36.8 cells/mm(2)) corneal epithelium in SS. Densities of LCs and leukocytes showed significant correlation with the severity found in clinical evaluation. The LC and leukocyte changes in the corneal epithelium suggest their involvement in aqueous tear-deficient dry eye pathophysiology. In vivo dynamic assessment of central corneal inflammatory cell density may serve as an indicator of dry eye severity and provide new insight for dry eye treatment.

  12. Spent fuel drying system test results (first dry-run)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klinger, G.S.; Oliver, B.M.; Abrefah, J.; Marschman, S.C.; MacFarlan, P.J.; Ritter, G.A.

    1998-07-01

    The water-filled K-Basins in the Hanford 100 Area have been used to store N-Reactor spent nuclear fuel (SNF) since the 1970s. Because some leaks in the basin have been detected and some of the fuel is breached due to handling damage and corrosion, efforts are underway to remove the fuel elements from wet storage. An Integrated Process Strategy (IPS) has been developed to package, dry, transport, and store these metallic uranium fuel elements in an interim storage facility on the Hanford Site. Information required to support the development of the drying processes, and the required safety analyses, is being obtained from characterization tests conducted on fuel elements removed from the K-Basins. A series of whole element drying tests (reported in separate documents, see Section 7.0) have been conducted by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on several intact and damaged fuel elements recovered from both the K-East and K-West Basins. This report documents the results of the first dry-run test, which was conducted without a fuel element. The empty test apparatus was subjected to a combination of low- and high-temperature vacuum drying treatments that were intended to mimic, wherever possible, the fuel treatment strategies of the IPS. The data from this dry-run test can serve as a baseline for the first two fuel element tests, 1990 (Run 1) and 3128W (Run 2). The purpose of this dry-run was to establish the background levels of hydrogen in the system, and the hydrogen generation and release characteristics attributable to the test system without a fuel element present. This test also serves to establish the background levels of water in the system and the water release characteristics. The system used for the drying test series was the Whole Element Furnace Testing System, described in Section 2.0, which is located in the Postirradiation Testing Laboratory (PTL, 327 Building). The test conditions and methodology are given in section 3.0, and the experimental

  13. Treatment of Dry Eye Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marshall, Leisa L; Roach, J Michael

    2016-02-01

    Review of the etiology, clinical manifestations, and treatment of dry eye disease (DED). Articles indexed in PubMed (National Library of Medicine), Iowa Drug Information Service (IDIS), and the Cochrane Reviews and Trials in the last 10 years using the key words "dry eye disease," "dry eye syndrome," "dry eye and treatment." Primary sources were used to locate additional resources. Sixty-eight publications were reviewed, and criteria supporting the primary objective were used to identify useful resources. The literature included practice guidelines, book chapters, review articles, original research articles, and product prescribing information for the etiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of DED. DED is one of the most common ophthalmic disorders. Signs and symptoms of DED vary by patient, but may include ocular irritation, redness, itching, photosensitivity, visual blurring, mucous discharge, and decreased tear meniscus or break-up time. Symptoms improve with treatment, but the condition is not completely curable. Treatment includes reducing environmental causes, discontinuing medications that cause or worsen dry eye, and managing contributing ocular or systemic conditions. Most patients use nonprescription tear substitutes, and if these are not sufficient, other treatment is prescribed. These treatments include the ophthalmic anti-inflammatory agent cyclosporine, punctal occlusion, eye side shields, systemic cholinergic agents, and autologous serum tears. This article reviews the etiology, symptoms, and current therapy for DED.

  14. Bushy-tailed woodrat abundance in dry forests of eastern Washington.

    Science.gov (United States)

    John F. Lehmkuhl; Keith D. Kistler; James S. Begley

    2006-01-01

    We studied bushy-tailed woodrats (Neotonza cinerea occidentalis) in the eastern Washington Cascade Range to estimate their density and survival in 3 typical dry forest cover types. We predicted woodrat density to be high, moderate, and low in mature mixed-conifer forests, young mixed-conifer forests, and open ponderosa pine forests, respectively....

  15. Pressing of three-layer, dry-formed MDF with binderless hardboard faces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Otto Suchsland; George E. Woodson; Charles W. McMillin

    1986-01-01

    Severely cooked Masonite pulp was used as face material in three-layer experimental medium-density fiberboard (MDF). The core layer consisted of conventional MDF furnish with resin binder added. The faces were formed absolutely dry without additives of any kind. The three-layer mat was hot-pressed to overall densities ranging from 44 to 56 pcf. The faces had hardboard-...

  16. Solar drying of West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome using a wire basket dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, O. [University of the West Indies (Barbados). Dept. of Chemistry; Chang Yen, I. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemistry; McGaw, D.R. [University of the West Indies, St. Augustine (Trinidad and Tobago). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-09-01

    A wire basket dryer (1.8 m x 0.9 m x 0.2 m) was used to dry sliced (0.15 cm) West Indian ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe) rhizome to an acceptable moisture content of 10.2% (dry weight basis) over a 3 day period. The optimum charge size was 14.97 kg, with a packing density of 462.04 kg m{sup -3} and a specific drying rate of 0.446 h{sup -1}. The quantities (determined by high-pressure liquid chromatography) of the main pungent principles (ginerol and shogaol) extracted from fresh, non-steam-distilled solar-dried and steam-distilled solar-dried ginger rhizomes showed increases of 0.068, 0.46 and 0.67 g [per 100 g (dry weight basis)], respectively, with a decrease in the oleoresin quality (reflected in pungency profile) of the same order. (author)

  17. Power ultrasound as a pretreatment to convective drying of mulberry (Morus alba L.) leaves: Impact on drying kinetics and selected quality properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Yang; Wang, Ping; Wang, Yilin; Kadam, Shekhar U; Han, Yongbin; Wang, Jiandong; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2016-07-01

    The effect of ultrasound pretreatment prior to convective drying on drying kinetics and selected quality properties of mulberry leaves was investigated in this study. Ultrasound pretreatment was carried out at 25.2-117.6 W/L for 5-15 min in a continuous mode. After sonication, mulberry leaves were dried in a hot-air convective dryer at 60 °C. The results revealed that ultrasound pretreatment not only affected the weight of mulberry leaves, it also enhanced the convective drying kinetics and reduced total energy consumption. The drying kinetics was modeled using a diffusion model considering external resistance and effective diffusion coefficient De and mass transfer coefficient hm were identified. Both De and hm during convective drying increased with the increase of acoustic energy density (AED) and ultrasound duration. However, De and hm increased slowly at high AED levels. Furthermore, ultrasound pretreatment had a more profound influence on internal mass transfer resistance than on external mass transfer resistance during drying according to Sherwood numbers. Regarding the quality properties, the color, antioxidant activity and contents of several bioactive compounds of dried mulberry leaves pretreated by ultrasound at 63.0 W/L for 10 min were similar to that of mulberry leaves without any pretreatments. Overall, ultrasound pretreatment is effective to shorten the subsequent drying time of mulberry leaves without damaging the quality of final product. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Tropical savannas and dry forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennington, R Toby; Lehmann, Caroline E R; Rowland, Lucy M

    2018-05-07

    In the tropics, research, conservation and public attention focus on rain forests, but this neglects that half of the global tropics have a seasonally dry climate. These regions are home to dry forests and savannas (Figures 1 and 2), and are the focus of this Primer. The attention given to rain forests is understandable. Their high species diversity, sheer stature and luxuriance thrill biologists today as much as they did the first explorers in the Age of Discovery. Although dry forest and savanna may make less of a first impression, they support a fascinating diversity of plant strategies to cope with stress and disturbance including fire, drought and herbivory. Savannas played a fundamental role in human evolution, and across Africa and India they support iconic megafauna. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Dry Fruits and Diabetes Mellitus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Sohaib A

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry fruits are some of the essential foods a human body requires staying healthy. They are made after extracting water from them. These fruits are full of essential nutrients including minerals, vitamins, enzymes, fibers and protect the body from a number of different adversities. These fruits are also a source of healthy nutrition among diabetic people who are very concerned about what to eat and what not to eat. But besides their countless benefits, these dry fruits can cause a number of harms to the body and therefore, must be used in a balanced way. This article is based on healthy and unhealthy effects of dry fruits and their use in diabetes mellitus.

  20. Freeze-dried microarterial allografts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, J.; Hargrave, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts were implanted to bridge arterial defects using New Zealand White rabbits as the experimental model. Segments of artery from the rabbit ear and thigh were harvested and preserved for a minimum of 2 weeks after freeze-drying. These allografts, approximately 1 mm in diameter and ranging from 1.5 to 2.5 cm in length, were rehydrated and then implanted in low-pressure and high-pressure arterial systems. Poor patency was noted in low-pressure systems in both allografts and autografts, tested in 12 rabbits. In the high-pressure arterial systems, allografts that were freeze-dried and reconstituted failed in a group of 10 rabbits with an 8-week patency rate of 30 percent. Gamma irradiation in an effort to reduce infection and antigenicity of grafts after freeze-drying was associated with a patency rate of 10 percent at 8 weeks in this system in another group of 10 rabbits. Postoperative cyclosporin A therapy was associated with a patency rate of 22.2 percent in the high-pressure arterial system in a 9-rabbit group. Control autografts in this system in a group of 10 rabbits showed a 100 percent patency at 8 weeks. Microarterial grafts depend on perfusion pressure of the vascular bed for long-term patency. Rehydrated freeze-dried microarterial allografts do not seem to function well in lengths of 1 to 2.5 cm when implanted in a high-pressure arterial system. Freeze-dried arterial allografts are probably not antigenic

  1. Foam-mat drying technology: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hardy, Z; Jideani, V A

    2017-08-13

    This article reviews various aspects of foam-mat drying such as foam-mat drying processing technique, main additives used for foam-mat drying, foam-mat drying of liquid and solid foods, quality characteristics of foam-mat dried foods, and economic and technical benefits for employing foam-mat drying. Foam-mat drying process is an alternative method that allows the removal of water from liquid materials and pureed materials. In this drying process, a liquid material is converted into foam that is stable by being whipped after adding an edible foaming agent. The stable foam is then spread out in sheet or mat and dried by using hot air (40-90°C) at atmospheric pressure. Methyl cellulose (0.25-2%), egg white (3-20%), maltodextrin (0.5-05%), and gum Arabic (2-9%) are the commonly utilized additives for the foam-mat drying process at the given range, either combined together for their effectiveness or individual effect. The foam-mat drying process is suitable for heat sensitive, viscous, and sticky products that cannot be dried using other forms of drying methods such as spray drying because of the state of product. More interest has developed for foam-mat drying because of the simplicity, cost effectiveness, high speed drying, and improved product quality it provides.

  2. 7 CFR 58.813 - Dry whey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whey. 58.813 Section 58.813 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.813 Dry whey. The quality requirements for dry whey shall be in accordance with the U.S. Standards for Dry Whey. Supplemental Specifications for Plants...

  3. High-density 3D graphene-based monolith and related materials, methods, and devices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worsley, Marcus A.; Baumann, Theodore F.; Biener, Juergen; Charnvanichborikarn, Supakit; Kucheyev, Sergei; Montalvo, Elizabeth; Shin, Swanee; Tylski, Elijah

    2017-03-21

    A composition comprising at least one high-density graphene-based monolith, said monolith comprising a three-dimensional structure of graphene sheets crosslinked by covalent carbon bonds and having a density of at least 0.1 g/cm.sup.3. Also provided is a method comprising: preparing a reaction mixture comprising a suspension and at least one catalyst, said suspension selected from a graphene oxide (GO) suspension and a carbon nanotube suspension; curing the reaction mixture to produce a wet gel; drying the wet gel to produce a dry gel, said drying step is substantially free of supercritical drying and freeze drying; and pyrolyzing the dry gel to produce a high-density graphene-based monolith. Exceptional combinations of properties are achieved including high conductive and mechanical properties.

  4. Economics of dry storage systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moore, G.R.; Winders, R.C.

    1980-01-01

    This paper postulates a dry storage application suitable as a regional away-from-reactor storage (AFR), develops an economical system design concept and estimates system costs. The system discussed uses the experience gained in the dry storage research activities and attempts to present a best foot forward system concept. The major element of the system is the Receiving and Packaging Building. In this building fuel assemblies are removed from transportation casks and encapsulated for storage. This facility could be equally applicable to silo, vault, or caisson storage. However the caisson storage concept has been chosen for discussion purposes

  5. Analysis for Difficulty during Freeze-Drying Feizixiao Lychees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. L. Huang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Compared to other cultivar lychees, volume density of Feizixiao lychee was higher due to serious shrinkage during freeze-drying (FD. Guiwei lychee and Nuomici lychee were used for comparison in order to illuminate the reason of the aforementioned phenomenon. Lower prefreezing temperature could not improve the volume density of Feizixiao lychee. Microstructure results show that pulp cell of Feizixiao lychee (tail was smaller and more compact than Guiwei and Nuomici lychee pulp cell. In addition, there is a membrane around the surface of Feizixiao lychee pulp. And the microstructure of Feizixiao lychee tip pulp cell is different from tail pulp cell. Membrane and tip pulp cell are both smaller and more compact than tail pulp cell. These structure differences hinder the moisture removing of Feizixiao lychee during FD. Removing the membrane and tip pulp could not improve the volume density of Feizixiao lychee. Ultrasound treatment for 30 min could significantly enhance the volume density of Feizixiao lychee.

  6. Drying properties and quality parameters of dill dried with intermittent and continuous microwave

    OpenAIRE

    Eştürk, Okan

    2012-01-01

    In this study, influence of various microwave-convective air drying applications on drying kinetics, color and sensory quality of dill leaves (Anethum graveolens L.) were investigated. In general, increasing the drying air temperature decreased the drying time, and increased the drying rate. Increasing microwave pulse ratio increased the drying time. Page, Logarithmic, Midilli et al, Wang & Singh and Logistic models were fitted to drying data and the Page model was found to satisfactorily...

  7. Solid-state, triboelectrostatic and dissolution characteristics of spray-dried piroxicam-glucosamine solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adebisi, Adeola O; Kaialy, Waseem; Hussain, Tariq; Al-Hamidi, Hiba; Nokhodchi, Ali; Conway, Barbara R; Asare-Addo, Kofi

    2016-10-01

    This work explores the use of both spray drying and d-glucosamine HCl (GLU) as a hydrophilic carrier to improve the dissolution rate of piroxicam (PXM) whilst investigating the electrostatic charges associated with the spray drying process. Spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions were prepared and characterised (XRPD, DSC, SEM). Dissolution and triboelectric charging were also conducted. The results showed that the spray dried PXM alone, without GLU produced some PXM form II (DSC results) with no enhancement in solubility relative to that of the parent PXM. XRPD results also showed the spray drying process to decrease the crystallinity of GLU and solid dispersions produced. The presence of GLU improved the dissolution rate of PXM. Spray dried PXM: GLU at a ratio of 2:1 had the most improved dissolution. The spray drying process generally yielded PXM-GLU spherical particles of around 2.5μm which may have contributed to the improved dissolution. PXM showed a higher tendency for charging in comparison to the carrier GLU (-3.8 versus 0.5nC/g for untreated material and -7.5 versus 3.1nC/g for spray dried materials). Spray dried PXM and spray dried GLU demonstrated higher charge densities than untreated PXM and untreated GLU, respectively. Regardless of PXM:GLU ratio, all spray dried PXM:GLU solid dispersions showed a negligible charge density (net-CMR: 0.1-0.3nC/g). Spray drying of PXM:GLU solid dispersions can be used to produce formulation powders with practically no charge and thereby improving handling as well as dissolution behaviour of PXM. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. [Research about effect of spray drying conditions on hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of gubi compound's water extract and its mechanism].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zong, Jie; Shao, Qi; Zhang, Hong-Qing; Pan, Yong-Lan; Zhu, Hua-Xu; Guo, Li-Wei

    2014-02-01

    To investigate moisture content and hygroscopicity of spray dry powder of Gubi compound's water extract obtained at different spray drying conditions and laying a foundation for spray drying process of Chinese herbal compound preparation. In the paper, on the basis of single-factor experiments, the author choose inlet temperature, liquid density, feed rate, air flow rate as investigated factors. The experimental absorption rate-time curve and scanning electron microscopy results showed that under different spray drying conditions the spray-dried powders have different morphology and different adsorption process. At different spray-dried conditions, the morphology and water content of the powder is different, these differences lead to differences in the adsorption process, at the appropriate inlet temperature and feed rate with a higher sample density and lower air flow rate, in the experimental system the optimum conditions is inlet temperature of 150 degrees C, feed density of 1.05 g x mL(-1), feed rate of 20 mL x min(-1) air flow rate of 30 m3 x h(-1).

  9. Simulation of energetic- and exergetic performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ranjbaran, M.; Zare, D.

    2013-01-01

    The performance of microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of soybeans was simulated (using a previously validated mathematical model) and analyzed based on the first- and second law of thermodynamics. The energy and exergy analysis were carried out for several drying conditions. The effects of inlet air temperature, microwave power density, bed thickness and inlet air velocity on the efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process have been simulated and discussed. Generally, application of microwave energy during fluidized bed drying enhanced the exergy efficiency of drying process. However, the results showed that it was more efficient not to apply microwave energy at the first stage of fluidized bed drying process. The application of higher levels of drying air temperature led in higher exergy efficiencies. The values of mean relative deviations for the predictions of efficiencies and inefficiencies of drying process were less than 14%, compared with those calculated using experimental data. - Highlights: • Introducing a mathematical model to predict the efficiency of microwave-assisted fluidized bed dryers. • Energy and exergy analysis in microwave-assisted fluidized bed drying of grains. • Providing practical recommendations for efficient use of microwave power during drying

  10. Blades Couple Dry Friction Connection

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Půst, Ladislav; Pešek, Luděk; Radolfová, Alena

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 9, č. 1 (2015), s. 31-40 ISSN 1802-680X Institutional support: RVO:61388998 Keywords : stick-slip dry friction * 3D friction characteristic * tangential contact stiffness * hysterezis loop * response curves Subject RIV: BI - Acoustics

  11. THE DIRT ON DRY MERGERS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Desai, Vandana; Soifer, B. T.; Dey, Arjun; Cohen, Emma; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Spitzer Space Telescope, we analyze the mid-infrared (3-70 μm) spectral energy distributions of dry merger candidates in the Booetes field of the NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey. These candidates were selected by previous authors to be luminous, red, early-type galaxies with morphological evidence of recent tidal interactions. We find that a significant fraction of these candidates exhibit 8 and 24 μm excesses compared to expectations for old stellar populations. We estimate that a quarter of dry merger candidates have mid-infrared-derived star formation rates greater than ∼1 M sun yr -1 . This represents a 'frosting' on top of a large old stellar population, and has been seen in previous studies of elliptical galaxies. Further, the dry merger candidates include a higher fraction of star-forming galaxies relative to a control sample without tidal features. We therefore conclude that the star formation in these massive ellipticals is likely triggered by merger activity. Our data suggest that the mergers responsible for the observed tidal features were not completely dry, and may be minor mergers involving a gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

  12. DRY TRANSFER FACILITY SEISMIC ANALYSIS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    EARNEST, S.; KO, H.; DOCKERY, W.; PERNISI, R.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this calculation is to perform a dynamic and static analysis on the Dry Transfer Facility, and to determine the response spectra seismic forces for the design basis ground motions. The resulting seismic forces and accelerations will be used in a subsequent calculation to complete preliminary design of the concrete shear walls, diaphragms, and basemat

  13. Dry technologies and community bureaucracies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Mattias Borg

    2014-01-01

    Irrigation channels criss-cross the Andes, bringing water to the dry soils of the peasants' fields. To obtain water, people must deal not only with the amount of water and the physical terrain, but also with concerns of others and matters of the social terrain....

  14. Dry spent fuel storage licensing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturz, F.C.

    1995-01-01

    In the US, at-reactor-site dry spent fuel storage in independent spent fuel storage installations (ISFSI) has become the principal option for utilities needing storage capacity outside of the reactor spent fuel pools. Delays in the geologic repository operational date at or beyond 2010, and the increasing uncertainty of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) being able to site and license a Monitored Retrievable Storage (MRS) facility by 1998 make at-reactor-site dry storage of spent nuclear fuel increasingly desirable to utilities and DOE to meet the need for additional spent fuel storage capacity until disposal, in a repository, is available. The past year has been another busy year for dry spent fuel storage licensing. The licensing staff has been reviewing 7 applications and 12 amendment requests, as well as participating in inspection-related activities. The authors have licensed, on a site-specific basis, a variety of dry technologies (cask, module, and vault). By using certified designs, site-specific licensing is no longer required. Another new cask has been certified. They have received one new application for cask certification and two amendments to a certified cask design. As they stand on the brink of receiving multiple applications from DOE for the MPC, they are preparing to meet the needs of this national program. With the range of technical and licensing options available to utilities, the authors believe that utilities can meet their need for additional spent fuel storage capacity for essentially all reactor sites through the next decade

  15. Apparatus for drying sugar cubes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Derckx, H.A.J.; Torringa, H.M.

    1999-01-01

    Device for drying sugar cubes containing a heating apparatus for heating and dehumidifying the sugar cubes, a conditioning apparatus for cooling off and possibly further dehumidifying the sugar cubes and a conveying apparatus for conveying the sugar cubes through the heating apparatus and the

  16. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 2. Some Physics Inside Drying Droplets. Dileep Mampallil. General Article Volume 19 Issue 2 February 2014 pp 123-134. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link: https://www.ias.ac.in/article/fulltext/reso/019/02/0123-0134 ...

  17. Fluidization of Dried Wastewater Sludge.

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hartman, Miloslav; Pohořelý, Michael; Trnka, Otakar

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 178, 3 (2007) , s. 166-172 ISSN 0032-5910 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA4072201 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : fluidization characteristics * multiphase reactors * dried stabilized wastewater sludge Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 1.130, year: 2007

  18. Dry release of suspended nanostructures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Forsén, Esko Sebastian; Davis, Zachary James; Dong, M.

    2004-01-01

    , the technique enables long time storage and transportation of produced devices without the risk of stiction. By combining the dry release method with a plasma deposited anti-stiction coating both fabrication induced stiction, which is mainly caused by capillary forces originating from the dehydration...

  19. Flavour release from dried vegetables

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ruth, van S.M.

    1995-01-01

    The research described in this thesis was focused on the development of an in vitro model system for isolation of volatile compounds from dried vegetables under mouth conditions, such as volume of the mouth, temperature, salivation and mastication. Instrumental analysis of these

  20. Determination of drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant in different drying conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gözde Bayraktaroglu Urun

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Drying is the most traditional process used for preserving eggplant a long time. The aim of this study was to determining drying characteristics and quality properties of eggplant dried by sun drying, hot air convective drying and infrared assisted convective drying. Convective drying and infrared assisted convective were carried out in a convective dryer at three different temperatures(40°, 50°, 60°C and air velocity at 5 m/s.The increasing of temperatures during the drying of eggplant led to a significant reduction of the drying time. However loss of nutrition was observed in eggplant samples dried at higher temperature.The biggest change in colour parameters was observed in samples dried with sun drying.So it was thought that sun drying had a negative effect on quality properties of eggplant samples.

  1. Laboratory Density Functionals

    OpenAIRE

    Giraud, B. G.

    2007-01-01

    We compare several definitions of the density of a self-bound system, such as a nucleus, in relation with its center-of-mass zero-point motion. A trivial deconvolution relates the internal density to the density defined in the laboratory frame. This result is useful for the practical definition of density functionals.

  2. Effect of deposition temperature and thermal annealing on the dry etch rate of a-C: H films for the dry etch hard process of semiconductor devices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Seung Moo; Won, Jaihyung; Yim, Soyoung; Park, Se Jun; Choi, Jongsik; Kim, Jeongtae; Lee, Hyeondeok; Byun, Dongjin

    2012-01-01

    The effect of deposition and thermal annealing temperatures on the dry etch rate of a-C:H films was investigated to increase our fundamental understanding of the relationship between thermal annealing and dry etch rate and to obtain a low dry etch rate hard mask. The hydrocarbon contents and hydrogen concentration were decreased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures. The I(D)/I(G) intensity ratio and extinction coefficient of the a-C:H films were increased with increasing deposition and annealing temperatures because of the increase of sp 2 bonds in the a-C:H films. There was no relationship between the density of the unpaired electrons and the deposition temperature, or between the density of the unpaired electrons and the annealing temperature. However, the thermally annealed a-C:H films had fewer unpaired electrons compared with the as-deposited ones. Transmission electron microscopy analysis showed the absence of any crystallographic change after thermal annealing. The density of the as-deposited films was increased with increasing deposition temperature. The density of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited under 450 °C was decreased but at 550 °C was increased, and the density of all 800 °C annealed films was increased. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited a-C:H films was negatively correlated with the deposition temperature. The dry etch rate of the 600 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was faster than that of the as-deposited film and that of the 800 °C annealed a-C:H films deposited at 350 °C and 450 °C was 17% faster than that of the as-deposited film. However, the dry etch rate of the 550 °C deposited a-C:H film was decreased after annealing at 600 °C and 800 °C. The dry etch rate of the as-deposited films was decreased with increasing density but that of the annealed a-C:H films was not. These results indicated that the dry etch rate of a-C:H films for dry etch hard masks can be further decreased by

  3. Solar Drying in Hot and Dry Climate of Jaipur

    OpenAIRE

    Parikh, Darshit; Agrawal, G. D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective of the present study was to design, develop and to carry out detail experimentation and then analyze solar cabinet dryer. For these various types of solar dryer, their principles and design methods, modeling, drying temperature, efficiency, utilization of dryer and payback period were reviewed. In the present study, solar cabinet dryer is constructed at Mechanical Engineering Department, M.N.I.T, Jaipur, latitude (26.01° N). The measurement of solar intensity, temperatures, relative...

  4. Performance of a Big Scale Green House Type Dryer for Coffee Drying Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sukrisno Widyotomo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Dying is one of important steps in coffee processing to produce good quality. Greenhouse is one of artificial drying alternatives that potential for coffee drying method cause of cleans environmental friendly, renewable energy sources and chippers. Indonesian Coffee and Cocoa Research Institute has developed and testing a big scale greenhouse type dryer for fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee drying process. Greenhouse has 24 m length, 18 m width, also 3 m high of the front side and 2 m high of the rear side. The maximum capacity of greenhouse is 40 tons fresh coffee cherries. Fiber Reinforced Plastic (FRP used as greenhouse roof that combined with I and C profile of steel. Fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee from Robusta variety use as main materials in this research. The treatment of this research was 30 kg/m2, 60 kg/m2 and 90 kg/m2 for coffee density. String process has done by manual, two times a day in the morning and in the afternoon. As control, fresh coffee cherries and wet parchment coffee has dried by fully sun drying method. The result showed that a big scale greenhouse has heat drying efficiency between 29.9-58.2% depend on type and density of coffee treatments. On the full sunny day, greenhouse has produced maximum drying air temperature up to 52oC. In radiation cumulative level 4-5 kW-jam/m2 per day, 12.9-38.8 tons fresh coffee cherries or wet parchment coffee with 58-64% moisture content can be dried to 12% moisture content for 6 up to 14 days drying process. Slowly drying mechanism can be avoided negative effect to degradation of quality precursor compound. Capacity of the dryer can be raise and fungi can be reduce with application of controllable mechanical stirring in the greenhouse. Keywords: greenhouse, coffee, drying, quality

  5. Densities of carbon foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoner, J.O. Jr.

    1991-01-01

    The densities of arc-evaporated carbon target foils have been measured by several methods. The density depends upon the method used to measure it; for the same surface density, values obtained by different measurement techniques may differ by fifty percent or more. The most reliable density measurements are by flotation, yielding a density of 2.01±0.03 g cm -3 , and interferometric step height with the surface density known from auxiliary measurements, yielding a density of 2.61±0.4 g cm -3 . The difference between these density values mayy be due in part to the compressive stresses that carbon films have while still on their substrates, uncertainties in the optical calibration of surface densities of carbon foils, and systematic errors in step-height measurements. Mechanical thickness measurements by micrometer caliper are unreliable due to nonplanarity of these foils. (orig.)

  6. Drying kinetics and characteristics of dried gambir leaves using solar heating and silica gel dessicant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasibuan, R.; Hidayati, J.; Sundari, R.; Wicaksono, A. S.

    2018-02-01

    A drying combination of solar heating and silica gel dessicant has been applied to dry gambir leaves. The solar energy is captured by a collector to heat the air and the hot air is used to dry gambir leaves in a drying chamber. An exhaust fan in drying chamber assists to draw water molecules from gambir leaves accelerated by silica gel dessicant. This study has investigated the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves drying. In drying operation the air velocity is tuned by a PWM (pulse width modulation) controller to adjust minimum and maximum level, which is based on the rotation speed of the exhaust fan. The results show that the air velocity influenced the drying kinetics and drying characteristics of gambir leaves using solar-dessicant drying at 40 cm distance between exhaust fan and silica gel dessicant.

  7. Advanced Drying Process for Lower Manufacturing Cost of Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahmad, Iftikhar [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States); Zhang, Pu [Lambda Technologies, Inc., Morrisville, NC (United States)

    2016-11-30

    the electrode materials. For the existing electrode materials, the material analysis and cell characterization data from ADP dried electrodes showed equivalent (or slightly better) performance. However, for high loading and thicker electrode materials (for high energy densities) the ADP advantages are more prominent. There was less binder migration, the resistance was lower hence the current capacities and retention of the battery cells were higher. The success of the project has enabled credible communications with commercial end users as well as battery coating line integrators. Goal is to scale ADP up for high volume manufacturing of Li-ion battery electrodes. The implementation of ADP in high volume manufacturing will reduce a high cost production step to bring the overall price of Li-ion batteries down. This will ultimately have a positive impact on the public by making electric and hybrid vehicles more affordable.

  8. Cracking in Drying Colloidal Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Karnail B.; Tirumkudulu, Mahesh S.

    2007-05-01

    It has long been known that thick films of colloidal dispersions such as wet clays, paints, and coatings crack under drying. Although capillary stresses generated during drying have been recently identified as the cause for cracking, the existence of a maximum crack-free film thickness that depends on particle size, rigidity, and packing has not been understood. Here, we identify two distinct regimes for crack-free films based on the magnitude of compressive strain at the maximum attainable capillary pressure and show remarkable agreement of measurements with our theory. We anticipate our results to not only form the basis for design of coating formulations for the paints, coatings, and ceramics industry but also assist in the production of crack-free photonic band gap crystals.

  9. Dry storage of Magnox fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-09-01

    This work, commissioned by the CEGB, studies the feasibility of a combination of short-term pond storage and long-term dry storage of Magnox spent fuel as a cheaper alternative to reprocessing. Storage would be either at the reactor site or a central site. Two designs are considered, based on existing design work done by GEC-ESL and NNC; the capsule design developed by NNC and with storage in passive vaults for up to 100 yrs and the GEC-ESL tube design developed at Wylfa for the interim storage of LWR. For the long-term storage of Magnox spent fuel the GEC-ESL tubed vault all-dry storage method is recommended and specifications for this method are given. (U.K.)

  10. Evaluation of supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels as nano-biomaterials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sinah; Kang, Kyu-Young; Jeong, Myung-Joon; Potthast, Antje; Liebner, Falk

    2017-10-01

    Cellulose is the renewable, biodegradable and abundant resource and is suggested as an alternative material to silica due to the high price and environmental load of silica. The first step for cellulose aerogel production is to dissolve cellulose, and hydrated calcium thiocyanate molten salt is one of the most effective solvents for preparing porous material. Cellulose aerogels were prepared from dissolved cellulose samples of different degree of polymerization (DP) and drying methods, and tested with shrinkage, density and mechanical strength. Supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels shrank less compared to freeze-dried cellulose aerogels, whereas the densities were increased according to the DP increases in both cellulose aerogels. Furthermore, scanning electron microscope (SEM) images showed that the higher DP cellulose aerogels were more uniform with micro-porous structure. Regarding the mechanical strength of cellulose aerogels, supercritical CO2 dried cellulose aerogels with higher molecular weight were much more solid.

  11. High-T/sub c/ oxide superconductors prepared by spray-drying method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, N.; Nakano, T.; Goth, S.; Shimotomai, M.

    1988-01-01

    A spray-drying method has been worked out to prepare the superconducting oxide YBa/sub 2/Cu/sub 3/O/sub x/ by using aqueous solution of acetates of the component metals. Spray-dried powders have shown to be very reactive and full calcination has been easily attained at 900 0 C for 12 hrs. The density of the ceramics sintered at 950 0 C for 12 hrs has reached a value of 98% of the theoretical density. The resistivity of the spray-dry processed sample is 150μΩ-cm at the onset temperature and the residual resistivity extrapolated to O K is almost zero. It is also found that degradation of the superconducting state by application of magnetic field is much improved for the spray-dry processed samples

  12. Evaluation and comparing of natural and forced solar dryer for mint drying in Khuzestan province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Habibi Asl

    2017-05-01

    Research Center during the years 2011-2013. Materials and Methods In this research an indirect cabinet solar dryer with three trays and grooved collector was constructed. To improve air convection, a chimney was mounted above the dryer. The dryer performance was evaluated by drying mint leaves in three levels of mass density of 2, 3, and 4 kg m-2 at two drying manners of natural and forced convection and compared with drying mint leaves in shade as the traditional method. Results and Discussion The results showed that total drying time required in different solar drier treatments was 3.5 to 15 h, while it was about 5 days in traditional method. Drying time in upper trays was more as the air flow decreased due to increase in mass density. Mean required drying time in forced convection was 29.7% less than that of natural convection. Maximum essences with 0.80% and 0.76% were belonged to "natural convection and 3kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively, while minimum one with 0.30% was for "forced convection and 2 kg m-2 mass density" treatment. Also, the highest and lowest chlorophyll content with 8.51 and 4.18 mg ml-1 were measured in "natural convection and 3 kg m-2 mass density" and "forced convection and 4 kg m-2 mass density" treatments respectively. According to obtained results, 3 and 4 kg m-2 mass density can be suggested for natural and forced convection solar drying of mint leaves in Khuzestan condition respectively. Conclusions In order to reduce vegetable losses and increase Khuzestan vegetable producers income, indirect cabinet solar dryer for drying mint leaves in winter season, could be an appropriate option. For natural and forced convection drying methods, mass density of 3 and 4 kg m-2 is recommended respectively.

  13. Accelerated dry curing of hams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marriott, N G; Kelly, R F; Shaffer, C K; Graham, P P; Boling, J W

    1985-01-01

    Uncured pork legs from the right side of 18 carcasses were treated with a Ross Tenderizer and the left side were controls. All 36 samples were dry-cured for 40, 56 or 70 days and evaluated for appearance traits, cure penetration characteristics, microbial load, Kramer Shear force and taste attributes. The tenderization treatment had no effect (P > 0·05) on visual color or cure penetration rate, weight loss before curing, percentage moisture, nitrate level, nitrite level, total plate count, anaerobic counts, psychrotrophic counts, objective and subjective tenderness measurements or juiciness. However, the higher values of salt suggested a possible acceleration of the dry cure penetration process among the tenderized samples. Cure time had no effect (P > 0·05) on percentage moisture, percentage salt, nitrate content, nitrite content, shear force and juiciness. Results suggest a limited effect of the mechanical tenderization process on certain traits related to dry curing and that total process time should be at least 70 days if color stability during cooking is desired. Copyright © 1985. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  14. Equipment selection for atmospheric drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharma, P D; Bhattacharyya, S [Nuclear Power Corporation, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai (India)

    1994-06-01

    Heavy water management is a major factor in deciding the economics of the PHWRs. Hence it is necessary to have an efficient recovery system, for the heavy water vapour escaping from various process systems and maintain a dry atmosphere in the recovery areas. While the basic objective of the atmospheric drying system is to maximize recovery and to minimize stack losses, it is equally important to optimally design the system with due consideration to operational and maintenance aspects. At present, heavy water vapour recovery in the existing Nuclear Power Plants (NPPs) is carried out by dryers of dual fixed bed design. While moving bed design could have some advantages, this has not been adopted so far because of the cumbersome mechanical design involved and special requirements for nuclear application. Developmental work done in this direction has resulted in compact alternative designs. In one of the designs, the change over from adsorption to regeneration is achieved by rotating the bed slowly. This concept is further refined in another alternative using a dessicant wheel. This paper contains brief equipment description of different designs; enumerates the design requirements of an atmospheric drying system for reactor building; describes steps for designing fixed bed type D{sub 2}O vapour recovery system, and highlights advances in dryer technology. (author). 2 refs., 4 figs., 1 ill.

  15. A critical review on the spray drying of fruit extract: effect of additives on physicochemical properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaiah, Duduku; Nithyanandam, Rajesh; Sarbatly, Rosalam

    2014-01-01

    Spray drying accomplishes drying while particles are suspended in the air and is one method in the family of suspended particle processing systems, along with fluid-bed drying, flash drying, spray granulation, spray agglomeration, spray reaction, spray cooling, and spray absorption. This drying process is unique because it involves both particle formation and drying. The present paper reviews spray drying of fruit extracts, such as acai, acerola pomace, gac, mango, orange, cactus pear, opuntia stricta fruit, watermelon, and durian, and the effects of additives on physicochemical properties such as antioxidant activity, total carotenoid content, lycopene and β-carotene content, hygroscopy, moisture content, volatile retention, stickiness, color, solubility, glass transition temperature, bulk density, rehydration, caking, appearance under electron microscopy, and X-ray powder diffraction. The literature clearly demonstrates that the effect of additives and encapsulation play a vital role in determining the physicochemical properties of fruit extract powder. The technical difficulties in spray drying of fruit extracts can be overcome by modifying the spray dryer design. It also reveals that spray drying is a novel technology for converting fruit extract into powder form.

  16. Rational Design and Enhanced Biocompatibility of a Dry Adhesive Medical Skin Patch

    KAUST Repository

    Kwak, Moon Kyu

    2011-07-28

    A new type of medical skin patch is developed that contains high-density, mushroom-like micropillars. Such dry-adhesive micropillars are highly biocompatible, have minimized side effects, and provide reasonable normal adhesion strength. To arrive at optimal conditions for the dry adhesive skin patch, the proper design of various structural and material parameters of micropillars is investigated. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Use of dry sludge from waste water treatment plants as an additive in prefabricated concrete brick

    OpenAIRE

    Yagüe, A.; Valls, S.; Vázquez, E.; Kuchinow, V.

    2002-01-01

    Dry sludge from the Sabadell Water Treatment Plant was used to prepare prefabricated concrete bricks. After characterising the sludge and the manufacturing process used to make the bricks, we define the conditions of addition of the sludges in the manufacture. Reference samples not containing sludge and samples containing 2 % of dry sludge by cement weight were prepared. The variation in density, porosity, absorption coefficient and compressive strength of the bricks with the presence of...

  18. Future Road Density

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Road density is generally highly correlated with amount of developed land cover. High road densities usually indicate high levels of ecological disturbance. More...

  19. The subtle attractions of dry vault storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ealing, C.J.

    1993-01-01

    Utilities in the United States of America, Scotland and Hungary have all adopted dry vault technology in their plans for spent fuel storage. This article looks at what makes dry storage an attractive option. (author)

  20. Herbal dryer: drying of ginger (zingiber officinale) using tray dryer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haryanto, B.; Hasibuan, R.; Alexander; Ashari, M.; Ridha, M.

    2018-02-01

    Drying is widely used as a method to preserve food because of its convenience and affordability. Drying of ginger using tray dryer were carried out at various drying conditions, such as air-drying flow, air-drying temperature, and sample dimensions, to achieve the highest drying rate. Samples with various dimensions were placed in the tray dryer and dried using various air-drying flow and temperatures. The weights of samples were observed every 3 minutes interval. Drying was stopped after three times of constant weighing. Data of drying was collected to make the drying curves. Drying curves show that the highest drying rate is achieved using highest air flow and temperature.

  1. Achieving maximum baryon densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gyulassy, M.

    1984-01-01

    In continuing work on nuclear stopping power in the energy range E/sub lab/ approx. 10 GeV/nucleon, calculations were made of the energy and baryon densities that could be achieved in uranium-uranium collisions. Results are shown. The energy density reached could exceed 2 GeV/fm 3 and baryon densities could reach as high as ten times normal nuclear densities

  2. Improved compaction of dried tannery wastewater sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Della Zassa, M; Zerlottin, M; Refosco, D; Santomaso, A C; Canu, P

    2015-12-01

    We quantitatively studied the advantages of improving the compaction of a powder waste by several techniques, including its pelletization. The goal is increasing the mass storage capacity in a given storage volume, and reducing the permeability of air and moisture, that may trigger exothermic spontaneous reactions in organic waste, particularly as powders. The study is based on dried sludges from a wastewater treatment, mainly from tanneries, but the indications are valid and useful for any waste in the form of powder, suitable to pelletization. Measurements of bulk density have been carried out at the industrial and laboratory scale, using different packing procedures, amenable to industrial processes. Waste as powder, pellets and their mixtures have been considered. The bulk density of waste as powder increases from 0.64 t/m(3) (simply poured) to 0.74 t/m(3) (tapped) and finally to 0.82 t/m(3) by a suitable, yet simple, packing procedure that we called dispersion filling, with a net gain of 28% in the compaction by simply modifying the collection procedure. Pelletization increases compaction by definition, but the packing of pellets is relatively coarse. Some increase in bulk density of pellets can be achieved by tapping; vibration and dispersion filling are not efficient with pellets. Mixtures of powder and pellets is the optimal packing policy. The best compaction result was achieved by controlled vibration of a 30/70 wt% mixture of powders and pellets, leading to a final bulk density of 1t/m(3), i.e. an improvement of compaction by more than 54% with respect to simply poured powders, but also larger than 35% compared to just pellets. That means increasing the mass storage capacity by a factor of 1.56. Interestingly, vibration can be the most or the least effective procedure to improve compaction of mixtures, depending on characteristics of vibration. The optimal packing (30/70 wt% powders/pellets) proved to effectively mitigate the onset of smouldering

  3. Diverse patterns of stored water use among saplings in seasonally dry tropical forests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolfe, Brett T; Kursar, Thomas A

    2015-12-01

    Tree species in seasonally dry tropical forests likely vary in their drought-survival mechanisms. Drought-deciduousness, which reduces water loss, and low wood density, which may permit dependence on stored water, are considered key traits. For saplings of six species at two distinct sites, we studied these and two associated traits: the seasonal amount of water released per stem volume ("water released") and the hydraulic capacitance of the stem (C). Two deciduous species with low stem density, Cavanillesia platanifolia and Bursera simaruba, had high C and high dry-season stem water potential (Ψ(stem)), but differed in dry-season water released. C. platanifolia did not use stored water during the dry season whereas B. simaruba, in a drier forest, released stored water. In both, water released was highest while flushing leaves, suggesting that stored water supports leaf flushing. In contrast, two deciduous species with intermediate stem density, Annona hayesii and Genipa americana, had intermediate C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and high seasonal change in water released. Meanwhile, two evergreen species with intermediate stem density, Cojoba rufescens and Astronium graveolens, had relatively low C, low dry-season Ψ(stem), and intermediate seasonal change in water released. Thus, at least three, distinct stored-water-use strategies were observed. Additionally, bark relative water content (RWC) decreased along with Ψ(stem) during the dry season while xylem RWC did not change, suggesting that bark-stored water buffers Ψ(stem) seasonally. Together these results suggest that seasonal use of stored water and change in Ψ(stem) are associated with functional groups that are characterized by combinations of deciduousness and stem density.

  4. Low temperature hot air drying of potato cubes subjected to osmotic dehydration and intermittent microwave: drying kinetics, energy consumption and product quality indexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghannya, Jalal; Bozorghi, Somayyeh; Heshmati, Maryam Khakbaz

    2018-04-01

    Hot-air drying is a slow energy-extensive process. Use of intermittent microwave (IM) in hot-air (HA) drying of food products is characterized with advantages including reduced process time, energy saving, and improved final quality. In this study, the effect of IM-HA drying following an osmotic dehydration (OD) pretreatment was analyzed on qualitative and quantitative properties of the output (i.e. effective moisture diffusion coefficient (Deff), shrinkage, bulk density, rehydration and energy consumption). Temperature and airflow velocity were fixed at 40°C and 1 m/s, respectively. The process variables included sucrose solution concentration at five levels (0 or control, 10, 30, 50 and 70 w/w%), microwave output power at four levels (0 or control, 360, 600 and 900 W), and pulse ratio at four levels (1, 2, 3 and 4). Use of osmotic dehydration in combination with IM-HA drying reduced the drying time by up to about 54%. Increasing the osmotic solution concentration to 30% and using higher pulse ratios increased the Deff. The lowest shrinkage and bulk density as well as the highest rehydration belonged to the 900 W microwave power and pulse ratio of 4. The lowest energy consumption was observed when using the 900 W power level, showing 63.27% less consumption than the HA drying method.

  5. Infrared Drying as a Quick Preparation Method for Dried Tangerine Peel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Xu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available To establish the most convenient and effective method to dry tangerine peels, different methods (sun drying, hot-air drying, freeze drying, vacuum drying, and medium- and short-wave infrared drying were exploited. Our results indicated that medium- and short-wave infrared drying was the best method to preserve nutraceutical components; for example, vitamin C was raised to 6.77 mg/g (D.W. from 3.39 mg/g (sun drying. Moreover, the drying time can be shortened above 96% compared with sun drying. Importantly, the efficiency of DPPH radical scavenging was enhanced from 26.66% to 55.92%. These findings would provide a reliable and time-saving methodology to produce high-quality dried tangerine peels.

  6. Crowding and Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Design and Environment, 1972

    1972-01-01

    Three-part report pinpointing problems and uncovering solutions for the dual concepts of density (ratio of people to space) and crowding (psychological response to density). Section one, A Primer on Crowding,'' reviews new psychological and social findings; section two, Density in the Suburbs,'' shows conflict between status quo and increased…

  7. Accelerating oak air drying by presurfacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    W. T. Simpson; R. C. Baltes

    1972-01-01

    A comparison was made between the air-drying rates of rough and presurfaced northern red oak and white oak. In both species, the presurfaced material was about 1/8 inch thinner than the rough material and dried faster than the rough material. The reduction in drying time depends on the method of analyzing the drying curves, but is slightly less than 10 percent.

  8. Latest Apple Drying Technologies: A Review

    OpenAIRE

    ÖZDEMİR, Yasin; SAYIN, Emir Olcay; KURULTAY, Şefik

    2009-01-01

    Drying is known as one of the oldest preservation methods and can be applicable to many fruits. Sun drying of apple has been known from ancient times. However, this technique is weather-dependent and has contamination problems such as dust, soil, sand particles and insects. Hot air drying of apples has low energy efficiency and requires longer drying period. The desire to eliminate these problems, prevent quality loss, and achieve fast and effective thermal processing has resulted in an incre...

  9. Effects of Aging in Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva, Cintia S.

    2017-01-01

    Dry eye affects millions of people worldwide and causes eye well recognized risk factors for dry eye. Anatomical and inflammation-induced age-related changes affect all components of the lacrimal gland functional unit, inclusive of lacrimal gland, conjunctiva, meibomian gland and compromise ocular surface health. There is increased evidence that inflammation plays a role in dry eye. This review will summarize the current knowledge about aging and dry eye, inclusive of lessons learned from animal models and promising therapies. PMID:28282314

  10. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    OpenAIRE

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50 years as part of the five-point mastitis prevention program. The goal of dry cow treatment is to reduce the prevalence of intramammary infections by eliminating infections already present at dryin...

  11. Impact of dry eye on work productivity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamada M

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Masakazu Yamada, Yoshinobu Mizuno, Chika ShigeyasuNational Institute of Sensory Organs, National Hospital Organization Tokyo Medical Center, Tokyo, JapanBackground: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism.Methods: A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed.Results: The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P < 0.05. The annual cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person.Conclusion: Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.Keywords: burden of disease, dry eye, presenteeism, quality of life

  12. Freeze-dried processing of tungsten heavy alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, G.D.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1989-06-01

    Tungsten heavy alloy powders were produced from freeze-dried aqueous solutions of ammonium metatungstate and, principally, sulfates of Ni and Fe. The freeze-dried salts were calcined and hydrogen reduced to form very fine, homogeneous, low-density, W heavy alloy powders having a coral-like structure with elements of approximately 0.1 μm in diameter. The powders yield high green strength and sinterability. Tungsten heavy alloy powders of 70%, 90%, and 96% W were prepared by freeze drying, compacted, and solid-state (SS) sintered to fully density at temperatures as low as 1200 degree C and also at conventional liquid-phase (LP) sintering temperatures. Solid-state sintered microstructures contained polygonal W grains with high contiguity; the matrix did not coat and separate the W grains to form low-contiguity, high-ductility structures. Liquid-phase sintered microstructures were very conventional in appearance, having W spheroids of low contiguity. All these materials were found to be brittle. High levels of residual S accompanied by segregation of the S to all the microstructural interfaces are principally responsible for the brittleness; problems with S could be eliminated by using Fe and Ni nitrates rather than the sulfates. 9 refs., 22 figs., 3 tabs

  13. Moisture removal of paddy by agricultural residues: basic physical parameters and drying kinetics modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saniso, E.

    2007-05-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to study basic physical parameters of three agricultural residues that could be used for prediction of paddy drying kinetics using desiccants, to investigate a suitable methodfor moisture reduction of fresh paddy using 3 absorbents, and to modify the drying model of Inoue et al. for determining the evolution of moisture transfer during the drying period. Rice husk, sago palm rachis andcoconut husk were used as moisture desiccants in these experiments. From the results, it was concluded that the apparent density of all adsorbents was a linear function of moisture content whilst an equilibriummoisture content equation following Hendersonís model gave the best fit to the experimental results. From studying the relationship between moisture ratio and drying time under the condition of drying temperaturesof 30, 50 and 70oC, air flow rate of 1.6 m/s and initial moisture content of absorbents of 15, 20 and 27% dry-basis, it was shown that the moisture ratio decreased when drying time increased. In addition, thethin-layer desiccant drying equation following of the Page model can appropriately explain the evolution of moisture content of paddy over the drying time. The diffusion coefficient of all absorbents, which was in therange of 1x10-8 to 6x10-8 m2/h, was relatively dependent on drying temperature and inversely related to drying time. The diffusivity of coconut husk had the highest value compared to the other absorbents.The simulating modified mathematical model to determine drying kinetics of paddy using absorption technique and the simulated results had good relation to the experimental results for all adsorbents.

  14. Microwave wood strand drying: energy consumption, VOC emission and drying quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Du, G.; Zhang, Y. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Forestry, Wildlife and Fisheries

    2005-07-01

    The objective of this research was to develop microwave drying technology for wood strand drying for oriented strand board (OSB) manufacturing. The advantages of microwave drying included a reduction in the drying time of wood strands and a reduction in the release of volatile organic compounds (VOC) through a decrease in the thermal degradation of the wood material. Temperature and moisture content changes under different microwave drying conditions were investigated. The effects of microwave drying on VOC emissions were evaluated and analyzed using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. Microwave power input and the mass of drying materials in the microwave oven were found to have a dominant effect on drying quality. Results indicated that an increase in microwave power input and a decrease in sample weights resulted in high drying temperatures, short drying times and a high drying rate. The effect of microwave drying on the strand surfaces was also investigated. Different strand geometries and initial moisture content resulted in varying warm-up curves, but did not influence final moisture content. VOC emissions were quantified by comparing alpha-pinene concentrations. The microwave drying resulted in lower VOC emissions compared with conventional drying methods. It was concluded that the microwave drying technique provided faster strand drying and reduced energy consumption by up to 50 per cent. In addition, the surface wettability of wood strands dried with microwaves was better than with an industrial rotary drum drier. 12 refs., 3 tabs., 5 figs.

  15. Effects of silk fibroin in murine dry eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chae Eun; Lee, Ji Hyun; Yeon, Yeung Kyu; Park, Chan Hum; Yang, Jaewook

    2017-03-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of silk fibroin in a mouse model of dry eye. The experimental dry eye mouse model was developed using more than twelve-weeks-old NOD.B10.H2b mice exposing them to 30-40% ambient humidity and injecting them with scopolamine hydrobromide for 10 days. Tear production and corneal irregularity score were measured by the instillation of phosphate buffered saline or silk fibroin. Corneal detachment and conjunctival goblet cell density were observed by hematoxylin and eosin or periodic acid Schiff staining in the cornea or conjunctiva. The expression of inflammatory markers was detected by immunohistochemistry in the lacrimal gland. The silk group tear production was increased, and corneal smoothness was improved. The corneal epithelial cells and conjunctival goblet cells were recovered in the silk groups. The expression of inflammatory factors was inhibited in the lacrimal gland of the silk group. These results show that silk fibroin improved the cornea, conjunctiva, and lacrimal gland in the mouse model of dry eye. These findings suggest that silk fibroin has anti-inflammatory effects in the experimental models of dry eye.

  16. energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    user

    ... a solar box dryer aided by a tracking device, and open air drying over an effective total drying time of 6 hours each day, for 5 days. ... cost in the use of modern dryers. Drying can be ..... speed, cloud cover and humidity respectively. 4.2 Solar ...

  17. Drying principles and theory: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ekechukwu, O.V.

    1995-10-01

    A comprehensive review of the fundamental principles and theories governing the drying process is presented. Basic definitions are given. The development of contemporary models of drying of agricultural products are traced from the earliest reported sorption and moisture equilibrium models, through the single kernel of product models to the thin layer and deep bed drying analysis. (author). 29 refs, 10 figs

  18. Selective dry cow treatment in dairy cows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C.G.M.

    2017-01-01

    In the dairy industry, udder health is associated with mastitis management, of which blanket dry cow treatment has been an important part for decades. To prevent the udder from new intramammary infections during the dry period, the use of blanket dry cow treatment has been advocated for more than 50

  19. Economic optimization of selective dry cow treatment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Scherpenzeel, C G M; Hogeveen, H; Maas, L; Lam, T J G M

    2018-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a mathematical model to identify a scenario with the lowest costs for mastitis associated with the dry period while restricting the percentage of cows to be dried off with dry cow antimicrobials. Costs of clinical and subclinical mastitis as well as

  20. Albendazole Microparticles Prepared by Spray Drying Technique ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To enhance the dissolution of albendazole (ABZ) using spray-drying technique. Method: ABZ binary mixtures with Kollicoat IR® (KL) and polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) in various drug to polymer ratios (1: 1, 1: 2 and 1; 4) were prepared by spray-drying. The spray-dried particles were characterized for particle shape, ...

  1. Drying characteristics of willow chips and stems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gigler, J.K.; Loon, van W.K.P.; Seres, I.; Meerdink, G.; Coumans, W.J.

    2000-01-01

    In supply chains of willow (Salix viminalis) biomass to energy plants, drying is advisable in order to enable safe long-term storage, increase boiler efficiency and reduce gaseous emissions. To gain insight into the drying process, drying characteristics of willow chips and stems were investigated

  2. Quality drying of hardwood lumber : guidebook -- checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    R. S. Boone; M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore improve lumber drying quality. This report is one component of the...

  3. Quality drying of softwood lumber : guidebook - checklist

    Science.gov (United States)

    M. R. Milota; J. D. Danielson; R. S. Boone; D. W. Huber

    The IMPROVE Lumber Drying Program is intended to increase awareness of the lumber drying system as a critical component in the manufacture of quality lumber. One objective of the program is to provide easy-to-use tools that a kiln operator can use to maintain an efficient kiln operation and therefore contribute to lumber drying quality. This report is one component of...

  4. Inert carrier drying and coating process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1980-01-01

    An inert carrier process is described for drying radioactive (particularly low level) waste material and for incorporating the dry material into a binder matrix from which the dried material will not be leached. Experimental details, and examples of the carrier and binder materials, are given. (U.K.)

  5. BASIC PROPERTIES IN RELATION TO DRYING PROPERTIES OF THREE WOOD SPECIES FROM INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Efrida Basri

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this study were to investigate basic and drying properties of three wood species from Indonesia, i.e. kuda (Lannea coromandelica Merr., waru (Hibiscus tiliaceus L. and mindi besar (Melia dubia Cav.. The basic properties include density, shrinkages, modulus of rupture (MOR, compression parallel to grain (C//, wood strength and anatomical structures. Meanwhile, the drying properties included drying time and drying defects. The initial-final temperature and humidity for each species was based on defects that resulted from high temperature drying trial. The results showed that the drying properties were significantly affected by wood anatomical structure. The initial-final drybulb temperature and wetbulb depression   for kuda wood are 50 -70ºC and 3-30ºC respectively, while the corresponding figures for waru wood are 65-80ºC and 6-30ºC, and for mindi besar wood are 55-80ºC and 4-30ºC. These drying schedules, however, still need further trial prior to their implementation in the factory-scale operation. All wood species studied have density and considerable strength recommended in their use for light medium construction purposes. Mindi besar wood has decorative appearance so it is suitable for furniture.

  6. Zinder: a city running dry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, T

    1993-01-01

    In the West African Sahel lies the old Hausa city of Zinder, Niger. Since the last few decades, it has constantly faced considerable population growth (19,300-119,8000 between 1960 and 1980) while its acute problems with the water supply are increasing. The dry regional climate compounds the problems. In the past, Zinder was a trade center between northern and sub-Saharan Africa as well as being the colonial capital of Niger (1911-26). Its economic and political position has fallen greatly with independence. Lower than average rainfall and the disastrous droughts of the 1970s and 1980s have seriously diminished the region's economic base, e.g., the average annual rainfall in 1930-60 was 535 mm, but by the 1980s, it was only 355 mm. Zinder sits on an elevated, rocky hill which is encircled by dry river valleys and there are no major permanent bodies of water in the vicinity. Impenetrable layers of stone prevent the digging of wells within the city, so the city depends on wells in nearby valleys. The reduced rainfall hinders replenishment of the aquifer, resulting in a drop in the availability of water for daily consumption from 6500 to 3500 sq m. Per capita water consumption in Zinder is much lower than the national average (55 1/day vs. about 100 1/day). The drought in 1992 caused per capita consumption to fall to 29 1/day, just barely above the minimal standards for private use in urban areas of 20 1/person/day. To further compound the problem, 20 villages in Zinder's environs, some villages with a population of 5000, people, rely on the same water system. Zinder serves as a refuge for the regional population in drought years and during the yearly dry season. Promised international financing cannot resolve Zinder's problems at a realistic cost.

  7. Impact of dry eye on work productivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Masakazu; Mizuno, Yoshinobu; Shigeyasu, Chika

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the impact of dry eye on work productivity of office workers, especially in terms of presenteeism. A total of 396 individuals aged ≥20 years (258 men and 138 women, mean age 43.4 ± 13.0 years) were recruited through an online survey. Data from 355 responders who did not have missing values were included in the analysis. They were classified into the following four groups according to the diagnostic status and subjective symptoms of dry eye: a definite dry eye group; a marginal dry eye group; a self-reported dry eye group; and a control group. The impact of dry eye on work productivity was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Work Limitations Questionnaire. The cost of work productivity loss associated with dry eye and the economic benefits of providing treatment for dry eye were also assessed. The degree of work performance loss was 5.65% in the definite dry eye group, 4.37% in the marginal dry eye group, 6.06% in the self-reported dry eye group, and 4.27% in the control group. Productivity in the self-reported dry eye group was significantly lower than that in the control group (P work productivity loss associated with dry eye was estimated to be USD 741 per person. Dry eye impairs work performance among office workers, which may lead to a substantial loss to industry. Management of symptoms of dry eye by providing treatment may contribute to improvement in work productivity.

  8. Shrinkage of spray-freeze-dried microparticles of pure protein for ballistic injection by manipulation of freeze-drying cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Straller, Georg; Lee, Geoffrey

    2017-10-30

    Spray-freeze-drying was used to produce shrivelled, partially-collapsed microparticles of pure proteins that may be suitable for use in a ballistic injector. Various modifications of the freeze drying cycle were examined for their effects on collapse of the pure protein microparticles. The use of annealing at a shelf temperature of up to +10°C resulted in no visible particle shrinkage. This was because of the high T g ' of the pure protein. Inclusion of trehalose or sucrose led to particle shrinkage because of the plasticizing effects of the disaccharides on the protein. Only by extending the duration of primary drying from 240 to 2745min at shelf temperatures in the range -12 to -8°C were shrivelled, wrinkled particles of bSA and bCA of reduced porosity obtained. Manipulation of the freeze-drying cycle used for SFD can therefore be used to modify particle morphology and increase particle density. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo; Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute; Turchanin, Andrey

    2014-01-01

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy

  10. Dry-cleaning of graphene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Algara-Siller, Gerardo [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Department of Chemistry, Technical University Ilmenau, Weimarer Strasse 25, Ilmenau 98693 (Germany); Lehtinen, Ossi; Kaiser, Ute, E-mail: ute.kaiser@uni-ulm.de [Central Facility for Electron Microscopy, Group of Electron Microscopy of Materials Science, Ulm University, Albert-Einstein-Allee 11, Ulm 89081 (Germany); Turchanin, Andrey [Faculty of Physics, University of Bielefeld, Universitätsstr. 25, Bielefeld 33615 (Germany)

    2014-04-14

    Studies of the structural and electronic properties of graphene in its pristine state are hindered by hydrocarbon contamination on the surfaces. Also, in many applications, contamination reduces the performance of graphene. Contamination is introduced during sample preparation and is adsorbed also directly from air. Here, we report on the development of a simple dry-cleaning method for producing large atomically clean areas in free-standing graphene. The cleanness of graphene is proven using aberration-corrected high-resolution transmission electron microscopy and electron spectroscopy.

  11. Dry storage of spent fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeffrey, R.

    1993-01-01

    Scottish Nuclear's plans to build and operate dry storage facilities at each of its two nuclear power station sites in Scotland are explained. An outline of where waste materials arise as part of the operation and decommissioning of nuclear power stations, the volumes for each category of high-, intermediate-and low-level wastes and the costs involved are given. The present procedure for the spent fuels from Hunterston-B and Torness stations is described and Scottish Nuclear's aims of driving output up and costs down are studied. (UK)

  12. Dry deposition on urban surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roed, J.

    1985-01-01

    In order to facilitate developing a model for deposition in urban areas, beryllium-7, created by cosmic radiation and fall-out cesium-137, have been used as tracers in measurements designed to find the dry deposition velocity on building surfaces. A literature review has revealed that very little work has been done on deposition in urban areas; therefore, a major effort on meausring the deposition parameter is needed to construct reliable models in this field. Deposition velocities in the range from 0.001-0.04 cm/s have been found. (author)

  13. Dry containment of radioactive materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Williams, C.E.

    1980-01-01

    A cask for the dry containment of radioactive fuel elements is described. The cask has a cover which contains valved drain and purge passageways. These passageways are sealed by after purge cover seals which are clamped over them and to the outer surface of the cover. The cover seals are tested by providing them with a pair of concentric ring seal elements squeezed between the cover seal and the outer surface of the cover and by forcing a gas under pressure into the annular region between the seal element

  14. Dry decontamination for tritiated wastes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shi Zhengkun; Wu Tao; Dan Guiping; Xie Yun

    2009-01-01

    To aim at decontamination of tritiated wastes, we have developed and fabricated a dry tritium decontamination system, which is designed to reduce tritium surface contamination of various alloy by UV, ozone and heating. The result indicates that the elevation of temperature can obviously improve decontamination effect. With 3 h irradiation by 365 nm UV at 220 degree C, it has a decontamination rate of 99% to stainless steel surface. Ozone can more obviously improve decontamination effect when metal was heated. Ozone has a decontamination effect beyond 95% to stainless steel, aluminum and brass at 220 degree C. Tritium surface concentration of metal has a little increase after decontamination. (authors)

  15. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions

  16. Theoretical and practical aspects of aroma retention in spray drying and freeze drying

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Coumans, W.J.; Kerkhof, P.J.A.M.; Bruin, S.

    1994-01-01

    A review with 75 refs. on aroma loss in slab drying, spray drying and freeze drying. For many food products the presence of volatile aroma components is a prime quality feature. Upon drying part of these components may be lost, leading to unbalanced flavor patterns in the reconstituted product. The

  17. Dry Transfer Systems for Used Nuclear Fuel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brett W. Carlsen; Michaele BradyRaap

    2012-05-01

    The potential need for a dry transfer system (DTS) to enable retrieval of used nuclear fuel (UNF) for inspection or repackaging will increase as the duration and quantity of fuel in dry storage increases. This report explores the uses for a DTS, identifies associated general functional requirements, and reviews existing and proposed systems that currently perform dry fuel transfers. The focus of this paper is on the need for a DTS to enable transfer of bare fuel assemblies. Dry transfer systems for UNF canisters are currently available and in use for transferring loaded canisters between the drying station and storage and transportation casks.

  18. Spray drying for processing of nanomaterials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindeloev, Jesper Saederup; Wahlberg, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Consolidation of nano-particles into micron-sized granules reduces the potential risks associated with handling nano-powders in dry form. Spray drying is a one step granulation technique which can be designed for safe production of free flowing low dusty granules from suspensions of nano-particles. Spray dried granules are well suited for subsequent processing into final products where the superior properties given by the nano-particles are retained. A spray drier with bag filters inside the drying chamber and recycling of drying gas combined with containment valves are proposed as a safe process for granulation of potential hazardous nano-particles.

  19. Probability densities and Lévy densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler

    For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated.......For positive Lévy processes (i.e. subordinators) formulae are derived that express the probability density or the distribution function in terms of power series in time t. The applicability of the results to finance and to turbulence is briefly indicated....

  20. Dry deposition to vegetated surfaces: parametric dependencies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Underwood, B.Y.

    1987-12-01

    The dry deposition velocity of airborne pollutants to vegetated surfaces depends on the physico-chemical form of the pollutant, on meteorological conditions (windspeed, atmospheric stability) and on characteristics of the surface cover. This report examines these dependencies, drawing on experimental data and on information from theoretical analyses. A canopy model is outlined which uses first-order closure of the equations for turbulent transport of momentum (or matter), with losses of momentum (or matter) to individual canopy elements parameterised in terms of the mean windspeed: the model has previously been tested against experimental data on an artificial 'grass' canopy. The model is used to elucidate the features of the dependence of deposition velocity on windspeed and on whether the pollutant is in gaseous or particulate form: in the former case, the dependence on the molecular diffusivity of the gas is shown; in the latter case, dependencies on particle diameter and density are deduced. The predictions are related to available measurements. Additional hypotheses are introduced to treat the influence of atmospheric stability on deposition, and the analysis is used to shed light on the somewhat confusing picture that has emerged from past experimental studies. In considering the dependence of deposition velocity on the structural properties of the vegetation, it is established that more parameters than the single one conventionally used -aerodynamic roughness length - are needed to characterise the surface cover. Some indications of the extent of variation in deposition velocity from one type of vegetation to another are elicited from the model. (author)

  1. The use of shale ash in dry mix construction materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gulbe, L.; Setina, J.; Juhnevica, I.

    2017-10-01

    The research was made to determine the use of shale ash usage in dry mix construction materials by replacing part of cement amount. Cement mortar ZM produced by SIA Sakret and two types of shale ashes from Narva Power plant (cyclone ash and electrostatic precipitator ash) were used. Fresh mortar properties, hardened mortar bulk density, thermal conductivity (λ10, dry) (table value) were tested in mortar ZM samples and mortar samples in which 20% of the amount of cement was replaced by ash. Compressive strenght, frost resistance and resistance to sulphate salt solutions were checked. It was stated that the use of electrostatic precipitator ash had a little change of the material properties, but the cyclone ash significantly reduced the mechanical strength of the material.

  2. Comparison of Wet and Dry Grinding in Electromagnetic Mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szymon Ogonowski

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Comparison of dry and wet grinding process in an electromagnetic mill is presented in this paper. The research was conducted in a batch copper ore grinding. Batch mode allows for precise parametrization and constant repetitive conditions of the experiments. The following key aspects were tested: processing time, feed size, size of the grinding media, mass of the material and graining media, and density of the pulp. The particles size distribution of the product samples was analyzed in the laboratory after each experiment. The paper discusses the experimental results as well as the concept of dry and wet grinding and classification circuits for the electromagnetic mill. The main points of the discussion are the size reduction effectiveness and power consumption of the entire system.

  3. Atmospheric freeze drying assisted by power ultrasound

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santacatalina, J V; Cárcel, J A; Garcia-Perez, J V; Mulet, A; Simal, S

    2012-01-01

    Atmospheric freeze drying (AFD) is considered an alternative to vacuum freeze drying to keep the quality of fresh product. AFD allows continuous drying reducing fix and operating costs, but presents, as main disadvantage, a long drying time required. The application of power ultrasound (US) can accelerate AFD process. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the application of power ultrasound to improve atmospheric freeze drying of carrot. For that purpose, AFD experiments were carried out with carrot cubes (10 mm side) at constant air velocity (2 ms −1 ), temperature (−10°C) and relative humidity (10%) with (20.5 kWm −3 ,USAFD) and without (AFD) ultrasonic application. A diffusion model was used in order to quantify the influence of US in drying kinetics. To evaluate the quality of dry products, rehydration capacity and textural properties were determined. The US application during AFD of carrot involved the increase of drying rate. The effective moisture diffusivity identified in USAFD was 73% higher than in AFD experiments. On the other hand, the rehydration capacity was higher in USAFD than in AFD and the hardness of dried samples did not show significant (p<0.05) differences. Therefore, US application during AFD significantly (p<0.05) sped-up the drying process preserving the quality properties of the dry product.

  4. Technique of solar drying the linden

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fonseca Fonseca, Susana; Andión Torres, Ronald; Espinosa Borges, Ruberlando; Torres Ten, Alonso; Arzuaga Machado, Yusnel; Fuentes lombá, Osmay

    2017-01-01

    In Santiago of Cuba exists interest in the utilization of medicinal plants for the manufacture of flowed abstract and Tinturas, and this requires the dry product. At the present time this process is done in houses roofed. This product will be dried at 10 or 12 days. Having in account than in the Center of investigation of Solar Energy was developed a prototype of solar drier, which enables the drying of the anamu with the required quality, in this work is done a study, for the utilization of the aforementioned drier, for the drying of others medicinal plants. It is determine and evaluated experimentally a Procedure of drying of linden in this solar drier. The dry plants were sent to the UBPC La Rosita of medicinal plants, which manifested conformity with the obtained results, showing contentment with the quality of the dry product. (author)

  5. Dry well storage of spent LWBR fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, A.B.; Fielding, K.D.

    1985-01-01

    Recently, 50 dry wells were constructed at the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP) to temporarily store the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) fuel. Over 400 dry wells of the same design are projected to be constructed in the next 5 yr at the ICPP to store unreprocessible fuels until a permanent repository becomes available. This summary describes the LWBR fuel storage dry wells and the enhancements made over the Peach Bottom fuel and Fermi blanket dry wells that have been in use for up to 4 yr. Dry well storage at the ICPP has historically been found to be a safe and efficient method of temporary fuel storage. The LWBR dry wells should be more reliable than the original dry wells and provide data not previously available

  6. Impregnation of leather during "freeze-drying"

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Storch, Mikkel; Vestergaard Poulsen Sommer, Dorte; Hovmand, Ida

    2016-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a recognized method for the preservation of waterlogged objects. Naturally, freeze-drying has also been used for waterlogged archaeological leather often after treatment with Na2.EDTA and impregnation with PEG; but the treated leather sometimes suffers from “excessive drying......” becoming too stiff and brittle. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of a conventional freeze-drying method against an alternative freeze-drying method that preserves the natural moisture content of the leather. Both new and archaeological waterlogged leather were included in the study...... suggest that the process which takes place within the leather during the freeze-drying in not actual freeze-drying, but rather a sophisticated way of distributing the impregnating agent. The pure ice phase freezes out, but the impregnating agent remains liquid as the temperature does not become low enough...

  7. Dry shrinkage characteristics of buffer materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, H. [ITC, Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Fujita, A.

    1999-03-01

    Generation of cracks due to drying of compressed bentonite was observed by changing the initial water content to obtain shrinkage constants such as shrinkage limit and shrinking rate. As a result, generation of practically no cracks was observed when the initial water content of samples was below 13%. The volume change due to drying increased with the water content in the sample, and the shrinkage constants were found to depend on the initial water content. Further, the one-dimensional compression strength after drying was compared with that before drying in order to clarify the effect of cracks generated by drying on the mechanical strength. As a result, the dry sample with cracks proved to have large one-dimensional compression strength or E{sub 50} compared to wet samples, so that the mechanical strength was kept even after drying. (H. Baba)

  8. Nanoparticle motion on the surface of drying droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Mingfei; Yong, Xin

    2018-03-01

    Advances in solution-based printing and surface patterning techniques for additive manufacturing demand a clear understanding of particle dynamics in drying colloidal droplets and its relationship with deposit structure. Although the evaporation-driven deposition has been studied thoroughly for the particles dispersed in the bulk of the droplet, few investigations have focused on the particles strongly adsorbed to the droplet surface. We modeled the assembly and deposition of the surface-active particles in a drying sessile droplet with a pinned contact line by the multiphase lattice Boltzmann-Brownian dynamics method. The particle trajectory and its area density profile characterize the assembly dynamics and deposition pattern development during evaporation. While the bulk-dispersed particles continuously move to the contact line, forming the typical "coffee-ring" deposit, the interface-bound particles migrate first toward the apex and then to the contact line as the droplet dries out. To understand this unexpected behavior, we resolve the droplet velocity field both in the bulk and within the interfacial region. The simulation results agree well with the analytical solution for the Stokes flow inside an evaporating droplet. At different stages of evaporation, our study reveals that the competition between the tangential surface flow and the downward motion of the evaporating liquid-vapor interface governs the dynamics of the interface-bound particles. In particular, the interface displacement contributes to the particle motion toward the droplet apex in a short phase, while the outward advective flow prevails at the late stage of drying and carries the particles to the contact line. The final deposit of the surface-adsorbed particles exhibits a density enhancement at the center, in addition to a coffee ring. Despite its small influence on the final deposit in the present study, the distinct dynamics of surface-active particles due to the interfacial confinement

  9. Dry etching technology for semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Nojiri, Kazuo

    2015-01-01

    This book is a must-have reference to dry etching technology for semiconductors, which will enable engineers to develop new etching processes for further miniaturization and integration of semiconductor integrated circuits.  The author describes the device manufacturing flow, and explains in which part of the flow dry etching is actually used. The content is designed as a practical guide for engineers working at chip makers, equipment suppliers and materials suppliers, and university students studying plasma, focusing on the topics they need most, such as detailed etching processes for each material (Si, SiO2, Metal etc) used in semiconductor devices, etching equipment used in manufacturing fabs, explanation of why a particular plasma source and gas chemistry are used for the etching of each material, and how to develop etching processes.  The latest, key technologies are also described, such as 3D IC Etching, Dual Damascene Etching, Low-k Etching, Hi-k/Metal Gate Etching, FinFET Etching, Double Patterning ...

  10. Radiation disinfestation of dry fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Khan, I.; Sattar, A.; Wahid, M.; Jan, M.

    1985-01-01

    Dry fruits such as apricots, dates, figs, and raisins were irradiated in a Gamma Cell 220 (dose rate 0.04 kGy/min). Radiation doses used were 0.25, 0.50, and 1.00 kGy, and the samples were stored at room temperatures (25 to 40 0 C) after packaging in polyethylene pouches. Insect infestation and the changes in acidity, discoloration, ascorbic acid, and sugars were determined after 2,4,6,8,10, and 12 months. A radiation dose of 1.00 kGy completely inhibited infestation throughout the storage, while infestation in 0.50 and 0.25 kGy samples increased with storage time between 2 and 10 months. It was 100 percent in all fruits except raisins (60 percent) after 12 months. Tribolium species were predominant in all of the samples followed by the Caudra and Corcyra species. Discoloration increased, acidity and ascorbic acid contents decreased significantly (P < 0.05), and sugars were little affected during the entire storage. Radiation doses had insignificant influence on these nutrients except for the ascorbic acid, which was adversely affected, especially at higher doses (P < 0.05). Results of sensory evaluation of dried fruits showed 1.00 kGy treated samples rated as highest, 0.25 and 0.50 kGy as intermediates, and the control as lowest during different storage intervals

  11. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Feldman, E.M.; Fisher, M.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program (PCDP). The program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the INEL Operating Contractor EG and G Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment is used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SFSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation is accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semiautomatic control system with operator involvement is utilized to conduct consolidation operations. During consolidation operations, data is taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software was completed in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations begins in May 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  12. Dry rod consolidation technology development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rasmussen, T.L.; Schoonen, D.H.; Fisher, M.W.

    1986-01-01

    The Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) is funding a Program to consolidate commercial spent fuel for testing in dry storage casks and to develop technology that will be fed into other OCRWM Programs, e.g., Prototypical Consolidation Demonstration Program. The Program is being conducted at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) by the Operating Contractor, EGandG Idaho, Inc. Hardware and software have been designed and fabricated for installation in a hot cell adjacent to the Test Area North (TAN) Hot Shop Facility. This equipment will be used to perform dry consolidation of commercial spent fuel from the Virginia Power (VP) Cooperative Agreement Spent Fuel Storage Cask (SPSC) Demonstration Program and assemblies that had previously been stored at the Engine Maintenance and Disassembly (EMAD) facility in Nevada. Consolidation will be accomplished by individual, horizontal rod pulling. A computerized semi-automatic control system with operator involvement will be utilized to conduct consolidation operations. Special features have been incorporated in the design to allow crud collection and measurement of rod pulling forces. During consolidation operations, data will be taken to characterize this technology. Still photo, video tape, and other documentation will be generated to make developed information available to interested parties. Cold checkout of the hardware and software will complete in September of 1986. Following installation in the hot cell, consolidation operations will begin in January 1987. Resulting consolidated fuel will be utilized in the VP Cooperative Agreement SFSC Program

  13. Hot dry rock heat mining

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duchane, D.V.

    1992-01-01

    Geothermal energy utilizing fluids from natural sources is currently exploited on a commercial scale at sites around the world. A much greater geothermal resource exists, however, in the form of hot rock at depth which is essentially dry. This hot dry rock (HDR) resource is found almost everywhere, but the depth at which usefully high temperatures are reached varies from place to place. The technology to mine the thermal energy from HDR has been under development for a number of years. Using techniques adapted from the petroleum industry, water is pumped at high pressure down an injection well to a region of usefully hot rock. The pressure forces open natural joints to form a reservoir consisting of a small amount of water dispensed in a large volume of hot rock. This reservoir is tapped by second well located at some distance from the first, and the heated water is brought to the surface where its thermal energy is extracted. The same water is then recirculated to mine more heat. Economic studies have indicated that it may be possible to produce electricity at competitive prices today in regions where hot rock is found relatively close to the surface

  14. Drying behaviour, effective diffusivity and energy of activation of olive leaves dried by microwave, vacuum and oven drying methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elhussein, Elaf Abdelillah Ali; Şahin, Selin

    2018-01-01

    Drying is the crucial food processing for bioactive components from plant materials before strating extraction in addition to preservation of raw plant materials during storage period. Olive leaves were dried by various methods such as microwave drying (MD), oven drying (OD) and vacuum drying (VD) at several temperature values in the present study. Mathematical models allow to develop, design and control the processes. 14 emprical equations were used to estimate the drying behaviour and the time required for drying. Convenience of the models were evaluated according to the correlation coefficient (R 2 ), varience (S 2 ) and root mean square deviation (D RMS ). On the other hand, the effective diffusion coefficient and energy for activation were also calculated. Effects of the drying methods on the total phenolic (TPC), flavonoid (TFC) and oleuropein contents and free radical scavenging activity (FRSA) of the olive leaves were also investigated to take into considiration the quality of the dried product. MD has proved to be the fastest drying method having the highest effective diffusivity and the lowest activation energy with a more qualitive product.

  15. Studies of particle drying using non-invasive Raman spectrometry and particle size analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Peter; Littlejohn, David; Nordon, Alison; Sefcik, Jan; Slavin, Paul; Dallin, Paul; Andrews, John

    2011-05-21

    The evaporation of methanol from needle-shaped particles of cellobiose octaacetate (COA) has been studied directly in a jacketed vacuum drier using in situ measurements by Raman spectrometry. A design of experiments (DoE) approach was used to investigate the effects of three parameters (method of agitation, % solvent loss on drying and jacket temperature), with the intention of minimising the drying time and extent of particle attrition. Drying curves based on Raman signals for methanol and COA in the spectra of the wet particles indicated the end of drying and revealed three stages in the drying process that could be used to monitor the progress of solvent removal in real time. Off-line particle size measurements based on laser diffraction were made to obtain information on the extent of attrition, to compare with the trends revealed by the Raman drying curves. The study demonstrated that non-invasive Raman spectrometry can be used to study the progress of drying during agitation of particles in a vacuum drier, allowing optimisation of operating conditions to minimise attrition and reduce drying times. Although a correlation between particle size and off-line Raman measurements of COA was demonstrated, it was not possible to derive equivalent information from the in situ Raman spectra owing to the greater effects of particle motion or bulk density variations of the particles in the drier.

  16. Physicochemical properties of whole fruit plum powders obtained using different drying technologies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalska, Anna; Wojdyło, Aneta; Lech, Krzysztof; Łysiak, Grzegorz P; Figiel, Adam

    2016-09-15

    Physicochemical quality parameters of plum powders obtained by applying conventional drying methods and their combination devised to process plums were evaluated. The effect of freeze-drying (FD), vacuum drying (VD), convective drying (CD), microwave-vacuum drying (MVD) and combination of convective pre-drying and microwave finish-drying (CPD-MVFD) affected physical (bulk density, porosity, colour, solubility) and chemical (polyphenolic compounds determined by UPLC and antioxidant capacity by TEAC ABTS and FRAP methods) properties of plum powders. The MVD at 1.2 W g(-1) and a novel combination for plum powders production - CPD-MVFD at 70 °C/1.2 W g(-1) allowed the best preservation of phenolic compounds and increased the efficiency of production. Results obtained support the use of MVD and its combination for better quality of dried plum products. The study proved that the determination of the browning index and HMF level (formed via Maillard reaction) might be good tool for monitoring the thermal processing of plum powders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Ma

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Perchloroethylene (PERC is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994–2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  18. Association between Residential Proximity to PERC Dry Cleaning Establishments and Kidney Cancer in New York City

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ma, J.; Lessner, L.; Lessner, L.; Carpenter, D.O.; Schreiber, J.

    2010-01-01

    Perchloroethylene (PERC) is commonly used as a dry cleaning solvent and is believed to be a human carcinogen, with occupational exposure resulting in elevated rates of kidney cancer. Living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC has been demonstrated to increase the risk of PERC exposure throughout the building where the dry cleaning is conducted, and in nearby buildings. We designed this study to test the hypothesis that living in an area where there are many PERC dry cleaners increases PERC exposure and the risk of kidney cancer. We matched the diagnosis of kidney cancer from hospitalization discharge data in New York City for the years 1994-2004 by zip code of patient residence to the zip code density of dry cleaners using PERC, as a surrogate for residential exposure. We controlled for age, race, gender, and median household income. We found a significant association between the density of PERC dry cleaning establishments and the rate of hospital discharges that include a diagnosis of kidney cancer among persons 45 years of age and older living in New York City. The rate ratio increased by 10 to 27% for the populations in zip codes with higher density of PERC dry cleaners. Because our exposure assessment is inexact, we are likely underestimating the real association between exposure to PERC and rates of kidney cancer. Our results support the hypothesis that living near a dry cleaning facility using PERC increases the risk of PERC exposure and of developing kidney cancer. To our knowledge, this study is the first to demonstrate an association between residential PERC exposure and cancer risk.

  19. Total phenolics, antioxidant capacity, colour and drying characteristics of date fruit dried with different methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökçen İZLİ

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Date slices were dried with the three drying methods convective (60, 70 and 80 °C, microwave (120 W and freeze drying to determine drying characteristics and to compare the dried fruit quality. All colour parameters changed depending on the drying method and colours closest to the fresh sample were obtained with freeze drying. It is interesting to note that the total phenolic content and antioxidant capacity in each sample rose when looked at in relation to the fresh sample. In particular, microwave-dried samples were recorded as having the highest total phenolic content and the highest antioxidant capacity. To explain the drying kinetics of the date slices, nine thin-layer drying models were also attempted. Based on statistical tests, the model developed by Midilli et al. model was found to be the best model for convective and microwave drying, but the Two Term model was the best for freeze drying. This study shows that microwave drying can produce high quality date slices with the additional advantage of reduced drying times compared to convective and freeze drying.

  20. Seed ecology and regeneration in dry Afromontane forests of Ethiopia

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Teketay, D. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Umeaa (Sweden). Dept. of Forest Vegetation Ecology

    1996-12-31

    Various aspects of seed and regeneration ecology: germination requirements of seeds, seed longevity in the soil, soil seed banks in forests, gaps and arable land as well as density, survival and growth of seedlings were investigated within the dry Afromontane region in Ethiopia. In laboratory germination tests, 60% of the species studied exhibited some degree of initial dormancy and the optimum constant temperature for germination was between 20 and 25 deg C in the majority of the species. A few species showed a requirement for fluctuating temperatures and germination was suppressed or completely inhibited in several, mainly small-seeded, species when they were incubated in darkness or in light filtered through green leaves. Hard-seeded species required scarification treatments to improve germination, indicating seed-coat imposed dormancy. Dry storage reduced the germinability of seeds in a few species, suggesting a recalcitrant behaviour, while seeds of many species remained unaffected. During four years of storage in forest soils, seeds of 2 out of 8 species germinated in the soil almost completely within a year, 2 of the species maintained nearly full viability, while 4 were intermediate. The generally high levels of dormancy and somewhat extended viability of seeds in the soil may have been selected for under a climate of seasonal drought and unreliable rainfall that characterizes the dry Afromontane region. Dry Afromontane forests have a potential to recover in relatively short time after natural and man-made disturbances, e.g. after carefully managed selective cutting. However, the common practice of clearing forests and converting them into permanent arable land destroys the sources of regrowth thereby preventing regeneration of the forest vegetation. Therefore, the fate of dry Afromontane forests depends on the protection, careful management and conservation of the remaining patches. 102 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  1. Why Density Dependent Propulsion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2011-01-01

    In 2004 Khoury and Weltman produced a density dependent cosmology theory they call the Chameleon, as at its nature, it is hidden within known physics. The Chameleon theory has implications to dark matter/energy with universe acceleration properties, which implies a new force mechanism with ties to the far and local density environment. In this paper, the Chameleon Density Model is discussed in terms of propulsion toward new propellant-less engineering methods.

  2. Density limits in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tendler, M.

    1984-06-01

    The energy loss from a tokamak plasma due to neutral hydrogen radiation and recycling is of great importance for the energy balance at the periphery. It is shown that the requirement for thermal equilibrium implies a constraint on the maximum attainable edge density. The relation to other density limits is discussed. The average plasma density is shown to be a strong function of the refuelling deposition profile. (author)

  3. Nuclear Level Densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimes, S.M.

    2005-01-01

    Recent research in the area of nuclear level densities is reviewed. The current interest in nuclear astrophysics and in structure of nuclei off of the line of stability has led to the development of radioactive beam facilities with larger machines currently being planned. Nuclear level densities for the systems used to produce the radioactive beams influence substantially the production rates of these beams. The modification of level-density parameters near the drip lines would also affect nucleosynthesis rates and abundances

  4. effect of population density and dose of nitrogen and potassium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A. Hussein

    2018-01-01

    Jan 1, 2018 ... while, nitrogen consumption increased dry weight resulting in increased plant yield (Hatami et al., 2009). Vorob (2000) ... of this study was to investigate the effect of plant density and dose of nitrogen and potassium on Green bean Cv. ..... biogeochem. cycle., 2008, 22(1), 1022-1041. [11] Moniruzzaman M ...

  5. Measurement of true density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carr-Brion, K.G.; Keen, E.F.

    1982-01-01

    System for determining the true density of a fluent mixture such as a liquid slurry, containing entrained gas, such as air comprises a restriction in pipe through which at least a part of the mixture is passed. Density measuring means such as gamma-ray detectors and source measure the apparent density of the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Solid-state pressure measuring devices are arranged to measure the pressure in the mixture before and after its passage through the restriction. Calculating means, such as a programmed microprocessor, determine the true density from these measurements using relationships given in the description. (author)

  6. Force convective solar drying system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruslan, M.H.; Othman, M.Y.; Baharuddin Yatim; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Ibarahim, Z.

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents design and performance of V-groove back-pass solar collector for solar drying system. In this study three V-groove back-pass solar collector each with dimension of 4.6 m x 1.0 m x 0.15 m have been fabricated for solar drying system. An outdoor test at mean solar intensity for 600-800 Wm -2 by using 0.15m 3 s -1 of air flow rate which also been suggested by (Zeroul et al. 1994) was carried out at Solar Research Energy Park. Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia. Analysis on the collector performance based on daily data was reported that the value of FR ) e and FRUL was 0.709 ± 0.001 and 5.89 ± 0.31 Wm -2o C -1 respectively with 60-70 o C of output temperature (Ruslan et al. 2001). The three V-groove collectors each with dimension 4.6 m x 0.15 m were connected in series array mounted on the roof of a solar assisted drying system. By using two electric fans of 85W and 2700 rpm each, the speed of air was regulated at 0.11 kgs -1 to 0.31 kgs -1 using a voltage regulator. Performance of the collector based on the thermal analysis showed that at mean daily solar radiation 700 Wm -2 , the output temperature of 52 o C to 73 o C could be achieved using 0.11-0.31 kgs -1 of flow rate. Thermal analysis also showed that the efficiencies of 45% to 61% could be obtains using the same flow rate and solar radiation. Analysis of daily data showed that for radiation from 300 Wm -2 to 1000 Wm -2 the power generated from the collector was within 1.5 kW to 8.9 kW. The study concluded that the levels of the levels of the solar radiation and flow rate used influenced the performance of the collector

  7. Management of dry eye disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemp, Michael A

    2008-04-01

    The management of dry eye disease (DED) encompasses both pharmacologic and nonpharmacologic approaches, including avoidance of exacerbating factors, eyelid hygiene, tear supplementation, tear retention, tear stimulation, and anti-inflammatory agents. Artificial tears are the mainstay of DED therapy but, although they improve symptoms and objective findings, there is no evidence that they can resolve the underlying inflammation in DED. Topical corticosteroids are effective anti-inflammatory agents, but are not recommended for long-term use because of their adverse-effect profiles. Topical cyclosporine--currently the only pharmacologic treatment approved by the US Food and Drug Administration specifically for DED--is safe for long-term use and is disease-modifying rather than merely palliative. Treatment selection is guided primarily by DED severity. Recently published guidelines propose a severity classification based on clinical signs and symptoms, with treatment recommendations according to severity level.

  8. Model Stickiness in Spray Drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Thomas

    only slightly and then typically moved slightly away before either stopping with contact (sticky) or bouncing with no contact (non-sticky). Sticky particles had a large apparent contact angle, similar to what would be expected for a liquid with poor wetting properties. The velocity did not seem...... to change this much, although slight deformation was seen when the impact velocity was at the highest used values. The phenomenon did not appear to change noticeable when the droplet was dried in a high relative humidity environment. The qualitative difference observable between Teon and stainless steel...... was very limited. On Stainless steel the droplet seemed to wet slightly more after the initial impact while the contact area was constant for Teon. Modelling work was carried out to help understand the phenomenon, but also to investigate how the impact scaled for particle size. This was done using...

  9. Radioactivity of some dried fruits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Akhmedova, G.; Mamatkulov, O.B.; Hushmuradov, Sh.H.

    2004-01-01

    Full text: Radioactivity radiation from natural and artificial sources often acts at the same time in complicated combinations and without exception on all inhabitants of our planet. Natural and artificial radioactive isotopes pass into living organism by biological chain: soil-water-air-plants-foodstuffs-person and can be sources of inside irradiation. Accumulation of radionuclides in living organism in large quantities limit permissible concentration (LPC) can lead to pathological changes in organism. With above mentioned at the radioecological investigations, researches and control of changes of radionuclides concentration in environmental objects have important interests. Investigations of determination of radioactivity of environmental objects, which began in 1960 by professor Muso Muminov are continued in the department of nuclear physics of Samarkand State University. We work out semiconducting gamma-spectrometric method of determination of radionuclides concentration in weak -active environmental samples. We investigated radioactivity of different samples of natural environment and generalized results. In this work the results of investigation of radioactivity of same dried fruits are presented. The spectra of γ-radiation of following dried fruits as grapes, apricot, apple and peach was investigated. In measured gamma-radiation spectra of these samples gamma-transitions of 226 Ra, 232 Th, 40 K natural radionuclides and product of 137 Cs division. The specific gamma-activities these radionuclides were determined. The 40 K have most specific activity and 137 Cs - least. The calculated quantities of specific gamma-activity of radionuclides in gamma-spectra of investigated samples can replace to following row: 40 K > 232 Th > 226 Ra > 137 Cs

  10. Drying Kinetics Analysis of Seaweed Gracilaria changii using Solar Drying System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Yusof Othman; Ahmad Fudholi; Kamaruzzaman Sopian; Mohd Hafidz Ruslan; Muhammad Yahya

    2012-01-01

    A solar drying system suitable for agricultural and marine products have been designed, constructed and evaluated under Malaysia climatic conditions. The solar drying system has been constructed and evaluated for the drying of seaweed Gracilaria changii. The initial and final moisture content of seaweed are 95 % (wet basis) and 10 % (product basis), respectively. The drying time was about 7 hours at average solar radiation of 593 W/ m 2 and air flow rate of 0.0613 kg/ s. Three different thin-layer drying models were compared with experimental data, during the drying of seaweed using the solar drying system at average temperature and humidity of about 50 degree Celsius and 20 %, respectively. The one with highest R2 and lowest MBE and RMSE was selected to better estimate the drying curves. The study showed that the Page model was better fit to drying seaweed compared to the other models (Newton model, and Henderson and Pabis model). (author)

  11. Intensifying drying process with creation of functional plant compositions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zh. Petrova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. The process of drying agricultural raw products is associated with loss of bioactive substances by the products exposed to heat, light, oxygen, or рН medium. It is reasonable to enhance the table beet processing technology in order to achieve maximum betanin conservation at lower energy consumption. Materials and methods. Table beets, rhubarbs, lemons, and tomatoes were dried at temperature of 50 to 100 ºС, air speed of 1.5 to 3.5 m/s, heat carrier water content of 7 to 15 g/kg, and layer thickness of 2 to 20 mm. The betanіn content was determined via absorption spectra, using the optical density value at 540 nm wavelength. A differential microcalorimeter was used for measuring evaporation heat consumption. Results and discussion.The effect of raw product pre-drying preparation was studied. With no preliminary preparation, the loss of betanin after drying reaches 66 %. The preliminary preparation technology we have developed includes boiling whole root crops with optimal selection of acid medium and allows us to reduce the betanin loss down to 6 %. Regretfully, the process requires large energy consumption. Low energy consumption pre-drying preparation method was developed for antioxidant raw products with thermal processing replaced by blending. The betanin loss, in this case, does not exceed 5 %. Optimal drying temperature of betanin-containing raw stock, after its preliminary processing, is 60 °С. It allows to keep up to 95 % of betanіn. Specific heat consumption for water evaporation out of the developed table beet based antioxidant plant compositions, with addition of rhubarb and lemon, is less by 4 to 5 % as compared to the initial components. Conclusions. Dependence of betanin loss in plant raw stock on the material temperature and composition components, in the course of their pre-drying preparation, was found. It was also found that water evaporation heat, for some antioxidant plant compositions developed, is less

  12. Combined electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying of shrimp

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hu, Yucai; Huang, Qiang; Bai, Yaxiang

    2013-01-01

    To improve the drying qualities of shrimp, a combination of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) and vacuum freeze drying (FD) is examined. The drying rate, the shrinkage, the rehydration ratio, and the sensory properties including the color and trimness of the dried products under different drying methods (including combination drying of EHD and FD, EHD drying and FD drying) are measured. Compared with FD and EHD drying alone, the combined process consumes less drying time, and the product processed by combined drying displays lower shrinkage, higher rehydration rate and better sensory qualities.

  13. Direct dry transfer of chemical vapor deposition graphene to polymeric substrates

    OpenAIRE

    Fechine, Guilhermino J. M.; Martin-Fernandez, Inigo; Yiapanis, George; de Oliveira, Ricardo V. Bof; Hu, Xiao; Yarovsky, Irene; Neto, Antonio H. Castro; Ozyilmaz, Barbaros

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the direct dry transfer of large area Chemical Vapor Deposition graphene to several polymers (low density polyethylene, high density polyethylene, polystyrene, polylactide acid and poly(vinylidenefluoride-co-trifluoroethylene) by means of only moderate heat and pressure, and the later mechanical peeling of the original graphene substrate. Simulations of the graphene-polymer interactions, rheological tests and graphene transfer at various experimental conditions show that contro...

  14. On density forecast evaluation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Diks, C.

    2008-01-01

    Traditionally, probability integral transforms (PITs) have been popular means for evaluating density forecasts. For an ideal density forecast, the PITs should be uniformly distributed on the unit interval and independent. However, this is only a necessary condition, and not a sufficient one, as

  15. The Challenges of Malaysian Dry Ports Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jagan Jeevan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the functions and challenges of dry ports development in Malaysia through 11 face-to-face interviews with dry port stakeholders. The findings reveal that Malaysian dry ports are developed to accelerate national and international business, to activate intermodalism in the nation, to promote regional economic development and to enhance seaport competitiveness. Malaysian dry ports perform the function of transport and logistics, information processing, seaports and value-added services. Challenges facing Malaysian dry ports include insufficient railway tracks, unorganized container planning on the rail deck, highly dependent on single mode of transportation, poor recognition from the seaport community, and competition from localized seaports. This paper further indicates strategies for coping with these challenges and identifies future opportunities for Malaysian dry ports development.

  16. Learning Grasp Affordance Densities

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, Renaud; Kraft, Dirk; Kroemer, Oliver

    2011-01-01

    and relies on kernel density estimation to provide a continuous model. Grasp densities are learned and refined from exploration, by letting a robot “play” with an object in a sequence of graspand-drop actions: The robot uses visual cues to generate a set of grasp hypotheses; it then executes......We address the issue of learning and representing object grasp affordance models. We model grasp affordances with continuous probability density functions (grasp densities) which link object-relative grasp poses to their success probability. The underlying function representation is nonparametric...... these and records their outcomes. When a satisfactory number of grasp data is available, an importance-sampling algorithm turns these into a grasp density. We evaluate our method in a largely autonomous learning experiment run on three objects of distinct shapes. The experiment shows how learning increases success...

  17. EVALUATION OF DRY EYES IN DIABETES MELLITUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anshu Sharma

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND According to the National Eye Institute, dry eye is a condition in which the eye does not produce tears properly. It can also involve tears not having the right consistency or evaporating too quickly. Tears are necessary to help maintain moisture on the surface of the eye and for clear vision. Diabetes is often associated with several significant ocular conditions such as retinopathy, refractive changes, cataracts, glaucoma and macular oedema. However, one of the most common ocular complications associated with diabetes is dry eye. The aim of the study is to study the prevalence of dry eyes in diabetes mellitus and to evaluate ocular and other risk factors relevant to diabetic dry eyes. MATERIALS AND METHODS A hospital-based cross-sectional clinical study of 100 diabetic patients who presented to the Department of Ophthalmology, Santosh Medical College and Hospital, Ghaziabad, between January 2016 to June 2017 was conducted. Detailed diabetic history was recorded. Assessment of anterior segment via slit-lamp biomicroscopy was done. The examinations for dry eyes included Schirmer's test, tear breakup time, fluorescein and rose Bengal staining. RESULTS Sixty two (62% diabetic patients had dry eye. The prevalence in type I was 3% and prevalence in type II was 59%. Dry eye prevalence was maximum in those above 40 years of age. Symptoms like reduced corneal sensation (44% and meibomitis (20% were major attributable risk factors. Ocular surface damage was predominantly superficial punctate keratitis. Retinopathy was not statistically associated with the prevalence of dry eyes. CONCLUSION Diabetes and dry eye appears to be a common association. Reduction in the modifiable risk factors of dry eye is essential to reduce its prevalence. No significant statistical correlation was found between retinopathy and dry eyes. However, examination for dry eyes should be an integral part of the assessment of diabetic eye disease.

  18. How to restore dry forest ecosystems

    OpenAIRE

    Nalvarte, Jaime

    2012-01-01

    AIDER is a Peruvian non-governmental organization working since 1992 on forest management activities, watershed management and urban forest management on tropical humid and dry forest at a national level. AIDER and the José Ignacio Távara Pasapera rural community have been working on dry forest management and recovery since 1992. This paper summarizes the activity of AIDER in the dry forests for the purpose of recovering degraded forest areas and conserve existing forests by developing sustai...

  19. Procedure for drying humidity-containing bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.R.

    1976-01-01

    The invention concerns a decontamination process for extracting impurities, in particular humidity and gases, from nuclear fuel rods before they are sealed and inserted into the reactor. The fuel rod, which has a small drilling hole, is placed in a low pressure container. The container is filled with a liquid drying agent which washes out the impurities. A dry inert gas (nitrogen, noble gases) is used for rinsing. Alcohols, ketones, methanol, acetone are named as drying agents. (UWI) [de

  20. MODELLING OF THIN LAYER DRYING KINETICS OF COCOA BEANS DURING ARTIFICIAL AND NATURAL DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C.L. HII

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Drying experiments were conducted using air-ventilated oven and sun dryer to simulate the artificial and natural drying processes of cocoa beans. The drying data were fitted with several published thin layer drying models. A new model was introduced which is a combination of the Page and two-term drying model. Selection of the best model was investigated by comparing the determination of coefficient (R2, reduced chi-square (2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the experimental and predicted values. The results showed that the new model was found best described the artificial and natural drying kinetics of cocoa under the conditions tested.

  1. Effect of drying temperatures on the proximate composition and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Results of the proximate composition showed that the nutritional qualities of the dried eggs were retained during drying thus the drying temperature did not affect the quality of eggs. The moisture contents of the dried whole egg, dried egg yolk and dried egg white at the different temperatures range from 6.25 -7.23%, ...

  2. FINAL REPORT: Transformational electrode drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Claus Daniel, C.; Wixom, M.(A123 Systems, Inc.)

    2013-12-19

    This report includes major findings and outlook from the transformational electrode drying project performance period from January 6, 2012 to August 1, 2012. Electrode drying before cell assembly is an operational bottleneck in battery manufacturing due to long drying times and batch processing. Water taken up during shipment and other manufacturing steps needs to be removed before final battery assembly. Conventional vacuum ovens are limited in drying speed due to a temperature threshold needed to avoid damaging polymer components in the composite electrode. Roll to roll operation and alternative treatments can increase the water desorption and removal rate without overheating and damaging other components in the composite electrode, thus considerably reducing drying time and energy use. The objective of this project was the development of an electrode drying procedure, and the demonstration of processes with no decrease in battery performance. The benchmark for all drying data was an 80°C vacuum furnace treatment with a residence time of 18 – 22 hours. This report demonstrates an alternative roll to roll drying process with a 500-fold improvement in drying time down to 2 minutes and consumption of only 30% of the energy compared to vacuum furnace treatment.

  3. Dry Eye: an Inflammatory Ocular Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hessen, Michelle; Akpek, Esen Karamursel

    2014-01-01

    Keratoconjunctivitis sicca, or dry eye, is a common ocular disease prompting millions of individuals to seek ophthalmological care. Regardless of the underlying etiology, dry eye has been shown to be associated with abnormalities in the pre-corneal tear film and subsequent inflammatory changes in the entire ocular surface including the adnexa, conjunctiva and cornea. Since the recognition of the role of inflammation in dry eye, a number of novel treatments have been investigated designed to inhibit various inflammatory pathways. Current medications that are used, including cyclosporine A, corticosteroids, tacrolimus, tetracycline derivatives and autologous serum, have been effective for management of dry eye and lead to measurable clinical improvement. PMID:25279127

  4. Tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerretani, Colin F; Radke, C J

    2014-06-01

    Dry-eye disease, an increasingly prevalent ocular-surface disorder, significantly alters tear physiology. Understanding the basic physics of tear dynamics in healthy and dry eyes benefits both diagnosis and treatment of dry eye. We present a physiological-based model to describe tear dynamics during blinking. Tears are compartmentalized over the ocular surface; the blink cycle is divided into three repeating phases. Conservation laws quantify the tear volume and tear osmolarity of each compartment during each blink phase. Lacrimal-supply and tear-evaporation rates are varied to reveal the dependence of tear dynamics on dry-eye conditions, specifically tear osmolarity, tear volume, tear-turnover rate (TTR), and osmotic water flow. Predicted periodic-steady tear-meniscus osmolarity is 309 and 321 mOsM in normal and dry eyes, respectively. Tear osmolarity, volume, and TTR all match available clinical measurements. Osmotic water flow through the cornea and conjunctiva contribute 10 and 50% to the total tear supply in healthy and dry-eye conditions, respectively. TTR in aqueous-deficient dry eye (ADDE) is only half that in evaporative dry eye (EDE). The compartmental periodic-steady tear-dynamics model accurately predicts tear behavior in normal and dry eyes. Inclusion of osmotic water flow is crucial to match measured tear osmolarity. Tear-dynamics predictions corroborate the use of TTR as a clinical discriminator between ADDE and EDE. The proposed model is readily extended to predict the dynamics of aqueous solutes such as drugs or fluorescent tags.

  5. Drying Rate of Carbonate of Nickel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ing. Aymara Ricardo-Riverón

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available In the present work, the drying rate of carbonate of nickel was studied experimentally at the laboratory scale. The values of critical moisture are shown and the graphics: characteristic curve of drying rate and the moisture dependence of the time. Models ware obtained to estimate the slope of the constant - rate period and to the falling - rate period until the equilibrium humidity, in dependence of external factors: drying temperature, initial moisture and the pH of the slurry. The chemical composition of the carbonate didn't exercise effect statistically significant over the drying rate.

  6. Recent developments in drying of food products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valarmathi, T. N.; Sekar, S.; Purushothaman, M.; Sekar, S. D.; Rama Sharath Reddy, Maddela; Reddy, Kancham Reddy Naveen Kumar

    2017-05-01

    Drying is a dehydration process to preserve agricultural products for long period usage. The most common and cheapest method is open sun drying in which the products are simply laid on ground, road, mats, roof, etc. But the open sun drying has some disadvantages like dependent on good weather, contamination by dust, birds and animals consume a considerable quantity, slow drying rate and damages due to strong winds and rain. To overcome these difficulties solar dryers are developed with closed environment for drying agricultural products effectively. To obtain good quality food with reduced energy consumption, selection of appropriate drying process and proper input parameters is essential. In recent years several researchers across the world have developed new drying systems for improving the product quality, increasing the drying rate, decreasing the energy consumption, etc. Some of the new systems are fluidized bed, vibrated fluidized bed, desiccant, microwave, vacuum, freeze, infrared, intermittent, electro hydrodynamic and hybrid dryers. In this review the most recent progress in the field of drying of agricultural food products such as new methods, new products and modeling and optimization techniques has been presented. Challenges and future directions are also highlighted. The review will be useful for new researchers entering into this ever needed and ever growing field of engineering.

  7. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-01-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified

  8. Solar drying in sludge management in Turkey

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamil Salihoglu, Nezih; Pinarli, Vedat; Salihoglu, Guray [Faculty of Engineering and Architecture, Environmental Engineering Department, Uludag University, 16059, Bursa (Turkey)

    2007-08-15

    Two main wastewater treatment plants in Bursa city in Turkey will start to operate and produce at least 27,000 tons of dry solids per year by the end of 2006. The purpose of this study was to investigate an economical solution to the sludge management problem that Bursa city would encounter. The general trend in Turkey is mechanical dewatering to obtain a dry solid (DS) content of 20%, and liming the mechanically dewatered sludge to reach the legal land filling requirement, 35% DS content. This study recommends limited liming and solar drying as an alternative to only-liming the mechanically dewatered sludge. Open and covered solar sludge drying plants were constructed in pilot scale for experimental purposes. Dry solids and climatic conditions were constantly measured. Faecal coliform reduction was also monitored. The specially designed covered solar drying plant proved to be more efficient than the open plant in terms of drying and faecal coliform reduction. It was found that, if the limited liming and solar drying method was applied after mechanical dewatering instead of only-liming method, the total amount of the sludge to be disposed would be reduced by approximately 40%. This would lead to a reduction in the transportation, handling, and land filling costs. The covered drying system would amortize itself in 4 years. (author)

  9. Recent advances in fluidized bed drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haron, N. S.; Zakaria, J. H.; Mohideen Batcha, M. F.

    2017-09-01

    Fluidized bed drying are very well known to yield high heat and mass transfer and hence adopted to many industrial drying processes particularly agricultural products. In this paper, recent advances in fluidized bed drying were reviewed and focus is given to the drying related to the usage of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD). It can be seen that usage of modern computational tools such as CFD helps to optimize the fluidized bed dryer design and operation for lower energy consumption and thus better thermal efficiency. Among agricultural products that were reviewed in this paper were oil palm frond, wheat grains, olive pomace, coconut, pepper corn and millet.

  10. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    IRWIN, J.J.

    1999-07-01

    This document provides the detailed design requirements for the Spent Nuclear Fuel Project Cold Vacuum Drying Facility. Process, safety, and quality assurance requirements and interfaces are specified.

  11. Drying watery wheat grains by far infrared

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suda, K.; Murata, K.; Hara, M.

    2004-01-01

    Summary A far infrared dryer was experimented to dry wheat grains for high performance and cost reduction. It is more efficient than a circulating dryer reducing drying time by 20% and fuel consumption by 20 - 30%. Whereas it takes more time and more fuel, when the drying rate is set at 1%/h. Moreover, on condition that the average drying rate is lower, it could decrease the rate of green wheat grains up to 3%. But green wheat grains did not disappear at all on the condition

  12. Current density tensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lazzeretti, Paolo

    2018-04-01

    It is shown that nonsymmetric second-rank current density tensors, related to the current densities induced by magnetic fields and nuclear magnetic dipole moments, are fundamental properties of a molecule. Together with magnetizability, nuclear magnetic shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, they completely characterize its response to magnetic perturbations. Gauge invariance, resolution into isotropic, deviatoric, and antisymmetric parts, and contributions of current density tensors to magnetic properties are discussed. The components of the second-rank tensor properties are rationalized via relationships explicitly connecting them to the direction of the induced current density vectors and to the components of the current density tensors. The contribution of the deviatoric part to the average value of magnetizability, nuclear shielding, and nuclear spin-spin coupling, uniquely determined by the antisymmetric part of current density tensors, vanishes identically. The physical meaning of isotropic and anisotropic invariants of current density tensors has been investigated, and the connection between anisotropy magnitude and electron delocalization has been discussed.

  13. Properties of dry masonry mixtures based on hollow aluminosilicate microspheres

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semenov Vyacheslav

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available At present, there is a steady increase in the volume of housing construction in the Russian Federation. The modern trends in the field of energy and resource saving determine the need of the use of efficient building materials that ensure the safety, comfort and minimum cost of housing construction. Among the materials, often used for erecting of fencing structures, it is possible to note effective small-piece elements (ceramic and light-weight concrete units, etc.. To ensure the solidity of such structures, it is necessary to use the masonry mortars whose properties correspond to those of the main wall material. The existing dry mixes for obtaining of such mortars are expensive and often do not meet the minimum physical-and-mechanical and exploitation requirements. The solution of this problem is the usage of the hollow ceramics (aluminosilicate microspheres as a filler for such mixes. The article presents the results of studies of the main physical-and-mechanical and exploitation characteristics of dry masonry mixes with hollow ceramics microspheres modified with various chemical additives. The effect of the compounding factors on the average density and strength of dry masonry mixes was studied. The compositions have been optimized by the methods of mathematical planning.

  14. INFLUENCE OF BIOPREPARATIONS FROM DRY SOYBEAN AND SUNFLOWER LECITHINS ON SERUM LIPIDS COMPOSITION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. V. Dziak

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Dry lecithin, which is a mixture of polar phospholipids, neutral lipids, free fatty acids, glycolipids, carbohydrates, and small amounts of moisture, is a promising object for biologic-hepatoprotectors creation. One of its pharmacological activity displays is its influence on serum lipids, in particular transport forms of these lipids. The influence of dry soy lecithin and sunflower on hyperlipoproteinemia ratio and other lipid disorders is studied. It is shown that low-fat dry soybean lecithin showed hypocholesterolemic activity against all studied forms of serum cholesterol. Nonfat dry sunflower lecithin had similar but somewhat less prominent effect. However reduced concentration of high density lipoprotein cholesterol under sunflower lecithin developed right before soya lecithin. Both lecithin prevented the development of dyslipidemia induced carbon tetrachloride.

  15. Performance of Clarias gariepinus Fed Dried Brewer's Yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) Slurry in Replacement for Soybean Meal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, Shola Gabriel; Ataguba, Gabriel Arome; Itodo, Gabriel Enemona

    2017-01-01

    Following disparity of earlier results, this study tested the performance of African catfish Clarias gariepinus fed dried brewer's yeast slurry meal (DBYM) based diets. Fingerlings of C. gariepinus with pooled mean initial weight of 1.58 ± 0.01 g were stocked in hapas (1 m × 1 m × 1 m) immersed in an earthen pond at a density of 15 fish per cage. Five diets with increasing substitution of soybean meal with 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of dried brewer's yeast and a control without dried brewer's yeast (0% substitution) were evaluated for 8 weeks. Palatability of diets reduced with increasing levels of DBYM. Growth and utilization parameters such as weight gain, feed conversion ratio, protein efficiency ratio, and specific growth rate differed significantly ( p meal with DBYM in C. gariepinus feed is between 1% and 14% of dry matter.

  16. Microstructure study of a material on the basis of YSZ obtained be freeze-drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rizea, A.; Abrudeanu, M.; Petot, C.; Petot Ervas, G.

    2001-01-01

    Freeze-drying is a dehydration proceeding of the products in a frozen state, which is based on the ice sublimation process. It is a method, which leads to a very good homogeneity of the products and it allows obtaining very fine powders, which directs to reducing the sintering temperature. Freeze drying always supposes three stages: - freezing, sublimation and absorption of the residual water. The preparation of ZrO 20.91 Y 2 O 30.09 samples proceeds through the following stages: - a. solution preparation; b. solution spraying (into small droplets in liquid nitrogen); c. freeze drying processing; d. calcination of the freeze dried powder; e. powder compacting; f. sintering at four different temperature. The different structure of samples with different density are characterized on basis of micrographs. The results of these analyses are presented, discussed and explained through the chemical composition of the samples

  17. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pekka Pajander, Jari; Matero, Sanni Elina; Sloth, Jakob

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. METHODS: A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet....../particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X......-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. RESULTS: XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis...

  18. A sampling study on rock properties affecting drilling rate index (DRI)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yenice, Hayati; Özdoğan, Mehmet V.; Özfırat, M. Kemal

    2018-05-01

    Drilling rate index (DRI) developed in Norway is a very useful index in determining the drillability of rocks and even in performance prediction of hard rock TBMs and it requires special laboratory test equipment. Drillability is one of the most important subjects in rock excavation. However, determining drillability index from physical and mechanical properties of rocks is very important for practicing engineers such as underground excavation, drilling operations in open pit mining, underground mining and natural stone production. That is why many researchers have studied concerned with drillability to find the correlations between drilling rate index (DRI) and penetration rate, influence of geological properties on drillability prediction in tunneling, correlations between rock properties and drillability. In this study, the relationships between drilling rate index (DRI) and some physico-mechanical properties (Density, Shore hardness, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS, σc), Indirect tensile strength (ITS, σt)) of three different rock groups including magmatic, sedimentary and metamorphic were evaluated using both simple and multiple regression analysis. This study reveals the effects of rock properties on DRI according to different types of rocks. In simple regression, quite high correlations were found between DRI and uniaxial compressive strength (UCS) and also between DRI and indirect tensile strength (ITS) values. Multiple regression analyses revealed even higher correlations when compared to simple regression. Especially, UCS, ITS, Shore hardness (SH) and the interactions between them were found to be very effective on DRI values.

  19. Landfill covers for dry environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dwyer, S.F.

    1996-01-01

    A large-scale landfill cover field test is currently underway at Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico. It is intended to compare and document the performance of alternative landfill cover technologies of various costs and complexities for interim stabilization and/or final closure of landfills in arid and semi-arid environments. Test plots of traditional designs recommended by the US Environmental Protection Agency for both RCRA Subtitle open-quote C close-quote and open-quote D close-quote regulated facilities have been constructed side-by-side with the alternative covers and will serve as baselines for comparison to these alternative covers. The alternative covers were designed specifically for dry environments. The covers will be tested under both ambient and stressed conditions. All covers have been instrumented to measure water balance variables and soil temperature. An on-site weather station records all pertinent climatological data. A key to acceptance of an alternative environmental technology is seeking regulatory acceptance and eventual permitting. The lack of acceptance by regulatory agencies is a significant barrier to development and implementation of innovative cover technologies. Much of the effort on this demonstration has been toward gaining regulatory and public acceptance

  20. Single droplet drying for optimal spray drying of enzymes and probiotics

    OpenAIRE

    Schutyser, M.A.I.; Perdana, J.A.; Boom, R.M.

    2012-01-01

    Spray drying is a mild and cost-effective convective drying method. It can be applied to stabilise heat sensitive ingredients, such as enzymes and probiotic bacteria, albeit in industrial practice for example freeze drying or freezing are often preferred. The reason is that optimum drying conditions and tailored matrix formulations are required to avoid severe heat damage leading to loss in enzyme activity or reduced survival of bacteria. An overview is provided on the use of protective carbo...

  1. Intrinsic-density functionals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engel, J.

    2007-01-01

    The Hohenberg-Kohn theorem and Kohn-Sham procedure are extended to functionals of the localized intrinsic density of a self-bound system such as a nucleus. After defining the intrinsic-density functional, we modify the usual Kohn-Sham procedure slightly to evaluate the mean-field approximation to the functional, and carefully describe the construction of the leading corrections for a system of fermions in one dimension with a spin-degeneracy equal to the number of particles N. Despite the fact that the corrections are complicated and nonlocal, we are able to construct a local Skyrme-like intrinsic-density functional that, while different from the exact functional, shares with it a minimum value equal to the exact ground-state energy at the exact ground-state intrinsic density, to next-to-leading order in 1/N. We briefly discuss implications for real Skyrme functionals

  2. Density functional theory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, M.P.

    1984-07-01

    The state of the art of the density functional formalism (DFT) is reviewed. The theory is quantum statistical in nature; its simplest version is the well-known Thomas-Fermi theory. The DFT is a powerful formalism in which one can treat the effect of interactions in inhomogeneous systems. After some introductory material, the DFT is outlined from the two basic theorems, and various generalizations of the theorems appropriate to several physical situations are pointed out. Next, various approximations to the density functionals are presented and some practical schemes, discussed; the approximations include an electron gas of almost constant density and an electron gas of slowly varying density. Then applications of DFT in various diverse areas of physics (atomic systems, plasmas, liquids, nuclear matter) are mentioned, and its strengths and weaknesses are pointed out. In conclusion, more recent developments of DFT are indicated

  3. Low Density Supersonic Decelerators

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Low-Density Supersonic Decelerator project will demonstrate the use of inflatable structures and advanced parachutes that operate at supersonic speeds to more...

  4. density functional theory approach

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    YOGESH ERANDE

    2017-07-27

    Jul 27, 2017 ... a key role in all optical switching devices, since their optical properties can be .... optimized in the gas phase using Density Functional Theory. (DFT).39 The ...... The Mediation of Electrostatic Effects by Sol- vents J. Am. Chem.

  5. Bone mineral density test

    Science.gov (United States)

    BMD test; Bone density test; Bone densitometry; DEXA scan; DXA; Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry; p-DEXA; Osteoporosis - BMD ... need to undress. This scan is the best test to predict your risk of fractures, especially of ...

  6. Density scaling for multiplets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nagy, A

    2011-01-01

    Generalized Kohn-Sham equations are presented for lowest-lying multiplets. The way of treating non-integer particle numbers is coupled with an earlier method of the author. The fundamental quantity of the theory is the subspace density. The Kohn-Sham equations are similar to the conventional Kohn-Sham equations. The difference is that the subspace density is used instead of the density and the Kohn-Sham potential is different for different subspaces. The exchange-correlation functional is studied using density scaling. It is shown that there exists a value of the scaling factor ζ for which the correlation energy disappears. Generalized OPM and Krieger-Li-Iafrate (KLI) methods incorporating correlation are presented. The ζKLI method, being as simple as the original KLI method, is proposed for multiplets.

  7. Fission level densities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maslov, V.M.

    1998-01-01

    Fission level densities (or fissioning nucleus level densities at fission saddle deformations) are required for statistical model calculations of actinide fission cross sections. Back-shifted Fermi-Gas Model, Constant Temperature Model and Generalized Superfluid Model (GSM) are widely used for the description of level densities at stable deformations. These models provide approximately identical level density description at excitations close to the neutron binding energy. It is at low excitation energies that they are discrepant, while this energy region is crucial for fission cross section calculations. A drawback of back-shifted Fermi gas model and traditional constant temperature model approaches is that it is difficult to include in a consistent way pair correlations, collective effects and shell effects. Pair, shell and collective properties of nucleus do not reduce just to the renormalization of level density parameter a, but influence the energy dependence of level densities. These effects turn out to be important because they seem to depend upon deformation of either equilibrium or saddle-point. These effects are easily introduced within GSM approach. Fission barriers are another key ingredients involved in the fission cross section calculations. Fission level density and barrier parameters are strongly interdependent. This is the reason for including fission barrier parameters along with the fission level densities in the Starter File. The recommended file is maslov.dat - fission barrier parameters. Recent version of actinide fission barrier data obtained in Obninsk (obninsk.dat) should only be considered as a guide for selection of initial parameters. These data are included in the Starter File, together with the fission barrier parameters recommended by CNDC (beijing.dat), for completeness. (author)

  8. Density-wave oscillations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belblidia, L.A.; Bratianu, C.

    1979-01-01

    Boiling flow in a steam generator, a water-cooled reactor, and other multiphase processes can be subject to instabilities. It appears that the most predominant instabilities are the so-called density-wave oscillations. They can cause difficulties for three main reasons; they may induce burnout; they may cause mechanical vibrations of components; and they create system control problems. A comprehensive review is presented of experimental and theoretical studies concerning density-wave oscillations. (author)

  9. Density of liquid Ytterbium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stankus, S.V.; Basin, A.S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for measurements of the density of metallic ytterbium in the liquid state and at the liquid-solid phase transition. Based on the numerical data obtained, the coefficient of thermal expansion βZ of the liquid and the density discontinuity on melting deltarho/sub m/ are calculated. The magnitudes of βZ and deltarho/sub m/ for the heavy lanthanides are compared

  10. The determination of bulk (apparent) density of plant fibres by density method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharifah Hanisah Syed Abd Aziz; Raja Jamal Raja hedar; Zahid Abdullah

    2004-01-01

    The absolute density of plant fibres excludes all pores and lumen and therefore is a measure of the solid matter of the fibres. On the other hand the bulk density, which is being discussed here, includes all the solid matter and the pores of the fibres. In this work, the apparent density of the fibre was measured by using the Archimedes principle, which involves the immersion of a known weight of fibre into a solvent of lower density than the fibre. Toluene with a density of about 860 kg/m3 was chosen as a solvent. A tuft of fibre was weighed and recorded as W fa . The fibre was then immersed in toluene, which wetted the fibre, and made to rest on the weighing pan submerged in the solvent and the weight of the immersed fibre was recorded as W fs . The apparent density was then calculated using the equation. All the measurements were taken at room temperature. The fibre samples were not oven dried prior to measurement. (Author)

  11. Energetic performance analysis of drying agricultural products ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Renewable energy sources such as solar energy for drying purposes in a more effective and efficient way is inevitable for preservation of agricultural products in developing nations with inadequate access to electricity. This study investigates the effects of using a solar tracking device on the energy performance of drying ...

  12. OSCILLATING MODE OF TOPINAMBUR TUBERS DRYING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Golubkivich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Specifics of a chemical composition of tubers and green material of a topinambur (Helianthus tuberosus, high efficiency and ecological plasticity, profitability of growing, biotechnological potential of use enable to identify a topinambur as a of high-energy cultures of the future. High moisture of various topinambur parts, features of the mechanism of a heat and mass transfer set a problem of search of the new drying methods promoting to increase dehydration efficiency and produce a quality product. A method of calculation of duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying in a dense layer is worked out. The topinambur tubers cut on cubes with the side of 6 mm were taken as object of researches. Researches were conducted in the setting of various drying modes: two experiences at the oscillating mode with height of a material layer of 0.07 m and 0.17 m; and also as a check experiment was material drying at a constant temperature of the drying agent. Duration of the oscillating mode of topinambur tubers drying was calculated on their basis of received curves of changes of moisture content at various modes of drying. Estimate indicators were confirmed with experimental data. Results of determination of duration of the oscillating modes of topinambur tubers drying proved that efficiency of the oscillating modes is 18 percent higher, than at control experiment.

  13. Assembly and method for drying a product

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Boxtel, van A.J.B.; Bartels, P.V.; Djaeni, M.; Sanders, J.P.M.; Straten, van G.

    2008-01-01

    The application relates to an assembly for drying a product, comprising at least on drying device and at least one adsorption device, in which the adsorption device is provided with regenerable adsorption material for extracting water from a gas and comprises a gas inlet and a gas outlet, and is

  14. 7 CFR 58.220 - Drying systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Drying systems. 58.220 Section 58.220 Agriculture....220 Drying systems. (a) Spray dryers. Spray dryers shall be of a continuous discharge type and all... filter system shall comply with the applicable requirements of the 3-A Accepted Practices for Milk and...

  15. Design of dry sand soil stratified sampler

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Erkang; Chen, Wei; Feng, Xiao; Liao, Hongbo; Liang, Xiaodong

    2018-04-01

    This paper presents a design of a stratified sampler for dry sand soil, which can be used for stratified sampling of loose sand under certain conditions. Our group designed the mechanical structure of a portable, single - person, dry sandy soil stratified sampler. We have set up a mathematical model for the sampler. It lays the foundation for further development of design research.

  16. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    O'Neill, C.T.

    1997-01-01

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage

  17. Dry Port Development: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatimazahra BENTALEB

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies on dry ports as nodes in multimodal transport have been expanded to decrease the mounting congestion on seaports. The principal objective of this study is to inspect how dry port researches have been conducted from different perspective. This paper tries to recap the existing researches that aimed to study dry port concept via a systematic review, to present a general overview of the researches on our relevant region and propose a classification for these researches. This paper present a systematic review of dry port that looks to illustrate the progress of researches on this area between 1986 and 2015, collecting researches on dry port concept and analyzing the main characteristics of the dry port development and their contribution to the multimodal transport. The results indicated that most dry port studies considerate the strategic level and concentrate in the Asian continent. Studies regarding other decision levels and continents have to be developed in further researches. Although the existing studies make a contribution in dry port concept, they allow gaps in terms of operational and tactical decision levels considering their limited geographical region.

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility 90% design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    O`Neill, C.T.

    1997-05-02

    This document contains review comment records for the CVDF 90% design review. Spent fuels retrieved from the K Basins will be dried at the CVDF. It has also been recommended that the Multi-Conister Overpacks be welded, inspected, and repaired at the CVD Facility before transport to dry storage.

  19. Dry deposition of particles to ocean surfaces

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Larsen, S.E.; Edson, J.B.; Hummelshoj, P.; Jensen, N.O.; Leeuw, G. de; Mestayer, P.G.

    1995-01-01

    Dry deposition of atmospheric particles mainly depends on wind speed and particle diameter. The dry deposition velocity, Vd, is found to vary by a factor of 100-1,000 with diameter in a likely diameter range, adding uncertainty to deposition estimates, because the diameter distribution for many

  20. Novel dry forests in southwestern Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandra Molina Colón; Ariel E. Lugo; Olga Ramos

    2011-01-01

    We report results of new research on (1) community composition of novel subtropical dry forests developing on abandoned pastures and agricultural fields in both private and protected public lands and (2) seed germination and growth rates of plantings of native tree species on degraded soils. We found that novel dry forests were dominated by introduced species, which...

  1. The influence of lysozyme on mannitol polymorphism in freeze-dried and spray-dried formulations depends on the selection of the drying process

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grohganz, Holger; Lee, Yan-Ying; Rantanen, Jukka

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-drying and spray-drying are often applied drying techniques for biopharmaceutical formulations. The formation of different solid forms upon drying is often dependent on the complex interplay between excipient selection and process parameters. The purpose of this study was to investigate...... the influence of the chosen drying method on the solid state form. Mannitol-lysozyme solutions of 20mg/mL, with the amount of lysozyme varying between 2.5% and 50% (w/w) of total solid content, were freeze-dried and spray-dried, respectively. The resulting solid state of mannitol was analysed by near......-dried formulations an increase in protein concentration resulted in a shift from ß-mannitol to a-mannitol. An increase in final drying temperature of the freeze-drying process towards the temperature of the spray-drying process did not lead to significant changes. It can thus be concluded that it is the drying...

  2. Microwave and hot air drying of garlic puree: drying kinetics and quality characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    İlter, Işıl; Akyıl, Saniye; Devseren, Esra; Okut, Dilara; Koç, Mehmet; Kaymak Ertekin, Figen

    2018-02-01

    In this study, the effect of hot air and microwave drying on drying kinetics and some quality characteristics such as water activity, color, optic index and volatile oil of garlic puree was investigated. Optic index representing browning of the garlic puree increased excessively with an increase in microwave power and hot air drying temperature. However, volatile oil content of the dried samples was decreased by increasing of temperature and microwave power. By increasing drying temperature (50, 60 and 70 °C) and microwave power (180, 360 and 540 W), the drying time decreased from 8.5 h to 4 min. In order to determine the kinetic parameters, the experimental drying data were fitted to various semi-empirical models beside 2nd Fick's diffusion equation. Among them, the Page model gave a better fit for microwave-drying, while Logarithmic model gave a better fit for hot air drying. By increasing the microwave power and hot air drying temperature, the effective moisture diffusivity, De values ranged from 0.76×10-8 to 2.85×10-8 m2/s and from 2.21×10-10 to 3.07×10-10 m2/s, respectively. The activation energy was calculated as 20.90 kJ/mol for hot air drying and 21.96 W/g for microwave drying using an Arrhenius type equation.

  3. Desorption isotherms, drying characteristics and qualities of glace tropical fruits undergoing forced convection solar drying

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jamradloedluk, Jindaporn; Wiriyaumpaiwong, Songchai [Mahasarakham Univ. Khamriang, Kantarawichai, Mahasarakham (Thailand)

    2008-07-01

    Solar energy, a form of sustainable energy, has a great potential for a wide variety of applications because it is abundant and accessible, especially for countries located in the tropical region. Drying process is one of the prominent techniques for utilization of solar energy. This research work proposes a forced convection solar drying of osmotically pretreated fruits viz. mango, guava, and pineapple. The fruit cubes with a dimension of 1cm x 1cm x 1cm were immersed in 35% w./w. sucrose solution prior to the drying process. Drying kinetics, color and hardness of the final products obtained from solar drying were investigated and compared with those obtained from open air-sun drying. Desorption isotherms of the osmosed fruits were also examined and five mathematical models were used to fit the desorption curves. Experimental results revealed that solar drying provided higher drying rate than natural sun drying. Color of glace fruit processed by solar drying was more intense, indicated by lower value of lightness and higher value of yellowness, than that processed by sun drying. Hardness of the products dehydrated by both drying methods, however, was not significantly different (p>0.05). Validation of the mathematical models developed showed that the GAB model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated mango and pineapple whereas Peleg's model was most effective for describing desorption isotherms of osmotically pretreated guava. (orig.)

  4. Drying kinetics and quality aspects during heat pump drying of onion (Allium cepa L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nihar Ranjan Sahoo

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 A prototype heat pump dryer has been developed for drying of fruits and vegetables at low temperature and relative humidity to maintain the quality of dried product. Onions, of Nasik red variety were peeled, trimmed and sliced to 2 mm thickness. The onion slices were dried in the heat pump dryer at 35ºC (32 % R.H., 40ºC (26 % R.H., 45ºC (19 % R.H. and 50ºC (15 % R.H.. Samples were also dried in a hot air dryer at 50ºC (52 % R.H. for comparison. The drying rate increased with increase in drying air temperature, associated with reduced R.H., in the heat pump dryer. Drying took place mainly under the falling rate period. The Page equation, resulting in a higher coefficient of determination and lower root mean square error, better described the thin-layer drying of onion slices than the Henderson and Pabis equation. Heat pump drying took less drying time of 360 min and yielded better quality dried product, with higher retention of ascorbic acid and pyruvic acid and lower colour change, as compared to a hot air dryer at the same drying air temperature of 50ºC.

  5. Effect of surface roughness on drying speed of drying lamellas in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Lamellas, which are defined as top layers of multilayer parquet and favourable to wood veneer can be dried in jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer due to short drying period. The objective of this study is to determine the effect of surface roughness on the drying speed of the veneer roller dryer. Quercus spp.

  6. Negative Ion Density Fronts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Igor Kaganovich

    2000-01-01

    Negative ions tend to stratify in electronegative plasmas with hot electrons (electron temperature Te much larger than ion temperature Ti, Te > Ti ). The boundary separating a plasma containing negative ions, and a plasma, without negative ions, is usually thin, so that the negative ion density falls rapidly to zero-forming a negative ion density front. We review theoretical, experimental and numerical results giving the spatio-temporal evolution of negative ion density fronts during plasma ignition, the steady state, and extinction (afterglow). During plasma ignition, negative ion fronts are the result of the break of smooth plasma density profiles during nonlinear convection. In a steady-state plasma, the fronts are boundary layers with steepening of ion density profiles due to nonlinear convection also. But during plasma extinction, the ion fronts are of a completely different nature. Negative ions diffuse freely in the plasma core (no convection), whereas the negative ion front propagates towards the chamber walls with a nearly constant velocity. The concept of fronts turns out to be very effective in analysis of plasma density profile evolution in strongly non-isothermal plasmas

  7. All-dry resist processes for 193-nm lithography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horn, Mark W.; Maxwell, Brian E.; Kunz, Roderick R.; Hibbs, Michael S.; Eriksen, Lynn M.; Palmateer, Susan C.; Forte, Anthony R.

    1995-06-01

    We report on two different all-dry resist schemes for 193-nm lithography, one negative tone and one positive tone. Our negative tone resist is an extension of our initial work on all-dry photoresists. This scheme employs a bilayer in which the imaging layer is formed by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) from tetramethylsilane (TMS) and deposited onto PECVD carbon-based planarizing layers. Figure 1 shows SEMs of dark field and light field octagons patterned in projection on Lincoln Laboratory's 0.5-NA 193-nm Micrascan system. These 0.225-micrometers and 0.200-micrometers line and space features were obtained at a dose of approximately 58 mJ/cm2. Dry development of the exposed resist was accomplished using Cl2 chemistry in a helicon high-ion-density etching tool. Pattern transfer was performed in the helicon tool with oxygen-based chemistries. Recently, we have also developed an all-dry positive-tone silylation photoresist. This photoresist is a PECVD carbon-based polymer which is crosslinked by 193-nm exposure, enabling selective silylation similar to that initially reported by Hartney et al., with spin-applied polymers. In those polymers, for example polyvinylphenol, the silylation site concentration is fixed by the hydroxyl groups on the polymer precursors, thus limiting the silicon uptake per unit volume. With PECVD polymers, the total concentration of silylation sites and their depth can be tailored by varying plasma species as a function of time during the deposition. This affords the possibility of greater silicon uptake per unit volume and better depth control of the silylation profile. Figure 2 shows a SEM of 0.5-micrometers features patterned in plasma deposited silylation resist.

  8. Mathematical modeling of microwave dried celery leaves and determination of the effective moisture diffusivities and activation energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilknur Alibas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Celery (Apium graveolens L. var. secalinum Alef leaves with 50±0.07 g weight and 91.75±0.15% humidity (~11.21 db were dried using 8 different microwave power densities ranging between 1.8-20 W g-1, until the humidity fell down to 8.95±0.23% (~0.1 db. Microwave drying processes were completed between 5.5 and 77 min depending on the microwave power densities. In this study, measured values were compared with predicted values obtained from twenty thin layer drying theoretical, semi-empirical and empirical equations with a new thin layer drying equation. Within applied microwave power density; models whose coefficient and correlation (R² values are highest were chosen as the best models. Weibull distribution model gave the most suitable predictions at all power density. At increasing microwave power densities, the effective moisture diffusivity values ranged from 1.595 10-10 to 6.377 10-12 m2 s-1. The activation energy was calculated using an exponential expression based on Arrhenius equation. The linear relationship between the drying rate constant and effective moisture diffusivity gave the best fit.

  9. Scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavinger, J Clay; DeLoss, Karen; Mian, Shahzad I

    2015-07-01

    Dry eye syndrome can be difficult to manage in severe or refractory cases. In patients in whom traditional treatments have limited efficacy, alternative treatments may be considered for dry eye syndrome, including scleral lenses. The present review summarizes the evidence regarding scleral lens use in dry eye syndrome. Scleral lenses have become a viable option for severe dry eye syndrome, and have been shown to be efficacious and well tolerated, with most reports citing improved visual acuity and relief of symptoms. Currently, there are 18 manufacturers of scleral lenses, although published reports on scleral lenses primarily focus on the BostonSight PROSE and the Jupiter Lens. Scleral lenses are efficacious and well tolerated for use in severe dry eye syndrome. Further research is needed to compare different sizes and types of lenses, and to standardize outcome measures.

  10. Vacuum drying plant for evaporator concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benavides, E.

    2001-01-01

    Volume reduction systems applied to evaporator concentrates in PWR and BWR save a significant amount of drums. The concentration to dry product is a technique that reaches the maximum volume reduction, compared to conventional techniques (cementation, polymerisation). Four Spanish N.P.P. (3 PWR and 1 BWR) have selected ENSA's process by means of fixed ''in drum vacuum drying system''. A 130-litre steel drum is used for drying without any additional requirement except vacuum resistance. This steel drum is introduced into a standard 200-litre drum. Five centimeters concrete shielding cylinder exists between both drums. Final package is classified as 19 GO according to ENRESA's acceptance code (dry waste with 5 cm concrete between 130-l and 200-l drum). The generation of cemented waste in five N.P.P. versus dried waste will be reduced 83%. This reduction will save a considerable amount in disposal costs. (authors)

  11. A drying coefficient for building materials

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scheffler, Gregor Albrecht; Plagge, Rudolf

    2009-01-01

    coefficient is defined which can be determined based on measured drying data. The correlation of this coefficient with the water absorption and the vapour diffusion coefficient is analyzed and its additional information content is critically challenged. As result, a drying coefficient has been derived......The drying experiment is an important element of the hygrothermal characterisation of building materials. Contrary to other moisture transport experiments as the vapour diffusion and the water absorption test, it is until now not possible to derive a simple coefficient for the drying. However......, in many cases such a coefficient would be highly appreciated, e.g. in interaction of industry and research or for the distinction and selection of suitable building materials throughout design and practise. This article first highlights the importance of drying experiments for hygrothermal...

  12. The prospects for dry fuel storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, G.G.; Elliott, D.

    1994-01-01

    Dry storage of spent nuclear fuels is one method of dealing with radioactive waste. This article reports from a one day seminar on future prospects for dry fuel storage held in November 1993. Dry storage in an inert gas or air environment in vaults or casks, is an alternative to wet storage in water-filled ponds. Both wet and dry storage form part of the Interim Storage option for radioactive waste materials, and form alternatives to reprocessing or direct disposal in a deep repository. It has become clear that a large market for dry fuel storage will exist in the future. It will therefore be necessary to ensure that the various technical, safety, commercial, legislative and political constraints associated with it can be met effectively. (UK)

  13. Spray drying formulation of amorphous solid dispersions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Abhishek; Van den Mooter, Guy

    2016-05-01

    Spray drying is a well-established manufacturing technique which can be used to formulate amorphous solid dispersions (ASDs) which is an effective strategy to deliver poorly water soluble drugs (PWSDs). However, the inherently complex nature of the spray drying process coupled with specific characteristics of ASDs makes it an interesting area to explore. Numerous diverse factors interact in an inter-dependent manner to determine the final product properties. This review discusses the basic background of ASDs, various formulation and process variables influencing the critical quality attributes (CQAs) of the ASDs and aspects of downstream processing. Also various aspects of spray drying such as instrumentation, thermodynamics, drying kinetics, particle formation process and scale-up challenges are included. Recent advances in the spray-based drying techniques are mentioned along with some future avenues where major research thrust is needed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Development of a model for predicting the dry matter production of mulberry [Morus alba] based on meteorological factors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukui, K.; Ito, D.

    1999-01-01

    It is necessary to predict mulberry growth and yield precisely at any time during the growing period, since mulberry trees are cut anytime along with the increase of the frequency of silkworm rearing per year. Therefore, in this study, attempts were made to develop a model to predict the dry matter production in mulberry fields with standard density with the cooperation of the prefectural experimental stations of Ibaraki, Tochigi, Gunma, Saitama, Tokyo and Gifu. To construct the model, we conducted three experiments. In the first year, we estimated the dry weight of mulberry new shoots based on the length and base width. Logarithm of leaf dry weight of a new shoot was regressed linearly on the logarithm of the product of length and base width. Stem dry weight was estimated with a linear regression of the logarithm on the logarithm of the product of length and base square width. In the next year, we evaluated the maximal effective radiation (Smax) of mulberry, over which mulberry cannot use radiation to produce dry matter. This experiment included shaded and control (non-shaded) plots, and the difference between these plots was analyzed. Shading treatment decreased the dry matter production, but did not affect the radiation conversion efficiency. Shoot dry matter production increased almost proportionally with intercepted radiation except for the later growth periods. Therefore, no Smax was revealed in mulberry fields with standard density. The effect of temperature and growth stage on the radiation conversion efficiency was investigated last year. Relation of temperature and radiation conversion efficiency was not clear for shoot dry matter production. However, there was a positive relation for stem dry mater production. Although the efficiency decreased with mulberry growth for leaf dry matter production, it increased at the early growth stage and decreased at the late stage for stem dry matter production

  15. Semi-Dried Fruits and Vegetables

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gamze Uysal Seçkin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Since ancient times, the preservation of fruit and vegetables is an ancient method of drying. Sun drying method has been used more widely. In general, consumer-ready products are dried fruits, while the dried vegetables are the foods subjected to the rehydration processes such as boiling, heating and baking before consumption. In recent years, new products with high eating quality have been attempted to achieve without losing characteristic of raw material. With the improving of food technology, using developed methods (pH reduction with reducing aw, slight heating, preservatives use etc. as protective agent, and using a combination of a low rate as an alternative to traditional food preservation process, products have been obtained without changing original characteristics of food. ‘Semi-dried 'or 'medium moist 'products with little difference between the taste and texture of the product with a damp have gained importance in recent years in terms of consumer preferences. Vegetables or fruits, which have water activity levels between 0.50 and 0.95 and the moisture content of between 26% and 60%, are called 'medium moist fruit or vegetables'. Two different manufacturing process to obtain a semi-dried or intermediate moisture products are applied. First, fully dried fruits and vegetables to be rehydrated with water are brought to the desired level of their moisture content. Second, in the first drying process, when the product moisture content is reduced to the desired level, the drying process is finished. The semi-dried products are preferred by consumers because they have a softer texture in terms of eating quality and like fresh products texture.

  16. Herbs drying using a heat pump dryer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fatouh, M.; Metwally, M.N.; Helali, A.B.; Shedid, M.H. [Department of Mechanical Power Engineering, Faculty of Engineering at El Mattaria, Helwan University, P.O. Box 11718, Masaken El-Helmia, Cairo (Egypt)

    2006-09-15

    In the present work, a heat pump assisted dryer is designed and constructed to investigate the drying characteristics of various herbs experimentally. R134a is used as a working fluid in the heat pump circuit during the experimental work. Experiments have been conducted on Jew's mallow, spearmint and parsley. The effects of herb size, stem presence, surface load, drying air temperature and air velocity on the drying characteristics of Jew's mallow have been predicted. Experimental results show that a high surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2} yields the smallest drying rate, while the drying air with temperature of 55{sup o}C and velocity of 2.7m/s achieves the largest drying rate. A maximum dryer productivity of about 5.4kg/m{sup 2}h is obtained at the air temperature of 55{sup o}C, air velocity of 2.7m/s and dryer surface load of 28kg/m{sup 2}. It was found that small size herbs without stem need low specific energy consumption and low drying time. Comparison of the drying characteristics of different herbs revealed that parsley requires the lowest specific energy consumption (3684kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) followed by spearmint (3982kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}) and Jew's mallow (4029kJ/kg{sub H{sub 2}O}). Finally, dryer productivity has been correlated in terms of surface load, drying air velocity and drying air temperature. (author)

  17. Simulation Study on Freeze-drying Characteristics of Mashed Beef

    OpenAIRE

    Tambunan, Armansyah H; Solahudin, M; Rahajeng, Estri

    2000-01-01

    Drying characteristic of a particular product is important in analyzing the appropriateness of the drying method for the product. This is especially important for freeze drying, which is known as the most expensive drying method, asideji-om its good drying quality. The objectives of this experiment are to develop a computer simulation program using a retreating drying-frontmodel for predicting freeze drying characteristics of mashed nteat, especially for the influence of sublimation temperatu...

  18. INDUSTRIAL EVALUATION OF RE-DRY STRATEGY FOR SOFTWOOD LUMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Elustondo, Diego; Avramidis, Stavros

    2005-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental evaluation of the first commercial scale dry-sort-redry (DSRD) strategy for drying of 2x4 Pacific coast hemlock (PCH) lumber. The DSRD strategy is a methodology designed to reduce final moisture content variability in kiln dried lumber by complementing conventional drying with radio frequency vacuum (RFV) drying technology. The strategy′s objective is to avoid producing over-dried lumber in conventional drying by setting the target moisture content to...

  19. Telerobotics for dry size reduction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sturm, A.J. Jr; La Valle, D.R.

    1996-01-01

    Remote handling in nuclear Environmental Management (EM) programs is likely to emphasize small batch sizes in unstructured environments. Most existing robotic solutions are impractical due to cost, complexity, or reliability issues. New processes that are environmentally safe are too demanding for human operators, and require precise motion control making traditional electromechanical, hydraulic, and master/slave manipulators unacceptable. The critical missing element is a method to bridge the gap between manual operation and full automation. Rapid advances in computer technology, coupled with national laboratory research activities, has challenged PaR Systems to develop a new line of telerobotics, exploiting this technology, to enhance EM processes. Telerobotics systems permit the human operator to direct and supervise the operation of a remote robotic mechanism. The typical robotic device responds to human inputs and transfers human motion into robot motion. However, unlike teleoperation, the robotic system not only incorporates local decision making authority but can enhance input devices by; producing motion in multiple coordinate frames (e.g., base, tool, joint), automating repetitive motions, responding to real-time sensory input, and facilitating a virtual collaborative environment. The basic premise is to augment, not replace, the human operator and blend the individual abilities of each system. Humans have superior cognitive and pattern recognitive skills, while the robot is a tireless precise positioning device. To provide insight into why telerobotics is crucial to EM, this paper highlights a proposed telerobotic system for the Dry Size Reduction of contaminated components. Different design concepts, robotic control features, and networking for remote operation needed are discussed. (author)

  20. Hot Dry Rock; Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1990-01-01

    The commercial utilization of geothermal energy forms the basis of the largest renewable energy industry in the world. More than 5000 Mw of electrical power are currently in production from approximately 210 plants and 10 000 Mw thermal are used in direct use processes. The majority of these systems are located in the well defined geothermal generally associated with crustal plate boundaries or hot spots. The essential requirements of high subsurface temperature with huge volumes of exploitable fluids, coupled to environmental and market factors, limit the choice of suitable sites significantly. The Hot Dry Rock (HDR) concept at any depth originally offered a dream of unlimited expansion for the geothermal industry by relaxing the location constraints by drilling deep enough to reach adequate temperatures. Now, after 20 years intensive work by international teams and expenditures of more than $250 million, it is vital to review the position of HDR in relation to the established geothermal industry. The HDR resource is merely a body of rock at elevated temperatures with insufficient fluids in place to enable the heat to be extracted without the need for injection wells. All of the major field experiments in HDR have shown that the natural fracture systems form the heat transfer surfaces and that it is these fractures that must be for geothermal systems producing from naturally fractured formations provide a basis for directing the forthcoming but, equally, they require accepting significant location constraints on HDR for the time being. This paper presents a model HDR system designed for commercial operations in the UK and uses production data from hydrothermal systems in Japan and the USA to demonstrate the reservoir performance requirements for viable operations. It is shown that these characteristics are not likely to be achieved in host rocks without stimulation processes. However, the long term goal of artificial geothermal systems developed by systematic

  1. Influence of spray drying operating conditions on microencapsulated rosemary essential oil properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Regiane Victória de Barros Fernandes

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying is an important method used by the food industry in the production of microencapsulated flavors to improve handling and dispersion properties. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the process conditions on the properties of rosemary essential oil microencapsulated by spray drying using gum Arabic as encapsulant. The effects of the wall material concentration (10-30%, inlet air temperature (135-195 ºC, and feed flow rate (0.5-1.0 L.h-1 on the moisture content, hygroscopicity, wettability, solubility, bulk and tapped densities, particle density, flowability, and cohesiveness were evaluated using a 2³ central composite rotational experimental design. Moisture content, hygroscopicity and wettability were significantly affected by the three factors analyzed. Bulk density was positively influenced by the wall material concentration and negatively by the inlet air temperature. Particle density was influenced by the wall material concentration and the inlet air temperature variables, both in a negative manner. As for the solubility, tapped density, flowability, and cohesiveness, the models did not fit the data well. The results indicated that moderate wall material concentration (24%, low inlet air temperature (135 ºC, and moderate feed flow rate (0.7 L.h-1 are the best spray drying conditions.

  2. Dry forests and wildland fires of the inland Northwest USA: contrasting the landscape ecology of the pre-settlement and modern eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paul F. Hessburg; James K. Agee; Jerry F. Franklin

    2005-01-01

    Prior to Euro-American settlement, dry ponderosa pine and mixed conifer forests (hereafter, the "dry forests") of the Inland Northwest were burned by frequent low- or mixed-severity fires. These mostly surface fires maintained low and variable tree densities, light and patchy ground fuels, simplified forest structure, and favored fire-tolerant trees, such as...

  3. Evaluation of alternative drying techniques for the earthworm flour processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Suárez Hernández

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Production of earthworm flour includes several steps, among which the most critical is the drying process due to factors such as time and energ y requirements. In addition, the information available about this process is relquite limited. Thus, this work evaluated four drying techniques likely to be implemented by lombricultores: sun drying, oven drying, drying tunnel and microwave assisted drying. Drying kinetics values were obtained for all drying techniques, and specific parameters as the following were evaluated: drying tray material (stainless and ceramic steel for sun drying, microwave power (30 %, 50 % and 80 % and amount of material to be dried (72 and 100 g for microwave assisted drying, temperature (50, 65, 90 and 100 °C for oven drying, and temperature (50 and 63 °C and air speed (2.9 to 3.6 m/s for tunnel drying. It was determined that the most efficient technique is the drying tunnel, because this allows the combination of heat transfer by conduction and convection, and enables controlling the operating parameters. Finally, nutritional analyzes were performed in samples obtained by each drying technique evaluated. The crude protein content for sun drying, microwave assisted drying, oven drying and tunnel drying were 66.36 %, 67.91 %, 60.35 % and 62.33 % respectively, indicating that the drying method and operating parameters do not significantly affect the crude protein content.

  4. HEAT INSULATING LIME DRY MORTARS FOR FINISHING OF WALLS MADE OF FOAM CONCRETE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Loganina Valentina Ivanovna

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Different aerated mortars are used for pargeting of walls made of aerated concrete. Though the regulatory documents don’t specify the dependence of plaster density from the density grade of gas-concrete blocks. In case of facing of gas-concrete blocks with the grade D500 using plaster mortars with the density 1400…1600 km/m3 there occurs a dismatch in the values of thermal insulation and vapor permeability of the plaster and base. The authors suggest using dry mortars for finishing of gas-concrete block of the grades D500 и D600, which allow obtaining facing thermal insulating coatings. The efficiency of using four different high-porous additives in the lime dry mortar was compared. They were: hollow glass microspheres, aluminosilicate ash microspheres, expanded vermiculite sand, expanded pearlitic sand. The high efficiency of hollow glass microspheres in heat insulating finishing mortars compared to other fillers is proved.

  5. MODEL REPRESENTATION OF THE SPRAY DRYING PROCESS OF THE DISTILLERY STILLAGE FILTRATE BASED ON NAVIERSTOKES EQUATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Shevtsov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Spray drying of solutions and suspensions is among the most common methods of producing a wide range of powdered products in chemical, food and pharmaceutical industries. For the drying of heat-sensitive materials, which is fully applicable to the distillery stillage filtrate continuous-flow type of contact of drying agent and the solution droplets is examined. Two-phase simulation method of computational hydrodynamics in a stationary state for studying the process of drying of the distillery stillage filtrate in the pilot spray dryer under the following assumptions was used. The components form an ideal mixture, the properties of which are calculated directly from the properties of the components and their proportions. The droplets were presented in spherical form. The density and specific heat of the solution and the coefficient of vapors diffusion in the gas phase remained unchanged. To solve the heat exchange equations between the drying agent and the drops by the finite volume method the software package ANSYS CFX was used. The bind between the two phases was established by Navier-Stokes equations. The continuous phase (droplets of the distillery stillage filtrate was described by the k-ε turbulence model. The results obtained showed that the interaction of "drop-wall" causes a significant change of velocity, temperature and humidity both of a drying agent and the product particles. The behavior of the particles by spraying, collision with walls and deposition of the finished product allowed to determine the dependence of physical parameters of the drying process, of the geometric dimensions of the dryer. Comparison of simulation results with experimental data showed satisfactory convergence of the results: for the temperature of the powder 10% its humidity of 12% and temperature of the spent drying agent at the outlet from the drier of 13%. The possibility of using the model in the spray dryers designing, and control of the drying process

  6. [Conversion methods of freshwater snail tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Wei-Hua; Wang, Hai-Jun; Wang, Hong-Zhu; Liu, Xue-Qin

    2009-06-01

    Mollusk biomass is usually expressed as wet mass with shell, but this expression fails to represent real biomass due to the high calcium carbonate content in shells. Tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass are relatively close to real biomass. However, the determination process of these two parameters is very complicated, and thus, it is necessary to establish simple and practical conversion methods for these two parameters. A total of six taxa of freshwater snails (Bellamya sp., Alocinma longicornis, Parafossarulus striatulus, Parafossarulus eximius, Semisulcospira cancellata, and Radix sp.) common in the Yangtze Basin were selected to explore the relations of their five shell dimension parameters, dry and wet mass with shells with their tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass. The regressions of the tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass with the five shell dimension parameters were all exponential (y = ax(b)). Among them, shell width and shell length were more precise (the average percentage error between observed and predicted value being 22.0% and 22.5%, respectively) than the other three parameters in the conversion of dry mass. Wet mass with shell could be directly converted to tissue dry mass and ash free dry mass, with an average percentage error of 21.7%. According to the essence of definition and the errors of conversion, ash free dry mass would be the optimum parameter to express snail biomass.

  7. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-12-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was determined using the coefficient of determination, reduced chi square, and root mean square error. Aroma, colour, and overall acceptability determination of fresh and dried leaves were made using sensory evaluation. Drying of leaves took place mainly under the falling-rate period. The Page equation was found to be best among the proposed models to describe the thin-layer drying of Pandanus leaves with higher coefficient of determination. The effective moisture diffusivity values were also determined. The effect of low RH was prominent during the initial drying when the product was moist. The effect of temperature was prominent in the later part of drying, which acted as a driving force for moisture diffusion and hence the total drying time was reduced. Retention of aromatic compound 2-acetyl-1-pyrroline content was more in low temperature dried samples with higher sensory scores.

  8. Evaluation of drying models of apple (var. Ligol) dried in a fluidized bed dryer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaleta, Agnieszka; Górnicki, Krzysztof; Winiczenko, Radosław; Chojnacka, Aneta

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Three new drying models are formulated. ► The developed models are various modifications of the Page model. ► Nineteen models are used to describe the fluidized bed drying of apple. ► The Page model and formulated model is considered as the most appropriate. - Abstract: Three new drying models were formulated. The developed models are various modifications of the Page model. The models were used to describe the drying behaviour of apple (var. Ligol) dried in a fluidized bed dryer. The suitability of new models to describe the drying characteristics were compared to the accuracy of sixteen models available from the literature. The accuracies of the models were measured using the correlation coefficient (R), root mean square error (RMSE), and reduced chi-square (χ 2 ). Three new developed models described the drying characteristics of apple cubes satisfactorily (R > 0.997). The Page model and one of the empirical models formulated by the authors of this study can be considered as the most appropriate (R > 0.9977, RMSE = 0.0094–0.0167, χ 2 = 0.0001–0.0002). The effect of drying air temperature on the drying models parameters were also determined. The shrinkage of apple cubes during drying was measured to assess the changes in quality of dried apples

  9. Determination of pistachio drying behaviour and conditions in a solar drying system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Midilli, Adnan [Karadeniz Technical Univ., Mechanical Engineering Dept., Trabzon (Turkey)

    2001-07-01

    The main object of this study is to determine the drying behaviour and conditions of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples using both solar assisted and open sun drying. For each drying experiment, 100 g each of unshelled and shelled pistachio were used. The least-squares method was applied to find the drying curve equation of pistachio. During the experiments, shelf temperatures, weight loss of pistachio, moisture content of air, and distribution of solar radiation were measured; and presented depending on the drying time. Also, the mass shrinkage ratios of shelled and unshelled pistachio samples were determined, and the experimental uncertainty ratio was calculated as 15-16.5 per cent based on the experimental results. It was deduced that the shelled and unshelled pistachio samples in the solar assisted forced convection dryer were perfectly dried at temperatures of 50{+-}10degC in the time period of 6 h. Whereas, the samples in the open sun drying were not sufficiently dried at temperatures of 28{+-}4degC in the same time period. Hence, it is suggested that the pistachio samples with approximately 29.0 per cent of moisture are dried in the solar assisted convection dryer at 50{+-}10degC of temperature in the time period of approximately 6 h in order to protect from the negative climatic and environmental effects. However, it is not desirable to dry the pistachio samples in the open sun because of greater drying time, dirt, dust and harmful insects. (Author)

  10. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gholipoor, Ahad; Baseri, Hamid; Shabgard, Mohammad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  11. Investigation of near dry EDM compared with wet and dry EDM processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gholipoor, Ahad [Islamic Azad University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Baseri, Hamid [Amirkabir University of Technology, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Shabgard, Mohammad Reza [University of Tabriz, Tabriz (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2015-05-15

    Material removal rate (MRR), tool wear ratio (TWR) and surface roughness (SR) obtained by near-dry EDM process were compared with wet and dry EDM at three levels of discharge energy in drilling of SPK steel. Surface integrity machined by this process was studied and compared with wet and dry EDM processes, by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that at high level of discharge energy, wet EDM has the most MRR, TWR and SR, and dry EDM has the least MRR, TWR and SR, while at low discharge energy levels, near-dry EDM process has the most MRR and the least SR. SEM micrographs showed that the quality of surface obtained by near-dry EDM process is better than others and the machined surfaces by near-dry EDM process have lower micro-cracks and craters, relatively.

  12. Quality of dried cauliflower according to the methods and drying parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Łapczyńska-Kordon Bogusława

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The quality of food products is a complex concept. It can be defined in many ways. The common element of most of these definitions is the condition of meeting the requirements of consumers. Quality determines product compliance with the requirements set by the normalized regulations. The paper attempts to determine the optimal method and parameters of cauliflower drying. In addition, a qualitative assessment of the obtained product was made. The results show that the method and parameters of drying significantly affect the quality of the dried cauliflower. Convection drying guarantees higher drought quality with respect to the color of the sample (higher brightness, taste and odor. Of the drying parameters accepted in the experiment, the most positive effect on the tested parameters was recorded using convection drying at a flow rate of 0.2 ms-1 and the least favorable for microwave drying 170 or 210 W.

  13. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cetinkaya, N.; Ozyardimci, B.; Denli, E.; Ic, E.

    2006-01-01

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses (∼1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes

  14. Radiation processing as a post-harvest quarantine control for raisins, dried figs and dried apricots

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cetinkaya, N. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)]. E-mail: nurcet@taek.gov.tr; Ozyardimci, B. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Denli, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey); Ic, E. [TAEA, Ankara Nuclear Research Center in Agriculture and Animal Sciences, 06983 Ankara (Turkey)

    2006-03-15

    The commercially packed samples of raisins, dried figs and dried apricots were irradiated using doses in the range of 0.5-1.0 kGy for disinfestation and 0.5-5.0 kGy for sensory analysis with the dose rate ranging from 1.44 to 1.92 kGy/h. Pests on dried fruits were evaluated after 0, 1, 2 and 3 months of storage for irradiated dried figs and 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage for raisins and dried apricots. Sensory analysis of dried figs, dried apricots and raisins were carried out after 0, 1, 3, 6 and 12 months of storage. The results indicated that radiation processing at low doses ({approx}1.0 kGy) is an effective post-harvest treatment and quarantine control for these products with no adverse effects on sensory (marketing) attributes.

  15. Usage of Heat Pump Dryer in Food Drying Process and Apple Drying Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gökhan Gürlek

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In Turkey, drying is achieved natural method by spreading out the material on the ground. In this way, there are many disadvantages like low quality and hygienic problems. The resulting loss of food quality in the dried products may have effect negatively trade potential and economical worth. For preventing the deterioration of the materials different types of drying methods have been developed. Low energy consumption applications are important for drying industry besides high product quality. For this purpose, heat pump dryer is gaining importance day by day in drying applications. In this study, the working principle of the heat pump dryer, heat pump types in the drying process and the heat pump dryer performance criteria will be considered. An example of application will be described using obtained results from apple drying operation that is conducted in the heat pump dryer.

  16. Distribution of temperature and moisture content fields in a rectangular beet pulp particle during convection drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Ostrikov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The mathematical model describing distribution of fields of temperatures and moisture contents in a particle of a squared beet press at convective drying is given. As the initial equations the differential equations of material and thermal balances in which transfer of warmth and weight is caused by phase transformations have been accepted. The algorithm of the numerical solution of a non-stationary regional problem of heat conductivity with variable heat and mass transfer coefficients of the dried-up product, boundary and entry conditions and also phase transition with mobile limit of the section of phases is developed for the solution of mathematical model. At the same time the initial system of the equations is given to a dimensionless look. For the solution of a problem of non-stationary heat conductivity the zone method of calculation of temperature fields when drying a beet press is used. Process of drying broke into some time intervals. Within each interval geometrical form of a particle, its density, heatphysical and mass-exchanged characteristics; initial distribution of temperature and moisture content on particle volume and also density of a mass and thermal stream with the evaporated moisture are constant. The zone method of the solution of a problem of the non-stationary three-dimensional equation of heat conductivity for a parallelepiped taking into account internal sources of warmth has been checked on experimental data of stationary drying of a beet press with use of basic data. For realization of a zone method dependences of change of the linear size of a particle of a beet press on spatial coordinate x and its moisture content in the course of drying are received. At constant values of moisture content and the sizes of the party of the dried-up particle on each step the method of a machine experiment has found the current values of coefficient of phase transformation on condition of the maximum rapprochement of settlement and

  17. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution for dry eye treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Masatsugu; Imanaka, Takahiro; Sakamoto, Asuka

    2012-07-01

    There has been rapid progress in our understanding of dry eye pathogenesis, as well as the development of improved diagnostic clinical tests. Various types of dry eye treatment drugs have been developed. This review summarizes the basic and clinical research carried out in the development of diquafosol for ophthalmic use. Diquafosol is a dinucleotide, purinoreceptor P2Y(2) receptor agonist. Basic pharmacological studies have shown that it acts on P2Y(2) receptors at the ocular surface, to promote tear and mucin secretion via elevated intracellular Ca(2+) concentrations. Diquafosol also improves tear and mucin secretion in experimental dry eye models. Based on the results of laboratory experiments, the authors conducted a series of clinical studies in patients with dry eye disease. Diquafosol was effective in the treatment of dry eye disease at an optimal dose of 3% six times a day. In comparison to commercially available 0.1% sodium hyaluronate ophthalmic solution, 3% diquafosol ophthalmic solution showed non-inferiority in improving corneal fluorescein staining scores and superiority in improving keratoconjunctival Rose Bengal staining scores. Diquafosol ophthalmic solution has a novel mechanism of action that is characterized by its stimulatory effects on tear and mucin secretion. This drug has the potential to be effective in patients with tear film instability and short break-up time type of dry eye, which are essential factors in dry eye pathogenesis.

  18. Well-plate freeze-drying

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trnka, Hjalte; Rantanen, Jukka; Grohganz, Holger

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well-plates as a h......Abstract Context: Freeze-drying in presence of excipients is a common practice to stabilize biomacromolecular formulations. The composition of this formulation is known to affect the quality of the final product. Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate freeze-drying in well......-plates as a high throughput platform for formulation screening of freeze-dried products. Methods: Model formulations consisting of mannitol, sucrose and bovine serum albumin were freeze-dried in brass well plates, plastic well plates and vials. Physical properties investigated were solid form, residual moisture......, cake collapse and reconstitution time. Results: Samples freeze-dried in well-plates had an acceptable visual cake appearance. Solid form analysis by high throughput X-ray powder diffraction indicated comparable polymorphic outcome independent of the container. The expected increase in moisture level...

  19. XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajendran, Jayapradhi; Gialanella, Stefano; Aswath, Pranesh B.

    2013-01-01

    The structure of dried and calcined bones from chicken, bovine, deer, pig, sheep and chamois was examined using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The oxygen K-edge absorption edge indicates that the surface of dried bone has a larger proportion of carbonate than the interior that is made up of phosphates. The phosphorus L and K edge clearly indicate that pyrophosphates, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and hydrogen phosphates of Ca do not exist in either the dried bone or calcined bone and phosphorus exists as either β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or hydroxyapatite, both in the dried and calcined conditions. The Ca K-edge analysis indicates that β-TCP is the likely form of phosphate in both the dried and calcined conditions. - Highlights: • For the first time bones of five different species of vertebrates have been compared in both the dried and calcined states. • O, P and Ca edges detail the local coordination of these atoms in dried and calcined bone. • O K-edge shows that the surface of bone has more CO 3 while the interior has more PO 4 . • P and Ca edges eliminate the presence of pyrophosphates and confirmed the presence of HA and β-TCP. • The stability of these phosphates on calcination has been examined using XANES

  20. XANES analysis of dried and calcined bones

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rajendran, Jayapradhi [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States); Gialanella, Stefano [Materials Science and Industrial Technology Department, University of Trento (Italy); Aswath, Pranesh B., E-mail: aswath@uta.edu [Materials Science and Engineering Department, University of Texas at Arlington (United States)

    2013-10-15

    The structure of dried and calcined bones from chicken, bovine, deer, pig, sheep and chamois was examined using X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectroscopy. The oxygen K-edge absorption edge indicates that the surface of dried bone has a larger proportion of carbonate than the interior that is made up of phosphates. The phosphorus L and K edge clearly indicate that pyrophosphates, α-tricalcium phosphate (α-TCP) and hydrogen phosphates of Ca do not exist in either the dried bone or calcined bone and phosphorus exists as either β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) or hydroxyapatite, both in the dried and calcined conditions. The Ca K-edge analysis indicates that β-TCP is the likely form of phosphate in both the dried and calcined conditions. - Highlights: • For the first time bones of five different species of vertebrates have been compared in both the dried and calcined states. • O, P and Ca edges detail the local coordination of these atoms in dried and calcined bone. • O K-edge shows that the surface of bone has more CO{sub 3} while the interior has more PO{sub 4}. • P and Ca edges eliminate the presence of pyrophosphates and confirmed the presence of HA and β-TCP. • The stability of these phosphates on calcination has been examined using XANES.

  1. Spray drying of bead resins: feasibility tests

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, R.L.; Grantham, L.F.; Jones, L.J.

    1984-01-01

    Rockwell International has developed a volume reduction system for low-level reactor wastes based on drying the wastes in a heated-air spray dryer. The drying of slurries of sodium sulfate, boric acid, and powdered ion exchange resins was demonstrated in previous tests. The drying of bead ion exchange resins can be especially difficult due to the relatively large size of bead resins (about 500 to 800 microns) and their natural affinity for water. This water becomes part of the pore structure of the resins and normally comprises 50 t 60 wt % of the resin weight. A 76-cm-diameter spray dryer was used for feasibility tests of spray drying of cation and anion bead resins. These resins were fed to the dryer in the as-received form (similar to dewatered resins) and as slurries. A dry, free-flowing product was produced in all the tests. The volume of the spray-dried product was one-half to one-third the volume of the as-received material. An economic analysis was made of the potential cost savings that can be achieved using the Rockwel spray dryer system. In-plant costs, transportation costs, and burial costs of spray-dried resins were compared to similar costs for disposal of dewatered resins. A typical utility producing 170 m 3 (6,000 ft 3 ) per year of dewatered resins can save $600,000 to $700,000 per year using this volume reduction system

  2. Acidic mammalian chitinase in dry eye conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musumeci, Maria; Aragona, Pasquale; Bellin, Milena; Maugeri, Francesco; Rania, Laura; Bucolo, Claudio; Musumeci, Salvatore

    2009-07-01

    An acidic mammalian chitinase (AMCase) seems to be implicated in allergic asthma and allergic ocular pathologies. The aim of this work was to investigate the role of AMCase during Sjögren's Syndrome (SS) and Meibomian Gland Dysfunction (MGD) dry eye diseases. Six patients with MGD dry eye (20-58 years, median 40) and six patients with dry eye associated to SS (32-60 years, median 47) were enrolled in this study. AMCase activity was measured in tears and AMCase mRNA expression was evaluated by real-time polymerase chain reaction from RNA extracted from epithelial cells of the conjunctiva. Six healthy adult subjects of the same age (34-44 years, median 39) were also studied as the control group. AMCase activity was significantly increased in patients affected by MGD dry eye (18.54 +/- 1.5 nmol/ml/h) and SS dry eye (8.94 +/- 1.0 nmol/ml/h) respectively, compared to healthy controls (1.6 +/- 0.2 nmol/ml/h). AMCase activity was higher in the tears of subjects with MGD dry eye (P < 0.001). AMCase mRNA was detected in conjunctival epithelial cells and the expression was significantly higher in MGD dry eye than SS dry eye. A significant correlation between AMCase activity in the tears and mRNA in conjunctival epithelial cells was found. AMCase may be an important marker in the pathogenesis of dry eye, suggesting the potential role of AMCase as a therapeutic target in these frequent pathologies.

  3. CRISS power spectral density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaeth, W.

    1979-04-01

    The correlation of signal components at different frequencies like higher harmonics cannot be detected by a normal power spectral density measurement, since this technique correlates only components at the same frequency. This paper describes a special method for measuring the correlation of two signal components at different frequencies: the CRISS power spectral density. From this new function in frequency analysis, the correlation of two components can be determined quantitatively either they stem from one signal or from two diverse signals. The principle of the method, suitable for the higher harmonics of a signal as well as for any other frequency combinations is shown for the digital frequency analysis technique. Two examples of CRISS power spectral densities demonstrates the operation of the new method. (orig.) [de

  4. High density dispersion fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hofman, G.L.

    1996-01-01

    A fuel development campaign that results in an aluminum plate-type fuel of unlimited LEU burnup capability with an uranium loading of 9 grams per cm 3 of meat should be considered an unqualified success. The current worldwide approved and accepted highest loading is 4.8 g cm -3 with U 3 Si 2 as fuel. High-density uranium compounds offer no real density advantage over U 3 Si 2 and have less desirable fabrication and performance characteristics as well. Of the higher-density compounds, U 3 Si has approximately a 30% higher uranium density but the density of the U 6 X compounds would yield the factor 1.5 needed to achieve 9 g cm -3 uranium loading. Unfortunately, irradiation tests proved these peritectic compounds have poor swelling behavior. It is for this reason that the authors are turning to uranium alloys. The reason pure uranium was not seriously considered as a dispersion fuel is mainly due to its high rate of growth and swelling at low temperatures. This problem was solved at least for relatively low burnup application in non-dispersion fuel elements with small additions of Si, Fe, and Al. This so called adjusted uranium has nearly the same density as pure α-uranium and it seems prudent to reconsider this alloy as a dispersant. Further modifications of uranium metal to achieve higher burnup swelling stability involve stabilization of the cubic γ phase at low temperatures where normally α phase exists. Several low neutron capture cross section elements such as Zr, Nb, Ti and Mo accomplish this in various degrees. The challenge is to produce a suitable form of fuel powder and develop a plate fabrication procedure, as well as obtain high burnup capability through irradiation testing

  5. Effect of different drying techniques on flowability characteristics and chemical properties of natural carbohydrate-protein Gum from durian fruit seed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirhosseini Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A natural carbohydrate biopolymer was extracted from the agricultural biomass waste (durian seed. Subsequently, the crude biopolymer was purified by using the saturated barium hydroxide to minimize the impurities. Finally, the effect of different drying techniques on the flow characteristics and functional properties of the purified biopolymer was investigated. The present study elucidated the main functional characteristics such as flow characteristics, water- and oil-holding capacity, solubility, and foaming capacity. Results In most cases except for oven drying, the bulk density decreased, thus increasing the porosity. This might be attributed to the increase in the inter-particle voids of smaller sized particles with larger contact surface areas per unit volume. The current study revealed that oven-dried gum and freeze-dried gum had the highest and lowest compressibility index, thus indicating the weakest and strongest flowability among all samples. In the present work, the freeze-dried gum showed the lowest angle of repose, bulk, tapped and true density. This indicates the highest porosity degree of freeze dried gum among dried seed gums. It also exhibited the highest solubility, and foaming capacity thus providing the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics among all drying techniques. Conclusion The present study revealed that freeze drying among all drying techniques provided the most desirable functional properties and flow characteristics for durian seed gum.

  6. Rapid homogenisation and drying of biological materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Donev, I.Y.

    1977-01-01

    In connection with the implementation for detection of trace elements in the pathogenesis of Ischaemic Heart Diseases and for the work of the laboratory a small apparatus for homogenisation and drying biological materials at liquid nitrogen temperature was constructed. For a complete drying 4 to 6 hours are necessary. A laboratory assistant of average qualification can do the work for 13 homogenisates in about 8-9 hours. The capacity of the homogeniser is about 1.5x10 -5 m 3 . Preliminary investigations were carried out for the determination of differences at drying. (T.G.)

  7. Radiation preservation of dry fruits and nuts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jan, M.; Sattar, A.; Ahmad, W.A.; Khan, I.

    1990-06-01

    Present studies were conducted to investigate insect infestation and oxidative changes of packaging materials. Dry fruits and nuts such as apricots, dates raisins, almonds, pinenuts and walnuts were used for these experiments. Insect infestation and other physico-chemical parameters were used for quality evaluation of the stored dry fruits and nuts. The effect of irradiation and polyethylene (PE) thickness on the over all acceptance of dry fruits on their color, texture, taste and flavor were evaluated. Radiation treatment and low temperature independently inhibited insect infestation during storage. (A.B.)

  8. Cold vacuum drying facility site evaluation report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diebel, J.A.

    1996-01-01

    In order to transport Multi-Canister Overpacks to the Canister Storage Building they must first undergo the Cold Vacuum Drying process. This puts the design, construction and start-up of the Cold Vacuum Drying facility on the critical path of the K Basin fuel removal schedule. This schedule is driven by a Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) milestone requiring all of the spent nuclear fuel to be removed from the K Basins by December, 1999. This site evaluation is an integral part of the Cold Vacuum Drying design process and must be completed expeditiously in order to stay on track for meeting the milestone

  9. A mathematical model for DRY-OUT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mariy, A.; Khattab, M.; Olama, H.

    1989-01-01

    In this study a model has been developed for describing the thermal surface conditions at dry out in a vertical channel with uniform heat flux. The use of droplet generation rate and vapor-droplet-wall heat transfer relations together with the dry and wet side energy equations lead to evaluation of the wall surface temperature and heat transfer distributions before and after dry out. Comparison with the previous theoretical and experimental results are presented. The steady state approach developed showed to be in good agreement with the experimental results

  10. 21 CFR 160.185 - Dried egg yolks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dried egg yolks. 160.185 Section 160.185 Food and... CONSUMPTION EGGS AND EGG PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Eggs and Egg Products § 160.185 Dried egg yolks. (a) Dried egg yolks, dried yolks is the food prepared by drying egg yolks that conform to...

  11. Mechanisms of deterioration of nutrients. [of freeze dried foods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karel, M.; Flink, J. M.

    1976-01-01

    Methods which produce freeze dried foods of improved quality were examined with emphasis on storage stability. Specific topics discussed include: microstructure of freeze dried systems, investigation of structural changes in freeze dried systems, artificial food matrices, osmotic preconcentration to yield improved quality freeze dried fruits, and storage stability of osmotically preconcentrated freeze dried fruits.

  12. 46 CFR 154.1150 - Distribution of dry chemical.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Distribution of dry chemical. 154.1150 Section 154.1150... Firefighting System: Dry Chemical § 154.1150 Distribution of dry chemical. (a) All locations on the above deck... chemical hand hose lines; or (2) At least one dry chemical hand hose line and one dry chemical monitor. (b...

  13. 7 CFR 58.250 - Dry whole milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Dry whole milk. 58.250 Section 58.250 Agriculture... Products Bearing Usda Official Identification § 58.250 Dry whole milk. Dry whole milk in commercial bulk... Grades of Dry Whole Milk. Quality requirements for dry whole milk in consumer packages shall be for U.S...

  14. Effects of drying methods of lamellas used in multilayer parquet ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Flat sawn green lamellas with 5 and 2 mm thicknesses, which were cut away from Iroko lumber by means of thin cutting frame saw, were dried with 3 different drying methods such as drying in lumber drying kiln, jet ventilated automatic veneer roller dryer and veneer press dryer. Effect of drying temperature on surface ...

  15. Gap and density theorems

    CERN Document Server

    Levinson, N

    1940-01-01

    A typical gap theorem of the type discussed in the book deals with a set of exponential functions { \\{e^{{{i\\lambda}_n} x}\\} } on an interval of the real line and explores the conditions under which this set generates the entire L_2 space on this interval. A typical gap theorem deals with functions f on the real line such that many Fourier coefficients of f vanish. The main goal of this book is to investigate relations between density and gap theorems and to study various cases where these theorems hold. The author also shows that density- and gap-type theorems are related to various propertie

  16. Nuclear level density

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cardoso Junior, J.L.

    1982-10-01

    Experimental data show that the number of nuclear states increases rapidly with increasing excitation energy. The properties of highly excited nuclei are important for many nuclear reactions, mainly those that go via processes of the compound nucleus type. In this case, it is sufficient to know the statistical properties of the nuclear levels. First of them is the function of nuclear levels density. Several theoretical models which describe the level density are presented. The statistical mechanics and a quantum mechanics formalisms as well as semi-empirical results are analysed and discussed. (Author) [pt

  17. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard; Steinmann, Casper; Ruud, Kenneth

    2015-01-01

    We present a new QM/QM/MM-based model for calculating molecular properties and excited states of solute-solvent systems. We denote this new approach the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model and it represents an extension of our previously developed polarizable embedding (PE) strategy. The PDE...... model is a focused computational approach in which a core region of the system studied is represented by a quantum-chemical method, whereas the environment is divided into two other regions: an inner and an outer region. Molecules belonging to the inner region are described by their exact densities...

  18. Holographic magnetisation density waves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Donos, Aristomenis [Centre for Particle Theory and Department of Mathematical Sciences, Durham University,Stockton Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Pantelidou, Christiana [Departament de Fisica Quantica i Astrofisica & Institut de Ciencies del Cosmos (ICC),Universitat de Barcelona,Marti i Franques 1, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2016-10-10

    We numerically construct asymptotically AdS black brane solutions of D=4 Einstein theory coupled to a scalar and two U(1) gauge fields. The solutions are holographically dual to d=3 CFTs in a constant external magnetic field along one of the U(1)’s. Below a critical temperature the system’s magnetisation density becomes inhomogeneous, leading to spontaneous formation of current density waves. We find that the transition can be of second order and that the solutions which minimise the free energy locally in the parameter space of solutions have averaged stressed tensor of a perfect fluid.

  19. Molded ultra-low density microcellular foams

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rand, P.B.; Montoya, O.J.

    1986-07-01

    Ultra-low density (< 0.01 g/cc) microcellular foams were required for the NARYA pulsed-power-driven x-ray laser development program. Because of their extreme fragility, molded pieces would be necessary to successfully field these foams in the pulsed power accelerator. All of the foams evaluated were made by the thermally induced phase separation technique from solutions of water soluble polymers. The process involved rapidly freezing the solution to induce the phase separation, and then freeze drying to remove the water without destroying the foam's structure. More than sixty water soluble polymers were evaluated by attempting to make their solutions into foams. The foams were evaluated for shrinkage, density, and microstructure to determine their suitability for molding and meeting the required density and cell size requirements of 5.0 mg/cc and less than twenty μmeters. Several promising water soluble polymers were identified including the polyactylic acids, guar gums, polyactylamide, and polyethylene oxide. Because of thier purity, structure, and low shrinkage, the polyacrylic acids were chosen to develop molding processes. The initial requirements were for 2.0 cm. long molded rods with diameters of 1.0, 2.0. and 3.0 mm. These rods were made by freezing the solution in thin walled silicon rubber molds, extracting the frozen preform from the mold, and then freeze drying. Requirements for half rods and half annuli necessitated using aluminum molds. Again we successfully molded these shapes. Our best efforts to date involve molding annuli with 3.0 mm outside diameters and 2.0 mm inside diameters

  20. Dry texturing of solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sopori, Bhushan L.

    1994-01-01

    A textured backside of a semiconductor device for increasing light scattering and absorption in a semiconductor substrate is accomplished by applying infrared radiation to the front side of a semiconductor substrate that has a metal layer deposited on its backside in a time-energy profile that first produces pits in the backside surface and then produces a thin, highly reflective, low resistivity, epitaxial alloy layer over the entire area of the interface between the semiconductor substrate and a metal contact layer. The time-energy profile includes ramping up to a first energy level and holding for a period of time to create the desired pit size and density and then rapidly increasing the energy to a second level in which the entire interface area is melted and alloyed quickly. After holding the second energy level for a sufficient time to develop the thin alloy layer over the entire interface area, the energy is ramped down to allow epitaxial crystal growth in the alloy layer. The result is a textured backside an optically reflective, low resistivity alloy interface between the semiconductor substrate and the metal electrical contact layer.

  1. Impingement drying for preparing dried apple pomace flour and its fortification in bakery and meat products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Jooyeoun; Cavender, George; Zhao, Yanyun

    2015-09-01

    This study aimed to evaluate impingement drying (ID) as a rapid drying method to dry wet apple pomace (WAP) and to investigate the fortification of dried apple pomace flour (APF) or WAP in bakery and meat products. ID at ~110 °C reduced the moisture content of apple pomace from 80 % (wet basis) to 4.5 % within 3 h, compared with 24 h to 2.2 % using 40 °C forced-air drying and ~60 h to 2.3 % using freeze drying. Furthermore, ID enhanced the extractable phenolic compounds, allowing for a 58 % increase in total phenolic content (TPC) compared with wet pomace, a 110 % and 83 % higher than TPC in forced-air dried and freeze dried samples, respectively. The 15-20 % APF-fortified cookies were found to be ~44-59 % softer, ~30 % more chewy, and ~14 % moister than those of the control. WAP-fortified meat products had significantly higher dietary fiber content (0.7-1.8 % vs. 0.1-0.2 % in control) and radical scavenging activity than that of the control. These results suggest that impingement drying is a fast and effective method for preparing dried APF with highly retained bioactive compounds, and apple pomace fortified products maintained or even had improved quality.

  2. Drying characteristics of zucchini and empirical modeling of its drying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naciye Kutlu

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to dry zucchini (Cucurbita pepo by two different methods (convective hot-air (CHD and microwave-assisted drying (MWD. The effect of air temperature (60, 70 and 80°C, microwave (MW power (180, 360, 540 W and sample thickness (5 and 10 mm on some drying characteristics of zucchini were investigated. Thirteen mathematical models available in the literature were fitted to the experimental moisture ratio data. The coefficients of the models were determined by non-linear regression analysis. It was determined that the model that fits the moisture ratio data the best varies at different drying conditions. Increasing drying temperature and MW power and reducing sample thickness improved the drying rate and drying time. Drying in microwave has reduced the drying time by 52-64% for zucchini. It was found that the effective moisture diffusivities increased with increasing temperature and MW power. MWD samples had better rehydration ratios compared to ones dried only in tray drier for 5 mm thickness.  

  3. Effects of drying temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hada Masayu, I.,

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available In this study, the effects of temperature on drying kinetics and eurycomanone content of Eurycoma longifolia roots were investigated to determine the optimum temperature for drying of this herb. The roots were subjected to drying temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70°C. The drying kinetics data indicated that the drying rate increased with increase in temperature but decreased with time. The drying process took place in the falling rate period. Three established thin layer drying models include Page, Midili and Logarithmic were employed to describe the drying process. The Midili model was found as the best fitting model in representing the process. The quality of the products was evaluated by comparing the content of its active compound, eurycomanone, quantified using an ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC. The fastest drying process was achieved at 70°C, but UPLC results showed that the product suffered at 18% reduction in eurycomanone content as compared to the control. Based on the findings of this work, the optimum drying temperature for E. longifolia roots is 60°C.

  4. Implications of drying temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Majid Khan Majahar; Fudholi, Ahmad; Muthuvalu, M. S.; Sulaiman, Jumat; Yasir, Suhaimi Md

    2017-11-01

    A Low Temperature and Humidity Chamber Test tested in the Solar Energy Laboratory, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Selangor, Malaysia. Experiments are attempted to study the effect of drying air temperature and humidity on the drying kinetics of seaweed Kappaphycus species Striatum besides to develop a model to estimate the drying curves. Simple method using a excel software is used in the analysis of raw data obtained from the drying experiment. The values of the parameters a, n and the constant k for the models are determined using a plot of curve drying models. Three different drying models are compared with experiment data seaweed drying at 30, 40, 50 and 60°C and relative humidity 20, 30 and 40% for seaweed. The higher drying temperatures and low relative humidity effects the moisture content that will be rapidly reduced. The most suitable model is selected to best describe the drying behavior of seaweed. The values of the coefficient of determination (R2), mean bias error (MBE) and root mean square error (RMSE) are used to determine the goodness or the quality of the fit. The Page model is showed a better fit to drying seaweed. The results from this study crucial for solar dryer development on pilot scale in Malaysia.

  5. Measurements of dry deposition rates of 212Pb from aerosols on various natural and artificial surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.; Osaki, T.

    2007-01-01

    The dry deposition rates on various grass fields and two forests have been measured by the use of 212 Pb (T 1/2 = 10.6 hours). The deposition rate on grass fields (average: 7 mm x s -1 ) roughly depends on the logarithms of the heights or densities of the grasses. The dry deposition rates on a broadleaved forest (Lithocarpus edulis) and a coniferous forest (Cryptomeria Japonica) were also measured. The highest (ave. 26 mm x s -1 ) was on the forest of C. Japonica because of the dense and adhesive surfaces of the leaves. (author)

  6. A Tryst With Density

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    best known for developing the density functional theory (DFT). This is an extremely ... lem that has become famous in popular culture is that of the planet. Tatooine. Fans of ... the Schrödinger equation (or, if relativistic effects are important, the Dirac .... it supplies a moral justification for one's subsequent endeav- ours along ...

  7. Density in Liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nesin, Gert; Barrow, Lloyd H.

    1984-01-01

    Describes a fourth-grade unit on density which introduces a concept useful in the study of chemistry and procedures appropriate to the chemistry laboratory. The hands-on activities, which use simple equipment and household substances, are at the level of thinking Piaget describes as concrete operational. (BC)

  8. Destiny from density

    OpenAIRE

    Seewaldt, Victoria L.

    2012-01-01

    The identification of a signalling protein that regulates the accumulation of fat and connective tissue in breasts may help to explain why high mammographic density is linked to breast-cancer risk and may provide a marker for predicting this risk.

  9. Polarizable Density Embedding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinholdt, Peter; Kongsted, Jacob; Olsen, Jógvan Magnus Haugaard

    2017-01-01

    We analyze the performance of the polarizable density embedding (PDE) model-a new multiscale computational approach designed for prediction and rationalization of general molecular properties of large and complex systems. We showcase how the PDE model very effectively handles the use of large...

  10. Influence of salting and drying, and gamma irradiation on the quality and shelf life of salted and dried Silver belly (Leiognathus spp.)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Uikey, Mahendra

    2015-01-01

    In India about 17% of the total fishes caught are being used for salting and drying. On the global basis, 74% of the marine landings are processed by curing. Fresh Silver belly (Leognathus spp.) were procured from the fish landing centre and washed with potable water. Salting was done using food grade salt in the ratio of 1:3 (Fish to salt) in perforated steel pans by keeping the salt and fish in layer by layer fashion for 24 hrs. Drying of salted fishes was done in solar biomass hybrid drier, the final moisture content in the dried fish was 20.03%. The quality of both fresh, salted and dried fishes were analysed for chemical (Protein, fat, moisture, ash, TVB-N, TMA-N, TBARS, FFA, PV, pH) and microbial quality (TPC, halophilic count). Batches of salted and dried silver bellies were packed in high density polyethylene bags aseptically and exposed to low dose gamma irradiation (1 and 3 kGy), the non-irradiated samples were kept as control and stored at room temperature. The irradiated and control samples were analysed periodically (upto 90 days) for chemical and microbial quality. The results showed that the combined effect of salting and drying, and low dose gamma irradiation had a significant effect on microbial load (p< 0.05). The chemical parameters such as TMA-N, TVB-N and TBARS values for irradiated samples were significantly lower than the non-irradiated samples (p<0.05). The results revealed that the combination of salting and drying, and low dose gamma irradiation resulted in a significant reduction of microbial growth and chemical parameters were within the limit up to 90 days at room temperature. (author)

  11. Sun drying of residual annatto seed powder

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyego da Costa Santos

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Residual annatto seeds are waste from bixin extraction in the food, pharmaceutical and cosmetic industries. Most of this by-product is currently discarded; however, the use of these seeds in human foods through the elaboration of powder added to other commercial powders is seen as a viable option. This study aimed at drying of residual annatto powder, with and without the oil layer derived from the industrial extraction of bixin, fitting different mathematical models to experimental data and calculating the effective moisture diffusivity of the samples. Powder containing oil exhibited the shortest drying time, highest drying rate (≈ 5.0 kg kg-1 min-1 and highest effective diffusivity (6.49 × 10-12 m2 s-1. All mathematical models assessed were a suitable representation of the drying kinetics of powders with and without oil, with R2 above 0.99 and root mean square error values lower than 1.0.

  12. Prevalence of dry eye in diabetics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silviana S Kamel

    2017-01-01

    Diabetic patients are more prone to suffering from dry eye than normal subjects. These abnormalities can result in severe complications. Early examination of the diabetic patients for the detection of the ocular surface disorders is indicated.

  13. Dry cooling towers - the Schmehausen example

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Weber, P.

    1977-01-01

    In a prototype, there are often problems which require special static, constructive, and assembling measures for their solution. In the case of the Schmehausen dry cooling tower, the demands on the assembling technology are particularly high. (orig.) [de

  14. Extrusion processing : effects on dry canine diets

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tran, Q.D.

    2008-01-01

    Keywords: Extrusion, Canine diet, Protein, Lysine, Starch gelatinization, Palatability, Drying.

    Extrusion cooking is a useful and economical tool for processing animal feed. This high temperature, short time processing technology causes chemical and physical changes that alter the

  15. Decontamination of polypropylene fabrics by dry cleaning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Severa, J.; Knajfl, J.

    1983-01-01

    Polypropylene fabrics can efficiently be decontaminated by dry cleaning in benzine or perchloroethylene, this also in case the fabric was greased in addition to radioactive contamination. For heavily soiled fabric, it is advantageous to first dry clean it and then wash it. The positive effect was confirmed of intensifiers on the cleaning process, especially of benzine soap. In practice, its concentration should be selected within 1 and 10 g.dm - 3 . Decontamination by dry cleaning and subsequent washing is advantageous in that that the resulting activity of waste water from the laundry is low. Radioactive wastes from the dry cleaning process have a low weight and can be handled as solid waste. (M.D.)

  16. High strength air-dried aerogels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, Paul R.; Satcher, Jr., Joe H.

    2012-11-06

    A method for the preparation of high strength air-dried organic aerogels. The method involves the sol-gel polymerization of organic gel precursors, such as resorcinol with formaldehyde (RF) in aqueous solvents with R/C ratios greater than about 1000 and R/F ratios less than about 1:2.1. Using a procedure analogous to the preparation of resorcinol-formaldehyde (RF) aerogels, this approach generates wet gels that can be air dried at ambient temperatures and pressures. The method significantly reduces the time and/or energy required to produce a dried aerogel compared to conventional methods using either supercritical solvent extraction. The air dried gel exhibits typically less than 5% shrinkage.

  17. Solar drying of rose (Rosa sp.) petals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Balladin, D.A.; Headley, Oliver [University of the West Indies, Center for Resource Management and Environmental Studies, St. Michael (Barbados)

    1999-10-01

    The rose (Rosa sp.) petals can be dried after 2 days at about 30degC reaching an equilibrium moisture content after 16 h using the solar wire basket dryer. The initial moisture content (wet wt basis) and final moisture content (dry wt basis), determined by the Dean-Stark toluene were 65.7 and 25.2% respectively. The intensity of the rose red coloured pigment (pelargonidin) decreased by a factor of 2.5 after drying. The pelargonidin ethanoic extract as an acid-base indicator, has a K{sub 4} value of 1 x 10{sup -4} mol 1{sup -1} and pH of end point 4 and imbibed on filter paper and allowed to air dry for 5 min showed excellent properties as acid-based test tapes. (Author)

  18. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-09-24

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility.

  19. Cooking and drying processes optimization of Pentadesma ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Aghomotsegin

    2015-09-30

    Sep 30, 2015 ... This work determined the optimum conditions of cooking and drying processes. ... Key words: Forest galeries, Pentadesma butyraceae, cosmetic industry, ..... butyracea kernels can lead to the production of butter of.

  20. Cold vacuum drying facility design requirements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Irwin, J.J.

    1997-01-01

    This release of the Design Requirements Document is a complete restructuring and rewrite to the document previously prepared and released for project W-441 to record the design basis for the design of the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility

  1. Fuel-Cell Structure Prevents Membrane Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcelroy, J.

    1986-01-01

    Embossed plates direct flows of reactants and coolant. Membrane-type fuel-cell battery has improved reactant flow and heat removal. Compact, lightweight battery produces high current and power without drying of membranes.

  2. Recent advances in nanostructured biomimetic dry adhesives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andras ePattantyus-Abraham

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The relatively large size of the gecko and its ability to climb a multitude of structures with ease has often been cited as the inspiration upon which the field of dry adhesives is based. Since 2010, there have been many advances in the field of dry adhesives with much of the new research focusing on developing nanoscale and hierarchical features in a concentrated effort to develop synthetic gecko-like dry adhesives which are strong, durable and self-cleaning. A brief overview of the geckos and the hairs which it uses to adhere to many different surfaces is provided before delving into the current methods and materials used to fabricate synthetic gecko hairs. A summary of the recently published literature on bio-inspired, nanostructured dry adhesives is presented with an emphasis being placed on fabrication techniques.

  3. Water Reclamation using Spray Drying, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — We propose a new spray drying technology for the recovery and recycle of water while stabilizing the solid wastes or residues as found in advanced life support...

  4. Spray drying of beryllium oxide powder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sepulveda, J.L.; Kahler, D.A.

    1991-01-01

    Forming of beryllia ceramics through dry pressing requires the agglomeration of the powder through spray drying. To produce high quality fired ceramics it is necessary to disperse/grind the primary powder prior to binder addition. Size reduction of the powder is accomplished using an aqueous system in Vibro-Energy mills (VEM) charged with beryllia media to minimize contamination. Two VEM mills of different size were used to characterize the grinding operation. Details of the grinding kinetics are described within the context of the Macroscopic Population Balance Model approach. Spray drying of the ceramic slurry was accomplished with both a centrifugal atomizer and a two fluid nozzle atomizer. Two different spray dryers were used. Important operating parameters affecting the size distribution of the spray dried powder are discussed

  5. Drying of plasterboard - some quality aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Naesman, L. (University of Lund (Sweden)); Wimmerstedt, R. (University of Lund (Sweden))

    1993-06-01

    The manufacture process, especially the drying operation, of plasterboard was studied. The purpose was to measure physical properties, which can be used for the optimization of the process with respect to energy and quality. The cardboard was found to be hygroscopic whereas the gypsum was not. It was determined that the chloride content in the gypsum raw material should not exceed 75 ppm. The starch was found to migrate towards the surface of the gypsum core during the drying process (air temperture 140 C, dew-point of air 30 C and air velocity 10 m/s). The drying of different qualitites of plasterboard was also investigated. It was found that the cardboard is a very important parameter whereas the gypsum core has little effect on the drying rate and core temperature. (orig.)

  6. From soaking wet to bone dry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Båstrup-Spohr, Lars; Sand-Jensen, Kaj; Nicolajsen, Sascha Veggerby

    2015-01-01

    A hydrological gradient from pond to dry limestone pavements on the Island of Öland, South Sweden. Methods Plant community composition and six morpho-physiogical plant traits were measured along a pronounced gradient in water supply and soil depth. The strength of filtering was quantified using a trait...... and resistance to water loss on drying. For individual traits, the strength of filtering waxes and wanes along the gradient. This strongly suggests that the mechanism, through which species are filtered into communities, acts through different traits as environmental conditions change along the gradient......, and most traits are strongly filtered only in parts of the gradient (e.g. root porosity in wet soils and water loss on drying on thin dry soils). Evidence for congruence between trait dispersion indices and the CATS model was established, underpinning the importance to plant community assembly...

  7. MATHEMATICAL MODELING OF ORANGE SEED DRYING KINETICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele Penteado Rosa

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Drying of orange seeds representing waste products from juice processing was studied in the temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C and drying velocities of 0.6, 1.0 and 1.4 m/s. Experimental drying kinetics of orange seeds were obtained using a convective air forced dryer. Three thin-layer models: Page model, Lewis model, and the Henderson-Pabis model and the diffusive model were used to predict the drying curves. The Henderson-Pabis and the diffusive models show the best fitting performance and statistical evaluations. Moreover, the temperature dependence on the effective diffusivity followed an Arrhenius relationship, and the activation energies ranging from 16.174 to 16.842 kJ/mol

  8. Soil aggregate formation: the role of wetting-drying cycles in the genesis of interparticle bonding

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albalasmeh, Ammar; Ghezzehei, Teamrat

    2013-04-01

    Soil structure influences many soil properties including aeration, water retention, drainage, bulk density, and resistance to erosion and indirectly influences most biological and chemical processes that occur in and around soil. In nature, soil is continually exposed to wetting (e.g., rainfall and diffusive flow) and drying (e.g., evaporation, diffusive flow and plant uptake). These natural wetting and drying cycles of soils are physical events that profoundly affect the development of soil structure, aggregate stability, carbon (C) flux and mineralization. We hypothesize that drying of capillary water transports suspended and/or dissolved cementing agents toward inter-particle contacts and eventually deposits part of the colloidal mass forming inter-particle bonds. Here, we will show the role of wetting and drying cycles on soil aggregation and stabilization and how these cycles transport and deposit organic cementing agents at the inter-particle contact. We found that aggregates of sand and silt particles can be formed by subjecting loose particles to wetting-drying cycles in the presence of dilute solutions of organic matter that mimic root or microbial exudates. Moreover, majority of the organic matter was deposited in the contact region between the sand particles, where the water accumulates during drying. The model predictions and aggregate stability measurements are supported by scanning electron micrographs that clearly show the process of aggregate formation.

  9. Dry calibration of electromagnetic flowmeters based on numerical models combining multiple physical phenomena (multiphysics)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fu, X.; Hu, L.; Lee, K. M.; Zou, J.; Ruan, X. D.; Yang, H. Y.

    2010-10-01

    This paper presents a method for dry calibration of an electromagnetic flowmeter (EMF). This method, which determines the voltage induced in the EMF as conductive liquid flows through a magnetic field, numerically solves a coupled set of multiphysical equations with measured boundary conditions for the magnetic, electric, and flow fields in the measuring pipe of the flowmeter. Specifically, this paper details the formulation of dry calibration and an efficient algorithm (that adaptively minimizes the number of measurements and requires only the normal component of the magnetic flux density as boundary conditions on the pipe surface to reconstruct the magnetic field involved) for computing the sensitivity of EMF. Along with an in-depth discussion on factors that could significantly affect the final precision of a dry calibrated EMF, the effects of flow disturbance on measuring errors have been experimentally studied by installing a baffle at the inflow port of the EMF. Results of the dry calibration on an actual EMF were compared against flow-rig calibration; excellent agreements (within 0.3%) between dry calibration and flow-rig tests verify the multiphysical computation of the fields and the robustness of the method. As requiring no actual flow, the dry calibration is particularly useful for calibrating large-diameter EMFs where conventional flow-rig methods are often costly and difficult to implement.

  10. Spray drying of lipid-based systems loaded with Camellia sinensis polyphenols.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Secolin, Vanessa A; Souza, Claudia R F; Oliveira, Wanderley P

    2017-03-01

    In this work, spray-dried lipid systems based on soy phosphatidylcholine, cholesterol and lauroyl polyoxylglycerides for entrapping Green tea polyphenols were produced. The aim was to study the effects of the encapsulating composition and spray drying conditions on the system performance and physicochemical product properties. The spray dryer powder production yield falls around 50.7 ± 2.8%, which is typical for lab scale spray dryers. Wrinkled and rounded particles, with low surface porosities were generated, independent of the drying carriers (trehalose or lactose) used. The product showed high encapsulation efficiency of Green tea polyphenols, which was promptly redispersible in water. It presented low density, and good compressive and flow properties. The results herein reported confirm the feasibility of the entrapment of Green tea polyphenols in lipid-based compositions by spray drying in presence of the drying carriers evaluated. The spray-dried microparticles show high potential to be used as additive in food, nutraceutical and pharmaceutical products.

  11. Implementing Strategies for Drying and Pressing Wood Without Emissions Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sujit Banerjee; Terrance Conners

    2007-09-07

    Drying and pressing wood for the manufacture of lumber, particleboard, oriented strand board (OSB), veneer and medium density fiberboard (MDF) release volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into the atmosphere. These emissions require control equipment that are capital-intensive and consume significant quantities of natural gas and electricity. The objective of our work was to understand the mechanisms through which volatile organic compounds are generated and released and to develop simple control strategies. Of the several strategies developed, two have been implemented for OSB manufacture over the course of this study. First, it was found that increasing final wood moisture by about 2-4 percentage points reduced the dryer emissions of hazardous air pollutants by over 70%. As wood dries, the escaping water evaporatively cools the wood. This cooling tapers off wood when the wood is nearly dry and the wood temperature rises. Thermal breakdown of the wood tissue occurs and VOCs are released. Raising the final wood moisture by only a few percentage points minimizes the temperature rise and reduces emissions. Evaporative cooling also impacts has implications for VOC release from wood fines. Flaking wood for OSB manufacture inevitable generates fines. Fines dry out rapidly because of their high surface area and evaporative cooling is lost more rapidly than for flakes. As a result, fines emit a disproportionate quantity of VOCs. Fines can be reduced in two ways: through screening of the green furnish and through reducing their generation during flaking. The second approach is preferable because it also increased wood yield. A procedure to do this by matching the sharpness angle of the flaker knife to the ambient temperature was also developed. Other findings of practical interests are as follows: Dielectric heating of wood under low-headspace conditions removes terpenes and other extractives from softwood; The monoterpene content in trees depend upon temperature and seasonal

  12. A drying system for spent fuel assemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suikki, M.; Warinowski, M.; Nieminen, J.

    2007-06-01

    The report presents a proposed drying apparatus for spent fuel assemblies. The apparatus is used for removing the moisture left in fuel assemblies during intermediate storage and transport. The apparatus shall be installed in connection with the fuel handling cell of an encapsulation plant. The report presents basic requirements for and implementation of the drying system, calculation of the drying process, operation, service and maintenance of the equipment, as well as a cost estimate. Some aspects of the apparatus design are quite specified, but the actual detailed planning and final selection of components have not been included. The report also describes actions for possible malfunction and fault conditions. An objective of the drying system for fuel assemblies is to remove moisture from the assemblies prior to placing the same in a disposal canister for spent nuclear fuel. Drying is performed as a vacuum drying process for vaporizing and draining the moisture present on the surface of the assemblies. The apparatus comprises two pieces of drying equipment. One of the chambers is equipped to take up Lo1-2 fuel assemblies and the other OL1-2 fuel assemblies. The chambers have an internal space sufficient to accommodate also OL3 fuel assemblies, but this requires replacing the internal chamber structure for laying down the assemblies to be dried. The drying chambers can be closed with hatches facing the fuel handling cell. Water vapour pumped out of the chamber is collected in a controlled manner, first by condensing with a heat exchanger and further by freezing in a cold trap. For reasons of safety, the exhaust air of vacuum pumps is further delivered into the ventilation outlet duct of a controlled area. The adequate drying result is ascertained by a low final pressure of about 100 Pa, as well as by a sufficient holding time. The chamber is built for making its cleaning as easy as possible in the event of a fuel rod breaking during a drying, loading or unloading

  13. Exergy Steam Drying and Energy Integration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verma, Prem; Muenter, Claes (Exergy Engineering and Consulting, SE-417 55 Goeteborg (Sweden)). e-mail: verma@exergyse.com

    2008-10-15

    Exergy Steam Drying technology has existed for past 28 years and many new applications have been developed during this period. But during past few years the real benefits have been exploited in connection with bio-fuel production and energy integration. The steam dryer consists of a closed loop system, where the product is conveyed by superheated and pressurised carrier steam. The carrier steam is generated by the water vapours from the product being dried, and is indirectly superheated by another higher temperature energy source such as steam, flue gas, thermal oil etc. Besides the superior heat transfer advantages of using pressurised steam as a drying medium, the energy recovery is efficient and simple as the recovered energy (80-90%) is available in the form of steam. In some applications the product quality is significantly improved. Examples presented in this paper: Bio-Combine for pellets production: Through integration of the Exergy Steam Dryer for wood with a combined heat and power (CHP) plant, together with HP steam turbine, the excess carrier steam can be utilised for district heating and/or electrical power production in a condensing turbine. Bio-ethanol production: Both for first and second generation of ethanol can the Exergy process be integrated for treatment of raw material and by-products. Exergy Steam Dryer can dry the distillers dark grains and solubles (DDGS), wood, bagasse and lignin. Bio-diesel production: Oil containing seeds and fruits can be treated in order to improve both the quality of oil and animal feed protein, thus minimizing further oil processing costs and increasing the sales revenues. Sewage sludge as bio-mass: Municipal sewage sludge can be considered as a renewable bio-fuel. By drying and incineration, the combustion heat value of the sludge is sufficient for the drying process, generation of electrical energy and production of district heat. Keywords; Exergy, bio-fuel, bio-mass, pellets, bio-ethanol, biodiesel, bio

  14. Drought and Winter Drying (Pest Alert)

    Science.gov (United States)

    USDA Forest Service

    Drought and winter drying have periodically caused major damage to trees. Drought reduces the amount of water available in the soil. In the case of winter drying, the water may be in the soil, but freezing of the soil makes the water unavailable to the tree. In both cases, more water is lost through transpiration than is available to the plant. Symptoms of drought and...

  15. Managing Risks in Dry Port Operations

    OpenAIRE

    Ciortescu Cezar-Gabriel; Pãvãla?cu Narcis Sebastian

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to have an in-depth look into the phenomenon of risk assessment and risk management strategies in managing dry port operations as an integrated part into international containerized freight trade. The fact that world crises take the form of disruptions, bankruptcies, breakdowns, macroeconomic and political changes, and disasters leads to higher risks and makes risk management more and more difficult. This paper aims to discuss the theory behind the dry port concep...

  16. Abiotic factors influencing tropical dry forests regeneration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceccon Eliane

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Tropical dry forests represent nearly half the tropical forests in the world and are the ecosystems registering the greatest deterioration from the anthropogenic exploitation of the land. This paper presents a review on the dynamics of tropical dry forests regeneration and the main abiotic factors influencing this regeneration, such as seasonal nature, soil fertility and humidity, and natural and anthropic disturbances. The main purpose is to clearly understand an important part of TDF succession dynamics.

  17. Bacterial Killing by Dry Metallic Copper Surfaces▿

    OpenAIRE

    Santo, Christophe Espírito; Lam, Ee Wen; Elowsky, Christian G.; Quaranta, Davide; Domaille, Dylan W.; Chang, Christopher J.; Grass, Gregor

    2010-01-01

    Metallic copper surfaces rapidly and efficiently kill bacteria. Cells exposed to copper surfaces accumulated large amounts of copper ions, and this copper uptake was faster from dry copper than from moist copper. Cells suffered extensive membrane damage within minutes of exposure to dry copper. Further, cells removed from copper showed loss of cell integrity. Acute contact with metallic copper surfaces did not result in increased mutation rates or DNA lesions. These findings are important fir...

  18. A rice husk gasifier for paddy drying

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mirani, A.A.; Kalwar, S.A.; Ahmad, M.

    2013-01-01

    Due to energy crisis and constant increase in the price of fossil fuels, the world's trend changes to renewable sources of energy like solar, wind and biomass gasification. Substantial biomass potential is available in Pakistan in the form of agriculture or forest residue (rice straw, rice husk, cotton stalks, corn cobs, wood chips, wood saw, etc.). These can be best utilised for the production of producer gas or synthetic gas that can be used for drying of agricultural crops. The drying process is an important activity of post harvest processing for long-term storage. Rice husk is nowadays commonly used for biomass gasification and its heat content value is about 15MJ/kg. It constitutes about 30 percent of rice production. A rice husk gasifier was developed and evaluated on paddy drying at Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), Tsukuba International Center (TBIC), Japan. Rice husk gasifier has following major components; husk feeding system, ash chamber, burner, centrifugal fan, drying chamber, gasifier reactor, air duct and an electric motor of 0.37kW. The average drying plenum air temperature was recorded as 45 degree C during the drying process. The paddy 'IR 28' from initial moisture content of 24% was dried up to 14% moisture content for about 3.33h consuming 3kg/h of rice husk. The efficiency was found to be 58%. The rice husk gasifier can also be used for drying the fruits and vegetables, provided that heat exchanger should be attached with it. The overall performance of rice husk gasifier was satisfactory and will be beneficial for small scale farmers, food processors and millers as well. (author)

  19. Dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roma, Carlo; Leonelli, Vincenzo

    1975-01-01

    Research and experiments made on dry cooling systems with plastic surfaces are described. The demonstration program planned in Italy for a 100Gcal/h dry cooling system is exposed, and an installation intended for a large 1300Mwe nuclear power station is described with reference to the assembly (exploitation and maintenance included). The performance and economic data relating to this installation are also exposed [fr

  20. Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Influence of selected washing treatments and drying temperatures on ... with regard to the optimal retention of the crude protein and fat levels of the dried dagaa. ... are accessible to most of the households involved in dried fish processing.

  1. Drying equipment for radioisotope-treated animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fujikake, Toshio; Ohmori, Akira; Takada, Yukio; Nakano, Shozoh; Tamai, Shinsuke.

    1978-01-01

    The animal experiments using radioisotopes have been carried out over wide fields, accordingly, the number of radioisotope-contaminated animal cadavers has been increasing rapidly. It was decided that each establishment employing radioiosotopes dries those cadavers to such state as to be able to burn up with the device in Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute. The animal waste-drying device meeting the above mentioned purpose was developed by the joint work of Fuji Electric General Devices Co. and Fuji Electric Co. It is known as the micro-wave drying device for animals (its nickname is Microdry). This device dehydrates at high speed by micro-wave drying method. By using along with a moisture detector, it gives the drying state as requested regardless of the water content of each animal. The animal wastes after perfect dehydration are reduced to the weight of about one-third, and the dried animal cadavers can be preserved for a long time at room temperature because of the sterilizing effect of the micro-wave heating. This device is noted for its excellent safeness, simple operation, and low treatment cost. It is anticipated that it can be further applied to other fields such as excreta, breeding materials, etc. (Kobatake, H.)

  2. Templated Dry Printing of Conductive Metal Nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rolfe, David Alexander

    Printed electronics can lower the cost and increase the ubiquity of electrical components such as batteries, sensors, and telemetry systems. Unfortunately, the advance of printed electronics has been held back by the limited minimum resolution, aspect ratio, and feature fidelity of present printing techniques such as gravure, screen printing and inkjet printing. Templated dry printing offers a solution to these problems by patterning nanoparticle inks into templates before drying. This dissertation shows advancements in two varieties of templated dry nanoprinting. The first, advective micromolding in vapor-permeable templates (AMPT) is a microfluidic approach that uses evaporation-driven mold filling to create submicron features with a 1:1 aspect ratio. We will discuss submicron surface acoustic wave (SAW) resonators made through this process, and the refinement process in the template manufacturing process necessary to make these devices. We also present modeling techniques that can be applied to future AMPT templates. We conclude with a modified templated dry printing that improves throughput and isolated feature patterning by transferring dry-templated features with laser ablation. This method utilizes surface energy-defined templates to pattern features via doctor blade coating. Patterned and dried features can be transferred to a polymer substrate with an Nd:YAG MOPA fiber laser, and printed features can be smaller than the laser beam width.

  3. Drying a tuberculosis vaccine without freezing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Yun-Ling; Sampson, Samantha; Germishuizen, Willem Andreas; Goonesekera, Sunali; Caponetti, Giovanni; Sadoff, Jerry; Bloom, Barry R; Edwards, David

    2007-02-20

    With the increasing incidence of tuberculosis and drug resistant disease in developing countries due to HIV/AIDS, there is a need for vaccines that are more effective than the present bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. We demonstrate that BCG vaccine can be dried without traditional freezing and maintained with remarkable refrigerated and room-temperature stability for months through spray drying. Studies with a model Mycobacterium (Mycobacterium smegmatis) revealed that by removing salts and cryoprotectant (e.g., glycerol) from bacterial suspensions, the significant osmotic pressures that are normally produced on bacterial membranes through droplet drying can be reduced sufficiently to minimize loss of viability on drying by up to 2 orders of magnitude. By placing the bacteria in a matrix of leucine, high-yield, free-flowing, "vial-fillable" powders of bacteria (including M. smegmatis and M. bovis BCG) can be produced. These powders show relatively minor losses of activity after maintenance at 4 degrees C and 25 degrees C up to and beyond 4 months. Comparisons with lyophilized material prepared both with the same formulation and with a commercial formulation reveal that the spray-dried BCG has better overall viability on drying.

  4. Development of Solar Biomass Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atnaw Samson Mekbib

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this paper focuses on the experimental pre-treatment of biomass in agricultural site using solar energy as power source and contribution of common use and efficiency solar dryer system for consumer. The main purpose of this design for solar cabinet dryer is to dry biomass via direct and indirect heating. Direct heating is the simplest method to dry biomass by exposing the biomass under direct sunlight. The solar cabinet dryer traps solar heat to increase the temperature of the drying chamber. The biomass absorbs the heat and transforms the moisture content within the biomass into water vapour and then leaves the chamber via the exhaust air outlet. This problem however can be solved by adopting indirect solar drying system. High and controllable temperatures can be achieved as a fan is used to move the air through the solar collector. This project has successfully created a solar cabinet dryer that combines both direct and indirect solar drying systems and functions to dry biomass as well as crops effectively and efficiently with minimal maintenance. Hence, it is indeed a substitution for conventional dryers which are affordable to local farmers.

  5. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  6. Nano spray drying for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arpagaus, Cordin; Collenberg, Andreas; Rütti, David; Assadpour, Elham; Jafari, Seid Mahdi

    2018-05-17

    Many pharmaceuticals such as pills, capsules, or tablets are prepared in a dried and powdered form. In this field, spray drying plays a critical role to convert liquid pharmaceutical formulations into powders. In addition, in many cases it is necessary to encapsulate bioactive drugs into wall materials to protect them against harsh process and environmental conditions, as well as to deliver the drug to the right place and at the correct time within the body. Thus, spray drying is a common process used for encapsulation of pharmaceuticals. In view of the rapid progress of nanoencapsulation techniques in pharmaceutics, nano spray drying is used to improve drug formulation and delivery. The nano spray dryer developed in the recent years provides ultrafine powders at nanoscale and high product yields. In this paper, after explaining the concept of nano spray drying and understanding the key elements of the equipment, the influence of the process parameters on the final powders properties, like particle size, morphology, encapsulation efficiency, drug loading and release, will be discussed. Then, numerous application examples are reviewed for nano spray drying and encapsulation of various drugs in the early stages of product development along with a brief overview of the obtained results and characterization techniques. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Drying of Agricultural Products Using Long Wave Infrared Radiation(Part 2). Drying of Welsh Onion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itoh, K.; Han, C.S.

    1995-01-01

    The investigation was carried out to clarify the intermittent drying characteristics for welsh onion use of long-wave infrared radiation. When compared with two other methods: use of air and vacuum freezing, this method showed significantly high rate of drying. The experiments were carried out analyzing the influence of different lengths of the welsh onion, different rate of radiation and different temperature of the airflow. The obtained results were as follows: 1. The rate of drying increases as the length of welsh onion decrease and the rate of radiation increase. 2. The airflow, temperature does not influence to the rate of drying. 3. The increasing of the drying time considerably aggravate the quality the dried welsh onion

  8. Designing CAF-adjuvanted dry powder vaccines: Spray drying preserves the adjuvant activity of CAF01

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ingvarsson, Pall Thor; Schmidt, Signe Tandrup; Christensen, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    spray drying. The optimal excipient to stabilize CAF01 during spray drying and for the design of nanocomposite microparticles was identified among mannitol, lactose and trehalose. Trehalose and lactose were promising stabilizers with respect to preserving liposome size, as compared to mannitol...... parameters suggested that a fast drying rate is essential to avoid phase separation and lipid accumulation at the surface of the microparticles during spray drying. Finally, immunization studies in mice with CAF01 in combination with the tuberculosis antigen Ag85B-ESAT6-Rv2660c (H56) demonstrated that spray...... drying of CAF01 with trehalose under optimal processing conditions resulted in the preservation of the adjuvant activity in vivo. These data demonstrate the importance of liposome stabilization via optimization of formulation and processing conditions in the engineering of dry powder liposome...

  9. Hibiscus sabdariffa L extract drying with different carrier agent: Drying rate evaluation and color analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djaeni, M.; Utari, F. D.; Kumoro, A. C.

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different carrier agents on roselle or Hibiscus sabdariffa L.extract drying. Carrier agent was used for reducing stickiness of material and avoiding agglomeration as well as improving stability. The method consisted of two steps involving roselle extraction and drying process. The liquid roselle extract was mixed with carrier agent (maltodextrin-arabic gum) in various composition. The mixture was then dried at different air temperature ranging 40 - 80°C. As a response, moisture content in the extract was observed by gravimetry every 10 minutes during90 minutes. The procedurewas repeated for the drying without carrieragent. The result showed that constant rate of drying with carrier agent was higher up to l.7 times than that of without carrier agent. Based on the color analysis,roselle extract drying with carrier agent also showed reasonable quality.

  10. Investigation Of Infrared Drying Behaviour Of Spinach Leaves Using ANN Methodology And Dried Product Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarimeseli Ayse

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Effects of infrared power output and sample mass on drying behaviour, colour parameters, ascorbic acid degradation, rehydration characteristics and some sensory scores of spinach leaves were investigated. Within both of the range of the infrared power outputs, 300–500 W, and sample amounts, 15–60 g, moisture content of the leaves was reduced from 6.0 to 0.1±(0.01 kg water/kg dry base value. It was recorded that drying times of the spinach leaves varied between 3.5–10 min for constant sample amount, and 4–16.5 min for constant power output. Experimental drying data obtained were successfully investigated by using artificial neural network methodology. Some changes were recorded in the quality parameters of the dried leaves, and acceptable sensory scores for the dried leaves were observed in all of the experimental conditions.

  11. Method and apparatus for in-situ drying investigation and optimization of slurry drying methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armstrong, Beth L.; Daniel, Claus; Howe, Jane Y.; Kiggans, Jr, James O.; Sabau, Adrian S.; Wood, III, David L.; Kalnaus, Sergiy

    2016-05-10

    A method of drying casted slurries that includes calculating drying conditions from an experimental model for a cast slurry and forming a cast film. An infrared heating probe is positioned on one side of the casted slurry and a thermal probe is positioned on an opposing side of the casted slurry. The infrared heating probe may control the temperature of the casted slurry during drying. The casted slurry may be observed with an optical microscope, while applying the drying conditions from the experimental model. Observing the casted slurry includes detecting the incidence of micro-structural changes in the casted slurry during drying to determine if the drying conditions from the experimental model are optimal.

  12. The influence of the dried blood spot drying time on the recoveries of six immunosuppressants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Remco A. Koster

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Investigation of the drying time of dried blood spots (DBS is currently not included in DBS validations. The influence of the DBS drying time on the recovery of tacrolimus, ascomycin, sirolimus, everolimus, cyclosporin A and temsirolimus was evaluated by measuring DBS with a fixed blood volume at a hematocrit range between 0.1 and 0.6 L/L at 3, 24 and 48 hours of drying time. Results showed that the recovery of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A was influenced by the DBS drying time, while the recovery of tacrolimus and ascomycin was not. A drying time of at least 24 hours is advised in order to stabilize hematocrit and concentration related recovery effects of sirolimus, everolimus, temsirolimus and cyclosporin A.

  13. Evaluation of dried salted pork ham and neck quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona Kunová

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was analysed chemical and physical parameters of dried salted pork ham and neck. Dry-cured meat is a traditional dry-cured product obtained after 12 - 24 months of ripening under controlled environmental conditions.  Ham and neck was salted by nitrite salt mixture during 1 week. Salted meat products were dried at 4 °C and relative humidity 85% 1 week after salting. The quality of dry-cured meat is influenced by the processing technology, for example length of drying and ripening period. The average moisture of dried salted pork ham was 63.77% and dried salted pork neck was 59.26%. The protein content was 24.87% in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower (20.51% in dried salted pork neck. The value of intramuscular fat in dried salted pork ham was 4.97% and 14.40% in dried salted pork neck. The salt content was 5.39% in dried salted pork ham and 4.83% in dried salted pork neck. The cholesterol content was 1.36 g.kg-1 in dried salted pork ham and significant lower in dried salted pork neck (0.60 g.kg-1. The value of lightness was 44.36 CIE L* in dried salted pork ham and significantly lower in dried salted pork neck (40.74 CIE L*. The pH value was 5.84 in dried salted pork ham and 5.80 in dried salted pork neck. The shear work was 9.99 kg.s-1 in dried salted pork ham and 6.34 in dried salted pork neck. The value of water activity (aw was 0.929 in dried salted pork ham and similar 0.921 in dried salted pork neck. 

  14. Numerical analysis of single and multiple particles of Belchatow lignite dried in superheated steam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zakrzewski, Marcin; Sciazko, Anna; Komatsu, Yosuke; Akiyama, Taro; Hashimoto, Akira; Kaneko, Shozo; Kimijima, Shinji; Szmyd, Janusz S.; Kobayashi, Yoshinori

    2018-03-01

    Low production costs have contributed to the important role of lignite in the energy mixes of numerous countries worldwide. High moisture content, though, diminishes the applicability of lignite in power generation. Superheated steam drying is a prospective method of raising the calorific value of this fuel. This study describes the numerical model of superheated steam drying of lignite from the Belchatow mine in Poland in two aspects: single and multi-particle. The experimental investigation preceded the numerical analysis and provided the necessary data for the preparation and verification of the model. Spheres of 2.5 to 30 mm in diameter were exposed to the drying medium at the temperature range of 110 to 170 °C. The drying kinetics were described in the form of moisture content, drying rate and temperature profile curves against time. Basic coal properties, such as density or specific heat, as well as the mechanisms of heat and mass transfer in the particular stages of the process laid the foundations for the model construction. The model illustrated the drying behavior of a single particle in the entire range of steam temperature as well as the sample diameter. Furthermore, the numerical analyses of coal batches containing particles of various sizes were conducted to reflect the operating conditions of the dryer. They were followed by deliberation on the calorific value improvement achieved by drying, in terms of coal ingredients, power plant efficiency and dryer input composition. The initial period of drying was found crucial for upgrading the quality of coal. The accuracy of the model is capable of further improvement regarding the process parameters.

  15. Measurements of dry-deposition rates on various earth surfaces by 212Pb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osaki, S.; Sugihara, S.; Maeda, Y.

    2004-01-01

    Dry deposition rates of 212 Pb on a coniferous forest (Japanese cedar) and a broad-leaf forest (Pasania edulis) have been measured. Those on various kinds of grass fields, various states on artificial surface such as water, paper, and standing paper have been also measured. The dry deposition rates depend on the characteristics of depositing particles and the conditions of deposited surfaces. Dry deposition rates on the forest of Japanese cedar are highest because of the complex and adhesive surface of the leaves. Those on various grass fields are roughly depend on the logarithm of the height of their grasses. The total deposition rates of 7 Be do not depend on the densities or heights of the grasses. 7 Be may be not kept on their leaves or surface soil for a long time. The dry deposition rates of on artificial surface, e.g. paper and water surfaces make clear the mechanism on dry deposition, and suggest that more chances of collision and more adhesive of the surface are important for the dry deposition. About 90% of all deposition on the artificial paper grass was attached on the standing paper. On water surface, 60% of the rate of paper grass was attached, but only about 20% were attached on a dry paper plate. The aerosol particles are deposited by collision with the surface, therefore the deposition velocity depends on the chance of collision and the characteristics of the surface. Therefore the dry deposition rates on forests are larger and those of coniferous forest are largest. (author)

  16. Quantal density functional theory

    CERN Document Server

    Sahni, Viraht

    2016-01-01

    This book deals with quantal density functional theory (QDFT) which is a time-dependent local effective potential theory of the electronic structure of matter. The treated time-independent QDFT constitutes a special case. In the 2nd edition, the theory is extended to include the presence of external magnetostatic fields. The theory is a description of matter based on the ‘quantal Newtonian’ first and second laws which is in terms of “classical” fields that pervade all space, and their quantal sources. The fields, which are explicitly defined, are separately representative of electron correlations due to the Pauli exclusion principle, Coulomb repulsion, correlation-kinetic, correlation-current-density, and correlation-magnetic effects. The book further describes Schrödinger theory from the new physical perspective of fields and quantal sources. It also describes traditional Hohenberg-Kohn-Sham DFT, and explains via QDFT the physics underlying the various energy functionals and functional derivatives o...

  17. Discrete density of states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug

    2016-01-01

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  18. Discrete density of states

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aydin, Alhun; Sisman, Altug, E-mail: sismanal@itu.edu.tr

    2016-03-22

    By considering the quantum-mechanically minimum allowable energy interval, we exactly count number of states (NOS) and introduce discrete density of states (DOS) concept for a particle in a box for various dimensions. Expressions for bounded and unbounded continua are analytically recovered from discrete ones. Even though substantial fluctuations prevail in discrete DOS, they're almost completely flattened out after summation or integration operation. It's seen that relative errors of analytical expressions of bounded/unbounded continua rapidly decrease for high NOS values (weak confinement or high energy conditions), while the proposed analytical expressions based on Weyl's conjecture always preserve their lower error characteristic. - Highlights: • Discrete density of states considering minimum energy difference is proposed. • Analytical DOS and NOS formulas based on Weyl conjecture are given. • Discrete DOS and NOS functions are examined for various dimensions. • Relative errors of analytical formulas are much better than the conventional ones.

  19. Density dependent effective interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dortmans, P.J.; Amos, K.

    1994-01-01

    An effective nucleon-nucleon interaction is defined by an optimal fit to select on-and half-off-of-the-energy shell t-and g-matrices determined by solutions of the Lippmann-Schwinger and Brueckner-Bethe-Goldstone equations with the Paris nucleon-nucleon interaction as input. As such, it is seen to better reproduce the interaction on which it is based than other commonly used density dependent effective interactions. The new (medium modified) effective interaction when folded with appropriate density matrices, has been used to define proton- 12 C and proton- 16 O optical potentials. With them elastic scattering data are well fit and the medium effects identifiable. 23 refs., 8 figs

  20. Drying characteristics and nitrogen loss of biogas digestate during drying process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maurer, C.; Muller, J. [Hohenheim Univ., Stuttgart (Germany). Inst. of Agricultural Engineering, Tropical and Subtropical Group

    2010-07-01

    The cost of transporting biogas digestate can be decreased by reducing its water content. However, the digestate emits volatile compounds during drying. This study investigated the drying behaviour and the change of digestate composition. Drying took place in a hybrid solar/waste-heat dryer that used solar energy as well as waste heat from a combined heat and power unit (CHP) and the exhaust air of a microturbine. The experiment involved the use of 60 t of liquid digestate. Climatic conditions were measured inside and outside the drying hall. Dry matter (DM) and organic dry matter (ODM) were also measured on a daily basis. In addition, the energy consumption of waste and solar heat were recorded and related to the quantity of dried feedstock. The total nitrogen, ammonium, phosphate, potassium oxide, magnesium oxide and calcium oxide in the digestate were subjected to chemical analysis before and after the drying process. Losses of nitrogen were calculated. Specific energy consumption depended on the climatic condition. Most of the energy consumption was covered by the waste heat of the CHP. A considerable amount of nitrogen was lost during the drying process.

  1. Effect of drying conditions on drying kinetics and quality of aromatic Pandanus amaryllifolius leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rayaguru, Kalpana; Routray, Winny

    2010-01-01

    Pandanus amaryllifolius is a plant with aromatic leaves, which impart the characteristic flavour of aromatic rice. The quality of aromatic Pandanus leaves dried at low temperature (35 °C) and low RH (27%) in a heat pump dryer was evaluated and compared with those obtained from hot air drying at 45 °C. Thin-layer drying kinetics has been studied for both the conditions. To determine the kinetic parameters, the drying data were fitted to various semi-theoretical models. The goodness of fit was ...

  2. COMPARISON BETWEEN WOOD DRYING DEFECT SCORES: SPECIMEN TESTING X ANALYSIS OF KILN-DRIED BOARDS

    OpenAIRE

    Djeison Cesar Batista; Márcio Pereira da Rocha; Ricardo Jorge Klitzke

    2015-01-01

    It is important to develop drying technologies for Eucalyptus grandis lumber, which is one of the most planted species of this genus in Brazil and plays an important role as raw material for the wood industry. The general aim of this work was to assess the conventional kiln drying of juvenile wood of three clones of Eucalyptus grandis. The specific aims were to compare the behavior between: i) drying defects indicated by tests with wood specimens and conventional kiln-dried boards; and ii) ph...

  3. Raman mapping of mannitol/lysozyme particles produced via spray drying and single droplet drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pajander, Jari Pekka; Matero, Sanni; Sloth, Jakob; Wan, Feng; Rantanen, Jukka; Yang, Mingshi

    2015-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of a model protein on the solid state of a commonly used bulk agent in spray-dried formulations. A series of lysozyme/mannitol formulations were spray-dried using a lab-scale spray dryer. Further, the surface temperature of drying droplet/particles was monitored using the DRYING KINETICS ANALYZER™ (DKA) with controllable drying conditions mimicking the spray-drying process to estimate the drying kinetics of the lysozyme/mannitol formulations. The mannitol polymorphism and the spatial distribution of lysozyme in the particles were examined using X-ray powder diffractometry (XRPD) and Raman microscopy. Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis was used for analyzing the Raman microscopy data. XRPD results indicated that a mixture of β-mannitol and α-mannitol was produced in the spray-drying process which was supported by the Raman analysis, whereas Raman analysis indicated that a mixture of α-mannitol and δ-mannitol was detected in the single particles from DKA. In addition Raman mapping indicated that the presence of lysozyme seemed to favor the appearance of α-mannitol in the particles from DKA evidenced by close proximity of lysozyme and mannitol in the particles. It suggested that the presence of lysozyme tend to induce metastable solid state forms upon the drying process.

  4. Variability and trends in dry day frequency and dry event length in the southwestern United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Gregory J.; Legates, David R.; Lins, Harry F.

    2010-01-01

    Daily precipitation from 22 National Weather Service first-order weather stations in the southwestern United States for water years 1951 through 2006 are used to examine variability and trends in the frequency of dry days and dry event length. Dry events with minimum thresholds of 10 and 20 consecutive days of precipitation with less than 2.54 mm are analyzed. For water years and cool seasons (October through March), most sites indicate negative trends in dry event length (i.e., dry event durations are becoming shorter). For the warm season (April through September), most sites also indicate negative trends; however, more sites indicate positive trends in dry event length for the warm season than for water years or cool seasons. The larger number of sites indicating positive trends in dry event length during the warm season is due to a series of dry warm seasons near the end of the 20th century and the beginning of the 21st century. Overall, a large portion of the variability in dry event length is attributable to variability of the El Niño–Southern Oscillation, especially for water years and cool seasons. Our results are consistent with analyses of trends in discharge for sites in the southwestern United States, an increased frequency in El Niño events, and positive trends in precipitation in the southwestern United States.

  5. Variable Kernel Density Estimation

    OpenAIRE

    Terrell, George R.; Scott, David W.

    1992-01-01

    We investigate some of the possibilities for improvement of univariate and multivariate kernel density estimates by varying the window over the domain of estimation, pointwise and globally. Two general approaches are to vary the window width by the point of estimation and by point of the sample observation. The first possibility is shown to be of little efficacy in one variable. In particular, nearest-neighbor estimators in all versions perform poorly in one and two dimensions, but begin to b...

  6. Density oscillations within hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, R.; Barshay, S.

    1976-01-01

    In models of extended hadrons, in which small bits of matter carrying charge and effective mass exist confined within a medium, oscillations in the matter density may occur. A way of investigating this possibility experimentally in high-energy hadron-hadron elastic diffraction scattering is suggested, and the effect is illustrated by examining some existing data which might be relevant to the question [fr

  7. DRUM DRYER FOR DRYING THE PARTICULATE PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. S. Iurova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Summary. For raise effectiveness drying process drum-type installation in which drum the mechanism of creation of various zones providing a necessary temperature and hydrodynamic regime of process of drying in process of product passage on a drum and changes in it of a relationship of various forms of communication of a moisture, and also a process intensification at last stage of drying by creation разряжения in a continuous technological stream of drying is provided is offered. The drum provides formation of a zone of separation of heat-transfer agent by means of the dissector, zones of intensive drying by disposing lobate nozzles in chessboard order with a dividing ring, zones of separation of the completed heat-transfer agent from жома as a result of separator installation in which the elliptic disk having cuts on a straight line from edge to the centre places, with formation of the triangular slot for passage dried pulp and heat-transfer agent, and also zones the final drying by performance of a section of a drum matching to a zone perforated on which length are had spring-loaded lobate nozzles representing the blades connected bow-shaped rod with metal plates, had with outer side of a drum and under the form repeating its contour, thus the bow-shaped rod from the interior of a drum which ends are supplied by springs rest against overhead and bottom persistent screw nuts, and blades and metal plates are installed with possibility of twirl concerning a fastening place on a drum and supplied by reinforcing ribs.

  8. [Psychosomatic aspects of dry eye syndrome].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nepp, J

    2016-02-01

    Patients with dry eye syndrome are known to suffer from anxiety and depression. Analysis of psychological disorders in therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome. A retrospective analysis of the training for interactive psychiatric screening (TRIPS) questionnaire from 110 patients with therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome was carried out. The results of the questionnaire allow the diagnosis of psychological disorders and vegetative disorders. Patients were divided into groups with anxiety, depression, mixed diagnoses, vegetative disorders and no diagnosis. A sicca score was used for assessment of dryness comprising the Schirmer test, measurement of tear meniscus, break up time, lipid layer thickness, the use of fluorescein and rose bengal staining tests and the subjective visual analogue scale. The diagnosis of dry eye syndrome was compared with the psychological disorders of anxiety and depression. Of the patients 52.7 % had psychological disorders with anxiety in 21.8 %, depression in 15.3 %, mixed diagnoses in 14.5 %, dystonia in 25.4 % and in 22.7 % no psychological disorders were diagnosed. General anxiety was frequent and panic disorders were often associated with other kinds of anxiety. Severe depression, such as bipolar disorder was rare. Dry eye scores were highest in the mixed group (0.59), and lowest in the group with mild anxiety (0.38). No single sicca phase disorder could be correlated with any of the psychological diagnoses. Patients with therapy-resistant dry eye syndrome often suffer from anxiety and depression. The psychological stress acts on the nervous system to suppress lacrimal gland function. Further investigation of the correlation between the lacrimal tear film phase and psychological disorders is recommended. Knowledge of personality disorders may allow psychological support that would improve the treatment options for dry eye syndrome.

  9. Energy-saving drying and its application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovbasyuk, V. I.

    2015-09-01

    Superheated steam is efficiently applied as a coolant for the intensification of drying, which is an important component of many up-to-date technologies. However, traditional drying is extremely energy consuming, and many drying apparatus are environmentally unfriendly. Thus, it is important to implement the proposed drying technique using superheated steam under pressure significantly higher than the atmospheric one with subsequent steam transfer for use in a turbine for electric power generation as a compensation of energy costs for drying. This paper includes a brief thermodynamic analysis of such a technique, its environmental advantages, and possible benefits of the use of wet wastes and obtaining high-quality fuels from wet raw materials. A scheme is developed for the turbine protection from impurities that can occur in the steam at drying. Potential advantage of the technique are also the absence of heating surfaces that are in contact with wet media, the absence of the emissions to the atmosphere, and the use of low potential heat for desalination and the purification of water. The new drying technique can play an extremely important part in the implementation in the field of thermal destruction of anthropogenic wastes. In spite of the promotion of waste sorting to obtain valuable secondary raw materials, the main problem of big cities is nonutilizable waste, which makes not less than 85% of the starting quantity of waste. This can only be totally solved by combustion, which even more relates to the sewage sludge utilization. The wastes can be safely and efficiently combusted only provided that they are free of moisture. Combustion temperature optimization makes possible full destruction of dioxins and their toxic analogues.

  10. Toward a Redefinition of Density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rapoport, Amos

    1975-01-01

    This paper suggests that in addition to the recent work indicating that crowding is a subjective phenomenon, an adequate definition of density must also include a subjective component since density is a complex phenomenon in itself. Included is a discussion of both physical density and perceived density. (Author/MA)

  11. Density measures and additive property

    OpenAIRE

    Kunisada, Ryoichi

    2015-01-01

    We deal with finitely additive measures defined on all subsets of natural numbers which extend the asymptotic density (density measures). We consider a class of density measures which are constructed from free ultrafilters on natural numbers and study a certain additivity property of such density measures.

  12. Air-Lubricated Thermal Processor For Dry Silver Film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siryj, B. W.

    1980-09-01

    Since dry silver film is processed by heat, it may be viewed on a light table only seconds after exposure. On the other hand, wet films require both bulky chemicals and substantial time before an image can be analyzed. Processing of dry silver film, although simple in concept, is not so simple when reduced to practice. The main concern is the effect of film temperature gradients on uniformity of optical film density. RCA has developed two thermal processors, different in implementation but based on the same philosophy. Pressurized air is directed to both sides of the film to support the film and to conduct the heat to the film. Porous graphite is used as the medium through which heat and air are introduced. The initial thermal processor was designed to process 9.5-inch-wide film moving at speeds ranging from 0.0034 to 0.008 inch per second. The processor configuration was curved to match the plane generated by the laser recording beam. The second thermal processor was configured to process 5-inch-wide film moving at a continuously variable rate ranging from 0.15 to 3.5 inches per second. Due to field flattening optics used in this laser recorder, the required film processing area was plane. In addition, this processor was sectioned in the direction of film motion, giving the processor the capability of varying both temperature and effective processing area.

  13. Contact lens wear and dry eyes: challenges and solutions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markoulli M

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Maria Markoulli, Sailesh Kolanu School of Optometry and Vision Science, University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW, Australia Abstract: The number of contact lens wearers worldwide has remained relatively stable over the past decade, despite the investment that has gone into contact lens technology. This is largely because 10%–50% of wearers dropout of contact lens wear within 3 years of commencement; the most common reason cited being contact lens discomfort (CLD. Of the symptoms reported, sensation of dry eye is the most common. Given the outcome of reduced wearing time, increased chair time, and ultimate contact lens discontinuation, the challenge is to identify the warning signs of CLD early on. Clinically detectable changes such as conjunctival staining, conjunctival indentation, conjunctival epithelial flap formation, lid wiper epitheliopathy, Demodex blepharitis, and meibomian gland dysfunction have been linked to CLD, highlighting the need to perform regular aftercare visits to identify these changes. At a cellular level, conjunctival metaplasia and reduced goblet cell density have been linked to CLD, leading to a downstream effect on the tear film breakup time of contact lens wearers. These factors suggest a strong link between CLD and friction, raising the need to target this as a means of minimizing CLD. The purpose of this review is to identify the clinical signs that relate to CLD as a means of earlier detection and management in order to combat contact lens dropout. Keywords: contact lens discomfort, dry eye disease, lid wiper epitheliopathy, tear film biomarkers, meibomian gland dysfunction

  14. Structural and functional changes in corneal innervation after laser in situ keratomileusis and their relationship with dry eye.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chao, Cecilia; Stapleton, Fiona; Zhou, Xiangtian; Chen, Shihao; Zhou, Shi; Golebiowski, Blanka

    2015-11-01

    The most likely etiology of post-LASIK dry eye is corneal nerve damage; however, no direct relationship between post-LASIK dry eye symptoms and nerve damage has been established, and limited information is available about the relationship between dry eye signs and corneal reinnervation after LASIK. Tear neuropeptides (SP and CGRP) are important in the maintenance of corneal nerve health, but the impact of LASIK has not yet been studied. This study evaluated changes in nerve morphology, tear neuropeptide, and dry eye, so as to establish the relationship between reinnervation and dry eye and to assess the role of tear neuropeptides in reinnervation post-LASIK. Twenty non-dry eye volunteers who had undergone bilateral myopic-LASIK completed this study. Corneal nerve morphology (density, width, interconnections, and tortuosity), SP and CGRP concentration, and dry eye were monitored over time prior to, 1 day, 1 week, 1, 3, and 6 months post-LASIK. Dry eye symptoms and tear function, except for osmolarity (P = 0.003), remained unchanged post-LASIK. Corneal nerve morphology decreased immediately, and did not return to preoperative levels by 6 months post-LASIK (P dry eye symptoms (P = 0.01) were found post-LASIK. An inverse relationship between reinnervation post-LASIK and dry eye symptoms was found, confirming that post-LASIK dry eye is a neuropathic disease. This study is the first to demonstrate an association between tear SP and post-LASIK reinnervation, suggesting that strategies for manipulating neuropeptide concentration to improve reinnervation may improve ocular comfort post-LASIK.

  15. Density and radioactivity distribution of respirable range human serum albumin aerosol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raghunath, B.; Somasundaram, S.; Soni, P.S.

    1988-01-01

    Dry human serum albumin (HSA) aerosol in the respirable size range was generated using the BARC nebulizer. The aerosol was sampled using Lovelace Aerosol Particle Separator (LAPS) and the density of HSA was determined. Labelling of HSA with 99m TcO 4 - was done, both in HSA solution and with dry denatured HSA particles, to study the distribution of radioactivity in both cases. The results are discussed. (author)

  16. Microbial ecology of extreme environments: Antarctic dry valley yeasts and growth in substrate limited habitats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vishniac, H. S.

    1981-01-01

    The multiple stresses temperature, moisture, and for chemoheterotrophs, sources of carbon and energy of the Dry Valley Antarctica soils allow at best depauperate communities, low in species diversity and population density. The nature of community structure, the operation of biogeochemical cycles, the evolution and mechanisms of adaptation to this habitat are of interest in informing speculations upon life on other planets as well as in modeling the limits of gene life. Yeasts of the Cryptococcus vishniacil complex (Basidiobiastomycetes) are investigated, as the only known indigenes of the most hostile, lichen free, parts of the Dry Valleys. Methods were developed for isolating these yeasts (methods which do not exclude the recovery of other microbiota). The definition of the complex was refined and the importance of nitrogen sources was established as well as substrate competition in fitness to the Dry Valley habitats.

  17. Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cüneyt Tunçkal

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available Pineapple (Ananascomosus slices were dried with the aid of a heat pump assisted dryer (HPD. During this process, air velocity was kept constant at 1m/s, while air temperatures were changed as 37°C, 40°C and 43°C. The drying air was also circulated by using an axial fan in a closed cycle and fresh air was not allowed into the system. The drying rate and drying time were significantly influenced by drying temperature. It was observed that drying temperatures had significant effects on the drying rate and drying time. During the conduct of the study, pineapple slices were dried at 37, 40 and 43°C for 465, 360 and 290 min, respectively. The specific moisture extraction ratio (SMER values were observed to change as drying temperatures were changed. The drying rate curves indicated that the whole drying process occurred in the falling rate period. Seven well-known thin-layer models (Lewis, Henderson &Pabis, Logarithmic, Page, Midilli & Kucuk, Weibull and Aghbashlo et al. were employed to make a prediction about drying kinetics through nonlinear regression analysis. The Midilli & Kucuk and Aghbashlo et al. models were consistent with the experimental data. Fick’s second law of diffusion was used to determine the moisture diffusivity coefficient ranging from 3.78×10–9 to 6.57×10-9  m2/s the each of the above mentioned temperatures. The dependence of effective diffusivity coefficient on temperature was defined by means a fan Arrhenius type equation. The activation energy of moisture diffusion was found to be 75.24kJ/mol.   Article History: Received: July 18th 2017; Received: October 27th 2017; Accepted: January 16th 2018; Available online How to Cite This Article: Tunçkal, C., Coşkun, S., Doymaz, I. and Ergun, E. (2018 Determination of Sliced Pineapple Drying Characteristics in A Closed Loop Heat Pump Assisted Drying System. International Journal of Renewable Energy Development, 7(1, 35-41. https://doi.org/10.14710/ijred.7.1.35-41

  18. Changes in CT density-measurement of intraorbital wooden foreign bodies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Otani, Etsuko; Hiyama, Fusako; Machi, Setsuko; Hagihara, Masahiro.

    1991-01-01

    We examined in vitro changes in CT density-measurement of intraorbital wooden foreign bodies. Dry wooden sticks were immersed in distilled water, saline, and serum. Computerized tomography scans were taken several times during 22 weeks. Scans were taken in room air and in fatty tissue. The CT density-measurement of the central part of the wooden bodies was calculated. That of the dry wood was about 500 HU; all of the wooden foreign bodies became denser during the 22 weeks, with those immersed in distilled water and saline at about 130 HU, and those immersed in serum at about 150 HU. It was confirmed that wood becomes denser after soaking in aqueous environments. The CT density of wood soaked in water depends on the density of wood fiber, and the CT density of the wood fiber itself. (author)

  19. Assessment of Osmotic Pre-Drying Treatment on Drying Rates of Fresh Tomato Fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. A. Idah

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to investigate the influence of osmotic pre-drying treatments on drying rates of tomato (Lycopersiconesculentum at various drying temperatures. Fresh Roma tomato fruit samples were sliced to a thickness of 5 mm and the seeds were removed. Weight of 300 g was measured for each of the three replicates and immersed in a hypertonic solution of sucrose of different concentrations 40 and 60 oBrix each held for osmotic duration of 1 and 2 hours, drained for 10 min and then dried at 50, 60, and 70 oC in a mechanical dryer. Control samples were also weighed 300 g per replicate and dried at 50, 60, and 70 oC without pre-drying treatment. The initial moisture content of fresh tomato used was 94.5% (wb. Moisture loss of each sample was monitored and recorded hourly until the product has reached the desired final moisture content (≤ 7%.The data collected were subjected to statistical analysis of variance (ANOVA and Duncan New Multiple range tests (DNMRT to ascertain the level of significance differences between the individual treatments and their interaction at p ≤ 0.05.The results show that at all the drying temperatures used, the control tomato samples exhibited the fastest drying rate with an average of 35.2 g/hr, samples pre-treated at 40 oBrix has an average drying rate of 26.6 g/hr, while samples pre-treated at 60 oBrix has the slowest drying rate of 25.2 g/hr. It was also revealed that samples subjected to 1 hour osmotic time have faster drying rates than those treated for 2 hours osmotic time.

  20. Global Warming and 21st Century Drying

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Benjamin I.; Smerdun, Jason E.; Seager, Richard; Coats, Sloan

    2014-01-01

    Global warming is expected to increase the frequency and intensity of droughts in the twenty-first century, but the relative contributions from changes in moisture supply (precipitation) versus evaporative demand (potential evapotranspiration; PET) have not been comprehensively assessed. Using output from a suite of general circulation model (GCM) simulations from phase 5 of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project, projected twentyfirst century drying and wetting trends are investigated using two offline indices of surface moisture balance: the Palmer Drought Severity Index (PDSI) and the Standardized Precipitation Evapotranspiration Index (SPEI). PDSI and SPEI projections using precipitation and Penman- Monteith based PET changes from the GCMs generally agree, showing robust cross-model drying in western North America, Central America, the Mediterranean, southern Africa, and the Amazon and robust wetting occurring in the Northern Hemisphere high latitudes and east Africa (PDSI only). The SPEI is more sensitive to PET changes than the PDSI, especially in arid regions such as the Sahara and Middle East. Regional drying and wetting patterns largely mirror the spatially heterogeneous response of precipitation in the models, although drying in the PDSI and SPEI calculations extends beyond the regions of reduced precipitation. This expansion of drying areas is attributed to globally widespread increases in PET, caused by increases in surface net radiation and the vapor pressure deficit. Increased PET not only intensifies drying in areas where precipitation is already reduced, it also drives areas into drought that would otherwise experience little drying or even wetting from precipitation trends alone. This PET amplification effect is largest in the Northern Hemisphere mid-latitudes, and is especially pronounced in western North America, Europe, and southeast China. Compared to PDSI projections using precipitation changes only, the projections incorporating both